Cox, Jill N.; Corbin, Marilyn
For decades, family and consumer sciences (FCS) Extension educators have provided health related education to consumers through Cooperative Extension programming at land grant universities. However, offering diabetes education can be extra challenging due to the complicated nature of the disease and the multi-faceted treatment required. Faced with…
Taking a phenomenological approach, this paper examines the circumstances of the Gusii people of Kisii, Kenya, and examines the specific challenges of providing sexual health education to the community as experienced by an ethnic Gusii woman, Joyce Ombasa. Joyce's story reveals that the Gusii living in and around ...
Singh, Debra; Negin, Joel; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Cumming, Robert
Community Health Volunteers (CHVs) can be effective in improving pregnancy and newborn outcomes through community education. Inadequate supervision of CHVs, whether due to poor planning, irregular visits, or ineffective supervisory methods, is, however, recognized as a weakness in many programs. There has been little research on best practice supervisory or accompaniment models. From March 2014 to February 2015 a proof of concept study was conducted to compare training alone versus training and supportive supervision by paid CHWs (n = 4) on the effectiveness of CHVs (n = 82) to deliver education about pregnancy, newborn care, family planning and hygiene. The pair-matched cluster randomized trial was conducted in eight villages (four intervention and four control) in Budondo sub-county in Jinja, Uganda. Increases in desired behaviors were seen in both the intervention and control arms over the study period. Both arms showed high retention rates of CHVs (95 %). At 1 year follow-up there was a significantly higher prevalence of installed and functioning tippy taps for hand washing (p services. Supportive supervision involves creating a non-threatening, empowering environment in which both the CHV and the supervising CHW learn together and overcome obstacles that might otherwise demotivate the CHV. While the results seem promising for added value with supportive supervision for CHVs undertaking reproductive health activities, further research on a larger scale will be needed to substantiate the effect.
de Souza, Camila Furtado; Dalzochio, Mériane Boeira; Zucatti, Alessandra Teixeira Netto; De Nale, Rosana; de Almeida, Marília Tavares; Gross, Jorge Luiz; Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann
Community health workers are community members who provide education and care for patients for a broad range of health issues, including diabetes mellitus. However, few community health workers are trained for diabetes education and little is known about the effectiveness of their interventions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a diabetes education program delivered to community health workers in improving the metabolic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eight community health workers, providing care for 118 patients, were randomized in two groups to receive a 1-month diabetes education program (intervention, patients n = 62) or an education course in other health issues (control, patients n = 56). Each community health worker was responsible for transmitting the acquired knowledge to patients. Primary outcome was changed in HbA1C 3 months after the intervention. PARTICIPANTS: Mean age was 61 ± 11 years, 35% were men and 62% were whites. HbA1c levels reduced in both groups (intervention: 9.1 ± 2.2 vs. 7.9 ± 1.9%; control: 9.1 ± 2.1 vs. 8.4 ± 2.5%, p patients' follow-up, but it was similar in intervention and control groups. The diabetes mellitus education course delivered to community health workers was able to improve patients' lipid profile.
Boels, Anne Meike; Vos, Rimke C.; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Rutten, Guy E.H.M.
This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of diabetes self-management education and support delivered by mobile health interventions in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
While generic programmes have been created to raise sexual health awareness, these cannot always be applied to communities whose cultures and circumstances make them especially vulnerable to infection. Taking a phenomenological approach, this paper examines the circumstances of the Gusii people of Kisii, Kenya, and examines the specific challenges of providing sexual health education to the community as experienced by an ethnic Gusii woman, Joyce Ombasa. Joyce's story reveals that the Gusii living in and around rural villages have several cultural characteristics that make them susceptible to HIV/AIDS and that render community health education problematic, especially if offered by a female educator of the same ethnicity. Women cannot teach men. Discussions of sex and condom use, and viewing the naked bodies of the opposite sex are taboo. Promiscuity is commonplace and there is a reluctance to use condoms and to undergo HIV testing. Female circumcision persists and there is a high rate of sexual violence, incest and intergenerational sexual intercourse. In addition, government policies and legislation threaten to exacerbate some of the sexually risky behaviours. Bringing HIV education and female empowerment to the rural Gusii requires a culturally sensitive approach, discarding sexual abstinence messages in favour of harm minimisation, including the promotion of condom use, regular HIV testing and the rejection of female circumcision and intergenerational sex. Trust needs to be built through tactics such as adopting a complex and fluid outsider identity and replacing formal sex education with training in income generating skills and casual discussions regarding condoms and sexual health.
Ahmadi, Zakieh; Sadeghi, Tabandeh; Loripoor, Marzeyeh
Education is an important aspect of care for diabetic patients. This study aimed to compare the effect of education by health care provider and peer on self-care behaviors among Iranian patients with diabetes. In this clinical randomized control trial, we enrolled 120 patients with type 2 diabetes who were referred to the Diabetes Clinic at a…
Perfect, Michelle M.; Morris, Richard J.
Consistent with the priority goals of the 2002 Future of School Psychology Conference, the National Association of School Psychologists' "Blueprint for Training and Practice III" advocates for school psychologists becoming "leading mental health experts in schools." In this regard, the present article reviews the prevalence and incidence of…
Full Text Available In 1997 a Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA grant was awarded to the Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences (CLS at The University of Texas Medical Branch - Galveston (UTMB for support of the Laboratory Education and Advancement Project (LEAP. The project entailed three primary objectives, targeting laboratory practitioners in rural and medically underserved areas of Texas for delivering a bachelor's degree, laboratory-intensive course of study via distance education. Several delivery mechanisms were utilized and evaluated for their effectiveness and friendliness to both the faculty and students. The authors discuss and describe the mechanisms utilized for delivery of courses, the advantages and disadvantages encountered with each mechanism, and subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of the courses. Also discussed are the lessons learned and plans for future development.
Jun 8, 2016 ... Using technology to deliver quality education in Asia ... Entrepreneurship has been a major driver of growth and job creation in Southeast Asia. ... to provide access to health services, especially to vulnerable populations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808
Robert, Rebecca C; Gittelsohn, Joel; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Penny, Mary E; Caulfield, Laura E; Narro, M Rocio; Black, Robert E
Process evaluation was used to explain the success of a randomized, controlled trial of an educational intervention to improve the feeding behaviors of caregivers and the nutritional status of infants in Trujillo, Peru. Health personnel delivered a multicomponent intervention within the environment of usual care at government health centers. We created a model of the expected intervention pathway to successful outcomes. Process data were then collected on health center implementation of the intervention and caregiver reception to it. Using multivariate models, we found that variables of health center implementation, caregiver exposure, and caregiver message recall were all significant determinants in the pathway leading to improved feeding behaviors. These outcomes were consistent with our original intervention model. Further support for our model arose from the differences in caregiver reception between intervention and control centers. Process data allowed us to characterize the pathway through which an effective nutrition intervention operated. This study underscores the importance of including process evaluation, which will lead to the development and implementation of more effective nutrition interventions.
Scriver, Stacey; Kennedy, Kieran M.
Sexual violence is a serious and prevalent violation that is experienced by as many as one in three people worldwide. Professionals working in areas of health, social work, law, policy-development and other fields engage with survivors of sexual violence. Their knowledge of this issue is an important determinant in how they react towards survivors…
The aim of this study is to examine changes in pre-registration nursing education through the personal accounts of nurse teachers. This paper is based on 37 in-depth interviews within a central London Healthcare Faculty. Each interview was subjected to a process of content analysis described by Miles and Huberman. The interviews took place between August 2003 and March 2004 and totalled 34.4 hours or 305,736 words. There were thirty female and seven male participants, who shared 1015 years of nursing experience, averaging at 27.4 years (min 7-max 42). These were supplemented by 552 years of teaching practice, the average being 15 years (min 0.5-max 29). This paper--delivering the nursing curriculum--identifies that the nature of nursing has changed as it has both expanded and contracted. Participants identified three major changes; the nature of nursing, selection of future nurses and the current impact that large cohorts have on our traditional model of person-centred education. The practice placements remain central to nursing education and it is the nursing role that should define the curriculum and the values of higher education should be supportive of this identity.
Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Villamizar, Kira; Er, Deja L; DeVarona, Martina; Taveras, Janelle; Painter, Thomas M; Lang, Delia L; Hardin, James W; Ullah, Evelyn; Stallworth, JoAna; Purcell, David W; Jean, Reynald
We developed and assessed AMIGAS (Amigas, Mujeres Latinas, Inform andonos, Gui andonos, y Apoy andonos contra el SIDA [friends, Latina women, informing each other, guiding each other, and supporting each other against AIDS]), a culturally congruent HIV prevention intervention for Latina women adapted from SiSTA (Sistas Informing Sistas about Topics on AIDS), an intervention for African American women. We recruited 252 Latina women aged 18 to 35 years in Miami, Florida, in 2008 to 2009 and randomized them to the 4-session AMIGAS intervention or a 1-session health intervention. Participants completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at baseline and follow-up. Over the 6-month follow-up, AMIGAS participants reported more consistent condom use during the past 90 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.81; P < .001) and 30 (AOR = 3.14; P < .001) days and at last sexual encounter (AOR = 2.76; P < .001), and a higher mean percentage condom use during the past 90 (relative change = 55.7%; P < .001) and 30 (relative change = 43.8%; P < .001) days than did comparison participants. AMIGAS participants reported fewer traditional views of gender roles (P = .008), greater self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex (P < .001), greater feelings of power in relationships (P = .02), greater self-efficacy for using condoms (P < .001), and greater HIV knowledge (P = .009) and perceived fewer barriers to using condoms (P < .001). Our results support the efficacy of this linguistically and culturally adapted HIV intervention among ethnically diverse, predominantly foreign-born Latina women.
Pereira, Katherine; Phillips, Beth; Johnson, Constance; Vorderstrasse, Allison
Diabetes self-management education is a cornerstone of successful diabetes management. Various methods have been used to reach the increasing numbers of patients with diabetes, including Internet-based education. The purpose of this article is to review various delivery methods of Internet diabetes education that have been evaluated, as well as their effectiveness in improving diabetes-related outcomes. Literature was identified in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Medline, EBSCO, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science databases through searches using the following terms: "type 2 diabetes AND internet/web based AND education" and "type 2 diabetes AND diabetes self-management education (DSME) AND web-based/internet OR technology assisted education." The search was limited to English language articles published in the last 10 years. The search yielded 111 articles; of these, 14 met criteria for inclusion in this review. Nine studies were randomized controlled trials, and study lengths varied from 2 weeks to 24 months, for a total of 2,802 participants. DSME delivered via the Internet is effective at improving measures of glycemic control and diabetes knowledge compared with usual care. In addition, results demonstrate that improved eating habits and increased attendance at clinic appointments occur after the online DSME, although engagement and usage of Internet materials waned over time. Interventions that included an element of interaction with healthcare providers were seen as attractive to participants. Internet-delivered diabetes education has the added benefit of easier access for many individuals, and patients can self-pace themselves through materials. More research on the cost-benefits of Internet diabetes education and best methods to maintain patient engagement are needed, along with more studies assessing the long-term impact of Internet-delivered DSME.
Robinson, June K; Friedewald, John J; Desai, Amishi; Gordon, Elisa J
Sun protection can reduce skin cancer development in kidney transplant recipients, who have a greater risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma than the general population. A culturally sensitive sun-protection program (SunProtect) was created in English and Spanish with the option of choosing audio narration provided by the tablet computer (Samsung Galaxy Tab 2 10.1). The intervention, which showed skin cancer on patients with various skin tones, explained the following scenarios: skin cancer risk, the ability of sun protection to reduce this risk, as well as offered sun-protection choices. The length of the intervention was limited to the time usually spent waiting during a visit to the nephrologist. The development of this culturally sensitive, electronic, interactive sun-protection educational program, SunProtect, was guided by the "transtheoretical model," which focuses on decision making influenced by perceptions of personal risk or vulnerability to a health threat, importance (severity) of the disease, and benefit of sun-protection behavior. Transportation theory, which holds that narratives can have uniquely persuasive effects in overcoming preconceived beliefs and cognitive biases because people transported into a narrative world will alter their beliefs based on information, claims, or events depicted, guided the use of testimonials. Participant tablet use was self-directed. Self-reported responses to surveys were entered into the database through the tablet. Usability was tested through interviews. A randomized controlled pilot trial with 170 kidney transplant recipients was conducted, where the educational program (SunProtect) was delivered through a touch-screen tablet to 84 participants. The study involved 62 non-Hispanic white, 60 non-Hispanic black, and 48 Hispanic/Latino kidney transplant recipients. The demographic survey data showed no significant mean differences between the intervention and control groups in age, sex, income, or time since
Patel, Chris; Millanta, Brian; Tweedie, Dale
This paper examines whether universities are delivering pedagogical value to international accounting students commensurate with the costs of studying abroad. The paper uses survey and interview methods to explore the extent to which Chinese Learners (CLs) in an Australian postgraduate accounting subject have distinct learning needs. The paper…
The Chilean authorities plan to raise budgetary allocations over the medium term for a variety of social programmes, including education, health care and housing. This incremental spending will need to be carried out in a cost-efficient manner to make sure that it yields commensurate improvements in social outcomes. Chile's health indicators show…
Faulkner, Kathryn; McClelland, Linda
A seminar on menopausal health was presented to a live audience and remote audiences at 10 sites in rural Queensland (Australia) via videoconferencing. Questionnaires completed by 128 audience members indicated positive reception of the content and delivery method. Similar replies from live and remote audience members indicated that the…
Barwood, Donna; Penney, Dawn; Cunningham, Christine
Internationally, research has repeatedly highlighted the marginal and apparently precarious position of Health and Physical Education (HPE) in schools. It has also consistently identified staffing as a key concern in relation to prospects for quality teaching and learning. This paper reports on mixed-methods research that has specifically…
Chang, Li-Chun; Guo, Jong Long; Lin, Hui-Ling
Cultural competence (CC) training is widely recognized as a crucial component of the professional development of healthcare providers. There is no study on the effect of Facebook (FB) as a strategy to promote continual learning to enhance CC among students in health professions. To test the effects of cultural competence education using FB as a delivery platform on knowledge, awareness, self-efficacy, and skill related to CC in health students from pre-graduation to licensed professional stages. A randomized controlled trial. We recruited students from professional nursing, pharmacy, and nutrition programs at six medical universities and randomly assigned them to study groups. Between T1 and T2 (months 1-3), the intervention group (IG) received pre-graduation education in CC while the control group (CG) received their regular educational program. Between T2 and T3 (months 6-9), IG received on-the-job education in CC while CG received the regular program. An online self-report questionnaire assessing CC knowledge, awareness, self-efficacy, and skill was analyzed at baseline, 6months, and 12months. Of 180 participants who completed the pretest, 120 (65 IG and 55 CG) completed both follow-ups. Changes over time were mixed; the only statistical difference between groups was an improvement in awareness in IG but not in CG. At 12months, intervention and control participants had different levels of awareness of CC (β=2.56, p<0.001), but other outcomes did not differ between groups. Health profession educators can adopt Facebook as an education delivery platform to offer personalized, social learning incorporating cultural competency curricula into ongoing education and training in rising awareness on CC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Delivering on a gendered definition of health needs in local government budgeting: ... of financial grants channelled annually from central to local governments. ... does not reflect the broad community-wide understanding of health needs.
Mortensen, Mark; Schlieve, Paul; Young, Jon
Describes streaming media, an audio/video presentation that is delivered across a network so that it is viewed while being downloaded onto the user's computer, including a continuous stream of video that can be pre-recorded or live. Discusses its use for nontraditional students in higher education and reports on implementation experiences. (LRW)
Wilson, E Vance; Lankton, Nancy K
Health care providers are beginning to deliver a range of Internet-based services to patients; however, it is not clear which of these e-health services patients need or desire. The authors propose that patients' acceptance of provider-delivered e-health can be modeled in advance of application development by measuring the effects of several key antecedents to e-health use and applying models of acceptance developed in the information technology (IT) field. This study tested three theoretical models of IT acceptance among patients who had recently registered for access to provider-delivered e-health. An online questionnaire administered items measuring perceptual constructs from the IT acceptance models (intrinsic motivation, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness/extrinsic motivation, and behavioral intention to use e-health) and five hypothesized antecedents (satisfaction with medical care, health care knowledge, Internet dependence, information-seeking preference, and health care need). Responses were collected and stored in a central database. All tested IT acceptance models performed well in predicting patients' behavioral intention to use e-health. Antecedent factors of satisfaction with provider, information-seeking preference, and Internet dependence uniquely predicted constructs in the models. Information technology acceptance models provide a means to understand which aspects of e-health are valued by patients and how this may affect future use. In addition, antecedents to the models can be used to predict e-health acceptance in advance of system development.
Carey, M. E.; Mandalia, P. K.; Daly, H.
Aim: To develop and test a format of delivery of diabetes self-management education by paired professional and lay educators. Methods: We conducted an equivalence trial with non-randomized participant allocation to a Diabetes Education and Self Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 di...... educator role can provide equivalent patient benefits. This could provide a method that increases capacity, maintains quality and is cost-effective, while increasing access to self-management education.......Aim: To develop and test a format of delivery of diabetes self-management education by paired professional and lay educators. Methods: We conducted an equivalence trial with non-randomized participant allocation to a Diabetes Education and Self Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed Type 2...... diabetes (DESMOND) course, delivered in the standard format by two trained healthcare professional educators (to the control group) or by one trained lay educator and one professional educator (to the intervention group). A total of 260 people with Type 2 diabetes diagnosed within the previous 12 months...
Gower, Shelley; van den Akker, Jose; Jones, Mark; Dantas, Jaya A R; Duggan, Ravani
Since 2011, Western Australian nursing and midwifery educators have been providing evidence-based continuing education to Tanzanian health professionals. Despite thorough preparation before departure, differences in local resource levels and available facilities have necessitated impromptu adaptation of curriculum content and delivery methods to ensure an effective program was delivered. This study explored the personal, cultural and teaching strategies utilised by Western Australian nursing and midwifery educators in Tanzania and examined if the transferability of education packages was influenced by the educators' cultural competence. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, data was collected from 15 Western Australian nursing and midwifery educators using a demographic survey and in-depth individual semi-structured interviews. The core themes identified from the analysis were Determination to learn, Assessing needs, Communication skills and Greater understanding. These findings are described using the conceptual framework of Campinha-Bacote's The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services. With appropriate levels of cultural competence, international health professionals can be effective at providing ongoing professional development to colleagues in developing country contexts, which may help address difficulties with retention and motivation of staff. It is essential that prior to departure cultural competence training is provided to educators to enhance their teaching capacity and effectiveness in international settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Forni, Carlos; Caswell, Nick; Spicer, Jerina
Police officers regularly come into contact with people with mental health problems but receive relatively little training on the issue. This article outlines an initiative to deliver awareness training to officers, and explores the benefits of such programmes. It also gives details of the evaluation carried out.
Ojio, Yasutaka; Yonehara, Hiromi; Taneichi, Setsuko; Yamasaki, Syudo; Ando, Shuntaro; Togo, Fumiharu; Nishida, Atsushi; Sasaki, Tsukasa
Improving knowledge and beliefs about mental health (or mental health literacy [MHL]) may promote appropriate help-seeking by adolescents who are suffering from mental health problems. We developed a concise, school-staff-led MHL program and examined its effects. The participants comprised 118 grade-9 students (61 boys and 57 girls). The program consisted of two 50-min sessions, and was given by a schoolteacher. The effects of the program were evaluated before, immediately after and 3 months after the program, using a self-report questionnaire. Knowledge of mental health/illnesses and desirable behavior for help-seeking were significantly improved immediately after (post-test, P mental health problems were also significantly (P school-staff-led program may have a significant effect on the improvement of MHL in secondary school students. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
health education, tobacco cessation, safe water and sanitation, water fluoridation ... Methods. The explorative study design used a mixed methods approach, with ..... Health promotion training for school staff was not present in the majority ...
Coleman, Sophie; Briffa, N Kathryn; Carroll, Graeme; Inderjeeth, Charles; Cook, Nicola; McQuade, Jean
Our aim in the present study was to determine whether a disease-specific self-management program for primary care patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee (the Osteoarthritis of the Knee Self-Management Program (OAK)) implemented by health care professionals would achieve and maintain clinically meaningful improvements in health-related outcomes compared with a control group. Medical practitioners referred 146 primary care patients with OA of the knee. Volunteers with coexistent inflammatory joint disease or serious comorbidities were excluded. Randomisation was to either a control group or the OAK group. The OAK group completed a 6-week self-management program. The control group had a 6-month waiting period before entering the OAK program. Assessments were taken at baseline, 8 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcomes were the results measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) Pain and Function subscales on the Short Form 36 version 1 questionnaire (SF-36) Secondary outcomes were Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain, Timed Up & Go Test (TUG), knee range of motion and quadriceps and hamstring strength-isometric contraction. Responses to treatment (responders) and minimal clinically important improvements (MCIIs) were determined. In the OAK group, VAS pain improved from baseline to week 8 from mean (SEM) 5.21 (0.30) to 3.65 (0.29) (P ≤ 0.001). During this period, improvements in the OAK group compared with the control group and responses to treatment were demonstrated according to the following outcomes: WOMAC Pain, Physical Function and Total dimensions, as well as SF-36 Physical Function, Role Physical, Body Pain, Vitality and Social Functioning domains. In addition, from baseline to week 8, the proportion of MCIIs was greater among the OAK group than the control group for all outcomes. For the period between baseline and month 6, WOMAC Pain, Physical Function and Total dimensions significantly improved in the OAK group
Devonshire, Elizabeth; Siddall, Philip
The effective management of pain is a complex and costly global issue, requiring a range of innovative educational strategies to enable culturally appropriate and high-quality health care provision. In response to this issue, the Pain Management Research Institute at the University of Sydney (Sydney, Australia) has established several strategic alliances with other overseas universities to deliver online postgraduate education in pain management. The present article discusses the rationale for joining forces, and the approach adopted in creating and maintaining these alliances. It also provides insights into the benefits, challenges and opportunities associated with collaborative educational initiatives of this nature, from institutional, academic and student perspectives.
Horodyskyj, Lev B.; Mead, Chris; Belinson, Zack; Buxner, Sanlyn; Semken, Steven; Anbar, Ariel D.
Critical thinking and scientific reasoning are central to higher education in the United States, but many courses (in-person and online) teach students information about science much more than they teach the actual process of science and its associated knowledge and skills. In the online arena specifically, the tools available for course construction exacerbate this problem by making it difficult to build the types of active learning activities that research shows to be the most effective. Here, we present a report on Habitable Worlds, offered by Arizona State University for 12 semesters over the past 6 years. This is a unique online course that uses an array of novel technologies to deliver an active, inquiry-driven learning experience. Learning outcomes and quantitative data from more than 3000 students demonstrate the success of our approach but also identify several remaining challenges. The design and development of this course offers valuable lessons for instructional designers and educators who are interested in fully capitalizing on the capabilities of 21st-century technology to achieve educational goals.
Nwaru, Bright I; Friedman, Charles; Halamka, John; Sheikh, Aziz
There is increasing international policy and clinical interest in developing learning health systems and delivering precision medicine, which it is hoped will help reduce variation in the quality and safety of care, improve efficiency, and lead to increasing the personalisation of healthcare. Although reliant on similar policies, informatics tools, and data science and implementation research capabilities, these two major initiatives have thus far largely progressed in parallel. In this opinion piece, we argue that they should be considered as complementary, synergistic initiatives whereby the creation of learning health systems infrastructure can support and catalyse the delivery of precision medicine that maximises the benefits and minimises the risks associated with treatments for individual patients. We illustrate this synergy by considering the example of treatments for asthma, which is now recognised as an umbrella term for a heterogeneous group of related conditions.
Orkin, Aaron M; Curran, Jeffrey D; Fortune, Melanie K; McArthur, Allison; Mew, Emma J; Ritchie, Stephen D; Van de Velde, Stijn; VanderBurgh, David
Introduction The Disease Control Priorities Project recommends emergency care training for laypersons in low-resource settings, but evidence for these interventions has not yet been systematically reviewed. This review will identify the individual and community health effects of educating laypeople to deliver prehospital emergency care interventions in low-resource settings. Methods and analysis This systematic review addresses the following question: in underserviced populations and low-reso...
Wilson, Jennifer L; Altman, Russ B
Biomarkers are the pillars of precision medicine and are delivering on expectations of molecular, quantitative health. These features have made clinical decisions more precise and personalized, but require a high bar for validation. Biomarkers have improved health outcomes in a few areas such as cancer, pharmacogenetics, and safety. Burgeoning big data research infrastructure, the internet of things, and increased patient participation will accelerate discovery in the many areas that have not yet realized the full potential of biomarkers for precision health. Here we review themes of biomarker discovery, current implementations of biomarkers for precision health, and future opportunities and challenges for biomarker discovery. Impact statement Precision medicine evolved because of the understanding that human disease is molecularly driven and is highly variable across patients. This understanding has made biomarkers, a diverse class of biological measurements, more relevant for disease diagnosis, monitoring, and selection of treatment strategy. Biomarkers' impact on precision medicine can be seen in cancer, pharmacogenomics, and safety. The successes in these cases suggest many more applications for biomarkers and a greater impact for precision medicine across the spectrum of human disease. The authors assess the status of biomarker-guided medical practice by analyzing themes for biomarker discovery, reviewing the impact of these markers in the clinic, and highlight future and ongoing challenges for biomarker discovery. This work is timely and relevant, as the molecular, quantitative approach of precision medicine is spreading to many disease indications.
Young, Gil; McLaren, Lisa; Maden, Michelle
In an era when library budgets are being reduced, Massive Online Open Courses (MOOC's) can offer practical and viable alternatives to the delivery of costly face-to-face training courses. In this study, guest writers Gil Young from Health Care Libraries Unit - North, Lisa McLaren from Brighton and Sussex Medical School and Liverpool University PhD student Michelle Maden describe the outcomes of a funded project they led to develop a MOOC to deliver literature search training for health librarians. Funded by Health Education England, the MOOC was developed by the Library and Information Health Network North West as a pilot project that ran for six weeks. In particular, the MOOC target audience is discussed, how content was developed for the MOOC, promotion and participation, cost-effectiveness, evaluation, the impact of the MOOC and recommendations for future development. H. S. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.
Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn
Severe health anxiety can be effectively treated with exposure-based Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT), but information about which factors that predict outcome is scarce. Using data from a recently conducted RCT comparing ICBT (n = 79) with Internet-delivered behavioral stress management (IBSM) (n = 79) the presented study investigated predictors of treatment outcome. Analyses were conducted using a two-step linear regression approach and the dependent variable was operationalized both as end state health anxiety at post-treatment and as baseline-to post-treatment improvement. A hypothesis driven approach was used where predictors expected to influence outcome were based on a previous predictor study by our research group. As hypothesized, the results showed that baseline health anxiety and treatment adherence predicted both end state health anxiety and improvement. In addition, anxiety sensitivity, treatment credibility, and working alliance were significant predictors of health anxiety improvement. Demographic variables, i.e. age, gender, marital status, computer skills, educational level, and having children, had no significant predictive value. We conclude that it is possible to predict a substantial proportion of the outcome variance in ICBT and IBSM for severe health anxiety. The findings of the present study can be of high clinical value as they provide information about factors of importance for outcome in the treatment of severe health anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cook, Paul F; Bremer, Robert W; Ayala, A J; Kahook, Malik Y
Adherence to glaucoma treatment is poor, potentially reducing therapeutic effects. A glaucoma educator was trained to use motivational interviewing (MI), a patient-centered counseling style, to improve adherence. This study was designed to evaluate whether MI was feasible in a busy ophthalmology practice. Feasibility was assessed using five criteria from the National Institutes of Health Behavior Change consortium: fidelity of intervention components to MI theory; success of the training process; delivery of MI-consistent interventions by the glaucoma educator; patient receipt of the intervention based on enrollment, attrition, and satisfaction; and patient enactment of changes in motivation and adherence over the course of the intervention. A treatment manual was designed by a multidisciplinary team with expertise in health psychology, public health, and ophthalmology. The glaucoma educator received 6 hours of training including role-play exercises, self-study, and individual supervision. His MI-related knowledge and skills increased following training, and he delivered exclusively MI-consistent interventions in 66% of patient encounters. 86% (12/14) of eligible patients agreed to be randomized into glaucoma educator support or a control condition. All 8 patients assigned to the glaucoma educator completed at least 2 of 6 planned contacts, and 50% (4/8) completed all 6 contacts. Patients assigned to the glaucoma educator improved over time in both motivation and adherence. The introduction of a glaucoma educator was feasible in a busy ophthalmology practice. Patients improved their adherence while participating in the glaucoma educator program, although this study was not designed to show a causal effect. The use of a glaucoma educator to improve glaucoma patients' medication adherence may be feasible at other ophthalmology clinics, and can be implemented with a standardized training approach. Pilot data show the intervention can be implemented with fidelity, is
Watson-Jones, Deborah; Lees, Shelley; Mwanga, Joseph; Neke, Nyasule; Changalucha, John; Broutet, Nathalie; Maduhu, Ibrahim; Kapiga, Saidi; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Bloem, Paul; Ross, David A
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers an opportunity to strengthen provision of adolescent health interventions (AHI). We explored the feasibility of integrating other AHI with HPV vaccination in Tanzania. A desk review of 39 policy documents was preceded by a stakeholder meeting with 38 policy makers and partners. Eighteen key informant interviews (KIIs) with health and education policy makers and district officials were conducted to further explore perceptions of current programs, priorities and AHI that might be suitable for integration with HPV vaccination. Fourteen school health interventions (SHI) or AHI are currently being implemented by the Government of Tanzania. Most are delivered as vertical programmes. Coverage of current programs is not universal, and is limited by financial, human resource and logistic constraints. Limited community engagement, rumours, and lack of strategic advocacy has affected uptake of some interventions, e.g. tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization. Stakeholder and KI perceptions and opinions were limited by a lack of experience with integrated delivery and AHI that were outside an individual's area of expertise and experience. Deworming and educational sessions including reproductive health education were the most frequently mentioned interventions that respondents considered suitable for integrated delivery with HPV vaccine. Given programme constraints, limited experience with integrated delivery and concern about real or perceived side-effects being attributed to the vaccine, it will be very important to pilot-test integration of AHI/SHI with HPV vaccination. Selected interventions will need to be simple and quick to deliver since health workers are likely to face significant logistic and time constraints during vaccination visits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
Strengthening health services to deliver nutrition education to promote complementary feeding and healthy growth of infants and young children: formative research for a successful intervention in peri-urban Trujillo, Peru.
Robert, Rebecca C; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Villasante, Ruben; Narro, M Rocio; Penny, Mary E
Formative research is critical for developing effective nutrition-specific interventions to improve infant and young child (IYC) feeding practices and promote healthy growth. Health workers interact with caregivers during health facility visits, yet there is limited research about how to optimize delivery of such interventions during these visits. The extensive reach of IYC health services globally calls for research to address this gap. In Trujillo, Peru, formative research was conducted to explore complementary feeding practices with caregivers as well as health worker routines and interactions with caregivers related to feeding and healthy growth; results informed the development and delivery of an educational intervention. Multiple qualitative methods were used to collect data on a purposive sample of health workers and caregivers from three health facilities and communities: household trials followed. Complementary feeding messages with doable behaviours were developed, and three were selected as key to promote based on their nutritional impact and cultural acceptability. In the health facilities, medical consultation, well-child visits and nutrition consultation all dealt with aspects of IYC nutrition/growth during their interactions with caregivers but were independent and inconsistent in approach. A nutrition education strategy was developed based on consistency, quality and coverage in the IYC health services. We conclude that formative research undertaken in the community and IYC health services was critical to developing a successful and culturally relevant intervention to promote optimal complementary feeding practices and healthy growth during interactions between health workers and caregivers at routine health facility visits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lev, Elise L; Lindgren, Teri G; Pearson, Gayle A; Alcindor, Hilda
Haiti has high morbidity and mortality rates, a large proportion of people living in poverty, and a shortage of nurses and nursing faculty members. A partnership program between a US and Haitian university was formed to deliver a certificate program in nursing education. The authors describe their experiences developing, delivering, and evaluating the blended on-site and online program and their future goals.
Mullahey, J. Jeffrey
Budget reductions have severely affected resources available to deliver agriculture and natural resource Extension programs in Florida. University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences delivers Extension programming through a unique partnership between research and education centers and county Extension. Science-based information…
This publication highlights opportunities to improve the educational outcomes of Hispanic children at an early age, a time that is critical to setting up the academic success of children. Specifically, this paper examines barriers to quality and access that limit the participation of Latino children and families in preschool and offers…
development programme on the Wild Coast, South Africa. ... facilitators of learning. ... A theoretical basis for action-based environmental education thus exists, but .... well designed and highly motivating first course, action plans for post-course .... that quality was being sacrificed in the quest for quantitative training targets.
Burge, E. J.; And Others
Used audio conferencing for continuing education of Francophone and Anglophone addictions workers across Canada. Evaluation revealed that program design enabled cost-effective, real-time linking of local groups of professionals with their peers and with external expert colleagues. Found that such contact promoted social goals of networking and…
Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete
This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....
Maxwell Ayindenaba Dalaba
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited knowledge on the cost of delivering health services at primary health care facilities in Ghana which is posing a challenge in resource allocations. This study therefore estimated the cost of providing health care in primary health care facilities such as Health Centres (HCs and Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS in Ghana. Methods The study was cross-sectional and quantitative data was collected from the health provider perspective. Data was collected between July and August, 2016 at nine primary health facilities (six CHPS and three HCs from the Upper West region of Ghana. All health related costs for the year 2015 and revenue generated for the period were collected. Data were captured and analysed using Microsoft excel. Costs of delivery health services were estimated. In addition, unit costs such as cost per Outpatient Department (OPD attendance were estimated. Results The average annual cost of delivering health services through CHPS and HCs was US$10,923 and US$44,638 respectively. Personnel cost accounted for the largest proportion of cost (61% for CHPS and 59% for HC. The cost per OPD attendance was higher at CHPS (US$8.79 than at HCs (US$5.16. The average Internally Generated Funds (IGF recorded for the period at CHPS and HCs were US$2327 and US$ 15,795 respectively. At all the facilities, IGFs were greatly lower than costs of running the health facilities. Also, at both the CHPS and HCs, the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS reimbursement was the main source of revenue accounting for over 90% total IGF. Conclusions The average annual cost of delivering primary health services through CHPS and HCs is US$10,923 and US$44,638 respectively and personnel cost accounts for the major cost. The government should be guided by these findings in their financial planning, decision making and resource allocation in order to improve primary health care in the country. However, more similar
This paper draws on the views of lecturers working in and delivering college-based higher education (CBHE) in the UK. There have been numerous works on the culture of higher education in further education (HE in FE). However, as noted by some literati, the culture of further education (FE) is not easy to define, and does not readily lend itself to…
Knuth, S. L.; Johnson, A. M.; Hauser, T.
Good data management practices are imperative for all researchers who want to ensure the usability of their research data. For geoscientists, this is particularly important due to the vast amount of data collected as part of field work, model studies, or other efforts. While many geoscientists want to ensure their data is appropriately maintained, they are generally not trained in good data management, which, realistically, has a much lower priority in the "publish or perish" cycle of research. Many scientists learn programming or advanced computational and data skills during the process of developing their research. With the amount of digital data being collected in the sciences increasing, and the interest federal funding agencies are taking in ensuring data collected is well maintained, there is pressure to quickly and properly educate and train geoscientists on its management. At the University of Colorado Boulder (CU-Boulder), Research Data Services (RDS) has developed several educational and outreach activities centered at training researchers and students in ways to properly manage their data, including "boot camps", workshops, individual consultations, and seminars with topics of interest to the CU-Boulder community. Part of this effort is centered at incentivizing the researcher to learn these tools and practices despite their busy schedule. Much of this incentive has come through small grant competitions at the university level. The two competitions most relevant are a new "Best Digital Data Management Plan" competition, awarding unrestricted funds to the best plan submitted in each of five categories, and an added data management plan requirement to an existing faculty competition. This presentation will focus on examples of user outreach and educational opportunities given to researchers at CU-Boulder, incentives given to the researchers to participate, and assessment of the impact of these activities.
Bentham, Chloe; Daunt, Anna; Taylor, Stephanie; Simmons, Meinou
For a group of medical students to design and deliver a mental health workshop in Cambridge secondary schools. Subsequently, to evaluate any improvements in pupils' knowledge of mental health issues, including knowledge of common mental illnesses, stigma and where to access help with mental health problems. A group of three medical students undertook a five week Student Selected Component to develop a mental health workshop in Spring 2013. The workshop was designed to include interactive components, such as role play, models and video. It was delivered to eight classes of 12-13 year old pupils across two local secondary schools, a total of 230 students. Questionnaires were completed before and after each workshop to test knowledge acquisition of mental health issues, stigma and where pupils could get help with mental health problems. Comparisons between data from the pre- and post-workshop questionnaires were made to assess learning. The responses from the questionnaires showed a global improvement in knowledge of mental health. This is highlighted by the increase in awareness of the prevalence of mental health problems amongst young people from 47.0% before the workshops to 97.8% after the workshops. The ability to identify symptoms of anxiety rose from 21.7% to 44.8% and the ability to identify depression rose from 29.0% to 53.5% respectively. Whilst only 15.2% pupils disagreed with a stigmatising statement about mental illness before the workshops, 61.3% pupils disagreed afterwards. The students were also better informed about how to access help and identified areas that they found useful to learn about. Comparison of the pre- and post-workshop questionnaires indicate that medical student-led workshops are an effective method for improving knowledge of mental health topics amongst 12-13 year old school pupils, as well as encouraging positive attitudes towards mental health. The project highlights a demand for mental health education in schools and brings to
Brumbaugh, Laura; Cater, Melissa
A successful component of programs designed to deliver youth leadership develop programs are youth educators who understand the importance of utilizing research-based information and seeking professional development opportunities. The purpose of this study was to determine youth educator's perceived confidence in leading youth leadership…
Beyond the popular uses of the Internet by HCOs--for recruiting employees, purchasing supplies and promoting brand and service awareness--lie a host of opportunities to add value to consumers online. All HCO programs can be enhanced through online initiatives: wellness and health promotion, risk reduction, prevention, early detection, symptom management, life event management, acute treatment and rehabilitation, disease management and end-of-life improvement. And beyond online initiatives in each of these categories lies the potential to use the Net for reminding consumers, individually and collectively, of the health and quality of life benefits they are gaining, thereby adding to the HCO's marketing and PR success.
Sethi, Nayha; Laurie, Graeme T.
This article advances a principled proportionate governance model (PPGM) that overcomes key impediments to using health records for research. Despite increasing initiatives for maximising benefits of data linkage, significant challenges remain, including a culture of caution around data sharing and linkage, failure to make use of flexibilities within the law and failure to incorporate intelligent iterative design. The article identifies key issues for consideration and posits a flexible and accessible governance model that provides a robust and efficient means of paying due regard to both privacy and the public interests in research. We argue that proportionate governance based on clear guiding principles accurately gauges risks associated with data uses and assigns safeguards accordingly. This requires a clear articulation of roles and responsibilities at all levels of decision-making and effective training for researchers and data custodians. Accordingly, the PPGM encourages and supports defensible judgements about data linkage in the public interest. PMID:24634569
Orkin, Aaron M; Curran, Jeffrey D; Fortune, Melanie K; McArthur, Allison; Mew, Emma J; Ritchie, Stephen D; Van de Velde, Stijn; VanderBurgh, David
The Disease Control Priorities Project recommends emergency care training for laypersons in low-resource settings, but evidence for these interventions has not yet been systematically reviewed. This review will identify the individual and community health effects of educating laypeople to deliver prehospital emergency care interventions in low-resource settings. This systematic review addresses the following question: in underserviced populations and low-resource settings (P), does first aid or emergency care training or education for laypeople (I) confer any individual or community health benefit for emergency health conditions (O), in comparison with no training or other forms of education (C)? We restrict this review to studies reporting quantitatively measurable outcomes, and search 12 electronic bibliographic databases and grey literature sources. A team of expert content and methodology reviewers will conduct title and abstract screening and full-text review, using a custom-built online platform. Two investigators will independently extract methodological variables and outcomes related to patient-level morbidity and mortality and community-level effects on resilience or emergency care capacity. Two investigators will independently assess external validity, selection bias, performance bias, measurement bias, attrition bias and confounding. We will summarise the findings using a narrative approach to highlight similarities and differences between the gathered studies. Formal ethical approval is not required. The results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and knowledge translation strategy. CRD42014009685. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Pickering, James D; Henningsohn, Lars; DeRuiter, Marco C; de Jong, Peter G M; Reinders, Marlies E J
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are a novel mode of online learning. They are typically based on higher education courses and can attract a high number of learners, often in the thousands. They are distinct from on-campus education and deliver the learning objectives through a series of short videos, recommended readings and discussion fora, alongside automated assessments. Within medical education the role of MOOCs remains unclear, with recent proposals including continuing professional development, interprofessional education or integration into campus-based blended learning curricula. In this twelve tips article, we aim to provide a framework for readers to use when developing, delivering and evaluating a MOOC within medical education based on the literature and our own experience. Practical advice is provided on how to design the appropriate curriculum, engage with learners on the platform, select suitable assessments, and comprehensively evaluate the impact of your course.
The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills are concei......The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in resource-limited settings have shown that there are constraints to the use of teachers, peers or health professionals to deliver school health promotion interventions. School health programmes delivered by trained lay health counsellors could offer a cost-effective alternative. This paper presents a case study of a multi-component school health promotion intervention in India that was delivered by lay school health counsellors, who possessed neither formal educational nor health provider qualifications. Methods The intervention was based on the WHO’s Health Promoting Schools framework, and included health screening camps; an anonymous letter box for student questions and complaints; classroom-based life skills training; and, individual psycho-social and academic counselling for students. The intervention was delivered by a lay school health counsellor who had attained a minimum of a high school education. The counsellor was trained over four weeks and received structured supervision from health professionals working for the implementing NGO. The evaluation design was a mixed methods case study. Quantitative process indicators were collected to assess the extent to which the programme was delivered as planned (feasibility, the uptake of services (acceptability, and the number of students who received corrective health treatment (evidence of impact. Semi-structured interviews were conducted over two years with 108 stakeholders, and were analysed to identify barriers and facilitators for the programme (feasibility, evaluate acceptability, and gather evidence of positive or negative effects of the programme. Results Feasibility was established by the high reported coverage of all the targeted activities by the school health counsellor. Acceptability was indicated by a growing number of submissions to the students’ anonymous letter-box; more students self-referring for counselling services over time; and, the
Rajaraman, Divya; Travasso, Sandra; Chatterjee, Achira; Bhat, Bhargav; Andrew, Gracy; Parab, Suraj; Patel, Vikram
Studies in resource-limited settings have shown that there are constraints to the use of teachers, peers or health professionals to deliver school health promotion interventions. School health programmes delivered by trained lay health counsellors could offer a cost-effective alternative. This paper presents a case study of a multi-component school health promotion intervention in India that was delivered by lay school health counsellors, who possessed neither formal educational nor health provider qualifications. The intervention was based on the WHO's Health Promoting Schools framework, and included health screening camps; an anonymous letter box for student questions and complaints; classroom-based life skills training; and, individual psycho-social and academic counselling for students. The intervention was delivered by a lay school health counsellor who had attained a minimum of a high school education. The counsellor was trained over four weeks and received structured supervision from health professionals working for the implementing NGO. The evaluation design was a mixed methods case study. Quantitative process indicators were collected to assess the extent to which the programme was delivered as planned (feasibility), the uptake of services (acceptability), and the number of students who received corrective health treatment (evidence of impact). Semi-structured interviews were conducted over two years with 108 stakeholders, and were analysed to identify barriers and facilitators for the programme (feasibility), evaluate acceptability, and gather evidence of positive or negative effects of the programme. Feasibility was established by the high reported coverage of all the targeted activities by the school health counsellor. Acceptability was indicated by a growing number of submissions to the students' anonymous letter-box; more students self-referring for counselling services over time; and, the perceived need for the programme, as expressed by principals
Elliott, Jennifer Padden; Marcotullio, Nicole; Skoner, David P; Lunney, Phil; Gentile, Deborah A
To evaluate the effectiveness of asthma education delivered by student pharmacists and to assess the impact of child and caregiver baseline asthma knowledge on asthma control in children. Student pharmacists developed and implemented asthma self-management education interventions for children and their caregivers and performed asthma screenings for children at a series of asthma camps. Eighty-seven children, ages 5-17 years, and their caregivers were enrolled in this study. A previously validated asthma questionnaire was modified to assess asthma knowledge among children and adults. Asthma knowledge increased significantly in children following participation in the education intervention (pasthma. A significant association was observed between caregiver baseline asthma knowledge and better asthma control in their children (p=0.019). The results of this study demonstrate that student pharmacist-delivered asthma education can positively impact asthma knowledge in children, and that caregivers' knowledge of asthma is strongly correlated with better asthma control in their children.
Full Text Available Background: After incorporating quality improvement (QI education as a required curriculum for our trainees in 2010, a need arose to readdress our didactic sessions as they were too long, difficult to schedule, and resulting in a drop in attendance. A ‘flipped classroom’ (FC model to deliver QI education was touted to be an effective delivery method as it allows the trainees to view didactic materials on videos, on their own time, and uses the classroom to clarify concepts and employ learned tools on case-based scenarios including workshops. Methods: The Mayo Quality Academy prepared 29 videos that incorporated the previously delivered 17 weekly didactic sessions, for a total duration of 135 min. The half-day session clarified questions related to the videos, followed by case examples and a hands-on workshop on how to perform and utilize a few commonly used QI tools and methods. Results: Seven trainees participated. There was a significant improvement in knowledge as measured by pre- and post-FC model test results [improvement by 40.34% (SD 16.34, p<0.001]. The survey results were overall positive about the FC model with all trainees strongly agreeing that we should continue with this model to deliver QI education. Conclusions: The pilot project of using the FC model to deliver QI education was successful in a small sample of trainees.
Spafford, Marlee M.; Schryer, Catherine F.; Creutz, Stefan
Learning to counsel patients in a teaching clinic or hospital occurs in the presence of the competing agendas of patient care and student education. We wondered about the challenges that these tensions create for clinical novices learning to deliver bad news to patients. In this preliminary study, we audio-taped and transcribed the interviews of…
Vemury, Chandra Mouli; Heidrich, Oliver; Thorpe, Neil; Crosbie, Tracey
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present pedagogical approaches developed and implemented to deliver sustainable design education (SDE) to second-year undergraduate students on civil engineering programmes in the (then) School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences at Newcastle University. In doing so, the work presented offers an example of…
Mauriello, Leanne M; Van Marter, Deborah F; Umanzor, Cindy D; Castle, Patricia H; de Aguiar, Emma L
To test an iPad-delivered multiple behavior tailored intervention (Healthy Pregnancy: Step by Step) for pregnant women that addresses smoking cessation, stress management, and fruit and vegetable consumption. A randomized 2 × 5 factorial repeated measures design was employed with randomization on the individual level stratified on behavior risk. Women completed three sessions during pregnancy and two postpartum at postdelivery months 1 and 4. Women were recruited from six locations of federally funded health centers across three states. Participants (N = 335) were English- and Spanish-speaking women at up to 18 weeks gestation. The treatment group received three interactive sessions focused on two priority health behavior risks. The sessions offered individually tailored and stage-matched change strategies based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change. The usual care group received March of Dimes brochures. The primary outcome was the number of behavior risks. Stage of change and continuous measures for all behaviors also were assessed. Data were analyzed across all time points using generalized estimating equations examining repeated measures effects. Women in the treatment group reported significantly fewer risks than those in usual care at 1 month (.85 vs. 1.20, odds ratio [OR] = .70) and 4 months postpartum (.72 vs. .91, OR = .81). Healthy Pregnancy is an evidence-based and personalized program that assists pregnant women with reducing behavior risks and sustaining healthy lifestyle behaviors. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.
