WorldWideScience

Sample records for delisting goals established

  1. Foreign Delisting and Domestic Stock Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uderche-Rangau, Loredana; Carugati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    of the delisting decision on the domestic stock price by observing the link between the pure value impact and the reasons for delisting. Our results show that, contrary to previous results, firms delisting from Tokyo can gain value depending on the reaction of the market operators to the content of the information...

  2. Wealth effects of delistings announcements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Dasilas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a European dataset of 478 delistings, the authors investigate the role of corporate governance in the short-term performance of European stocks around a delisting decision. In order to achieve this, the authors utilize the event study methodology in multiple contexts and cross-sectional regression analysis. This is particularly evident in high shareholder protection environments in a finding, related with investors’ perception of the security they experience in the particular market, as well as the afterlife of the under delisting stock and the potential of value creation or destruction. In high investor protection environments the delisting event causes negative abnormal returns both for voluntary and involuntary delistings. The authors conjecture that these delistings, whether referring to LBOs, delistings from secondary listings or BOSOs, are strategic decisions, and in this respect pre-delisting shareholders acknowledge that there is life after delisting. Under low investor protection the above holds only for involuntary ones. Companies failing to meet capital market criteria and voluntary delistings appear to have significantly smaller losses than under bankruptcy firms, on average, on the eve of the delisting event. These abnormal returns are basically affected by the firms’ financial soundness and the corporate governance level pertaining in the host market. Cross-sectional regression analysis shows also the inverse relationship between the degree of governance structures and market reaction to delistings announcements.

  3. Delistings and the Costs of Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen; Vinten, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in delistings from stock exchanges in the US and Europe, and this trend has been partly attributed to increasing administrative costs in listed companies. Has corporate governance regulation gone too far? We examine delistings from European stock...

  4. Company Delistings from the UN Global Compact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen

    2011-01-01

    shows that companies are less likely to be delisted from countries where domestic governance institutions are well-functioning. To a lesser extent, I find that firms from countries with international economies are more willing to comply with the UN Global Compact requirements. Countries with a high...... share of outward FDI/capita have a lower share of delisted firms as do countries that are internationally competitive....

  5. An examination of Canadian firms delisting from US exchanges

    OpenAIRE

    Witmer, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines Canadian and other foreign firms that have been involuntarily delisted from major U.S. exchanges. I find that, for most countries, less than 10% of firms get delisted from a U.S. exchange during my sample period. For Canada, more than 25% of firms listed in the United States get involuntarily delisted. This effect is more pronounced in Nasdaq-listed firms, where more than 40% of Canadian firms eventually get delisted, compared to about 15% of other foreign firms. After con...

  6. Equipping Every Student with Psychological Tools: A Vygotskian Guide to Establishing the Goals of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Barohny

    2016-01-01

    The present conceptual analysis begins with an assertion that the most fundamental act in any educational endeavors is establishing their goals. The discussion proceeds to reviewing recent pertinent literature that presents Vygotsky's theory of development as a useful source in providing guidance to establishing the goals of education in rapidly…

  7. Electronic Health Records: VA and DOD Need to Establish Goals and Metrics for Their Interoperability Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-27

    ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS VA and DOD Need to Establish Goals and Metrics for Their Interoperability Efforts Statement of...COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electronic Health Records : VA and DOD Need to Establish Goals and Metrics for Their...Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, House of Representatives October 27, 2015 ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS

  8. Hydrography - MO 2013 Section 303d Delisted Impaired Lakes (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This feature class contains information about paired water bodies and pollutants that have been delisted from Missouri’s 303(d) List of impaired waters due to Total...

  9. Three necessary conditions for establishing effective Sustainable Development Goals in the Anthropocene

    OpenAIRE

    Albert V. Norström; Astrid Dannenberg; Geoff McCarney; Manjana Milkoreit; Florian Diekert; Gustav Engström; Ram Fishman; Johan Gars; Efthymia Kyriakopoolou; Vassiliki Manoussi; Kyle Meng; Marc Metian; Mark Sanctuary; Maja Schlüter; Michael Schoon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the United Nations-guided process to establish Sustainable Development Goals is to galvanize governments and civil society to rise to the interlinked environmental, societal, and economic challenges we face in the Anthropocene. We argue that the process of setting Sustainable Development Goals should take three key aspects into consideration. First, it should embrace an integrated social-ecological system perspective and acknowledge the key dynamics that such systems entail, in...

  10. Three necessary conditions for establishing effective Sustainable Development Goals in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert V. Norström

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the United Nations-guided process to establish Sustainable Development Goals is to galvanize governments and civil society to rise to the interlinked environmental, societal, and economic challenges we face in the Anthropocene. We argue that the process of setting Sustainable Development Goals should take three key aspects into consideration. First, it should embrace an integrated social-ecological system perspective and acknowledge the key dynamics that such systems entail, including the role of ecosystems in sustaining human wellbeing, multiple cross-scale interactions, and uncertain thresholds. Second, the process needs to address trade-offs between the ambition of goals and the feasibility in reaching them, recognizing biophysical, social, and political constraints. Third, the goal-setting exercise and the management of goal implementation need to be guided by existing knowledge about the principles, dynamics, and constraints of social change processes at all scales, from the individual to the global. Combining these three aspects will increase the chances of establishing and achieving effective Sustainable Development Goals.

  11. 76 FR 7853 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Oregon Patient Safety Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Oregon Patient Safety Commission AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of delisting. SUMMARY: Oregon Patient Safety Commission: AHRQ has accepted...

  12. 76 FR 7855 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Community Medical Foundation for Patient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Community Medical Foundation for Patient Safety AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: Community Medical Foundation for Patient...

  13. 76 FR 9350 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization: AHRQ...

  14. The Impact of Brand Delisting on Store Switching and Brand Switching Intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, Laurens A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    A tool retailers often use to improve their negotiating position with brand manufacturers is to delist - or threaten to delist - the manufacturers' brand. Because brand manufacturers rely mainly on retailers to sell their products to consumers, a brand delisting will cause a sales loss for the brand

  15. The Impact of Brand Delisting on Store Switching and Brand Switching Intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, Laurens A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    A tool retailers often use to improve their negotiating position with brand manufacturers is to delist - or threaten to delist - the manufacturers' brand. Because brand manufacturers rely mainly on retailers to sell their products to consumers, a brand delisting will cause a sales loss for the brand

  16. 78 FR 70561 - Patient Safety Organizations: Delisting for Cause for Leadership Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... Patient Safety Organizations: Delisting for Cause for Leadership Triad AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of delisting. SUMMARY: AHRQ has delisted Leadership Triad....108(a)(3)(iii)(C), Leadership Triad stated that it did not meet the requirement that, within 24 months...

  17. Delistings in Europe and the Cost of Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinten, Frederik; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    We analyze delistings from European stock exchanges 1995-2005 as a function of market conditions, firm effects and governance regulation. We find that investor protection and corporate governance quality reduce the likelihood of going private, bankrupt or liquidated, but increase the likelihood...... to go private. It seems likely that increasing investor protection will at some point add more costs than benefits to companies and investors. Governments should therefore consider both costs and benefits of further regulation.Key words: Delisting, public listing, mergers, acquisitions, bankruptcy...

  18. The establishment of an attachment research network in Latin America: goals, accomplishments, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causadias, José M; Sroufe, L Alan; Herreros, Francisca

    2011-03-01

    In the face of a pressing need for expanded attachment research programs and attachment informed interventions in Latin America, a research network was established: Red Iberoamericana de Apego: RIA (Iberian-American Attachment Network). The purpose of RIA is to promote human development and well being, informed by attachment theory, centering on research, and with implications for public policies, education, and intervention. We report the proceedings of the second meeting of RIA held in Panama City, Panama, in February 2010. As part of this meeting, RIA sponsored the first Latin-American attachment conference. Proceedings of the conference are described, as are future goals of this new organization.

  19. 77 FR 70733 - Listing Endangered or Threatened Species: 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Southern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Reliability, Empresas Del Bosque, and Coburn Ranch to delist the endangered Southern Resident killer whale DPS... Del Bosque, and Coburn Ranch to delist the endangered Southern Resident killer whale DPS under the ESA...

  20. 77 FR 42737 - Patient Safety Organizations: Delisting for Cause for The Steward Group PSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Cause for The Steward Group PSO AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of delisting. SUMMARY: AHRQ has delisted The Steward Group PSO as a Patient Safety Organization... Steward Group PSO failed to respond to a Notice of Preliminary Finding of Deficiency sent by AHRQ...

  1. 76 FR 9351 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From West Virginia Center for Patient Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From West Virginia Center for Patient Safety AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY West Virginia Center for Patient Safety: AHRQ...

  2. 76 FR 58812 - Patient Safety Organizations: Delisting for Cause of Patient Safety Organization One, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Delisting for Cause of Patient Safety Organization One, Inc. AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: Patient Safety Organization One, Inc.: AHRQ has...

  3. 77 FR 38294 - Patient Safety Organizations: Delisting for Cause for Medical Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Cause for Medical Informatics AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: AHRQ has delisted Medical Informatics as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO...(a)(3)(iii)(C) which found that Medical Informatics failed to have, within every 24-month...

  4. Establishing an appropriate ethical framework: the moral conversation around the goal of prolongevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Stephen G

    2004-06-01

    This article presents a triadic framework for ethical discourse around the biogerontological goal of prolongevity, which might someday become achievable through the deceleration of aging. The methods are those of the humanities and philosophical analysis. The perspectives of natural law, equalitarian justice, and beneficence are presented in a balanced manner, although the conclusion reached is that the goal of prolongevity through decelerated aging is ethically valid as a potential means to the beneficent amelioration of the many diseases for which old age is the major susceptibility factor.

  5. Establishing Goals and Maintaining Coherence in Multiparty Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Martin; Noyes, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Communicating via text-only computer-mediated communication (CMC) channels is associated with a number of issues that would impair users in achieving dialogue coherence and goals. It has been suggested that humans have devised novel adaptive strategies to deal with those issues. However, it could be that humans rely on "classic"…

  6. A 1% Solution: Establishing and Reaching Enrollment Goals in Geoscience Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, D. D.

    2005-12-01

    Because of the small number of recent graduates, the Department of Geology and Geography at Georgia Southern University was placed on the list of programs to be monitored by the University System of Georgia's Board of Regents in August 1998. With only 23 majors at the time, the need to grow the program was obvious to everyone. Facing the reality that the survival of the Department was at stake, the faculty made enhancing enrollments its highest priority. After consulting a variety of published information and talking to faculty from the incredibly successful Department of Geology and Geography at Northwest Missouri State University, the faculty adopted a goal of having the combined number of geology and geography majors in the department equal 1% of the university's undergraduate enrollment, which then stood at 12,400. The most important move toward the goal occurred when the Department began actively recruiting majors from all introductory geology and geography courses. Recruiting took a variety of forms that ranged from suggesting that students doing well in a course consider majoring in the field to formal presentations on geology and geography as careers. Since the Spring 2001 semester, recruiting talks have been given in every introductory level geography and geology class by a member of the faculty other than the course's instructor. The presentations emphasize how geology and geography promote the development of important marketable skills (e.g., critical thinking, problem solving, writing, public speaking, cultural awareness) and technical expertise (especially GIS) that are essential in obtaining employment and in career advancement. The presentations occur during the week preceding the Thanksgiving holidays, so students will have the opportunity to discuss this important choice with their parents. This schedule also gives students time to make their decision before registration for the spring semester. Soon after the recruitment efforts started the number

  7. Understanding the Impact of Brand Delistings on Assortment Evaluations and Store Switching and Complaining Intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Sloot (Laurens); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractRecently, retailers have begun considering which brands they can delist without reducing customer satisfaction, losing category sales, or increasing store switching behavior. Although several studies have considered assortment reductions, none has explicitly investigated the impact of to

  8. Determining Factors for Delisting of Companies Listed on BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria Bortolon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the capital market has attracted the interest of scholars and researchers, motivated to understand the process of going public and trading securities of companies on a stock exchange. In this research context, an aspect had been neglected, something which indi cates a gap in the body of knowledge about the capital market and corporate governance: delisting of companies. We aim to identify the determining factors for delisting companies from the Commodity & Futures Exchange BOVESPA (BM&FBOVESPA. Methodologically, this research has related a set of variables collected from secondary data available on the database of the Securities Commission of Brazil (CVM, BM&FBOVESPA, and Economatica. By analyzing 227 listing cancellations, between 2001 and 2012, the results indicate that de listing of companies from BM&FBOVESPA is determined by the following factors: (i greater concentration of ownership and control; (ii lower free float; (iii lower liquidity of shares; (iv greater availability of cash; and (v larger size. The fact that the controlling shareholder is a public or private company determines significant differences in the decision to delist. While in the first case cash availability is the most important factor, in the second liquidity is the main determining factor for delisting. From the academic viewpoint, this research extends the studies on delisting, still incipient in the Brazilian capital market context. For the capital market, identifying the characteristics of companies prone to cancel listing may prevent investors concerned about inherent risks at the time of acquiring shares by the controlling group interested in delisting.

  9. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWMAN, R.C.

    1998-11-19

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  10. Evaluation of Delisting Criteria and Rebuilding Schedules for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook, Fall Chinook and Sockeye Salmon : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 10 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Steven P.; Neeley, Doug

    1993-06-01

    We develop a framework for distinguishing healthy and threatened populations, and we analyze specific criteria by which these terms can be measured for threatened populations of salmon in the Snake River. We review reports and analyze existing data on listed populations of salmon in the Snake River to establish a framework for two stages of the recovery process: (1) defining de-listing criteria, and (2) estimating the percentage increase in survival that will be necessary for recovery of the population within specified time frames, given the de-listing criteria that must be achieved. We develop and apply a simplified population model to estimate the percentage improvement in survival that will be necessary to achieve different rates of recovery. We considered five main concepts identifying de-listing criteria: (1) minimum population size, (2) rates of population change, (3) number of population subunits, (4) survival rates, and (5) driving variables. In considering minimum population size, we conclude that high variation in survival rates poses a substantially greater probability of causing extinction than does loss of genetic variation. Distinct population subunits exist and affect both the genetic variability of the population and the dynamics of population decline and growth. We distinguish between two types of population subunits, (1) genetic and (2) geographic, and we give examples of their effects on population recovery.

  11. Evaluation of Delisting Criteria and Rebuilding Schedules for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook, Fall Chinook and Sockeye Salmon : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 10 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Steven P.; Neeley, Doug

    1993-06-01

    We develop a framework for distinguishing healthy and threatened populations, and we analyze specific criteria by which these terms can be measured for threatened populations of salmon in the Snake River. We review reports and analyze existing data on listed populations of salmon in the Snake River to establish a framework for two stages of the recovery process: (1) defining de-listing criteria, and (2) estimating the percentage increase in survival that will be necessary for recovery of the population within specified time frames, given the de-listing criteria that must be achieved. We develop and apply a simplified population model to estimate the percentage improvement in survival that will be necessary to achieve different rates of recovery. We considered five main concepts identifying de-listing criteria: (1) minimum population size, (2) rates of population change, (3) number of population subunits, (4) survival rates, and (5) driving variables. In considering minimum population size, we conclude that high variation in survival rates poses a substantially greater probability of causing extinction than does loss of genetic variation. Distinct population subunits exist and affect both the genetic variability of the population and the dynamics of population decline and growth. We distinguish between two types of population subunits, (1) genetic and (2) geographic, and we give examples of their effects on population recovery.

  12. 77 FR 58084 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Findings on Petitions To Delist U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... that removal or delisting of the U.S. captive or U.S. captive-bred individuals of these species was... have been greatly reduced primarily as a result of habitat loss, uncontrolled killing, and...

  13. 77 FR 3373 - Establishing Visa and Foreign Visitor Processing Goals and the Task Force On Travel and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... initiatives are needed to enable us to better capitalize on the economic opportunities presented by a dynamic... establish and maintain a publicly available website that provides updated metrics from across the...

  14. Sustained Remission Improves Physical Function in Patients with Established Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Should Be a Treatment Goal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsson, Jon Thorkell; Geborek, Pierre; Saxne, Tore

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It has been proposed that remission should be maintained throughout the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the evidence supporting this is limited. Physical function measured by the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) is a major outcome in RA, and HAQ is shown to be one...... treated with antitumor necrosis factor and included in the South Swedish Arthritis Treatment Group register were eligible for this study. We identified patients with a Disease Activity Score at 28 joints (DAS28) ... measured by the HAQ improves in patients reaching SR compared with patients who only occasionally reach remission. The improvement continues while in remission, which supports that maintaining remission should be a treatment goal....

  15. 78 FR 33790 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Findings on Petitions To Delist U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... that removal or delisting of the U.S. captive or U.S. captive-bred individuals of these species was..., populations have been greatly reduced primarily as a result of habitat loss, uncontrolled killing, and... characteristics of captivity may include but are not limited to artificial housing, waste removal, health...

  16. Establishing the need and identifying goals for a curriculum in medical business ethics: a survey of students and residents at two medical centers in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Elena M; Bakanas, Erin; Gursahani, Kamal; DuBois, James M

    2014-10-09

    In recent years, issues in medical business ethics (MBE), such as conflicts of interest (COI), Medicare fraud and abuse, and the structure and functioning of reimbursement systems, have received significant attention from the media and professional associations in the United States. As a result of highly publicized instances of financial interests altering physician decision-making, major professional organizations and government bodies have produced reports and guidelines to encourage self-regulation and impose rules to limit physician relationships with for-profit entities. Nevertheless, no published curricula exist in the area of MBE. This study aimed to establish a baseline level of knowledge and the educational goals medical students and residents prioritize in the area of MBE. 732 medical students and 380 residents at two academic medical centers in the state of Missouri, USA, completed a brief survey indicating their awareness of major MBE guidance documents, knowledge of key MBE research, beliefs about the goals of an education in MBE, and the areas of MBE they were most interested in learning more about. Medical students and residents had little awareness of recent and major reports on MBE topics, and had minimal knowledge of basic MBE facts. Residents scored statistically better than medical students in both of these areas. Medical students and residents were in close agreement regarding the goals of an MBE curriculum. Both groups showed significant interest in learning more about MBE topics with an emphasis on background topics such as "the business aspects of medicine" and "health care delivery systems". The content of major reports by professional associations and expert bodies has not trickled down to medical students and residents, yet both groups are interested in learning more about MBE topics. Our survey suggests potentially beneficial ways to frame and embed MBE topics into the larger framework of medical education.

  17. 如何建立明确的营销团队目标%How to Establish Clear Goals of Marketing Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亚洲

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the problems in the construction of marketing team like the goal is not clear, the article puts forward the features of clear goals of marketing team, determines the role of marketing leader, at last, discusses how to achieve the common goal of marketing team.%针对营销团队建设中出现团队前进方向模糊,提出了明确营销团队目标应具有的特征,确定营销团队领导的作用,最后对如何达成营销团队共同目标进行了探讨.

  18. Background chemistry for chemical warfare agents and decontamination processes in support of delisting waste streams at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Small, M.J.; Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.

    1996-04-01

    The State of Utah, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW), has declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues have been designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). The RCRA regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist,{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) believes that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous and has obtained assistance from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to make the delisting demonstration. The objective of this project is to delist chemical agent decontaminated residues resulting from materials testing activities and to delist a remediation residue (e.g., contaminated soil). To delist these residues, it must be demonstrated that the residues (1) do not contain hazardous quantities of the listed agents; (2) do not contain hazardous quantities of constituents listed in 40 CFR Part 261, Appendix VIII; (3) do not exhibit other characteristics that could define the residues as hazardous; and (4) do not fail a series of acute toxicity tests. The first phase will focus on a subset of the F999 wastes generated at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), where the Army tests the effects of military chemical agents and agent-decontamination procedures on numerous military items. This effort is identified as Phase I of the Delisting Program. Subsequent phases will address other DPG chemical agent decontaminated residues and remediation wastes and similar residues at other installations.

  19. 上市公司退市的若干法律问题探讨%Study on Some Legal Issues Arising from the Delisting of Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋辉宇; 高海; 刘红

    2012-01-01

    The delisting of listed companies should experience such necessary procedures as deliberation of the listing committee,reviewing of the reviewing committee and judgment of the courts.After delisting,the listed companies will change to the general companies limited by shares or non-listed public companies.The delisting companies still have an obligation to disclose information,and the Stock Exchange and CSRC still have the power to supervise the delisting companies.The execution of the board transference of delisting companies should be given sufficient time and paid special attentions at all kinds of possible outcomes about reviewing and suit to the courts.The recover listing and the re-listing of delisting companies will face some special legal problems.%上市公司退市应经过上市委员会审议、复核委员会复核以及法院审判等必要程序。退市后上市公司将转变为普通股份有限公司或非上市公众公司,退市后仍负有信息披露的义务,证券交易所与证监会有权对其信息披露行为进行监管。退市公司股份转板的实施应给予充足的时间,并充分考虑退市公司申请复核和向法院提起退市诉讼的各种可能结果。退市公司在恢复上市与再上市时也将面临一些特殊法律问题。

  20. Adding once-daily lixisenatide for type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by established basal insulin: a 24-week, randomized, placebo-controlled comparison (GetGoal-L)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riddle, Matthew C; Aronson, Ronnie; Home, Philip; Marre, Michel; Niemoeller, Elisabeth; Miossec, Patrick; Ping, Lin; Ye, Jenny; Rosenstock, Julio

    2013-01-01

    ...). We conducted a double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial. Patients (n = 495) with established basal insulin therapy but inadequate glycemic control were randomized to add lixisenatide 20...

  1. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  2. The Impacts of Recently Established Fish Populations on Zooplankton Communities in a Desert Spring, and Potential Conflicts in Setting Conservation Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan M. Henkanaththegedara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Desert springs, which harbor diverse and endemic invertebrate assemblages, are often used as refuge habitats for protected fish species. Additionally, many of these springs have been colonized by invasive fish species. However, the potential impacts of recently established fish populations on invertebrate communities in desert springs have been relatively unexplored. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to assess the impact of both protected and invasive fish on community structure of spring-dwelling invertebrates focusing on zooplankton. Experimental populations of spring zooplankton communities were established and randomly assigned to one of three treatments, (1 invasive western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis; (2 endangered Mohave tui chub (Siphateles bicolor mohavensis; and (3 fishless control. Final populations of zooplankton and fish were sampled, sorted, identified and counted. The treatment differences of zooplankton communities were analyzed by comparing the densities of six major zooplankton taxa. Further, we performed nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS to visualize the patterns of zooplankton community assemblages. Four zooplankton taxa, crustacean nauplii, cladocera, calanoid and cyclopoid copepods had significantly lower densities in fish treatments compared to fishless control. Overall, invasive mosquitofish caused a 78.8% reduction in zooplankton density, while Mohave tui chub caused a 65.1% reduction. Both protected and invasive fish had similar effects on zooplankton except for cladocerans where tui chub caused a 60% reduction in density, whereas mosquitofish virtually eliminated cladocerans. The presence of fish also had a significant effect on zooplankton community structure due to population declines and local extirpations presumably due to fish predation. This work shows that conservation-translocations undertaken to conserve protected fish species may impact spring-dwelling invertebrate communities, and such impacts are

  3. Global Goals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING WENLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ The goal of ZTE Corp.,the second largest telecommunications equipment and phone maker in China,has remained simple and unchanged for the past four years,continuing to push further into the European and American markets.

  4. An Exploration on the Delisting System of Listed Companies in China%我国上市公司退市制度探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶育甫

    2015-01-01

    unsatisfactory Effect of delisting of listed companies in our country, not only cause the delisting system can be evaded, and increase the risk of securities investment, much of the deepening slump in the stock market boom, and puts forward some countermeasures to perfect the delisting system speciifc measure, is to reduce the securities investment risk, protecting the legal rights and interests of securities investors, and promote the sustained and healthy development of the securities market of China demands.%我国上市公司退市效果差强人意,不仅导致退市制度形同虚设,而且在相当程度增大了证券投资风险,加剧了证券市场暴涨暴跌。探索退市制度存在的问题及其原因,针对性地提出完善退市制度的对策措施,是降低证券投资风险,保护证券投资者合法权益,促进我国证券市场持续健康发展的迫切要求。

  5. 33 CFR 385.38 - Interim goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim goals. 385.38 Section 385... System and Water Availability Consistent With the Goals and Purpose of the Plan § 385.38 Interim goals... Interim Goals Agreement establishing interim goals to facilitate inter-agency planning, monitoring,...

  6. Goal contagion : perceiving is for pursuing

    OpenAIRE

    Aarts, Henk; Gollwitzer, Peter; Ran R. Hassin

    2004-01-01

    Six studies examined the goal contagion hypothesis, which claims that individuals may automatically adopt and pursue a goal that is implied by anotherperson s behavior. Participants were briefly exposed to behavioral information implying a specific goal and were then given the opportunity to act on the goal in a different way and context. Studies 1 3 established the goal contagion phenomenon by showing that the behavioral consequences of goal contagion possess features of goal directedness: (...

  7. Systemic consultation and goal setting

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Over two decades of empirical research conducted within a positivist framework has shown that goal setting is a particularly useful method for influencing task performance in occupational and industrial contexts. The conditions under which goal setting is maximally effective are now clearly established. These include situations where there is a high level of acceptance and commitment, where goals are specific and challenging, where the task is relatively simple rather than ...

  8. 联合国后千年发展议程的形成及健康相关目标%Establishment of Post-2015 Development Agenda and health related goals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦冠珅; 陈晓英; 吴照帆; 付朝伟; 应晓华

    2016-01-01

    目的::探究联合国2015年后发展议程的形成过程,以及与健康相关的目标和指标,了解其与“千年发展目标( MDGs)”的异同,方法:从相关国际组织官方网站(联合国、WHO等),以及PubMed等数据库中查阅相关官方文件、文献,进行归纳总结。结果:联合国在2010年开始着手对2015年后发展议程制定的准备工作,通过不同组织部门之间的调研、讨论,并发布一系列报告,为最终的后2015发展日程形成奠定基础,2015年后发展日程中有1项总目标,包括13项具体目标涉及公共卫生领域。结论:2015年后发展议程中公共卫生相关目标结合了“千年发展目标”指标和新增挑战,其具体目标的覆盖面也更为广泛、具体。%The aim of this paper is to find out the formation process of the post-2015 development agenda and health-related goals, and try to understand the similarities and differences between Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs) . Official websites of international organizations such as UN and WHO, and official documents and articles from database like PubMed, were helpful as the sources of data for further to analysis and summarize the information. The analysis of the present paper, shows that the UN has begun preparing the post-2015 development agenda, and to investigate, consult and report through different organizations. In the same time it has been found that the Post-2015 development agenda has only one goal related to health, which contains 13 specific targets. In conclusion, it has been noticed that the health-related goals of Post-2015 development agenda combined Millennium Development Goals and new challenges, the specific targets are more wide and specific.

  9. Different way, same goal

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & Fabio Capello

    2012-01-01

    Radio-oncologists and radiotherapists represented a large proportion of the doctors and clinicians who attended the ICTR-PHE 2012 conference. With them were also biologists and doctors of nuclear medicine. They presented the state of the art of their research that touches on the genetics and biology of tumours as well as on futuristic drugs that selectively target malignant cells. The future of cancer treatment seems to lie in the personalised approach.   When the members of the life sciences community took over from the physicists, the focus remained basically the same. Just another sign of the fact that the different communities are leading the same battle and have the same goal. However, the methodologies and issues can be very different. The example of hadrontherapy illustrates the situation well: while for physicists this is a relatively well-established concept, medical doctors consider that the amount of patient data available is still very small. Several clinical trials are in progress ...

  10. 34 CFR 200.17 - Intermediate goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate goals. 200.17 Section 200.17 Education... Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.17 Intermediate goals. Each State must establish intermediate goals that increase in equal increments over the period...

  11. Goals Analysis Procedure Guidelines for Applying the Goals Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, Albert E., III

    2000-01-01

    One of the key elements to successful project management is the establishment of the "right set of requirements", requirements that reflect the true customer needs and are consistent with the strategic goals and objectives of the participating organizations. A viable set of requirements implies that each individual requirement is a necessary element in satisfying the stated goals and that the entire set of requirements, taken as a whole, is sufficient to satisfy the stated goals. Unfortunately, it is the author's experience that during project formulation phases' many of the Systems Engineering customers do not conduct a rigorous analysis of the goals and objectives that drive the system requirements. As a result, the Systems Engineer is often provided with requirements that are vague, incomplete, and internally inconsistent. To complicate matters, most systems development methodologies assume that the customer provides unambiguous, comprehensive and concise requirements. This paper describes the specific steps of a Goals Analysis process applied by Systems Engineers at the NASA Langley Research Center during the formulation of requirements for research projects. The objective of Goals Analysis is to identify and explore all of the influencing factors that ultimately drive the system's requirements.

  12. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    -induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition......We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal...

  13. 78 FR 23533 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Wood Bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... wood bison as a valid subspecies below. Taxonomy is the theory and practice of classifying organisms... of incomplete knowledge of exactly how animals are related to one another, combined with the human.... 1010; Boyd et al. 2010, pp. 15-18). The established management of bison as two subspecies and the long...

  14. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    undemanding for children to engage in, and therefore has the potential to play a part in fostering their understanding of other minds. Part of the functional role of shared goals is to enable agents to choose means that are appropriate to realising a goal with others rather than individually. By offering...

  15. Goal Setting and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Katie; Reivich, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The science behind the mechanisms and mediators that lead to successful goal accomplishment has been a focus of research since the 1970s. When an individual desires to make a change or accomplish an outcome, research shows that he or she will be more successful if he or she attends to a number of variables that are key in goal setting.…

  16. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...... of the tasks. Narrow goals have a stronger motivational force and thus can be optimal. In particular, if one task outcome becomes known before working on the second task, narrow bracketing is always optimal.......It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because...

  17. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    In 'Joint Action and Development', Stephen Butterfill argues that if several agents' actions are driven by what he calls a "shared goal" -- a certain pattern of goal-relations and expectations -- then these actions constitute a joint action. This kind of joint action is sufficiently cognitively...... undemanding for children to engage in, and therefore has the potential to play a part in fostering their understanding of other minds. Part of the functional role of shared goals is to enable agents to choose means that are appropriate to realising a goal with others rather than individually. By offering...... a counterexample, I show that the pattern of goal-relations and expectations specified by Butterfill cannot play this role. I then provide an appropriately conceptually and cognitively undemanding amendment with which the account can be saved....

  18. Interrelationships among Employee Participation, Individual Differences, Goal Difficulty, Goal Acceptance, Goal Instrumentality, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukl, Gary A.; Latham, Gary P.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed is a model for goal setting, which is based on Locke's theory that difficult but clear and specific goals, if accepted, will result in higher performance than easy goals, nonspecific goals, or no goals at all. (Author/RK)

  19. Setting goals in psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the ethical dilemmas of setting goals in therapy. The main questions that it aims to answer are: who is to set the goals for therapy and who is to decide when they have been reached? The study is based on four semi-­‐structured, phenomenological interviews...... with psychologists, which were analyzed using the framework of the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), with minor changes to the procedure of categorization. Using Harré’s (2002, 2012) Positioning Theory, it is shown that determining goals and deciding if they have been reached are processes...... that are based on asymmetric collaboration between the therapist and the client. Determining goals and deciding when they are reached are not “sterile” procedures, as both the client and the therapist might have different agendas when working therapeutically. The psychologists that participated in this study...

  20. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.” Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc. Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page. Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark. Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create. Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  1. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.”Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc.Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page.Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark.Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create.Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  2. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-08

    The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988) attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish potential repository performance. These criteria or SCP thermal goals were developed from knowledge existing at the time and, as a reference case, emphasized performance for waste emplacement in a vertical borehole. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Additionally, other emplacement modes such as in-drift emplacement are being considered to accommodate larger waste packages. New concepts such as ``extended hot`` are also being considered as possible methods to achieve improved waste isolation. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. A Working Group was formed to reassess the SCP thermal goals to determine whether each goal was still valid, if there were goals that needed to be added, and what if any effort was needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with a particular goal. The objectives of the effort were to: (1) provide thermal goals that would support the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Systems Study; (2) help focus the planned testing and analysis efforts; and (3) acquire data that potentially could be used to initiate a change to the project technical baseline. Sixteen thermal goals were evaluated; fifteen were from various sections of the SCP; one goal was added, and another was split into two to include in-drift emplacement. The group`s findings and recommendations are presented.

  3. Delisting toxicity evaluation of HTH and oxone(trade name) decontaminated VX. Final report, July 1989-March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manthei, J.H.; Heitkamp, D.H.; Buettner, L.C.; Lawrence-Beckett, E.M.; Samuel, J.B.

    1992-07-01

    The acute percutaneous (bare skin) LD50 was determined for EA 2192 in the rabbit. Also established were the effective doses (ED50s) for the major toxic signs observed. Dermal, Department of Transportation (DOT), tests with rabbits indicated that VX/HTH decontaminated waste is a Class B poison after being aged only 24 hr following initiation of the decontamination procedure. The same reaction, when allowed to age through about 2 half-lives (28-30 days), was no longer a Class B poison and was nonhazardous by Code of Maryland Regulations (COMAR) toxicity criteria. The DOT tests with OXONE decontaminated/neutralized VX showed this solution to be less than a Class B poison by all three routes of administration (rat oral, rat inhalation, and rabbit dermal) after only 24-hr aging and a nonhazardous material by COMAR toxicity criteria.... vx, Rat, Half-life, ED50, EA 2192, Rabbit, COMAR, Decontaminated/Neutralized, HTH, OXONE, LD50.

  4. Setting goals in psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    with psychologists, which were analyzed using the framework of the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), with minor changes to the procedure of categorization. Using Harré’s (2002, 2012) Positioning Theory, it is shown that determining goals and deciding if they have been reached are processes...... that are based on asymmetric collaboration between the therapist and the client. Determining goals and deciding when they are reached are not “sterile” procedures, as both the client and the therapist might have different agendas when working therapeutically. The psychologists that participated in this study...

  5. Neutrosophic Goal Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Baset

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the goal programming in neutrosophic environment. The degrees of acceptance, indeterminacy and rejection of objectives are simultaneously considered. We propose two models for solving Neutrosophic Goal Programming Problem (NGPP, at one hand aiming to minimize the sum of the deviation (the I st model, and at the other hand, transforming NGPP into a crisp programming model, using truth membership, indeterminacy membership, and falsity membership functions (the II nd model. Finally, an industrial design problem is given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed models. The obtained results of the Ist model and of the IInd model are compared with other methods.

  6. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  7. Responding to the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    The eight Millennium Development Goals form a blueprint agreed to by all the world’s countries and all the world’s leading development institutions. The United Nations Millennium Summit, September 2000, established a time bound (2015) and measurable goals and targets for combating poverty, hunger......-agencies and especially the World Bank to develop a FIG strategy and advise the FIG council on necessary actions....

  8. The Role of Goal Attainment Expectancies in Achievement Goal Pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, Corwin; Hulleman, Chris S.

    2013-01-01

    The current studies introduce the goal attainment expectancy construct to achievement goal theory. Three studies, 2 in college classrooms and the other using a novel math task in the laboratory, converged on the same finding. For mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals alike, the harder the goal appeared to attain, the less likely…

  9. Selfish goals serve more fundamental social and biological goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D Vaughn; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2014-04-01

    Proximate selfish goals reflect the machinations of more fundamental goals such as self-protection and reproduction. Evolutionary life history theory allows us to make predictions about which goals are prioritized over others, which stimuli release which goals, and how the stages of cognitive processing are selectively influenced to better achieve the aims of those goals.

  10. Perda dentária em uma população rural e as metas estabelecidas pela Organização Mundial de Saúde Dental loss in a rural population and the goals established for the World Health Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemre Adas Saliba

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo relatar a perda dentária em uma população rural, avaliando a contribuição de variáveis socioeconômicas e comportamentais e comparando os resultados com as metas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS para 2000 e 2010. Foram examinados 473 moradores, utilizando a metodologia, códigos e critérios propostos pela OMS. Os resultados foram processados no programa Epibuco e o teste qui-quadrado (pThis study aimed to report the dental loss in a rural population, evaluating the contribution of socioeconomic and behavioral variables and comparing the results with the goals of the World Health Organization (WHO for 2000 and 2010. A total of 473 residents had been examined using the methodology, codes and criteria according to WHO guidelines. The results were processed using the Epibuco program and the chi-square test (p<0.05 were used to compare the number of teeth lost with the variables studied. From the total of people examined, 17.8% were total edentulous as well as 8% and 50.9% of the examined of the age groups of 35 to 44 and 65 to 74 years-old, respectively. Initiating precociously in his population, the dental loss advanced considerably with the age, being the situation much distant of the goals established by WHO for 2010. Chi-square test revealed statistically significant differences among the number of teeth lost by the interviewed with 35 years-old or more in relation to education level, housing and self-perception of the speak quality. The development of oral health attention programs becomes necessary, in order to reduce the actual damages and to prevent the continuity of this trend of mutilation.