Crutzen, Rik; Cyr, Dianne; de Vries, Nanne K
Internet-delivered interventions can effectively change health risk behaviors, but the actual use of these interventions by the target group once they access the website is often very low (high attrition, low adherence). Therefore, it is relevant and necessary to focus on factors related to use of an intervention once people arrive at the intervention website. We focused on user perceptions resulting in e-loyalty (ie, intention to visit an intervention again and to recommend it to others). A background theory for e-loyalty, however, is still lacking for Internet-delivered interventions. The objective of our study was to propose and validate a conceptual model regarding user perceptions and e-loyalty within the field of eHealth. We presented at random 3 primary prevention interventions aimed at the general public and, subsequently, participants completed validated measures regarding user perceptions and e-loyalty. Time on each intervention website was assessed by means of server registrations. Of the 592 people who were invited to participate, 397 initiated the study (response rate: 67%) and 351 (48% female, mean age 43 years, varying in educational level) finished the study (retention rate: 88%). Internal consistency of all measures was high (Cronbach alpha > .87). The findings demonstrate that the user perceptions regarding effectiveness (beta(range) .21-.41) and enjoyment (beta(range) .14-.24) both had a positive effect on e-loyalty, which was mediated by active trust (beta(range) .27-.60). User perceptions and e-loyalty had low correlations with time on the website (r(range) .04-.18). The consistent pattern of findings speaks in favor of their robustness and contributes to theory validation regarding e-loyalty. The importance of a theory-driven solution to a practice-based problem (ie, low actual use) needs to be stressed in view of the importance of the Internet in terms of intervention development. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate whether people
Badran, Hani; Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland
The Information Assessment Method (IAM) allows clinicians to report the cognitive impact, clinical relevance, intention to use, and expected patient health benefits associated with clinical information received by email. More than 15,000 Canadian physicians and pharmacists use the IAM in continuing education programs. In addition, information providers can use IAM ratings and feedback comments from clinicians to improve their products. Our general objective was to validate the IAM questionnaire for the delivery of educational material (ecological and logical content validity). Our specific objectives were to measure the relevance and evaluate the representativeness of IAM items for assessing information received by email. A 3-part mixed methods study was conducted (convergent design). In part 1 (quantitative longitudinal study), the relevance of IAM items was measured. Participants were 5596 physician members of the Canadian Medical Association who used the IAM. A total of 234,196 ratings were collected in 2012. The relevance of IAM items with respect to their main construct was calculated using descriptive statistics (relevance ratio R). In part 2 (qualitative descriptive study), the representativeness of IAM items was evaluated. A total of 15 family physicians completed semistructured face-to-face interviews. For each construct, we evaluated the representativeness of IAM items using a deductive-inductive thematic qualitative data analysis. In part 3 (mixing quantitative and qualitative parts), results from quantitative and qualitative analyses were reviewed, juxtaposed in a table, discussed with experts, and integrated. Thus, our final results are derived from the views of users (ecological content validation) and experts (logical content validation). Of the 23 IAM items, 21 were validated for content, while 2 were removed. In part 1 (quantitative results), 21 items were deemed relevant, while 2 items were deemed not relevant (R=4.86% [N=234,196] and R=3.04% [n
Hoorman, James J.
Soil health and cover crops are topics of interest to farmers, gardeners, and students. Three soil health and cover crop demonstrations provide educational resources. Demonstrations one outlines two educational cover crop seed displays, including the advantages and disadvantages. Demonstration two shows how to construct and grow a cover crop root…
Dolan, Brigid M; Yialamas, Maria A; McMahon, Graham T
There is limited research on whether online formative self-assessment and learning can change the behavior of medical professionals. We sought to determine if an adaptive longitudinal online curriculum in bone health would improve resident physicians' knowledge, and change their behavior regarding prevention of fragility fractures in women. We used a randomized control trial design in which 50 internal medicine resident physicians at a large academic practice were randomized to either receive a standard curriculum in bone health care alone, or to receive it augmented with an adaptive, longitudinal, online formative self-assessment curriculum delivered via multiple-choice questions. Outcomes were assessed 10 months after the start of the intervention. Knowledge outcomes were measured by a multiple-choice question examination. Clinical outcomes were measured by chart review, including bone density screening rate, calculation of the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) score, and rate of appropriate bisphosphonate prescription. Compared to the control group, residents participating in the intervention had higher scores on the knowledge test at the end of the study. Bone density screening rates and appropriate use of bisphosphonates were significantly higher in the intervention group compared with the control group. FRAX score reporting did not differ between the groups. Residents participating in a novel adaptive online curriculum outperformed peers in knowledge of fragility fracture prevention and care practices to prevent fracture. Online adaptive education can change behavior to improve patient care.
Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca
Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for
Spafford, Marlee M; Schryer, Catherine F; Creutz, Stefan
Learning to counsel patients in a teaching clinic or hospital occurs in the presence of the competing agendas of patient care and student education. We wondered about the challenges that these tensions create for clinical novices learning to deliver bad news to patients. In this preliminary study, we audio-taped and transcribed the interviews of seven senior optometry students and six optometrist instructors at a Canadian optometry teaching clinic. The participants described their experiences in learning to deliver bad news. Using a grounded theory approach, our analysis was informed by situated learning and activity theory. Optometry students received formal classroom training regarding how to deliver bad news, including exposure to the medically-based six-step SPIKES protocol (Baile et al. The Oncologist, 5, 302-311, 2000). Yet, application of this protocol to the teaching clinic was limited by the lack of exposure most instructors had received to this strategy. Determinants of the students' complex learning process during their clinical apprenticeship, included: (i) knowing one's place, (ii) knowing one's audience, (iii) knowing through feedback, and (iv) knowing who speaks. The experiences of these participants pointed toward the need for: (1) more instructional "scaffolding" (Bruner and Sherwood Play: Its role in development and evolution, p. 280, 1976) in the clinical setting when the learning task is complex, and (2) explicit discussions about the impacts that unfold when the activities of patient care and student education overlap. We reflect on the possible consequences to student education and patient care in the absence of these changes.
Brown, Jackie; Busfield, Robert; O'Shea, Alison; Sibthorpe, Joanne
This paper will discuss research undertaken within a London borough in 2009 that aimed to examine how Personal, Social, Health and Economic education (PSHE) was perceived and delivered. The ethos of schools was incorporated into the enquiry as a key determinate of both perception and delivery of PSHE. The findings are presented with particular…
At our University, the Faculty of Health, Social Care and Education has delivered a variety of undergraduate and postgraduate courses via flexible distance learning for many years. Distance learning can be a lonely experience for students who may feel isolated and unsupported. However e-learning provides an opportunity to use technology to…
Mental health literacy among the public is often poor, and although people frequently encounter others experiencing mental distress in their workplace, families and communities, they may be ill-equipped to provide appropriate support. 'Mental Health First Aid' (MHFA), a 12-h mental health promotion programme seeks to address this, training people in the knowledge and skills needed to engage with someone experiencing mental health problems. Research relating to the MHFA programme has centred on course attendees, with a paucity of research surrounding the delivery of basic mental health training programmes. Understanding experiences of instructors delivering such programmes is key to the success of future delivery. This study sought to identify the views and experiences of instructors delivering the MHFA programme in Wales. Fourteen MHFA instructors participated in semi-structured audio-recorded interviews, with the transcripts analysed to identify key themes. This paper explores two of the identified themes namely prerequisite skills and support required by instructors. The study highlighted that because of the ensuing emotional labour experienced by instructors, universal mental health training programmes must put in place a clear infrastructure to train, support and monitor those delivering them, for programme roll-out to be effective.
Cheng, Yuan-Hsin; Field, William E; Tormoehlen, Roger L; French, Brian F
Purdue University's Agricultural Safety and Health Program (PUASHP) has collaborated with secondary agricultural education programs, including FFA Chapters, for over 70 years to deliver and promote agricultural safety and health programming. With support from a U.S. Department of Labor Susan Harwood Program grant, PUASHP utilized a Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process to develop, implement, and evaluate an evidence-based curriculum for use with young and beginning workers, ages 16-20, exposed to hazards associated with grain storage and handling. The primary audience was students enrolled in secondary agricultural education programs. A review of the literature identified a gap in educational resources that specifically addresses this target population. The curriculum developed was based on fatality and injury incident data mined from Purdue's Agricultural Confined Space Incident Database and input from a panel of experts. The process identified 27 learning outcomes and finalized a pool of test questions, supported by empirical evidence and confirmed by a panel of experts. An alignment process was then completed with the current national standards for secondary agricultural education programs. Seventy-two youth, ages 16-20, enrolled in secondary-school agricultural education programs, and a smaller group of post-secondary students under the age of 21 interested in working in the grain industry pilot tested the curriculum. Based on student and instructor feedback, the curriculum was refined and submitted to OSHA for approval as part of OSHA's online training resources. The curriculum was delivered to 3,665 students, ages 16-20. A total of 346 pre- and post-tests were analyzed, and the results used to confirm content validity and assess knowledge gain. Findings led to additional modifications to curriculum content, affirmed knowledge gain, and confirmed appropriateness for use with secondary agricultural education programs. The curriculum has been promoted
Fitzallen, Noleine; Brown, Natalie Ruth
University science outreach programmes are used to encourage more school students to select science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects in further education and pursue science-related careers. The benefits of science outreach programmes are often espoused from the perspective of programme participants. Little attention, however, is given to what university students delivering the programmes gain from the experience. This paper seeks to illustrate the benefits of engineering students delivering STEM outreach programmes in schools. It reports on a qualitative case study of the experiences of two STEM Education and Outreach team members from a regional university in Australia. Content analysis of interview data highlighted not only the participants' motivations and perceived benefits of being involved in the STEM programme but also revealed the skills and attributes honed throughout the experience. Involvement in the STEM outreach programme resulted in the development of social and personal responsibility generic graduate attribute skills, evidenced through their motivations to be involved, the demonstration of understanding of teaching and learning, and application of science communication skills. This study demonstrates that designing and delivering STEM outreach programmes assists in the development of skills that will be beneficial when pursuing careers in engineering in the future.
Frank Felix Mosha
Full Text Available Assessing the readiness of health facilities to deliver safe male circumcision services is more important in sub-Saharan Africa because of the inadequacy state of health facilities in many ways. The World Health Organization recommends that only facilities equipped with available trained staff, capable to perform at least minor surgery, able to offer minimum MC package and appropriate equipment for resuscitation, and compliant with requirements for sterilization and infection control should be allowed to deliver safe circumcision services. A cross-sectional study using quantitative data collection technique was conducted to assess the readiness of the health facilities to deliver safe circumcision services in selected districts of Tanzania. All hospitals, health centres and 30% of all dispensaries in these districts were selected to participate in the study. Face-toface questionnaires were administered to the heads of the health facilities and to health practitioners. Overall, 49/69 (59% of the facilities visited provided circumcision services and only 46/203 (24% of the health practitioners performed circumcision procedures. These were mainly assistant medical officers and clinical officers. The vast majority – 190/203 (95% – of the health practitioners require additional training prior to providing circumcision services. Most facilities – 63/69 (91% – had all basic supplies (gloves, basin, chlorine and waste disposal necessary for infection prevention, 44/69 (65% provided condoms, HIV counselling and testing, and sexuallytransmitted infections services, while 62/69 (90% had the capability to perform at least minor surgery. However, only 25/69 (36% and 15/69 (22% of the facilities had functioning sterilization equipment and appropriate resuscitation equipment, respectively. There is readiness for roll out of circumcision services; however, more practitioners need to be trained on circumcision procedures, demand forecasting
Hoffmann, Ditte; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik
, prevalent disorder associated with increased health care utilization. Still, there is a lack of easily accessible specialized treatment for severe health anxiety. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this paper were to (1) describe the development and setup of a new internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (i...... sample size of the study limited the robustness of the findings. Therefore, the findings should be replicated in a randomized controlled trial. Potentially, iACT may increase availability and accessibility of specialized treatment for health anxiety. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Danish Data Protection Agency...
Conley, Colleen S; Durlak, Joseph A; Shapiro, Jenna B; Kirsch, Alexandra C; Zahniser, Evan
The uses of technology-delivered mental health treatment options, such as interventions delivered via computer, smart phone, or other communication or information devices, as opposed to primarily face-to-face interventions, are proliferating. However, the literature is unclear about their effectiveness as preventive interventions for higher education students, a population for whom technology-delivered interventions (TDIs) might be particularly fitting and beneficial. This meta-analytic review examines technological mental health prevention programs targeting higher education students either without any presenting problems (universal prevention) or with mild to moderate subclinical problems (indicated prevention). A systematic literature search identified 22 universal and 26 indicated controlled interventions, both published and unpublished, involving 4763 college, graduate, or professional students. As hypothesized, the overall mean effect sizes (ESs) for both universal (0.19) and indicated interventions (0.37) were statistically significant and differed significantly from each other favoring indicated interventions. Skill-training interventions, both universal (0.21) and indicated (0.31), were significant, whereas non-skill-training interventions were only significant among indicated (0.25) programs. For indicated interventions, better outcomes were obtained in those cases in which participants had access to support during the course of the intervention, either in person or through technology (e.g., email, online contact). The positive findings for both universal and indicated prevention are qualified by limitations of the current literature. To improve experimental rigor, future research should provide detailed information on the level of achieved implementation, describe participant characteristics and intervention content, explore the impact of potential moderators and mechanisms of success, collect post-intervention and follow-up data regardless of
Problem Statement: As a result of wars, starvation, traffic accidents, homicide, infectious diseases, insufficient adult protection, migration, and inadequate legal reforms the mortality rate of children has become a serious problem in the world. Protective health education contributes to a child's physical and social health. In this case, the…
Lane, Jason E., Ed.; Johnstone, D. Bruce, Ed.
This thought-provoking volume brings together scholars and system leaders to analyze some of the most pressing and complex issues now facing higher education systems and society. Higher Education Systems 3.0 focuses on the remaking of higher education coordination in an era of increased accountability, greater calls for productivity, and…
Magidson, J F; Lejuez, C W; Kamal, T; Blevins, E J; Murray, L K; Bass, J K; Bolton, P; Pagoto, S
Growing evidence supports the use of Western therapies for the treatment of depression, trauma, and stress delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in conflict-affected, resource-limited countries. A recent randomized controlled trial (Bolton et al . 2014 a ) supported the efficacy of two CHW-delivered interventions, cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and brief behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD), for reducing depressive symptoms and functional impairment among torture survivors in the Kurdish region of Iraq. This study describes the adaptation of the CHW-delivered BATD approach delivered in this trial (Bolton et al .2014 a ), informed by the Assessment-Decision-Administration-Production-Topical experts-Integration-Training-Testing (ADAPT-ITT) framework for intervention adaptation (Wingood & DiClemente, 2008). Cultural modifications, adaptations for low-literacy, and tailored training and supervision for non-specialist CHWs are presented, along with two clinical case examples to illustrate delivery of the adapted intervention in this setting. Eleven CHWs, a study psychiatrist, and the CHW clinical supervisor were trained in BATD. The adaptation process followed the ADAPT-ITT framework and was iterative with significant input from the on-site supervisor and CHWs. Modifications were made to fit Kurdish culture, including culturally relevant analogies, use of stickers for behavior monitoring, cultural modifications to behavioral contracts, and including telephone-delivered sessions to enhance feasibility. BATD was delivered by CHWs in a resource-poor, conflict-affected area in Kurdistan, Iraq, with some important modifications, including low-literacy adaptations, increased cultural relevancy of clinical materials, and tailored training and supervision for CHWs. Barriers to implementation, lessons learned, and recommendations for future efforts to adapt behavioral therapies for resource-limited, conflict-affected areas are discussed.
Taber, Traci A; Lambright, Nathan; Luiselli, James K
We evaluated the effects of abbreviated (i.e., one-session) video modeling on delivery of student-preferred attention by educational care-providers. The video depicted a novel care-provider interacting with and delivering attention to the student. Within a concurrent multiple baseline design, video modeling increased delivery of the targeted attention for all participants as well as their delivery of another type of attention that was not trained although these effects were variable within and between care-providers. We discuss the clinical and training implications from these findings.
Schophuizen, Martine; Kreijns, Karel; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kalz, Marco
The global attention for open online education (OOE) caused a situation in which higher education institutions (HEIs) reconsider the way they deliver education to the population. With a funding policy, the Dutch Government aims to stimulate OOE in HEIs. The goal is to create more expedient,
Baker, Susan S.; Pearson, Meredith; Chipman, Helen
The purpose of this project was to describe the process used for the development of core competencies for paraprofessional nutrition educators in Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE). The development process included the efforts of an expert panel of state and multicounty FSNE leaders to draft the core competencies and the validation of those…
Yancura, Loriena A
The efficacy of programs to reduce health disparities depends on their ability to deliver messages in a culturally sensitive manner. This article describes the process of designing a series of brochures for grandparents raising grandchildren. National source material on topics important to grandparents (self-care, service use, addiction, and grandchildren's difficult behaviors) was put into draft brochures and pilot tested in two focus groups drawn from Native Hawaiian Asian and Pacific Islander populations. Elements of surface and deep levels directed the form and content of the final brochures. On a surface level, these brochures reflect local culture through pictures and language. On a deep level, which integrates cultural beliefs and practices, they reflect the importance of indirect communication and harmonious relationships. The final brochures have been received favorably in the community. The process of adapting educational material with attention to surface and deep levels can serve as a guide for other health promotion materials.
Klein, Charles H; Kuhn, Tamara; Altamirano, Midori; Lomonaco, Carmela
This article describes the development and evaluation of C-SAFE (Sexual Awareness for Everyone), a computer-delivered sexual health promotion program for Latinas. We first describe the process of adapting an evidence-based, group-level intervention into an individually administered computer-delivered program. We then present the methods and results of a randomized control trial with 321 Latinas in California and Florida to test C-SAFE's preliminary efficacy in reducing sexual health risk. We found no statistically significant differences between the two conditions at a six-month follow-up in terms of sexual behaviors or attitudes toward sexually transmitted infections and condoms, although C-SAFE women reported fewer days in the past month when their mental health was not good (p = .02). C-SAFE condition women also reported more satisfaction than control condition women in their assessment of information presentation (on a scale of 1 = poor and 5 = excellent; C-SAFE = 4.45 vs. control = 4.25, p = .053) and having learned something new (C-SAFE = 95.1% vs. control = 79.3%, χ 2 importance of teachable moments, matching of delivery modalities to implementation contexts, and possible directions for evidence-based sexual health promotion programs given the current sexual health landscape.
The aim of this study was to discover and describe how patients, carers and case management nurses define safety and compare it to the traditional risk reduction and harm avoidance definition of safety. Care services are increasingly being delivered in the home for patients with complex long-term conditions. However, the concept of safety remains largely unexplored. A sequential, exploratory mixed method design. A qualitative case study of the UK National Health Service case management programme in the English UK National Health Service was deployed during 2012. Thirteen interviews were conducted with patients (n = 9) and carers (n = 6) and three focus groups with nurses (n = 17) from three community care providers. The qualitative element explored the definition of safety. Data were subjected to framework analysis and themes were identified by participant group. Sequentially, a cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2013 in a fourth community care provider (patient n = 35, carer n = 19, nurse n = 26) as a form of triangulation. Patients and carers describe safety differently to case management nurses, choosing to focus on meeting needs. They use more positive language and recognize the role they have in safety in home-delivered health care. In comparison, case management nurses described safety similarly to the definitions found in the literature. However, when offered the patient and carer definition of safety, they preferentially selected this definition to their own or the literature definition. Patients and carers offer an alternative perspective on patient safety in home-delivered health care that identifies their role in ensuring safety and is more closely aligned with the empowerment philosophy of case management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bull, Sheana S; Levine, Deborah K; Black, Sandra R; Schmiege, Sarah J; Santelli, John
Youth are using social media regularly and represent a group facing substantial risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI). Although there is evidence that the Internet can be used effectively in supporting healthy sexual behavior, this has not yet extended to social networking sites. To determine whether STI prevention messages delivered via Facebook are efficacious in preventing increases in sexual risk behavior at 2 and 6 months. Cluster RCT, October 2010-May 2011. Individuals (seeds) recruited in multiple settings (online, via newspaper ads and face-to-face) were asked to recruit three friends, who in turn recruited additional friends, extending three waves from the seed. Seeds and waves of friends were considered networks and exposed to either the intervention or control condition. Exposure to Just/Us, a Facebook page developed with youth input, or to control content on 18-24 News, a Facebook page with current events for 2 months. Condom use at last sex and proportion of sex acts protected by condoms. Repeated measures of nested data were used to model main effects of exposure to Just/Us and time by treatment interaction. A total of 1578 participants enrolled, with 14% Latino and 35% African-American; 75% of participants completed at least one study follow-up. Time by treatment effects were observed at 2 months for condom use (intervention 68% vs control 56%, p=0.04) and proportion of sex acts protected by condoms (intervention 63% vs control 57%, p=0.03) where intervention participation reduced the tendency for condom use to decrease over time. No effects were seen at 6 months. Social networking sites may be venues for efficacious health education interventions. More work is needed to understand what elements of social media are compelling, how network membership influences effects, and whether linking social media to clinical and social services can be beneficial. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.govNCT00725959. Copyright © 2012 American
Full Text Available Abstract Background Care for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries is predominantly facility based and led by specialists, with limited use of non-pharmacological treatments. Although community based psychosocial interventions are emphasised, there is little evidence about their acceptability and feasibility. Furthermore, the shortage of skilled manpower is a major barrier to improving access to these interventions. Our study aimed to develop a lay health worker delivered community based intervention in three sites in India. This paper describes how the intervention was developed systematically, following the MRC framework for the development of complex interventions. Methods We reviewed the lierature on the burden of schizophrenia and the treatment gap in low and middle income countries and the evidence for community based treatments, and identified intervention components. We then evaluated the acceptability and feasibility of this package of care through formative case studies with individuals with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers and piloted its delivery with 30 families. Results Based on the reviews, our intervention comprised five components (psycho-education; adherence management; rehabilitation; referral to community agencies; and health promotion to be delivered by trained lay health workers supervised by specialists. The intervention underwent a number of changes as a result of formative and pilot work. While all the components were acceptable and most were feasible, experiences of stigma and discrimination were inadequately addressed; some participants feared that delivery of care at home would lead to illness disclosure; some participants and providers did not understand how the intervention related to usual care; some families were unwilling to participate; and there were delivery problems, for example, in meeting the targeted number of sessions. Participants found delivery by health workers acceptable, and
Balaji, Madhumitha; Chatterjee, Sudipto; Koschorke, Mirja; Rangaswamy, Thara; Chavan, Animish; Dabholkar, Hamid; Dakshin, Lilly; Kumar, Pratheesh; John, Sujit; Thornicroft, Graham; Patel, Vikram
Care for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries is predominantly facility based and led by specialists, with limited use of non-pharmacological treatments. Although community based psychosocial interventions are emphasised, there is little evidence about their acceptability and feasibility. Furthermore, the shortage of skilled manpower is a major barrier to improving access to these interventions. Our study aimed to develop a lay health worker delivered community based intervention in three sites in India. This paper describes how the intervention was developed systematically, following the MRC framework for the development of complex interventions. We reviewed the lierature on the burden of schizophrenia and the treatment gap in low and middle income countries and the evidence for community based treatments, and identified intervention components. We then evaluated the acceptability and feasibility of this package of care through formative case studies with individuals with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers and piloted its delivery with 30 families. Based on the reviews, our intervention comprised five components (psycho-education; adherence management; rehabilitation; referral to community agencies; and health promotion) to be delivered by trained lay health workers supervised by specialists. The intervention underwent a number of changes as a result of formative and pilot work. While all the components were acceptable and most were feasible, experiences of stigma and discrimination were inadequately addressed; some participants feared that delivery of care at home would lead to illness disclosure; some participants and providers did not understand how the intervention related to usual care; some families were unwilling to participate; and there were delivery problems, for example, in meeting the targeted number of sessions. Participants found delivery by health workers acceptable, and expected them to have knowledge about the subject matter
An objective of the European Union's Entrepreneurship 2020 Action Plan is to address high levels of youth unemployment in Europe by promoting entrepreneurship. Implementing entrepreneurship education in schools, colleges and universities is one of three strategic interventions proposed by the Action Plan. Sustainable entrepreneurship is a…
Prinja, Shankar; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Jeet, Gursimer; Verma, Ramesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh
Background & objectives: Despite an impetus for strengthening public sector district hospitals for provision of secondary health care in India, there is lack of robust evidence on cost of services provided through these district hospitals. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the unit cost of an outpatient visit consultation, inpatient bed-day of hospitalization, surgical procedure and overall per-capita cost of providing secondary care through district hospitals. Methods: Economic costing of five randomly selected district hospitals in two north Indian States - Haryana and Punjab, was undertaken. Cost analysis was done using a health system perspective and employing bottom-up costing methodology. Quantity of all resources - capital or recurrent, used for delivering services was measured and valued. Median unit costs were estimated along with their 95 per cent confidence intervals. Sensitivity analysis was undertaken to assess the effect of uncertainties in prices and other assumptions; and to generalize the findings for Indian set-up. Results: The overall annual cost of delivering secondary-level health care services through a public sector district hospital in north India was 11,44,13,282 [US Dollars (USD) 2,103,185]. Human resources accounted for 53 per cent of the overall cost. The unit cost of an inpatient bed-day, surgical procedure and outpatient consultation was 844 (USD 15.5), i; 3481 (USD 64) and 170 (USD 3.1), respectively. With the current set of resource allocation, per-capita cost of providing health care through district hospitals in north India was 139 (USD 2.5). Interpretation & conclusions: The estimates obtained in our study can be used for Fiscal planning of scaling up secondary-level health services. Further, these may be particularly useful for future research such as benefit-incidence analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis and national health accounts including disease-specific accounts in India. PMID:29355142
Prinja, Shankar; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Jeet, Gursimer; Verma, Ramesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh
Despite an impetus for strengthening public sector district hospitals for provision of secondary health care in India, there is lack of robust evidence on cost of services provided through these district hospitals. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the unit cost of an outpatient visit consultation, inpatient bed-day of hospitalization, surgical procedure and overall per-capita cost of providing secondary care through district hospitals. Economic costing of five randomly selected district hospitals in two north Indian States - Haryana and Punjab, was undertaken. Cost analysis was done using a health system perspective and employing bottom-up costing methodology. Quantity of all resources - capital or recurrent, used for delivering services was measured and valued. Median unit costs were estimated along with their 95 per cent confidence intervals. Sensitivity analysis was undertaken to assess the effect of uncertainties in prices and other assumptions; and to generalize the findings for Indian set-up. The overall annual cost of delivering secondary-level health care services through a public sector district hospital in north India was ' 11,44,13,282 [US Dollars (USD) 2,103,185]. Human resources accounted for 53 per cent of the overall cost. The unit cost of an inpatient bed-day, surgical procedure and outpatient consultation was ' 844 (USD 15.5), ' 3481 (USD 64) and ' 170 (USD 3.1), respectively. With the current set of resource allocation, per-capita cost of providing health care through district hospitals in north India was ' 139 (USD 2.5). The estimates obtained in our study can be used for Fiscal planning of scaling up secondary-level health services. Further, these may be particularly useful for future research such as benefit-incidence analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis and national health accounts including disease-specific accounts in India.
Geographic information science (GIScience) education has undergone enormous changes over the past years. One major factor influencing this change is the role of the geospatial web in GIScience. In addition to the use of the web for enabling and enhancing GIScience education, it is also used as the infrastructure for communicating and collaborating among geospatial data and users. The web becomes both the means and the content for a geospatial education program. However, the web does not replace the traditional face-to-face environment, but rather is a means to enhance it, expand it and enable an authentic and real world learning environment. This paper outlines the use of the web in both the delivery and content of the GIScience program at Curtin University. The teaching of the geospatial web, web and cloud based mapping, and geospatial web services are key components of the program, and the use of the web and online learning are important to deliver this program. Some examples of authentic and real world learning environments are provided including joint learning activities with partner universities.
Wood, Susan Y.; Rogow, Deborah; Stines, Frederica
Evidence shows that a focus on gender and power in sexuality/HIV education increases the likelihood of achieving positive sexual health outcomes, and international agencies have called for a shift to a gender-focused approach. However, questions remain about the implementation of such programmes, including how best to prepare teachers to deliver…
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.
Delivering mental health programs and services in education is not a new idea but it is time to bring mental health into focus. Momentum is gaining in terms of raising awareness, increasing understanding, and articulating strategies for advancing and integrating mental health. We need to know that all over the world everything is unique and…
Rao, A R
Although child survival programs may help to increase the life span of poor children in developing countries such as India, the quality of life will remain unchanged unless the value of involving children in health education efforts is recognized. The primary health care strategy seeks to involve children and communities in making decisions and taking actions to improve their health. Children can be engaged in the learning process through activities such as helping to care for younger siblings, educating children of their own age who are not attending school, and spreading preventive health messages to their homes and communities. Numerous studies have confirmed that children are easily motivated to play such roles and have the desire to transfer their knowledge to others; however, it is essential that health education messages are appropriate for the level of the child. Specific messages with tested effectiveness in child-to-child programs include accident prevention, dental hygiene, neighborhood hygiene, use of oral rehydration in cases of diarrhea, recognition of signs of major illness, care of sick children, use of play and mental stimulation to enhance children's development, and the making of toys and games to aid growth. Children can further be instructed to identify peers with sight and hearing problems as well as those with nutritional deficiencies. In the Malvani Project in Bombay, children are given responsibility for the health care of 3-4 families in their neighborhood. In the NCERT Project in New Delhi, children are organizing artistic exhibitions and plays to convey health messages to their peers who are not in school. Also in New Delhi, the VHAI Project has enlisted children in campaigns to prevent diarrhea and dehydration, smoking, and drug use.
Gill, Harkiran K; Gill, Navkiranjit; Young, Sean D
There is a growing body of research focused on the use of social media and Internet technologies for health education and information sharing. The authors reviewed literature on this topic, with a specific focus on the benefits and concerns associated with using online social technologies as health education and communication tools. Studies suggest that social media technologies have the potential to safely and effectively deliver health education, if privacy concerns are addressed. Utility of social media-based health education and communication will improve as technology developers and public health officials determine ways to improve information accuracy and address privacy concerns.
Burns, Kara; Keating, Patrick; Free, Caroline
use. Finally, one trial showed that collection of sexual health information using mobile technology was acceptable. The findings suggest interventions delivered by SMS interventions can increase uptake of sexual health services and STI testing. High quality trials of interventions using standardised objective measures and employing a wider range of behavioural change techniques are needed to assess if interventions delivered by mobile phone can alter safer sex behaviours carried out between couples and reduce STIs.
Charalel, Resmi A; McGinty, Geraldine; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael; Goodwin, Scott C; Khilnani, Neil M; Matsumoto, Alan H; Min, Robert J; Soares, Gregory M; Cook, Philip S
Given the changing climate of health care and the imperative to add value, radiologists must join forces with the rest of medicine to deliver better patient care in a more cost-effective, evidence-based manner. For several decades, interventional radiology has added value to the health care system through innovation and the provision of alternative and effective minimally invasive treatments, which have decreased morbidity, mortality, and overall cost. The clinical practice of interventional radiology embodies many of the features of Imaging 3.0, the program recently launched by the ACR. We provide a review of some of the major contributions made by interventional radiology and offer general principles from that experience, which are applicable to all radiologists. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yardley, Lucy; Morrison, Leanne G; Andreou, Panayiota; Joseph, Judith; Little, Paul
It is recognised as good practice to use qualitative methods to elicit users' views of internet-delivered health-care interventions during their development. This paper seeks to illustrate the advantages of combining usability testing with 'theoretical modelling', i.e. analyses that relate the findings of qualitative studies during intervention development to social science theory, in order to gain deeper insights into the reasons and context for how people respond to the intervention. This paper illustrates how usability testing may be enriched by theoretical modelling by means of two qualitative studies of users' views of the delivery of information in an internet-delivered intervention to help users decide whether they needed to seek medical care for their cold or flu symptoms. In Study 1, 21 participants recruited from a city in southern England were asked to 'think aloud' while viewing draft web-pages presented in paper format. In Study 2, views of our prototype website were elicited, again using think aloud methods, in a sample of 26 participants purposively sampled for diversity in education levels. Both data-sets were analysed by thematic analysis. Study 1 revealed that although the information provided by the draft web-pages had many of the intended empowering benefits, users often felt overwhelmed by the quantity of information. Relating these findings to theory and research on factors influencing preferences for information-seeking we hypothesised that to meet the needs of different users (especially those with lower literacy levels) our website should be designed to provide only essential personalised advice, but with options to access further information. Study 2 showed that our website design did prove accessible to users with different literacy levels. However, some users seemed to want still greater control over how information was accessed. Educational level need not be an insuperable barrier to appreciating web-based access to detailed health
Vetter, R.J.; O'Riordan, M.C.
'Full-Text:' There is more to education in radiation protection than curricula, courses and certificates. In a broader sense, education implies the provision of knowledge, the development of competence, and the promotion of understanding. These purposes are served by 'Health Physics', the journal of radiation protection. The leading role of the journal is supported by an Advisory Board composed of members of the IRPA Publications Commission. A review is presented of the diversity of material in Health Physics throughout the last few years and set against the historical background. Expansion in the range of topics is described as well as the increase in didactic content both theoretical and operational. The global range of contributions is noted as is the attempt to provide an international perspective on developments in the discipline. Plans for the future are discussed. (author)
Prinja, Shankar; Gupta, Aditi; Verma, Ramesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kumar, Dinesh; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh
With the commitment of the national government to provide universal healthcare at cheap and affordable prices in India, public healthcare services are being strengthened in India. However, there is dearth of cost data for provision of health services through public system like primary & community health centres. In this study, we aim to bridge this gap in evidence by assessing the total annual and per capita cost of delivering the package of health services at PHC and CHC level. Secondly, we determined the per capita cost of delivering specific health services like cost per antenatal care visit, per institutional delivery, per outpatient consultation, per bed-day hospitalization etc. We undertook economic costing of fourteen public health facilities (seven PHCs and CHCs each) in three North-Indian states viz., Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. Bottom-up costing method was adopted for collection of data on all resources spent on delivery of health services in selected health facilities. Analysis was undertaken using a health system perspective. The joint costs like human resource, capital, and equipment were apportioned as per the time value spent on a particular service. Capital costs were discounted and annualized over the estimated life of the item. Mean annual costs and unit costs were estimated along with their 95% confidence intervals using bootstrap methodology. The overall annual cost of delivering services through public sector primary and community health facilities in three states of north India were INR 8.8 million (95% CI: 7,365,630-10,294,065) and INR 26.9 million (95% CI: 22,225,159.3-32,290,099.6), respectively. Human resources accounted for more than 50% of the overall costs at both the level of PHCs and CHCs. Per capita per year costs for provision of complete package of preventive, curative and promotive services at PHC and CHC were INR 170.8 (95% CI: 131.6-208.3) and INR162.1 (95% CI: 112-219.1), respectively. The study estimates can be used
Pfeiffer, Constanze; Mwaipopo, Rosemarie
Traditional birth attendants retain an important role in reproductive and maternal health in Tanzania. The Tanzanian Government promotes TBAs in order to provide maternal and neonatal health counselling and initiating timely referral, however, their role officially does not include delivery attendance. Yet, experience illustrates that most TBAs still often handle complicated deliveries. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to describe (1) women's health-seeking behaviour and experiences regarding their use of antenatal (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC); (2) their rationale behind the choice of place and delivery; and to learn (3) about the use of traditional practices and resources applied by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and how they can be linked to the bio-medical health system. Qualitative and quantitative interviews were conducted with over 270 individuals in Masasi District, Mtwara Region and Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The results from the urban site show that significant achievements have been made in terms of promoting pregnancy- and delivery-related services through skilled health workers. Pregnant women have a high level of awareness and clearly prefer to deliver at a health facility. The scenario is different in the rural site (Masasi District), where an adequately trained health workforce and well-equipped health facilities are not yet a reality, resulting in home deliveries with the assistance of either a TBA or a relative. Instead of focusing on the traditional sector, it is argued that more attention should be paid towards (1) improving access to as well as strengthening the health system to guarantee delivery by skilled health personnel; and (2) bridging the gaps between communities and the formal health sector through community-based counselling and health education, which is provided by well-trained and supervised village health workers who inform villagers about promotive and preventive health services, including
Rosi, Alice; Brighenti, Furio; Finistrella, Viviana; Ingrosso, Lisa; Monti, Giorgia; Vanelli, Maurizio; Vitale, Marco; Volta, Elio; Scazzina, Francesca
To improve nutritional knowledge of children, single-group educational interventions with pre/post knowledge assessment were performed in primary schools in Parma, Italy, participating to the Giocampus Program. A total of 8165 children (8-11 years old) of 3rd, 4th and 5th grades of primary school were involved in 3 hours per class nutritional lessons, with specifically designed games and activities for each school grade. To evaluate children learning, a questionnaire was administered before and after three months of educational intervention. A total of 16330 questionnaires were analysed. Children nutritional knowledge significantly increased (peducational figures, tools and games, was successful in improving children's nutritional knowledge. A stable integration of this method in primary school settings could prepare a new generation of citizens, better educated on health-promotion lifestyles.
Full Text Available Claire Blackmore,1 Vicki L Johnson-Warrington,2 Johanna EA Williams,2 Lindsay D Apps,2 Hannah ML Young,2 Claire LA Bourne,2 Sally J Singh2 1Kettering General Hospital National Health Service (NHS Trust, Kettering, Northamptonshire, 2Centre for Exercise and Rehabilitation Science, Leicester Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK Background: With the growing burden of COPD and associated morbidity and mortality, a need for self-management has been identified. The Self-management Programme of Activity, Coping and Education for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (SPACE for COPD manual was developed to support self-management in COPD patients. Currently, there is no literature available regarding health care professionals’ training needs when supporting patients with COPD on self-management.Aim: This study sought to identify these needs to inform, design and develop a training program for health care professionals being trained to deliver a self-management program in COPD.Methods: Fourteen health care professionals from both primary and secondary care COPD services participated in face-to-face semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to produce a framework and identify training needs and views on delivery of the SPACE for COPD self-management program. Components of training were web-based knowledge training, with pre- and posttraining knowledge questionnaires, and a 1-day program to introduce the self-management manual. Feedback was given after training to guide the development of the training program.Results: Health care professionals were able to identify areas where they required increased knowledge to support patients. This was overwhelming in aspects of COPD seen to be outside of their current clinical role. Skills in goal setting and behavioral change were not elicited as a training need, suggesting a lack of understanding of components of supporting self
Due to their limited resources, rural, older adults in the United States are at risk for poor diet-related health outcomes. Nutrition education is a key component in improving health outcomes in older adults. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES) is a nine-lesson curriculum designed to teach rural, older adults culturally appropriate nutrition and food safety information. Funding to hire health professionals to deliver such a curriculum is limited, presenting the need to explore a less expensive mode of dissemination. In this community-based, participatory research study, a formative evaluation and feasibility study were conducted to examine the use of volunteers to deliver a nutrition and food safety curriculum to rural, older adults in South Carolina. Seven focus groups were conducted with members of the South Carolina Family and Community Leaders (SCFCL) and members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in the four regions of South Carolina to explore barriers and facilitators of volunteers delivering CHES (N=65 participants). The focus group findings informed the development of the volunteer training manual. A comparative case study method was used to examine the feasibility of a volunteer-based approach by observing and describing the delivery of CHES by two groups of volunteers in SC. The case study findings, including volunteer knowledge change, self-efficacy change, curriculum experience, program experience, and project team observations of volunteers indicated that using volunteers to deliver CHES is a plausible approach with the assistance of paid staff or project team members.
Joiner, Kevin L; Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin
The objective was to describe Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)-based lifestyle interventions delivered via electronic, mobile, and certain types of telehealth (eHealth) and estimate the magnitude of the effect on weight loss. A systematic review was conducted. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for studies published between January 2003 and February 2016 that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. An overall estimate of the effect on mean percentage weight loss across all the interventions was initially conducted. A stratified meta-analysis was also conducted to determine estimates of the effect across the interventions classified according to whether behavioral support by counselors post-baseline was not provided, provided remotely with communication technology, or face-to-face. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, in which 26 interventions were evaluated. Samples were primarily white and college educated. Interventions included Web-based applications, mobile phone applications, text messages, DVDs, interactive voice response telephone calls, telehealth video conferencing, and video on-demand programing. Nine interventions were stand-alone, delivered post-baseline exclusively via eHealth. Seventeen interventions included additional behavioral support provided by counselors post-baseline remotely with communication technology or face-to-face. The estimated overall effect on mean percentage weight loss from baseline to up to 15months of follow-up across all the interventions was -3.98%. The subtotal estimate across the stand-alone eHealth interventions (-3.34%) was less than the estimate across interventions with behavioral support given by a counselor remotely (-4.31%), and the estimate across interventions with behavioral support given by a counselor in-person (-4.65%). There is promising evidence of the efficacy of DPP-based eHealth interventions on weight loss. Further studies are needed particularly in racially and ethnically diverse
Boydell, Katherine M; Hodgins, Michael; Pignatiello, Antonio; Teshima, John; Edwards, Helen; Willis, David
To conduct a scoping review on the use of technology to deliver mental health services to children and youth in order to identify the breadth of peer-reviewed literature, summarize findings and identify gaps. A literature database search identified 126 original studies meeting criteria for review. Descriptive numerical summary and thematic analyses were conducted. Two reviewers independently extracted data. Studies were characterized by diverse technologies including videoconferencing, telephone and mobile phone applications and Internet-based applications such as email, web sites and CD-ROMs. The use of technologies plays a major role in the delivery of mental health services and supports to children and youth in providing prevention, assessment, diagnosis, counseling and treatment programs. Strategies are growing exponentially on a global basis, thus it is critical to study the impact of these technologies on child and youth mental health service delivery. An in-depth review and synthesis of the quality of findings of studies on effectiveness of the use of technologies in service delivery are also warranted. A full systematic review would provide that opportunity.
Kattelmann, Kendra K; Bredbenner, Carol Byrd; White, Adrienne A; Greene, Geoffrey W; Hoerr, Sharon L; Kidd, Tandalayo; Colby, Sarah; Horacek, Tanya M; Phillips, Beatrice W; Koenings, Mallory M; Brown, Onikia N; Olfert, Melissa D; Shelnutt, Karla P; Morrell, Jesse Stabile
To assess the effectiveness of a tailored theory-based, Web-delivered intervention (Young Adults Eating and Active for Health) developed using community-based participatory research process. A 15-month (10-week intensive intervention with a 12-month follow-up) randomized, controlled trial delivered via Internet and e-mail. Thirteen college campuses. A total of 1,639 college students. Twenty-one mini-educational lessons and e-mail messages (called nudges) developed with the non-diet approach and focusing on eating behavior, physical activity, stress management, and healthy weight management. Nudges were short, frequent, entertaining, and stage-tailored to each behavior, and reinforced lesson content. All participants were assessed at baseline, postintervention (3 months from baseline), and follow-up (15 months from baseline) for primary outcomes of weight, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetable intake (FVI), physical activity (PA), and perceived stress; and secondary outcomes of waist circumference, percent dietary fat, energy from sugar-sweetened beverages, servings of whole grains, self-instruction and regulation for mealtime behavior, hours of sleep, and stage of readiness for change for consuming 5 cups of FVI, completing 150 minutes of PA/wk, and managing stress on most days of the week. Demographics were collected at baseline. Chi-square analysis and mixed-models repeated measures analysis were performed to determine differences between experimental and control outcomes. There were no differences between experimental and control participants in BMI, weight, and waist circumference. There were small improvements in FVI (P = .001), vigorous PA in females (P = .05), fat intake (P = .002), self-instruction (P = .001), and regulation (P = .004) for mealtime behavior, and hours of sleep (P = .05) at postintervention, but improvements were not maintained at follow-up. At postintervention, a greater proportion of experimental participants were in the action
The aim of the present paper was to review the opportunities currently available to health service planners to advance sustainable development in their future-facing roles within health service organisation. Critical challenges and enablers to facilitate health services planners in adopting a pro-environmental lens are discussed. What is known about the topic? Despite its harmful effect on the environment, health has been slower than other industries to embrace the sustainable development agenda. The attitudes and knowledge base of health service planners with regard to environmental sustainability has not been widely studied. For health service planners, embracing pro-environmental considerations in sustainable model of care development is a powerful opportunity to review care paradigms and prepare for the implementation of meaningful, improved health and system efficiency. What does this paper add? This paper advances the case for health service planners to embrace a pro-environmental stance and guides health service leaders in the preparation and implementation of sustainable and improved health and system efficiency. What are the implications for practitioners? Health service planers are in an ideal position to champion the sustainable development agenda as they explore what care is delivered, how care is delivered and where care is delivered. External policy, health service leadership and carbon literacy are advanced as critical contextual factors to facilitate the key role that health service planners can play in building sustainable healthcare organisations.
Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Wallace, Aaron; Mirza, Imran Raza; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Nandy, Robin; Durry, Elias; Everard, Marthe
Child Health Days (CHDs) are increasingly used by countries to periodically deliver multiple maternal and child health interventions as time-limited events, particularly to populations not reached by routine health services. In countries with a weak health infrastructure, this strategy could be used to reach many underserved populations with an integrated package of services. In this study, we estimate the incremental costs, impact, cost-effectiveness, and return on investment of 2 rounds of CHDs that were conducted in Somalia in 2009 and 2010. We use program costs and population estimates reported by the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund to estimate the average cost per beneficiary for each of 9 interventions delivered during 2 rounds of CHDs implemented during the periods of December 2008 to May 2009 and August 2009 to April 2010. Because unstable areas were unreachable, we calculated costs for targeted and accessible beneficiaries. We model the impact of the CHDs on child mortality using the Lives Saved Tool, convert these estimates of mortality reduction to life years saved, and derive the cost-effectiveness ratio and the return on investment. The estimated average incremental cost per intervention for each targeted beneficiary was $0.63, with the cost increasing to $0.77 per accessible beneficiary. The CHDs were estimated to save the lives of at least 10,000, or 500,000 life years for both rounds combined. The CHDs were cost-effective at $34.00/life year saved. For every $1 million invested in the strategy, an estimated 615 children's lives, or 29,500 life years, were saved. If the pentavalent vaccine had been delivered during the CHDs instead of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine, an additional 5000 children's lives could have been saved. Despite high operational costs, CHDs are a very cost-effective service delivery strategy for addressing the leading causes of child mortality in a conflict setting like Somalia and compare
Magnussen, Rikke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens
The field of health promotion technology has been in an exponential growth in recent years and smart phone applications, exer-games and self-monitoring devices has become part of fitness activities and health education. In this work-in-progress-paper theoretical perspectives for categorising and analysing health educational potentials of technologies are presented.
McClure, Jennifer B; Bush, Terry; Anderson, Melissa L; Blasi, Paula; Thompson, Ella; Nelson, Jennifer; Catz, Sheryl L
To assess the effects of a novel oral health promotion program (Oral Health 4 Life; OH4L) delivered through state-funded tobacco quitlines. Using a semipragmatic design to balance experimental control and generalizability, we randomized US quitline callers (n = 718) to standard care or standard care plus OH4L. We followed participants for 6 months to assess effects on professional dental care and smoking abstinence. We collected data between 2015 and 2017. Participants were racially diverse (42% non-White) and socioeconomically disadvantaged. Most (71%) reported fair or poor oral health, and all were overdue for routine dental care. At 6 months, professional dental care and abstinence did not significantly differ between arms, but abstinence favored the experimental arm and was significantly higher among experimental participants at 2 months in a complete case sensitivity analysis. OH4L was not effective for promoting dental care, but integrating oral health counseling with quitline counseling may offer some advantage for smoking cessation. Public Health Implications. We offer a model for conducting semipragmatic trials and partnering with tobacco quitlines to evaluate population-level public health interventions.
Shernoff, Elisa S.; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Kratochwill, Thomas R.
School psychologists are uniquely positioned to support the delivery of evidence-based mental health practices (EBMHPs) to address the overwhelming mental health needs of children and youth. Graduate training programs can promote EBMHPs in schools by ensuring school psychologists enter the workplace prepared to deliver and support high-quality,…
Burrows, Christopher N; Blanton, Hart
Prior research has demonstrated that psychological immersion (or "transportation") into virtual gaming worlds can heighten influence from health-promotion messages embedded in the backgrounds of gaming scenes. However, research to date has only studied the effectiveness of embedding graphic, fear-based messages in the background of violent, first-person videogames. This study sought to examine whether transportation into a nonviolent videogame can heighten persuasion from low-fear, nongraphic health messages. Willingness to drive under the influence of alcohol (DUI) was measured in an undergraduate sample (M AGE = 19) at the start of the semester, and n = 220 returned 0-3 months later to play a car-racing videogame. All were randomly assigned to play either a version of the game containing background billboards that delivered simple, text-based anti-DUI messages or consumer advertising. Self-reported levels of transportation were assessed, as well as postgame willingness to DUI. Exposure to anti-DUI messages from within the game predicted lower postgame willingness to DUI. Moreover, replicating prior research, the effect of message exposure was largest among those who reported higher levels of pregame willingness to DUI, and higher levels of in-game transportation. This study replicates prior research by suggesting that immersive videogames that promote transportation can be used to effectively deliver health communications. Results also expand prior research by providing the first evidence that such effects can generalize when health messaging orients around nongraphic, lower fear messages embedded within immersive but lower fear videogames.
Porter, Russell; Broussard, Amelia; Duckett, Todd
It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethical dilemmas presented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…
Originating in Australia, 'Mental Health First Aid' (MHFA) is a way of providing support to someone who is experiencing a mental health problem before professional help is obtained. Positive evaluations have shown that it both increases confidence while decreasing stigmatizing attitudes. However, the evidence base surrounding the delivery of basic mental health programmes remains underdeveloped. This descriptive qualitative study explored the views and experiences of 14 MHFA instructors from across Wales through semi-structured interviews, as a means to identify the experience of course delivery from their perspective. Data were collected between January and April 2009. The study found individuals benefited from being an MHFA instructor through increased confidence and self-development. However, instructors encountered logistical difficulties in course delivery and noted that as attendees related to the course material, they wished to discuss their own mental health problems during the course. This created considerable challenges for instructors, who noted both positive and negative impacts on themselves, and on their expectations of the role of becoming MHFA instructors. In conclusion, basic mental health training courses must build a clear infrastructure, ongoing quality assurance processes and reliable support structures to train, support and monitor those delivering them. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is recognised as good practice to use qualitative methods to elicit users' views of internet-delivered health-care interventions during their development. This paper seeks to illustrate the advantages of combining usability testing with 'theoretical modelling', i.e. analyses that relate the findings of qualitative studies during intervention development to social science theory, in order to gain deeper insights into the reasons and context for how people respond to the intervention. This paper illustrates how usability testing may be enriched by theoretical modelling by means of two qualitative studies of users' views of the delivery of information in an internet-delivered intervention to help users decide whether they needed to seek medical care for their cold or flu symptoms. Methods In Study 1, 21 participants recruited from a city in southern England were asked to 'think aloud' while viewing draft web-pages presented in paper format. In Study 2, views of our prototype website were elicited, again using think aloud methods, in a sample of 26 participants purposively sampled for diversity in education levels. Both data-sets were analysed by thematic analysis. Results Study 1 revealed that although the information provided by the draft web-pages had many of the intended empowering benefits, users often felt overwhelmed by the quantity of information. Relating these findings to theory and research on factors influencing preferences for information-seeking we hypothesised that to meet the needs of different users (especially those with lower literacy levels our website should be designed to provide only essential personalised advice, but with options to access further information. Study 2 showed that our website design did prove accessible to users with different literacy levels. However, some users seemed to want still greater control over how information was accessed. Conclusions Educational level need not be an
This was an intervention study to compare the effects of health education alone and health education plus advance provision of emergency contraception (EC) pills on the knowledge and attitudes to EC by female students of University of Nigeria in South‑East Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Astructured questionnaire was ...
Arshat, H; Othman, R; Kuan Lin Chee; Abdullah, M
The NADI program (pulse in Malay) was initially launched as a pilot project in 1980 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It utilized an integrated approach involving both the government and the private sectors. By sharing resources and expertise, and by working together, the government and the people can achieve national development faster and with better results. The agencies work through a multi-level supportive structure, at the head of which is the steering committee. The NADI teams at the field level are the focal points of services from the various agencies. Members of NADI teams also work with urban poor families as well as health groups, parents-teachers associations, and other similar groups. The policy and planning functions are carried out by the steering committee, the 5 area action committees and the community action committees, while the implementation function is carried out by the area program managers and NADI teams. The chairman of each area action committee is the head of the branch office of city hall. Using intestinal parasite control as the entry point, the NADI Integrated Family Development Program has greatly helped in expanding inter-agency cooperation and exchange of experiences by a coordinated, effective and efficient resource-mobilization. The program was later expanded to other parts of the country including the industrial and estate sectors. Services provided by NADI include: comprehensive health services to promote maternal and child health; adequate water supply, proper waste disposal, construction of latrines and providing electricity; and initiating community and family development such as community education, preschool education, vocational training, family counseling and building special facilities for recreational and educational purposes.
Line Lundvoll Nilsen
Full Text Available This article explores the ways in which collaboration between professionals using videoconferencing affects the e-health delivered to patients. In Norway, general practitioners (GPs and specialists routinely hold videoconferences. Observations of 42 VC meetings, each lasting from 5 to 40 min, were analysed in terms of the interactions. In addition, five semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted, each lasting from 20 to 70 minutes. Statements were selected to illustrate the content of the interactions and how collaborative work affects the delivery of healthcare. Successful collaborative work provides practitioners with a new way of thinking: exchanging information and knowledge between levels of care in order to provide the best treatment for patients locally. The regularity makes the collaborative work a two-way achievement. GPs receive decision support and second opinions, and specialists receive information and opportunities to follow up. How the professionals manage their work (i.e., collaborating may benefit their patients. The regular use of videoconferencing will furnish professionals with enhanced resources for the meeting of patients’ demands in the future. Regularly informing one another and exchanging knowledge, benefits the professionals by providing increased certainty with regard to their medical decisions, and it benefits the patients because they will feel satisfied with the competence of the specialists where they live.
Thwala, Siphiwe Bridget Pearl; Blaauw, Duane; Ssengooba, Freddie
Improving the delivery of emergency obstetric care (EmNOC) remains critical in addressing direct causes of maternal mortality. United Nations (UN) agencies have promoted standard methods for evaluating the availability of EmNOC facilities although modifications have been proposed by others. This study presents an assessment of the preparedness of public health facilities to provide EmNOC using these methods in one South African district with a persistently high maternal mortality ratio. Data collection took place in the final quarter of 2014. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted to classify the 7 hospitals and 8 community health centres (CHCs) in the district as either basic EmNOC (BEmNOC) or comprehensive EmNOC (CEmNOC) facilities using UN EmNOC signal functions. The required density of EmNOC facilities was calculated using UN norms. We also assessed the availability of EmNOC personnel, resuscitation equipment, drugs, fluids, and protocols at each facility. The workload of skilled EmNOC providers at hospitals and CHCs was compared. All 7 hospitals in the district were classified as CEmNOC facilities, but none of the 8 CHCs performed all required signal functions to be classified as BEmNOC facilities. UN norms indicated that 25 EmNOC facilities were required for the district population, 5 of which should be CEmNOCs. None of the facilities had 100% of items on the EmNOC checklists. Hospital midwives delivered an average of 36.4±14.3 deliveries each per month compared to only 7.9±3.2 for CHC midwives (pfacilities in the district. Full EmNOC services were centralised to hospitals to assure patient safety even though national policy guidelines sanction more decentralisation to CHCs. Studies measuring EmNOC availability need to consider facility opening hours, capacity and staffing in addition to the demonstrated performance of signal functions.
Hulse, Nathan C; Long, Jie; Tao, Cui
Infobuttons have been established to be an effective resource for addressing information needs at the point of care, as evidenced by recent research and their inclusion in government-based electronic health record incentive programs in the United States. Yet their utility has been limited to wide success for only a specific set of domains (lab data, medication orders, and problem lists) and only for discrete, singular concepts that are already documented in the electronic medical record. In this manuscript, we present an effort to broaden their utility by connecting a semantic web-based phenotyping engine with an infobutton framework in order to identify and address broader issues in patient data, derived from multiple data sources. We have tested these patterns by defining and testing semantic definitions of pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome. We intend to carry forward relevant information to the infobutton framework to present timely, relevant education resources to patients and providers.
Physicians have a responsibility to educate people about their health as well as to treat them. In fact, achievement of "Health for All" requires that people become educated about immunization, nutrition, family planning, and environmental sanitation. The goal of health education is to change behavior by changing attitudes. Health education encourages self-reliance and motivates people to make their own health-related decisions. In order to reach patients, physicians must bridge the social gap created by the gulf between technical priorities and what is really possible for people to achieve. The process of health education moves from the sender to the message to the channel to the receivers to the effects. Appropriate methods can be used for individual or group communication and methods can focus on information provision and/or behavior change. Participatory methods are effective in changing behavior and include group analysis of a situation, group dialogue, persuasion, and educational games. An effective strategy for individual instruction is woman-to-woman or child-to-child communication, which depends upon the identification of "key" women and children. Development of a community-based health education strategy relies on community participation and the involvement of influential members of the community. After a message has been transmitted, innovators will begin the new practice, early adopters will follow, and slow adopters will wait and watch. The innovators and early adopters can help reduce resistance to the innovation. While it is a slow process, health education can improve attitudes and behavior.
ICIT Report, 1976
This issue focuses on uses and techniques of radio for educational purposes in developing nations. Two health education projects are described which are utilizing open broadcasting to attract a mass audience of listeners not committed to a structured radio education program. Kenya's Swahili language radio serial, "Giving Birth and Caring for your…
Gilmore, Brynne; McAuliffe, Eilish
Community Health Workers are widely utilised in low- and middle-income countries and may be an important tool in reducing maternal and child mortality; however, evidence is lacking on their effectiveness for specific types of programmes, specifically programmes of a preventive nature. This review reports findings on a systematic review analysing effectiveness of preventive interventions delivered by Community Health Workers for Maternal and Child Health in low- and middle-income countries. A search strategy was developed according to the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordinating Centre's (EPPI-Centre) guidelines and systematic searching of the following databases occurred between June 8-11th, 2012: CINAHL, Embase, Ovid Nursing Database, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and POPLINE. Google, Google Scholar and WHO search engines, as well as relevant systematic reviews and reference lists from included articles were also searched. Inclusion criteria were: i) Target beneficiaries should be pregnant or recently pregnant women and/or children under-5 and/or caregivers of children under-5; ii) Interventions were required to be preventive and delivered by Community Health Workers at the household level. No exclusion criteria were stipulated for comparisons/controls or outcomes. Study characteristics of included articles were extracted using a data sheet and a peer tested quality assessment. A narrative synthesis of included studies was compiled with articles being coded descriptively to synthesise results and draw conclusions. A total of 10,281 studies were initially identified and through the screening process a total of 17 articles detailing 19 studies were included in the review. Studies came from ten different countries and consisted of randomized controlled trials, cluster randomized controlled trials, before and after, case control and cross sectional studies. Overall quality of evidence was found to be moderate. Five main preventive intervention
Boah, Michael; Mahama, Abraham B; Ayamga, Emmanuel A
Research has shown that use of antenatal services by pregnant women and delivery in health facilities with skilled birth attendants contribute to better delivery outcomes. However, a gap exists in Ghana between the use of antenatal care provided by health facilities and delivery in health facilities with skilled birth attendants by pregnant women. This study sought to identify the predictors of health facility delivery by women in a rural district in Ghana. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in June 2016. Women who delivered in the past 6 months preceding the study were interviewed. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, use of antenatal care, place of delivery and reasons for home delivery were collected from study participants. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to assess an association between women's socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics and place of delivery at 95% confidence interval. The study found that 98.8% of women received antenatal care services at least once during their recent pregnancy, and 67.9% attended antenatal care at least four times before delivery. However, 61.9% of the women delivered in a health facility with a skilled attendant. The frequently mentioned reason for home delivery was "unaware of onset of labour and delivery". The odds for delivery at a health facility were reduced among women with four living children [(AOR = 0.07, CI = 0.15-0.36, p = 0.001)], with no exposure to delivery care information [(AOR = 0.06, CI = 0.01-0.34, p = 0.002), who started their first ANC visit from the second trimester of pregnancy[(AOR = 0.003, CI = 0.01-0.15, p facilities although visits to antenatal care sessions were high, an indication that there was the need to intensify health education on early initiation of antenatal care, signs of labour and delivery, and importance of health facility delivery.
Teachers in the school subject Health and Physical Education (HPE) need to be able both to teach health and to do so in a healthy (equitable) way. The health field has, however, met with difficulties in finding its form within the subject. Research indicates that HPE can be excluding, meaning that it may give more favours to some pupils (bodies)…
Pal, B Rani
Technological innovations are rising rapidly and are inevitably becoming part of the health care environment. Patients frequently access Social media as a forum for discussion of personal health issues; and healthcare providers are now considering ways of harnessing social media as a source of learning and teaching. This review highlights some of the complex issues of using social media as an opportunity for interaction between public- patient-healthcare staff; considers the impact of self- education and self-management for patients with diabetes, and explores some recent advances in delivering education for staff. When using any information technology, the emphasis should rely on being assessed rigorously to show it promotes health education safely, can be recognized as delivering up-to- date health information effectively, and should ensure there is no bias in selective communication, or disadvantage to isolated patient groups.
Obesity; Diet, Food, and Nutrition; Church; Healthcare Disparities; Minority Health; Mobile Health; Telehealth; Community-based Participatory Research; Primary Health Care; Weight Loss Programs; Health Behavior
Joswiak, Denise; Kinney, Mary Ellen; Johnson, Jill R; Kolste, Alison K; Griffin, Kristen H; Rivard, Rachael L; Dusek, Jeffery A
Healthcare systems are increasingly looking to integrate aromatherapy (essential oils) as a safe, low-cost, and nonpharmacologic option for patient care to reduce pain, nausea, and anxiety and to improve sleep. This article describes the development and implementation of a healthcare system-wide program of nurse-delivered essential oil therapeutic interventions to inpatients throughout an acute care setting. In addition, we provide lessons learned for nursing administrators interested in developing similar nurse-delivered aromatherapy programs.
This paper draws on the views of lecturers working in and delivering college-based higher education (CBHE) in the UK. There have been numerous works on the culture of higher education in further education (HE in FE). However, as noted by some literati, the culture of further education (FE) is not easy to define, and does not readily lend itself to the incorporation of a higher education (HE) culture. This could be due to the large number of changes FE has had to adopt owing to various governm...
Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...
Nowicki, Grzegorz Józef; Misztal-Okońska, Patrycja; Ślusarska, Barbara; Rudnicka-Drożak, Ewa; Młynarska, Magdalena; Czekierdowski, Artur
Preconception lifestyle modifications and reduction of several known risk factors may have an influence on future pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the study was to analyze health behaviors and personal values as well as to assess the relationship between these factors in women without children, in pregnant women and in women who had already delivered babies. The questionnaire survey included the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), the Personal Value List (PVL) and sociodemographic data and was conducted in 538 women. These women were divided into three groups: women who had recently delivered ( n = 235), pregnant women ( n = 121) and childless women ( n = 182). Pregnant women demonstrated a significantly higher level of declared health behaviors, and also, they rated higher on the subscales values "positive mental attitude" and "health practices", in comparison to women who had recently delivered and to childless women. In all tested groups, the highest rated personal value was "a successful family life", while the most appreciated symbol of happiness was "love and friendship". Our results suggest that the system of values and the perception of happiness symbols may influence women's health behaviors. Positioning "health" in the hierarchy of personal values as the most important one may facilitate the introduction of healthy behaviors. This, in turn, could reduce several adverse pregnancy outcomes that are potentially modifiable with changing preconception health attitudes. Our results also identify several unanswered questions and highlight areas where new research is needed.
The thesis "Physical measurements and health education" looks at physical quantities that are related to human health and can be measured in a elementary school environment. It focuses especially on the cross-curricular relationship between physics and health education and also on the use of relevant online measurement systems. As part of this thesis, we suggest a number of activities that exploit this relationship.
Rong, Guoping; Shao, Dong
The importance of delivering software process courses to software engineering students has been more and more recognized in China in recent years. However, students usually cannot fully appreciate the value of software process courses by only learning methodology and principle in the classroom. Therefore, a process-specific project course was…
This paper outlines a new method of teaching health informatics to large numbers of students from around the world through a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). The Health Informatics Forum is a social networking site for educating health informatics students and professionals [corrected]. It is running a MOOC for students from around the world that uses creative commons licenced content funded by the US government and developed by five US universities. The content is delivered through narrated lectures with slides that can be viewed online with discussion threads on the forum for class interactions. Students can maintain a professional profile, upload photos and files, write their own blog posts and post discussion threads on the forum. The Health Informatics Forum MOOC has been accessed by 11,316 unique users from 127 countries from August 2, 2012 to January 24, 2014. Most users accessed the MOOC via a desktop computer, followed by tablets and mobile devices and 55% of users were female. Over 400,000 unique users have now accessed the wider Health Informatics Forum since it was established in 2008. Advances in health informatics and educational technology have both created a demand for online learning material in health informatics and a solution for providing it. By using a MOOC delivered through a social networking platform it is hoped that high quality health informatics education will be able to be delivered to a large global audience of future health informaticians without cost.
Misztal-Okońska, Patrycja; Rudnicka-Drożak, Ewa; Młynarska, Magdalena; Czekierdowski, Artur
Preconception lifestyle modifications and reduction of several known risk factors may have an influence on future pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the study was to analyze health behaviors and personal values as well as to assess the relationship between these factors in women without children, in pregnant women and in women who had already delivered babies. The questionnaire survey included the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), the Personal Value List (PVL) and sociodemographic data and was conducted in 538 women. These women were divided into three groups: women who had recently delivered (n = 235), pregnant women (n = 121) and childless women (n = 182). Pregnant women demonstrated a significantly higher level of declared health behaviors, and also, they rated higher on the subscales values “positive mental attitude” and “health practices”, in comparison to women who had recently delivered and to childless women. In all tested groups, the highest rated personal value was “a successful family life”, while the most appreciated symbol of happiness was “love and friendship”. Our results suggest that the system of values and the perception of happiness symbols may influence women’s health behaviors. Positioning “health” in the hierarchy of personal values as the most important one may facilitate the introduction of healthy behaviors. This, in turn, could reduce several adverse pregnancy outcomes that are potentially modifiable with changing preconception health attitudes. Our results also identify several unanswered questions and highlight areas where new research is needed. PMID:29495488
Leahy, Deana; Simovska, Venka
Purpose - This Special Issue is the second in a series that aims to place the spotlight on educational research and its contribution to the field of school-based health and wellbeing promotion. The purpose of both special issues is to bring together scholars from across the world to consider...... current developments in research on curricula, interventions, policies and practices concerning health education and promotion and related professional development of teachers. Design/methodology/approach – As in the first Special Issue published in 2017 (School health education and promotion: Health...... and wellbeing promotion. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education website and on the EERA website. There was considerable interest from those such as researchers, scholars and practitioners, and as a result, we have been able to publish a second Special Issue. Findings...
Full Text Available Škerbinek writes about life-long education and its influence on the quality of life. Through education, people assume a different attitude towards health, and above all develop an awareness that they are themselves responsible for their health and general well-being. The majority of mental disorders spring from prolonged psychological pressures. Psychiatrists believe in the principle » Prevention is better than cure«, and it is therefore understandable that strong emphasis should be put on education, particularly education leading to formation in the emotional sphere, resistance to consumerism, healthy productivity motivation, and a balanced and healthy life.
Lockhart, James; McKee, Dorothy; Donnelly, Debbie
The dichotomy of humility and hubris among participants in Executive Education courses presents faculty with a source of heterogeneity not disclosed through the common descriptive statistics of sex, age, education and employment. This article discusses the impact of this dichotomy on the design and delivery of effective executive education. In…
Trani, Jean-Francois; Bakhshi, Parul; Nandipati, Anand
Education for children with disabilities in Afghanistan, particularly disabled girls, continues to lag behind despite laudable efforts of the Ministry of Education to promote universal access for all. The opportunity for education constitutes not just a means of achieving learning outcomes but also a space for social interaction, individual…
Full Text Available This study describes the content of entrepreneurship education in health care education and the kinds of teaching methods that are used when teaching about entrepreneurship. Health care entrepreneurship has increased in many countries in recent decades and there is evidence that entrepreneurs have also a role in public health care. Therefore the health care professionals need to be educated to have the entrepreneurial skills. Education in the field of health care is still based on traditional forms of teaching and does not give enough attention to the issue of becoming an entrepreneur. The data was collected from teachers (n=111 via e-mail from six Finnish polytechnics. The data were analysed statistically and the open-ended questions were analysed via content analysis. Approximately 23% of the teachers had taught about entrepreneurship. The most popular teaching methods were company visits and cases, lecturing, and project work. The courses dealt with establishing a company, entrepreneurship in general, and marketing. Nearly all of the teachers had cooperated with the entrepreneurs or with the companies in question. Approximately 33% of the teachers took entrepreneurship into consideration often in other courses related to entrepreneurship.
Key words: Health Professionals' Education, Undergraduate Medical Education, Primary Health Care, Social. Medicine ... tion process to gather all health professions educations .... integrated program in the revised 5-year medical degree.
O'Reilly, Aileen; Barry, James; Neary, Marie-Louise; Lane, Sabrina; O'Keeffe, Lynsey
The use of peer education has been well documented within the discipline of health promotion, but not within the youth mental health domain. This paper describes an evaluation of an innovative schools-based peer education training programme that involved preparing young people to deliver a mental health workshop to their peers. Participants…
Jacobs, Robin J; Caballero, Joshua; Ownby, Raymond L; Kane, Michael N
Low health literacy is associated with poor medication adherence in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which can lead to poor health outcomes. As linguistic minorities, Spanish-dominant Hispanics (SDH) face challenges such as difficulties in obtaining and understanding accurate information about HIV and its treatment. Traditional health educational methods (e.g., pamphlets, talking) may not be as effective as delivering through alternate venues. Technology-based health information interventions have the potential for being readily available on desktop computers or over the Internet. The purpose of this research was to adapt a theoretically-based computer application (initially developed for English-speaking HIV-positive persons) that will provide linguistically and culturally appropriate tailored health education to Spanish-dominant Hispanics with HIV (HIV + SDH). A mixed methods approach using quantitative and qualitative interviews with 25 HIV + SDH and 5 key informants guided by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral (IMB) Skills model was used to investigate cultural factors influencing medication adherence in HIV + SDH. We used a triangulation approach to identify major themes within cultural contexts relevant to understanding factors related to motivation to adhere to treatment. From this data we adapted an automated computer-based health literacy intervention to be delivered in Spanish. Culture-specific motivational factors for treatment adherence in HIV + SDH persons that emerged from the data were stigma, familismo (family), mood, and social support. Using this data, we developed a culturally and linguistically adapted a tailored intervention that provides information about HIV infection, treatment, and medication related problem solving skills (proven effective in English-speaking populations) that can be delivered using touch-screen computers, tablets, and smartphones to be tested in a future study. Using a theoretically
Berry, Natalie; Lobban, Fiona; Emsley, Richard; Bucci, Sandra
Psychological interventions are recommended for people with severe mental health problems (SMI). However, barriers exist in the provision of these services and access is limited. Therefore, researchers are beginning to develop and deliver interventions online and via mobile phones. Previous research has indicated that interventions delivered in this format are acceptable for people with SMI. However, a comprehensive systematic review is needed to investigate the acceptability of online and mobile phone-delivered interventions for SMI in depth. This systematic review aimed to 1) identify the hypothetical acceptability (acceptability prior to or without the delivery of an intervention) and actual acceptability (acceptability where an intervention was delivered) of online and mobile phone-delivered interventions for SMI, 2) investigate the impact of factors such as demographic and clinical characteristics on acceptability, and 3) identify common participant views in qualitative studies that pinpoint factors influencing acceptability. We conducted a systematic search of the databases PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science in April 2015, which yielded a total of 8017 search results, with 49 studies meeting the full inclusion criteria. Studies were included if they measured acceptability through participant views, module completion rates, or intervention use. Studies delivering interventions were included if the delivery method was online or via mobile phones. The hypothetical acceptability of online and mobile phone-delivered interventions for SMI was relatively low, while actual acceptability tended to be high. Hypothetical acceptability was higher for interventions delivered via text messages than by emails. The majority of studies that assessed the impact of demographic characteristics on acceptability reported no significant relationships between the two. Additionally, actual acceptability was higher when participants were provided remote online
Poster presented at International Conference "Communicating for Social Change: Lessons learnt from public health", Glocal NOMAD, Aidsnet (The Danish NGO Network on AIDS and Development), ADRA Denmark and Enreca Health. Copenhagen: Copenhagen University, May 4., 2010,Denmark....
Ovelil, Bernd Pflug
Ayurveda is prevention in itself. It is not necessary for Ayurveda to develop a comprehensive structure of preventive approaches as it is found in modern health education. On the other hand has Ayurveda not modernized its preventive principles according to the present living and working conditions of the people. It is so far not understood as integral part of the socio-economic development of the country. This has saved Ayurveda to become part of the highly structured and bureaucratic form of health care and health education- at the expense of not being consulted by others when working on a social health oriented development strategy. PMID:22556952
NC van Wyk
Full Text Available Paolo Freire’s theory of critical thinking shows remarkable similarities to the principles supported by health education. In his capacity as Brazilian educationalist, Freire emphasized man’s active participation in his own development. Without this active involvement, growth and development become quite impossible to attain.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-economic variations in health, including variations in health according to wealth and income, have been widely reported. A potential method of improving the health of the most deprived groups is to increase their income. State funded welfare programmes of financial benefits and benefits in kind are common in developed countries. However, there is evidence of widespread under claiming of welfare benefits by those eligible for them. One method of exploring the health effects of income supplementation is, therefore, to measure the health effects of welfare benefit maximisation programmes. We conducted a systematic review of the health, social and financial impacts of welfare rights advice delivered in healthcare settings. Methods Published and unpublished literature was accessed through searches of electronic databases, websites and an internet search engine; hand searches of journals; suggestions from experts; and reference lists of relevant publications. Data on the intervention delivered, evaluation performed, and outcome data on health, social and economic measures were abstracted and assessed by pairs of independent reviewers. Results are reported in narrative form. Results 55 studies were included in the review. Only seven studies included a comparison or control group. There was evidence that welfare rights advice delivered in healthcare settings results in financial benefits. There was little evidence that the advice resulted in measurable health or social benefits. This is primarily due to lack of good quality evidence, rather than evidence of an absence of effect. Conclusion There are good theoretical reasons why income supplementation should improve health, but currently little evidence of adequate robustness and quality to indicate that the impact goes beyond increasing income.
Leeuwenburg, Tim J; Parker, Casey
Rural clinicians require expertise across a broad range of specialties, presenting difficulty in maintaining currency of knowledge and application of best practice. Free open access medical education is a new paradigm in continuing professional education. Use of the internet and social media allows a globally accessible crowd-sourced adjunct, providing inline (contextual) and offline (asynchronous) content to augment traditional educational principles and the availability of relevant resources for life-long learning. This markedly reduces knowledge translation (the delay from inception of a new idea to bedside implementation) and allows rural clinicians to further expertise by engaging in discussion of cutting edge concepts with peers worldwide.
Health educators should be able to use mass comunications media and should be knowledgeable about the most recent media theories, methods, and technologies. Suggestions for making effective use of television, newspapers, and other media for disseminating health information and for conducting media campaigns are given. (PP)
Magnussen, Rikke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens
The field of health promotion technology has been in an exponential growth in recent years and smart phone applications, exer-games and self-monitoring devices has become part of fitness activities and health education. In this work-in-progress-paper theoretical perspectives for categorising...
Balaji, Madhumitha; Chatterjee, Sudipto; Koschorke, Mirja; Rangaswamy, Thara; Chavan, Animish; Dabholkar, Hamid; Dakshin, Lilly; Kumar, Pratheesh; John, Sujit; Thornicroft, Graham; Patel, Vikram
Abstract Background Care for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries is predominantly facility based and led by specialists, with limited use of non-pharmacological treatments. Although community based psychosocial interventions are emphasised, there is little evidence about their acceptability and feasibility. Furthermore, the shortage of skilled manpower is a major barrier to improving access to these interventions. Our study aimed to develop a lay health worker delivered community...
Piniewski-Bond, Joanne; Celestino, Paul B; Mahoney, Martin C; Farrell, Carolyn D; Bauer, Joseph E; Hastrup, Janice L; Cummings, K Michael
Up to 10% of all cancers are thought to have a familial basis through complex interactions between genes and environment. A community-wide education campaign was conducted that included several elements: a five part television news series; an educational newsletter; web site pages and links to educational materials; a Continuing Medical Education (CME) program for professionals; and an evaluation survey. Survey estimates revealed that 39000 households recalled seeing the series; 14800 households changed their views about the risks of hereditary cancers; and about 9900 households were made more aware/informed about cancer and hereditary risk. This awareness campaign broadened public knowledge about the myths and realities associated with genetic factors and cancer risk. It reinforced the importance of early screening for persons at high risk of cancer due to hereditary factors.
Jones, Christine S.; Timpson, William M., Comps.
Abstracts of 25 articles and documents provide examples of the delivery of science, math, and vocational education via such media as interactive television, communications satellites, videodiscs, and electronic mail. Studies of instructional effectiveness and design issues are also represented. (SK)
Crouse, Tricia Lynn
Recent advancements in the speed and availability of the Internet have catapulted distance education into the forefront of possible economic education alternatives. Distance learning courses are taught exclusively over the Internet. Economics distance courses provide alternatives for economics students to traditional classroom instruction, and also invite new students to the discipline who may not have otherwise enrolled. An increase in the number of distance courses in the economics field ha...
Full Text Available Background: There are many challenges women face to be able to give birth in health facilities in many parts of Indonesia. This study explores the roles and observations of close-to-community maternal health providers and other community members on potential barriers faced by women to deliver in health facilities in two districts within The Archipelago. Methods: Employing an explorative qualitative approach, 110 semi-structured interviews and 7 focus group discussions were conducted in 8 villages in Southwest Sumba, in the East Nusa Tenggara province, and in 8 villages in Cianjur, in the West Java province. The participants included village midwives, Posyandu kader (village health volunteers, traditional birth attendants (TBAs, mothers, men, village heads and district health officials. Results: The main findings were mostly similar in the two study areas. However, there were some key differences. Preference for TBA care, traditional beliefs, a lack of responsiveness of health providers to local traditions, distance, cost of travel and indirect costs of accompanying family members were all barriers to patients attending health facilities for the birth of their child. TBAs were the preferred health providers in most cases due to their close proximity at the time of childbirth and their adherence to traditional practices during pregnancy and delivery. Conclusions: Improving collaborations between midwives and TBAs, and responsiveness to traditional practices within health facilities and effective health promotion campaigns about the benefits of giving birth in health facilities may increase the use of health facilities in both study areas.
... offer discounts to healthy activities in the area: Biking, hiking, or walking tours Museums Fitness clubs Farms Festivals Your hospital may offer discounts for: Retail stores such as sporting goods, health food, and art stores Acupuncture Skin care Eye ...
Carey, M E; Mandalia, P K; Daly, H; Gray, L J; Hale, R; Martin Stacey, L; Taub, N; Skinner, T C; Stone, M; Heller, S; Khunti, K; Davies, M J
To develop and test a format of delivery of diabetes self-management education by paired professional and lay educators. We conducted an equivalence trial with non-randomized participant allocation to a Diabetes Education and Self Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 diabetes (DESMOND) course, delivered in the standard format by two trained healthcare professional educators (to the control group) or by one trained lay educator and one professional educator (to the intervention group). A total of 260 people with Type 2 diabetes diagnosed within the previous 12 months were referred for self-management education as part of routine care and attended either a control or intervention format DESMOND course. The primary outcome measure was change in illness coherence score (derived from the Diabetes Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised) between baseline and 4 months after attending education sessions. Secondary outcome measures included change in HbA1c level. The trial was conducted in four primary care organizations across England and Scotland. The 95% CI for the between-group difference in positive change in coherence scores was within the pre-set limits of equivalence (difference = 0.22, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.52). Equivalent changes related to secondary outcome measures were also observed, including equivalent reductions in HbA1c levels. Diabetes education delivered jointly by a trained lay person and a healthcare professional educator with the same educator role can provide equivalent patient benefits. This could provide a method that increases capacity, maintains quality and is cost-effective, while increasing access to self-management education. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.
Wheatly, Michele G; Flach, John; Shingledecker, Clark; Golshani, Forouzan
This special volume is dedicated to eight updated and expanded communications selected from 33 refereed papers presented at the inaugural international conference on Technology-based Learning with Disability (LWD-07) which took place on July 19-20, 2007 at Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio. Approximately 140 researchers and practitioners attended LWD-07 representing a cross-section of K-12 and higher education, pure and applied research, disability-related industry and rehabilitation agencies with common interests in facilitating educational attainment for people with all types of disabilities through use of technology. The communications selected for publication are representative of the breadth of interest at the nexus of disability, assistive technology, and the pedagogy of individualized learning. Access to education is a key component for quality of life and rehabilitation of any individual with a disability.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The primary objective of the National Pregnancy and Health Survey (NPHS) was to produce national annual estimates of the percentages and numbers of mothers of live...
Sobel, Howard L; Oliveros, Yolanda E; Nyunt-U, Soe
To elucidate factors that influence Philippine women to deliver at home and not be attended by a healthcare professional. Analysis of hospital data that were collected through Global Positioning System technology uploaded into the WHO HealthMapper and data on 7380 women from the Philippines Demographic and Health Survey, 2003. Most of the home deliveries that were not attended by healthcare professionals occurred within 15 km of a hospital. Women who had home deliveries and were not attended by a healthcare professional were more likely to be of low educational and economic status and to reside in rural houses without basic amenities (PFinancial barriers will need to be addressed to increase the number of deliveries in a healthcare facility. The apparent failure of hospitals to reduce newborn mortality may be related to suboptimal newborn care practices. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Light, Richard; Curry, Christina; Mooney, Amanda
As a well-developed indicator of high-quality teaching in any subject area we use the New South Wales (NSW) Quality Teaching Framework (QTF) in this article to identify what might constitute quality teaching in physical education and to suggest the extent to which Game Sense pedagogy can be seen to meet the expectations of the NSW QTF. We identify…
Wagner, Ellen; Ice, Phil
In recent years, low background rumblings have been heard in the land of education and training--rumblings that are getting louder each day. These are the sounds of the learning world discovering what Internet professionals working in other market sectors have known for years: The "digital breadcrumbs" that learners leave behind about their…
Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen
, Oslo, Norway, 2Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital , 3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 4Global Nutrition and Health, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark, 5School of Hospitality, culinary arts and meal science...
Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Sørensen, Tina Brandt; Højmark, Torben Brunse; Olsen, Kim Rose; Vedsted, Peter
The general practitioner (GP) is often the first healthcare contact for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To determine whether participating in a standardised educational programme delivered in the GP's own practice is associated with adherence to COPD guidelines. A nationwide register-based observational before and after study was undertaken with a control group of propensity-matched practices (follow-up period 6 months). COPD was defined as age 40+ years and at least two prescriptions for inhaled medication. The educational programme consisted of a 3-hr teaching lesson with a respiratory specialist and five visits by a representative from the sponsoring pharmaceutical company focusing on assessment and management of patients including written algorithms. A one-to-one propensity-matched control group of practices was selected. Register data were used to compare the rate of spirometry testing, preventive consultations, and influenza vaccinations provided to COPD patients and the rate of spirometry testing in non-COPD individuals, assumed to reflect diagnostic activity. Data for 102 participating GP practices were analysed. Participating clinics had a significant increase in preventive consultations and influenza vaccinations (peducation of GPs and their staff delivered in the GPs' own practices may improve adherence to COPD guidelines, not least for clinics with a high potential for improvement.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep problems are common, affecting over a third of adults in the United Kingdom and leading to reduced productivity and impaired health-related quality of life. Many of those whose lives are affected seek medical help from primary care. Drug treatment is ineffective long term. Psychological methods for managing sleep problems, including cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBTi have been shown to be effective and cost effective but have not been widely implemented or evaluated in a general practice setting where they are most likely to be needed and most appropriately delivered. This paper outlines the protocol for a pilot study designed to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an educational intervention for general practitioners, primary care nurses and other members of the primary care team to deliver problem focused therapy to adult patients presenting with sleep problems due to lifestyle causes, pain or mild to moderate depression or anxiety. Methods and design This will be a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of a complex intervention. General practices will be randomised to an educational intervention for problem focused therapy which includes a consultation approach comprising careful assessment (using assessment of secondary causes, sleep diaries and severity and use of modified CBTi for insomnia in the consultation compared with usual care (general advice on sleep hygiene and pharmacotherapy with hypnotic drugs. Clinicians randomised to the intervention will receive an educational intervention (2 × 2 hours to implement a complex intervention of problem focused therapy. Clinicians randomised to the control group will receive reinforcement of usual care with sleep hygiene advice. Outcomes will be assessed via self-completion questionnaires and telephone interviews of patients and staff as well as clinical records for interventions and prescribing. Discussion Previous studies in adults
Dunstan, Candice J; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A
Body dissatisfaction is now recognized as having considerable negative impact on social, psychological, and physical health, particularly in adolescent girls. Consequently, we have developed a six-session co-educational body image intervention (Happy Being Me Co-educational) designed to reduce body dissatisfaction and its risk factors in Grade 7 girls. In addition to evaluating the program's efficacy, we aimed to identify whether girls would benefit equally when it was delivered as a universal intervention to a whole class including both boys and girls (co-educational delivery), or delivered as a selective intervention to girls only (single-sex delivery). Participants were 200 Grade 7 girls from five schools in Melbourne, Australia. Schools were randomly allocated to receive the intervention in single-sex classes (n=74), co-educational classes (n=73), or participate as a no-intervention control (n=53). Girls completed self-report assessments of body dissatisfaction, psychological (internalization of the thin ideal, appearance comparison, and self-esteem) and peer environment (weight-related teasing and appearance conversations) risk factors for body dissatisfaction, and dietary restraint, at baseline, post-intervention, and at 6-month follow-up. Significant improvements in body dissatisfaction and psychological risk factors were observed in the intervention group at post-intervention and these were maintained at follow-up for psychological risk factors. Importantly, no significant differences between universal and selective delivery were observed, suggesting that the intervention is appropriate for dissemination in both modes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this paper is to help public health actors with an interest in health promotion and health care professionals involved in therapeutic education to develop and implement an educational strategy consistent with their vision of health and health care. First, we show that the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the French Charter for Popular Education share common values. Second, an examination of the career and work of Paulo Freire, of Ira Shor's pedagogical model and of the person-centered approach of Carl Rogers shows how the work of educational practitioners, researchers and theorists can help health professionals to implement a truly "health-promoting" or "therapeutic" educational strategy. The paper identifies a number of problems facing health care professionals who become involved in education without reflecting on the values underlying the pedagogical models they use.
Pimmer, Christoph; Mbvundula, Francis
Health workers' use of counselling information on their mobile phones for health education is a central but little understood phenomenon in numerous mobile health (mHealth) projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing on empirical data from an interpretive case study in the setting of the Millennium Villages Project in rural Malawi, this research investigates the ways in which community health workers (CHWs) perceive that audio-counselling messages support their health education practice. Three main themes emerged from the analysis: phone-aided audio counselling (1) legitimises the CHWs' use of mobile phones during household visits; (2) helps CHWs to deliver a comprehensive counselling message; (3) supports CHWs in persuading communities to change their health practices. The findings show the complexity and interplay of the multi-faceted, sociocultural, political, and socioemotional meanings associated with audio-counselling use. Practical implications and the demand for further research are discussed.
SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention and health education. Objective: To explore the use of cell phone–based health education SMS to improve the health literacy of community residents in China. Methods: ...
Mahajan, Prashant; Golahit, Suresh
International audience; ABSRACT Purpose One of the most appalling challenges in India is persistently rising unemployment, explicitly in the rural region. More than 20% of Indian youth between the ages of 15 and 24 years are " seeking or available for work, " as per 2011 census data. There will be no peace and prosperity in the country unless jobless people get appropriate channel. In India deficiency of skills is among the main constraints for recruitment of Technical Education. Productivity...
O'Keeffe, Majella; Lomer, Miranda Ce
Dietary management is being hailed as an effective strategy for the management of irritable bowel syndrome. Specifically, a diet low in fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs) has demonstrated efficacy in approximately 70% of patients. As evidence in support of the low FODMAP diet continues to emerge, there is increasing debate regarding implementation of the diet particularly concerning who should educate patients and how to educate them. Registered dieticians have largely pioneered the evidence that supports the effectiveness of the low FODMAP diet in irritable bowel syndrome, and the diet is recognized as a dietician-led therapy. However, there is an increasing trend for non-dietician-led implementation of the diet despite an absence of evidence on both the clinical or cost-effectiveness of such. Additionally, there is a growing requirement for dietetic services to increase capacity in response to increasing referrals, and consequently, there is a need to investigate innovative ways to educate patients whilst maintaining dietician-led intervention. Herein, we review the evidence for delivery of the low FODMAP diet and discuss potentially effective methods for service delivery. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Older adults often get lost in the process of assessment, diagnosis and service brokering. If our concern as care providers is to enable older persons to remain independent or in the community for as long as possible, we must tap into their personal values, cultural identity and health beliefs in order to foster enhanced health care communication.…
Interpretation & conclusions: The estimates obtained in our study can be used for Fiscal planning of scaling up secondary-level health services. Further, these may be particularly useful for future research such as benefit-incidence analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis and national health accounts including disease-specific accounts in India.
Sadler, Stacey; Rodgers, Sarah; Howard, Rachel; Morris, Caroline J; Avery, Anthony J
To describe the training undertaken by pharmacists employed in a pharmacist-led information technology-based intervention study to reduce medication errors in primary care (PINCER Trial), evaluate pharmacists' assessment of the training, and the time implications of undertaking the training. Six pharmacists received training, which included training on root cause analysis and educational outreach, to enable them to deliver the PINCER Trial intervention. This was evaluated using self-report questionnaires at the end of each training session. The time taken to complete each session was recorded. Data from the evaluation forms were entered onto a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, independently checked and the summary of results further verified. Frequencies were calculated for responses to the three-point Likert scale questions. Free-text comments from the evaluation forms and pharmacists' diaries were analysed thematically. All six pharmacists received 22 h of training over five sessions. In four out of the five sessions, the pharmacists who completed an evaluation form (27 out of 30 were completed) stated they were satisfied or very satisfied with the various elements of the training package. Analysis of free-text comments and the pharmacists' diaries showed that the principles of root cause analysis and educational outreach were viewed as useful tools to help pharmacists conduct pharmaceutical interventions in both the study and other pharmacy roles that they undertook. The opportunity to undertake role play was a valuable part of the training received. Findings presented in this paper suggest that providing the PINCER pharmacists with training in root cause analysis and educational outreach contributed to the successful delivery of PINCER interventions and could potentially be utilised by other pharmacists based in general practice to deliver pharmaceutical interventions to improve patient safety. © 2013 The Authors. IJPP © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Full Text Available The United Arab Emirates (UAE is dedicated to establishing the best teaching and learning environment for students and staff across all higher education institutions. To heed this call, the engineering division adopted the Learning-by-Doing (LBD pedagogical philosophy for 21st Century education at the heart of its strategic directions. This study intends to explore how LBD is understood and practiced in UAE colleges and how 21st Century skills can be explicitly incorporated into its engineering curriculum by using constructive alignment as a pattern for instructional design. This work intends to investigate the general question: “What constructively aligned Learning-by-Doing pedagogical model, with the incorporation of 21st Century skills, needs to be developed to effectively teach and prepare engineering students at the Higher College of Technology, UAE for successful long-term employment in the global working economy?”. Using mixed method research design and input from its major stakeholders, student survey questionnaires, engineering instructors and dean structured interviews, overt class observation and syllabi examination have all been utilized for data triangulation. In conclusion, the study developed a collaborative LBD model tailor-fitted to the institution’s engineering program and to UAE’s culture.
Armstrong, G; Blashki, G; Joubert, L; Bland, R; Moulding, R; Gunn, J; Naccarella, L
Broad community access to high quality evidence-based primary mental health care is an ongoing challenge around the world. In Australia one approach has been to broaden access to care by funding psychologists and other allied health care professionals to deliver brief psychological treatments to general practitioners' patients. To date, there has been a scarcity of studies assessing the efficacy of social worker delivered psychological strategies. This study aims to build the evidence base by evaluating the impact of a brief educational intervention on social workers' competence in delivering cognitive behavioural strategies (strategies derived from cognitive behavioural therapy). A randomised controlled trial design was undertaken with baseline and one-week follow-up measurement of both objective and self-perceived competence. Simulated consultations with standardised depressed patients were recorded on videotape and objective competence was assessed by blinded reviewers using the Cognitive Therapy Scale. Questionnaires completed by participants were used to measure self-perceived competence. The training intervention was a 15 hour face-to-face course involving presentations, video example consultations, written materials and rehearsal of skills in pairs. 40 Melbourne-based (Australia) social workers enrolled and were randomised and 9 of these withdrew from the study before the pre training simulated consultation. 30 of the remaining 31 social workers (97%) completed all phases of the intervention and evaluation protocol (16 from intervention and 14 from control group). The intervention group showed significantly greater improvements than the control group in objective competence (mean improvement of 14.2 (7.38-21.02) on the 66 point Cognitive Therapy Scale) and in subjective confidence (mean improvement of 1.28 (0.84-1.72) on a 5 point Likert scale). On average, the intervention group improved from below to above the base competency threshold on the Cognitive
Full Text Available Abstract Background Broad community access to high quality evidence-based primary mental health care is an ongoing challenge around the world. In Australia one approach has been to broaden access to care by funding psychologists and other allied health care professionals to deliver brief psychological treatments to general practitioners' patients. To date, there has been a scarcity of studies assessing the efficacy of social worker delivered psychological strategies. This study aims to build the evidence base by evaluating the impact of a brief educational intervention on social workers' competence in delivering cognitive behavioural strategies (strategies derived from cognitive behavioural therapy. Methods A randomised controlled trial design was undertaken with baseline and one-week follow-up measurement of both objective and self-perceived competence. Simulated consultations with standardised depressed patients were recorded on videotape and objective competence was assessed by blinded reviewers using the Cognitive Therapy Scale. Questionnaires completed by participants were used to measure self-perceived competence. The training intervention was a 15 hour face-to-face course involving presentations, video example consultations, written materials and rehearsal of skills in pairs. Results 40 Melbourne-based (Australia social workers enrolled and were randomised and 9 of these withdrew from the study before the pre training simulated consultation. 30 of the remaining 31 social workers (97% completed all phases of the intervention and evaluation protocol (16 from intervention and 14 from control group. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvements than the control group in objective competence (mean improvement of 14.2 (7.38-21.02 on the 66 point Cognitive Therapy Scale and in subjective confidence (mean improvement of 1.28 (0.84-1.72 on a 5 point Likert scale. On average, the intervention group improved from below to above
Background Broad community access to high quality evidence-based primary mental health care is an ongoing challenge around the world. In Australia one approach has been to broaden access to care by funding psychologists and other allied health care professionals to deliver brief psychological treatments to general practitioners' patients. To date, there has been a scarcity of studies assessing the efficacy of social worker delivered psychological strategies. This study aims to build the evidence base by evaluating the impact of a brief educational intervention on social workers' competence in delivering cognitive behavioural strategies (strategies derived from cognitive behavioural therapy). Methods A randomised controlled trial design was undertaken with baseline and one-week follow-up measurement of both objective and self-perceived competence. Simulated consultations with standardised depressed patients were recorded on videotape and objective competence was assessed by blinded reviewers using the Cognitive Therapy Scale. Questionnaires completed by participants were used to measure self-perceived competence. The training intervention was a 15 hour face-to-face course involving presentations, video example consultations, written materials and rehearsal of skills in pairs. Results 40 Melbourne-based (Australia) social workers enrolled and were randomised and 9 of these withdrew from the study before the pre training simulated consultation. 30 of the remaining 31 social workers (97%) completed all phases of the intervention and evaluation protocol (16 from intervention and 14 from control group). The intervention group showed significantly greater improvements than the control group in objective competence (mean improvement of 14.2 (7.38-21.02) on the 66 point Cognitive Therapy Scale) and in subjective confidence (mean improvement of 1.28 (0.84-1.72) on a 5 point Likert scale). On average, the intervention group improved from below to above the base competency
Keefe, Robert H.; Ruth, Betty J.; Cox, Harold; Maramaldi, Peter; Rishel, Carrie; Rountree, Michele; Zlotnik, Joan; Marshall, Jamie
Social work education plays a critical role in preparing social workers to lead efforts that improve health. Because of the dynamic health care landscape, schools of social work must educate students to facilitate health care system improvements, enhance population health, and reduce medical costs. We reviewed the existing contributions of social work education and provided recommendations for improving the education of social workers in 6 key areas: aging, behavioral health, community health, global health, health reform, and health policy. We argue for systemic improvement in the curriculum at every level of education, including substantive increases in content in health, health care, health care ethics, and evaluating practice outcomes in health settings. Schools of social work can further increase the impact of the profession by enhancing the curricular focus on broad content areas such as prevention, health equity, population and community health, and health advocacy. PMID:29236540
The district health board (DHB) system is New Zealand's present structure for the governance and delivery of publicly-funded health care. An aim of the DHB system is to democratise health care governance, and a key element of DHBs is elected membership of their governing boards. This article focuses on the electoral component of DHBs. It reports on the first DHB elections of 2001 and recent 2004 elections. The article presents and discusses data regarding candidates, the electoral process, voter behaviour and election results. It suggests that the extent to which the DHB elections are contributing to aims of democratisation is questionable.