  11. A Goal of Zero

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As the picture of HIV/AIDS in China becomes more complex, more efforts are needed The theme of World AIDS Day this year is "Getting to Zero," which means zero new HIV infections, zero discrimination and zero AIDS-related deaths.Realizing these goals, however, is an extremely difficult challenge. Three decades after the first case of HIV was reported in the world in 1981, poor awareness and inadequate medical responses have allowed the virus to continue to spread worldwide.

  12. 38 CFR 1.894 - Annual goals and timetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Part-Time Career Employment Program § 1.894 Annual goals and timetables. An departmentwide plan for promoting part-time employment opportunities will be developed annually. This plan will establish annual goals and set interim and final deadlines for achieving these goals. This plan will...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 436 - Goal Setting Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goal Setting Methodology B Appendix B to Part 436 Energy... Appendix B to Part 436—Goal Setting Methodology In establishing and updating agency goals for energy conservation, the following methodology or an equivalent method should be utilized: (a) For overall...

  14. 10 CFR 436.103 - Program goal setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program goal setting. 436.103 Section 436.103 Energy... General Operations Plans § 436.103 Program goal setting. (a) In developing and revising plans for a projected 10-year plan each agency shall establish and maintain energy conservation goals in accordance with...

  15. Diverse Tools, One Goal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YUNLING

    2010-01-01

    @@ Begional cooperative frameworks in East Asia were established after the outbreak of the Asian financial crisis in 1997. When the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) invited three Northeastern Asian countries-China, Japan and South Korea-to join the efforts to cope with the financial crisis, frameworks that stretched beyond ASEAN's initial scope were created.

  16. Professionalism: secondary goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raschke RA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Please recall my lengthy disclaimer from Part 1 of this series. In part two, we reviewed the Oath of Maimonides. We considered our profession as a sacred vocation. We defined professionalism: A good doctor can be trusted to always place his/her individual patient’s best interest first, with ability, good judgment, and a caring attitude. We determined that we should be willing to make sacrifices in our commitment to our primary goal (as critical care physicians – getting our patients and their families through their illness with as little disability and suffering as possible. Now, my second disclaimer – I am going to express my opinions from atop my Ivory Tower – as I am not in private practice, and protected a bit from the harsh reality of the business world. I am going to express my possibly somewhat naive perspective on secondary goals related to our profession. These are not necessarily bad, but ...

  17. CBM with Goal Setting: Impacting Students' Understanding of Reading Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Kristine D.

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study investigated if goal setting with curriculum-based measurement (CBM) was effective in increasing student awareness of goal knowledge and if students could set realistic daily reading goals. Nineteen 6th and 7th grade students with learning disabilities participated in a goal setting treatment group or a control group. During the…

  18. Predicting Subsequent Task Performance From Goal Motivation and Goal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catherine Healy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50 completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 minutes. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving.

  19. Motivational Goal Bracketing: An Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    We study in an online, real-effort experiment how the bracketing of non-binding goals affects performance in a work-leisure self-control problem. We externally induce the goal bracket - daily goals or a weekly goal - and within that bracket let subjects set goals for how much they want to work over...... a one-week period. Our theoretical model predicts (i) that weekly goals create incentives to compensate for a lower than desired performance today with the promise to work harder tomorrow, whereas daily goals exclude such excuses; (ii) that subjects with daily goals set higher goals in aggregate...... and work harder than those with weekly goals. Our data support these predictions. Surprisingly, however, when goals are combined with an externally enforced commitment that requires subjects to spend less than a minute each day on the task to get started working, performance deteriorates because of high...

  20. Diversity Education Goals: A Policy Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Many U.S. colleges and universities have established student learning outcomes for diversity education in their general education programs. These education goals, frequently developed for assessment or other policy purposes, convey a range of possible purposes for diversity and multicultural learning. The manner in which these purposes are…

  1. on Goal Framing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulàlia P. Abril

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En respuesta a la enorme y algunas veces conceptualmente inconsistente literatura sobre valence framing,Levin y sus colegas (1998 desarrollaron una tipología de encuadre de valencia que organiza los diferentesresultados a partir de elección arriesgada, atributo, y encuadre de los resultados (goal framing. Este estudiofavorece la literatura sobre encuadre de los resultados mediante (a su aplicación en el contexto de una cuestiónsocial como la pobreza infantil extrema; y (b el examen de los mecanismos afectivos sobre el cual el encuadrede los resultados es de eficacia persuasiva. Los resultados experimentales (N = 197 mostraron que la exposiciónal mensaje de encuadre de pérdida permitió un apoyo mayor hacia las políticas públicas que buscan erradicar lapobreza infantil, en comparación con el mensaje de encuadre de ganancia. Los resultados también revelaronque el afecto negativo sirve como herramienta mediadora de apoyo hacia las políticas públicas. Estos hallazgossugieren que, en el contexto del apoyo social hacia la población pobre, la capacidad de persuasión dentro delencuadre de pérdida se facilita cuando los participantes experimentan afectos negativos.

  2. For whom the goals loom: Context-driven goal contagion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leander, N. Pontus; Shah, James Y.

    2013-01-01

    Goal contagion is a process in which perceivers inadvertently "catch" goals inferred from others' behavior; yet, social perception is often driven by the broader contexts surrounding others and these contexts may suffice to drive goal inferences and contagion on their own. In Study 1, context-driven

  3. Goal Contents and Goal Contexts: Experiments with Chinese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Hu, Xiao Yong; Guo, Yong Yu

    2013-01-01

    Using samples of Chinese middle school students, the 2 experimental studies presented here examined the effects of goal content and goal context on test performance, free-choice engagement, and test anxiety within the framework of self-determination theory. Students' learning goals were induced as intrinsic or extrinsic with the learning…

  4. An integrated framework for sustainable development goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Griggs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations (UN Rio+20 summit committed nations to develop a set of universal sustainable development goals (SDGs to build on the millennium development goals (MDGs set to expire in 2015. Research now indicates that humanity's impact on Earth's life support system is so great that further global environmental change risks undermining long-term prosperity and poverty eradication goals. Socioeconomic development and global sustainability are often posed as being in conflict because of trade-offs between a growing world population, as well as higher standards of living, and managing the effects of production and consumption on the global environment. We have established a framework for an evidence-based architecture for new goals and targets. Building on six SDGs, which integrate development and environmental considerations, we developed a comprehensive framework of goals and associated targets, which demonstrate that it is possible, and necessary, to develop integrated targets relating to food, energy, water, and ecosystem services goals; thus providing a neutral evidence-based approach to support SDG target discussions. Global analyses, using an integrated global target equation, are close to providing indicators for these targets. Alongside development-only targets and environment-only targets, these integrated targets would ensure that synergies are maximized and trade-offs are managed in the implementation of SDGs.

  5. Achievement Goals and their Underlying Goal Motivation: Does it Matter Why Sport Participants Pursue their Goals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gaudreau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether the good or bad outcomes associated with mastery-approach (MAP and performance-approach (PAP goals depend on the extent to which they are motivated by autonomous or controlled motivation. A sample of 515 undergraduate students who participated in sport completed measures of achievement goals, motivation of achievement goals, perceived goal attainment, sport satisfaction, and both positive and negative affect. Results of moderated regression analyses revealed that the positive relations of both MAP and PAP goals with perceived goal attainment were stronger for athletes pursuing these goals with high level of autonomous goal motivation. Also, the positive relations between PAP goals and both sport satisfaction and positive affect were stronger at high levels of autonomous goal motivation and controlled goal motivation. The shape of all these significant interactions was consistent with tenets of Self-Determination Theory as controlled goal motivation was negatively associated with positive affect and sport satisfaction and positively associated with negative affect. Overall, these findings demonstrated the importance of considering goal motivation in order to better understand the conditions under which achievement goals are associated with better experiential and performance outcomes in the lives of sport participants.

  6. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  7. Chandrayaan-1: Science goals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Bhandari

    2005-12-01

    land on the Moon during the mission. Salient features of the mission are described here.The ensemble of instruments onboard Chandrayaan-1 should enable us to accomplish the science goals de fined for this mission.

  8. Dynamic goal instantiation in goal lattices for sensor management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Kenneth J.; Malachowski, Jonathan

    2005-05-01

    Previous papers have introduced the concept of goal lattices (GL) and the GMUGLE(tm) software for assisting the user in entering and ordering a set of goals into a goal lattice as well as assigning relative values to them. The previous assumption was that the GL was static and computed the relative values of the search, track, and ID functions for a reconnaissance mission. For more complex missions in a dynamic environment with expected changes in operational mode, the concept of dynamic goals is introduced. Dynamic goals are instantiated from a set of predefined goals along with their interconnection into the preexisting mission GL. This instantiation is done by the platform sensor manager part of the mission manager and represents a concurrent information request which exists until the platform sensor manager uninstantiates it. A representative example of how goal instantiation is implemented is presented.

  9. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Goedhart, M.H.; Spronk, Jaap

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with multiple goal variables. The approach is illustrated by means of an example in financial planning.

  10. Effectively Using IEP Goal Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ellen; McCall, Renee; Aiello, Rocco; Lieberman, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    For students with disabilities, annual goals are the nuts and bolts of the everyday program outlined in their individualized education program (IEP). According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004, a present level of performance with measurable annual goals must be outlined in a student's IEP. Goals should…

  11. Establishing endangered species recovery criteria using predictive simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Catlin, Daniel H.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Gratto-Trevor, Cheri L.; Aron, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Listing a species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and developing a recovery plan requires U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to establish specific and measurable criteria for delisting. Generally, species are listed because they face (or are perceived to face) elevated risk of extinction due to issues such as habitat loss, invasive species, or other factors. Recovery plans identify recovery criteria that reduce extinction risk to an acceptable level. It logically follows that the recovery criteria, the defined conditions for removing a species from ESA protections, need to be closely related to extinction risk. Extinction probability is a population parameter estimated with a model that uses current demographic information to project the population into the future over a number of replicates, calculating the proportion of replicated populations that go extinct. We simulated extinction probabilities of piping plovers in the Great Plains and estimated the relationship between extinction probability and various demographic parameters. We tested the fit of regression models linking initial abundance, productivity, or population growth rate to extinction risk, and then, using the regression parameter estimates, determined the conditions required to reduce extinction probability to some pre-defined acceptable threshold. Binomial regression models with mean population growth rate and the natural log of initial abundance were the best predictors of extinction probability 50 years into the future. For example, based on our regression models, an initial abundance of approximately 2400 females with an expected mean population growth rate of 1.0 will limit extinction risk for piping plovers in the Great Plains to less than 0.048. Our method provides a straightforward way of developing specific and measurable recovery criteria linked directly to the core issue of extinction risk. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The Selfish Goal: Unintended Consequences of Intended Goal Pursuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargh, John A; Green, Michelle; Fitzsimons, Gráinne

    2008-10-01

    Three experiments tested the hypothesis that consciously intended goal pursuits have unintended consequences for social judgment and behavior. From evolutionary theory (Dawkins 1976/2006) and empirical evidence of a nonconscious mode of goal pursuit (Bargh, 2005) we derive the hypothesis that most human goal pursuits are open-ended in nature: Once active, goals will operate on goal-relevant content in the environment, even if that content is not the intended focus of the conscious goal. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that goals to evaluate a job applicant for either a waiter or crime reporter position also shape impressions of incidental bystanders in the situation, such that the bystander is later liked or disliked not on his own merits, but on how well his behavior matches the criteria consciously applied in evaluating the job applicant. Experiment 3 finds that a goal to help a specific target person spills over to influence actions toward incidental bystanders, but only while active. Implications of these findings for goal pursuit in everyday life are discussed.

  13. The Predictiveness of Achievement Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy P. Phan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R (Elliot & Murayama, 2008, we explored first-year university students’ achievement goal orientations on the premise of the 2 × 2 model. Similar to recent studies (Elliot & Murayama, 2008; Elliot & Thrash, 2010, we conceptualized a model that included both antecedent (i.e., enactive learning experience and consequence (i.e., intrinsic motivation and academic achievement of achievement goals. Two hundred seventy-seven university students (151 women, 126 men participated in the study. Structural equation modeling procedures yielded evidence that showed the predictive effects of enactive learning experience and mastery goals on intrinsic motivation. Academic achievement was influenced intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals, and enactive learning experience. Enactive learning experience also served as an antecedent of the four achievement goal types. On the whole, evidence obtained supports the AGQ-R and contributes, theoretically, to 2 × 2 model.

  14. Teachers' Goal Orientations: Effects on Classroom Goal Structures and Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hall, Nathan C.; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prior research has shown teachers' goal orientations to influence classroom goal structures (Retelsdorf "et al.," 2010, "Learning and Instruction, 20," 30) and to also impact their emotions (Schutz "et al.," 2007, "Emotion in Education," Academic Press, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). However,…

  15. Teachers' Goal Orientations: Effects on Classroom Goal Structures and Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hall, Nathan C.; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prior research has shown teachers' goal orientations to influence classroom goal structures (Retelsdorf "et al.," 2010, "Learning and Instruction, 20," 30) and to also impact their emotions (Schutz "et al.," 2007, "Emotion in Education," Academic Press, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). However,…

  16. Inferring Requirement Goals from Model Implementing in UML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    UML is used widely in many software developmentprocesses.However,it does not make explicit requirement goals.Here is a method tending to establish the semantic relationship between requirements goals and UML models.Before the method is introduced,some relevant concepts are described

  17. MOOCs to University: A Consumer Goal and Marketing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Jason; D'Alessandro, Steven; Johnson, Lester; White, Lesley

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we apply consumer goal theories to an educational context by examining how completion of a MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) may motivate enrolment in a university course. We contend that individuals who finish a MOOC are more likely to establish a new goal intention for university than those who do not finish. This new goal…

  18. Assessment of Personal Goal Hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Marlene; Ford, Donald H.

    1983-01-01

    Developed a new method for measuring goal hierarchies, called the Adult Intentional and Motivational Systems Chart, by interviewing 53 men and constructing a system summarizing their goals. Results suggested the continued use of the chart for research on self-direction and adult development as well as intervention. (LLL)

  19. Goals and Personality in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. L.; Ugarte, M. D.; Lumbreras, M. Victoria; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personality factors in the value allotted by adolescents to various groups of goals. For this purpose, the "Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional, CPS" (Situational Personality Questionnaire) and the "Cuestionario de Metas para Adolescentes, CMA" (Goals for…

  20. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Goedhart; J. Spronk (Jaap)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with mult

  1. Goal Theory and Individual Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Peter J.

    The paper provides a review of goal theory as articulated by Edwin Locke. The theory is evaluated in terms of laboratory and field research and its practical usefulnes is explored as a means to improving individual productivity in "real world" organizations Research findings provide support for some goal theory propositions but suggest also the…

  2. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  3. Goals and Personality in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. L.; Ugarte, M. D.; Lumbreras, M. Victoria; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personality factors in the value allotted by adolescents to various groups of goals. For this purpose, the "Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional, CPS" (Situational Personality Questionnaire) and the "Cuestionario de Metas para Adolescentes, CMA" (Goals for…

  4. Goal setting as an outcome measure: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurn, Jane; Kneebone, Ian; Cropley, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Goal achievement has been considered to be an important measure of outcome by clinicians working with patients in physical and neurological rehabilitation settings. This systematic review was undertaken to examine the reliability, validity and sensitivity of goal setting and goal attainment scaling approaches when used with working age and older people. To review the reliability, validity and sensitivity of both goal setting and goal attainment scaling when employed as an outcome measure within a physical and neurological working age and older person rehabilitation environment, by examining the research literature covering the 36 years since goal-setting theory was proposed. Data sources included a computer-aided literature search of published studies examining the reliability, validity and sensitivity of goal setting/goal attainment scaling, with further references sourced from articles obtained through this process. There is strong evidence for the reliability, validity and sensitivity of goal attainment scaling. Empirical support was found for the validity of goal setting but research demonstrating its reliability and sensitivity is limited. Goal attainment scaling appears to be a sound measure for use in physical rehabilitation settings with working age and older people. Further work needs to be carried out with goal setting to establish its reliability and sensitivity as a measurement tool.

  5. Teachers' Understanding of Learning Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Skott, Charlotte; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard; Carlsen, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    in mathematics and Danish-as-a-Mother-Tongue in regard to planning, teaching and assessment. Our research is framed by an explorative design. The informants take part in the research- and development project “Digitally Supported Learning Goals”. In addition to observe teaching, we conduct qualitative interviews...... will be presented. We expect to deepen our understanding of the relations between the various parameters in the teachers' practice in relation to learning goals and goal-oriented teaching. There is conducted research on the effects of goal-oriented teaching on students' learning both internationally......The national curriculum for Danish primary and lower secondary schools has recently changed in a goal-oriented direction. The intention is to increase the teachers´ and students´attention to learning outcome, by making learning goals visible. Danish surveys show that teachers did not use...

  6. GOALS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TLC, X+ray diffraction, specific gravity and elemental analyses. In addition, ... The gross calorific value of the coal sample was computed trom temperature ..... Proitimate analysis for the composite coal samples obtained lrorn various places in.