Cuff, Patricia A.
"Assessing Health Professional Education" is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine's Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education to explore assessment of health professional education. At the event, Forum members shared personal experiences and learned from patients, students, educators, and…
The growth of potential GDP in Mexico is not fast enough to narrow the income gap with other OECD countries at a sufficient pace. The persistent weakness in human capital development contributes to this situation. In particular, Mexicans spend comparatively few years in formal education, and the quality of the education they receive is lower than…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of continuing medical education (CME for GPs, there has been little research into how providers decide what types of CME to deliver to GPs. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the intention of providers to provide more effective types of CME; and to design a survey instrument which can be used to test the applicability of Triandis' model of social behaviour to the provision of CME to general practitioners. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of 11 Australian providers of CME for interviews and a random sample of 25 providers for the pilot test. Open-ended interviews structured on Triandis' theory were performed with key informants who provide CME to GPs. These were used to develop a pilot survey instrument to measure the factors affecting intention, resulting in a revised instrument for use in further research. Results There was a broad range of factors affecting providers' intention to deliver more effective forms of CME identified, and these were classifiable in a manner which was consistent with Triandis' model. Key factors affecting providers' intention were the attitude toward CME within organisations and the time and extra work involved. Conclusions We identified a range of potential factors influencing the intention of providers to provide more effective forms of CME, in all categories of Triandis model. Those interested in increasing the choice of more effective CME activities available to GPs may need to broaden the methods used in working with providers to influence them to use more effective CME techniques. The interview material and questionnaire analysis of the pilot survey support the use of Triandis model. Further research is needed to validate Triandis'model for the intention to deliver more effective forms of CME. Such research will inform future strategies aimed at increasing the amount and choice of effective CME activities available for GPs.
Full Text Available The PHARMINE (Pharmacy Education in Europe consortium surveyed pharmacy education and practice in 2012. Surveys were updated in 2017 for publication. The PHARMINE consortium was especially interested in specialization in pharmacy education and practice (for community, hospital, and industrial pharmacy, and in the impact of the Bologna agreement and the directive of the European Commission on education and training for the sectoral profession of pharmacy on European degree courses. The surveys underline the varying attitudes of the different European countries to these various aspects. The surveys will now be published in Pharmacy. They will be useful to researchers in education, and to staff and students interested in mobility amongst different European and/or non-European countries. In order to assure a full understanding of the country profiles to be published in the journal Pharmacy, this introductory article describes the general format of the survey questionnaire used.
All three indicators of status employed by the study were significantly associated with whether a woman had an institutional delivery or not. This association however ... through some socio-economic variables. Wealth and educational status of the women and their partners emerged predictors of choice of place of delivery.
Hahn, Robert A; Truman, Benedict I
This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health - an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. © The Author(s) 2015.
Local governments are granted budgetary power in the Local Governments Act of the Republic of Uganda, which allows for local-level participation and flexibility in the allocation of financial grants channelled annually from central to local governments. The act prescribes a legal mandate to allocate public resources based on local priorities including the health needs of women compared with men. This study investigated the responsiveness of local government budgeting to the health needs of women as compared to men. A qualitative study was conducted in Mpigi district using a set of data collection methods including: a) three (3) focus group discussions with 8 female and 8 male respondents in each group; b) face-to-face interviews with a random sample of 120 households, 75% of which were male-headed and 25% female-headed ; c) key informant interviews with a sample of 10 administrative officers in Mpigi district ; and d) desk-review of the Mpigi district Budget Framework Paper. Health needs consist of the daily requirements, which, arise out of common disease infections and the socioeconomic constraints that affect the well-being of women and men. However, the primary concern of the district health sector is disease control measures, without emphasis on the differing socio-economic interests of women as compared to men. Local government budgeting, therefore, does not reflect the broad community-wide understanding of health needs. Local government budgeting should be informed by a two-fold framework for the gendered definition of health needs. The two-fold framework combines both disease-based health needs and socio-economic needs of women as compared to men.
Hellard Margaret E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in communication technologies have dramatically changed how individuals access information and communicate. Recent studies have found that mobile phone text messages (SMS can be used successfully for short-term behaviour change. However there is no published information examining the acceptability, utility and efficacy of different characteristics of health promotion SMS. This paper presents the results of evaluation focus groups among participants who received twelve sexual health related SMS as part of a study examining the impact of text messaging for sexual health promotion to on young people in Victoria, Australia. Methods Eight gender-segregated focus groups were held with 21 males and 22 females in August 2008. Transcripts of audio recordings were analysed using thematic analysis. Data were coded under one or more themes. Results Text messages were viewed as an acceptable and 'personal' means of health promotion, with participants particularly valuing the informal language. There was a preference for messages that were positive, relevant and short and for messages to cover a variety of topics. Participants were more likely to remember and share messages that were funny, rhymed and/or tied into particular annual events. The message broadcasting, generally fortnightly on Friday afternoons, was viewed as appropriate. Participants said the messages provided new information, a reminder of existing information and reduced apprehension about testing for sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions Mobile phones, in particular SMS, offer health promoters an exciting opportunity to engage personally with a huge number of individuals for low cost. The key elements emerging from this evaluation, such as message style, language and broadcast schedule are directly relevant to future studies using SMS for health promotion, as well as for future health promotion interventions in other mediums that require short formats, such
Lindgren, Kurt; Koldkjær Sølling, Ina; Carøe, Per; Siggaard Mathiesen, Kirsten
The purpose of this study is to develop an interdisciplinary learning environment between education in technology, business, and nursing. This collaboration creates natural interest and motivation for welfare technology. The aim of establishing an interaction between these three areas of expertise is to create an understanding of skills and cultural differences in each area. Futhermore, the aim is to enable future talents to gain knowledge and skills to improve health literacy among senior citizens. Based on a holistic view of welfare technology, a Student Academy was created as a theoretically- and practically-oriented learning center. The mission of the Student Academy is to support and facilitate education in order to maintain and upgrade knowledge and skills in information technology and information management related to e-health and health literacy. The Student Academy inspires students, stakeholders, politicians, DanAge Association members, companies, and professionals to participate in training, projects, workshops, and company visits.
Lindgren, Kurt; Sølling, Ina Koldkjær; Carøe, Per
The purpose of this study is to develop an interdisciplinary learning environment between education in technology, business, and nursing. This collaboration contributes to the creation of a natural interest and motivation for welfare technology. The aim of establishing an interaction between the 3...... as a theoretical and practical learning center. The mission of the Student Academy is to support and facilitate education in order to maintain and upgrade knowledge and skills in information technology and information management in relation to e-health and Health Literacy. The Student Academy inspires students...... areas of expertise is to create an understanding for each other's skills and cultural differences. Futhermore enabling future talents to gain knowledge and skills to improve Health Literacy among senior citizens. Based on a holistic view on welfare technology a Student Academy was created...
Lindgren, Kurt; Sølling, Ina Koldkjær; Carøe, Per
Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop an interdisciplinary learning environment between education in technology, business, and nursing. This collaboration contributes to the creation of a natural interest and motivation for welfare technology. The aim of establishing an interaction...... as a theoretical and practical learning center. The mission of the Student Academy is to support and facilitate education in order to maintain and upgrade knowledge and skills in information technology and information management in relation to e-health and Health Literacy. The Student Academy inspires students...... between the 3 areas of expertise is to create an understanding for each other's skills and cultural differences. Futhermore enabling future talents to gain knowledge and skills to improve Health Literacy among senior citizens. Based on a holistic view on welfare technology a Student Academy was created...
Ford-Jones, Polly; Daly, Tamara
Volunteers and voluntary organizations can connect preventative health care programs to communities and may play an important role in addressing the health needs of older adults. Despite this, tensions may exist in the structures that drive volunteers and voluntary organizations representing immigrant communities to provide unpaid labour to augment and supplement health care services. Furthermore, organizational challenges may exist for community agencies relying on volunteers to sustain a health screening and education program. The intervention program was led by one voluntary agency specifically for South Asian communities in partnership with the university and five local organizations. This paper draws on volunteer surveys (n = 22) and key informant interviews (n = 12) to detail volunteer experiences providing this intervention. Volunteers were university students and other community volunteers. A total of 810 adults participated in the intervention within the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada between October 2014 and June 2016. We found that volunteers often used their experience as a 'stepping stone' position to other education or work. They also gained from the knowledge and used it to educate themselves and their family members and friends. This paper provides a critical reflection on the role of volunteers in a preventative and educational healthcare intervention program for older adults from the South Asian community. Tensions exist when relying on volunteer labour for the implementation of preventative community health care programming and must be explored to ensure program sustainability as well as equity within the health care system.
Lindgren, T G; Deutsch, K; Schell, E; Bvumbwe, A; Hart, K B; Laviwa, J; Rankin, S H
The majority of Malawians are impoverished and primarily dependant on subsistence farming, with 85% of the population living in a rural area. The country is highly affected by HIV and under-resourced rural health centers struggle to meet the government's goal of expanding HIV testing, antiretroviral treatment, and other basic services. This report describes the work of two four-wheel drive mobile clinics launched in 2008 to fill an identified service gap in the remote areas of Mulanje District, Malawi. The program was developed by an international non-governmental organization, Global AIDS Interfaith Alliance (GAIA), and the Mulanje District Health Office, with funding from the Elizabeth Taylor HIV/AIDS Foundation. The clinics provide: (1) rapid HIV testing and treatment referral; (2) diagnosis and treatment of malaria; (3) sputum collection for TB screening; (4) diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted and opportunistic infections; and (5) pre-natal care. The clinic vehicles provide medical supplies and personnel (a clinical officer, nurse, and nurse aide) to set up clinics in community buildings such as churches or schools. In such a project, the implementation process and schedule can be affected by medication, supply chain and infrastructural issues, as well as governmental and non-governmental requirements. Timelines should be sufficiently flexible to accommodate unexpected delays. Once established, service scheduling should be flexible and responsive; for instance, malaria treatment rather than HIV testing was most urgently needed in the season when these services were launched. Assessing the impact of healthcare delivery in Malawi is challenging. Although mobile clinic and the government Health Management Information System (HMIS) data were matched, inconsistent variables and gaps in data made direct comparisons difficult. Data collection was compromised by the competing demand of high patient volume; however, rather than reducing the burden on
Gentry, Sarah; L'Estrade Ehrstrom, Beatrice; Gauthier, Andrea; Alvarez, Julian; Wortley, David; van Rijswijk, Jurriaan; Car, Josip; Lilienthal, Anneliese; Tudor Car, Lorainne; Nikolaou, Charoula K.; Zary, Nabil
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To evaluate the effectiveness of Serious Gaming and Gamification interventions for delivering pre- and post-registration health professional education compared with traditional learning, other types of eLearning, or other Serious Gaming and Gamification interventions. We will primarily assess the impact of these interventions on students' knowledge, skills, professional attitudes and satisfaction.
French, R S; Coope, C M; Graham, A; Gerressu, M; Salisbury, C; Stephenson, J M
To examine various models of integrated and/or one stop shop (OSS) sexual health services (including general practice, mainstream specialist services, and designated young people's services) and explore their relative strengths and weaknesses. Literature review and interviews with key informants involved in developing the National Strategy for Sexual Health and HIV (n = 11). The paper focuses on five broad perspectives (logistics, public health, users, staff, and cost). Contraceptive and genitourinary medicine issues are closely related. However, there is no agreement about what is meant by having "integrated" services, about which services should be integrated, or where integration should happen. There are concerns that OSSs will result in over-centralisation, to the disadvantage of stand alone and satellite services. OSS models are potentially more user focused, but the stigma that surrounds sexual health services may create an access barrier. From staff perspectives, the advantages are greater career opportunities and increased responsibility, while the disadvantages are concern that OSSs will result in loss of expertise and professional status. Cost effectiveness data are contradictory. Although there is a policy commitment to look at how integrated services can be better developed, more evidence is required on the impact and appropriateness of this approach.
Dutheil, Frédéric; Duclos, Martine; Naughton, Geraldine; Dewavrin, Samuel; Cornet, Thomas; Huguet, Pascal; Chatard, Jean-Claude; Pereira, Bruno
Morbidity before retirement has a huge cost, burdening both public health and workplace finances. Multiple factors increase morbidity such as stress at work, sedentary behavior or low physical activity, and poor nutrition practices. Nowadays, the digital world offers infinite opportunities to interact with workers. The WittyFit software was designed to understand holistic issues of workers by promoting individualized behavior changes at the workplace. The shorter term feasibility objective is to demonstrate that effective use of WittyFit will increase well-being and improve health-related behaviors. The mid-term objective is to demonstrate that WittyFit improves economic data of the companies such as productivity and benefits. The ultimate objective is to increase life expectancy of workers. This is an exploratory interventional cohort study in an ecological situation. Three groups of participants will be purposefully sampled: employees, middle managers, and executive managers. Four levels of engagement are planned for employees: commencing with baseline health profiling from validated questionnaires; individualized feedback based on evidence-based medicine; support for behavioral change; and formal evaluation of changes in knowledge, practices, and health outcomes over time. Middle managers will also receive anonymous feedback on problems encountered by employees, and executive top managers will have indicators by division, location, department, age, seniority, gender and occupational position. Managers will be able to introduce specific initiatives in the workplace. WittyFit is based on two databases: behavioral data (WittyFit) and medical data (WittyFit Research). Statistical analyses will incorporate morbidity and well-being data. When a worker leaves a workplace, the company documents one of three major explanations: retirement, relocation to another company, or premature death. Therefore, WittyFit will have the ability to include mortality as an outcome
Ayala, Guadalupe X; Ibarra, Leticia; Horton, Lucy; Arredondo, Elva M; Slymen, Donald J; Engelberg, Moshe; Rock, Cheryl L; Hernandez, Erika; Parada, Humberto; Elder, John P
Entertainment education and the promotora model are 2 evidence-based health communication strategies. This study examined their combined effect on promoting healthy eating among mothers in a family-based intervention. Participants were 361 Mexican-origin families living in Imperial County, California, who were randomly assigned to an intervention or delayed treatment condition. The intervention involved promotoras (community health workers) who delivered 11 home visits and 4 telephone calls. Home visits included a 12-minute episode of a 9-part situation comedy depicting a family struggling with making healthy eating choices; an accompanying family workbook was reviewed to build skills and left with the family. Baseline and immediate postintervention data were collected from the mothers, including the primary outcome of daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Other dietary and psychosocial factors related to healthy eating were examined. At postintervention, mothers in the intervention reported increases in daily vegetable servings (p ≤ .05); however, no changes were observed in fruit consumption. Improvements were observed in behavioral strategies to increase fiber (p ≤ .001) and to decrease fat intake (p ≤ .001), unhealthy eating behaviors (p ≤ .001), and individual (p ≤ .05) and family-related (p ≤ .01) perceived barriers to healthy eating. Entertainment education and promotoras engaged families and improved mothers' diets. Further research should examine the dose needed for greater changes.
Adair, P M; Burnside, G; Pine, C M
To improve oral health in children, the key behaviours (tooth brushing and sugar control) responsible for development of dental caries need to be better understood, as well as how to promote these behaviours effectively so they become habitual; and, the specific, optimal techniques to use in interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the behaviour change techniques that have been used in primary school-based interventions to prevent dental caries (utilizing a Cochrane systematic review that we have undertaken) and to identify opportunities for improving future interventions by incorporating a comprehensive range of behaviour change techniques. Papers of five interventions were reviewed and data were independently extracted. Results indicate that behaviour change techniques were limited to information-behaviour links, information on consequences, instruction and demonstration of behaviours. None of the interventions were based on behaviour change theory. We conclude that behaviour change techniques used in school interventions to reduce dental caries were limited and focused around providing information about how behaviour impacts on health and the consequences of not developing the correct health behaviours as well as providing oral hygiene instruction. Establishing which techniques are effective is difficult due to poor reporting of interventions in studies. Future design of oral health promotion interventions using behaviour change theory for development and evaluation (and reporting results in academic journals) could strengthen the potential for efficacy and provide a framework to use a much wider range of behaviour change techniques. Future studies should include development and publication of intervention manuals which is becoming standard practice in other health promoting programmes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Burns, Mary Dooley; And Others
This curriculum guide was developed to help vocational teachers and family educators to design and deliver employer-sponsored seminars for employees as well as community-based adult education programs. The curriculum is intended to help working parents improve their ability to meet their personal wants and needs as well as the demands of their…
Barnes, Michael D.; Wykoff, Randy; King, Laura Rasar; Petersen, Donna J.
The article provides an overview of efforts to improve public health and health education training and on the potential use of Critical Component Elements (CCEs) for undergraduate health education programs toward more consistent quality assurance across programs. Considered in the context of the Galway Consensus Conference, the authors discuss the…
Sasnett, Bonita; Clay, Maria
The US Institute of Medicine recommends that all health professionals should deliver patient-centered care as members of interdisciplinary health science teams. The current application of the Bolman and Deal Leadership model to health sciences provides an interesting point of reference to compare leadership styles. This article reviews several applications of that model within academic health care and the aggregate recommendations for leaders of health care disciplines based on collective findings.
Katehakis, Dimitrios G; Sfakianakis, Stelios G; Kavlentakis, Georgios; Anthoulakis, Dimitrios N; Tsiknakis, Manolis
Efficient access to a citizen's Integrated Electronic Health Record (I-EHR) is considered to be the cornerstone for the support of continuity of care, the reduction of avoidable mistakes, and the provision of tools and methods to support evidence-based medicine. For the past several years, a number of applications and services (including a lifelong I-EHR) have been installed, and enterprise and regional infrastructure has been developed, in HYGEIAnet, the Regional Health Information Network (RHIN) of the island of Crete, Greece. Through this paper, the technological effort toward the delivery of a lifelong I-EHR by means of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) technologies, on top of a service-oriented architecture that reuses already existing middleware components is presented and critical issues are discussed. Certain design and development decisions are exposed and explained, laying this way the ground for coordinated, dynamic navigation to personalized healthcare delivery.
Up until September 2010 teaching was delivered in person by the College of Psychiatry in Ireland to its students. A move towards elearning was initiated and as part of this move, an online instruction module in “Health Information Literacy” based on the five steps of Evidence-Based-Medicine was developed. The Systems Librarian from the Health Service Executive wrote the content which was reviewed by a senior Psychiatrist in the college. The Librarian worked with the e-learning specialist at the College to develop the online e-tutorial. This consisted of seven lessons. Feedback to date has been positive. At the end of the module, participants received a certificate of achievement. The methodology used for this course could be expanded to other medical disciplines.
Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Kotkin-Jaszi, Suzanne; Perez, Miguel A.
Health policy has a direct impact on health education initiatives, health care delivery, resource allocation, and quality of life. Increasing rates in the epidemics of obesity and obesity-dependent diabetes mellitus (aka diabesity) suggest that health policy changes should be included in health education and disease prevention strategies. Health…
Sulaberidze, Lela; Green, Stuart; Chikovani, Ivdity; Uchaneishvili, Maia; Gotsadze, George
Whilst there is recognition that the global burden of disease associated with mental health disorders is significant, the economic resources available, especially in Low and Middle Income Countries, are particularly scarce. Identifying the economic (system) and financial (individual) barriers to delivering mental health services and assessing the opportunities for reform can support the development of strategies for change. A mixed methods study was developed, which engaged with a range of stakeholders from mental health services, including key informants, service managers, healthcare professional and patients and their care-takers. Data generated from interviews and focus groups were analysed using an existing framework that outlines a range of economic and financial barriers to improving mental health practice. In addition, the study utilised health financing and programmatic data. The analysis identified a variety of local economic barriers, including: the inhibition of the diversification of the mental health workforce and services due to inflexible resources; the variable and limited provision of services across the country; and the absence of mechanisms to assess the delivery and quality of existing services. The main financial barriers identified were related to out-of pocket payments for purchasing high quality medications and transportation to access mental health services. Whilst scarcity of financial resources exists in Georgia, as in many other countries, there are clear opportunities to improve the effectiveness of the current mental health programme. Addressing system-wide barriers could enable the delivery of services that aim to meet the needs of patients. The use of existing data to assess the implementation of the mental health programme offers opportunities to benchmark and improve services and to support the appropriate commissioning and reconfiguration of services.
Cooper, Richard J; Tsoneva, Jo
Healthy Living Pharmacies (HLP) were introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) in a further attempt to deliver public health benefits in community pharmacy settings. Central to the initiative are staff trained as Healthy Living Champions (HLC) and this study sought to explore HLC perceptions of positive and negative aspect of their work and the wider scheme. A qualitative study was undertaken with a purposive sample of HLCs working in pathfinder HCPs in the Sheffield area in 2014. Participants were recruited by email to either a focus group (n = 7) held at a training event or later semi-structured one-to-one interviews in pharmacies (n = 6). Four stages of interpretative phenomenological analysis were used to code and identify themes. Four main themes emerged relating to the positive workforce development impact HLPs had upon HLCs themselves and on perceived customer and patient engagement and benefits. Tensions were identified with existing commercial business demands and negative views overall of the pharmacy setting with a perceived lack of not only integration with other services but also awareness among the public and health care staff. HLCs felt empowered and more confident in initiating conversation about health issues with patients, but identified barriers relating to workload, a lack of time to perform their role, isolation, tensions with non-HLC staff and logistical barriers such as poor Internet access. Delivering public health activities through the HLC role in UK pharmacies is associated with several perceived benefits for different stakeholders, but may be threatened by well recognised barriers in UK pharmacies related to the commercial setting. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Winkler, Till J.; Benlian, Alexander; Piper, Marc
Cloud services provide high cost advantages” is one of several often-quoted assertions (called mantras in this article) about payoffs from cloud computing. These mantras, however, have their origins in the experiences of small and mid-size companies, but, as the case of Bayer HealthCare’s cloud-b......-based CRM rollout program shows, may not always be true for large multinational companies. To ensure payoffs from the cloud, multinationals must adopt strategies for coping with the inhibitors identified in this article....
Schmalzried, Hans D; Fallon, L Fleming
Between one and two million migratory agricultural workers (MAWs), primarily from Mexico and Central America, leave their homes each year to plant, cultivate, harvest and pack fruits, vegetables, and nuts in the USA. While in the USA, most lack health insurance, a permanent residence, and a regular healthcare provider. Publications over the past two decades in the USA have reported that a majority of MAWs encounter barriers to receiving medical services. Migratory agricultural workers experience high rates of occupational illness and injury. Poor access to medical care continues to exacerbate health problems among members of this population related to their working environments. In most studies concerning healthcare access issues for this population, researchers collected their information from healthcare service providers; rarely have they included input from migratory agricultural workers. This study was different in that opinions about healthcare access issues were collected directly from MAWs. The primary purpose of this study was to describe issues related to barriers associated with the delivery of healthcare services to migratory agricultural workers. A secondary purpose was to suggest strategies for reducing these barriers. In this study, data from focus group sessions were used to develop a survey questionnaire. Four certified bilingual interpreters were trained to administer the questionnaire. A total of 157 usable questionnaires were returned from MAWs living in employer-provided camps in Northwest Ohio. The statistical analyses were primarily descriptive. The most significant barriers hampering access to medical services among the 157 respondents were cost (n=113; 72.0%), crop demands (n=102; 65.0%), the lack of an interpreter (n=98; 62.4%), travel distance (n=88; 56.1%) and transportation (n=82; 52.2%). Approximately half (n=82; 52.2%) said that they had access to transportation for traveling to a medical clinic. As a group, respondents were willing to
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Akl, E A; Sackett, K; Pretorius, R; Erdley, S; Bhoopathi, P S; Mustafa, R; Schünemann, H J
The use of games as an educational strategy has the potential to improve health professionals' performance (e.g. adherence to standards of care) through improving their knowledge, skills and attitudes. The objective was to assess the effect of educational games on health professionals' performance, knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction, and on patient outcomes. We used a comprehensive search strategy including an electronic search of the following databases: DARE, EPOC register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, ERIC, and Dissertation Abstracts Online (search date: January 2007). We also screened the reference list of included studies and relevant reviews, contact authors of relevant papers and reviews, and searched ISI Web of Science for papers citing studies included in the review We included randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), controlled before and after (CBA) and interrupted time-series analysis (ITS). Study participants were qualified health professionals or in postgraduate training. The intervention was an educational game with "a form of competitive activity or sport played according to rules". Using a standardized data form we extracted data on methodological quality, participants, interventions and outcomes of interest that included patient outcomes, professional behaviour (process of care outcomes), and professional's knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction. The search strategy identified 1156 citations. Out of 55 potentially eligible citations, we included one RCT. The methodological quality was fair. The game, used as a reinforcement technique, was based on the television game show "Family Feud" and focused on infection control. The study did not assess any patient or process of care outcomes. The group that was randomized to the game had statistically higher scores on the knowledge test (P = 0.02). The findings of this systematic review do not confirm nor refute the utility of games as a teaching
Gidman, Wendy; Day, Jennie; Hassell, Karen; Payne, Katherine
Recent UK government policy has placed community pharmacists at the frontline of health care delivery in order to improve patient access. Community pharmacy has been beset by recruitment and retention problems which potentially threaten health service delivery. This is largely a consequence of an increased demand for pharmacists. Additionally, the proportion of female pharmacists in the profession has risen. Consequently, interrupted career patterns and part-time working practices have increased, shrinking the pool of available workers. This study aimed to examine the importance of factors influencing female community pharmacists' work patterns. Q methodology was used in a sample of 40 female UK-based community pharmacists. Nine distinct factors emerged from a factor analysis of Q sorts: fulfilled pharmacists; family first or pharmacy shelved; low stress altruist; permanent part-time employees; focused on free time and finances; pressurized modernizers; wandering wage slaves; overloaded and under resourced for the new contract; and pin money part-timers. Female community pharmacists often worked below their potential and part-time at a practitioner level in response to a combination of domestic commitments and intensifying work place pressures. Family-friendly flexible work environments, adequate staffing levels and improved management support, might be more effective in increasing workforce participation than enhanced salary levels in this group of workers.
Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore
Dengue fever continues to be a major public health problem in Cambodia, with significant impact on children. Health education is a major means for prevention and control of the National Dengue Control Program (NDCP), and is delivered to communities and in schools. Drawing on data collected in 2003-2004 as part of an ethnographic study conducted in eastern Cambodia, we explore the approaches used in health education and their effectiveness to control dengue. Community health education is provided through health centre outreach activities and campaigns of the NDCP, but is not systematically evaluated, is under-funded and delivered irregularly; school-based education is restricted in terms of time and lacks follow-up in terms of practical activities for prevention and control. As a result, adherence is partial. We suggest the need for sustained routine education for dengue prevention and control, and the need for approaches to ensure the translation of knowledge into practice.
Full Text Available Dengue fever continues to be a major public health problem in Cambodia, with significant impact on children. Health education is a major means for prevention and control of the National Dengue Control Program (NDCP, and is delivered to communities and in schools. Drawing on data collected in 2003-2004 as part of an ethnographic study conducted in eastern Cambodia, we explore the approaches used in health education and their effectiveness to control dengue. Community health education is provided through health centre outreach activities and campaigns of the NDCP, but is not systematically evaluated, is under-funded and delivered irregularly; school-based education is restricted in terms of time and lacks follow-up in terms of practical activities for prevention and control. As a result, adherence is partial. We suggest the need for sustained routine education for dengue prevention and control, and the need for approaches to ensure the translation of knowledge into practice.
Assessing resources for implementing a community directed intervention (CDI) strategy in delivering multiple health interventions in urban poor communities in Southwestern Nigeria: a qualitative study.
Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Jegede, Ayodele S; Falade, Catherine O; Sommerfeld, Johannes
Many simple, affordable and effective disease control measures have had limited impact due to poor access especially by the poorer populations (urban and rural) and inadequate community participation. A proven strategy to address the problem of access to health interventions is the Community Directed Interventions (CDI) approach, which has been used successfully in rural areas. This study was carried out to assess resources for the use of a CDI strategy in delivering health interventions in poorly-served urban communities in Ibadan, Nigeria. A formative study was carried out in eight urban poor communities in the Ibadan metropolis in the Oyo State. Qualitative methods comprising 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) with community members and 73 key informant interviews (KIIs) with community leaders, programme managers, community-based organisations (CBOs), non-government organisations (NGOs) and other stakeholders at federal, state and local government levels were used to collect data to determine prevalent diseases and healthcare delivery services, as well as to explore the potential resources for a CDI strategy. All interviews were audio recorded. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Malaria, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea and measles were found to be prevalent in children, while hypertension and diabetes topped the list of diseases among adults. Healthcare was financed mainly by out-of-pocket expenses. Cost and location were identified as hindrances to utilisation of health facilities; informal cooperatives (esusu) were available to support those who could not pay for care. Immunisation, nutrition, reproductive health, tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy, environmental health, malaria and HIV/AIDs control programmes were the ongoing interventions. Delivery strategies included house-to-house, home-based treatment, health education and campaigns. Community participation in the planning, implementation and monitoring of development projects was
Full Text Available Background: Growing demand for Global Health (GH training and the internationalisation of education requires innovative approaches to training. Blended learning (BL, a form of e-learning combining face-to-face or real-time interaction with computer-assisted learning is a promising approach for increasing GH research capacity in low- to middle-income countries. Implementing BL, however, requires additional skills and efforts from lecturers. This paper explores lecturers’ views and experiences of delivering BL courses within the context of two north–south collaborative research capacity building projects, ARCADE HSSR and ARCADE RSDH. Design: We used a qualitative approach to explore the experiences and perceptions of 11 lecturers involved in designing and delivering BL courses collaboratively across university campuses in four countries (South Africa, Uganda, India and Sweden. Data were collected using interviews in person or via Skype. Inductive qualitative content analysis was used. Results: Participants reported that they felt BL increased access to learning opportunities and made training more flexible and convenient for adult learners, which were major motivations to engage in BL. However, despite eagerness to implement and experiment with BL courses, they lacked capacity and support, and found the task time consuming. They needed to make compromises between course objectives and available technological tools, in the context of poor Internet infrastructure. Conclusions: BL courses have the potential to build bridges between low- and middle-income contexts and between lecturers and students to meet the demand for GH training. Lecturers were very motivated to try these approaches but encountered obstacles in implementing BL courses. Considerable investments are needed to implement BL and support lecturers in delivering courses.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol misuse in England costs around £7.3 billion (US$12.2 billion annually from lost productivity and absenteeism. Delivering brief alcohol interventions to employees as part of a health check may be acceptable, particularly with online delivery which can provide privacy for this stigmatised behaviour. Research to support this approach is limited and methodologically weak. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of online screening and personalised feedback on alcohol consumption, delivered in a workplace as part of a health check. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This two-group online individually randomised controlled trial recruited employees from a UK-based private sector organisation (approx. 100,000 employees. 3,375 employees completed the online health check in the three week recruitment period. Of these, 1,330 (39% scored five or more on the AUDIT-C (indicating alcohol misuse and were randomised to receive personalised feedback on their alcohol intake, alongside feedback on other health behaviours (n = 659, or to receive feedback on all health behaviours except alcohol intake (n = 671. Participants were mostly male (75%, with a median age of 48 years and half were in managerial positions (55%. Median Body Mass Index was 26, 12% were smokers, median time undertaking moderate/vigorous physical activity a week was 173 minutes and median fruit and vegetable consumption was three portions a day. Eighty percent (n = 1,066 of participants completed follow-up questionnaires at three months. An intention to treat analysis found no difference between experimental groups for past week drinking (primary outcome (5.6% increase associated with the intervention (95% CI -4.7% to 16.9%; p = .30, AUDIT (measure of alcohol-related harm and health utility (EQ-5D. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence to support the use of personalised feedback within an online health check for reducing alcohol consumption among employees in this
Khadjesari, Zarnie; Freemantle, Nick; Linke, Stuart; Hunter, Rachael; Murray, Elizabeth
Background Alcohol misuse in England costs around £7.3 billion (US$12.2 billion) annually from lost productivity and absenteeism. Delivering brief alcohol interventions to employees as part of a health check may be acceptable, particularly with online delivery which can provide privacy for this stigmatised behaviour. Research to support this approach is limited and methodologically weak. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of online screening and personalised feedback on alcohol consumption, delivered in a workplace as part of a health check. Methods and Findings This two-group online individually randomised controlled trial recruited employees from a UK-based private sector organisation (approx. 100,000 employees). 3,375 employees completed the online health check in the three week recruitment period. Of these, 1,330 (39%) scored five or more on the AUDIT-C (indicating alcohol misuse) and were randomised to receive personalised feedback on their alcohol intake, alongside feedback on other health behaviours (n = 659), or to receive feedback on all health behaviours except alcohol intake (n = 671). Participants were mostly male (75%), with a median age of 48 years and half were in managerial positions (55%). Median Body Mass Index was 26, 12% were smokers, median time undertaking moderate/vigorous physical activity a week was 173 minutes and median fruit and vegetable consumption was three portions a day. Eighty percent (n = 1,066) of participants completed follow-up questionnaires at three months. An intention to treat analysis found no difference between experimental groups for past week drinking (primary outcome) (5.6% increase associated with the intervention (95% CI −4.7% to 16.9%; p = .30)), AUDIT (measure of alcohol-related harm) and health utility (EQ-5D). Conclusions There was no evidence to support the use of personalised feedback within an online health check for reducing alcohol consumption among employees in this organisation
Zoucha, R; Husted, G L
This article discusses the ethical parameters of giving culturally congruent care to individual patients by health care professionals. Leininger's Cultural Care Diversity and Universality theory (Leininger, 1995) is used to demonstrate the importance of culture in a person's life and Husted's and Husted's (1995) bioethical theory is used to create a mind-set of ethical interaction and to direct the analysis of a bioethical dilemma involving cultural differences between persons of the same culture, a depressed Mexican-American woman and her husband. The differences between transculturalism and multiculturalism are explored. We defend the position that a patient's culture is only a useful tool in caring for a patient if the individual person is made the primary focus of care.
Rekhy, Reetica; McConchie, Robyn
Daily intake of fruits and vegetables worldwide remains well below the recommended WHO levels, despite the established health benefits associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. A diversity of policy interventions designed to increase consumption have been conducted in the developed economies around the globe for over a decade, involving significant monetary outlays. The impact of these initiatives remains at best, modest to low, in effecting a significant increase in daily consumption on a sustained basis. Several factors have been identified in both promoting and impeding the increase in fruit and vegetable consumption, including the effects of consumer behaviour. This paper reviews several of the major promotional campaigns from around the world and provides analysis of their level of success, with a view to developing novel approaches for formulating more effective marketing and promotional interventions that will prompt significant change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Groot, Wim; van den Brink, Henriëtte Maassen
Education and health are the two most important characteristics of human capital. Their economic value lies in the effects they have on productivity: both education and health make individuals more productive. Education and health have a considerable impact on individual well-being, as well. The
Public speculation about bioterrorism and the increasing obesity epidemic are examples of current public health issues that continue to be illuminated in the spotlight. Major public health threats continue to drive the health job market and impact higher education health curricula (e.g., public health, health promotion, community health). Also,…
Hawkes, Anna L; Chambers, Suzanne K; Pakenham, Kenneth I; Patrao, Tania A; Baade, Peter D; Lynch, Brigid M; Aitken, Joanne F; Meng, Xingqiong; Courneya, Kerry S
Colorectal cancer survivors are at risk for poor health outcomes because of unhealthy lifestyles, but few studies have developed translatable health behavior change interventions. This study aimed to determine the effects of a telephone-delivered multiple health behavior change intervention (CanChange) on health and behavioral outcomes among colorectal cancer survivors. In this two-group randomized controlled trial, 410 colorectal cancer survivors were randomly assigned to the health coaching intervention (11 theory-based telephone-delivered health coaching sessions delivered over 6 months focusing on physical activity, weight management, dietary habits, alcohol, and smoking) or usual care. Assessment of primary (ie, physical activity [Godin Leisure Time Index], health-related quality of life [HRQoL; Short Form-36], and cancer-related fatigue [Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue Scale]) and secondary outcomes (ie, body mass index [kg/m(2)], diet and alcohol intake [Food Frequency Questionnaire], and smoking) were conducted at baseline and 6 and 12 months. At 12 months, significant intervention effects were observed for moderate physical activity (28.5 minutes; P = .003), body mass index (-0.9 kg/m(2); P = .001), energy from total fat (-7.0%; P = .006), and energy from saturated fat (-2.8%; P = .016). A significant intervention effect was reported for vegetable intake (0.4 servings per day; P = .001) at 6 months. No significant group differences were found at 6 or 12 months for HRQoL, cancer-related fatigue, fruit, fiber, or alcohol intake, or smoking. The CanChange intervention was effective for improving physical activity, dietary habits, and body mass index in colorectal cancer survivors. The intervention is translatable through existing telephone cancer support and information services in Australia and other countries.
Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L
Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pcurriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Polak, Rani; Phillips, Edward M; Nordgren, Julia; La Puma, John; La Barba, Julie; Cucuzzella, Mark; Graham, Robert; Harlan, Timothy S; Burg, Tracey; Eisenberg, David
Beneficial correlations are suggested between food preparation and home food preparation of healthy choices. Therefore, there is an emergence of culinary medicine (CM) programs directed at both patients and medical professionals which deliver education emphasizing skills such as shopping, food storage, and meal preparation. The goal of this article is to provide a description of emerging CM programs and to imagine how this field can mature. During April 2015, 10 CM programs were identified by surveying CM and lifestyle medicine leaders. Program directors completed a narrative describing their program's structure, curricula, educational design, modes of delivery, funding, and cost. Interviews were conducted in an effort to optimize data collection. All 10 culinary programs deliver medical education curricula educating 2654 health professionals per year. Educational goals vary within the domains of (1) provider's self-behavior, (2) nutritional knowledge and (3) prescribing nutrition. Six programs deliver patients' curricula, educating 4225 individuals per year. These programs' content varies and focuses on either specific diets or various culinary behaviors. All the programs' directors are health professionals who are also either credentialed chefs or have a strong culinary background. Nine of these programs offer culinary training in either a hands-on or visual demonstration within a teaching kitchen setting, while one delivers remote culinary tele-education. Seven programs track outcomes using various questionnaires and biometric data. There is currently no consensus about learning objectives, curricular domains, staffing, and facility requirements associated with CM, and there has been little research to explore its impact. A shared strategy is needed to collectively overcome these challenges.
Phillips, Edward M.; Nordgren, Julia; La Puma, John; La Barba, Julie; Cucuzzella, Mark; Graham, Robert; Harlan, Timothy S.; Burg, Tracey; Eisenberg, David
Background: Beneficial correlations are suggested between food preparation and home food preparation of healthy choices. Therefore, there is an emergence of culinary medicine (CM) programs directed at both patients and medical professionals which deliver education emphasizing skills such as shopping, food storage, and meal preparation. Objective: The goal of this article is to provide a description of emerging CM programs and to imagine how this field can mature. Methods: During April 2015, 10 CM programs were identified by surveying CM and lifestyle medicine leaders. Program directors completed a narrative describing their program's structure, curricula, educational design, modes of delivery, funding, and cost. Interviews were conducted in an effort to optimize data collection. Results: All 10 culinary programs deliver medical education curricula educating 2654 health professionals per year. Educational goals vary within the domains of (1) provider's self-behavior, (2) nutritional knowledge and (3) prescribing nutrition. Six programs deliver patients' curricula, educating 4225 individuals per year. These programs' content varies and focuses on either specific diets or various culinary behaviors. All the programs' directors are health professionals who are also either credentialed chefs or have a strong culinary background. Nine of these programs offer culinary training in either a hands-on or visual demonstration within a teaching kitchen setting, while one delivers remote culinary tele-education. Seven programs track outcomes using various questionnaires and biometric data. Conclusions: There is currently no consensus about learning objectives, curricular domains, staffing, and facility requirements associated with CM, and there has been little research to explore its impact. A shared strategy is needed to collectively overcome these challenges. PMID:26937315
Macpherson, Eleanor E; Adams, Emily R; Bockarie, Moses J; Hollingsworth, T Deirdre; Kelly-Hope, Louise A; Lehane, Mike; Kovacic, Vanja; Harrison, Robert A; Paine, Mark Ji; Reimer, Lisa J; Torr, Stephen J
Achieving the 2020 goals for Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) requires scale-up of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) which will require long-term commitment of national and global financing partners, strengthening national capacity and, at the community level, systems to monitor and evaluate activities and impact. For some settings and diseases, MDA is not appropriate and alternative interventions are required. Operational research is necessary to identify how existing MDA networks can deliver this more complex range of interventions equitably. The final stages of the different global programmes to eliminate NTDs require eliminating foci of transmission which are likely to persist in complex and remote rural settings. Operational research is required to identify how current tools and practices might be adapted to locate and eliminate these hard-to-reach foci. Chronic disabilities caused by NTDs will persist after transmission of pathogens ceases. Development and delivery of sustainable services to reduce the NTD-related disability is an urgent public health priority. LSTM and its partners are world leaders in developing and delivering interventions to control vector-borne NTDs and malaria, particularly in hard-to-reach settings in Africa. Our experience, partnerships and research capacity allows us to serve as a hub for developing, supporting, monitoring and evaluating global programmes to eliminate NTDs.
Cicutto, Lisa; To, Teresa; Murphy, Suzanne
Childhood asthma is a serious and common chronic disease that requires the attention of nurses and other school personnel. Schools are often the first setting that children take the lead in managing their asthma. Often, children are ill prepared for this role. Our study evaluated a school-based, multifaceted asthma program that targeted students with asthma and the broader school community. A randomized trial involving 130 schools with grades 1-5 and 1316 children with asthma and their families was conducted. Outcomes of interest for the child, at 1 year, were urgent care use and school absenteeism for asthma, inhaler technique, and quality of life, and for the school, at 14 months, were indicators of a supportive school environment. Improvements were observed at the child and school level for the intervention group. Fewer children in the intervention group had a school absence (50% vs 60%; p Schools in the intervention group were more likely to have practices supporting an asthma-friendly environment. Implementation of a multifaceted school-based asthma program can lead to asthma-friendly schools that support children with asthma to be successful managers of their asthma and experience improved quality of life and decreased disease associated burden. © 2013, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available Raffaella Devescovi,1 Lorenzo Monasta,2 Alice Mancini,3 Maura Bin,1 Valerio Vellante,1 Marco Carrozzi,1 Costanza Colombi4 1Division of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, 2Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health Research Unit, Institute for Maternal and Child Health – IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo”, Trieste, 3Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Background: Early diagnosis combined with an early intervention program, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM, can positively influence the early natural history of autism spectrum disorders. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an early ESDM-inspired intervention, in a small group of toddlers, delivered at low intensity by the Italian Public Health System.Methods: Twenty-one toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders, aged 20–36 months, received 3 hours/wk of one-to-one ESDM-inspired intervention by trained therapists, combined with parents’ and teachers’ active engagement in ecological implementation of treatment. The mean duration of treatment was 15 months. Cognitive and communication skills, as well as severity of autism symptoms, were assessed by using standardized measures at pre-intervention (Time 0 [T0]; mean age =27 months and post-intervention (Time 1 [T1]; mean age =42 months.Results: Children made statistically significant improvements in the language and cognitive domains, as demonstrated by a series of nonparametric Wilcoxon tests for paired data. Regarding severity of autism symptoms, younger age at diagnosis was positively associated with greater improvement at post-assessment.Conclusion: Our results are consistent with the literature that underlines the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention, since prompt diagnosis can reduce the severity of autism symptoms and improve cognitive and language skills in younger children
Lennon, Marilyn R; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; Devlin, Alison M; O'Connor, Siobhan; O'Donnell, Catherine; Chetty, Ula; Agbakoba, Ruth; Bikker, Annemieke; Grieve, Eleanor; Finch, Tracy; Watson, Nicholas; Wyke, Sally
Background Digital health has the potential to support care delivery for chronic illness. Despite positive evidence from localized implementations, new technologies have proven slow to become accepted, integrated, and routinized at scale. Objective The aim of our study was to examine barriers and facilitators to implementation of digital health at scale through the evaluation of a £37m national digital health program: ‟Delivering Assisted Living Lifestyles at Scale” (dallas) from 2012-2015. Methods The study was a longitudinal qualitative, multi-stakeholder, implementation study. The methods included interviews (n=125) with key implementers, focus groups with consumers and patients (n=7), project meetings (n=12), field work or observation in the communities (n=16), health professional survey responses (n=48), and cross program documentary evidence on implementation (n=215). We used a sociological theory called normalization process theory (NPT) and a longitudinal (3 years) qualitative framework analysis approach. This work did not study a single intervention or population. Instead, we evaluated the processes (of designing and delivering digital health), and our outcomes were the identified barriers and facilitators to delivering and mainstreaming services and products within the mixed sector digital health ecosystem. Results We identified three main levels of issues influencing readiness for digital health: macro (market, infrastructure, policy), meso (organizational), and micro (professional or public). Factors hindering implementation included: lack of information technology (IT) infrastructure, uncertainty around information governance, lack of incentives to prioritize interoperability, lack of precedence on accountability within the commercial sector, and a market perceived as difficult to navigate. Factors enabling implementation were: clinical endorsement, champions who promoted digital health, and public and professional willingness. Conclusions
Lennon, Marilyn R; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; Devlin, Alison M; O'Connor, Siobhan; O'Donnell, Catherine; Chetty, Ula; Agbakoba, Ruth; Bikker, Annemieke; Grieve, Eleanor; Finch, Tracy; Watson, Nicholas; Wyke, Sally; Mair, Frances S
Digital health has the potential to support care delivery for chronic illness. Despite positive evidence from localized implementations, new technologies have proven slow to become accepted, integrated, and routinized at scale. The aim of our study was to examine barriers and facilitators to implementation of digital health at scale through the evaluation of a £37m national digital health program: ‟Delivering Assisted Living Lifestyles at Scale" (dallas) from 2012-2015. The study was a longitudinal qualitative, multi-stakeholder, implementation study. The methods included interviews (n=125) with key implementers, focus groups with consumers and patients (n=7), project meetings (n=12), field work or observation in the communities (n=16), health professional survey responses (n=48), and cross program documentary evidence on implementation (n=215). We used a sociological theory called normalization process theory (NPT) and a longitudinal (3 years) qualitative framework analysis approach. This work did not study a single intervention or population. Instead, we evaluated the processes (of designing and delivering digital health), and our outcomes were the identified barriers and facilitators to delivering and mainstreaming services and products within the mixed sector digital health ecosystem. We identified three main levels of issues influencing readiness for digital health: macro (market, infrastructure, policy), meso (organizational), and micro (professional or public). Factors hindering implementation included: lack of information technology (IT) infrastructure, uncertainty around information governance, lack of incentives to prioritize interoperability, lack of precedence on accountability within the commercial sector, and a market perceived as difficult to navigate. Factors enabling implementation were: clinical endorsement, champions who promoted digital health, and public and professional willingness. Although there is receptiveness to digital health
Korzeniowska, Elzbieta; Puchalski, Krzysztof
Article addresses the problem of increasing Polish employees health education effectiveness according to the differences in educational level. Research model assume that effective method of developing recommendations improving the health education will synthesise scientific findings regarding methodology of conducting such education and knowledge about needs of two target groups: low and high educated employees. Educational solutions were searched in publications related to: health education, andragogy, propaganda and direct marketing. The empirical material used to characterize two target groups came from four research (qualitative and quantitative) conducted by the National Centre for Workplace Health Promotion (Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine) in 2007-2010. Low educated employees' health education should be focused on increasing responsibility for health and strengthening their self-confidence according to the introduction of healthy lifestyle changes. To achieve these goals, important issue is to build their motivation to develop knowledge about taking care of health. In providing such information we should avoid the methods associated with school. Another important issue is creating an appropriate infrastructure and conditions facilitating the change of harmful behaviors undertaken at home and in the workplace. According to high-educated employees a challenge is to support taking health behaviors--although they are convinced it is important for their health, such behaviors are perceived as a difficult and freedom restriction. Promoting behavior change techniques, avoiding prohibitions in the educational messages and creating favorable climate for taking care of health in groups they participate are needed.