  7. Goal!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the story of his son, Joshua Pauls. Josh is an energetic young man who learned at a very young age not to let anything stop him from achieving his dreams. Born with a birth defect known as bilateral bibia hemimelia, which means he was born without his tibia bone in both of his legs, Josh was only 10 months old…

  8. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  9. GOAL: A Goal Oriented Command Language for Interactive Proof Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    Henneman 1972, Goldstein 1973, Bundy 1973]. Given the large amount of work required to program a theorem prover, this is not a desirable state of affairs... translator for such a language can be implemented fairly straightforwardly. The results obtained with this approach to theorem proving are encouraging. We... translated Into UCI-LISP. • t7... * Extending GOAL. 48 4.4.3. Status checking. A proved goal has a structure totally different from that of an unproved

  10. Career Goals in Young Adults: Personal Resources, Goal Appraisals, Attitudes, and Goal Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haratsis, Jessica M.; Hood, Michelle; Creed, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model based on the dual-process framework that assessed the relationships among personal resources, career goal appraisals, career attitudes, and career goal management, which have not been previously assessed together. The model (tested on a sample of 486 young adults: 74% female, M[subscript]age = 22 years) proposed that personal…

  11. Career Goals in Young Adults: Personal Resources, Goal Appraisals, Attitudes, and Goal Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haratsis, Jessica M.; Hood, Michelle; Creed, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model based on the dual-process framework that assessed the relationships among personal resources, career goal appraisals, career attitudes, and career goal management, which have not been previously assessed together. The model (tested on a sample of 486 young adults: 74% female, M[subscript]age = 22 years) proposed that personal…

  12. Goal Statements and Goal-Directed Behavior: A Relational Frame Account of Goal Setting in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hora, Denis; Maglieri, Kristen A.

    2006-01-01

    Goal setting has consistently been shown to increase performance under specific conditions. These goal setting effects have previously been explored from both a cognitive perspective and in terms of traditional behavioral concepts. We highlight limitations of these approaches and propose a novel account based on Relational Frame Theory. This…

  13. Learning Goals of AACSB-Accredited Undergraduate Business Programs: Predictors of Conformity versus Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Kyle E.; Palmer, Timothy B.; Costigan, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Learning goals are central to assurance of learning. Yet little is known about what goals are used by business programs or how they are established. On the one hand, business schools are encouraged to develop their own unique learning goals. However, business schools also face pressures that would encourage conformity by adopting goals used by…

  14. Shared Goal Setting in Team-Based Geriatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Allison; Wallace, James; Canin, Beverly; Chow, Selina; Dale, William; Mohile, Supriya G; Hamel, Lauren M

    2016-11-01

    We present the case of a 92-year-old man, MH, who was given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. His primary care physician, surgeon, geriatric oncologist, and family members all played important roles in his care. MH's case is an example of a lack of explicit shared goal setting by the health care providers with the patient and family members and how that impeded care planning and health. This case demonstrates the importance of explicitly discussing and establishing shared goals in team-based cancer care delivery early on and throughout the care process, especially for older adults. Each individual member's goals should be understood as they fit within the overarching shared team goals. We emphasize that shared goal setting and alignment of individual goals is a dynamic process that must occur several times at critical decision points throughout a patient's care continuum. Providers and researchers can use this illustrative case to consider their own work and contemplate how shared goal setting can improve patient-centered care and health outcomes in various team-based care settings. Shared goal setting among team members has been demonstrated to improve outcomes in other contexts. However, we stress, that little investigation into the impact of shared goal setting on team-based cancer care delivery has been conducted. We list immediate research goals within team-based cancer care delivery that can provide a foundation for the understanding of the process and outcomes of shared goal setting.

  15. Global Goals and Global Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Janardhan Bhore

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On 25 September 2015, the United Nations (UN member countries adopted an ambitious 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs aiming to ‘transform the world’ in the next 15 years. [...

  16. Iterative Goal Refinement for Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Iterative Goal Refinement for Robotics Mark Roberts1, Swaroop Vattam1, Ronald Alford2, Bryan Auslander3, Justin Karneeb3, Matthew Molineaux3... robotics researchers and practitioners. We present a goal lifecycle and define a formal model for GR that (1) relates distinct disciplines concerning...researchers to collaborate in exploring this exciting frontier. 1. Introduction Robotic systems often act using incomplete models in environments

  17. Quantitative goals for monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Fatás, Antonio; Mihov, Ilian; ROSE, Andrew K.

    2006-01-01

    We study empirically the macroeconomic effects of an explicit de jure quantitative goal for monetary policy. Quantitative goals take three forms: exchange rates, money growth rates, and inflation targets. We analyze the effects on inflation of both having a quantitative target, and of hitting a declared target; we also consider effects on output volatility. Our empirical work uses an annual data set covering 42 countries between 1960 and 2000, and takes account of other determinants of inflat...

  18. Multiple-Goal Heuristic Search

    CERN Document Server

    Davidov, D; 10.1613/jair.1940

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new framework for anytime heuristic search where the task is to achieve as many goals as possible within the allocated resources. We show the inadequacy of traditional distance-estimation heuristics for tasks of this type and present alternative heuristics that are more appropriate for multiple-goal search. In particular, we introduce the marginal-utility heuristic, which estimates the cost and the benefit of exploring a subtree below a search node. We developed two methods for online learning of the marginal-utility heuristic. One is based on local similarity of the partial marginal utility of sibling nodes, and the other generalizes marginal-utility over the state feature space. We apply our adaptive and non-adaptive multiple-goal search algorithms to several problems, including focused crawling, and show their superiority over existing methods.

  19. The actual goals of geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  20. Long-term funding and faithfulness to the original goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, G

    1999-02-01

    The study describes long-term funding in terms of faithfulness to the original goals of the foundations. After having examined 20 different Swedish foundations three main categories of problems have appeared. The main threats to the original goals of the foundations are juridical problems, economic problems and a changing society. Fraud and embezzlement are covered by the Act (1994:1220) Concerning Foundations, but the law does not prevent unfaithfulness to the original goal of the foundation in terms of permutation. If the foundation is a private-established foundation the board has to apply for a change of the original goal to the Swedish Judicial Board for Public Lands and Funds. If the State, a municipality or a community establishes the foundation the Government can change the goal without permission of any other authority. Economic problems often strike smaller funds established by private persons, but State-established funds can also be hit by economical problems. The economic problems presented in the text are high tax levels, bad investments and problems getting donations. Both small private and large State-established foundations sometimes have to change their original goals as a result of a changing society. The goal of the foundation can be out-of-date, be against the ideology of the government party or the demography might have changed. Examples from each category are given in the text. The study is made to facilitate a description in general terms of the prospects for the Swedish nuclear funds if a final decision can not be made in the time span of 100 or 200 years. Looking back on the changes in the judicial, economical and political arenas during the last 200 years, one realizes the impossibility to foresee the changes that will occur within the next 200 years. The author`s conclusion, after examined 20 foundation, is that it is impossible to establish a perfect long-term fund as we can not foresee the long-term future

  1. Goal Setting as Teacher Development Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This article explores goal setting as a teacher development practice in higher education. It reports on a study of college teacher goal setting informed by goal setting theory. Analysis of study participants' goal setting practices and their experiences with goal pursuit offers a framework for thinking about the kinds of goals teachers might set…

  2. Sustainable Development Goals for Monitoring Action to Improve Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2016-01-01

    Women and children compose the largest segment of the more than 1 billion people worldwide who are unable to access needed health care services. To address this and other global health issues, the United Nations brought together world leaders to address growing health inequities, first by establishing the Millennium Development Goals in 2000 and more recently establishing Sustainable Development Goals, which are an intergovernmental set of 17 goals consisting of 169 targets with 304 indicators to measure compliance; they were designed to be applicable to all countries. Goal number 3, "Good Health and Well-Being: Ensure Heathy Lives and Promote Well-Being for All at All Ages," includes targets to improve the health of women and newborns.

  3. Relations between Classroom Goal Structures and Students' Goal Orientations in Mathematics Classes: When Is a Mastery Goal Structure Adaptive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Federici, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test possible interactions between mastery and performance goal structures in mathematics classrooms when predicting students' goal orientations. More specifically, we tested if the degree of performance goal structure moderated the associations between mastery goal structure and students' goal orientations.…

  4. Goal-orientation, goal-setting, and goal-driven behavior in minimalist user instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der Hans

    2007-01-01

    This paper opens with a summary of minimalist design strategies that aim to optimize user instructions. Next, it discusses three recent research efforts to further improve these strategies. The common focus in these efforts is the attention to people’s goal-related management and control of attentio

  5. Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Wigfield, Allan

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.

  6. Treatment goals of pulmonary hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Vallerie V

    2013-12-24

    With significant therapeutic advances in the field of pulmonary arterial hypertension, the need to identify clinically relevant treatment goals that correlate with long-term outcome has emerged as 1 of the most critical tasks. Current goals include achieving modified New York Heart Association functional class I or II, 6-min walk distance >380 m, normalization of right ventricular size and function on echocardiograph, a decreasing or normalization of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and hemodynamics with right atrial pressure <8 mm Hg and cardiac index >2.5 mg\\/kg\\/min(2). However, to more effectively prognosticate in the current era of complex treatments, it is becoming clear that the "bar" needs to be set higher, with more robust and clearer delineations aimed at parameters that correlate with long-term outcome; namely, exercise capacity and right heart function. Specifically, tests that accurately and noninvasively determine right ventricular function, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and BNP\\/N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, are emerging as promising indicators to serve as baseline predictors and treatment targets. Furthermore, studies focusing on outcomes have shown that no single test can reliably serve as a long-term prognostic marker and that composite treatment goals are more predictive of long-term outcome. It has been proposed that treatment goals be revised to include the following: modified New York Heart Association functional class I or II, 6-min walk distance ≥ 380 to 440 m, cardiopulmonary exercise test-measured peak oxygen consumption >15 ml\\/min\\/kg and ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide <45 l\\/min\\/l\\/min, BNP level toward "normal," echocardiograph and\\/or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating normal\\/near-normal right ventricular size and function, and hemodynamics showing normalization of right ventricular function with right atrial pressure <8 mm Hg and cardiac index >2.5 to 3.0 l\\/min\\/m(2).

  7. Accessibility of information about goals during the processing of narrative texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, S; Klin, C; Myers, J L

    1993-01-01

    We used a probe procedure to show that a goal established earlier in a text is active in memory at the point of its achievement. An initial experiment demonstrated that a goal category (began an investigation to nab the THIEF) is accessible, relative to a control condition, following the processing of a goal-achievement sentence (had the PURSER brought to his office). The remaining experiments provided evidence against several explanations of this result: (a) that the goal category's accessibility is due to an advantage in the strength of its initial encoding; (b) that the goal category is maintained in memory from the point at which the goal is established; or (c) that the goal category is reinstated at the point of goal achievement as the result of a high-level inference. The results suggest that the goal category is reinstated as the result of a low-level inference similar to the type that links an anaphor and its antecedent.

  8. Fuzzy Based Evaluation of Software Quality Using Quality Models and Goal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfan Mansoor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Software quality requirements are essential part for the success of software development. Defined and guaranteed quality in software development requires identifying, refining, and predicting quality properties by appropriate means. Goal models of goal oriented requirements engineering (GORE and quality models are useful for modelling of functional goals as well as for quality goals. Once the goal models are obtained representing the functional requirements and integrated quality goals, there is need to evaluate each functional requirement arising from functional goals and quality requirement arising from quality goals. The process consist of two main parts. In first part, the goal models are used to evaluate functional goals. The leaf level goals are used to establish the evaluation criteria. Stakeholders are also involved to contribute their opinions about the importance of each goal (functional and/or quality goal. Stakeholder opinions are then converted into quantifiable numbers using triangle fuzzy numbers (TFN. After applying the defuzzification process on TFN, the scores (weights are obtained for each goal. In second part specific quality goals are identified, refined/tailored based on existing quality models and their evaluation is performed similarly using TFN and by applying defuzzification process. The two step process helps to evaluate each goal based on stakeholder opinions and to evaluate the impact of quality requirements. It also helps to evaluate the relationships among functional goals and quality goals. The process is described and applied on ’cyclecomputer’ case study.

  9. Long-term goals for solar thermal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document describes long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. Goals were developed for three technologies and two applications: central receiver and dish technologies for utility-generated electricity applications, and central receiver, dish, and trough technologies for industrial process heat applications. These technologies and applications were chosen because they are the primary technologies and applications that have been researched by DOE in the past. System goals were developed through analysis of future price projections for energy sources competing with solar thermal in the middle-to-late 1990's time frame. The system goals selected were levelized energy costs of $0.05/kWh for electricity and $9/MBtu for industrial process heat (1984 $). Component goals established to meet system goals were developed based upon projections of solar thermal component performance and cost which could be achieved in the same time frame.

  10. Using goal setting as a strategy for dietary behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, K W; Baranowski, T; Smith, S P

    2001-05-01

    Recent reviews have noted that behavioral theory-based nutrition education programs are more successful at achieving food behavior change than knowledge-based programs and that a clear understanding of the mechanisms of behavior change procedures enable dietetics professionals to more effectively promote change. Successful dietary behavior change programs target 1 or more of the personal, behavioral, or environmental factors that influence the behavior of interest and apply theory-based strategies to influence or change those factors. Goal setting is a strategy that is frequently used to help people change. A 4-step goal-setting process has been identified: recognizing a need for change; establishing a goal; adopting a goal-directed activity and self-monitoring it; and self-rewarding goal attainment. The applications of goal setting in dietary interventions for adults and children are reviewed here. Because interventions using goal setting appear to promote dietary change, dietitians should consider incorporating the goal-setting strategies to enhance the behavior change process in nutrition education programs.

  11. The Role of Attention in Goal Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Meacham, Kristina A.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the role of attention in goal setting theory, using techniques adapted from selective attention research. Specifically, it explored activation and suppression of goal related information in the presence of two conflicting assigned goals. Pre vs. post goal completion and goal commitment were examined as moderators of these attentional effects. In addition, exploratory analyses looked at the impact of individual differences on attention (goal preference & action-state orient...

  12. Zeroing in on a new goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connell, K.A.

    1997-05-01

    A recent survey by Resource Services (Atlanta) showed that Georgia had a 32.6% recycling rate, which would catapult the state into the top 10 states in terms of recycling rates. Although these claims have since been disputed by certain environmental and recycling advocacy groups, arguably the state has taken important steps to increase its recycling levels. While recycling has become a growing presence in the home, at the curb, and in the office, another place where recycling has been thrust into the forefront is the Georgia state house in Atlanta. One state legislator in particular, Sen. Donzella James (D), has introduced a spate of recycling-related legislation that could change the face of solid waste management in Georgia. James introduced far-reaching legislation that would establish an ambitious goal of zero waste by the year 2020. The bill is in part a response to the state`s failure to meet a 25% waste diversion goal set in 1992. The bill mandates a graduated reduction in municipal solid waste, with a 25% diversion by 2002 and a 50% diversion by 2007, with total diversion by 2020.

  13. By force of habit: On the formation and maintenance of goal-directed habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner, U.N.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine how goal-directed habits are formed and established. Specifically, the focus was on the cognitive mechanism underlying habits and the role of habits in guiding goal-directed behavior. In daily life we perform all kinds of behaviors to attain specific goals in

  14. The Goal Wheel: Adapting Navajo Philosophy and the Medicine Wheel to Work with Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Holly; Bruce, Mary Alice; Stellern, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a group counseling model that is based on the indigenous medicine wheel as well as Navajo philosophy by which to help troubled adolescents restore harmony and balance in their lives, through establishing goals and sequential steps to accomplish these goals. The authors call this model the Goal Wheel. A…

  15. Self-esteem regulation after success and failure to attain unconsciously activated goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Karin C. A.; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Spears, Russell

    2009-01-01

    People are motivated to establish and maintain a positive self-image. When people fail to attain their goals self-esteem is threatened, and this elicits the motivation to protect or repair self-esteem. We investigated whether success and failure to attain goals affects self-esteem if these goals wer

  16. Self-esteem regulation after success and failure to attain unconsciously activated goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, K.C.A.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Spears, R.

    2009-01-01

    People are motivated to establish and maintain a positive self-image. When people fail to attain their goals self-esteem is threatened, and this elicits the motivation to protect or repair self-esteem. We investigated whether success and failure to attain goals affects self-esteem if these goals

  17. Preparing the Principal to Drive the Goals of Education for All: A Conceptual Case Developmental Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Disraeli M.

    2014-01-01

    The Education for All (EFA) goals, established for countries to improve educational performance, are most challenging for many developing countries. Notwithstanding the challenges, each country must implement suitable programme intervention in order to accomplish these goals. Goal 6 calls for the overall improvement of the education product, which…

  18. Self-esteem regulation after success and failure to attain unconsciously activated goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Karin C. A.; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Spears, Russell

    2009-01-01

    People are motivated to establish and maintain a positive self-image. When people fail to attain their goals self-esteem is threatened, and this elicits the motivation to protect or repair self-esteem. We investigated whether success and failure to attain goals affects self-esteem if these goals wer

  19. By force of habit: On the formation and maintenance of goal-directed habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner, U.N.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine how goal-directed habits are formed and established. Specifically, the focus was on the cognitive mechanism underlying habits and the role of habits in guiding goal-directed behavior. In daily life we perform all kinds of behaviors to attain specific goals in ab

  20. Self-esteem regulation after success and failure to attain unconsciously activated goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Karin C. A.; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Spears, Russell

    People are motivated to establish and maintain a positive self-image. When people fail to attain their goals self-esteem is threatened, and this elicits the motivation to protect or repair self-esteem. We investigated whether success and failure to attain goals affects self-esteem if these goals

  1. Goal motives and multiple-goal striving in sport and academia: A person-centered investigation of goal motives and inter-goal relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Laura C; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan L

    2016-12-01

    This investigation extended the goal striving literature by examining motives for two goals being pursued simultaneously. Grounded in self-determination theory, we examined how student-athletes' motives for their sporting and academic goals were associated with inter-goal facilitation and interference. Cross-sectional survey. UK university student-athletes (n=204) identified their most important sporting and academic goals. They then rated their extrinsic, introjected, identified and intrinsic motives for these goals and completed questionnaires assessing inter-goal facilitation and interference. Using a person-centered approach via latent profile analysis, we identified three distinct profiles of goal motives. Auxiliary analyses showed that the profile with high identified motives for both goals reported greater inter-goal facilitation. Extending the previous literature, the findings demonstrate the benefits of autonomous motives when simultaneously pursing goals in sport and academia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Sexual Well-Being: A Goal for Young Blind Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jan

    1983-01-01

    The article discusses developing sexuality and sexual awareness, with special reference to blind girls, and emphasizes the importance of establishing a sense of identity, individual and sexual, and structuring one's sexual growth by a conscious process of goal setting and achievement. (Author/CL)

  3. 34 CFR 300.157 - Performance goals and indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Additional Eligibility Requirements § 300.157 Performance... yearly progress, including the State's objectives for progress by children with disabilities, under..., with any other goals and academic standards for children established by the State; (b) Have in effect...

  4. Diversity Education Goals in Higher Education: A Policy Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Stuart Glen

    2013-01-01

    Many colleges and universities have established student learning outcomes for diversity education as a part of their broad undergraduate education program. These education goals, developed for assessment purposes or other policies, reflect a range of possible diversity and multicultural learning purposes. The emphasis on some purposes, and the…

  5. Goal Programming Tanker Beddown Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    general framework for an optimization model for tanker beddown. He proposes that by maximizing aircraft and aircrew utilization rates, minimizing...country diplomatic relations can be directly applied to a model of tanker beddown. He also establishes a framework from that can be modified to model the...Planning. http://www.air-refueling.com/index Annaballi, RonJon. A Multiple Ant Colony Metaheuristic for the Air Refueling Tanker Assignment Problem

  6. COMBINATION OF GOALS STRATEGY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Yu. Lapigin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently the tools to identify strategicallyimportant objectives of regional development is not enough to build a developmentperspective, relying on something special,what distinguishes each region from therest. The article discusses approaches to the formation of the regional developmentstrategy, which is based on goals set by the results of the analysis of the main factors inthe development of the region. The study is based on the methodology of systems theoryand methods of strategic management. The most important results should include tools tobuild the tree of strategic objectives resultingfrom the implementation of the algorithm forconstructing planes of analysis and development of the region. The results can be used to develop a strategy for the developmentof socio-economic systems of various typesand forms.

  7. Social Goals and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.

    2017-01-01

    Students have various social reasons for doing well in school (social-academic goals). However, most studies have focused on competence-oriented achievement goals with little attention paid to social-academic goals. This study aims to examine the role of social-academic goals in students' general well-being (Study 1) and socioemotional functioning…

  8. Promoting Physical Activity through Goal Setting Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are used to setting specific goals for students within a given unit. Here, the author emphasizes that they should also encourage students to set their own goals. Goal setting engages students in the learning process and allows them to develop the skills that support an active lifestyle. The author presents goal setting…

  9. Goal-setting in clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, E H; Bogardus, S T; Tinetti, M E; Inouye, S K

    1999-07-01

    The process of setting goals for medical care in the context of chronic disease has received little attention in the medical literature, despite the importance of goal-setting in the achievement of desired outcomes. Using qualitative research methods, this paper develops a theory of goal-setting in the care of patients with dementia. The theory posits several propositions. First, goals are generated from embedded values but are distinct from values. Goals vary based on specific circumstances and alternatives whereas values are person-specific and relatively stable in the face of changing circumstances. Second, goals are hierarchical in nature, with complex mappings between general and specific goals. Third, there are a number of factors that modify the goal-setting process, by affecting the generation of goals from values or the translation of general goals to specific goals. Modifying factors related to individuals include their degree of risk-taking, perceived self-efficacy, and acceptance of the disease. Disease factors that modify the goal-setting process include the urgency and irreversibility of the medical condition. Pertinent characteristics of the patient-family-clinician interaction include the level of participation, control, and trust among patients, family members, and clinicians. The research suggests that the goal-setting process in clinical medicine is complex, and the potential for disagreements regarding goals substantial. The nature of the goal-setting process suggests that explicit discussion of goals for care may be necessary to promote effective patient-family-clinician communication and adequate care planning.

  10. Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This searchable database contains establishments (engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding, assembly, or processing of medical devices...

  11. Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This searchable database contains establishments (engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding, assembly, or processing of medical devices...

  12. A RE-LOOK AT THE US NRC SAFETY GOALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    mubayi v.

    2013-09-22

    Since they were adopted in 1986, the US NRC’s Safety Goals have played a valuable role as a de facto risk acceptance criterion against which the predicted performance of a commercial nuclear power reactor can be evaluated and assessed. The current safety goals are cast in terms of risk metrics called quantitative health objectives (QHOs), limiting numerical values of the risks of the early and latent health effects of accidental releases of radioactivity to the offsite population. However, while demonstrating compliance with current safety goals has been an important step in assessing the acceptance of the risk posed by LWRs, new or somewhat different goals may be needed that go beyond the current early fatality and latent cancer fatality QHOs in assessing reactor risk. Natural phenomena such as hurricanes seem to be suitable candidates for establishing a background rate to derive a risk goal as their order of magnitude cost of damages is similar to those estimated in severe accident Level 3 PRAs done for nuclear power plants. This paper obtains a risk goal that could have a wider applicability, compared to the current QHOs, as a technology-neutral goal applicable to future reactors and multi-unit sites.

  13. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops.

  14. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  15. Goal-based dictator game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Ibrahim, Adyda; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2014-12-01

    A considerable number of studies have been conducted to study fairness issues using two-player game. Dictator Game is one of the two-player games that receive much attention. In this paper, we develop an evolutionary approach to the Dictator Game by using Goal programming to build a model of human decision-making for cooperation. The model is formulated based on the theories of cognitive neuroscience that is capable in capturing a more realistic fairness concerns between players in the games. We show that fairness will evolve by taking into account players' aspirations and preferences explicitly in terms of profit and fairness concerns. The model is then simulated to investigate any possible effective strategy for people in economics to deal with fairness coalition. Parallels are drawn between the approach and concepts of human decision making from the field of cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The proposed model is also able to help decision makers to plan or enhance the effective strategies for business purposes.

  16. Comparative study of goal contents and goal characteristics between medical and business students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soowon; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jun-Young; Shin, Jongho

    2016-03-01

    Medical and business are one of the most popular majors among students, and both fields require intensive training to reach certain level of expertise. During the development of professionalism, goal can become a crucial role in psychological impetus. The purpose of this study is to compare goal contents, goal characteristics, and effect of goal characteristics on student's major satisfaction between medical and business. A total of 193 undergraduate students (97 medical students, 96 business students) answered survey questions including goal contents, goal characteristics (goal autonomy, goal attainability, social value of goal) and satisfaction on their majors. Qualitative analysis of goal contents and quantitative analysis of goal characteristics, and their effects on student major satisfaction were performed. Goal content analysis showed percentage of social concern goal was higher in medical students (25.8%) than business students (6.3%), whereas percentage of wealth goal was higher business students (24.0%) than medical students (3.1%). Among goal characteristics, goal attainability and social value of goal were higher in medical students than business students. In both groups, social value of goal was significantly predict major satisfaction. Goal contents and goal characteristics are different between medical and business students. Curriculum and educational interventions that concerning students' goal and developing programs to enhance students' social value of goal is necessary.

  17. Comparative study of goal contents and goal characteristics between medical and business students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soowon Park

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Medical and business are one of the most popular majors among students, and both fields require intensive training to reach certain level of expertise. During the development of professionalism, goal can become a crucial role in psychological impetus. The purpose of this study is to compare goal contents, goal characteristics, and effect of goal characteristics on student’s major satisfaction between medical and business. Methods: A total of 193 undergraduate students (97 medical students, 96 business students answered survey questions including goal contents, goal characteristics (goal autonomy, goal attainability, social value of goal and satisfaction on their majors. Qualitative analysis of goal contents and quantitative analysis of goal characteristics, and their effects on student major satisfaction were performed. Results: Goal content analysis showed percentage of social concern goal was higher in medical students (25.8% than business students (6.3%, whereas percentage of wealth goal was higher business students (24.0% than medical students (3.1%. Among goal characteristics, goal attainability and social value of goal were higher in medical students than business students. In both groups, social value of goal was significantly predict major satisfaction. Conclusion: Goal contents and goal characteristics are different between medical and business students. Curriculum and educational interventions that concerning students’ goal and developing programs to enhance students’ social value of goal is necessary.

  18. FTAAP as an APEC Process to Achieve the Bogor Goal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyul Han

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available FTAAP became an official agenda of APEC. APEC needs a credible trade agenda to restore its identity and FTAAP would ultimately achieve it. However, APEC has to abandon its working mechanism in order to form a WTO-consistent regional agreement and an attempt to establish FTAAP may jeopardize APEC. In this paper, we have explored an acceptable type of FTAAP for APEC without abandoning its basic principles. APEC retains the Bogor goal as its ultimate goal while it regards FTAAP as an APEC process to achieve the Bogor goal. It is a process in the sense that FTAAP is a mechanism based on APEC principles in which APEC members provide specific commitments between 2010-20. The Bogor goal is achieved after APEC successfully implements FTAAP. FTAAP as a WTO consistent RTA is impossible under the working mechanism of APEC. The APEC-type FTAAP could function as a vehicle to move APEC toward the Bogor goal by establishing a credible trade agenda. Although FTAAP as an APEC process may contain lower commitments than even a low-quality RTA, it would help revive APEC’s credibility greatly. There are several minimum requirements for an acceptable FTAAP. First, FTAAP needs to contain some tangible TILF initiative on-board measures. Second, APEC should keep "voluntarism" if it wants to avoid disintegration of APEC in the process of implementation of FTAAP. Third, open regionalism needs to be kept because we are actually re-defining FTAAP.

  19. Get a taste of your goals: promoting motive-goal congruence through affect-focus goal fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Veronika; Brandstätter, Veronika

    2009-10-01

    Studies show that motive-goal congruence is an important predictor of well-being (Baumann, Kaschel, & Kuhl, 2005; Brunstein, Schultheiss, & Grässmann, 1998). However, little is known about the factors that promote congruence between implicit motives and goals. Relying on McClelland's (1985) concept of implicit motives and the theory of fantasy realization (Oettingen, 1999), we postulated that goal fantasies focusing on motive-specific affective incentives promote motive-congruent goal setting. This hypothesis was tested in 3 experimental studies. In Study 1 (n=46) and Study 2 (n=48), participants were asked to select goals in a hypothetical scenario. In Study 3 (n=179), they rated their commitment to personal goals for their actual life situation. The results of all 3 studies supported our hypothesis that participants who focus on motive-specific affective incentives in their goal fantasies set their goals in line with their corresponding implicit motive dispositions.

  20. A Project Management Perspective on Student's Declarative Commitments to Goals Established within Asynchronous Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiocchio, F.; Lafreniere, A.

    2009-01-01

    Teamwork and technology, even as people are seeing their increased use in organizations, are becoming important components of problem-based learning in academic settings. Yet, fostering computer-assisted teamwork is complex and time consuming. Knowing how and when to intervene would prove useful. This study draws from the field of project…

  1. Team Spirit: Teachers Work Together to Establish and Achieve Key Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troen, Vivian; Boles, Katherine C.

    2010-01-01

    Common experience, along with a vast collection of research, demonstrates that schools can expect a range of benefits to accrue when teachers work together. Teacher teaming can reduce teacher isolation, increase collegiality, facilitate the sharing of resources and ideas, and capitalize on teacher's individual and shared strengths. And most…

  2. Self-regulation through Goal Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Goals are an important motivator. But little is known about why and how people set them. We address this issue in a model based on two stylized facts. i) Goals serve as reference points for performance. ii) Present-biased preferences create self-control problems. We show the power and limits...... of self-regulation through goals. Goals increase an individual's motivation - but only up to a certain point. And they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems may result in tougher goals; but for a severe present bias goals either lack motivating force, or are too painful...

  3. Blood Establishment Registration Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This application provides information for active, inactive, and pre-registered firms. Query options are by FEI, Applicant Name, Establishment Name, Other Names,...

  4. Academic resilience in education: the role of achievement goal orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAHRAM JOWKAR

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the past 2 decades, research findings established achievement goal theory as a powerful framework for conceptualizing difference in the quality of student’s engagement, persistence on task, and academic resilience. So the present study examined the relationship between achievement goal orientations and academic resilience. Method: Participants were 606 students (307 girls and 297 boys selected from Shiraz high schools. They completed the Achievement Goals Questionnaire and Youth development Module Scale (RYDM. To analyze the data, the relationships between variables were examined, using Pearson product– moment correlations. Also simulanteous multiple regression was performed to investigate the prediction of academic resilience by achievement goal orientations. To examine the reliability and the validity of measures Cronbach alpha coefficient and factor analysis method were applied, respectively. Results: Simultaneous multiple regression of achievement goal orientations on academic resilience showed that “mastery-approach” was a significant positive predictor of the “home care/high” and “peer care” subscales. Also, “performance-approach” was a significant, positive predictor of “home care/ high”, and “school/community meaningful” was predicted by “performanceavoidance” positively. Conclusion: According to the findings, it seems that achievement goal orientation has a critical role in students’ academic achievement. Implications of the results are discussed in more details.

  5. An optimization framework for interdependent planning goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estlin, T. A.; Gaines, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for optimizing over interdependent planning goals. We have implemented a methodology for representing and utilizing information about interdependent goals and their related utilities using the ASPEN planning and scheduling system.

  6. The Relation Between Goals and Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Rasmussen, Anne Scharling; Berntsen, Dorthe

    facilitate recall of goal congruent autobiographical memories which supports the idea of autobiographical memory facilitating goal attainment. Further, no differences between involuntary and voluntary memories with regard to frequency or characteristics of goal related content were found. Yet memories...... related to goals were rated as more central to the person's identity, life story and expectations for the future than non-goal related memories, irrespective of mode of recall. Interestingly, depression and PTSD symptoms correlated positively with the proportion of goal related memories, thereby......The present study examines involuntary (spontaneously retrieved) versus voluntary (deliberately retrieved) autobiographical memories in relation to earlier registered goals measured by the Personal Concern Inventory (Cox & Klinger, 2000). We found that the important and not yet planned goals...

  7. The Relation Between Goals and Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Rasmussen, Anne Scharling; Berntsen, Dorthe

    The present study examines involuntary (spontaneously retrieved) versus voluntary (deliberately retrieved) autobiographical memories in relation to earlier registered goals measured by the Personal Concern Inventory (Cox & Klinger, 2000). We found that the important and not yet planned goals...... facilitate recall of goal congruent autobiographical memories which supports the idea of autobiographical memory facilitating goal attainment. Further, no differences between involuntary and voluntary memories with regard to frequency or characteristics of goal related content were found. Yet memories...... related to goals were rated as more central to the person's identity, life story and expectations for the future than non-goal related memories, irrespective of mode of recall. Interestingly, depression and PTSD symptoms correlated positively with the proportion of goal related memories, thereby...

  8. Achievement Goals and Student Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan; Maehr

    1999-10-01

    This study is concerned with the role that achievement goals may play in facilitating the psychological well-being of students. Specifically, we build on "goal theory" analysis of adaptive behavior in examining the relationship between task and ego goals, perceptions of school emphases on task and ego goals, and indices of well-being and disruptive behavior. Generally, task goals and perception of the school as emphasizing task goals were related to positive psychological well-being, and ego goals and perceiving the school as emphasizing ego goals were related to negative psychological well-being. This pattern was found for both African American and Euro-American students. However, path analyses pointed to possible different processes as operating for the African Americans and the Euro-Americans in the sample. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Social Groupwork. A Model for Goal Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Rosamond P.; Gallo, Frank T.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual model for goal formulation in social groupwork, discussion of existing models and their limitations, and an attempt to formulate an encompassing groupwork model that facilitates goal formulation. (Author/PD)

  10. Goal Structures: The Role of Teachers' Achievement Goals and Theories of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Cassady, Jerrell

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how teachers' achievement goals for teaching and implicit theories of their students' intelligence are associated with the goal structures that they create in their classrooms. Teachers ("N" = 209) reported their achievement goals for teaching (mastery, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals),…

  11. Stability and Change in Social Goals as Related to Goal Structures and Engagement in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nir

    2017-01-01

    The current studies explored (a) the extended external validity of social-goal-orientation framework; (b) the mediating role of social goals between classroom goal structures and students' engagement; and (c) whether changes in social goals can be explained by classroom goal structures and engagement. Study 1 was cross-sectional (N = 317), and…

  12. Performance-Approach and Performance-Avoidance Classroom Goals and the Adoption of Personal Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinger, Malte; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Background: Students' perceptions of classroom goals influence their adoption of personal goals. To assess different forms of classroom goals, recent studies have favoured an overall measure of performance classroom goals, compared to a two-dimensional assessment of performance-approach and performance-avoidance classroom goals (PAVCG). Aims: This…

  13. Multiple Goal Orientations and Foreign Language Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Roy, Laura; Kaewkuekool, Sittichai; Ploisawaschai, Suthee

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examines Thai college students' motivational goals for learning the English language. Thai student volunteers (N = 1387) from two types of educational institutions participated in this survey study which combined measures of goal orientations based on two different goal constructs and motivation models. Results of two-step…

  14. Goal Reasoning for an Autonomous Squad Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    2015 Annual Conference on Advances in Cognitive Systems: Workshop on Goal Reasoning Goal Reasoning for an Autonomous Squad Member Kellen...20375 USA Abstract Autonomous agents are beginning to play larger roles within team-oriented tasks and missions in various domains. Many reasoning ...present a goal reasoning system for this agent that integrates natural language processing, explanation generation, and plan recognition components

  15. Goal priming as a situated intervention tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papies, Esther K.

    2016-01-01

    Research on goal priming has shown that cues in the environment can lead to goal-directed cognition and behaviour without the need for conscious intentions. This has sparked an interest in using goal priming as an intervention tool to strategically influence behaviour in line with an individual's

  16. The selfish goal meets the selfish gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberg, Steven L; Schaller, Mark

    2014-04-01

    The connection between selfish genes and selfish goals is not merely metaphorical. Many goals that shape contemporary cognition and behavior are psychological products of evolutionarily fundamental motivational systems and thus are phenotypic manifestations of genes. An evolutionary perspective can add depth and nuance to our understanding of "selfish goals" and their implications for human cognition and behavior.