Brinker, Titus J; Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David A
A survey conducted by the German Federal Centre for Health Education in 2012 showed that 35.2% of all young adults (18-25 years) and 12.0% of all adolescents (12-17 years) in Germany are regular cigarette smokers. Most smoked their first cigarette in early adolescence. We recently reported a significantly positive short-term effect of a physician-delivered school-based smoking prevention programme on the smoking behaviour of schoolchildren in Germany. However, physician-based programmes are usually very expensive. Therefore, we will evaluate and optimise Education against Tobacco (EAT), a widespread, low-cost programme delivered by about 400 medical students from 16 universities in Germany. A prospective quasi-experimental study design with two measurements at baseline (t1) and 6 months post-intervention (t2) to investigate an intervention in 10-15-year-olds in grades 6-8 at German secondary schools. The intervention programme consists of two 60-min school-based medical-student-delivered modules with (module 1) and without the involvement of patients with tobacco-related diseases and control groups (no intervention). The study questionnaire measuring smoking status (water pipe and cigarette smoking), smoking-related cognitions, and gender, social and cultural aspects was designed and pre-tested in advance. The primary end point is the prevalence of smokers and non-smokers in the two study arms at 6 months after the intervention. The percentage of former smokers and new smokers in the two groups and the measures of smoking behaviour will be studied as secondary outcome measures. In accordance with Good Epidemiologic Practice (GEP) guidelines, the study protocol was submitted for approval by the responsible ethics committee, which decided that the study does not need ethical approval (Goethe University, Frankfurt-Main, Germany). Findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals, at conferences, within our scientific advisory board and through medical
Devescovi, Raffaella; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mancini, Alice; Bin, Maura; Vellante, Valerio; Carrozzi, Marco; Colombi, Costanza
Early diagnosis combined with an early intervention program, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), can positively influence the early natural history of autism spectrum disorders. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an early ESDM-inspired intervention, in a small group of toddlers, delivered at low intensity by the Italian Public Health System. Twenty-one toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders, aged 20-36 months, received 3 hours/wk of one-to-one ESDM-inspired intervention by trained therapists, combined with parents' and teachers' active engagement in ecological implementation of treatment. The mean duration of treatment was 15 months. Cognitive and communication skills, as well as severity of autism symptoms, were assessed by using standardized measures at pre-intervention (Time 0 [T0]; mean age =27 months) and post-intervention (Time 1 [T1]; mean age =42 months). Children made statistically significant improvements in the language and cognitive domains, as demonstrated by a series of nonparametric Wilcoxon tests for paired data. Regarding severity of autism symptoms, younger age at diagnosis was positively associated with greater improvement at post-assessment. Our results are consistent with the literature that underlines the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention, since prompt diagnosis can reduce the severity of autism symptoms and improve cognitive and language skills in younger children. Particularly in toddlers, it seems that an intervention model based on the ESDM principles, involving the active engagement of parents and nursery school teachers, may be effective even when the individual treatment is delivered at low intensity. Furthermore, our study supports the adaptation and the positive impact of the ESDM entirely sustained by the Italian Public Health System.
Bishop, Felicity L; Amos, Nicola; Yu, He; Lewith, George T
The aim was to identify similarities and differences between private practice and the National Health Service (NHS) in practitioners' experiences of delivering acupuncture to treat pain. We wished to identify differences that could affect patients' experiences and inform our understanding of how trials conducted in private clinics relate to NHS clinical practice. Acupuncture is commonly used in primary care for lower back pain and is recommended in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's guidelines. Previous studies have identified differences in patients' accounts of receiving acupuncture in the NHS and in the private sector. The major recent UK trial of acupuncture for back pain was conducted in the private sector. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 acupuncturists who had experience of working in the private sector (n = 7), in the NHS (n =3), and in both the sectors (n = 6). The interviews lasted between 24 and 77 min (median=49 min) and explored acupuncturists' experiences of treating patients in pain. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences across private practice and the NHS. The perceived effectiveness of acupuncture was described consistently and participants felt they did (or would) deliver acupuncture similarly in NHS and in private practice. In both the sectors, patients sought acupuncture as a last resort and acupuncturist-patient relationships were deemed important. Acupuncture availability differed across sectors: in the NHS it was constrained by Trust policies and in the private sector by patients' financial resources. There were greater opportunities for autonomous practice in the private sector and regulation was important for different reasons in each sector. In general, NHS practitioners had Western-focussed training and also used conventional medical techniques, whereas private practitioners were more likely to have Traditional Chinese training and to practise
Vamos, Sandra; Hayos, Julia
The health education profession has developed over recent years garnering national and international attention. Canada's evolving health education perspective emphasizing the concept of health literacy within the broader public health system reflects the need for trained, competent and skilled health educators designing, implementing and…
There have been significant developments in health education over recent years. Focusing on France, the purpose of this paper is to examine the role of health education in reducing social inequalities based on the example of the Atelier santé ville de Cahors (Cahors Health Workshop). The paper addresses the following questions: What are the results and outcomes of the workshop? What kind of health education issues are at stake in the territorial approach to policy-making in an urban context? We examined the methods underlying the health education measures taken in the Cahors Health Workshop, which involve project-based approaches and the promotion of community health. Health education aimed at improving health is central to issues such as listening and speaking, the development of autonomy and the responsibilization of urban actors. Based on a rigorous methodology and the underlying values, health education in the Cahors Health Workshop places local residents, elected representatives and health professionals at the heart of the health care process (from the diagnostic process to the assessment process) and contributes to the reduction of social inequalities in health while facilitating access to information and health care. The goal of health education is to encourage individuals to be responsible for their own health in order to empower them to make informed choices adapted to the demands of their environment.
Surr, Claire A; Gates, Cara
The quality of care delivered to people with dementia in hospital settings is of international concern. People with dementia occupy up to one quarter of acute hospital beds, however, staff working in hospitals report lack of knowledge and skills in caring for this group. There is limited evidence about the most effective approaches to training hospital staff on dementia. The purpose of this literature review was to examine published evidence on the most effective approaches to dementia training and education for hospital staff. The review was conducted using critical synthesis and included qualitative, quantitative and mixed/multi- methods studies. Kirkpatrick's four level model for the evaluation of training interventions was adopted to structure the review. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, AMED, British Education Index, Education Abstracts, ERIC (EbscoHost), The Cochrane Library-Cochrane reviews, Economic evaluations, CENTRAL (Wiley), HMIC (Ovid), ASSIA, IBSS (Proquest), Conference Proceedings Citation Indexes (Web of Science), using a combination of keyword for the following themes: Dementia/Alzheimer's, training/education, staff knowledge and patient outcomes. A total of 20 papers were included in the review, the majority of which were low or medium quality, impacting on generalisability. The 16 different training programmes evaluated in the studies varied in terms of duration and mode of delivery, although most employed face-to-face didactic techniques. Studies predominantly reported on reactions to training and knowledge, only one study evaluated outcomes across all of the levels of the Kirkpatrick model. Key features of training that appeared to be more acceptable and effective were identified related to training content, delivery methods, practicalities, duration and support for implementation. The review methodology enabled inclusion of a broad range of studies and permitted common features of successful programmes to be
Williams, Jason G
The enormity of modern medical knowledge and the rapidity of change have created increased need for ongoing or continuing medical education (CME) for physicians. Online CME is attractive for its availability at any time and any place, low cost and potentially increased effectiveness compared with traditional face-to-face delivery. To determine whether online CME modules are an effective method for delivering plastic surgery CME to primary care physicians. A needs assessment survey was conducted among all emergency and family physicians in Nova Scotia. Results indicated that this type of program was appealing, and that hand trauma related topics were most desired for CME. 7 Lesson Builder (SoftChalk LLC, www.softchalk.com) was used to construct a multimedia e-learning module that was distributed along with a pretest, post-test and feedback questionnaire. Quantitative (pre- and post-test scores) and qualitative (feedback responses) data were analyzed. The 32 participants who completed the study indicated that it was a positive and enjoyable experience, and that there was a need for more resources like this. Compared with pretest scores, there was a significant gain in knowledge following completion of the module (P=0.001). The present study demonstrated that an e-learning format is attractive for this population and effective in increasing knowledge. This positive outcome will lead to development of additional modules.
Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Karlsen, Randi; Vognild, Lars K
The use of computers in health education started more than a decade ago, mainly for tailoring health educational resources. Nowadays, many of the computer-tailoring health education systems are using the Internet for delivering different types of health education. Traditionally, these systems are designed for a specific health problem, with a predefined library of educational resources. These systems do not take advantage of the increasing amount of educational resources available on the Internet. One of the reasons is that the high availability of content is making it more difficult to find the relevant one. The problem of information overload has been addressed for many years in the field of recommender systems. This paper is focused on the challenges and opportunities of merging recommender systems with personalized health education. It also discusses the usage of social networks and semantic technologies within this approach.
Miccas, Fernanda Luppino; Batista, Sylvia Helena Souza da Silva
To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and practices related to permanent education in health. A bibliographical search was conducted for original articles in the PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, IBECS and SciELO databases, using the following search terms: "public health professional education", "permanent education", "continuing education", "permanent education health". Of the 590 articles identified, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 were selected for further analysis, grouped according to the criteria of key elements, and then underwent meta-synthesis. The 48 original publications were classified according to four thematic units of key elements: 1) concepts, 2) strategies and difficulties, 3) public policies and 4) educational institutions. Three main conceptions of permanent education in health were found: problem-focused and team work, directly related to continuing education and education that takes place throughout life. The main strategies for executing permanent education in health are discussion, maintaining an open space for permanent education , and permanent education clusters. The most limiting factor is mainly related to directly or indirect management. Another highlight is the requirement for implementation and maintenance of public policies, and the availability of financial and human resources. The educational institutions need to combine education and service aiming to form critical-reflexive graduates. The coordination between health and education is based as much on the actions of health services as on management and educational institutions. Thus, it becomes a challenge to implement the teaching-learning processes that are supported by critical-reflexive actions. It is necessary to carry out proposals for permanent education in health involving the participation of health professionals, teachers and educational institutions. To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and
Akl, Elie A; Kairouz, Victor F; Sackett, Kay M; Erdley, William S; Mustafa, Reem A; Fiander, Michelle; Gabriel, Carolynne; Schünemann, Holger
The use of games as an educational strategy has the potential to improve health professionals' performance (e.g. adherence to standards of care) through improving their knowledge, skills and attitudes. The objective was to assess the effect of educational games on health professionals' performance, knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction, and on patient outcomes. We searched the following databases in January 2012: MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Database of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, EPOC Register, ERIC, Proquest Dissertations & Theses Database, and PsycINFO. Related reviews were sought in DARE and the above named databases. Database searches identified 1546 citations. We also screened the reference lists of included studies in relevant reviews, contacted authors of relevant papers and reviews, and searched ISI Web of Science for papers citing studies included in the review. These search methods identified an additional 62 unique citations for a total of 1608 for this update. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), controlled before and after (CBA) and interrupted time-series analysis (ITS). Study participants were qualified health professionals or in postgraduate training. The intervention was an educational game with "a form of competitive activity or sport played according to rules". Using a standardized data form we extracted data on methodological quality, participants, interventions and outcomes of interest that included patient outcomes, professional behavior (process of care outcomes), and professional's knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction. The search strategy identified a total of 2079 unique citations. Out of 84 potentially eligible citations, we included two RCTs. The game evaluated in the first study used as a reinforcement technique, was based on the television game show "Family Feud" and focused on infection control. The study did not assess any patient or process of care outcomes. The
John, Christopher; Asquith, Heidi; Wren, Tom; Mercuri, Stephanie; Brownlow, Sian
The Kenyan Village Medical Education Program is a student-led global health initiative that seeks to improve health outcomes in rural Kenya through culturally appropriate health education. The month-long program, which is organised by the Melbourne University Health Initiative (Australia), is conducted each January in southern rural Kenya. Significance for public health The Kenyan Village Medical Education (KVME) Program is a student-led global health initiative that involves exploring well-established strategies for the prevention of disease through workshops that are conducted in southern rural Kenya. These workshops are tailored to the unique needs and circumstances of rural Kenyan communities, and are delivered to community leaders, as well as to adults and children within the wider community. Aside from the KVME Program’s emphasis on reducing the burden of preventable disease through health education, the positive impact of the KVME Program on the Program’s student volunteers also deserves consideration. Throughout the month-long KVME Program, student volunteers are presented with opportunities to develop their understanding of cultural competency, the social and economic determinants of health, as well as the unique challenges associated with working in resource-poor communities. Importantly, the KVME Program also represents an avenue through which global health leadership can be fostered amongst student volunteers. PMID:27190974
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emergency referral services (ERS are being strengthened in India to improve access for institutional delivery. We evaluated a publicly financed and privately delivered model of ERS in Punjab state, India, to assess its extent and pattern of utilization, impact on institutional delivery, quality and unit cost. METHODS: Data for almost 0.4 million calls received from April 2012 to March 2013 was analysed to assess the extent and pattern of utilization. Segmented linear regression was used to analyse month-wise data on number of institutional deliveries in public sector health facilities from 2008 to 2013. We inspected ambulances in 2 districts against the Basic Life Support (BLS standards. Timeliness of ERS was assessed for determining quality. Finally, we computed economic cost of implementing ERS from a health system perspective. RESULTS: On an average, an ambulance transported 3-4 patients per day. Poor and those farther away from the health facility had a higher likelihood of using the ambulance. Although the ERS had an abrupt positive effect on increasing the institutional deliveries in the unadjusted model, there was no effect on institutional delivery after adjustment for autocorrelation. Cost of operating the ambulance service was INR 1361 (USD 22.7 per patient transported or INR 21 (USD 0.35 per km travelled. CONCLUSION: Emergency referral services in Punjab did not result in a significant change in public sector institutional deliveries. This could be due to high baseline coverage of institutional delivery and low barriers to physical access. Choice of interventions for reduction in Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR should be context-specific to have high value for resources spent. The ERS in Punjab needs improvement in terms of quality and reduction of cost to health system.
Trejo, Grisel; Arcury, Thomas A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Tapia, Janeth; Quandt, Sara A
Despite widespread use of lay health advisor (LHA) programs, factors related to success of LHAs remain largely unexamined. This study describes experiences and personal transformations of LHAs (promotoras de salud) in a pesticide safety education program targeting farmworker families in North Carolina, using postintervention in-depth interviews conducted with 17 LHAs. LHAs identified assets and barriers that affected their success. LHAs also described increases in self-efficacy and empowerment resulting in perceived improvements in ability to teach and impact their community. Such positive changes are essential benefits to the LHAs. Evaluations that address these topics are needed to better understand continuity and attrition in LHA programs.
Moore, Michael G.
A systems methodology was employed to design and deliver a highly successful demonstration of the effectiveness of distance education as a means of providing high quality training to tens of thousands of teachers in the most remote areas of Brazil. Key elements in the success of the program were significant funding, top political buy-in, and…
Kim, Shin-Jeong; Cho, Haeryun
This study examined the effect of an intervention on coping knowledge among fifth- and sixth-grade elementary schoolchildren who received smartphone-delivered emergency preparedness education. This was a quasi-experimental study using a pre-/posttest design. Eighty-six children were recruited to participate. The children in the experimental group…
Breitenstein, Donna; Ewert, Alan
This article reviews literature related to the positive effects of outdoor education. The following dimensions of health, and the benefits associated with each, are discussed: emotional, social, physical, intellectual, and spiritual. A model of health benefits derived from outdoor recreation is presented, and implications for health education are…
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of educational intervention by health care providers on clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients in a Yemeni health facility. Methods: A prospective, one-group and pre- and post-test design to assess the effects of health care providers' education on clinical patient outcomes was ...
Health Education is one of the critical eight essential pillars of the primary health care (PHC) adopted world-wide by WHO member countries in 1978. After over two decades of health education to support PHC implementation, the epidemiological profile of Ghana continues to be dominated by communicable diseases, and ...
The health promotion and health education literature has references to health counselling. Yet, beyond the field of health, coaching has become a popular method to enhance and facilitate individual and group performance in business, sports, and personal areas of life. This paper focuses on the recent development of health coaching by practitioners…
Hansman, Catherine A.
This chapter is a case story of the evolution of the Master of Education in Health Professions Education (MEHPE), a collaborative graduate program developed by the Adult Learning and Development program at Cleveland State University and the Cleveland Clinic.
Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2018). Log in or ... The AJHPE is a journal for health professions educators. ... Transition-to-practice guidelines: Enhancing the quality of nursing education · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Full Text Available Education and health care policies in Ghana since independence have been universalist in approach providing free universal health care and free basic and tertiary education until the early 1980s. Precipitated primarily by a severe drought, stagnant economic growth, mismanagement, and political instability, Ghana undertook major economic reforms with prodding from the World Bank and International Monetary Fund in a bid to salvage the economy. These economic measures included cost recovery and cutback spending in education and health sectors. However, in recent years, purposive targeted interventions have been pursued to address inequalities in education and health care. These new programs include the Education Capitation Grant, school feeding program, and the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS, which are propelling Ghana toward the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The prospects of these programs in addressing disparities in access to education and health care in the country and recommendations for improved delivery are discussed.
Woolfson, R; Woolfson, L; Mooney, L; Bryce, D
This exploratory study used mixed methods to investigate young people's preferences in the delivery of mental health education and to investigate possible age and gender differences. Information was gathered about the delivery of mental health education in three secondary schools. Nine pupil focus groups were carried out to identify key themes which were then further developed and administered through questionnaires to a larger sample of 773 pupils. Gender and age differences were found in young people's preferences about who should deliver mental health education, and what, when, where and how this should be delivered. Mental health education should reflect the needs of young people. Age and gender preferences should be considered when designing these programmes.
Olga N. Makhubela-Nkondo
Full Text Available For South Africa, the continent and the world as a whole, formal health literacy begins at school. Higher Education in South Africa is challenged to take heed of the World Health Organization’s (WHO (1996 definition of school health. For the WHO, school health is not merely hygiene, health promotion, health literacy or health education but a ‘combination of services ensuring the physical, mental and social well-being of learners so as to maximize their learning capabilities’. The WHO Expert Committee on School Health asserts that school health can advance public health, education, social and economic development, and that the global expansion of school health attests to the value placed internationally on such programmes (WHO 1996.
Cullen, H. M.; Maibach, E.
Most Americans view climate change as a threat that is distant in space (i.e., not here), time (i.e., not now), and species (i.e., not us). TV weathercasters are ideally positioned to educate Americans about the current and projected impacts of climate change in their community: they have tremendous reach, are trusted sources of climate information, and are highly skilled science communicators. In 2009, we learned that many weathercasters were potentially interested in reporting on climate change, but few actually were, citing significant barriers including a lack of time to prepare and air stories, and lack of access to high quality content. To test the premise that TV weathercasters can be effective climate educators - if supported with high quality localized climate communication content - in 2010 George Mason University, Climate Central and WLTX-TV (Columbia, SC) developed and pilot-tested Climate Matters, a series of short on-air (and online) segments about the local impacts of climate change, delivered by the station's chief meteorologist. During the first year, more than a dozen stories aired. To formally evaluate Climate Matters, we conducted pre- and post-test surveys of local TV news viewers in Columbia. After one year, WLTX viewers had developed a more science-based understanding of climate change than viewers of other local news stations, confirming our premise that when TV weathercasters report on the local implications of climate change, their viewers learn. Through a series of expansions, including the addition of important new partners - AMS, NASA, NOAA & Yale University - Climate Matters has become a comprehensive nationwide climate communication resource program for American TV weathercasters. As of March 2016, a network of 313 local weathercasters nationwide (at 202 stations in 111 media markets) are participating in the program, receiving new content on a weekly basis. This presentation will review the theoretical basis of the program, detail
Uno, Hideo; Zakariasen,Kenneth
Hideo Uno, Kenneth ZakariasenDepartment of Public Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, CanadaAbstract: Public health leadership is one of the priority disciplines public health professionals need to learn well if they are to deal with demanding public health issues effectively and efficiently. This article looks at the trends in public health leadership education by reviewing the literature and using the Internet to explore the public health leadershi...
Horvat, Lidia; Horey, Dell; Romios, Panayiota; Kis-Rigo, John
educational interventions for health professionals working in health settings that aimed to improve: health outcomes of patients/consumers of minority cultural and linguistic backgrounds; knowledge, skills and attitudes of health professionals in delivering culturally competent care; and healthcare organisation performance in culturally competent care. We used the conceptual framework as the basis for data extraction. Two review authors independently extracted data on interventions, methods, and outcome measures and mapped them against the framework. Additional information was sought from study authors. We present results in narrative and tabular form. We included five RCTs involving 337 healthcare professionals and 8400 patients; at least 3463 (41%) were from CALD backgrounds. Trials compared the effects of cultural competence training for health professionals, with no training. Three studies were from the USA, one from Canada and one from The Netherlands. They involved health professionals of diverse backgrounds, although most were not from CALD minorities. Cultural background was determined using a validated scale (one study), self-report (two studies) or not reported (two studies). The design effect from clustering meant an effective minimum sample size of 3164 CALD participants. No meta-analyses were performed. The quality of evidence for each outcome was judged to be low.Two trials comparing cultural competence training with no training found no evidence of effect for treatment outcomes, including the proportion of patients with diabetes achieving LDL cholesterol control targets (risk difference (RD) -0.02, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.02; 1 study, USA, 2699 "black" patients, moderate quality), or change in weight loss (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.07, 95% CI -0.41 to 0.55, 1 study, USA, effective sample size (ESS) 68 patients, low quality).Health behaviour (client concordance with attendance) improved significantly among intervention participants compared with controls
relatable to health educational development. The overall value theme is elucidated by two development projects that transform as well as challenge specific health-educational practices. This forms the basis of the development of a critical, constructive and practice-oriented perspective on competence......Health professionals working in the field of health promotion and education experience certain value conflicts: their professional and personal values, the values of their clients or of the health services clash with pedagogic values such as participation, involvement, learning and competence...... development. My educational research is concerned with the exploration and development of the knowledge about values and health education related to competence development among health professionals. The purpose is to contribute to systematic knowledge development with a view to support and diversify...
Curran, Vernon; Noseworthy, Tanya
This synthesis report provides an extensive overview of literature evaluating use and effectiveness of distance learning technologies in delivering continuing education (CE) for health professionals. Chapter 2 discusses advantages and disadvantages of correspondence materials, explores suggestions for improving print-based learning materials, and…
Hwang, Huei-Lih; Kuo, Mei-Ling; Tu, Chin-Tang
To develop a tool for measuring competency in conducting health education and to evaluate its psychometric properties in a population of entry-level nurses. Until now, no generic instrument has been developed specifically for measuring competency in health education, which is an essential competency for nurses. Existing scales are either insufficient for psychometric evaluation or are designed specifically for senior nurses. To evaluate curricula and courses designed for entry-level nurses, educators require an instrument for measuring improvement in core competency from baseline to determine whether the minimum level of ability has been achieved. Item development for the survey instrument used for data collection in this study was based on the results of a literature review. The self-evaluated Health Education Competency Scale developed in this study was used to survey 457 nursing students at two nursing schools and 165 clinical nurses at a medical centre in south Taiwan in 2016. The participants were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was analysed by exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation, and one group was analysed by confirmatory factor analysis. Factor analysis yielded a four-factor (assessment, pedagogy, motivation and empowerment) solution (18 items) that accounted for 75.9% of the variance. The total scale and subscales had good reliabilities and construct validity coefficients. For measuring competency in entry-level nurses, the Health Education Competency Scale had a good data fit and sound psychometric properties. The proposed scale can be used to assess health education competency for college nursing students and practising nurses. Furthermore, it can provide educators with valuable insight into the minimum competencies required for entry-level nurses to deliver quality health care to clients and can guide them in the practice of client-based teaching. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yamashita, Tadashi; Reyes Tuliao, Maria Teresa; Concel Meana, Magdalena; Suplido, Sherri Ann; Llave, Cecilia L; Tanaka, Yuko; Matsuo, Hiroya
A low ratio of utilization of healthcare services in postpartum women may contribute to maternal deaths during the postpartum period. The maternal mortality ratio is high in the Philippines. The aim of this study was to examine the current utilization of healthcare services and the effects on the health of women in the Philippines who delivered at home. This was a cross-sectional analytical study, based on a self-administrated questionnaire, conducted from March 2015 to February 2016 in Muntinlupa, Philippines. Sixty-three postpartum women who delivered at home or at a facility were enrolled for this study. A questionnaire containing questions regarding characteristics, utilization of healthcare services, and abnormal symptoms during postpartum period was administered. To analyze the questionnaire data, the sample was divided into delivery at home and delivery at a facility. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used. There were significant differences in the type of birth attendant, area of residence, monthly income, and maternal and child health book usage between women who delivered at home and those who delivered at a facility ( P Financial and environmental barriers might hinder the utilization of healthcare services by women who deliver at home in the Philippines. Low utilization of healthcare services in women who deliver at home might result in more frequent abnormal symptoms during postpartum.
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of educational intervention by health care providers on clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients in a Yemeni health facility. Methods: A .... compliance, exercise and diets recommended for diabetes patients.
Mayshark, Cyrus; Evaul, Thomas W.
This book contains eight chapters by several different authors, most of them professors of health or physical education. Focus is on applications and implications of programed instruction for professionals in the health and physical education fields. "Overview of Programed Instruction" defines programing, its development and implications for…
Rawstorn, Jonathan C; Gant, Nicholas; Meads, Andrew; Warren, Ian; Maddison, Ralph
Participation in traditional center-based cardiac rehabilitation exercise programs (exCR) is limited by accessibility barriers. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies can overcome these barriers while preserving critical attributes of center-based exCR monitoring and coaching, but these opportunities have not yet been capitalized on. We aimed to design and develop an evidence- and theory-based mHealth platform for remote delivery of exCR to any geographical location. An iterative process was used to design and develop an evidence- and theory-based mHealth platform (REMOTE-CR) that provides real-time remote exercise monitoring and coaching, behavior change education, and social support. The REMOTE-CR platform comprises a commercially available smartphone and wearable sensor, custom smartphone and Web-based applications (apps), and a custom middleware. The platform allows exCR specialists to monitor patients' exercise and provide individualized coaching in real-time, from almost any location, and provide behavior change education and social support. Intervention content incorporates Social Cognitive Theory, Self-determination Theory, and a taxonomy of behavior change techniques. Exercise components are based on guidelines for clinical exercise prescription. The REMOTE-CR platform extends the capabilities of previous telehealth exCR platforms and narrows the gap between existing center- and home-based exCR services. REMOTE-CR can complement center-based exCR by providing an alternative option for patients whose needs are not being met. Remotely monitored exCR may be more cost-effective than establishing additional center-based programs. The effectiveness and acceptability of REMOTE-CR are now being evaluated in a noninferiority randomized controlled trial.
Full Text Available Decisions made at the household level, for example, to seek antenatal care or breastfeed, can have a direct impact on the health of mothers and newborns. The SMART Community-based Initiatives program in Egypt worked with community development associations to encourage better household decision-making by training community health workers to disseminate information and encourage healthy practices during home visits, group sessions, and community activities with pregnant women, mothers of young children, and their families. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the program, with household surveys conducted before and after the intervention in intervention and comparison areas. Survey questions asked about women's knowledge and behaviors related to maternal and newborn care and child nutrition and, at the endline, exposure to SMART activities. Exposure to program activities was high in intervention areas of Upper Egypt: 91% of respondents reported receiving home visits and 84% attended group sessions. In Lower Egypt, these figures were 58% and 48%, respectively. Knowledge of danger signs related to pregnancy, delivery, and newborn illness increased significantly more in intervention than comparison areas in both regions (with one exception in Lower Egypt, after controlling for child's age and woman's education; this pattern also occurred for two of five behaviors (antenatal care visits and consumption of iron-folate tablets. Findings suggest that there may have been a significant dose-response relationship between exposure to SMART activities and certain knowledge and behavioral indicators, especially in Upper Egypt. The findings demonstrate the ability of civil society organizations with minimal health programming experience to increase knowledge and promote healthy behaviors among pregnant women and new mothers. The SMART approach offers a promising strategy to fill gaps in health education and counseling and strengthen community
Brasington, Angela; Abdelmegeid, Ali; Dwivedi, Vikas; Kols, Adrienne; Kim, Young-Mi; Khadka, Neena; Rawlins, Barbara; Gibson, Anita
Decisions made at the household level, for example, to seek antenatal care or breastfeed, can have a direct impact on the health of mothers and newborns. The SMART Community-based Initiatives program in Egypt worked with community development associations to encourage better household decision-making by training community health workers to disseminate information and encourage healthy practices during home visits, group sessions, and community activities with pregnant women, mothers of young children, and their families. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the program, with household surveys conducted before and after the intervention in intervention and comparison areas. Survey questions asked about women's knowledge and behaviors related to maternal and newborn care and child nutrition and, at the endline, exposure to SMART activities. Exposure to program activities was high in intervention areas of Upper Egypt: 91% of respondents reported receiving home visits and 84% attended group sessions. In Lower Egypt, these figures were 58% and 48%, respectively. Knowledge of danger signs related to pregnancy, delivery, and newborn illness increased significantly more in intervention than comparison areas in both regions (with one exception in Lower Egypt), after controlling for child's age and woman's education; this pattern also occurred for two of five behaviors (antenatal care visits and consumption of iron-folate tablets). Findings suggest that there may have been a significant dose-response relationship between exposure to SMART activities and certain knowledge and behavioral indicators, especially in Upper Egypt. The findings demonstrate the ability of civil society organizations with minimal health programming experience to increase knowledge and promote healthy behaviors among pregnant women and new mothers. The SMART approach offers a promising strategy to fill gaps in health education and counseling and strengthen community support for behavior
The current practice of health education often fails to harmonize with the multidimensional, dynamic, and functional nature of health as generally defined within our profession. As a stepchild of the medical and public health professions, we have inherited a preoccupation with physical health as the most worthy outcome measure for most of our…
Keuroghlian, Alex S; Ard, Kevin L; Makadon, Harvey J
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people face pervasive health disparities and barriers to high-quality care. Adequate LGBT sexual health education for emerging health professionals is currently lacking. Clinical training programs and healthcare organisations are well poised to start addressing these disparities and affirming LGBT patients through curricula designed to cultivate core competencies in LBGT health as well as health care environments that welcome, include and protect LGBT patients, students and staff. Health education programs can emphasise mastery of basic LGBT concepts and terminology, as well as openness towards and acceptance of LGBT people. Core concepts, language and positive attitudes can be instilled alongside clinical skill in delivering inclusive sexual health care, through novel educational strategies and paradigms for clinical implementation. Caring for the health needs of LGBT patients also involves the creation of health care settings that affirm LGBT communities in a manner that is responsive to culturally specific needs, sensitivities and challenges that vary across the globe.
Nobiling, Brandye D.; Lyde, Adrian R.
Background: The landmark School Health Education Study (SHES) project influenced by the conceptual approach to teaching and learning provides perspective on modern school health instruction. Conceptual education, the cornerstone of the SHES curriculum framework (CF), "Health Education: A Conceptual Approach to Curriculum Design," fosters…
Turner, Lori W.; Knol, Linda; Meyer, Mary Kay
"What about Health Educators? Nutrition Education for Allied Health Professionals" describes an important issue in health care that is the provision of nutrition education. Obesity and chronic disease rates are rapidly increasing. Due to increase in the prevalence rates of obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases, there is a growing need for…
Bynum, Ann B; Irwin, Cathy A; Cohen, Betty
This study assessed differences in program satisfaction among health professionals participating in a distance continuing education program by gender, ethnicity, discipline, and community size. A one-group posttest design was used with a sample of 45,996 participants in the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Rural Hospital, Distance Continuing Medical Education Program during 1995-2007. This program provided 2,219 continuing education programs for physicians (n = 7,047), nurses (n = 21,264), allied health (n = 3,230) and dental (n = 305) professionals, pharmacists (n = 4,088), administrators (n = 1,211), and marketing/finance/human resources professionals (n = 343). These programs were provided in Arkansas hospitals, clinics, and area health education centers. Interactive video technology and the Internet were used to deliver these programs. The program satisfaction instrument demonstrated adequate internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91) and construct validity. Participants had high levels of satisfaction regarding knowledge and skills, use of information to enhance patient care, program quality, and convenience of the technology (mean total satisfaction score = 4.44, range: 1-5). Results from the t-test for independent samples and one-way analysis of variance indicated that men (p = 0.01), African-Americans and Hispanics (p affect satisfaction with distance continuing education programs.
The aim of this chapter is to argue that an approach to health education, consistent with critical education theory echoing Freire’s ideas, has the potential to play a significant role in addressing determinants of health by, first and foremost, providing children and young people with opportunit...
Marx, Eva; Hudson, Nancy; Deal, Tami B.; Pateman, Beth; Middleton, Kathleen
Background: The Council of Chief State School Officers' State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards Health Education Assessment Project (SCASS-HEAP) allows states to pool financial and human resources to develop effective ready-to-use health education assessment resources through a collaborative process. The purpose of this article is…
Goldman, Dana; Smith, James P
This paper assesses how the relationship between health and educational attainment has changed over the last three decades. We examine trends in disease prevalence and self-reported health using the US National Health Interview Survey for five chronic conditions-arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and lung diseases. The sample is limited to non-Hispanic Whites ages 40-64 to focus on the value of education and not changing representation of minority populations. We find that health benefits associated with additional schooling rose over time by more than ten percentage points as measured by self-reported health status. This can be attributed to both a growing disparity by education in the probability of having major chronic diseases during middle age, and better health outcomes for those with each disease. The value of education in achieving better health has increased over the last 25 years; both in protecting against onset of disease and promoting better health outcomes amongst those with a disease. Besides better access to health insurance, the more educated increasingly adapted better health behaviors, particularly not smoking and engaging in vigorous exercise, and reaped the benefits of improving medical technology. Rising health disparities by education are an important social concern which may require targeted interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van den Berg, Joost W.; Mastenbroek, Nicole J. J. M.; Scheepers, Renee A.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.
Work engagement deserves more attention in health professions education because of its positive relations with personal well-being and performance at work. For health professions education, these outcomes have been studied on various levels. Consider engaged clinical teachers, who are seen as better
Crider, Robert B.
The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between the use of character education programming and school health. Measuring and improving school health is a process that supports social, emotional, ethical and civic education. Hoy, Tarter, and Kottkamp define this concept as a healthy school is one in which the institutional,…
Miller, Richard E.
Methods of aligning health education with the goals and functions of employee assistance programs are discussed. The role of the health educator in developing these programs is explained in a description of employee assistance program service standards and specific sub-tasks. (DF)
Kutcher, Stan; Venn, David; Szumilas, Magdalena
Promoting student health and well-being in school has long been a component of education. Traditionally, sports and physical education programs have stressed the importance of staying physically healthy through exercise. More recently, school-based sexual education and nutrition programs have informed young people about the importance of sexual…
are discussed as indications for educational skills training for educators in health professionals' education. Method: 250 medical students from the MB ChB programme were surveyed, in an evaluation exercise, to rate the teaching contribution of all the full-time and honorary lecturers (n=88). The students were requested to ...
This review positions public health as an endeavour that requires a high order of professionalism in addressing the health of populations; this requires investment in an educational capacity that is designed to meet this need. In the global context, the field has evolved enormously over the past half century, supported by institutions such as the World Bank, the World Health Organization and the Institute of Medicine. Operational structures are formulated by strategic principles, with educational and career pathways guided by competency frameworks, all requiring modulation according to local, national and global realities. Talented and well-motivated individuals are attracted by its multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary environment, and the opportunity to achieve interventions that make real differences to people's lives. The field is globally competitive and open to many professional backgrounds based on merit. Its competencies correspond with assessments of population needs, and the ways in which strategies and services are formulated. Thus, its educational planning is needs-based and evidence-driven. This review explores four public health education levels: graduate, undergraduate, continuing professional education and promotion of health literacy for general populations. The emergence of accreditation schemes is examined, focusing on their relative merits and legitimate international variations. The role of relevant research policies is recognized, along with the need to foster professional and institutional networks in all regions of the world. It is critically important for the health of populations that nations assess their public health human resource needs and develop their ability to deliver this capacity, and not depend on other countries to supply it. PMID:23969636
Wyder, Marianne; Ehrlich, Carolyn; Crompton, David; McArthur, Leianne; Delaforce, Caroline; Dziopa, Fiona; Ramon, Shulamit; Powell, Elizabeth
Inpatient psychiatric care requires a balance between working with consumers' priorities and goals, managing expectations of the community, legal, professional and service responsibilities. In order to improve service delivery within acute mental health units, it is important to understand the constraints and facilitating factors for good care. We conducted a systematic narrative synthesis, where findings of qualitative studies are synthesised to generate new insights. 21 articles were identified. Our results show that personal qualities, professional skills as well as environmental factors all influence the ability to provide recovery focused care. Three overarching themes which either facilitated or hindered were identified. These included: (i) Complexity of the nursing role (clinical care; practical and emotional support: advocacy and education; enforcing aspects of the Mental Health Act. and, maintaining ward safety); (ii) Constraining factors (operational barriers; change in patient characteristic; and competing understandings of care); and (iii) Facilitating factors (ward factors; nursing tools; nurse characteristics; approach to people; approach to work and ability to self-care). We suggest that the therapeutic use of self is central to the provision of recovery oriented care. However person-centred practice can be fragile and fluid and a compassionate system of support is needed to enable an understanding of context and self. It is critical to have a work environment which fosters hope and optimism and is supportive of autonomy, ensures workload balance, and is safe. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
An innovation in curriculum content and delivery of cancer education within undergraduate nurse training in the UK. What impact does this have on the knowledge, attitudes and confidence in delivering cancer care?
Edwards, Deborah; Anstey, Sally; Kelly, Daniel; Hopkinson, Jane
This was an evaluation of an innovation in curriculum content and delivery within undergraduate nursing education in the UK. Its purpose was to investigate the effect on knowledge, attitudes and confidence in delivering cancer care. The study design was a pre-test post-test survey design with a comparison group. Participants were two cohorts of undergraduate nursing students (n(intervention) = 84, n(comparison) = 91). The intervention cohort were exposed to a new 3.5 day programme of cancer education, coproduced with patients, carers and health professionals, which focused on cancer as a life changing long-term condition. The comparison cohort had been exposed to a 2 day programme produced by a lecturer. Following exposure to the new model for the delivery of undergraduate nurse cancer education, the intervention cohort demonstrated good overall knowledge of the impact of cancer, more positive attitudes towards cancer treatment and more confidence in their ability to deliver cancer care. Attitudes were more positive and confidence in ability to support cancer patients at all stages of the cancer journey were greater than in the comparison group. Insights gained into the cancer patient and carer perspectives were highly valued. This study has found that a new model for the delivery of cancer education focusing on survivorship and delivered in partnership with patients, carers and clinicians, may improve knowledge, attitudes and confidence in the delivery of cancer care. Further work is now needed, using a more robust experimental design, to investigate the generalisability of the results to other education programs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Nordin, Lone Lindegard; Simovska, Venka
, the focus is on transformation processes occurring on the trajectory from international policy frameworks to the national context. The chapter considers the consequences of these transformation processes for educational practices within schools in light of the current major reform of basic general education......This chapter addresses the relationships between international and national (Danish) policies regarding sustainability and health promotion which have the potential to affect school-based health education/promotion and education for sustainable development. Based on policy mapping and analysis...... in Denmark with its aims of ensuring overall school improvement, increasing pupil wellbeing and improving academic outcomes. Analysis of international policy documents, as well as of research literature in both fields, shows that school-based health education (HE) and education for sustainable development...
Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete
Health educators face value complexity in their practices as well as their reflections on practice. Actions and decisions are no longer based on traditional norms, values and objective knowledge. The complexity of social and cultural changes in health care environments often leave professionals...... in situations in which educational action and choice of rationale are contingent and subject to discussion. We introduce and exemplify this thematic scope by taking our point of departure in experiences from a health educational development project in Denmark with public health nurses (PHN) working...
Hoque, Shah Md. Safiul; Alam, S. M. Shafiul
At present a new era has evolved in the education sector by means of ICTs. Different ICTs are now set to become instrumental to help expand access to education, strengthen the relevance of education to the increasingly digital workplace, and raise educational quality by, among others, helping make teaching and learning into an engaging, active…
Full Text Available Tadashi Yamashita,1 Maria Teresa Reyes Tuliao,2 Magdalena Concel Meana,2 Sherri Ann Suplido,3 Cecilia L Llave,4 Yuko Tanaka,5 Hiroya Matsuo6 1Kobe City College of Nursing, Kobe, Japan; 2Health Department of Muntinlupa, Muntinlupa, Philippines; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Philippine General Hospital, Manila, Philippines; 4College of Medicine (CM, University of the Philippine (UP, Manila, Philippines; 5Department of School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan; 6Department of International Health, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe, Japan Background: A low ratio of utilization of healthcare services in postpartum women may contribute to maternal deaths during the postpartum period. The maternal mortality ratio is high in the Philippines. The aim of this study was to examine the current utilization of healthcare services and the effects on the health of women in the Philippines who delivered at home. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytical study, based on a self-administrated questionnaire, conducted from March 2015 to February 2016 in Muntinlupa, Philippines. Sixty-three postpartum women who delivered at home or at a facility were enrolled for this study. A questionnaire containing questions regarding characteristics, utilization of healthcare services, and abnormal symptoms during postpartum period was administered. To analyze the questionnaire data, the sample was divided into delivery at home and delivery at a facility. Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and Mann–Whitney U test were used. Results: There were significant differences in the type of birth attendant, area of residence, monthly income, and maternal and child health book usage between women who delivered at home and those who delivered at a facility (P<0.01. There was significant difference in the utilization of antenatal checkup (P<0.01 during pregnancy, whilst there was no
Bruckel, Jeffrey; Carballo, Victoria; Kalibatas, Orinta; Soule, Michael; Wynne, Kathryn E; Ryan, Megan P; Shaw, Tim; Co, John Patrick T
Quality, patient safety and value are important topics for graduate medical education (GME). Spaced education delivers case-based content in a structured longitudinal experience. Use of spaced education to deliver quality and safety education in GME at an institutional level has not been previously evaluated. To implement a spaced education course in quality, safety and value; to assess learner satisfaction; and to describe trainee knowledge in these areas. We developed a case-based spaced education course addressing learning objectives related to quality, safety and value. This course was offered to residents and fellows about two-thirds into the academic year (March 2014) and new trainees during orientation (June 2014). We assessed learner satisfaction by reviewing the course completion rate and a postcourse survey, and trainee knowledge by the per cent of correct responses. The course was offered to 1950 trainees. A total of 305 (15.6%) enrolled in the course; 265/305 (86.9%) answered at least one question, and 106/305 (34.8%) completed the course. Fewer participants completed the March programme compared with the orientation programme (42/177 (23.7%) vs 64/128 (50.0%), peducation can help deliver and assess learners' understanding of quality, safety and value principles. Offering a voluntary course may result in low completion. Learners were satisfied with their experience and were introduced to new concepts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L
When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice.
Skou, Søren T; Roos, Ewa M
The uptake of evidence-based guidelines in clinical practice is suboptimal in osteoarthritis (OA) and other chronic diseases. Good Life with osteoArthritis in Denmark (GLA:D) was launched in 2013 with the aim of implementing guidelines for the treatment of knee and hip OA in clinical care nationwide. The purpose of this report was to evaluate the effects of the GLA:D intervention from 2013 to 2015, using data from the national GLA:D registry. Patients undergo education and supervised exercise delivered by trained physiotherapists. Outcomes evaluated at baseline, 3 and 12 months are pain intensity (0 to 100, best to worst), objective physical function (30-s chair-stand test and 40-m fast-paced walk test), physical activity (number of days per week being physically active for at least 30 min), quality of life (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) quality of life subscale, 0-100, worst to best), number of patients on painkillers and sick leave, and access to care according to guidelines. Data from 9,825 participants from the GLA:D registry were utilised in the analyses. It was demonstrated that GLA:D improved pain intensity and quality of life by 12.4 points and 5.4 points at 3 months, and 13.7 points and 9.4 points at 12 months, respectively. Furthermore, physical function and physical activity improved (only at 3 months), fewer patients took painkillers following the treatment, and fewer patients were on sick leave at 12 months following GLA:D compared with the year prior to GLA:D. GLA:D is offered in all five health care regions in Denmark via 286 active GLA:D units, but the uptake in the Danish municipalities is still low with only 20% of the municipalities offering GLA:D. Three years after its inception, GLA:D has been rolled out nationwide and has a significant impact not only on patient symptoms and physical function, but also on intake of painkillers and sick leave. The
Blake, Holly; Dawett, Bhupinder; Leighton, Paul; Rose-Brady, Laura; Deery, Chris
To evaluate a brief oral health promotion intervention delivered in schools by a primary care dental practice, aimed at changing oral health care knowledge and oral health-related behaviors in children. Cohort study with pretest-posttest design. Three primary schools. One hundred and fifty children (aged 9-12 years). Children received a 60-minute theory-driven classroom-based interactive educational session delivered by a dental care professional and received take-home literature on oral health. All children completed a questionnaire on oral health-related knowledge and self-reported oral health-related behaviors before, immediately after, and 6 weeks following the intervention. Children's dental knowledge significantly improved following the intervention, with improvement evident at immediate follow-up and maintained 6 weeks later. Significantly more children reported using dental floss 6 weeks after the intervention compared with baseline. No significant differences were detected in toothbrushing or dietary behaviors. School-based preventative oral health education delivered by primary care dental practices can generate short-term improvements in children's knowledge of oral health and some aspects of oral hygiene behavior. Future research should engage parents/carers and include objective clinical and behavioral outcomes in controlled study designs. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
This article outlines the delivery of the Family Health Nurse Education Programme of the World Health Organization (WHO) at the University of Stirling, Scotland, from 2001 to 2005. The program was part of the WHO European Family Health Nurse pilot project. The curriculum outlined by the WHO Curriculum Planning Group detailed the broad thrust of the Family Health Nurse Education Programme and was modified to be responsive to the context in which it was delivered, while staying faithful to general principles and precepts. The Family Health Nurse Education Programme is described in its evolving format over the two phases of the project; the remote and rural context occurred from 2001 to 2003, and the modification of the program for the urban phase of the project occurred during 2004 and 2005. The conceptual framework that was foundational to the development of the curriculum to prepare family health nurses will be described.
Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga
This qualitative study has as its focus an exploration of health service providers' perceptions and experiences of the processes and implications of delivering workplace cultural diversity education for staff. Data were obtained from conducting in-depth individual and focus group interviews with a purposeful sample of 137 healthcare professionals,…
Quinn, Susan; Bond, Raymond; Nugent, Chris
Ontologies are often used in biomedical and health domains to provide a concise and consistent means of attributing meaning to medical terminology. While they are novices in terms of ontology engineering, the evaluation of an ontology by domain specialists provides an opportunity to enhance its objectivity, accuracy, and coverage of the domain itself. This paper provides an evaluation of the viability of using ontology engineering novices to evaluate and enrich an ontology that can be used for personalized diabetic patient education. We describe a methodology for engaging healthcare and information technology specialists with a range of ontology engineering tasks. We used 87.8% of the data collected to validate the accuracy of our ontological model. The contributions also enabled a 16% increase in the class size and an 18% increase in object properties. Furthermore, we propose that ontology engineering novices can make valuable contributions to ontology development. Application-specific evaluation of the ontology using a semantic-web-based architecture is also discussed.
D'Egidio, V; Sestili, C; Mancino, M; Sciarra, I; Cocchiara, R; Backhaus, I; Mannocci, A; De Luca, Alessandro; Frusone, Federico; Monti, Massimo; La Torre, G
Higher survival rates for breast cancer patients have led to concerns in dealing with short- and long-term side effects. The most common complications are impairment of shoulder functions, pain, lymphedema, and dysesthesia of the injured arm; psychological consequences concern: emotional distress, anxiety, and depression, thereby, deeply impacting/affecting daily living activity, and health-related quality of life. To perform a systematic review for assessing the efficacy or effectiveness of interventions aiming at improving health-related quality of life, return to daily activity, and correct lifestyles among breast cancer patients. A literature search was conducted in December 2016 using the databases PubMed and Scopus. Search terms included: (counseling) AND (breast cancer) AND (quality of life). Articles on counseling interventions to improve quality of life, physical and psychological outcomes were included. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. The interventions were grouped in five main areas: concerning lifestyle counseling interventions, related to combined interventions (physical activity and nutritional counseling), physical therapy, peer counseling, multidisciplinary approach, included psychological, psycho-educational interventions, and cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT). Exercise counseling as well as physical therapy are effective to improve shoulder mobility, healing wounds, and limb strength. Psychological therapies such as psychoeducation and CBT may help to realize a social and psychological rehabilitation. A multidisciplinary approach can help in sustaining and restoring impaired physical, psychosocial, and occupational outcomes of breast cancer patients.
required for the education and training of health professionals within the specific learning environment of ... health professions, today's health professionals have to be highly skilled and knowledgeable in a ... examines the improvement of the learning environment and wellness of trainee regis trars to prevent burnout and ...