  17. Competition and achievement goals in work teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidemeier, H.; Bittner, Jenny V.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how competition within teams influences which type of achievement goals employees adopt. We studied how dispositional learning-goal and performance-goal orientation interact with team-level competition and predict whether team members adopt state learning or performance achieveme

  18. A Holistic Quality Evaluation, Selection and Improvement Approach driven by Multilevel Goals and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen Rivera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizations should establish business goals and check for their achievement in a systematic and disciplined way. In order to know if a business goal is achieved, it should be necessary to consider information need goals that also can require satisfying measurement and evaluation goals at operational level. Furthermore, if measurement and evaluation goals are not aligned with top-level business goals such as tactical or strategic level goals, the organization could waste its effort and resources. Usually, the different goals established in an organization are operationalized through projects. For a given project, strategies should be used in order to help in the goal achievement. A strategy defines a set of activities and methods to be followed for a specific goal purpose. Ultimately, to engineering all these issues in a systematic way, organizations should adopt a holistic evaluation approach supported by a set of integrated strategies. By means of a systematic literature review as research method, we have observed that very few approaches support integrated strategies and multilevel goals. To bridge this gap, we have developed a holistic quality multilevel and multipurpose evaluation approach that ties together multilevel goals, projects and integrated strategies. As contributions, this paper discusses an enhanced conceptual base (specified by ontologies for linking business and information need goal concepts with project, strategy and nonfunctional requirements concepts. Then, it defines the step by step of our holistic quality evaluation approach, by listing the necessary activities to establish goals and projects at different organizational levels. Lastly, it specifies and illustrates evaluation scenarios for business/information need goal purposes such as understanding, improving, monitoring and controlling, comparing and selecting entities, which are supported by strategies and strategy patterns.

  19. Self-regulation through Goal Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    Goals are an important source of motivation. But little is known about why and how people set them. We address these questions in a model based on two stylized facts from psychology and behavioral economics: i) Goals serve as reference points for performance. ii) Present-biased preferences create...... self-control problems. We show how goals permit self-regulation, but also that they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems therefore lead to stronger self-regulation through goals only up to a certain point. For severely present-biased preferences, the required goal...

  20. Self-regulation through Goal Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    Goals are an important source of motivation. But little is known about why and how people set them. We address these questions in a model based on two stylized facts from psychology and behavioral economics: i) Goals serve as reference points for performance. ii) Present-biased preferences create...... self-control problems. We show how goals permit self-regulation, but also that they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems therefore lead to stronger self-regulation through goals only up to a certain point. For severely present-biased preferences, the required goal...

  1. Impact Analysis on an Attributed Goal Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shinpei; Tanabe, Daisuke; Kaiya, Haruhiko; Saeki, Motoshi

    Requirements changes frequently occur at any time of a software development process, and their management is a crucial issue to develop software of high quality. Meanwhile, goal-oriented analysis techniques are being put into practice to elicit requirements. In this situation, the change management of goal graphs and its support are necessary. This paper presents a technique related to the change management of goal graphs, realizing impact analysis on a goal graph when its modifications occur. Our impact analysis detects conflicts that arise when a new goal is added, and investigates the achievability of the other goals when an existing goal is deleted. We have implemented a supporting tool for automating the analysis. Two case studies suggested the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  2. The GOAL-to-HAL/S translator specification. [for space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanten, S. F.; Flanders, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    The specification sets forth a technical framework within which to deal with the transfer of specific GOAL features to HAL/S. Key technical features of the translator are described which communicate with the data bank, handle repeat statements, and deal with software interrupts. GOAL programs, databank information, and GOAL system subroutines are integrated into one GOAL in HAL/S. This output is fully compatible HAL/S source ready for insertion into the HAL/S compiler. The Translator uses a PASS1 to establish all the global data needed for the HAL/S output program. Individual GOAL statements are translated in PASS2. The specification document makes extensive use of flowcharts to specify exactly how each variation of each GOAL statement is to be translated. The specification also deals with definitions and assumptions, executive support structure and implementation. An appendix, entitled GOAL-to-HAL Mapping, provides examples of translated GOAL statements.

  3. Establishing the Intermediate Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  4. Secular Religious Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer to the co...

  5. Self-regulation of unattainable goals in suicide attempters: the relationship between goal disengagement, goal reengagement and suicidal ideation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Rory C

    2009-02-01

    There is growing interest in models of adaptive self-regulation. Recent research suggests that goal disengagement and goal reengagement (i.e., goal adjustment) are implicated in the self-regulation of emotion. This study extends the self-regulation research to investigate the utility of goal adjustment in understanding suicidal risk. To this end, two hundred adults hospitalised following a suicidal episode completed a range of clinical and psychological measures in hospital and were followed up approximately 2.5 months after discharge (Time 2). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that goal reengagement predicted suicidal ideation at Time 2. In addition, the lack of goal reengagement was especially pernicious when reported concomitantly with high disengagement. These predictive effects were independent of baseline mood, attempt status and suicidal intent. The theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  6. Assessing residents' written learning goals and goal writing skill: validity evidence for the learning goal scoring rubric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockspeiser, Tai M; Schmitter, Patricia A; Lane, J Lindsey; Hanson, Janice L; Rosenberg, Adam A; Park, Yoon Soo

    2013-10-01

    To provide validity evidence for use of the Learning Goal Scoring Rubric to assess the quality of written learning goals and residents' goal writing skills. This two-part study used the rubric to assess University of Colorado third-year pediatric residents' written learning goals to obtain validity evidence. In study 1, five raters independently scored 48 goals written in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 by 48 residents, who also responded to the Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning (JeffSPLL). In study 2, two raters independently scored 48 goals written in 2011-2012 by 12 residents. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) assessed rater agreement to provide evidence for response process. Generalizability theory assessed internal structure. Independent-samples Mann-Whitney U tests and correlations assessed relationship to other variables. Content was matched to published literature and instructional methods. The ICC was 0.71 for the overall rubric. In study 1, where the generalizability study's (G study's) object of measurement was learning goals, the phi coefficient was 0.867. In study 2, where the G study's object of measurement was the resident (goal writing skill), the phi coefficient was 0.751. The total mean score of residents with goal writing training was significantly higher than that of those without (7.54 versus 4.98, P skill.

  7. Transforming the advanced lab: Part I - Learning goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickl, Benjamin; Finkelstein, Noah; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2012-02-01

    Within the physics education research community relatively little attention has been given to laboratory courses, especially at the upper-division undergraduate level. As part of transforming our senior-level Optics and Modern Physics Lab at the University of Colorado Boulder we are developing learning goals, revising curricula, and creating assessments. In this paper, we report on the establishment of our learning goals and a surrounding framework that have emerged from discussions with a wide variety of faculty, from a review of the literature on labs, and from identifying the goals of existing lab courses. Our goals go beyond those of specific physics content and apparatus, allowing instructors to personalize them to their contexts. We report on four broad themes and associated learning goals: Modeling (math-physics-data connection, statistical error analysis, systematic error, modeling of engineered "black boxes"), Design (of experiments, apparatus, programs, troubleshooting), Communication, and Technical Lab Skills (computer-aided data analysis, LabVIEW, test and measurement equipment).

  8. Secular Religious Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer...... to the compatibility question is not obvious and requires a systematic analysis of secularism. Based on a distinction between a general concept and specific conceptions of secularism I offer a general structure for conceptions of secularism that incorporates both a) basic values, e.g. political equality and freedom...... of conscience, b) intermediate political principles of separation, e.g. rights to religious liberty, and c) derived normative prescriptions, e.g. that an established church is unacceptable. I illustrate the structure using the conceptions of secularism advocated by Robert Audi and by Charles Taylor and Jocelyn...

  9. Trichotomous goals of elementary school students learning English as a foreign language: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tung-Hsien; Chang, Shan-Mao; Chen, Shu-Hui Eileen; Gou, Wen Johnny

    2012-02-01

    This study applied structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques to define the relations among trichotomous goals (mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals), self-efficacy, use of metacognitive self-regulation strategies, positive belief in seeking help, and help-avoidance behavior. Elementary school students (N = 105), who were learning English as a foreign language, were surveyed using five self-report scales. The structural equation model showed that self-efficacy led to the adoption of mastery goals but discouraged the adoption of performance-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals. Furthermore, mastery goals increased the use of metacognitive self-regulation strategies, whereas performance-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals reduced their use. Mastery goals encouraged positive belief in help-seeking, but performance-avoidance goals decreased such belief. Finally, performance-avoidance goals directly led to help-avoidance behavior, whereas positive belief assumed a critical role in reducing help-avoidance. The established structural equation model illuminated the potential causal relations among these variables for the young learners in this study.

  10. Integrated learning through student goal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Deborah; Tschannen, Dana; Caylor, Shandra

    2013-09-01

    New strategies are emerging to promote structure and increase learning in the clinical setting. Nursing faculty designed a mechanism by which integrative learning and situated coaching could occur more readily in the clinical setting. The Clinical Goals Initiative was implemented for sophomore-, junior-, and senior-level students in their clinical practicums. Students developed weekly goals reflecting three domains of professional nursing practice. Goals were shared with faculty and staff nurse mentors at the beginning of the clinical day to help guide students and mentors with planning for learning experiences. After 6 weeks, faculty and students were surveyed to evaluate project effectiveness. Faculty indicated that goal development facilitated clinical learning by providing more student engagement, direction, and focus. Students reported that goal development allowed them to optimize clinical learning opportunities and track their growth and progress. Faculty and students indicated the goals promoted student self-learning, autonomy, and student communication with nurse mentors and faculty.

  11. The Effect of Goal-Line Presentation and Goal Selection on First-Grader Subtraction Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Hansen, Brooke; Rowland, Julie E.; Schutte, Greg; Williams, Joey

    2014-01-01

    Math proficiency is related to math calculation fluency. Explicit timing provides repeated practice for math fluency. It is enhanced through goal setting, graphic feedback, and rewards. Self-selected goals have potential to increase performance for math fluency. This study compared the effect of goal lines, and researcher goals versus…

  12. Self-Generated Goals and Goal Process Appraisals: Relationships with Sociodemographic Factors and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Emma K.; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Garnefski, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    In this study the full array of personal goals pursued by adolescents was examined using an idiographic goal-elicitation procedure. The aims of the study were twofold. Firstly, we investigated individual differences in self-generated goals and goal process appraisals based on sociodemographic characteristics. Secondly, we investigated the…

  13. Goal Engagement and Goal Attainment in Adolescents with and without Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The present longitudinal study analyzed the effects of domain-specific goal engagement on the attainment of four developmental goals in 133 adolescents with visual impairment and in 449 sighted peers. Goal engagement predicted stronger progress in goal attainment with regard to getting access to a peer group, career choice and development of…

  14. Crew goal setting for security control

    OpenAIRE

    Wetter, Olive Emil; Hofer, Franziska; Jonas, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness, efficiency, and robustness of simple goal setting in airport security control. As outcome, crew performance in terms of productivity (Experiment 1, field setting) was studied. Furthermore, the moderating role of negative and positive priming due to a previous task on the impact of goals (Experiment 2, laboratory setting) was analyzed. This research builds a bridge from goal setting theory to practice and prepares the grounds for its application in se...

  15. Patient and caregiver goals for dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Lee A; Palimaru, Alina; Corona, Maria G; Cagigas, Xavier E; Ramirez, Karina D; Zhao, Tracy; Hays, Ron D; Wenger, Neil S; Reuben, David B

    2017-03-01

    Most health outcome measures for chronic diseases do not incorporate specific health goals of patients and caregivers. To elicit patient-centered goals for dementia care, we conducted a qualitative study using focus groups of people with early-stage dementia and dementia caregivers. We conducted 5 focus groups with 43 participants (7 with early-stage dementia and 36 caregivers); 15 participants were Spanish-speaking. Verbatim transcriptions were independently analyzed line-by-line by two coders using both deductive and inductive approaches. Coded texts were grouped into domains and developed into a goal inventory for dementia care. Participants identified 41 goals for dementia care within five domains (medical care, physical quality of life, social and emotional quality of life, access to services and supports, and caregiver support). Caregiver goals included ensuring the safety of the person with dementia and managing caregiving stress. Participants with early-stage dementia identified engaging in meaningful activity (e.g., work, family functions) and not being a burden on family near the end of life as important goals. Participants articulated the need to readdress goals as the disease progressed and reported challenges in goal-setting when goals differed between the person with dementia and the caregiver (e.g., patient safety vs. living independently at home). While goals were similar among English- and Spanish-speaking participants, Spanish-speaking participants emphasized the need to improve community education about dementia. Patient- and caregiver-identified goals for care are different than commonly measured health outcomes for dementia. Future work should incorporate patient-centered goals into clinical settings and assess their usefulness for dementia care.

  16. Tractable Goal Selection with Oversubscribed Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; McLaren, David

    2009-01-01

    We describe an efficient, online goal selection algorithm and its use for selecting goals at runtime. Our focus is on the re-planning that must be performed in a timely manner on the embedded system where computational resources are limited. In particular, our algorithm generates near optimal solutions to problems with fully specified goal requests that oversubscribe available resources but have no temporal flexibility. By using a fast, incremental algorithm, goal selection can be postponed in a "just-in-time" fashion allowing requests to be changed or added at the last minute. This enables shorter response cycles and greater autonomy for the system under control.

  17. Investigation the Relationship between Goal Orientation and Parenting Styles among Sample of Jordanian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Ahmad M.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between goal orientation and parenting styles. Participants of the study completed 650 goal orientation and parenting styles questionnaires. Means, standard deviations, regression and correlation analysis were used for data in establishing the dependence of the two variables. Results…

  18. Investigation the Relationship between Goal Orientation and Parenting Styles among Sample of Jordanian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Ahmad M.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between goal orientation and parenting styles. Participants of the study completed 650 goal orientation and parenting styles questionnaires. Means, standard deviations, regression and correlation analysis were used for data in establishing the dependence of the two variables. Results…

  19. An Investigation of the Goals for an Environmental Science Course: Teacher and Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation uses an ethnographic case study approach to explore the benefits and challenges of including a variety of goals within a high school Environmental Science curriculum. The study focuses on environmental education (EE) goals established by the Belgrade Charter (1975), including developing students' environmental awareness and…

  20. Goals and Methodology for a Surgery Residency Program: A Committee Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Charles D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Written goals of a small animal residency program established by Purdue University are identified and an elaborate list of methodology for goals is provided. Tables include: summary of required activities of residents, checklist of residency progress, and comparable effort for surgery residency and masters program. (Author/MLW)

  1. An Investigation of the Goals for an Environmental Science Course: Teacher and Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation uses an ethnographic case study approach to explore the benefits and challenges of including a variety of goals within a high school Environmental Science curriculum. The study focuses on environmental education (EE) goals established by the Belgrade Charter (1975), including developing students' environmental awareness and…

  2. So What's Wrong with a Little Competition? A Defense of Competitive Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Tom; Kirch, Michael W.

    Many administrators and educators have questioned the wisdom of establishing competitive goals for forensic programs. Many appear to believe that the acceptance of competitive goals necessarily leads to such abusive behavior as atheoretical teaching, the prioritizing of style over substance, the promotion of education shortcuts, and the…

  3. Blocking effects in non-conditioned goal-directed behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Gohil, Krutika; Beste, Christian

    2017-08-01

    A great deal of our goal-directed behaviour depends on stimulus-response (S-R) associations, which can be established through conditioning or explicit instructions. For conditioned and reward maximizing behaviour, it has been shown that redundant information will no longer be taken into account once those associations have been formed ("blocking effect"). Following from this, new aspects will not be included in a pre-established association unless they improve behaviour. Opposing this, influential action control theories state that all kinds of information may be taken into account during action selection, thus denying the possibility of blocking redundant "surplus" information from non-conditioned goal-directed behaviour. We probed these contradicting predictions by asking two groups of healthy young adults to perform a redundant and a non-redundant version of a stop-change task in a counter-balanced order. Using behavioural and electrophysiological data, we demonstrate that contradicting current theories, blocking seems to be a general mechanism which also applies to non-conditioned goal-directed behaviour. Specifically, we show that the complexity of response selection processes associated with medial frontal cortical activity is altered by blocking. This was reflected by faster responses and smaller central P3 amplitudes originating in the ACC (BA24/BA32). Preceding attentional processes were not affected. Contradicting current views, our ability to ignore information that hampers an expedient unfolding of goal-directed behaviour is quite limited. Prior experiences have a much larger influence on which input we consider for response formation. This offers a functional explanation for why it can be hard to alter (inefficient) behaviour once it has been established.

  4. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of genetic

  5. Management Matters: Planning Goals and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of setting and implementing goals that can help change and improve a library media program over time--goals that go beyond merely keeping the library media center running. Suggestions for developing an action plan and strategies for effective time management are also presented.

  6. Podcast search: user goals and retrieval technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besser, J.; Larson, M.; Hofmann, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This research aims to identify users' goals and strategies when searching for podcasts and their impact on the design of podcast retrieval technology. In particular, the paper seeks to explore the potential to address user goals with indexing based on podcast metadata and automatic speech

  7. Responding to the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    , disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation and discrimination of women. These goals are now placed at the heart of the global agenda. The Summit’s Millennium Declaration also outlined a wide range of commitments in human rights, good governance, and democracy. This paper presents the Millennium Goals...

  8. Aligning Executive Coaching with Strategic Business Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumata, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Explains executive coaching, which is traditionally focused on individual executives, and how it can help align individual development with an organization's strategic goals. Describes a counseling model of identifying an individual's goals, challenges, and development needs and then helping him or her gain insight on how to address these needs.…

  9. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of geneticim

  10. How goal-fulfillment decreases aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denzler, M.; Förster, J.; Liberman, N.

    2009-01-01

    We suggest that the goal to aggress increases accessibility of aggressive thoughts, and that after goal-fulfillment, accessibility of aggressive content is reduced. Experiment 1 showed an increase in accessibility of aggression after imagining an aggression-eliciting situation compared to non-aggres

  11. Goal Directedness and Decision Making in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenward, Ben; Folke, Sara; Holmberg, Jacob; Johansson, Alexandra; Gredeback, Gustaf

    2009-01-01

    The term "goal directed" conventionally refers to either of 2 separate process types--motor processes organizing action oriented toward physical targets and decision-making processes that select these targets by integrating desire for and knowledge of action outcomes. Even newborns are goal directed in the first sense, but the status of…

  12. Fashioning a selfish self amid selfish goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Winegard, Bo M

    2014-04-01

    The selfish goal, at some point in evolution, gave rise to a selfish self. In humans, this selfish self might exert influence over goals, deciding upon which to execute and which to inhibit. This, in fact, may be one of the chief functions of the self.

  13. Goals and Indirect Objects in Seri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlett, Stephen A.

    A number of Seri verbs display a sensitivity to whether a goal, which is a term used for recipients, adressees, etc., is singular or plural. The data presented in this paper are of typological interest. It is argued that Seri has indirect objects, but that there is no one-to-one mapping between the semantic role goal and either the syntactic…

  14. Strategic Goals and Plan of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the four goals of the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) for all its subcommittees. These goals are: (1) Promoting ACEI's mission and work in the global community; (2) Promoting ACEI's long-standing commitment to the whole child and the whole curriculum; (3) Sustaining ACEI's leadership role in ensuring…

  15. Goal Pursuit in Youth with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Emma; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents frequently experience chronic pain that can disrupt their usual activities and lead to poor physical and emotional functioning. The fear avoidance model of pain with an emphasis on the maladaptive behaviors that lead to activity avoidance has guided research and clinical practice. However, this model does not take into consideration variability in responses to pain, in particular the active pursuit of goals despite pain. This review aims to introduce a novel conceptualization of children’s activity engagement versus avoidance using the framework of goal pursuit. We propose a new model of Goal Pursuit in Pediatric Chronic Pain, which proposes that the child’s experience of pain is modified by child factors (e.g., goal salience, motivation/energy, pain-related anxiety/fear, and self-efficacy) and parent factors (e.g., parent expectations for pain, protectiveness behaviors, and parent anxiety), which lead to specific goal pursuit behaviors. Goal pursuit is framed as engagement or avoidance of valued goals when in pain. Next, we recommend that research in youth with chronic pain should be reframed to account for the pursuit of valued goals within the context of pain and suggest directions for future research. PMID:27879686

  16. Goal Pursuit in Youth with Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Fisher

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents frequently experience chronic pain that can disrupt their usual activities and lead to poor physical and emotional functioning. The fear avoidance model of pain with an emphasis on the maladaptive behaviors that lead to activity avoidance has guided research and clinical practice. However, this model does not take into consideration variability in responses to pain, in particular the active pursuit of goals despite pain. This review aims to introduce a novel conceptualization of children’s activity engagement versus avoidance using the framework of goal pursuit. We propose a new model of Goal Pursuit in Pediatric Chronic Pain, which proposes that the child’s experience of pain is modified by child factors (e.g., goal salience, motivation/energy, pain-related anxiety/fear, and self-efficacy and parent factors (e.g., parent expectations for pain, protectiveness behaviors, and parent anxiety, which lead to specific goal pursuit behaviors. Goal pursuit is framed as engagement or avoidance of valued goals when in pain. Next, we recommend that research in youth with chronic pain should be reframed to account for the pursuit of valued goals within the context of pain and suggest directions for future research.

  17. Formal Modelling of Goals in Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popova, Viara; Sharpanskykh, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    Each organization exists or is created for the achievement of one or more goals. To ensure continued success, the organization should monitor its performance with respect to the formulated goals. In practice the performance of an organization is often evaluated by estimating its performance indicato

  18. Podcast search: user goals and retrieval technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besser, J.; Larson, M.; Hofmann, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This research aims to identify users' goals and strategies when searching for podcasts and their impact on the design of podcast retrieval technology. In particular, the paper seeks to explore the potential to address user goals with indexing based on podcast metadata and automatic speech

  19. A Procedure for Socially Valid Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Howell, Amber; Carpenter, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting poses a significant challenge for service providers in both clinical and educational settings. With today's call for services that contribute to meaningful changes in children, there is an increased need for goal-setting procedures that are socially valid. This article presents such a procedure and illustrates its use through a case…

  20. 7 CFR 3550.151 - Servicing goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing goals. 3550.151 Section 3550.151 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing § 3550.151 Servicing goals....

  1. 28 CFR 544.32 - Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activities (see 28 CFR 544.81). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goals. 544.32 Section 544.32 Judicial... Programs § 544.32 Goals. The Warden is to ensure, to the extent possible, that leisure activities...

  2. 48 CFR 27.305-1 - Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Goals. 27.305-1 Section 27.305-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305-1 Goals....

  3. Goal Pursuit in Youth with Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Emma; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-11-22

    Children and adolescents frequently experience chronic pain that can disrupt their usual activities and lead to poor physical and emotional functioning. The fear avoidance model of pain with an emphasis on the maladaptive behaviors that lead to activity avoidance has guided research and clinical practice. However, this model does not take into consideration variability in responses to pain, in particular the active pursuit of goals despite pain. This review aims to introduce a novel conceptualization of children's activity engagement versus avoidance using the framework of goal pursuit. We propose a new model of Goal Pursuit in Pediatric Chronic Pain, which proposes that the child's experience of pain is modified by child factors (e.g., goal salience, motivation/energy, pain-related anxiety/fear, and self-efficacy) and parent factors (e.g., parent expectations for pain, protectiveness behaviors, and parent anxiety), which lead to specific goal pursuit behaviors. Goal pursuit is framed as engagement or avoidance of valued goals when in pain. Next, we recommend that research in youth with chronic pain should be reframed to account for the pursuit of valued goals within the context of pain and suggest directions for future research.

  4. Achievement goals, social goals, and motivational regulations in physical education settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini Estrada, José A; González González-Mesa, Carmen; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between achievement and social goals, and explored how both goals affect students' level of informed self-determination in Physical Education. Participants were 395 high school students. Three scales were used to assess achievement, social goals, and motivation. Several hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals were the greatest contributors to the individuals' levels of self-determination. Achievement and social goals were found to be separate predictors of students' levels of self-determination, and this highlights the importance of separating mastery and performance goals into avoidance and approach profiles. Girls reported significantly higher values than boys on responsibility, relationship, and mastery-avoidance goals, whereas boys scored higher on performance-approach goals. Researchers could use achievement and social goals to study students' motivation and achievement in Physical Education settings.

  5. [Perceptions of classroom goal structures, personal achievement goal orientations, and learning strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kaori; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2005-08-01

    We examined the relations among students' perceptions of classroom goal structures (mastery and performance goal structures), students' achievement goal orientations (mastery, performance, and work-avoidance goals), and learning strategies (deep processing, surface processing and self-handicapping strategies). Participants were 323 5th and 6th grade students in elementary schools. The results from structural equation modeling indicated that perceptions of classroom mastery goal structures were associated with students' mastery goal orientations, which were in turn related positively to the deep processing strategies and academic achievement. Perceptions of classroom performance goal stractures proved associated with work avoidance-goal orientations, which were positively related to the surface processing and self-handicapping strategies. Two types of goal structures had a positive relation with students' performance goal orientations, which had significant positive effects on academic achievement. The results of this study suggest that elementary school students' perceptions of mastery goal structures are related to adaptive patterns of learning more than perceptions of performance goal structures are. The role of perceptions of classroom goal structure in promoting students' goal orientations and learning strategies is discussed.

  6. Establishing effective working relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council.

  7. Re-establishing dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente; Hall, E.O.C

    2012-01-01

    In western countries, the older population is increasing and with age follows a risk of un-health. Every fifth hospital patient is above 65 years of age. As a consequence, nursing care to older patients is a significant but tacit nursing issue. The aim of this study was to explore Danish clinical...... nurses’ experiences of caring for older hospital patients. The study was based on Benner and Wrubel’s phenomenological notion that caring as a special kind of involvement, a grasp of a situation in terms of its meaning, is primary in nursing. A qualitative secondary analysis of data from an interview...... study with 29 nurses and nurse assistants was performed following Van Manen’s hermeneutic phenomenology. Findings show that caring mainly concerns ‘re-establishing dignity’ especially through ‘seeing the patient as a unique person’, ‘assisting in getting rid of the bed’ and ‘supporting patient...

  8. Millennium development goals: Examining Kenya constraints in achieving the eight goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wambua Leonard Munyao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Kenya’s performance in achieving the famous millennium development goals. The paper provides the government and other stakeholders with proper understanding of the constraints of achieving the millennium development goals as well as reflecting the phase and the passion of the country in achieving this important development goal. The paper further seeks to stress the importance of this goal in reducing poverty in the country. The paper has cited some key factors undermining achieving of the millennium development goals in Kenya. Major recommendations that can contribute towards achieving of the millennium development goals have also been made.

  9. Portfolio optimization in enhanced index tracking with goal programming approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Lam Weng; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah Hj.; Ismail, Hamizun bin

    2014-09-01

    Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of passive fund management in stock market. Enhanced index tracking aims to generate excess return over the return achieved by the market index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index. This can be done by establishing an optimal portfolio to maximize the mean return and minimize the risk. The objective of this paper is to determine the portfolio composition and performance using goal programming approach in enhanced index tracking and comparing it to the market index. Goal programming is a branch of multi-objective optimization which can handle decision problems that involve two different goals in enhanced index tracking, a trade-off between maximizing the mean return and minimizing the risk. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio with goal programming approach is able to outperform the Malaysia market index which is FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index because of higher mean return and lower risk without purchasing all the stocks in the market index.

  10. Methods and strategies for future reactor safety goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Steven Andrew

    -informed analyses and discussions. This dissertation examines potential approaches to updating the safety goals that include the establishment of new quantitative safety goal associated with the comparative risk of generating electricity by viable competing technologies and modifications of the goals to account for multi-plant reactor sites, and issues associated with the use of safety goals in both initial licensing and operational decision making. This research develops a new quantitative health objective that uses a comparable benefit risk metric based on the life-cycle risk of the construction, operation and decommissioning of a comparable non-nuclear electric generation facility, as well as the risks associated with mining and transportation. This dissertation also evaluates the effects of using various methods for aggregating site risk as a safety metric, as opposed to using single plant safety goals. Additionally, a number of important assumptions inherent in the current safety goals, including the effect of other potential negative societal effects such as the generation of greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) have on the risk of electric power production and their effects on the setting of safety goals, is explored. Finally, the role risk perception should play in establishing safety goals has been explored. To complete this evaluation, a new method to analytically compare alternative technologies of generating electricity was developed, including development of a new way to evaluate risk perception, and a new method was developed for evaluating the risk at multiple units on a single site. To test these modifications to the safety goals a number of possible reactor designs and configurations were evaluated using these new proposed safety goals to determine the goals' usefulness and utility. The results of the analysis showed that the modifications provide measures that more closely evaluate the potential risk to the public from the operation of nuclear power plants than

  11. Shopping the way to my goals: an analysis of purchase impact on perceived goal progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Albornoz Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract This article examines the impact of goal related purchases on goal progress perception, and whether this perception depends on the strength of association between product and goal. To test how consumers perceive the act of purchasing goal-related products, three experiments were conducted in an online setting. Participants exposed to purchasing situations perceived greater goal progress than participants exposed to usage situation or a control group. In addition, studies show that this effect is a result of strength of association between product and goal, since participants exposed to more instrumental products perceived greater goal progress than participants exposed to less instrumental products. Therefore, these studies demonstrate how consumers interpret goal related purchases, and the mechanism that influences this interpretation.

  12. Football: A Naive Approximation to the Effect of Increasing Goal Size on the Number of Goals

    CERN Document Server

    Mira, J

    2006-01-01

    The effect of increasing goal mouth size on the number of goals scored in a football match is discussed in a very preliminary and simple way, considering elastic collisions of the ball with the posts. The result is obtained on the basis of data taken from the Spanish Professional League, that show a high number of shots-to-post. Surprisingly, there is a direct correlation of the increase in goal mouth area with the increase of goals.

  13. An Approach for Solving Goal Programming Problems using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Figueroa-García

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal for solving goal problems involving multiple experts opinions and perceptions. In goal programming problems where no statistical data about their goals exist, the use of information coming from experts becomes the last reliable source. This way, we propose an approach to model this kind of goals using Interval Type-2 fuzzy sets, and a simple method for finding an optimal solution based on previous methods that have been proposed for classical fuzzy sets.

  14. Establishing lunar resource viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Fisackerly, R.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    Recent research has highlighted the potential of lunar resources as an important element of space exploration but their viability has not been demonstrated. Establishing whether or not they can be considered in future plans is a multidisciplinary effort, requiring scientific expertise and delivering scientific results. To this end various space agencies and private entities are looking to lunar resources, extracted and processed in situ, as a potentially game changing element in future space architectures, with the potential to increase scale and reduce cost. However, before any decisions can be made on the inclusion of resources in exploration roadmaps or future scenarios some big questions need to be answered about the viability of different resource deposits and the processes for extraction and utilisation. The missions and measurements that will be required to answer these questions, and which are being prepared by agencies and others, can only be performed through the engagement and support of the science community. In answering questions about resources, data and knowledge will be generated that is of fundamental scientific importance. In supporting resource prospecting missions the science community will de facto generate new scientific knowledge. Science enables exploration and exploration enables science.

  15. Compilation of Fall 1974 Goals, Subgoals and Priorities Meeting Goals Collection Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systems Planning Corp., Sacramento, CA.

    California school districts reported their goals, subgoals, and priorities by matching statements to those in a catalog of 279 possible educational goals developed by a state legislature subcommittee. This report compiles data collected from 217 school districts that met certain goals collection criteria. Data from the remaining 614 participating…

  16. Goal-Directed and Goal-Less Imitation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Kelly S.; Poliakoff, Ellen; Jerrison, Andrew; Gowen, Emma

    2012-01-01

    To investigate how people with Autism are affected by the presence of goals during imitation, we conducted a study to measure movement kinematics and eye movements during the imitation of goal-directed and goal-less hand movements. Our results showed that a control group imitated changes in movement kinematics and increased the level that they…

  17. Curricular Goals and Personal Goals in Master's Thesis Projects: Dutch Student-Supervisor Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    To be effective, feedback should be goal-related. In order to better understand goal-related feedback in Master's thesis projects, the present study explores the goals of supervisors and students in supervision dyads and similarities and differences within and between these dyads. Twelve supervisors and students were interviewed, and their goals…

  18. Goal Setting in Principal Evaluation: Goal Quality and Predictors of Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on goal-setting theory to investigate the goals set by experienced principals during their performance evaluations. While most goals were about teaching and learning, they tended to be vaguely expressed and only partially achieved. Five predictors (commitment, challenge, learning, effort, and support) explained a significant…

  19. Goal Setting in Principal Evaluation: Goal Quality and Predictors of Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on goal-setting theory to investigate the goals set by experienced principals during their performance evaluations. While most goals were about teaching and learning, they tended to be vaguely expressed and only partially achieved. Five predictors (commitment, challenge, learning, effort, and support) explained a significant…

  20. Goals for Sex Equitable Sexuality Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Mariamne H.

    1987-01-01

    This article presents an overview of issues related to sex equity in sexuality education. Goals which might represent sex equitable sexuality education include eliminating double standards, and redefining sexuality education. (IAH)

  1. Methods, goals and educational design research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan

    2014-01-01

    McKenney, S. (2013). Methods, goals and educational design research. Invited panel presentation at the annual meeting of the European Association for Practitioner Resaerch on Improving Learning. November 27-29, Biel/Bienne, Switzerland.

  2. Methods, goals and educational design research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan

    2014-01-01

    McKenney, S. (2013). Methods, goals and educational design research. Invited panel presentation at the annual meeting of the European Association for Practitioner Resaerch on Improving Learning. November 27-29, Biel/Bienne, Switzerland.

  3. Center for Corporate Climate Leadership Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA provides tools and recognition for companies setting aggressive GHG reduction goals, which can galvanize reduction efforts at a company and often leads to the identification of many additional reduction opportunities.

  4. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  5. Domain-Independent Heuristics for Goal Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    on the projected consequences of achieving them. We then describe their integration in M- ARTUE , an agent that balances the satisfaction of internal...for goal formulation. For example, ARTUE (Molineaux et al. 2010a) uses manually-engineered trigger rules that add goals suggested by a rule when...its trigger conditions are met. This reactive mechanism allows the designer to instruct and control ARTUE , but prevents it from leveraging its own

  6. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress h...... be developed. Finally, political leadership, openness to discuss women's rights, including abortion, and involving the community i.e. MDG 3 is essential to attain MDG 5....

  7. Goals of care conversation teaching in residency - a cross-sectional survey of postgraduate program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze des Ordons, Amanda; Kassam, Aliya; Simon, Jessica

    2017-01-06

    Residents are commonly involved in establishing goals of care for hospitalized patients. While education can improve the quality of these conversations, whether and how postgraduate training programs integrate such teaching into their curricula is not well established. The objective of this study was to characterize perceptions of current teaching and assessment of goals of care conversations, and program director interest in associated curricular integration. An electronic survey was sent to all postgraduate program directors at the University of Calgary. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative comments were analyzed using thematic analysis. The survey response rate was 34% (22/64). Formal goals of care conversation teaching is incorporated into 63% of responding programs, and most commonly involves lectures. Informal teaching occurs in 86% of programs, involving discussion, direct observation and role modeling in the clinical setting. Seventy-three percent of programs assess goals of care conversation skills, mostly in the clinical setting through feedback. Program directors believe that over two-thirds of clinical faculty are prepared to teach goals of care conversations, and are interested in resources to teach and assess goals of care conversations. Themes that emerged include 1) general perceptions, 2) need for teaching, 3) ideas for teaching, and 4) assessment of goals of care conversations. The majority of residency training programs at the University of Calgary incorporate some goals of care conversation teaching and assessment into their curricula. Program directors are interested in resources to improve teaching and assessment of goals of care conversations.

  8. Software for Optimizing Plans Involving Interdependent Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel; Rabideau, Gregg

    2005-01-01

    A computer program enables construction and optimization of plans for activities that are directed toward achievement of goals that are interdependent. Goal interdependence is defined as the achievement of one or more goals affecting the desirability or priority of achieving one or more other goals. This program is overlaid on the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) software system, aspects of which have been described in a number of prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. Unlike other known or related planning programs, this program considers interdependences among goals that can change between problems and provides a language for easily specifying such dependences. Specifications of the interdependences can be formulated dynamically and provided to the associated planning software as part of the goal input. Then an optimization algorithm provided by this program enables the planning software to reason about the interdependences and incorporate them into an overall objective function that it uses to rate the quality of a plan under construction and to direct its optimization search. In tests on a series of problems of planning geological experiments by a team of instrumented robotic vehicles (rovers) on new terrain, this program was found to enhance plan quality.