This quantitative research examines the perceptions of culinary arts/management educators and culinary industry practitioners on the future of online culinary arts education. Specifically pertaining to the recommended procedures by educators and chefs to judge and critique the quality of food products in terms sensory modalities, and what the key…
Ross, Catherine E; Mirowsky, John
Does education improve health more for one sex than the other? We develop a theory of resource substitution which implies that education improves health more for women than men. Data from a 1995 survey of U.S. adults with follow-ups in 1998 and 2001 support the hypothesis. Physical impairment decreases more for women than for men as the level of education increases. The gender gap in impairment essentially disappears among people with a college degree. Latent growth SEM vectors also show that among the college educated, men's and women's life course patterns of physical impairment do not differ significantly.
Lucey, Catherine R; Thibault, George E; Ten Cate, Olle
Health care systems around the world are transforming to align with the needs of 21st-century patients and populations. Transformation must also occur in the educational systems that prepare the health professionals who deliver care, advance discovery, and educate the next generation of physicians in these evolving systems. Competency-based, time-variable education, a comprehensive educational strategy guided by the roles and responsibilities that health professionals must assume to meet the needs of contemporary patients and communities, has the potential to catalyze optimization of educational and health care delivery systems. By designing educational and assessment programs that require learners to meet specific competencies before transitioning between the stages of formal education and into practice, this framework assures the public that every physician is capable of providing high-quality care. By engaging learners as partners in assessment, competency-based, time-variable education prepares graduates for careers as lifelong learners. While the medical education community has embraced the notion of competencies as a guiding framework for educational institutions, the structure and conduct of formal educational programs remain more aligned with a time-based, competency-variable paradigm.The authors outline the rationale behind this recommended shift to a competency-based, time-variable education system. They then introduce the other articles included in this supplement to Academic Medicine, which summarize the history of, theories behind, examples demonstrating, and challenges associated with competency-based, time-variable education in the health professions.
Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.
Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention
Zhuang, Runsen; Xiang, Yueying; Han, Tieguang; Yang, Guo-An; Zhang, Yuan
The ubiquity of cell phones, which allow for short message service (SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention and health education. To explore the use of cell phone-based health education SMS to improve the health literacy of community residents in China. A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select representative study communities and participants ≥ 18 years old. Intervention participants were sent health education SMSs once a week for 1 year and controls were sent conventional, basic health education measures. Health literacy levels of the residents before and after the intervention were evaluated between intervention and control groups. Public health literacy scores increased 1.5 points, from 61.8 to 63.3, after SMS intervention for 1 year (P<0.01); the increase was greater for males than females (2.01 vs. 1.03; P<0.01) and for Shenzhen local residents than non-permanent residents (2.56 vs. 1.14; P<0.01). The frequency of high health literacy scores was greater for the intervention than control group (22.03% to 30.93% vs. 22.07% to 20.82%). With health literacy as a cost-effective index, the cost-effectiveness per intervention was 0.54. SMS may be a useful tool for improving health literacy.
Cohn, Wendy F; Lyman, Jason; Broshek, Donna K; Guterbock, Thomas M; Hartman, David; Kinzie, Mable; Mick, David; Pannone, Aaron; Sturz, Vanessa; Schubart, Jane; Garson, Arthur T
To develop a model, based on market segmentation, to improve the quality and efficiency of health promotion materials and programs. Market segmentation to create segments (groups) based on a cross-sectional questionnaire measuring individual characteristics and preferences for health information. Educational and delivery recommendations developed for each group. General population of adults in Virginia. Random sample of 1201 Virginia residents. Respondents are representative of the general population with the exception of older age. Multiple factors known to impact health promotion including health status, health system utilization, health literacy, Internet use, learning styles, and preferences. Cluster analysis and discriminate analysis to create and validate segments. Common sized means to compare factors across segments. Developed educational and delivery recommendations matched to the 8 distinct segments. For example, the "health challenged and hard to reach" are older, lower literacy, and not likely to seek out health information. Their educational and delivery recommendations include a sixth-grade reading level, delivery through a provider, and using a "push" strategy. This model addresses a need to improve the efficiency and quality of health promotion efforts in an era of personalized medicine. It demonstrates that there are distinct groups with clearly defined educational and delivery recommendations. Health promotion professionals can consider Tailored Educational Approaches for Consumer Health to develop and deliver tailored materials to encourage behavior change.
Full Text Available ... and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ease ... We are grateful to have been ranked #1 on U.S. News & World Report's list of the best ...
Full Text Available ... Emotional Adjustment Kids Speak Research and Innovation Contact Us Celiac Disease Program | Videos Boston Children's Hospital will teach you and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ...
Bierema, Laura L.
This chapter focuses on the process of learning in health professions education (HPE) in terms of key issues that shape HPE learning and essential strategies for promoting and facilitating learning among professionals.
Full Text Available ... Disease Diet Information At Home Shopping Cooking ... Boston Children's Hospital will teach you and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ...
Nagel, Liza; Boswell, Judy
An introduction to planning interactive health education teleconferences via satellite discusses participant recruitment, satellite transmission coordination, scheduling considerations, format design, and use of site facilitators. Teleconference training of community service providers and community leaders should combine passive delivery of…
Intellectual and knowledge values on one side, and vital and physical values on the other, need to be balanced. A harmonious coexistence of these values requires synergy among the bodies that contribute to children education to avoid that the heath education activities cause overlapping, misunderstanding and conflicts between the two models that define children lifestyles: schools and families. Educational bodies understand that health education is key to enable people manage their bio-psychic, emotional, moral and mental resources. Lack of this ability means damage to the child and consequently a failure of the school and the society itself. In the latest decades, schools have been working in this direction, and they have redefined the national curricula integrating health education with specific references to food education and physical activity.
Bauer, Irmgard L
Health concerns arising from sexual relationships between tourists and locals usually focus on the travelling public. The local sex partners' health, and their impact on their communities' health, seem far less acknowledged. This paper describes a local health education session which implemented recommendations based on a study in Cuzco/Peru on tourists' and locals' views, knowledge, attitudes and experiences relating to sexual relationships between them. On location, fifteen discotheque employees received a health education session at the establishment's owner's request. Concluding from the positive experience, it is argued that researchers should, where possible, respond to requests to deliver ad hoc health education sessions while on location to address an identified local health need.
Hancock, Melyssa; Hoa, Michael; Malekzadeh, Sonya
Advances in modern communications and information technology have helped to improve access to, and quality of, health care and education. These enhancements include a variety of World Wide Web-based and mobile learning platforms, such as eLearning, mLearning, and open education resources. This article highlights the innovative approaches that have fostered improved collaboration and coordination of global health efforts in otolaryngology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rahmah Ismaila and Doris Padmini Selvaratnamb
Human capital is vital for the development of a country. Investment in human capital ranges from basic needs expenditure to education and health provision. Economic growth is often used to measure the progress and development of a country. Today other indicators are used to emphasize physical quality of life, for example, education, health and basic needs provision. Using a simultaneous equation model, this paper estimates the relationship between economic growth and human capital variables i...
Sharma, Kavya; George, Sunil; Zodpey, Sanjay
Continuing education of health care providers plays an important role in producing a health work force that is efficient and effective. In India public health education has primarily relied on conventional methods of training. However, such methods have limitations in equipping the health workforce of a vast and varied country like India. This paper analyzes the current status of distance education in public health and lists the various courses that are presently available in India through the distance education mode. Presently 25 institutions in India are offering 69 courses in various domains of public health through distance education. The providers of these programs comprised both government and private educational institutions. This paper also points out the role and importance of various stakeholders in the design and delivery of distance education programs in public health and raises key areas that need attention in the governance of such programs. It urges the use of digital technology in the delivery of distance education programs and points out how distance education that is designed and delivered using the latest technology could address the current gap in training human resources for health in India.
Schmidt, Steven W.; Lawson, Luan
In this chapter, the major concepts from program planning in adult education will be applied to health professions education (HPE). Curriculum planning and program planning will be differentiated, and program development and planning will be grounded in a systems thinking approach.
Benoliel, Jeanne Quint, Ed.
The perspectives of a number of health professionals based on their experiences in providing death education courses are presented in essays. In "Interdisciplinary Death Education in a Nursing School" (Helen L. Swain and Kathleen V. Cowles), the development of an undergraduate elective course in death, dying, and bereavement at the…
Young people are often denied volunteering experiences with vulnerable dying people as this is considered to be 'too distressing'. This project challenged this paternalistic attitude and trained young people to volunteer in the hospice, and other organisations to enhance the delivery of compassionate care. To promote dignity in care, for older people, people with dementia, those at end of life and those with learning disabilities. To reduce social isolation and the stigma associated with dying and being old. To create new volunteering opportunities for young people to raise their awareness of the needs of the dying and the frail elderly. Develop a model of best practice - that could be replicated in other parts of the country. A health promotion approach was used combining education and a community development, partnership approach. Results 120 Volunteers delivered over 3,650 hrs of volunteering activities, supporting individuals to engage in social activities. The project broke myths about having 16-18 year olds volunteering. The relationship between the hospice and the local community has strengthened and the employability skills for the young people taking part have increased. 16% of those who responded to an exit survey had gained full time employment, 9% had gained university places. The personalisation of care for the frail elderly and those at end of life has increased by the use of volunteers. Young volunteers need mentoring. Staff needs support to feel confident to utilise the volunteers and let go of myths about risks. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Patterson, Lorne; Dowd, Kathleen
The recent economic downturn and surge in unemployment has focused attention on education and training as a strategic response to Ireland's socio-economic crisis. However, that attention has been concentrated on training through statutory institutions, particularly FAS and the VECs. Longford Women's Link, a Women's Community Education centre in Co…
Lynch, Rebecca A.; Steen, M. Dale; Pritchard, Todd J.; Buzzell, Paul R.; Pintauro, Stephen J.
More than 76 million persons become ill from foodborne pathogens in the United States each year. To reduce these numbers, food safety education efforts need to be targeted at not only adults, but school children as well. The middle school grades are ideal for integrating food safety education into the curriculum while simultaneously contributing…
Grunbaum, J A; Kann, L; Williams, B I; Kinchen, S A; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J
School health education (e.g., classroom training) is an essential component of school health programs; such education promotes the health of youth and improves overall public health. February-May 1996. The School Health Education Profiles monitor characteristics of health education in middle or junior high schools and senior high schools. The Profiles are school-based surveys conducted by state and local education agencies. This report summarizes results from 35 state surveys and 13 local surveys conducted among representative samples of school principals and lead health education teachers. The lead health education teacher is the person who coordinates health education policies and programs within a middle or junior high school and senior high school. During the study period, almost all schools in states and cities required health education in grades 6-12; of these, a median of 87.6% of states and 75.8% of cities taught a separate health education course. The median percentage of schools that tried to increase student knowledge on certain topics (i.e., prevention of tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, violence, or suicide; dietary behaviors and nutrition; and physical activity and fitness) was > 72% for each of these topics. The median percentage of schools that tried to improve certain student skills (i.e., communication, decision making, goal setting, resisting social pressures, nonviolent conflict resolution, stress management, and analysis of media messages) was > 69% for each of these skills. The median percentage of schools that had a health education teacher coordinate health education was 33.0% across states and 26.8% across cities. Almost all schools taught HIV education as part of a required health education course (state median: 94.3%; local median: 98.1%), and more than half (state median: 69.5%; local median: 82.5%) had a written policy on HIV infection
Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Nigenda, Gustavo; Bärnighausen, Till; Velasco-Mondragón, Héctor Eduardo; Darney, Blair Grant
The purpose of this study was to estimate the gap between the available and the ideal supply of human resources (physicians, nurses, and health promoters) to deliver the guaranteed package of prevention and health promotion services at urban and rural primary care facilities in Mexico. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study using a convenience sample. We selected 20 primary health facilities in urban and rural areas in 10 states of Mexico. We calculated the available and the ideal supply of human resources in these facilities using estimates of time available, used, and required to deliver health prevention and promotion services. We performed descriptive statistics and bivariate hypothesis testing using Wilcoxon and Friedman tests. Finally, we conducted a sensitivity analysis to test whether the non-normal distribution of our time variables biased estimation of available and ideal supply of human resources. The comparison between available and ideal supply for urban and rural primary health care facilities reveals a low supply of physicians. On average, primary health care facilities are lacking five physicians when they were estimated with time used and nine if they were estimated with time required (P human resources in primary health facilities.
Lynch, Jamie L; von Hippel, Paul T
There is a positive gradient associating educational attainment with health, yet the explanation for this gradient is not clear. Does higher education improve health (causation)? Do the healthy become highly educated (selection)? Or do good health and high educational attainment both result from advantages established early in the life course (confounding)? This study evaluates these competing explanations by tracking changes in educational attainment and Self-rated Health (SRH) from age 15 to age 31 in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 cohort. Ordinal logistic regression confirms that high-SRH adolescents are more likely to become highly educated. This is partly because adolescent SRH is associated with early advantages including adolescents' academic performance, college plans, and family background (confounding); however, net of these confounders adolescent SRH still predicts adult educational attainment (selection). Fixed-effects longitudinal regression shows that educational attainment has little causal effect on SRH at age 31. Completion of a high school diploma or associate's degree has no effect on SRH, while completion of a bachelor's or graduate degree have effects that, though significant, are quite small (less than 0.1 points on a 5-point scale). While it is possible that educational attainment would have greater effect on health at older ages, at age 31 what we see is a health gradient in education, shaped primarily by selection and confounding rather than by a causal effect of education on health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Hamer, Davidson H; Semrau, Katherine; Waltensperger, Karen Z; Snetro-Plewman, Gail; Kambikambi, Chilobe; Sakala, Amon; Filumba, Stephen; Sichamba, Bias; Marsh, David R
Teaming is an accepted approach in health care settings but rarely practiced at the community level in developing countries. Save the Children trained and deployed teams of volunteer community health workers (CHWs) and trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential newborn and curative care for children aged 0-59 months in rural Zambia. This paper assessed whether CHWs and trained TBAs can work as teams to deliver interventions and ensure a continuum of care for all children under-five, including newborns. We trained CHW-TBA teams in teaming concepts and assessed their level of teaming prospectively every six months for two years. The overall score was a function of both teamwork and taskwork. We also assessed personal, community and service factors likely to influence the level of teaming. We created forty-seven teams of predominantly younger, male CHWs and older, female trained TBAs. After two years of deployment, twenty-one teams scored "high", twelve scored "low," and fourteen were inactive. Teamwork was high for mutual trust, team cohesion, comprehension of team goals and objectives, and communication, but not for decision making/planning. Taskwork was high for joint behavior change communication and outreach services with local health workers, but not for intra-team referral. Teams with members residing within one hour's walking distance were more likely to score high. It is feasible for a CHW and a trained TBA to work as a team. This may be an approach to provide a continuum of care for children under-five including newborns.
Training courses on health physics have been organized regularly in Venezuela since 1962. The basic course consists of 20 hours for theoretical tuition and 10 hours for laboratory practice. Post-graduate courses have been organized by the Central University since 1965. Radiological technicians receive their training through the courses organized by the Ministry of Health. (author)
W. Kroeze (Willemieke); A. Oenema (Anke); M.K. Campbell (Marci); J. Brug (Hans)
textabstractBackground: Computer-tailored health education, a promising health education technique, is increasingly being delivered interactively, for example, over the Internet. It has been suggested that there may be differences in use and appreciation between print and interactive delivery of
I A Yagub, Abdallah
North Darfur State has been affected by conflict since 2003 and the government has not been able to provide adequate curative health services to the people. The government has come to rely on Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to provide curative health services. This study was conducted to examine the existing collaboration between government and NGOs in curative health service delivery in North Darfur State, and to identify the challenges that affect their collaboration. Documentary data were collected from government offices and medical organizations. Primary data were obtained through interviews with government and NGOs representatives. The interviews were conducted with (1) expatriates working for international NGOs (N=15) and (2), health professionals and administrators working in the health sector (N= 45). The collaboration between the government and NGOs has been very weak because of security issues and lack of trust. The NGOs collaborate by providing human and financial resources, material and equipment, and communication facilities. The NGOs supply 70% of curative health services, and contribute 52.9% of the health budget in North Darfur State. The NGOs have employed 1 390 health personnel, established 44 health centres and manage and support 83 health facilities across the State. The NGOs have played a positive role in collaborating with the government in North Darfur State in delivering curative health services, while government's role has been negative. The problem that faces the government in future is how health facilities will be run should a peaceful settlement be reached and NGOs leave the region.
Broström, Stig; Jensen, Anders Skriver; Hansen, Ole Henrik
The study of values in education has remained rather underdeveloped in Denmark. In this context, values are principles that guide human action and judgements of whether actions are good or undesirable. Values are also connected to the choice of educational content. Besides content formulated...... value education aims and objectives, and conduct, document and evaluate the pedagogical efforts in this domain....... in the Danish national curriculum (language, social competences, aesthetics knowledge and skills, physical and motor skills plus knowledge on nature and science) a number of educational themes are also expressed in interaction between children and preschool teachers, such as health and a healthy living, peace...
Apr 17, 2013 ... provision of emergency contraception (EC) pills on the knowledge and ... pregnant unintentionally (e.g., school drop outs, higher rates of mental health problems and are more likely to be ... used to prevent pregnancy from occurring after an act of ... EC; limitations of EC; misconceptions of EC pills including.
Ivbijaro, G; Patel, V; Chisholm, D; Goldberg, D; Khoja, T A M; Edwards, T M; Enum, Y; Kolkiewic, L A
For EMR countries to deliver the expectations of the Global Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 & the ongoing move towards universal health coverage, all health & social care providers need to innovate and transform their services to provide evidence-based health care that is accessible, cost-effective & with the best patient outcomes. For the primary and community workforce, this includes general medical practitioners, practice & community nurses, community social workers, housing officers, lay health workers, nongovernmental organizations & civil society, including community spiritual leaders/healers. This paper brings together the current best evidence to support transformation & discusses key approaches to achieve this, including skill mix and/or task shifting and integrated care. The important factors that need to be in place to support skill mix/task shifting and good integrated care are outlined with reference to EMR countries.
Meyer, M A
A theoretical framework and practical suggestions for incorporating games and simulation into allied health instruction are presented. Research findings that support the use of educational simulation/games as a tool for higher cognitive learning are discussed. Examples and step-by-step instructions are given to help allied health educatiors and students write their own simulation games, try them out, evaluate them, and incorporate them into classroom use to stimulate interaction. Advantages of using educational simulation/games in allied health education as well as possible disadvantages of this teaching strategy are discussed. Use of instructional games to enhance teaching effectiveness as measured by student achievement in the allied health fields is emphasized.
Arboccó de los Heros, Manuel
The following article presents a series of investigations, reflections, and quotes about neuroscience, education, and psychology. Each area is specialized in some matters but at some point they share territory and mutually benefit one another, and help us to increasingly understand the complex world of learning, the brain, and human behavior. We…
Holder, L; Nelson, S; Curcio, B
This article is the first of several dealing with medical education and recruitment in Oklahoma and generated at the request of the OSMA-OUHSC Liaison Committee. The articles were sought out and submitted with the assistance of Edward N. Brandt, Jr., MD, PhD, executive dean at the University of Oklahoma College of Medicine.
White, Peta E; Otago, Leonie; Saunders, Natalie; Romiti, Maria; Donaldson, Alex; Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F
Coaches play a major role in encouraging and ensuring that participants of their teams adopt appropriate safety practices. However, the extent to which the coaches undertake this role will depend upon their attitudes about injury prevention, their perceptions of what the other coaches usually do and their own beliefs about how much control they have in delivering such programmes. Fifty-one junior netball coaches were surveyed about incorporating the teaching of correct (safe) landing technique during their delivery of training sessions to junior players. Overall, >94% of coaches had strongly positive attitudes towards teaching correct landing technique and >80% had strongly positive perceptions of their own control over delivering such programmes. Coaches' ratings of social norms relating to what others think about teaching safe landing were more positive (>94%) than those relating to what others actually do (63-74%). In conclusion, the junior coaches were generally receptive towards delivering safe landing training programmes in the training sessions they led. Future coach education could include role modelling by prominent coaches so that more community-level coaches are aware that this is a behaviour that many coaches can, and do, engage in.
Vijaya, K; Chan, S P; Ho, H P C; Lim, Y Y L; Lim, R
In 2001, the Health Promotion Board (HPB) developed HPB Online, an internet-based health education portal to disseminate health messages. The objective of this article is to describe the structure of HPB Online, review its reach as a tool to deliver health information in Singapore, and discuss the advantages of using the internet to complement traditional media such as the television, newspapers and radio. Since its inception in 2001, the numbers of page-views, monthly visits and repeat visitors have increased markedly. The most popular webpages have consistently been Food Info Search. The average length of visit also showed a gradual increase during the study period, from about 11.0 minutes in January 2002 to 18.5 minutes in December 2004. The key advantage of using the HPB Online is that it allows quick delivery of information to the public and this is ideal for time-sensitive issues. It helps Singaporeans to make better informed decisions to maintain and to improve their health. With its high utilisation, the HPB will continue to use the internet as part of its multichannel marketing strategy to disseminate health information.
Devlin, Alison M; McGee-Lennon, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; Agbakoba, Ruth; O'Connor, Siobhan; Grieve, Eleanor; Finch, Tracy; Wyke, Sally; Watson, Nicholas; Browne, Susan; Mair, Frances S
To identify implementation lessons from the United Kingdom Delivering Assisted Living Lifestyles at Scale (dallas) program-a large-scale, national technology program that aims to deliver a broad range of digital services and products to the public to promote health and well-being. Prospective, longitudinal qualitative research study investigating implementation processes. Qualitative data collected includes semi-structured e-Health Implementation Toolkit-led interviews at baseline/mid-point (n = 38), quarterly evaluation, quarterly technical and barrier and solutions reports, observational logs, quarterly evaluation alignment interviews with project leads, observational data collected during meetings, and ethnographic data from dallas events (n > 200 distinct pieces of qualitative data). Data analysis was guided by Normalization Process Theory, a sociological theory that aids conceptualization of implementation issues in complex healthcare settings. Five key challenges were identified: 1) The challenge of establishing and maintaining large heterogeneous, multi-agency partnerships to deliver new models of healthcare; 2) The need for resilience in the face of barriers and set-backs including the backdrop of continually changing external environments; 3) The inherent tension between embracing innovative co-design and achieving delivery at pace and at scale; 4) The effects of branding and marketing issues in consumer healthcare settings; and 5) The challenge of interoperability and information governance, when commercial proprietary models are dominant. The magnitude and ambition of the dallas program provides a unique opportunity to investigate the macro level implementation challenges faced when designing and delivering digital health and wellness services at scale. Flexibility, adaptability, and resilience are key implementation facilitators when shifting to new digitally enabled models of care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of
Devlin, Alison M; McGee-Lennon, Marilyn; O’Donnell, Catherine A; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; Agbakoba, Ruth; O’Connor, Siobhan; Grieve, Eleanor; Finch, Tracy; Wyke, Sally; Watson, Nicholas; Browne, Susan
Objective To identify implementation lessons from the United Kingdom Delivering Assisted Living Lifestyles at Scale (dallas) program—a large-scale, national technology program that aims to deliver a broad range of digital services and products to the public to promote health and well-being. Materials and Methods Prospective, longitudinal qualitative research study investigating implementation processes. Qualitative data collected includes semi-structured e-Health Implementation Toolkit–led interviews at baseline/mid-point (n = 38), quarterly evaluation, quarterly technical and barrier and solutions reports, observational logs, quarterly evaluation alignment interviews with project leads, observational data collected during meetings, and ethnographic data from dallas events (n > 200 distinct pieces of qualitative data). Data analysis was guided by Normalization Process Theory, a sociological theory that aids conceptualization of implementation issues in complex healthcare settings. Results Five key challenges were identified: 1) The challenge of establishing and maintaining large heterogeneous, multi-agency partnerships to deliver new models of healthcare; 2) The need for resilience in the face of barriers and set-backs including the backdrop of continually changing external environments; 3) The inherent tension between embracing innovative co-design and achieving delivery at pace and at scale; 4) The effects of branding and marketing issues in consumer healthcare settings; and 5) The challenge of interoperability and information governance, when commercial proprietary models are dominant. Conclusions The magnitude and ambition of the dallas program provides a unique opportunity to investigate the macro level implementation challenges faced when designing and delivering digital health and wellness services at scale. Flexibility, adaptability, and resilience are key implementation facilitators when shifting to new digitally enabled models of care. PMID:26254480
Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Sohi, Ramandeep Kaur; Nanda, Tarun; Sawhney, Gurjashan Singh; Setia, Saniya
The teaching of Oral Health Education aims at preventing the dental disease and promoting dental health at early stages. Schools are powerful places to shape the health, education and well-being of our children. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of school dental health education programmes conducted in various parts of India. A systematic review from available literature was carried out. The study examined papers relating to oral health interventions which were published between 1992 and 2012. Ten articles were selected and included in the review. All the studies were found to contain the required information on the outcomes of school dental health programmes in India. Different methods were used to deliver oral health education. All the studies reported significant improvement in oral hygiene of school children after imparting dental health education. In some studies, school teachers were also trained to impart oral health education. Decreased level of awareness was found in children coming from low income families. Longer duration studies are needed to improve the results. School dental education programmes should be more focused on north-eastern Indian population.
Manuel Arboccó de los Heros
Full Text Available The following article presents a series of investigations, reflections, and quotes about neuroscience, education, and psychology. Each area is specialized in some matters but at some point they share territory and mutually benefit one another, and help us to increasingly understand the complex world of learning, the brain, and human behavior. We hope them to be of interest and a promoter of new thoughts.
Birnbaum, David; Gretsinger, Kathryn; Ellis, Ursula
Purpose The aim of this paper is to describe the experience and educational benefits of a course that has several unique educational design features. Design/methodology/approach This includes narrative description of faculty and student experience from participants in a flipped-instructional-design inter-professional education course. Findings "Improving Public Health - An Interprofessional Approach to Designing and Implementing Effective Interventions" is an undergraduate public health course open to students regardless of background. Its student activities mirror the real-life tasks and challenges of working in a public health agency, including team-building and leadership; problem and project definition and prioritization; evidence-finding and critical appraisal; written and oral presentation; and press interviews. Students successfully developed project proposals to address real problems in a wide range of communities and settings and refined those proposals through interaction with professionals from population and public health, journalism and library sciences. Practical implications Undergraduate public health education is a relatively new endeavor, and experience with this new approach may be of value to other educators. Originality/value Students in this course, journalism graduate students who conducted mock interviews with them and instructors who oversaw the course all describe unique aspects and related personal benefit from this novel approach.
To arrive at an expert consensus in relation to health promotion and health education constructs as they apply to nursing practice, education and policy. Nursing has often been maligned and criticized, both inside and outside of the profession, for its ability to understand and conduct effective health promotion and health education-related activities. In the absence of an expert-based consensus, nurses may find it difficult to progress beyond the current situation. In the absence of any previously published nursing-related consensus research, this study seeks to fill that knowledge-gap. A two-round Delphi technique via email correspondence. A first-round qualitative questionnaire used open-ended questions for defining health promotion and health education. This was both in general terms and as participants believed these concepts related to the clinical, theoretical (academic/educational) and the policy (political) setting in nursing. Line-by-line qualitative content and thematic analysis of the first-round data generated 13 specific categories. These categories contained 134 statement items. The second-round questionnaire comprised the identified 134 statements. Using a five-point Likert scale (ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree) participants scored and rated their level of agreement/disagreement against the listed items. Data from the second-round was descriptively analysed according to distribution and central tendency measures. An expert consensus was reached on 65 of the original 134 statements. While some minor contradiction was demonstrated, strong consensus emerged around the issues of defining health promotion and health education and the emergence of a wider health promotion and health education role for nursing. No consensus was reached on only one of the 13 identified topic categories - that of 'nurses working with other disciplines and agencies in a health education and health promotion role.' This study provides a hitherto
Eddy, James M; Stellefson, Michael L
The nature of health education and health promotion (HE/HP) offers a fertile ground for entrepreneurial activity. As primary prevention of chronic diseases becomes a more central component of the health and/ or medical care continuum, entrepreneurial opportunities for health educators will continue to expand. The process used to design, implement, and evaluate health promotion and disease prevention has clear articulation with entrepreneurial, marketing management, and other business processes. Thus, entrepreneurs in HE/HP must be able to utilize business process to facilitate creative, new HE/HP business ideas. The purpose of this article is to weave theory and practical application into a primer on entrepreneurial applications in HE/HP. More specifically, the authors meld their prospective experiences and expertise to provide background thoughts on entrepreneurship in HE/HP and develop a framework for establishing an entrepreneurial venture in HE/HP. Five Cardinal Rules for Entrepreneurs in HE/HP are proposed.
Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Osler, M; Sabroe, Svend
in 1994. Of these 71% also participated in a telephone interview enquiring about the use of health education material, smoking status and socio-demographic variables, 39% of readers of household-delivered anti-smoking pamphlets reported having gained information from them and 22% reported having made...... health education materials from other places. Non-smokers received (3 49%) and read pamphlets about smoking as frequently as did smokers who did not intend to quit. In conclusion, written health education material was well received by readers, but, when distributed in a more open setting it needs...... to be targeted towards smokers who are considering stopping smoking. In general practice, smokers not thinking of stopping were open to health education, and pamphlets used in this setting should also target this group. Non-smokers contribute indirectly to smokers quitting by providing support to smokers...
Yezer, Yezer; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Christensen, Line Kikkenborg
and the actual wish for keeping up tradition and a specific culturalized understanding of knowledge and well-being production by the government? The paper is divided into five sections. The introduction has outlined the context and the nexus between health and education; some theoretical remarks about the links......Paper for the International Workshop “Development Challenges in Bhutan”, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, 29-30 May, 2013 Abstract This contribution focuses on how the existing resources and policy objectives for social development activities within the area of health promotion through education...... is utilized and whether intentions conflict with outcomes. It will furthermore explore whether there are relevant synergies in the policy flow from center to local levels in terms of delivering efficient health through educational policies. The focus lies on the implementation level of health in education...
Mendes Neto, Francisco Milton; de Carvalho Muniz, Raphael; Filgueira Burlamaqui, Aquiles Medeiros; Castro de Souza, Rafael
The support of technological resources in teaching and learning has contributed to make them more efficient and enjoyable. Through this support has become quite common to use media resources before explored only for entertainment for educational purposes, among them the TV. The interactive Digital TV (iDTV) provides resources that make possible…
Gelmon, Sherril B; Tresidder, Anna Foucek
The study explored the options for accreditation of educational programs to prepare a new oral health provider, the dental therapist. A literature review and interviews of 10 content experts were conducted. The content experts represented a wide array of interests, including individuals associated with the various dental stakeholder organizations in education, accreditation, practice, and licensure, as well as representatives of non-dental accrediting organizations whose experience could inform the study. Development of an educational accreditation program for an emerging profession requires collaboration among key stakeholders representing education, practice, licensure, and other interests. Options for accreditation of dental therapy education programs include establishment of a new independent accrediting agency; seeking recognition as a committee within the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs; or working with the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) to create a new accreditation program within CODA. These options are not mutually exclusive, and more than one accreditation program could potentially exist. An educational accreditation program is built upon a well-defined field, where there is a demonstrated need for the occupation and for accreditation of educational programs that prepare individuals to enter that occupation. The fundamental value of accreditation is as one player in the overall scheme of improving the quality of higher education delivered to students and, ultimately, the delivery of health services. Leaders concerned with the oral health workforce will need to consider future directions and the potential roles of new oral health providers as they determine appropriate directions for educational accreditation for dental therapy.
Koskinen, Liisa; Kelly, Hélène; Bergknut, Eva
This article concerns the European Curriculum in Cultural Care Project (2005-2009), which aimed at developing a curriculum framework for the enhancement of cultural competence in European health care education. The project was initiated and supported by the Consortium of Institutes in Higher...... Education in Health and Rehabilitation, whose goal is to nurture educational development and networking among member institutions. The framework is the result of a collaborative endeavor by nine nurse educators from five different European countries. The production of the framework will be described...... in accordance with the following tenets: developing cultural competence is a continuing process, cultural competence is based on sensitivity toward others, and cultural competence is a process of progressive inquiry. Critique concerning the framework will be presented....
Critics of health education policy in the United States fault it for ignoring the unequal ability of Americans to adopt more healthy behavior and for underestimating the social, economic, and political causes of disease. Many critics hypothesize that health education in a less bourgeois society would be more equitable and less individualistic. This article tests that hypothesis by analyzing the current Cuban health education program aimed at the reduction of chronic diseases. It argues that while the Cuban program appears to be every bit as individualistic as the North American program, theirs may not be comparable to ours because Cubans are less likely than Americans to reify the state. At least among supporters of the revolution, Cubans do not automatically make a conceptual distinction between the individual and the society. Discussions about responsibility for disease prevention take on new meaning in this light.
Olayinka, Olaniyi; Kekeh, Michele; Sheth-Chandra, Manasi; Akpinar-Elci, Muge
The ability to synthesize and analyze massive amounts of data is critical to the success of organizations, including those that involve global health. As countries become highly interconnected, increasing the risk for pandemics and outbreaks, the demand for big data is likely to increase. This requires a global health workforce that is trained in the effective use of big data. To assess implementation of big data training in global health, we conducted a pilot survey of members of the Consortium of Universities of Global Health. More than half the respondents did not have a big data training program at their institution. Additionally, the majority agreed that big data training programs will improve global health deliverables, among other favorable outcomes. Given the observed gap and benefits, global health educators may consider investing in big data training for students seeking a career in global health. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nobiling, Brandye D; Lyde, Adrian R
The landmark School Health Education Study (SHES) project influenced by the conceptual approach to teaching and learning provides perspective on modern school health instruction. Conceptual education, the cornerstone of the SHES curriculum framework (CF), Health Education: A Conceptual Approach to Curriculum Design, fosters a student's understanding of information that develops with experience. Data were collected through content analysis of the SHES CF and the National Health Education Standards: Achieving Excellence (NHES), 2nd edition. Similarity of essential framework elements was established. Inter-rater reliability was established. Alignment of the SHES components with the NHES reveals parallel conceptual structures around which to develop curriculum. The conceptual approach to curriculum planning has enduring value. It provides a foundation for teaching and learning that is adaptable, flexible, and can maintain permanence in conjunction with emerging scientific evidence and cultural and political influences on health behavior. © 2015, American School Health Association.
Devescovi, Raffaella; Monasta,Lorenzo; Mancini,Alice; Bin,Maura; Vellante,Valerio; Carrozzi,Marco; Colombi,Costanza
Raffaella Devescovi,1 Lorenzo Monasta,2 Alice Mancini,3 Maura Bin,1 Valerio Vellante,1 Marco Carrozzi,1 Costanza Colombi4 1Division of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, 2Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health Research Unit, Institute for Maternal and Child Health – IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo”, Trieste, 3Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA ...
Kahlke, Renate; Eva, Kevin
Calls for enabling 'critical thinking' are ubiquitous in health professional education. However, there is little agreement in the literature or in practice as to what this term means and efforts to generate a universal definition have found limited traction. Moreover, the variability observed might suggest that multiplicity has value that the quest for universal definitions has failed to capture. In this study, we sought to map the multiple conceptions of critical thinking in circulation in health professional education to understand the relationships and tensions between them. We used an inductive, qualitative approach to explore conceptions of critical thinking with educators from four health professions: medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and social work. Four participants from each profession participated in two individual in-depth semi-structured interviews, the latter of which induced reflection on a visual depiction of results generated from the first set of interviews. Three main conceptions of critical thinking were identified: biomedical, humanist, and social justice-oriented critical thinking. 'Biomedical critical thinking' was the dominant conception. While each conception had distinct features, the particular conceptions of critical thinking espoused by individual participants were not stable within or between interviews. Multiple conceptions of critical thinking likely offer educators the ability to express diverse beliefs about what 'good thinking' means in variable contexts. The findings suggest that any single definition of critical thinking in the health professions will be inherently contentious and, we argue, should be. Such debates, when made visible to educators and trainees, can be highly productive.
Pringle, Andy; Zwolinsky, Stephen; McKenna, James; Robertson, Steven; Daly-Smith, Andy; White, Alan
Unhealthy behaviours represent modifiable causes of non-communicable disease. In men, concern focuses on those (i) demonstrating the poorest health, exacerbated by a lack of awareness of the risks that their lifestyles pose and (ii) who neither consult their doctor nor use health services. Classed as "hard-to-engage", distinctive…
Sharma, Abhinav; Harrington, Robert A; McClellan, Mark B; Turakhia, Mintu P; Eapen, Zubin J; Steinhubl, Steven; Mault, James R; Majmudar, Maulik D; Roessig, Lothar; Chandross, Karen J; Green, Eric M; Patel, Bakul; Hamer, Andrew; Olgin, Jeffrey; Rumsfeld, John S; Roe, Matthew T; Peterson, Eric D
As we enter the information age of health care, digital health technologies offer significant opportunities to optimize both clinical care delivery and clinical research. Despite their potential, the use of such information technologies in clinical care and research faces major data quality, privacy, and regulatory concerns. In hopes of addressing both the promise and challenges facing digital health technologies in the transformation of health care, we convened a think tank meeting with academic, industry, and regulatory representatives in December 2016 in Washington, DC. In this paper, we summarize the proceedings of the think tank meeting and aim to delineate a framework for appropriately using digital health technologies in healthcare delivery and research. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. All rights reserved.
Ishigami, Akiko; Yokota, Chiaki; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Ohyama, Satoshi; Tomari, Shinya; Hino, Tenyu; Arimizu, Takuro; Wada, Shinichi; Toyoda, Kazunori; Minematsu, Kazuo
School-based intervention would be promising to spread stroke knowledge widely. This study aimed to clarify the effectiveness of our new educational aids that were developed for elementary school children to impart information about stroke to children and their parents in 2 different ways: with or without stroke lessons by a neurologist. We enrolled 562 children (aged 11 to 12 years) and their parents (n = 485). The students were divided into 2 groups: 323 received a lesson on stroke by a stroke neurologist without watching an animated cartoon (Group I), and 239 watched an animated cartoon without the lesson (Group II). All of the children took the manga home, and talked about stroke with their parents. Questionnaires on stroke knowledge were administered at baseline (BL), immediately after the lesson (IL), and 3 months (3M) after the lesson. There were significant increases in the adjusted mean scores for risk factors as well as stroke symptoms at 3M in both groups compared with BL scores, although the children in Group I scored significantly better than those in Group II at IL and 3M (P < .05). In both children and parents, the correct answer rates of the FAST mnemonic at 3M were around 90%, with no significant differences between groups. Stroke education for elementary school children using our educational aids provided knowledge of stroke symptoms to the children as well as their parents even without lessons on stroke, although a better understanding of stroke was obtained from lessons led by stroke neurologists. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nash, William P
.... The role of military mental health professionals in combat/operational stress control is to adapt scientific tools for prevention, identification, and treatment for use by military leaders at all levels...
In the UK, the General Medical Council clearly stipulates that upon completion of training, medical students should be able to discuss the principles underlying the development of health and health service policy, including issues relating to health economics. In response, researchers from the UK and other countries have called for a need to incorporate health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. The Health Economics education website was developed to encourage and support teaching and learning in health economics for medical students. It was designed to function both as a forum for teachers of health economics to communicate and to share resources and also to provide instantaneous access to supporting literature and teaching materials on health economics. The website provides a range of free online material that can be used by both health economists and non-health economists to teach the basic principles of the discipline. The Health Economics education website is the only online education resource that exists for teaching health economics to medical undergraduate students and it provides teachers of health economics with a range of comprehensive basic and advanced teaching materials that are freely available. This article presents the website as a tool to encourage the incorporation of health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. PMID:24034906
Oppong, Raymond; Mistry, Hema; Frew, Emma
In the UK, the General Medical Council clearly stipulates that upon completion of training, medical students should be able to discuss the principles underlying the development of health and health service policy, including issues relating to health economics. In response, researchers from the UK and other countries have called for a need to incorporate health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. The Health Economics education website was developed to encourage and support teaching and learning in health economics for medical students. It was designed to function both as a forum for teachers of health economics to communicate and to share resources and also to provide instantaneous access to supporting literature and teaching materials on health economics. The website provides a range of free online material that can be used by both health economists and non-health economists to teach the basic principles of the discipline. The Health Economics education website is the only online education resource that exists for teaching health economics to medical undergraduate students and it provides teachers of health economics with a range of comprehensive basic and advanced teaching materials that are freely available. This article presents the website as a tool to encourage the incorporation of health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula.
Cunningham, Thomas R; Sinclair, Raymond
Smaller firms are the majority in every industry in the US, and they endure a greater burden of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities than larger firms. Smaller firms often lack the necessary resources for effective occupational safety and health activities, and many require external assistance with safety and health programming. Based on previous work by researchers in Europe and New Zealand, NIOSH researchers developed for occupational safety and health intervention in small businesses. This model was evaluated with several intermediary organizations. Four case studies which describe efforts to reach small businesses with occupational safety and health assistance include the following: trenching safety training for construction, basic compliance and hazard recognition for general industry, expanded safety and health training for restaurants, and fall prevention and respirator training for boat repair contractors. Successful efforts included participation by the initiator among the intermediaries' planning activities, alignment of small business needs with intermediary offerings, continued monitoring of intermediary activities by the initiator, and strong leadership for occupational safety and health among intermediaries. Common challenges were a lack of resources among intermediaries, lack of opportunities for in-person meetings between intermediaries and the initiator, and balancing the exchanges in the initiator-intermediary-small business relationships. The model offers some encouragement that initiator organizations can contribute to sustainable OSH assistance for small firms, but they must depend on intermediaries who have compatible interests in smaller businesses and they must work to understand the small business social system.
Cunningham, Thomas R.; Sinclair, Raymond
Smaller firms are the majority in every industry in the US, and they endure a greater burden of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities than larger firms. Smaller firms often lack the necessary resources for effective occupational safety and health activities, and many require external assistance with safety and health programming. Based on previous work by researchers in Europe and New Zealand, NIOSH researchers developed for occupational safety and health intervention in small businesses. This model was evaluated with several intermediary organizations. Four case studies which describe efforts to reach small businesses with occupational safety and health assistance include the following: trenching safety training for construction, basic compliance and hazard recognition for general industry, expanded safety and health training for restaurants, and fall prevention and respirator training for boat repair contractors. Successful efforts included participation by the initiator among the intermediaries’ planning activities, alignment of small business needs with intermediary offerings, continued monitoring of intermediary activities by the initiator, and strong leadership for occupational safety and health among intermediaries. Common challenges were a lack of resources among intermediaries, lack of opportunities for in-person meetings between intermediaries and the initiator, and balancing the exchanges in the initiator–intermediary–small business relationships. The model offers some encouragement that initiator organizations can contribute to sustainable OSH assistance for small firms, but they must depend on intermediaries who have compatible interests in smaller businesses and they must work to understand the small business social system. PMID:26300585
Maldonado, Maria E; Fried, Ethan D; DuBose, Thomas D; Nelson, Consuelo; Breida, Margaret
Despite the 2002 Institute of Medicine report that described the moral and financial impact of health care disparities and the need to address them, it is evident that health care disparities persist. Recommendations for addressing disparities include collecting and reporting data on patient race and ethnicity, supporting language interpretation services, increasing awareness of health care disparities through education, requiring cultural competency training for all health care professionals, and increasing diversity among those delivering health care. The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education places strong emphasis on graduate medical education's role in eliminating health care disparities by asking medical educators to objectively evaluate and report on their trainees' ability to practice patient-centered, culturally competent care. Moreover, one of the objectives of the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education Clinical Learning Environment Review visits as part of the Next Accreditation System is to identify how sponsoring institutions engage residents and fellows in the use of data to improve systems of care, reduce health care disparities, and improve patient outcomes. Residency and fellowship programs should ensure the delivery of meaningful curricula on cultural competency and health care disparities, for which there are numerous resources, and ensure resident assessment of culturally competent care. Moreover, training programs and institutional leadership need to collaborate on ensuring data collection on patient satisfaction, outcomes, and quality measures that are broken down by patient race, cultural identification, and language. A diverse physician workforce is another strategy for mitigating health care disparities, and using strategies to enhance faculty diversity should also be a priority of graduate medical education. Transparent data about institutional diversity efforts should be provided to interested medical students
Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Tolhuis, Dorien
Marketeers and service providers increasingly turn to word of mouth (WOM) as a means to persuade and inform individuals regarding an organization, brand or product. Positive results have been reported within the commercial sector, but does WOM also work within the context of a health education
Full Text Available ... Out Away From Home Emotional Adjustment Kids Speak Research and Innovation Contact Us Celiac Disease Program | Videos Boston Children's Hospital will teach you and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ...
... Free Baking School Eating Out Away From Home Emotional Adjustment Kids Speak Research and Innovation Contact Us Celiac Disease Program | Videos Boston Children's Hospital will teach you and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ...
Full Text Available ... Free Baking School Eating Out Away From Home Emotional Adjustment Kids Speak Research and Innovation Contact Us Celiac Disease Program | Videos Boston Children's Hospital will teach you and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ...
Vrangbæk, Karsten; Arrevaara, Timo; Hansen, Hanne Foss
reveals patterns and constraints in different institutional settings. The paper concludes that Denmark and Norway initially tried to shelter the health care and higher education sectors, but they have moved on to more radical strategic responses as the crisis has persisted. Many similarities in the crisis...
Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.
This module on medical terminology (prefixes) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to prefixes, a list of resources needed, and three learning experiences. Each learning experience contains an…
Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.
This module on medical terminology (suffixes) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to the module topic, a list of resources needed, and three learning experiences. The first two learning…
From dating violence to sexting and social networking, districts are struggling to address a number of sensitive and relatively new health education issues that are aggravated by students' increasing access to computers, cell phones and other digital devices. Through new or revised curricula, administrators are attempting to deal with these and…
Harbit, Maryanne Drake; Willis, Dawn
Lyme disease may be one of the most commonly misdiagnosed diseases of this decade. Health educators should be knowledgeable about this new disease and be able to share with the public information about prevention, early signs and symptoms, and treatment of the disease (Author/IAH)
Full Text Available ... From Home Emotional Adjustment Kids Speak Research and Innovation Contact Us Celiac Disease Program | Videos Boston Children's Hospital will teach you and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ...
Full Text Available ... Boston Children's Hospital will teach you and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ease and allow children with celiac disease to live happy and productive lives. Each of our video segments ... I. Introduction : Experiencing ...
Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.
Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…
Logren, Aija; Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana
This study examines how group members' questions shape member participation in health counselling and health education groups. The study applies conversation analytic principles as a method. The data consist of video-recorded health education lessons in secondary school and health counselling sessions for adults with a high risk of Type 2 diabetes. Group members' questions accomplish a temporary change in participatory roles. They are used to 1) request counselling, 2) do counselling or 3) challenge previous talk. They are usually treated as relevant and legitimate actions by the participants, but are occasionally interpreted as transitions outside the current action or topic. Group members' questions result in a shift from leader-driven to member-driven discussion. Thus they constitute a pivot point for detecting changes in participation in group interventions. Observing the occurrence of group members' questions helps group leaders to adjust their own actions accordingly and thus facilitate or guide group participation. Comparison of the type and frequency of members' questions is a way to detect different trajectories for delivering group interventions and can thus be used to develop methods for process evaluation of interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Learmonth, Yvonne C; Adamson, Brynn C; Balto, Julia M; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Molina-Guzman, Isabel M; Finlayson, Marcia; Riskin, Barry J; Motl, Robert W
There is increasing recognition of the benefits of exercise in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet the MS population does not engage in sufficient amounts of exercise to accrue health benefits. There has been little qualitative inquiry to establish the preferred format and source for receiving exercise information from health-care providers among persons with MS. We sought to identify the desired and preferred format and source of exercise information for persons with MS that can be delivered through health-care providers. Participants were adults with MS who had mild or moderate disability and participated in a range of exercise levels. All participants lived in the Midwest of the United States. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. Two themes emerged, (i) approach for receiving exercise promotion and (ii) ideal person for promoting exercise. Persons with MS want to receive exercise information through in-person consultations with health-care providers, print media and electronic media. Persons with MS want to receive exercise promotion from health-care providers with expertise in MS (ie neurologists) and with expertise in exercise (eg physical therapists). These data support the importance of understanding how to provide exercise information to persons with MS and identifying that health-care providers including neurologists and physical therapists should be involved in exercise promotion. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Conde, José G; De, Suvranu; Hall, Richard W; Johansen, Edward; Meglan, Dwight; Peng, Grace C Y
Telehealth applications are increasingly important in many areas of health education and training. In addition, they will play a vital role in biomedical research and research training by facilitating remote collaborations and providing access to expensive/remote instrumentation. In order to fulfill their true potential to leverage education, training, and research activities, innovations in telehealth applications should be fostered across a range of technology fronts, including online, on-demand computational models for simulation; simplified interfaces for software and hardware; software frameworks for simulations; portable telepresence systems; artificial intelligence applications to be applied when simulated human patients are not options; and the development of more simulator applications. This article presents the results of discussion on potential areas of future development, barries to overcome, and suggestions to translate the promise of telehealth applications into a transformed environment of training, education, and research in the health sciences.
Brinker, Titus Josef; Owczarek, Andreas Dawid; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David Alexander; Brieske, Christian Martin; Jansen, Philipp; Klode, Joachim; Stoffels, Ingo; Schadendorf, Dirk; Izar, Benjamin; Fries, Fabian Norbert; Hofmann, Felix Johannes
More than 8.5 million Germans suffer from chronic diseases attributable to smoking. Education Against Tobacco (EAT) is a multinational network of medical students who volunteer for school-based prevention in the classroom setting, amongst other activities. EAT has been implemented in 28 medical schools in Germany and is present in 13 additional countries around the globe. A recent quasi-experimental study showed significant short-term smoking cessation effects on 11-to-15-year-old adolescents. The aim of this study was to provide the first randomized long-term evaluation of the optimized 2014 EAT curriculum involving a photoaging software for its effectiveness in reducing the smoking prevalence among 11-to-15-year-old pupils in German secondary schools. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken with 1504 adolescents from 9 German secondary schools, aged 11-15 years in grades 6-8, of which 718 (47.74%) were identifiable for the prospective sample at the 12-month follow-up. The experimental study design included measurements at baseline (t1), 6 months (t2), and 12 months postintervention (t3), via questionnaire. The study groups consisted of 40 randomized classes that received the standardized EAT intervention (two medical student-led interactive modules taking 120 minutes total) and 34 control classes within the same schools (no intervention). The primary endpoint was the difference in smoking prevalence from t1 to t3 in the control group versus the difference from t1 to t3 in the intervention group. The differences in smoking behavior (smoking onset, quitting) between the two groups, as well as gender-specific effects, were studied as secondary outcomes. None of the effects were significant due to a high loss-to-follow-up effect (52.26%, 786/1504). From baseline to the two follow-up time points, the prevalence of smoking increased from 3.1% to 5.2% to 7.2% in the control group and from 3.0% to 5.4% to 5.8% in the intervention group (number needed to treat [NNT
Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth; Armstrong, Brian; Kuo, Mu-Hsing
The paper describes the authors' work in the area of health informatics (HI) education involving emerging health information technologies. A range of information technologies promise to modernize health care. Foremost among these are electronic health records (EHRs), which are expected to significantly improve and streamline health care practice. Major national and international efforts are currently underway to increase EHR adoption. However, there have been numerous issues affecting the widespread use of such information technology, ranging from a complex array of technical problems to social issues. This paper describes work in the integration of information technologies directly into the education and training of HI students at both the undergraduate and graduate level. This has included work in (a) the development of Web-based computer tools and platforms to allow students to have hands-on access to the latest technologies and (b) development of interdisciplinary educational models that can be used to guide integrating information technologies into HI education. The paper describes approaches that allow for remote hands-on access by HI students to a range of EHRs and related technology. To date, this work has been applied in HI education in a variety of ways. Several approaches for integration of this essential technology into HI education and training are discussed, along with future directions for the integration of EHR technology into improving and informing the education of future health and HI professionals.
Haidari, A M; Zaidi, S; Gul, R
This study explored the readiness of stakeholders in Afghanistan for sustaining delivery of the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) without external technical and financial assistance. A stakeholder analysis was applied using qualitative methods. Fifteen stakeholders were purposively drawn from the Afghanistan ministries of public health and finance, political representatives, development partners, nonprofit organizations and public health experts. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with the stakeholders and desk review of pertinent documents. We found that sustainability of the BPHS in Afghanistan is questionable as stakeholders are suboptimally organized to come up with effective alternatives. Uneven ownership and divisive positioning are bottlenecks to the evolution of a realistic continuation plan. Those with the most significant influence are lukewarm, while those who are most supportive have the least influence. Sustainability needs to be tackled at the start in designing the BPHS rather than in the wake of eventual donor withdrawal.
Sriranganathan, Gobika; Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Flicker, Sarah; Campbell, Lisa; Flynn, Susan; Janssen, Jesse; Erlich, Leah
Peer education is used as a health promotion strategy in a number of areas, including sexual health. Although peer education programmes have been around for some time, published systematic evaluations of youth sexual health peer education programmes are rare. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of youth sexual health peer…
Hadjistavropoulos, H D; Nugent, M M; Dirkse, D; Pugh, N
Depression and anxiety are prevalent and under treated conditions that create enormous burden for the patient and the health system. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) improves patient access to treatment by providing therapeutic information via the Internet, presented in sequential lessons, accompanied by brief weekly therapist support. While there is growing research supporting ICBT, use of ICBT within community mental health clinics is limited. In a recent trial, an external unit specializing in ICBT facilitated use of ICBT in community mental health clinics in one Canadian province (ISRCTN42729166; registered November 5, 2013). Patient outcomes were very promising and uptake was encouraging. This paper reports on a parallel process evaluation designed to understand facilitators and barriers impacting the uptake and implementation of ICBT. Therapists (n = 22) and managers (n = 11) from seven community mental health clinics dispersed across one Canadian province who were involved in implementing ICBT over ~2 years completed an online survey (including open and closed-ended questions) about ICBT experiences. The questions were based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), which outlines diverse constructs that have the potential to impact program implementation. Analyses suggested ICBT implementation was perceived to be most prominently facilitated by intervention characteristics (namely the relative advantages of ICBT compared to face-to-face therapy, the quality of the ICBT program that was delivered, and evidence supporting ICBT) and implementation processes (namely the use of an external facilitation unit that aided with engaging patients, therapists, and managers and ICBT implementation). The inner setting was identified as the most significant barrier to implementation as a result of limited resources for ICBT combined with greater priority given to face-to-face care. The results contribute to understanding
Wauchope, Bronwyn; Terlich, Alissa; Lee, Stuart
As community mental health services integrate recovery-oriented practices, treatments that focus on skills development and social integration are desirable. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of implementing "Rel8", an 8-week social skills training group adapted to suit a public community mental health setting. A retrospective audit was conducted of quantitative and qualitative data from four groups run between 2011 and 2013. Pre- and post-group measures were collected, assessing self-rated friendships and confidence with social skills and clinician-rated social skill performance. Qualitative feedback about group participation was also collected through use of a developed questionnaire. Analysis revealed significant improvements in participants' confidence with their social skills following group participation, with a trend also found for improved social skill performance. "Rel8", an adapted 8-week social skills training group, is a feasible program in the context of community mental health services. The program added to the recovery-centred practice of the community mental health service while also adding to the diversity of clinician skills for psychosocial-oriented practice. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Bodin, M.; Habib, E. H.; Meselhe, E. A.; Visser, J.; Chimmula, S.
Utilizing advances in hydrologic research and technology, learning modules can be developed to deliver visual, case-based, data and simulation driven educational experiences. This paper focuses on the development of web modules based on case studies in Coastal Louisiana, one of three ecosystems that comprise an ongoing hydrology education online system called HydroViz. The Chenier Plain ecosystem in Coastal Louisiana provides an abundance of concepts and scenarios appropriate for use in many undergraduate water resource and hydrology curricula. The modules rely on a set of hydrologic data collected within the Chenier Plain along with inputs and outputs of eco-hydrology and vegetation-change simulation models that were developed to analyze different restoration and protection projects within the 2012 Louisiana Costal Master Plan. The modules begin by investigating the basic features of the basin and it hydrologic characteristics. The eco-hydrology model is then introduced along with its governing equations, numerical solution scheme and how it represents the study domain. Concepts on water budget in a coastal basin are then introduced using the simulation model inputs, outputs and boundary conditions. The complex relationships between salinity, water level and vegetation changes are then investigated through the use of the simulation models and associated field data. Other student activities focus on using the simulation models to evaluate tradeoffs and impacts of actual restoration and protection projects that were proposed as part of 2012 Louisiana Master Plan. The hands-on learning activities stimulate student learning of hydrologic and water management concepts by providing real-world context and opportunity to build fundamental knowledge as well as practical skills. The modules are delivered through a carefully designed user interface using open source and free technologies which enable wide dissemination and encourage adaptation by others.
Soucy, Joelle N; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D
While cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an established treatment for health anxiety, there are barriers to service access. Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has demonstrated effectiveness and has the potential to improve access to treatment. Nevertheless, it is unknown how patients perceive ICBT relative to other interventions for health anxiety and what factors predict ICBT acceptability. This study investigated these questions. Primary care patients (N = 116) who reported elevated levels of health anxiety were presented three treatment vignettes that each described a different protocol for health anxiety (i.e., medication, CBT, ICBT). Acceptability and credibility of the treatments were assessed following the presentation of each vignette. Participants then ranked the three treatments and provided a rational for their preferences. The treatments were similarly rated as moderately acceptable. Relative to medication and ICBT, CBT was perceived as the most credible treatment for health anxiety. The highest preference ranks were for CBT and medication. Regression analyses indicated that lower computer anxiety, past medication use, and lower ratings of negative cognitions about difficulty coping with an illness significantly predicted greater ICBT acceptability. Health anxiety was not assessed with a diagnostic interview. Primary care patients were recruited through a Qualtrics panel. Patients did not have direct experience with treatment but learned about treatment options through vignettes. Medication and CBT are preferred over ICBT. If ICBT is to increase treatment access, methods of improving perceptions of this treatment option are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Woelber, J P; Hilbert, T S; Ratka-Krüger, P
For the production of computer-based learning environments, a wide range of software solutions can be used which differ not only in their functionality but also vary in cost and ease to program. The aim of our study was to evaluate the overall efficiency and student's perception of two case-based e-learning programs that were produced with either an easy-to-use or a complex software. Eighty-five dental students were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups. One group studied with a laborious, high-interactive e-learning program (complex-software group). The second group studied within a low-interactive learning environment (easy-software group) that was easy to be programmed. Both programs identically referred to a case report on localised aggressive periodontitis. Learning outcome was tested by a pre- and post-test. Furthermore, questionnaires on workload, motivation, perceived usefulness and perceived learning outcome were used. Learners in the easy-software group showed better results in the post-test F(1, 82) = 4.173, P software tools have the potential to be beneficial in dental education. Students were showing a high acceptance and ability in using both e-learning environments. We conclude that e-learning programs for case-based learning do not have to be overly laborious to program to be useful. Based on our results, we want to encourage instructors to produce case-based e-learning tools with easy-to-use software. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Neafsey, P J; Strickler, Z; Shellman, J; Padula, A T
Preventing Drug Interactions in Active Older Adults is an educational intervention to prevent prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drug and alcohol interactions in active, community-living older adults. The objectives of the program are to increase older adults' knowledge of potential interactions of prescription medications with OTC drugs and alcohol and to increase their confidence (self-efficacy) about how to avoid such interactions. An interactive multimedia computer software program (Personal Education Program or PEP) was designed for the learning styles and psychomotor skills of older adults. Focus groups of older adults evaluated PEP components in a formative manner during development. The program content dealing with antacids, calcium supplements, and acid reducers was pilot tested with 60 older adults recruited from local senior centers. Participants used the PEP on notebook computers equipped with infrared-sensitive touchscreens. Users of PEP had greater knowledge and self-efficacy scores than controls. Participants indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the PEP and reported their intent to make specific changes in self-medication behaviors.
Mistretta, Erin G; Davis, Mary C; Temkit, M'hamed; Lorenz, Christopher; Darby, Betty; Stonnington, Cynthia M
The aim of this study was to assess whether an in-person mindfulness-based resilience training (MBRT) program or a smartphone-delivered resiliency-based intervention improved stress, well-being, and burnout in employees at a major tertiary health care institution. Sixty participants were randomized to a 6-week MBRT, a resiliency-based smartphone intervention, or an active control group. Stress, well-being, and burnout were assessed at baseline, at program completion, and 3 months postintervention. Both the MBRT and the smartphone groups showed improvements in well-being, whereas only the MBRT group showed improvements in stress and emotional burnout over time. The control group did not demonstrate sustained improvement on any outcome. Findings suggest that brief, targeted interventions improve psychological outcomes and point to the need for larger scale studies comparing the individual and combined treatments that can inform development of tailored, effective, and low-cost programs for health care workers.
Raul Rodrigues Cipriano Sousa
Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is, without a doubt, the food that provides all the nutrients essential for the healthy growth and development of children. Through effective breastfeeding practices, it is possible to prevent several chronic noncommunicable diseases in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Objective: To investigate the relevance of using an educational strategy in breastfeeding promotion. Methods: It was a descriptive study with uncontrolled analytical approach conducted with 36 mothers of children under 2 years of age about breastfeeding, through an educational intervention using the booklet “Breastfeeding: an act of love”. Data collection took place in two moments (pre-test and post-test. Ethics Committee approved the project under protocol No. 058657. Results: Data analysis revealed that 41.6% of the interviewees stated that they did not receive guidance about breast problems from any professional during prenatal care, and 22% reported having presented nipple fissures. Regarding the initiation of breastfeeding, 11.1% of the women interviewed did not knowthe importance of colostrum, and 30.6% did not know its benefits. Assessment of the mothers’ knowledge before and after the intervention obtained a percentage of correctness of 50.7% and 70%, respectively. Conclusion: The educational activity to encourage breastfeeding was able to increase the mothers’ knowledge about breastfeeding and its health benefits for women and children. It is imperative to carry out activities such as the one proposed in this study, which enables the prevention of several problems that directly affect the health of families, acting effectively to promote a solid knowledge for the population. Keywords: Breast Feeding. Child Health. Health Education. Infant Nutrition. Food and Nutrition Education.
Birch, David A.; Priest, Hannah M.; Mitchell, Qshequilla P.
Advocacy at the local school or school district level has received emphasis as a strategy for improving school health education. The involvement of health educators in advocacy for school health education has been described as "imperative" at all levels of school-based policy. Allensworth's 2010 Society for Public Health Education…
Salinas, Judith; Muñoz, Carolina; Albagli, Andrea; Araya, Gloria; Vio, Fernando
The objective of this paper is to present the distance education's contribution to developing health promotion in Chile, through evaluation of a postgraduate certificate program for professionals, and a training course for nurse technicians working in primary healthcare, with an 8-month follow-up after program completion. The program methodology was participatory, interactive and reflective, with mentoring support, exercises, group work and discussions as well as content pertinent to the needs of practice. The evaluation was quali-quantitative with an analysis of the student profile, the implementation process, outcomes at the end of the training and impacts on workplace changes. The results showed a high rate of student approval (87 and 76%), good academic performance and a high level of satisfaction with the methodology and knowledge delivered. The participants' final projects were adapted to local work places realities and were implemented by 62.6% of technicians and 43% of professionals, in addition to changes in work practices that favor health promotion. The level of fulfillment of participants' expectations was very high and the most frequent barriers to implementing the final project were lack of time and personnel, along with minimal support from management and low prioritization of health promotion. This study shows the effectiveness of a distance training model for professionals and technicians that can reach the most remote parts of the country, where there is no access to presencial training, with an educational program centered on work activities and current health challenges. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Ibrahim, Hatim G.
The current study aims to identify the utilization of innovations and techniques of educational technology in teaching of educational practicum and its impact on increasing academic achievement among pre-service teachers. The study sample consisted of (60) pre-service teachers (student teachers) randomly selected from public middle and secondary…
Grundy, A C; Walker, L; Meade, O; Fraser, C; Cree, L; Bee, P; Lovell, K; Callaghan, P
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: There is consistent evidence that service users and carers feel marginalized in the process of mental health care planning. Mental health professionals have identified ongoing training needs in relation to involving service users and carers in care planning. There is limited research on the acceptability of training packages for mental health professionals which involve service users and carers as co-facilitators. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: A co-produced and co-delivered training package on service user- and carer-involved care planning was acceptable to mental health professionals. Aspects of the training that were particularly valued were the co-production model, small group discussion and the opportunity for reflective practice. The organizational context of care planning may need more consideration in future training models. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Mental health nurses using co-production models of delivering training to other mental health professionals can be confident that such initiatives will be warmly welcomed, acceptable and engaging. On the basis of the results reported here, we encourage mental health nurses to use co-production approaches more often. Further research will show how clinically effective this training is in improving outcomes for service users and carers. Background There is limited evidence for the acceptability of training for mental health professionals on service user- and carer-involved care planning. Aim To investigate the acceptability of a co-delivered, two-day training intervention on service user- and carer-involved care planning. Methods Community mental health professionals were invited to complete the Training Acceptability Rating Scale post-training. Responses to the quantitative items were summarized using descriptive statistics (Miles, ), and qualitative responses were coded using content analysis (Weber, ). Results Of 350 trainees, 310 completed the
Lee, Stuart J; Collister, Laura; Stafrace, Simon; Crowther, Elizabeth; Kroschel, Jon; Kulkarni, Jayashri
This research was conducted in order to explore the experience of care and outcomes for people entering a bed-based step-up/step-down Prevention and Recovery Centre (PARC). An audit of files for PARC participants in 2010 collected demographic (age, gender, and marital, housing, employment and education/training status) and clinical measures (length of stay, entry and exit outcome measures, psychiatric hospital use). Participants were also invited to a feedback group to discuss their PARC experience. In 2010, 118 people entered PARC. Most were single and unemployed and 35% were in temporary housing or homeless. In the six months following PARC exit, participants spent significantly less time in psychiatric hospital than in the six months prior to entry (precovery for people with mental illness through promoting independence and illness self-management. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.
Slattery, Brian W; Haugh, Stephanie; Francis, Kady; O'Connor, Laura; Barrett, Katie; Dwyer, Christopher P; O'Higgins, Siobhan; Egan, Jonathan; McGuire, Brian E
As eHealth interventions prove both efficacious and practical, and as they arguably overcome certain barriers encountered by traditional face-to-face treatment for chronic pain, their number has increased dramatically in recent times. However, there is a dearth of research that focuses on evaluating and comparing the different types of technology-assisted interventions. This is a protocol for a systematic review that aims to evaluate the eHealth modalities in the context of psychological and non-psychological (other than non-drug) interventions for chronic pain. We will search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL: The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with more than 20 participants per trial arm that have evaluated non-drug psychological or non-psychological interventions delivered via an eHealth modality and have pain as an outcome measure will be included. Two review authors will independently extract data and assess the study suitability in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool. Studies will be included if they measure at least one outcome variable in accordance with the IMMPACT guidelines (i.e. pain severity, pain interference, physical functioning, symptoms, emotional functioning, global improvement and disposition). Secondary outcomes will be measures of depression and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A network meta-analysis will be conducted based on direct comparisons to generate indirect comparisons of modalities across treatment trials, which will return rankings for the eHealth modalities in terms of their effectiveness. Most trials that use an eHealth intervention to manage chronic pain typically use one modality. As a result, little evidence exists to support which modality type is the most effective. The current review will address this gap in the literature and compare the different eHealth modalities used for technology-assisted interventions for
Dal Poz Mario
Full Text Available Abstract Background A key constraint to saturating coverage of interventions for reducing the burden of childhood illnesses in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC is the lack of human resources. Community health workers (CHW are potentially important actors in bridging this gap. Evidence exists on effectiveness of CHW in management of some childhood illnesses (IMCI. However, we need to know how and when this comes to be. We examine evidence from randomized control trials (RCT on CHW interventions in IMCI in LMIC from a realist perspective with the aim to see if they can yield insight into the working of the interventions, when examined from a different perspective. Methods The realist approach involves educing the mechanisms through which an intervention produced an outcome in a particular context. 'Mechanisms' are reactions, triggered by the interaction of the intervention and a certain context, which lead to change. These are often only implicit and are actually hypothesized by the reviewer. This review is limited to unravelling these from the RCTs; it is thus a hypothesis generating exercise. Results Interventions to improve CHW performance included 'Skills based training of CHW', 'Supervision and referral support from public health services', 'Positioning of CHW in the community'. When interventions were applied in context of CHW programs embedded in local health services, with beneficiaries who valued services and had unmet needs, the interventions worked if following mechanisms were triggered: anticipation of being valued by the community; perception of improvement in social status; sense of relatedness with beneficiaries and public services; increase in self esteem; sense of self efficacy and enactive mastery of tasks; sense of credibility, legitimacy and assurance that there was a system for back-up support. Studies also showed that if context differed, even with similar interventions, negative mechanisms could be triggered
Full Text Available Common mental disorders like mood and anxiety disorders and somatoform disorders have high costs, yet under-treatment is still frequent. Many people with common mental disorders are employed, so the workplace is potentially a suitable context in which to provide early treatment. Our study investigates whether a change of setting (workplace versus standard care improves access to treatment for common mental disorders.Conditional latent profile analysis was applied to identify user profiles for work ability (WAI, clinical symptoms like depression (patient health questionnaire depression, PHQ-9, health-related quality of life (QoL, SF-12, and work-related stress (Maslach Burnout Inventory, irritation scale. Patients were recruited consecutively, via psychotherapeutic consultation in the workplace (n = 174 or psychotherapeutic consultation in outpatient care (n = 193.We identified four user profiles in our model: 'severe' (n = 99, 'moderate I-low QoL' (n = 88, 'moderate II-low work ability' (n = 83, and 'at risk' (n = 97. The 'at risk' profile encompassed individuals with reduced work ability (36.0, 34.73 to 37.37, only mild clinical symptoms (PHQ-9 5.7, 4.92 to 6.53, no signs of work-related stress and good quality of life. A higher proportion of the 'at risk' group than of the 'severe' group sought help via the psychotherapeutic consultation in the workplace (OR 0.287, P < 0.01; this effect remained after controlling for gender.Offering secondary mental health care in the workplace is feasible and accepted by users. Offering treatment in the workplace as an alternative to standard outpatient settings is a viable strategy for improving access to treatment for common mental disorders.
Reeve, Joanne; Cooper, Lucy; Harrington, Sean; Rosbottom, Peter; Watkins, Jane
Health services face the challenges created by complex problems, and so need complex intervention solutions. However they also experience ongoing difficulties in translating findings from research in this area in to quality improvement changes on the ground. BounceBack was a service development innovation project which sought to examine this issue through the implementation and evaluation in a primary care setting of a novel complex intervention. The project was a collaboration between a local mental health charity, an academic unit, and GP practices. The aim was to translate the charity's model of care into practice-based evidence describing delivery and impact. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was used to support the implementation of the new model of primary mental health care into six GP practices. An integrated process evaluation evaluated the process and impact of care. Implementation quickly stalled as we identified problems with the described model of care when applied in a changing and variable primary care context. The team therefore switched to using the NPT framework to support the systematic identification and modification of the components of the complex intervention: including the core components that made it distinct (the consultation approach) and the variable components (organisational issues) that made it work in practice. The extra work significantly reduced the time available for outcome evaluation. However findings demonstrated moderately successful implementation of the model and a suggestion of hypothesised changes in outcomes. The BounceBack project demonstrates the development of a complex intervention from practice. It highlights the use of Normalisation Process Theory to support development, and not just implementation, of a complex intervention; and describes the use of the research process in the generation of practice-based evidence. Implications for future translational complex intervention research supporting practice change
Haddow, Gill; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Heaney, David
To explore stakeholder perspectives of the implementation of a new, national integrated nurse-led telephone advice and consultation service [National Health Service 24 (NHS 24)], comparing the views of stakeholders from different health care organizations. Semi-structured interviews with 26 stakeholders including partner organizations located in primary and secondary unscheduled care settings [general practitioner (GP) out-of-hours cooperative; accident and emergency department; national ambulance service, members of NHS 24 and national policy makers. Attendance at key meetings, documentary review and email implementation diaries provided a contextual history of events with which interview data could be compared. The contextual history of events highlighted a fast-paced implementation process, with little time for reflection. Key areas of partner concern were increasing workload, the clinical safety of nurse triage and the lack of communication across the organizations. Concerns were most apparent within the GP out-of-hours cooperative, leading to calls for the dissolution of the partnership. Accident and emergency and ambulance service responses were more conciliatory, suggesting that such problems were to be expected within the developmental phase of a new organization. Further exploration of these responses highlighted the sense of ownership within the GP cooperative, with GPs having both financial and philosophical ownership of the cooperative. This was not apparent within the other two partner organizations, in particular the ambulance service, which operated on a regional model very similar to that of NHS 24. As the delivery of unscheduled primary health care crosses professional boundaries and locations, different organizations and professional groups must develop new ways of partnership working, developing trust and confidence in each other. The results of this study highlight, for the first time, the key importance of understanding the professional
Elangovan, Gayathri Priyadarshni; Muthu, Jananni; Periyasamy, Indra Kumar; Balu, Pratebha; Kumar, R Saravana
The differences in the oral health status between the individuals with a high socioeconomic status (SES) and those with a low SES had markedly increased. There is, however, minimal information available on women understanding the need of dental hygiene for overall health and whether pregnant women comply with the current oral health strategies. In Lieu with the above, the present study aims to assess the awareness, dental hygiene practices, and the frequency of dental visits during pregnancy in postnatal women who delivered preterm low birth weight babies of different SES in and around Puducherry. A total of 200 individuals who visited Rajiv Gandhi Maternity Centre, Puducherry for delivery were selected. Information regarding onset of prenatal care, referral to dentist, and oral hygiene habits such as frequency of brushing, type of brush used, method of brushing, and frequency of brush change were obtained. Periodontal health status was recorded using PSR system. Awareness of oral hygiene practices was more among upper middle class and lower middle class compared to upper lower strata. Visit to dentist during perinatal period was high among upper middle class compared to other socioeconomic strata. The awareness of oral health-care practices and importance of oral care during perinatal period were less among low socioeconomic strata.
Gayathri Priyadarshni Elangovan
Full Text Available Background: The differences in the oral health status between the individuals with a high socioeconomic status (SES and those with a low SES had markedly increased. There is, however, minimal information available on women understanding the need of dental hygiene for overall health and whether pregnant women comply with the current oral health strategies. In Lieu with the above, the present study aims to assess the awareness, dental hygiene practices, and the frequency of dental visits during pregnancy in postnatal women who delivered preterm low birth weight babies of different SES in and around Puducherry. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 individuals who visited Rajiv Gandhi Maternity Centre, Puducherry for delivery were selected. Information regarding onset of prenatal care, referral to dentist, and oral hygiene habits such as frequency of brushing, type of brush used, method of brushing, and frequency of brush change were obtained. Periodontal health status was recorded using PSR system. Results: Awareness of oral hygiene practices was more among upper middle class and lower middle class compared to upper lower strata. Visit to dentist during perinatal period was high among upper middle class compared to other socioeconomic strata. Conclusions: The awareness of oral health-care practices and importance of oral care during perinatal period were less among low socioeconomic strata.
In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP) aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam) chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important steps. However, a much higher
Full Text Available Abstract In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important
Rohwer, John; Wandberg, Bob
New threats to the health of American children, often psychosocial in nature due to societal changes, must be addressed. The Minnesota School Health Education Model is based on the integration of four primary components: (1) school health education goals aimed at health promotion, disease prevention, and long-term positive health effects on…
Chang, Esther; Daly, John; Bell, Pamela; Brown, Tracey; Allan, Jan; Hancock, Karen
Australian nurses (n=202) participated in mental health continuing education delivered via distance methods and regional workshops in rural areas. The majority increased content knowledge and thought audio- and videotapes were effective despite technical difficulties; 90% felt the experiential learning workshops and distance modules integrated…
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Marzari, Carla Kowalski; Junges, José Roque; Selli, Lucilda
This research discusses the profile and education of the community health agents. There is no clarity about the kind of professional needed and the appropriate training to the fulfillment of the function. The research is a case study with exploratory methodology and qualitative approach. The data was collected with a focused group, formed by ten agents, intentional selected from those with more time in service in Family Health Strategy teams from the municipality of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State. The discussions were recorded and transcribed by the researcher. The data was interpreted by content analysis. The results pointed to some important questions concerning the identity of the community health agents: integration on the health team, insertion in the community, profile and education. The profile which emerges from the research, is not different from the one proposed by the Ministry of Health. However, the difference is the professionalization, an initiative assumed by the agent, guided by reality, which he faces in his activity. The gaps, perceived in his formation, cause the agent to construct his professional identity, determined more by the technical aspect of the scientific knowledge than by his social competence as a community agent.
Eva Zafra Aparici
Full Text Available Using a theoretical-reflexive approach, this article connects the results of various qualitative studies in social conflict and medical anthropology, in order to investigate how food can be a tool for social transformation in terms of health but also in terms of the dialogue, respect and coexistence among people, groups and communities. In this sense the article presents a first approximation to a new theoretical and methodological approach to food education. In this approach, food adopts a political, sociocultural and participatory perspective that brings us closer to an innovative understanding of the phenomenon of food: not only as an analytic and diagnostic tool, but also as an instrument for health education interventions toward conflict resolution and the promotion of healthier societies overall – nutritionally, but also in terms of equality and social cohesion.
Mahoney, Beverly Saxton, Ed.; Olsen, Larry K., Ed.
This handbook provides background information on the health curriculum, as well as current, comprehensive information on publications, standards, and special materials for K-12 health education. The manual begins with an introduction, by P. Bruce Uhrmacher, which provides an overview of the ideologies and philosophies that have affected curriculum…
Reavley, Nicola J; McCann, Terence V; Jorm, Anthony F
With approximately 50% of young people aged 18-24 in tertiary education, these are potential settings for programmes to improve mental health literacy. A survey was carried out with students and staff of a tertiary education institution to investigate recognition of depression, help-seeking intentions, beliefs about interventions and stigmatizing attitudes. Students of an Australian metropolitan university (with staff as a comparison group) participated in a telephone interview. They answered questions relating to mental health literacy. Of the completed interviews, 774 (65%) were students and 422 (35%) were staff. Over 70% of students and staff were able to recognize depression in a vignette, with greater likelihood of recognition in students associated with older age, female gender, being born in Australia and a higher level of education. Over 80% of respondents said they would seek help if they had a problem similar to that of the vignette. However, rates of specific help-seeking intentions for students were relatively low, with only 26% nominating a general practitioner and only 10% nominating a student counsellor. Factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes included male gender, younger age, lower level of education, being born outside Australia and lack of recognition of depression. There is a need for mental health literacy interventions targeted at students, particularly those who are younger, male, born outside Australia and of a lower level of education. As rates of specific help-seeking intentions for students were relatively low, there is a need for further exploration of the barriers to help seeking from professional sources. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Matthews, Lynda R; Pockett, Rosalie B; Nisbet, Gillian; Thistlethwaite, Jill E; Dunston, Roger; Lee, Alison; White, Jill F
A substantial literature engaging with the directions and experiences of stakeholders involved in interprofessional health education exists at the international level, yet almost nothing has been published that documents and analyses the Australian experience. Accordingly, this study aimed to scope the experiences of key stakeholders in health and higher education in relation to the development of interprofessional practice capabilities in health graduates in Australia. Twenty-seven semi-structured interviews and two focus groups of key stakeholders involved in the development and delivery of interprofessional health education in Australian higher education were undertaken. Interview data were coded to identify categories that were organised into key themes, according to principles of thematic analysis. Three themes were identified: the need for common ground between health and higher education, constraints and enablers in current practice, and the need for research to establish an evidence base. Five directions for national development were also identified. The study identified a range of interconnected changes that will be required to successfully mainstream interprofessional education within Australia, in particular, the importance of addressing issues of culture change and the need for a nationally coordinated and research informed approach. These findings reiterate those found in the international literature.
Peluso, Michael J; Hafler, Janet P; Sipsma, Heather; Cherlin, Emily
While global health (GH) opportunities have expanded at schools of medicine, nursing, and public health, few examples of interprofessional approaches to GH education have been described. The elective GH program at our university serves as an important opportunity for high-quality interprofessional education. We undertook a qualitative study to examine the experience of student, faculty and administrative leaders of the program. We used content analysis to code responses and analyze data. Among the leadership, key themes fell within the categories of interprofessional education, student-faculty collaboration, professional development, and practical considerations for the development of such programs. The principles described could be considered by institutions seeking to develop meaningful partnerships in an effort to develop or refine interprofessional global health education programs.
Katyal, Anuradha; Singh, Prabal Vikram; Bergkvist, Sofi; Samarth, Amit; Rao, Mala
Poor quality care in public sector hospitals coupled with the costs of care in the private sector have trapped India's poor in a vicious cycle of poverty, ill health and debt for many decades. To address this, the governments of Andhra Pradesh (AP) and Maharashtra (MH), India, have attempted to improve people's access to hospital care by partnering with the private sector. A number of government-sponsored schemes with differing specifications have been launched to facilitate this strategy. This article aims to compare changes in access to, and affordability and efficiency of private and public hospital inpatient (IP) treatments between MH and AP from 2004 to 2012 and to assess whether the health financing innovations in one state resulted in larger or smaller benefits compared with the other. We used data from household surveys conducted in 2004 and 2012 in the two states and undertook a difference-in-difference (DID) analysis. The results focus on hospitalization, out-of-pocket expenditure and length of stay. The average IP expenditure for private hospital care has increased in both states, but more so in MH. There was also an observable increase in both utilization of and expenditure on nephrology treatment in private hospitals in AP. The duration of stay recorded in days for private hospitals has increased slightly in MH and declined in AP with a significant DID. The utilization of public hospitals has reduced in AP and increased in MH. The state of AP appears to have benefited more than MH in terms of improved access to care by involving the private sector. The Aarogyasri scheme is likely to have contributed to these impacts in AP at least in part. Our study needs to be followed up with repeated evaluations to ascertain the long-term impacts of involving the private sector in providing hospital care. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2015; all rights reserved.
Win, Khin Than; Hassan, Naffisah Mohd; Bonney, Andrew; Iverson, Don
With the advancement in technology and availability of the Internet, online health education could become one of the media for health education. As health education is to persuade patients on health behavioural change, understanding perceived benefits of online health education is an important aspect to explore. The aim of this study is to explore consumers and health professionals opinion on online health education. Literature review was conducted and identified the benefits of online health education (OHE). Survey was conducted to health consumers and health professionals. Descriptive analyses were performed using SPSS Version 19.0. The analysis of the literature has identified a set of 12 potential benefits of OHE which had been used to understand the perceptions of the effectiveness of OPE sites and these have been validated in the study. This study has the practical implication as the study identified OHE effectiveness, which definitely can assist health practitioners on health education, which can lead to better health outcome.
Bergsma, Lynda J; Carney, Mary E
Media literacy education to promote health among youth involves them in a critical examination of media messages that promote risky behaviors and influence their perceptions and practices. Research on its effectiveness is in its infancy. Studies to date have been conducted with more or less rigor and achieved differing results, leaving many questions about effectiveness unanswered. To elucidate some of these questions, we conducted a systematic review of selected health-promoting media literacy education evaluation/research studies, guided by the following research question: What are the context and process elements of an effective health-promoting media literacy education intervention? Based on extensive analysis of 28 interventions, our findings provide a detailed picture of a small, 16- to 17-year (1990 to July 2006) body of important research, including citation information, health issue, target population/N/age, research design, intervention length and setting, concepts/skills taught, who delivered the intervention and ratings of effectiveness. The review provides a framework for organizing research about media literacy education which suggests that researchers should be more explicit about the media literacy core concepts/skills they are including in their interventions, and should more carefully address who delivered the intervention with what fidelity, in what setting, for how long and utilizing what pedagogical approach.
van den Berg, Joost W; Mastenbroek, Nicole J J M; Scheepers, Renée A; Jaarsma, A Debbie C
Work engagement deserves more attention in health professions education because of its positive relations with personal well-being and performance at work. For health professions education, these outcomes have been studied on various levels. Consider engaged clinical teachers, who are seen as better clinical teachers; consider engaged residents, who report committing fewer medical errors than less engaged peers. Many topics in health professions education can benefit from explicitly including work engagement as an intended outcome such as faculty development programs, feedback provision and teacher recognition. In addition, interventions aimed at strengthening resources could provide teachers with a solid foundation for well-being and performance in all their work roles. Work engagement is conceptually linked to burnout. An important model that underlies both burnout and work engagement literature is the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. This model can be used to describe relationships between work characteristics, personal characteristics and well-being and performance at work. We explain how using this model helps identifying aspects of teaching that foster well-being and how it paves the way for interventions which aim to increase teacher's well-being and performance.
Doyle, Eva I.; Caro, Carla M.; Lysoby, Linda; Auld, M. Elaine; Smith, Becky J.; Muenzen, Patricia M.
The National Health Educator Job Analysis 2010 was conducted to update the competencies model for entry- and advanced-level health educators. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Structured interviews, focus groups, and a modified Delphi technique were implemented to engage 59 health educators from diverse work settings and experience…
Full Text Available ... Find A Doctor Education & Training Continuing Education Graduate Medical Education Simulator Training Program Resources For Your Practice ... Find A Doctor Education & Training Continuing Education Graduate Medical Education Simulator Training Program Resources For Your Practice ...
Limwattananon, Supon; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Sirilak, Supakit
In low-income countries, the coverage of institutional births is low. Using data from the two most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (1995-2001 and 2001-2006) for 25 low-income countries, this study examined trends in where women delivered their babies--public or private facilities or non-institutional settings. More than half of deliveries were in institutional settings in ten countries, mostly public facilities. In the other 15 countries, the majority of births were in women's homes, which was often their only option. Between the two survey periods, all five Asian countries studied (except Bangladesh) had an increase of 10-20 percentage points in institutional coverage, whereas none of the 19 sub-Saharan African countries saw an increase of more than 10 percentage points. More urban women and more in the richest (least poor) quintile gave birth in public or private facilities than rural and poorest quintile women. The rich-poor gap of institutional births was wider than the urban-rural gap. Inadequate public investment in health system infrastructure in rural areas and lack of skilled health professionals are major obstacles in reducing maternal mortality. Governments in low-income countries must invest more, especially in rural maternity services. Strengthening private, for-profit providers is not a policy choice for poor, rural communities. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this paper, we test path models that study the interrelations between primary health care provider attitudes towards working with drinkers, their screening and brief advice activity, and their receipt of training and support and financial reimbursement. Study participants were 756 primary health care providers from 120 primary health care units (PHCUs in different locations throughout Catalonia, England, The Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Our interventions were training and support and financial reimbursement to providers. Our design was a randomized factorial trial with baseline measurement period, 12-week implementation period, and 9-month follow-up measurement period. Our outcome measures were: attitudes of individual providers in working with drinkers as measured by the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire; and the proportion of consulting adult patients (age 18+ years who screened positive and were given advice to reduce their alcohol consumption (intervention activity. We found that more positive attitudes were associated with higher intervention activity, and higher intervention activity was then associated with more positive attitudes. Training and support was associated with both positive changes in attitudes and higher intervention activity. Financial reimbursement was associated with more positive attitudes through its impact on higher intervention activity. We conclude that improving primary health care providers’ screening and brief advice activity for heavy drinking requires a combination of training and support and on-the-job experience of actually delivering screening and brief advice activity.
Wong, Y L
There is no doubt that gender bias has been inherent in medical and public health education, research, and clinical practice. This paper discusses the central question for medical and public health educators viz. whether women's health concerns and needs could be best addressed by the conventional biomedical approach to medical and public health education, research, and practice. Gender inequalities in health and gender bias in medical and public health education are revealed. It is found that in most public health and prevention issues related to women's health, the core issue is male-female power relations, and not merely the lack of public health services, medical technology, or information. There is, thus, an urgent need to gender-sensitize public health and medical education. The paper proposes a gender analysis of health to distinguish between biological causes and social explanations for the health differentials between men and women. It also assessed some of the gender approaches to public health and medical education currently adopted in the Asia-Pacific region. It poses the pressing question of how medical and public health educators integrate the gender perspective into medical and public health education. The paper exhorts all medical and public health practitioners to explore new directions and identify innovative strategies to formulate a gender-sensitive curriculum towards the best practices in medicine and public health that will meet the health needs of women and men in the 21st century.
Background Little research has explored who responds better to an automated vs. human advisor for health behaviors in general, and for physical activity (PA) promotion in particular. The purpose of this study was to explore baseline factors (i.e., demographics, motivation, interpersonal style, and external resources) that moderate intervention efficacy delivered by either a human or automated advisor. Methods Data were from the CHAT Trial, a 12-month randomized controlled trial to increase PA among underactive older adults (full trial N = 218) via a human advisor or automated interactive voice response advisor. Trial results indicated significant increases in PA in both interventions by 12 months that were maintained at 18-months. Regression was used to explore moderation of the two interventions. Results Results indicated amotivation (i.e., lack of intent in PA) moderated 12-month PA (d = 0.55, p 0.12). Conclusions Results provide preliminary evidence for generating hypotheses about pathways for supporting later clinical decision-making with regard to the use of either human- vs. computer-delivered interventions for PA promotion. PMID:24053756
Marques, Luana; Eustis, Elizabeth H; Dixon, Louise; Valentine, Sarah E; Borba, Christina P C; Simon, Naomi; Kaysen, Debra; Wiltsey-Stirman, Shannon
Despite the applicability of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to addressing sequelae of a range of traumatic events, few studies have evaluated whether the treatment itself is applicable across diverse populations. The present study examined differences and similarities among non-Latino, Latino Spanish-speaking, and Latino English-speaking clients in rigid beliefs-or "stuck points"-associated with PTSD symptoms in a sample of community mental health clients. We utilized the procedures of content analysis to analyze stuck point logs and impact statements of 29 participants enrolled in a larger implementation trial for CPT. Findings indicated that the content of stuck points was similar across Latino and non-Latino clients, although fewer total stuck points were identified for Latino clients compared to non-Latino clients. Given that identification of stuck points is central to implementing CPT, difficulty identifying stuck points could pose significant challenges for implementing CPT among Latino clients and warrants further examination. Thematic analysis of impact statements revealed the importance of family, religion, and the urban context (e.g., poverty, violence exposure) in understanding how clients organize beliefs and emotions associated with trauma. Clinical recommendations for implementing CPT in community settings and the identification of stuck points are provided. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
This study assesses the effectiveness of a quality-improvement (QI) package designed to enable small-scale commercial reproductive health (RH) service providers to improve the services they offer. The study was conducted among midwives who are members of the Uganda Private Midwives Association. A pretest-post-test quasi-experimental panel study design was used wherein midwife clinics were allocated to two experimental groups and one control group. Baseline and follow-up measurements of structural and process attributes of quality were taken at the clinics by means of a facility inventory, interviews with midwives, and observations of client-provider interactions. Nearly 70 percent of the midwives who were trained to use the package reported that it was easy to use. Among clinics in which midwives received training in the use of the self-assessment tool and in developing action plans, structural and process attributes of quality improved only among those clinics in which the midwives' supervisors received training in finding solutions to the problems identified through self-assessments. The QI package may be implemented with small-scale private providers of RH services who are part of a professional association, network, or franchise that supervises their performance.
Skirton, Heather; Stephen, Nicole; Doris, Faye; Cooper, Maggie; Avis, Mark; Fraser, Diane M
this study was part of a larger project commissioned to ascertain whether midwife teachers bring a unique contribution to the preparation of midwives for practice. The aim of this phase was to determine whether the student midwives' educational programme had equipped them to practise competently after entry to the professional register. this was a prospective, longitudinal qualitative study, using participant diaries to collect data. data were collected from newly qualified midwives during the initial six months after they commenced their first post as a qualified midwife. the potential participants were all student midwives who were completing their education at one of six Universities (three in England, one in Scotland, one in Wales and one in Northern Ireland). Diary data were submitted by 35 newly qualified midwives; 28 were graduates of the three year programme and seven of the shortened programme. diary entries were analysed using thematic analysis (Braun and Clarke, 2006), with a focus on identification of key events in the working lives of the newly qualified midwives. A total of 263 key events were identified, under three main themes: (1) impact of the event on confidence, (2) gaps in knowledge or experience and (3) articulated frustration, conflict or distress. essentially, pre-registration education, delivered largely by midwife teachers and supported by clinical mentors, has been shown to equip newly qualified midwives to work effectively as autonomous practitioners caring for mothers and babies. While newly qualified midwives are able to cope with a range of challenging clinical situations in a safe manner, they lack confidence in key areas. Positive reinforcement by supportive colleagues plays a significant role in enabling them to develop as practitioners. whilst acknowledging the importance of normality in childbearing there is a need within the curriculum to enable midwives to recognise and respond to complex care situations by providing theory
Full Text Available Abstract. Some scholars argue that decentralization policy tends to create polarization, i.e. an increase of inequality/disparity among districts. To deal with this problem, Minimum Service Standards (MSS were introduced as a key strategy in decentralizing Indonesia. In this research, we tried to find out through MSS performance measurements whether imposing standards can be effective in a decentralized system by seeking its impacts on polarization/depolarization in the delivery of public services, specifically in the health sector. This question is basically a response to the common criticism that decentralization is good to create equality between central government and local governments but often does not work to achieve equality among local governments. Using self-assessment data from a sample of 54 districts from 534 districts in Indonesia, from 2010 to 2013, we found that the existence of depolarization in the delivery of public services could potentially occur among regions by reducing the gap between their public service performance and the targets of MSS. We acknowledge that there are weaknesses in the validity of the self-assessment data, caused by a lack of knowledge and skills to execute the self-assessment according to the official guidelines, by the overrating of target achievements, as well as the lack of data from independent sources to confirm the self-assessment outcomes. We also acknowledge that differences in financial capacity are still the main determinant why one district is more successful in achieving the MSS targets compared to other districts. Keywords. Decentralization, Public Service, Minimum Standard Service
Lunin, L F; Stein, R S
The public's growing interest in health information and the health professions' increasing need to locate health education materials can be answered in part by the new Combined Health Information Database (CHID). This unique database focuses on materials and programs in professional and patient education, general health education, and community risk reduction. Accessible through BRS, CHID suggests sources for procuring brochures, pamphlets, articles, and films on community services, programs ...
Abedian, Kobra; Shahhosseini, Zohreh
Although adolescence is marked by profound and dynamic changes, it is virtually neglected by health care providers, by society, and even by most parents, teachers, and health professionals. The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to health education in adolescents from health care providers' views compared to teens. The study population consisted of 72 health care providers and 402 high school female students in Northern Iran in 2012. They completed a self-administered questionnaire about their views on barriers to adolescents' health education. It is revealed that the major barrier to adolescents' health education from a health care providers' perspective is "Lack of private room for adolescents' health education", while "Lack of adolescents' interest to content of educational programs" is a significantly greater barrier to health education among adolescents. The results suggest that for adolescent health education, specific strategies should be used in adolescent health promotion programs.
Wilson, Rebecca Dover; Elgoghail, Nadia
The transition from a traditional West African diet and lifestyle to a modern diet has a significant impact on health and the risk of chronic disease. To implement a health education program for West African immigrants in the U.S. to address health risks associated with the modern diet. A health education program model targeted at West African immigrants in the Bronx was determined based on existing health education programs with educational materials, group education sessions, and targeted individual counseling. A health education program was successfully implemented at a clinic comprised of West African immigrant patients in the Bronx. This project demonstrates an example of a targeted health education program for West African immigrants to address health risks related to diet.
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Background: The problem of obesity in children and adults has been widely recognised and described in the literature . There are several challenges leading to an augmentation of the problem. Firstly, the aetiology of overweight and obesity is not clear. Secondly, the long term effectiveness of prevention programmes is low. Only in some groups and for a short period of time an effect may be visible . Thirdly, little is known about what children should learn when . A proper concept of educating children in regard to healthy eating or physical activity does not exist. As far as we know an essential pre-requisite for health education programmes is that they are lifestyleoriented and easily transferable into daily family life . For this, working together with the parents would be essential. The main goal of this article will be 1 to get a better understanding of what parents and nurses/ teachers want 2 to strengthen the point that this method is one way to involve the target groups and thus it is likely to increase the acceptance of health education programmes 3 to describe that focus group discussions are a useful tool to identify the opinions of the target group.
Methods: In the frame of three projects, focus groups with nurses/ teachers and parents have been carried out.
Results and Conclusions: Results from different focus group discussions with pedagogues and parents will be discussed and conclusions for health education programmes relevant to all key players involved will be identified.
Sahu, Madhusmita; Grover, Ashoo; Joshi, Ashish
The objective of this systematic review was to explore the role of mobile phone technologies in delivering health education programs in Asian and African countries. The search engine used was Pubmed during 2008-2011. Randomised controlled trials or controlled studies that improved health outcomes through delivery of health educational interventions using cell phone or text messaging were included in the review. Results showed studies from six Asian and African countries including Philippines, China, Kenya, South Korea, Taiwan and India. Mobile phone technology has shown to improve health outcomes for chronic disease conditions such as diabetes, heart disease and hypertension. Additional conditions include obesity and cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidance. Other studies have shown improvement in self management of breast cancer and post-hospitalisation HIV and pharmaceutical care. Overall results of the present review showed that mobile phone technologies can be a possible solution to improve healthcare outcome.
Bond, Lyndal; Giddens, Anne; Cosentino, Anne; Cook, Margaret; Hoban, Paul; Haynes, Ann; Scaffidi, Louise; Dimovski, Mary; Cini, Eileen; Glover, Sara
Many refugee people and others entering Australia under the Humanitarian Program, have experienced extremely stressful and disrupted lives prior to arrival. A major difficulty experienced by a significant number of refugee young people is their lack of formal education before arrival. It directly affects their ability to start connecting to their new society and constructing a new life. The level of ease with which young people can move into the education and training system and begin to establish a meaningful career pathway has a huge impact on their successful settlement and stable mental health. This paper describes the Changing Cultures Project, a three-year project, which explored models of appropriate and accessible education and training for refugee and newly arrived young people that would enhance their mental health. The Changing Cultures Project was a partnership between the education, health and settlement sectors. This paper describes the program and system response to the health, settlement, education and vocational issues facing refugee young people using a mental health promotion framework and reflective practice. We discuss how the refugee youth programs met a broad range of needs as well as providing language, literacy and basic education to newly arrived young people. While working in an environment of changing policy and public opinion regarding refugee issues, the Project delivered successful outcomes at the program and organisational levels for refugee young people by addressing issues of program development and delivery, organisational development and capacity building and community development and evaluation.
Access to Educational Opportunity in Rural Communities: Alternative Patterns of Delivering Vocational Education in Sparsely Populated Areas. Volume 2: The Heartland Vocational Center: A Decentralized Center.
Thomas, Ruth G.; And Others
One of the four case studies addressing access of rural students to vocational education through inter-school district cooperation, the Heartland case study represents the decentralized variation of the center cooperative school pattern, identifies essential features of this form of cooperation, details factors facilitating/impeding the…
In recent years health and comfort problems associated with the indoor climate have come to constitute a problem in Sweden. To come to grips with this a nationwide educational campaign on Buildings and Health is being run. It is directed to those involved in planning, project design, construction and management of buildings. The objective is to convey a body of knowledge to the many occupational and professional groups in the construction sector on how to avoid indoor climate problems in homes, schools, offices and other workplaces. The campaign is being run by the Swedish National Board of Housing and Planning and the Swedish Council for Building Research, in co-operation with various organizations and companies in the construction industry, and with municipalities and authorities. The knowledge which is being disseminated through the campaign is summarized in this compendium. figs., tabs.
Thériault, François L.; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Blouin, Brittany; Casapía, Martin; Gyorkos, Theresa W.
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a leading cause of disability and disease burden in school-age children of worm-endemic regions. Their effect on school absenteeism, however, remains unclear. The World Health Organization currently recommends delivering mass deworming and health hygiene education through school-based programs, in an effort to control STH-related morbidity. In this cluster-RCT, the impact of a health hygiene education intervention on absenteeism was measured. Fro...
Nair, Uma S; Jordan, Jeremy S; Funk, Daniel; Gavin, Kristin; Tibbetts, Erica; Collins, Bradley N
Female inmate populations in the United States tend to be overweight, physically inactive, experience high stress, and have a history of nicotine and other drug dependence. Thus, they bear an elevated risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease than the general population. However, few evidence-based health interventions exist for this population. This study will test proof of concept, feasibility, and potential efficacy of a multiple health behavior change intervention that integrates CV-health promotion education delivered during a physical activity (PA) program (indoor cycling) tailored to this population. This study uses a quasi-experimental 2-group design with two measurement time-points: baseline and 8-week end of treatment. N=120 incarcerated women (18-59years of age) who are medically cleared for participation in PA will be enrolled. Indoor cycling instructors will be trained to deliver five health education topics over an 8-week period during twice-weekly cycling classes. Topics match the American Heart Association recommendations for CV health: (a) nutrition, (b) PA promotion, (c) weight management, (d) stress management, and (e) smoking cessation and relapse prevention. Modes of intervention include instructor advice, written materials and audio/video clips reviewed during class. CV-related and mental health measures will be assessed at both time-points. Results will guide a full scale efficacy study. Future research in this area has potential to impact the health of female inmates, a high-risk population. Moreover, this multiple health behavior change intervention model represents a community approach to health promotion that could generalize to other underserved populations who may benefit most from similar intervention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Mubashir Arain,1 Esther Suter,1 Sara Mallinson,1 Shelanne L Hepp,1 Siegrid Deutschlander,1 Shyama Dilani Nanayakkara,2 Elizabeth Louise Harrison,3 Grace Mickelson,4 Lesley Bainbridge,5 Ruby E Grymonpre2 1Workforce Research & Evaluation, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, 2College of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, 3School of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, 4Provincial Health Services Authority, Vancouver, BC, 5Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Objective: The objective of this environmental scan was to identify Western Canadian interprofessional education (IPE resources that currently exist for internationally educated health professionals (IEHPs. Methodology: A web-based search was conducted to identify learning resources meeting defined inclusion criteria with a particular focus on the resources available in the Western Canadian provinces. Information was extracted using a standardized template, and we contacted IEHP programs for additional information if necessary. Members of the research team reviewed preliminary findings, identified missing information from their respective provinces, and contacted organizations to fill in any gaps. Results: The scan identified 26 learning resources for IEHPs in Western Canadian provinces and 15 in other provinces focused on support for IEHPs to meet their profession-specific licensing requirements and to acquire knowledge and competencies relevant to working in the Canadian health care system. Most learning resources, such as those found in bridging programs for IEHPs, included an orientation to the Canadian health care system, components of cultural competence, and at least one aspect of interprofessional competence (eg, communication skills. None of the 41 learning resources provided comprehensive training for IEHPs to cover the six interprofessional competency
Pusic, Martin V; Boutis, Kathy; Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A
Learning curves, which graphically show the relationship between learning effort and achievement, are common in published education research but are not often used in day-to-day educational activities. The purpose of this article is to describe the generation and analysis of learning curves and their applicability to health professions education. The authors argue that the time is right for a closer look at using learning curves-given their desirable properties-to inform both self-directed instruction by individuals and education management by instructors.A typical learning curve is made up of a measure of learning (y-axis), a measure of effort (x-axis), and a mathematical linking function. At the individual level, learning curves make manifest a single person's progress towards competence including his/her rate of learning, the inflection point where learning becomes more effortful, and the remaining distance to mastery attainment. At the group level, overlaid learning curves show the full variation of a group of learners' paths through a given learning domain. Specifically, they make overt the difference between time-based and competency-based approaches to instruction. Additionally, instructors can use learning curve information to more accurately target educational resources to those who most require them.The learning curve approach requires a fine-grained collection of data that will not be possible in all educational settings; however, the increased use of an assessment paradigm that explicitly includes effort and its link to individual achievement could result in increased learner engagement and more effective instructional design.
Arab countries often face multifaceted health challenges, including gaps and ... play a critical role in filling this gap by educating the public health workforce as well as ... implement an alternative institutional model for public health based on a ...
West, R T; Howard, F H
A study to determine the impact that the Area Health Education Center type of programs may have on health science libraries was conducted by the Extramural Programs, National Library of Medicine, in conjunction with a contract awarded by the Bureau of Health Manpower, Health Resources Administration, to develop an inventory of the AHEC type of projects in the United States. Specific study tasks included a review of these programs as they relate to library and information activities, on-site surveys on the programs to define their needs for library services and information, and a categorization of library activities. A major finding was that health science libraries and information services are generally not included in AHEC program planning and development, although information and information exchange is a fundamental part of the AHEC type of programs. This study suggests that library inadequacies are basically the result of this planning failure and of a lack of financial resources; however, many other factors may be contributory. The design and value of library activities for these programs needs explication.
Psychological treatments delivered by community health workers in low-resource government health systems: effectiveness of group interpersonal psychotherapy for caregivers of children affected by nodding syndrome in Uganda.
Mutamba, Byamah B; Kane, Jeremy C; de Jong, Joop T V M; Okello, James; Musisi, Seggane; Kohrt, Brandon A
Despite increasing evidence for the benefits of psychological treatments (PTs) in low- and middle-income countries, few national health systems have adopted PTs as standard care. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-G) intervention, when delivered by lay community health workers (LCHWs) in a low-resource government health system in Uganda. The intended outcome was reduction of depression among caregivers of children with nodding syndrome, a neuropsychiatric condition with high morbidity, mortality and social stigma. A non-randomized trial design was used. Caregivers in six villages (n = 69) received treatment as usual (TAU), according to government guidelines. Caregivers in seven villages (n = 73) received TAU as well as 12 sessions of IPT-G delivered by LCHWs. Primary outcomes were caregiver and child depression assessed at 1 and 6 months post-intervention. Caregivers who received IPT-G had a significantly greater reduction in the risk of depression from baseline to 1 month [risk ratio (RR) 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.62] and 6 months (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11-0.95) post-intervention compared with caregivers who received TAU. Children of caregivers who received IPT-G had significantly greater reduction in depression scores than children of TAU caregivers at 1 month (Cohen's d = 0.57, p = 0.01) and 6 months (Cohen's d = 0.54, p = 0.03). Significant effects were also observed for psychological distress, stigma and social support among caregivers. IPT-G delivered within a low-resource health system is an effective PT for common mental health problems in caregivers of children with a severe neuropsychiatric condition and has psychological benefits for the children as well. This supports national health policy initiatives to integrate PTs into primary health care services in Uganda.
ag A ABURAS
Full Text Available Better education is required better advanced tools to be used for students. Smart phone becomes main part of our daily life. New medical design interface is introduced for medicine student based mobile. The Graphic User Interface must be easy and simple. The main interface design issue for mobile is simple and easy to use. Human Mobile Interaction-HMI is the most advanced research area at present time. This research work is introducing new HMI for On Table Counter-OTC. OTC is the medicine that can sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional. This research paper is introducing and creating new advanced teaching tool for higher education especially medical (Pharmacy students using smart phone. Advanced MHealth system for basic symptoms applied for training medical student to have the best selection (diagnose. The MHealth system will give small and best list of Free Prescription Medicine - FPM using mobile device platform. Johnson &Johnson (J&J Medicine Company has been used for creating our HMI mHealth database. It has one of the biggest OTC database medicine companies worldwide. J&J database is used for developing the proposed mHealth system. The main goal of this research work is designing smart and simple HMI interacting interface for the Mobile device. The research goal has been achieved. The OTC database size for mobile memory was 400KB. The proposed research work has been completed and new advanced HMI based mHealth application has been introduced.
Pati, Sanghamitra; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay; Chauhan, Kavita; Dobe, Madhumita
‘Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health’. This stream of public health is emerging as a critical domain within the realm of disease prevention. Over the last two decades, the curative model of health care has begun a subtle shift towards a participatory model of health promotion emphasizing upon practice of healthy lifestyles and creating healthy communities. Health promotion encompasses five key strategies with health communication and education as its cornerstones. Present study is an attempt to explore the current situation of health promotion education in India with an aim to provide a background for capacity building in health promotion. A systematic predefined method was adopted to collect and compile information on existing academic programs pertaining to health promotion and health education/communication. Results of the study reveal that currently health promotion education in India is fragmented and not uniform across institutes. It is yet to be recognized as a critical domain of public health education. Mostly teaching of health promotion is limited to health education and communication. There is a need for designing programmes for short-term and long-term capacity building, with focus on innovative methods and approaches. Public health institutes and associations could play a proactive role in designing and imparting academic programs on health promotion. Enhancing alliances with various institutes involved in health promotion activities and networking among public health and medical institutes as well as health services delivery systems would be more productive. PMID:22980352
Brandt, Barbara F.
Using adult learning principles, health professions educators are well positioned to create interprofessional learning systems for collaborative, team-based practice in the transforming health-care system.
Matzo, Marianne; Troup, Sandi; Hijjazi, Kamal; Ferrell, Betty
This article shares the findings of an evaluation of a patient teaching resource for sexual health entitled Everything Nobody Tells You About Cancer Treatment and Your Sex Life: From A to Z, which was accomplished through systematic conceptualization, construction, and evaluation with women diagnosed with breast or gynecologic cancer. This resource, which has evolved from patient-focused research and has been tested in the clinical setting, can be used in patient education and support. Oncology professionals are committed to addressing quality-of-life concerns for patients across the trajectory of illness. Sexuality is a key concern for patients and impacts relationships and overall quality of life. Through careful assessment, patient education, and support, clinicians can ensure that sexuality is respected as an essential part of patient-centered care.
Walters Stephen J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent initiatives have been introduced by the UK government into secondary schools to increase pupils' access to physical activity (PA. Despite this, not enough is known about pupils' levels of physical activity or whether the delivery of these initiatives in schools facilitates or creates a barrier for pupils' PA. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of adolescents PA levels from the perspective of those responsible for delivering physical education (PE in schools; heads of PE (HOPE and heads of school (HS. Methods Seventeen semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with a snowball sample of HOPE and HS in schools in the Northwest and Southwest of England. Thematic data analysis using NVIVO was used to identify emergent themes. Results 17 core themes were generated, 12 of which confirmed the findings from similar research. However, five themes relating to 'ethos of performance/elitism', 'lower fitness leads to lower ability', 'undervaluing activities within PE dept' or school as a whole', 'role of the school' and 'PE department doing all it can' offer valuable new insight into the factors which may encourage or prevent PA inside or outside the curriculum. Conclusion Despite many positive perceptions of the delivery of PE in schools, it is evident that barriers still exist within that delivery which discourages physical activity. More research is needed to particularly address the complex issues of elitism and the ethos of PA in schools.
Boyle, Spencer Earl; Jones, Georgina L; Walters, Stephen J
Recent initiatives have been introduced by the UK government into secondary schools to increase pupils' access to physical activity (PA). Despite this, not enough is known about pupils' levels of physical activity or whether the delivery of these initiatives in schools facilitates or creates a barrier for pupils' PA. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of adolescents PA levels from the perspective of those responsible for delivering physical education (PE) in schools; heads of PE (HOPE) and heads of school (HS). Seventeen semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with a snowball sample of HOPE and HS in schools in the Northwest and Southwest of England. Thematic data analysis using NVIVO was used to identify emergent themes. 17 core themes were generated, 12 of which confirmed the findings from similar research. However, five themes relating to 'ethos of performance/elitism', 'lower fitness leads to lower ability', 'undervaluing activities within PE dept' or school as a whole', 'role of the school' and 'PE department doing all it can' offer valuable new insight into the factors which may encourage or prevent PA inside or outside the curriculum. Despite many positive perceptions of the delivery of PE in schools, it is evident that barriers still exist within that delivery which discourages physical activity. More research is needed to particularly address the complex issues of elitism and the ethos of PA in schools.
Gleason-Comstock, Julie A; Streater, Alicia; Jen, Kai-Lin Catherine; Artinian, Nancy T; Timmins, Jessica; Baker, Suzanne; Joshua, Bosede; Paranjpe, Aniruddha
To explore the feasibility and short term outcomes of using an interactive kiosk integrated into office flow to deliver health information in a primary care clinic. Fifty-one adults with BMI ≥25 were randomly assigned to use a kiosk with attached devices to receive a six-week healthy eating/weight monitoring (intervention) or general health/BP monitoring (attention-control) program. Outcomes were measured at baseline, 8 weeks (post) and three month follow-up. Participants completed an average of 2.73 weekly sessions, with transportation and time given as limiting factors. They found the kiosk easy to use (97%), liked the touchscreen (94%), and would use the kiosk again (81%). Although there were no differences between groups, the 27 completing all assessments showed reduced weight (p=.02), and decreased systolic (p=.01) and diastolic BP (pinformation and self-monitoring. Multi-session educational content can provide beneficial short-term outcomes in overweight adults. A kiosk with attached peripherals in a clinic setting is a viable adjunct to provider education, particularly in medically underserved areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
), and on the other hand as a semantic preparation for participation in behavioural activities such as co-decision making, different preventive initiatives are analysed. The theoretical framework combines elements from system theory (Luhmann, 1995a), pedagogical studies and health education theory in order to grasp...... food, drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes or having sexual relationships, the children are brought into a moral, political and lifestyle oriented discourse on risks. In this discourse their identity (as children or adolescents) is at stake as they are expected to participate as well...
Eskyte, Ieva; Gray-Burrows, Kara; Owen, Jenny; Sykes-Muskett, Bianca; Zoltie, Tim; Gill, Susanne; Smith, Victoria; McEachan, Rosemary; Marshman, Zoe; West, Robert; Pavitt, Sue; Day, Peter
Parental supervised brushing (PSB) when initiated in infancy can lead to long-term protective home-based oral health habits thereby reducing the risk of dental caries. However, PSB is a complex behaviour with many barriers reported by parents hindering its effective implementation. Within the UK, oral health advice is delivered universally to parents by health visitors and their wider teams when children are aged between 9 and 12 months. Nevertheless, there is no standardised intervention or training upon which health visitors can base this advice, and they often lack the specialised knowledge needed to help parents overcome barriers to performing PSB and limiting sugary foods and drinks.Working with health visitors and parents of children aged 9-24 months, we have co-designed oral health training and resources (Health Visitors delivering Advice in Britain on Infant Toothbrushing (HABIT) intervention) to be used by health visitors and their wider teams when providing parents of children aged 9-12 months with oral health advice.The aim of the study is to explore the acceptability of the HABIT intervention to parents and health visitors, to examine the mechanism of action and develop suitable objective measures of PSB. Six health visitors working in a deprived city in the UK will be provided with training on how to use the HABIT intervention. Health visitors will then each deliver the intervention to five parents of children aged 9-12 months. The research team will collect measures of PSB and dietary behaviours before and at 2 weeks and 3 months after the HABIT intervention. Acceptability of the HABIT intervention to health visitors will be explored through semi-structured diaries completed after each visit and a focus group discussion after delivery to all parents. Acceptability of the HABIT intervention and mechanism of action will be explored briefly during each home visit with parents and in greater details in 20-25 qualitative interviews after the
Graham Andrea S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient education is considered to be a key role for podiatrists in the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Patient education has undoubtedly led to improved clinical outcomes, however no attempts have been made to optimise its content or delivery to maximise benefits within the context of the foot affected by rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to identify the nature and content of podiatrists' foot health education for people with RA. Any potential barriers to its provision were also explored. Methods A focus group was conducted. The audio dialogue was recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a structured, thematic approach. The full transcription was verified by the focus group as an accurate account of what was said. The thematic analysis framework was verified by members of the research team to ensure validity of the data. Results Twelve members (all female of the north west Podiatry Clinical Effectiveness Group for Rheumatology participated. Six overarching themes emerged: (i the essence of patient education; (ii the content; (iii patient-centred approach to content and timing; (iv barriers to provision; (v the therapeutic relationship; and (vi tools of the trade. Conclusion The study identified aspects of patient education that this group of podiatrists consider most important in relation to its: content, timing, delivery and barriers to its provision. General disease and foot health information in relation to RA together with a potential prognosis for foot health, the role of the podiatrist in management of foot health, and appropriate self-management strategies were considered to be key aspects of content, delivered according to the needs of the individual. Barriers to foot health education provision, including financial constraints and difficulties in establishing effective therapeutic relationships, were viewed as factors that strongly influenced foot health
N Yamani; M Shakour; S Ehsanpour
Introduction: The importance of reproductive health led to establish the MSc in reproductive health program in developed country. In Iran, the program has not been offered yet. The aim of this study was to assess educational needs of MSc program in reproductive health. Methods: This research used Delphi method. Fifteen experts in reproductive health from Iran participated in this study. First, we provided a list of educational needs for every task, then experts confirmed or rejected education...
Yee, Kwang Chien; Wong, Ming Chao; Turner, Paul
Stimulating sustained behavioural change through information and technology has been an aim of much health informatics research. Traditional approaches use technology to mediate communications between health professionals and patients. More recent lifestyle technologies engage the patient directly with information and advice - but what of the phenomena that is Pokémon Go - does it point to another way of achieving health benefits through fun? This paper aims to explore some of the conceptual questions for health informatics stimulated by the phenomenal popularity of Pokémon Go. The paper is grounded analysis of data generated through a preliminary participatory observational study in Australia.
An Internet-supported Physical Activity Intervention Delivered in Secondary Schools Located in Low Socio-economic Status Communities: Study Protocol for the Activity and Motivation in Physical Education (AMPED) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.
Lonsdale, Chris; Lester, Aidan; Owen, Katherine B; White, Rhiannon L; Moyes, Ian; Peralta, Louisa; Kirwan, Morwenna; Maeder, Anthony; Bennie, Andrew; MacMillan, Freya; Kolt, Gregory S; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Gore, Jennifer M; Cerin, Ester; Diallo, Thierno M O; Cliff, Dylan P; Lubans, David R
School-based physical education is an important public health initiative as it has the potential to provide students with regular opportunities to participate in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Unfortunately, in many physical education lessons students do not engage in sufficient MVPA to achieve health benefits. In this trial we will test the efficacy of a teacher professional development intervention, delivered partially via the Internet, on secondary school students' MVPA during physical education lessons. Teaching strategies covered in this training are designed to (i) maximize opportunities for students to be physically active during lessons and (ii) enhance students' autonomous motivation towards physical activity. A two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial with allocation at the school level (intervention vs. usual care control). Teachers and Year 8 students in government-funded secondary schools in low socio-economic areas of the Western Sydney region of Australia will be eligible to participate. During the main portion of the intervention (6 months), teachers will participate in two workshops and complete two implementation tasks at their school. Implementation tasks will involve video-based self-reflection via the project's Web 2.0 platform and an individualized feedback meeting with a project mentor. Each intervention school will also complete two group peer-mentoring sessions at their school (one per term) in which they will discuss implementation with members of their school physical education staff. In the booster period (3 months), teachers will complete a half-day workshop at their school, plus one online implementation task, and a group mentoring session at their school. Throughout the entire intervention period (main intervention plus booster period), teachers will have access to online resources. Data collection will include baseline, post-intervention (7-8 months after baseline) and maintenance phase (14-15 months after baseline
Prince Vangeris Silva Fernandes de Lima
Full Text Available Introduction: Health services are composed of complex work environments. For this reason, they present several risks to the health of workers and also of people being treated at these places. Among these risks, one that is peculiar to health services is the risk of occupational accidents with biological material involving sharps. Objective: This study aimed to describe a health education activity conducted in a Health Center of the Federal District, Brazil. Methods: This is an experience report that discusses the final paper of the discipline “Administration Applied to Nursing and Internship”, offered by the Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia. A lecture was prepared, aimed at health workers and support staff, on general aspects of occupational accidents involving sharps, as well as preventive aspects. Results: In each clinical room of the Health Center were fixed two posters: the first discussing the proper disposal of sharps and the second, in turn, was a message of reflection. 31 professionals attended the lecture as listeners. Conclusion: We understand the validity of the lecture delivered, based on scientific studies that highlight the need and shortage of health education activities that address the prevention of occupational accidents involving sharps among Health Professionals. Additionally, it is important mentioning that such activity demand was estimated by the workers of the Health Center in study.
Ingleton, Christine; Chatwin, John; Seymour, Jane; Payne, Sheila
To examine the role of trained health and personal care assistants in supporting district nurses and family carers in providing palliative and end of life care in the community. In the UK, there is a policy directive to improve end of life care and to enable greater numbers of people to die at home. This places considerable demands on community nursing services and family carers. In response to this, the Complex and Palliative Continuing Care Service employing generic health and personal care assistants was developed as part of the Marie Curie Delivering Choice Programme in one city in the UK. This paper draws on findings from an independent evaluation of the scheme. The wider evaluation used a formative evaluation methodology. This paper draws on in-depth interviews with a range of stakeholders (n = 17), in-depth interviews with bereaved carers (n = 6) and an analysis of documentation. Stakeholders and bereaved carers perceived that the health and personal care assistants made a vital contribution to community palliative care. Careful recruitment, specific training, case management by district nursing with allocation of specific tasks and close ongoing communication were key features which stakeholders indentified. Family carers welcomed the way assistants developed relationships and became familiar and able to meet the care needs of patients. There were some problems reported which related to capacity, work flow and the need for extensive written care plans. Employing health care assistants under the supervision of district nurses appears to support patients and family at home during end of life care and contribute to good quality nursing care. The needs for community-based palliative and end of life care will increase rapidly over the course of the next 20 years, placing pressure on community nursing services and family carers. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Lee, Gyu Young; Ham, Ok Kyung
The study investigated perceived effectiveness and perceived barriers to health education curriculum targeting school nurses as health teachers in Korea. A total of 741 health teachers participated. The questionnaire included perceived effectiveness and perceived barriers to health education curriculum, future roles of health teachers, and needs…
Cleidilene Ramos Magalhães
Full Text Available This article is focused on a game-based educative experience, developed with students of the 1st year of the Medicine program of a federal public educational institution. The game was used as a privileged strategy to approach the students' communication, spontaneity and sensitiveness in the health education process. Through this game, it was possible to approach the theme "the students' mental health", where they could express their feelings as freshman students in the Medicine program. Such experience triggered learning opportunities for students and teachers, what, from Freire's perspective, is seen as a dialogic process of mutual formation with students. Its development favored the rethinking about the teaching practice in health, as well as subsidized the reorientation of the process of preventing and promoting mental health by means of proposals and supporting programs to students enrolled at the institution.
Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay; Batra, Bipin
A trained and adequate heath workforce forms the crux in designing, implementing and monitoring health programs and delivering quality health services. Education is recognized as a critical instrument for creating such trained health professionals who can effectively address the 21 st century health challenges. At present, the Public Health Education in India is offered through medical colleges and also outside the corridors of medical colleges which was not the scenario earlier. Traditionally, Public Health Education has been a domain of medical colleges and was open for medical graduates only. In order to standardize the Postgraduate Medical Education in India, the National Board of Examinations (NBE) was set up as an independent autonomous body of its kind in the country in the field of medical sciences with the prime objective of improving the quality of the medical education. NBE has also played a significant role in enhancing Public Health Education in India through its Diplomat of National Board (DNB) Programs in Social and Preventive Medicine, Health and Hospital Administration, Maternal and Child Health, Family Medicine and Field Epidemiology. It envisions creating a cadre of skilled and motivated public health professionals and also developing a roadmap for postgraduate career pathways. However, there still exists gamut of opportunities for it to engage in expanding the scope of Public Health Education. It can play a key role in accreditation of public health programs and institutions which can transform the present landscape of education of health professionals. It also needs to revisit and re-initiate programs like DNB in Tropical Medicine and Occupational Health which were discontinued. The time is imperative for NBE to seize these opportunities and take necessary actions in strengthening and expanding the scope of Public Health Education in India.
Tamim, Suha Rahif
The purpose of this study was to explore how health education professionals create ehealth and mhealth education interventions. Three research questions led this qualitative study. The first research question focused on the use of learning theories, instructional models, and instructional design models. The second research question focused on the…
Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of care has become increasingly critical in the evaluation of healthcare and healthcare services. The aim of this study was to assess quality of delivered care among patients with rheumatoid arthritis using a model of Comprehensive Quality Measurement in Health Care (CQMH. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 172 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA who were received care from private clinics of Isfahan University of medical sciences in 2013. CQMH questionnaires were used for assessing the quality of care. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. Results: The mean scores of Quality Index, Service Quality (SQ, Technical Quality (TQ, and Costumer Quality (CQ were 72.70, 79.09, 68.54 and 70.25 out of 100, respectively. For CQ only 19.8% of participations staying the course of action even under stress and financial constraints, there is a significant gap between what RA care they received with what was recommended in the guideline for TQ. Scores of service quality was low in majority of aspects especially in "availability of support group" section. Conclusion: Study shows paradoxical findings and expresses that quality scores of service delivery for patients with arthritis rheumatoid from patient's perspective is relatively low. Therefore, for fixing this paradoxical problem, improving the participation of patients and their family and empowering them for self-management and decision should be regarded by health systems.
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid
The purpose of the study was to find out the significance of health education strategies for coping with academic stress. Comprehensive health education strategies for coping with academic stress can help students obtain the greatest benefits from education and become healthy and productive adults .One child out of four has an emotional, social,…
Bradley, Beverly J.; Mancuso, Patty; Cagginello, Joan B.; Board, Connie; Clark, Sandra; Harvel, Robin; Kelts, Susan
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that age-appropriate health education about human sexuality should be included as part of a comprehensive school health education program and be accessible to all students in schools. NASN recognizes the role of parents and families as the primary source of education about…
Dennis, Dixie L.; Dennis, Brent G.
Suggests a unique mental health prevention strategy that focuses on spiritual education in public schools, defining spirituality, describing the spirituality-mental health connection, highlighting educators' responsibility toward spiritual education, and offering specific activities and strategies for enhancing students' spirituality suitable for…
Lowe, Wendy Anne
Objectives: Discourses of complexity have entered health professional education. This paper explores the meaning of complexity by asking how health professionals are educated and some of the consequences of that education. Design: A qualitative study was carried out drawing on reflexivity, discourse analysis and grounded methodology. Setting: Two…
Ochor, J O
The constraints facing health education include: the fragmentation and dispersal of health-educational services among different agencies and personnel; lack of policy guidelines; ineffectively organized and inefficiently managed health education systems; poor hierarchical status and inadequacy of resources. To resolve these constraints, national health education systems in health agencies should be developed on the basis of stipulated guidelines that could ensure their viability, efficiency and effectiveness. A study at the African Regional Health Education Centre, Ibadan, Nigeria, has yielded thirty synthesized guidelines. The "guidelines" were empirically tested as an evaluation tool by assessing the operational and organizational status of Oyo State Health Education Unit, Ibadan, Nigeria. These guidelines are adaptable to local conditions to enhance the re-organization, re-orientation and consolidation of health education in national health agencies.
Colomé, Juliana Silveira; de Oliveira, Dora Lucia Leidens Corrêa
In the field of health practices, there are different models of health education. The objective of this article was to identify undergraduates' concepts of health education. This descriptive exploratory study used a qualitative approach. It was developed in the Undergraduate Nursing Courses of the Federal University of Santa Maria and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Subjects were undergraduate students of the last semester before graduation. Data were collected using a semistructured interview, and submitted to thematic content analysis. The results suggest that the undergraduate nursing students' training as health educators is permeated by concepts that are a mixture of traditional and modern assumptions on health education.
Full Text Available Health education in schools is one of the most effective ways of promoting health in a society. Studies have shown the effectiveness of health interventions aimed at improving students' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors about health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate health issues in primary school textbooks in Iran.In school year 2010-2011, the contents of all primary school textbooks in Iran were assessed in accordance to their health-related teachings. Health lessons of these 27 textbooks in the form of picture and text were retrieved and analyzed using content analysis method.In total, 502 health-related lessons were found. The textbooks of the third grade contained the highest (144 and those of the fourth grade had the lowest (26 number of health lessons. Among health-related issues, the largest number (87 of lessons were about personal hygiene, while prevention of high risk behaviors comprised the least number (8. Some important health issues such as nutrition, oral health, and prevention of high-risk behaviors were not adequately discussed in the textbooks.The potential of primary school textbooks in delivering health messages has been neglected in Iran. Taking the critical importance of school ages into account, incorporating health issues in textbooks should be more strongly emphasized.
Kazemian, Reza; Ghasemi, Hadi; Movahhed, Taraneh; Kazemian, Ali
Health education in schools is one of the most effective ways of promoting health in a society. Studies have shown the effectiveness of health interventions aimed at improving students' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors about health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate health issues in primary school textbooks in Iran. In school year 2010-2011, the contents of all primary school textbooks in Iran were assessed in accordance to their health-related teachings. Health lessons of these 27 textbooks in the form of picture and text were retrieved and analyzed using content analysis method. In total, 502 health-related lessons were found. The textbooks of the third grade contained the highest (144) and those of the fourth grade had the lowest (26) number of health lessons. Among health-related issues, the largest number (87) of lessons were about personal hygiene, while prevention of high risk behaviors comprised the least number (8). Some important health issues such as nutrition, oral health, and prevention of high-risk behaviors were not adequately discussed in the textbooks. The potential of primary school textbooks in delivering health messages has been neglected in Iran. Taking the critical importance of school ages into account, incorporating health issues in textbooks should be more strongly emphasized.
Jiang, Yingying; Hu, Wenting; Zhang, Juanjuan; Sun, Yan; Gao, Yuguang
This study aimed to improve students' ability in practical and theoretical courses of oral health education and to promote students' learning interest and initiative. Fourth-year students of the oral medical profession from 2006 to 2008 at Weifang Medical University were chosen as research objects for oral health education to explore the experimental teaching reform. The students were divided into test and control groups, with the test group using the "speak out" way of teaching and the control group using the traditional teaching method. Results of after-class evaluation of the test group, as well as final examination and practice examination of the two groups, were analyzed and compared. After-class evaluation results of the test group showed that the "speak out" teaching method was recognized by the students and improved students' ability to understand oral health education. The final examination and practice examination results showed that the score of the test group was higher than that of the control group (P teaching methods can improve students' ability for oral health education, in accordance with the trend of teaching reform.
Ashwal, Gary; Thomas, Alex
Physicians who recommend patient education comics should consider that some patients might question the appropriateness of this format, especially in the US, where a dominant cultural view of comics is that they are juvenile and intended to be funny. In this case, Dr. S might have approached communication with Mrs. T differently, even without knowing her attitude toward comics as a format for delivering health information. Dr. S could acknowledge that though some people might not expect useful medical information in a comic format, it has unique aspects and new research on patient education comics shows that even adults are finding this medium to be effective, educational, and engaging. Offering comics to patients, however, does potentially require patient educators to invest additional time to review and assess their accuracy and relevance. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Full Text Available ... A Referral Refer A Patient Transfer A Patient Find A Doctor Education & Training Continuing Education Graduate Medical ... A Referral Refer A Patient Transfer A Patient Find A Doctor Education & Training Continuing Education Graduate Medical ...
Adjei, Naomi; Yacovelli, Michael; Liu, Dorothy; Sindhu, Kunal; Roberts, Mary; Magee, Susanna
School-based programs are important in addressing risky teenage sexual behavior. We implemented a sex education program using trained medical student volunteers. Medical students (n=30) implemented a seven-session curriculum, designed by medical students and faculty, to 7th and 8th grade students (n=310) at a local school. Middle school students completed pre- and post-assessments. Teachers and medical students completed questionnaires relating their perceptions of students' attitudes and understanding of sexual health. Students completing the curriculum scored 5% higher on post- versus pre-assessment (84% vs 78.7%, psexual decision making. Sixty percent of middle school teachers compared to only 16.7% of medical student volunteers reported discomfort teaching sexual health. Sexual education delivered by trained medical student volunteers may improve middle schoolers' understanding of sexual health. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-01.asp].
Gartshore, Emily; Briggs, Lydia; Blake, Holly
supporting the health and wellbeing of healthcare employees is a national priority in the UK. to design, deliver and evaluate an educational package to promote health and wellbeing for nurses and midwives. an online training package was developed and administered in two ways: online (HAWN-online) or in a face-to-face workshop (HAWN-contact). A mixed methods evaluation was used to assess usability and acceptability of HAWN training. 316 nurses, midwives and students completed the online training package and 16 participants attended the workshop. HAWN-online significantly increased knowledge in core areas of workplace health and wellbeing. Nurses and midwives valued online and face-to-face delivery but found there were barriers to attendance at workshops. Participants advocated that training in workplace health should be mandatory for all frontline staff. employers should take steps to promote staff wellbeing through HAWN training, and address barriers to accessing workplace health training or supportive services.
Mitchell, Geoffrey K; Burridge, Letitia; Zhang, Jianzhen; Donald, Maria; Scott, Ian A; Dart, Jared; Jackson, Claire L
Integrated multidisciplinary care is difficult to achieve between specialist clinical services and primary care practitioners, but should improve outcomes for patients with chronic and/or complex chronic physical diseases. This systematic review identifies outcomes of different models that integrate specialist and primary care practitioners, and characteristics of models that delivered favourable clinical outcomes. For quality appraisal, the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used. Data are presented as a narrative synthesis due to marked heterogeneity in study outcomes. Ten studies were included. Publication bias cannot be ruled out. Despite few improvements in clinical outcomes, significant improvements were reported in process outcomes regarding disease control and service delivery. No study reported negative effects compared with usual care. Economic outcomes showed modest increases in costs of integrated primary-secondary care. Six elements were identified that were common to these models of integrated primary-secondary care: (1) interdisciplinary teamwork; (2) communication/information exchange; (3) shared care guidelines or pathways; (4) training and education; (5) access and acceptability for patients; and (6) a viable funding model. Compared with usual care, integrated primary-secondary care can improve elements of disease control and service delivery at a modestly increased cost, although the impact on clinical outcomes is limited. Future trials of integrated care should incorporate design elements likely to maximise effectiveness.
Effect of health education on knowledge and prevention on Hepatitis infection among secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo state. ... Based on these findings, the study recommended that health education/ health campaign should be directed to school students and Specific risk practices ...
Tamim, Suha R.; Grant, Michael M.
This qualitative study aimed at exploring how health professionals use instructional design principles to create health education interventions. A purposeful sample of 12 participants was selected, using criterion and snowballing sampling strategies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data, which were later analyzed through…
deMontigny, Lionel H.
The resume of health problems facing the American Indian school child emphasized that health, culture, education, and economics are mutually interdependent and must be evaluated and planned for jointly. Specific health problems discussed include general health, nutrition, fever and chronic illness, hearing, sight, and mental health.…
Ifanti, Amalia A.; Argyriou, Andreas A.; Kalofonos, Haralabos P.
This paper seeks to explore the politics of health promotion as a continual process of public health globally and locally. Our main objective in this study is to present the health promotion education initiatives taken by the World Health Organization (WHO) at an international level and also to examine the politics of health promotion in Greece,…
Hopkins, Liza J
Objective To examine the evidence for best practice in educational support to hospitalised students and describe the existing supports available across each Australian state and territory. Methods A descriptive approach to the diversity of current practice and a review of the published evidence for best practice. Results We have constructed a model of best-practice in education support to hospitalised students. We found that education support services in each state met some of the criteria for best practice, but no one state service met all of the criteria. Conclusions All Australian states and territories make provision for hospitalised students to continue with their education, however the services in some states are closer to the best-practice model than others. What is known about the topic? It is well known that children and young people living with health conditions are at higher risk of educational underachievement and premature disengagement from school than their healthy peers. Although each state and territory across Australia offers some form of educational support to students during periods of hospitalisation, this support differs widely in each jurisdiction in fundamentals such as which students are eligible for support, where the support is delivered, how it is delivered and who coordinates the support. Published evidence in the literature suggests that the elements of good practice in education support have been well identified but, in practice, lack of policy direction can hinder the implementation of coordinated support. What does this paper add? This paper draws together the different models in place to support students in hospital in each state and territory and identifies the common issues that are faced by hospital education support services, as well as identifying areas where practice differs across settings. It also identifies the elements of good practice from the literature and links the elements of theory and practice to present a model of
...? How can underserved populations be better served? The broad scope of RAND's assignment-identifying for the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board important issues in health professions education-was made more complicated by the fact that issues...
Biology Education Delivery for Attaining Health-specific Millennium ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This study investigated the strategies for ensuring effective delivery of Biology Education at the secondary school level ...
Cervero, Ronald M.; Daley, Barbara J.
This chapter provides an overview of the emerging social and organizational contexts for health professions education and the rationale for foundational adult and continuing education concepts to be included in the curricula of HPE graduate programs.
Scott, Karen; Caldwell, Patrina; Schuwirth, Lambert
The approaches used to educate future clinicians must be continually improved through evidence-based methods. Clinicians interested in conducting education research need to understand the terminology and conventions of health professional education, in the same way that health professional educators from education backgrounds need to be aware of clinical practices and scientific mores and jargon. This article provides clinicians with 10 steps to conducting health professional education research, and encourages collaboration between clinicians interested in education and health professional educators. The basic steps in conducting education research are introduced, beginning with literature searches, using appropriate terminology and writing conventions, and finding research collaborators. We encourage researchers to ask themselves, 'So what?' about their research idea to ensure it is interesting and relevant to a journal's readers. The nuts and bolts of educational research are then presented, including research questions and methodologies, outcome measures, theoretical frameworks and epistemologies. The final two steps aim to foster internationally relevant and well-designed research studies. Conducting and publishing education research is often difficult for clinicians, who struggle with what is required. Yet clinicians who teach are ideally placed to identify the knowledge gaps about how we can more effectively educate future clinicians. These 10 steps provide clinicians with guidance on how to conduct education research so relevant research findings can inform the education of future clinicians. Conducting and publishing education research is often difficult for clinicians. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
McNeill, Jenny; Doran, Jackie; Lynn, Fiona; Anderson, Gail; Alderdice, Fiona
Current national and international maternity policy supports the importance of addressing public health goals and investing in early years. Health care providers for women during the reproductive and early postnatal period have the opportunity to encourage women to make choices that will impact positively on maternal and fetal health. Midwives are in a unique position, given the emphasis of the philosophy of midwifery care on building relationships and incorporating a holistic approach, to support women to make healthy choices with the aim of promoting health and preventing ill health. However, exploration of the educational preparation of midwives to facilitate public health interventions has been relatively limited. The aim of the study was to identify the scope of current midwifery pre registration educational provision in relation to public health and to explore the perspectives of midwives and midwifery students about the public health role of the midwife. This was a mixed methods study incorporating a survey of Higher Educational Institutions providing pre registration midwifery education across the UK and focus groups with midwifery students and registered midwives. Twenty nine institutions (53% response) participated in the survey and nine focus groups were conducted (59 participants). Public health education was generally integrated into pre registration midwifery curricula as opposed to taught as a discrete subject. There was considerable variation in the provision of public health topics within midwifery curricula and the hours of teaching allocated to them. Focus group data indicated that it was consistently difficult for both midwifery students and midwives to articulate clearly their understanding and definition of public health in relation to midwifery. There is a unique opportunity to impact on maternal and infant health throughout the reproductive period; however the current approach to public health within midwifery education should be reviewed to
Zheng, Xin; Woo, Benjamin K P
Innovation in information and communication technology has been transforming health service delivery. This study aims to compare YouTube against traditional talk-based workshops in delivering dementia knowledge to the Chinese-American population. Results reveal that E-mental health has enormous potential; however, for the older Chinese-American ethnic population, talk-based workshop is still more desired in delivering dementia education to targeted age groups. As YouTube has become a readily available and widely distributed media for prevention and psychoeducational efforts, this study demonstrates the utility of YouTube in delivering dementia knowledge. Nevertheless, viewer appeals need to be addressed by making the first few minutes engaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kane, Sumit; Gerretsen, Barend; Scherpbier, Robert; Dal Poz, Mario; Dieleman, Marjolein
BACKGROUND: A key constraint to saturating coverage of interventions for reducing the burden of childhood illnesses in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) is the lack of human resources. Community health workers (CHW) are potentially important actors in bridging this gap. Evidence exists on
Arnold, Julia C.
Health education is to foster health literacy, informed decision-making and to promote health behaviour. To date, there are several models that seek to explain health behaviour (e.g. the Theory of Planned Behaviour or the Health Belief Model). These models include motivational factors (expectancies and values) that play a role in decision-making…
Health physics education and training (HPET) are close counterparts for an effective enforcement of radiation protection (RP) regulations and development of an advanced RP infrastructure in a country. The related history in Iran dates back to over 30 years ago advancing towards promotion of a 'Sustainable Training Program' (STP) through programs such as academic courses, intensive courses, research, on-the-job training and media training. The STP has been effective in development of an advanced national infrastructure for effective enforcement of regulations in different applications and provision of self-sustained national services. In this paper, the elements of a long-term national STP are discussed with a hope it could act as a model in developing countries. (author)
Birch, David A.
The reciprocal relationship between health and education has garnered increased attention among public health professionals. The evidence is clear that the level of an individual's education is related to health outcomes in adulthood and that healthier children are more likely to be academically successful than those with health issues. Unpacking…
Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul. Refugee Education Resource Center.
This is a directory of (print) health education materials for Indochinese refugees, refugee sponsors, and refugee health providers. Materials listed for refugees cover dental health, diseases, family planning, infant and child health, maternal care and pregnancy, legal systems, nutrition, patient instruction, and education. The directory also…
This chapter marks the territory and leadership potential found in research, practice and policy related to the role of health literacy in higher education and professional training. There is limited published work that has summarized the role and scope of health literacy in higher education and professional training. This chapter will provide a review of the research in the area, a description of some of the educational practices in health literacy, and a case example of how policy might influence the role of health literacy in professional higher education.
McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C
The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent
Adjiwanou, Vissého; Bougma, Moussa; LeGrand, Thomas
The effect of partners' education on women's and children's health in developing countries has received relatively little attention to date. This study uses couple data from 37 recent Demographic and Health Surveys fielded in sub-Saharan African and Asian countries to assess the effect of partners' schooling on women's modern contraceptive use, frequency of antenatal care visits, and skilled birth attendance. Using multilevel logistic regressions, the study shows that partners' schooling has strong effects on their spouses' maternal healthcare utilization; especially when partners had secondary or higher levels of schooling. Overall, women whose partners had an above secondary level of education were 32% more likely to use modern contraceptives, 43% more likely to attend at least four antenatal care visits, and 55% more likely to deliver their most recent baby with a health professional, compared to women whose partner had no education, after controlling for individual and community-level covariates. Finally, interacting the partners' years of schooling, we found that an additional year of partners' schooling was 1) positively associated with modern contraceptive use when the women had low educational attainment (substitution effect), but negatively associated when women were better educated, 2) positively and increasingly associated with the frequency of antenatal care visits as women's education increased (multiplicative effect), and 3) positively and significantly associated with skilled birth attendance for less educated women (substitution effect). This study highlights the importance of male education in shaping their wife's health behaviours in developing countries and provides strong impetus for male education beyond primary level (as well as for women), something that has been neglected in past policy discourse. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
White, Earla J; Lewis, Joy H; McCoy, Lise
Health systems science (HSS) is an emerging discipline addressing multiple, complex, interdependent variables that affect providers' abilities to deliver patient care and influence population health. New perspectives and innovations are required as physician leaders and medical educators strive to accelerate changes in medical education and practice to meet the needs of evolving populations and systems. The purpose of this paper is to introduce gaming science as a lens to magnify HSS integration opportunities in the scope of medical education and practice. Evidence supports gaming science innovations as effective teaching and learning tools to promote learner engagement in scientific and systems thinking for decision making in complex scenarios. Valuable insights and lessons gained through the history of war games have resulted in strategic thinking to minimize risk and save lives. In health care, where decisions can affect patient and population outcomes, gaming science innovations have the potential to provide safe learning environments to practice crucial decision-making skills. Research of gaming science limitations, gaps, and strategies to maximize innovations to further advance HSS in medical education and practice is required. Gaming science holds promise to equip health care teams with HSS knowledge and skills required for transformative practice. The ultimate goals are to empower providers to work in complex systems to improve patient and population health outcomes and experiences, and to reduce costs and improve care team well-being.
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Full Text Available The paper outlines methods of forming health culture in the content of education as a theoretical-methodological area aimed at fostering a positive attitude, sustained motivation for health and personal responsibility for its preservation.
Health educators should be aware of people as growth aspiring, with a basic nature of goodness, and that individuals need to experience those qualities within themselves which produce health and a zest for living. (JD)
Mar 17, 2010 ... generation was used to develop a holistic healthcare model for a higher education campus' health service. It became ... innovative. Health plays a .... conducted will set the tone for the interactive process of holistic healthcare.