  9. Motivational Function of Plans and Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Alispahić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The academic literature shows that by helping tune out distractions, goals can get individuals' to try harder, work longer, and achieve more. Goals that people set for themselves and that are devoted to attaining mastery are usually healthy. But goals imposed by others—sales targets, quarterly returns, standardized test scores—can sometimes have dangerous side effects (Pink, 2009. Because understanding action demands understanding intention, the idea of motivation is natural and readily expressed in everyday language. Cognitive mental events like goals and expectancies can function as a “spring to action”, a moving force that energizes and directs action in purposive ways (Reeve, 2005. Cognitive studies of motivation are dealing with relationship between cognition and action. Literature is indicating a few cognitive elements that can have motivational significance. The article presents the overview of theory and research about the motivational function of plans and goals, according to Goal setting theory (Locke & Latham, 1990 and Self-determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000. Suggestions for additional research are also indicated.

  10. Does monitoring goal progress promote goal attainment? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Benjamin; Webb, Thomas L; Chang, Betty P I; Prestwich, Andrew; Conner, Mark; Kellar, Ian; Benn, Yael; Sheeran, Paschal

    2016-02-01

    Control theory and other frameworks for understanding self-regulation suggest that monitoring goal progress is a crucial process that intervenes between setting and attaining a goal, and helps to ensure that goals are translated into action. However, the impact of progress monitoring interventions on rates of behavioral performance and goal attainment has yet to be quantified. A systematic literature search identified 138 studies (N = 19,951) that randomly allocated participants to an intervention designed to promote monitoring of goal progress versus a control condition. All studies reported the effects of the treatment on (a) the frequency of progress monitoring and (b) subsequent goal attainment. A random effects model revealed that, on average, interventions were successful at increasing the frequency of monitoring goal progress (d+ = 1.98, 95% CI [1.71, 2.24]) and promoted goal attainment (d+ = 0.40, 95% CI [0.32, 0.48]). Furthermore, changes in the frequency of progress monitoring mediated the effect of the interventions on goal attainment. Moderation tests revealed that progress monitoring had larger effects on goal attainment when the outcomes were reported or made public, and when the information was physically recorded. Taken together, the findings suggest that monitoring goal progress is an effective self-regulation strategy, and that interventions that increase the frequency of progress monitoring are likely to promote behavior change.

  11. Effect of goal difficulty, goal specificity and duration of practice time intervals on muscular endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Eli, M; Tenenbaum, G; Pie, J S; Btesh, Y; Almog, A

    1997-04-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the relationships between goal specificity, goal difficulty and performance, and to determine if setting unrealistic goals would produce decreases in performance. The subjects were high school students from 15 schools and an attempt was made to control for the effects of social comparison. The schools were randomly assigned to one of 15 conditions representing five levels of goal conditions-namely, 'do' (no goals), 'do your best', 'improve by 10%' (easy), 'improve by 20%' (difficult/ realistic) and 'improve by 40%' (improbable/unattainable)-and three levels of practice duration (4, 6 and 8 weeks). This design consisted of nesting goal difficulty within practice duration, which enabled an examination of the goal specificity and goal attainability/difficulty hypotheses proposed by Locke and Latham (1985). A 5 x 3 factorial ANCOVA was applied to the post-baseline sit-up gain scores. The results indicated that all specific groups performed better than all non-specific groups. In addition, across practice durations the difficult/realistic group exhibited the greatest increase in performance, followed by the easy group. The performance gains of the improbable/unattainable group were substantially less compared with the difficult/ realistic group after 4 and 6 weeks, but not after 8 weeks of practice. These results are in line with both the goal specificity and goal difficulty hypotheses derived from the application of Locke's goal-setting theory to sport.

  12. Assessment of patient knowledge of diabetic goals, self-reported medication adherence, and goal attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitley HP

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication adherence is an integral aspect of disease state management for patients with chronic illnesses, including diabetes mellitus. It has been hypothesized that patients with diabetes who have poor medication adherence may have less knowledge of overall therapeutic goals and may be less likely to attain these goals. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess self-reported medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals (hemoglobin A1C [A1C], low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] and blood pressure [BP], and goal attainment in adult patients with diabetes. Methods: A survey was created to assess medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals, and goal attainment for adult patients with diabetes followed at an internal medicine or a family medicine clinic. Surveys were self-administered prior to office visits. Additional data were collected from the electronic medical record. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: A total of 149 patients were enrolled. Knowledge of therapeutic goals was reported by 14%, 34%, and 18% of survived patients for LDL-C, BP, and A1C, respectively. Forty-six percent, 37%, and 40% of patients achieved LDL-C, BP, and A1C goals, respectively. Low prescribing of cholesterol-lowering medications was an interesting secondary finding; 36% of patients not at LDL-C goal had not been prescribed a medication targeted to lower cholesterol. Forty-eight percent of patients were medication non-adherent; most frequently reported reasons for non-adherence were forgot (34% and too expensive (14%. Patients at A1C goal were more adherent than patients not at goal (p=0.025. Conclusion: The majority did not reach goals and were unknowledgeable of goals; however, most were provided prescriptions to treat these parameters. Goal parameters should be revisited often amongst multidisciplinary team members with frequent and open communications. Additionally, it is imperative that practitioners discuss

  13. Between students' instrumental goals and how they learn: goal content is the gap to mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Luke K; Ginns, Paul; Walker, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Experimental/correlational studies have consistently demonstrated that the contents of an individual's goals play an important role within future motivations, learning processes, and outcomes. The aim of the study was to extend past findings by employing a three-point, cross-lagged latent simultaneous structural model in the examination of the role of intrinsic/extrinsic goals' effects on key proximal motivations, learning variables, and achievement in the context of a Japanese university. This study consisted of first-year students within seven departments, attending one university (n = 584). Employing three data points, separated by 8 and 7 months, this study tests the effects of students' instrumental goals on future motivations, approaches to learning and learning outcomes. Three goals were the focus of this study: Distal internally regulated, distal externally regulated, and proximal externally regulated. Internally regulated goals were hypothesized to be broadly adaptive, while externally regulated goals were hypothesized to be maladaptive. Findings reflected the broad importance of internal regulation for goals. Internally regulated goals positively predicted mastery goals and negatively predicted task valuation and effort belief deficits 8 months later. While not predicting achievement directly, internally regulated goals were the strongest predictor of future deep approaches to learning despite the lag of 15 months. Proximal externally regulated goals had no significant cross-lagged effects, and distal externally regulated goals had a negative predictive effect on future deep approaches to learning. This study extends intrinsic/extrinsic goal research both within education broadly and in the context of Japan. Furthermore, instrumental goals were found to play important roles supporting students in overcoming future motivation deficits and the pursuit of deep approaches to learning. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Development of cognitive abilities as educational goal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović-Nahod Slobodanka S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper sets out to consider cognitive abilities development depending on learning and educational goals. Three standpoints and their effects on the quality of cognition are opposed: determination of tasks and goals beforehand, non-determination of tasks and goals beforehand, and alternative models where general and specific goals are planned specification being left to curriculum executors. Thereafter, consideration is given to the learning theories where it is insisted either upon learner’s individual activities or upon planning of learning context which contains interrelations between teachers, learners and contents. Emphasis is placed on a discrepancy between theoretical ideas providing good reasons for independently constructed knowledge evaluation, on the one hand, and school practice that commonly does not attribute great importance to such knowledge on the other hand. How the development of cognitive abilities will proceed in teaching depends largely on teachers themselves - their understanding of tasks and goals, qualifications they possess for school subject they teach manner of executing instruction, and familiarity with student personality needs. We can accept the standpoint that we need the theory focusing straight on education, but must be broad enough to embrace both individual and contextual perspective as well as activities of both teachers and students.

  15. Nurse Communication About Goals of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Elaine; Ferrell, Betty; Goldsmith, Joy; Buller, Haley; Neiman, Tammy

    2016-03-01

    Conversations about goals of care with the patient and family are a critical component of advanced practice in oncology. However, there are often inadequate team structures, training, or resources available to assist advanced practitioners in initiating these conversations. We conducted a study to assess nurses' perceived role and communication tasks in such conversations about goals of care. In a cross-sectional survey of 109 nurses attending a comprehensive 2-day end-of-life nursing education course, nurses were asked to describe how they would participate in a "goals of care" meeting in three different scenarios. They were also asked what changes they desired in their clinical settings. Nurses overwhelmingly described that their primary task and communication role was to assess patient/family understanding. Nurses referenced their team members and team support with the least frequency across scenarios. Team roles, structure, and process were reported as areas in greatest need of change in patient/family goals of care meetings. These findings demonstrate that lack of preparation to function as a team is a barrier for nurses in communicating about goals of care, and there is a demand to move such conversations upstream in oncology care.

  16. Goal Setting to Promote a Health Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Raheem J; Taylor, Wendell C; Hudnall, Gina Evans; Christie, Juliette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this parallel-group study was to determine whether a feasibility study based on newsletters and telephone counseling would improve goal-setting constructs; physical activity (PA); and fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake in a sample of older adults. Forty-three older adults (M age = 70 years, >70% Asian, 54% female) living in Honolulu, Hawaii were recruited and randomly assigned to either a PA or F & V intake condition. All participants completed measures of PA, F & V intake, and goal setting mechanisms (i.e., specificity, difficulty, effort, commitment, and persistence) at baseline and 8-weeks. Paired t-tests were used to evaluate changes across time. We found that F & V participants significantly increased F & V intake and mean scores of goal specificity, effort, commitment, and persistence (all p goal setting mechanisms were observed for participants in the PA condition. Overall, our results show that a short-term intervention using newsletters and motivational calls based on goal-setting theory was effective in improving F & V intake; however, more research is needed to determine whether these strategies are effective for improving PA among a multiethnic sample of older adults.

  17. HEALTH, VITAL GOALS, AND CENTRAL HUMAN CAPABILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or ‘central human capabilities and functionings’. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings—or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. PMID:22420910

  18. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings.

  19. How Do Young Adults Orchestrate Their Multiple Achievement-Related Goals? Associations of Achievement Goal Orientations With Identity Formation and Goal Appraisals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flunger, Barbara; Marttinen, Elina; Tuominen-Soini, Heta; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2016-01-01

    Young adults strive for multiple achievement goals. Frameworks for achievement goal orientations, personal goals, and identity formation have emphasized the role of goal-specific exploration and commitment in the interpretation of goals. However, researchers have yet to combine these different persp

  20. Achievement Goals and Performance in English and Mathematics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achievement Goals and Performance in English and Mathematics of Senior ... and Avoidance Achievement Motivation” scale as measure of achievement goals ... the goals, between learning and performance-avoidance goals with English ...

  1. The nature and dimensions of achievement goals: mastery, evaluation, competition, and self-presentation goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Marina S; Gonçalves, Teresa; Lens, Willy; Rodrigues, Luís P

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the nature and dimensions of achievement goals and to examine structural differences in students' goals across school levels. Participants were 134 students from 5th and 6th grades, and 423 students from 7th to 9th grades. A variety of achievement goals were assessed, including mastery goals and several performance-related goals representing three main dimensions: competition, self-presentation, and valence. Two alternative models were tested, using confirmatory factor analysis. For middle-school students a three factor model with presentation, competition, and simple evaluation/mastery goals, was found χ²(132, N = 134) = 160.9, p goals, and (b) simple evaluation goals, which encompass neither self-presentation nor competition, and are closely linked to mastery goals. Moreover, significant differences were found in the relative importance attached by students to the different types of goals (p < .001 for all comparisons), both at middle-school F(2, 266) = 220.98; p < .001; η2 = .624) and at junior-high school F(2, 820) = 464.4; p < .001; η2 = .531.

  2. Opportunities for establishment of financial market in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atia Milad Aljbiri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to show the importance of financial markets to the Libyan economy. At present, the country is preparing to establish a financial market as a requirement of economic reform with its goal to achieve economic stability and improve the volume of investment, as well as raising the growth rate. As the analysis in this paper shows, there are achievements with respect to the financial indicators, but it is limited with respect to the volume of investment and the level of incomes. This leads to the importance of establishing the financial market which is one of the primary requirements to achieve these goals.

  3. How the Organizational Goals Affect Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shong Lin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How to enhance customer satisfaction and technology innovation have been topics of discussion for some time; however, few studies have explored the two issues by applying the knowledge creation theory, and analyzed their differences in knowledge creation activities. The present study aims to explore how the firm’s organizational goal affects its knowledge creation process. Based on Nonaka’s knowledge creation theory, questionnaires were developed and sent to Taiwanese firms in various industries, including the manufacturing and service industries. These questionnaires were collected either by mail or interview. Our findings suggest that externalization and combination activities should be emphasized when the organizational goal is innovation, whereas internalization activity should be emphasized when the organizational goal is customer satisfaction.

  4. Handbook of critical issues in goal programming

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, C

    1991-01-01

    Goal Programming (GP) is perhaps the oldest and most widely used approach within the Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) paradigm. GP combines the logic of optimisation in mathematical programming with the decision maker's desire to satisfy several goals. The primary purpose of this book is to identify the critical issues in GP and to demonstrate different procedures capable of avoiding or mitigating the inherent pitfalls associated with these issues. The outcome of a search of the literature shows many instances where GP models produced misleading or even erroneous results simply because

  5. Gender and the millenium development goals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Njiro, E

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education • Target 3 - Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling... of literate women to men aged 15-24 years – Indicator 11: Share of Women in wage employment in the non- agricultural sector – Indicator 12: Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament Goal 4: Reduce child mortality square4 Target 5...

  6. Nuclear Technology for the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Iain

    2017-01-01

    Science, technology and innovation will play a crucial role in helping countries achieve the ambitious Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Since the discovery of nuclear fission in the 1930s, the peaceful applications of nuclear technology have helped many countries improve crops, fight pests, advance health, protect the environment and guarantee a stable supply of energy. Highlighting the goals related to health, hunger, energy and the environment, in this presentation I will discuss how nuclear technology contributes to the SDGs and how nuclear technology can further contribute to the well-being of people, help protect the planet and boost prosperity.

  7. Safer Systems: A NextGen Aviation Safety Strategic Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Stephen T.; Ricks, Wendell R.; Lemos, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), is charged by Congress with developing the concepts and plans for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP), developed by the Safety Working Group of the JPDO, focuses on establishing the goals, objectives, and strategies needed to realize the safety objectives of the NextGen Integrated Plan. The three goal areas of the NASSP are Safer Practices, Safer Systems, and Safer Worldwide. Safer Practices emphasizes an integrated, systematic approach to safety risk management through implementation of formalized Safety Management Systems (SMS) that incorporate safety data analysis processes, and the enhancement of methods for ensuring safety is an inherent characteristic of NextGen. Safer Systems emphasizes implementation of safety-enhancing technologies, which will improve safety for human-centered interfaces and enhance the safety of airborne and ground-based systems. Safer Worldwide encourages coordinating the adoption of the safer practices and safer systems technologies, policies and procedures worldwide, such that the maximum level of safety is achieved across air transportation system boundaries. This paper introduces the NASSP and its development, and focuses on the Safer Systems elements of the NASSP, which incorporates three objectives for NextGen systems: 1) provide risk reducing system interfaces, 2) provide safety enhancements for airborne systems, and 3) provide safety enhancements for ground-based systems. The goal of this paper is to expose avionics and air traffic management system developers to NASSP objectives and Safer Systems strategies.

  8. Continuum of Counseling Goals: A Framework for Differentiating Counseling Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Presents counseling goals in a developmental continuum similar in concept to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Discusses ego development goals, socialization goals, developmental goals, self-esteem goals, and self-realization goals and describes characteristics and implications of the continuum. (JAC)

  9. Continuum of Counseling Goals: A Framework for Differentiating Counseling Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Presents counseling goals in a developmental continuum similar in concept to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Discusses ego development goals, socialization goals, developmental goals, self-esteem goals, and self-realization goals and describes characteristics and implications of the continuum. (JAC)

  10. Using Growth Norms to Set Instructional Goals for Struggling Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Lindsay B.; Stickney, Eric M.; Ysseldyke, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the extent to which classroom teachers in naturalistic settings used a Goal-Setting Tool to set instructional goals for struggling students, the kinds of goals they set, their progress monitoring practices with and without goals, and the extent to which students gain more when a goal-setting tool is used. The goal-setting tool…

  11. Self-regulation of goal setting: turning free fantasies about the future into binding goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettingen, G; Pak, H; Schnetter, K

    2001-05-01

    Fantasy realization theory states that when people contrast their fantasies about a desired future with reflections on present reality, a necessity to act is induced that leads to the activation and use of relevant expectations. Strong goal commitment arises in light of favorable expectations, and weak goal commitment arises in light of unfavorable expectations. To the contrary, when people only fantasize about a desired future or only reflect on present reality, expectancy-independent moderate goal commitment emerges. Four experiments pertaining to various life domains supported these hypotheses. Strength of goal commitment was assessed in cognitive (e.g., making plans), affective (e.g., felt attachment), and behavioral terms (e.g., effort expenditure, quality of performance). Implications for theories on goal setting and goal striving are discussed.

  12. Unconscious goals: specific or unspecific? The potential harm of the goal/gene analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanay, Bence

    2014-04-01

    Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) definition of goals is ambiguous between "specific goals" - the end-state of a token action I am about to perform - and "unspecific goals" - the end-state of an action-type (without specifying how this would be achieved). The analogy with selfish genes pushes the authors towards the former interpretation, but the latter would provide a more robust theoretical framework.

  13. Drug Establishments Current Registration Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Establishments Current Registration Site (DECRS) is a database of current information submitted by drug firms to register establishments (facilities) which...

  14. SURFACE MINE PLANNING OPTIMIZATION BY GOAL PROGRAMMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈意平; 张幼蒂

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduced an approach to surface mine planning optimization-Goal Programming.The multiobjective[0-1] model has been built and the software has been developed.The method has been applied to a huge surface coal mine,the result of which shows that it is effective and feasible.

  15. Case-Based Policy and Goal Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Springfield, VA USA 2 ASEE Postdoctoral Fellow 3 Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence ; Naval Research Laboratory (Code 5514...tion performance in comparison to a baseline algorithm. Keywords: Policy recognition, intelligent agents, goal reasoning, air combat 1 Introduction The...recognition in beyond visual range air combat. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth Inter- national Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society

  16. Preferences, Paths, Power, Goals and Norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oren, N.; Van Riemsdijk, M.B.; Vasconcelos, W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to address the question of preference alignment in normative systems. We represent detached obligations and goals as preferences over outcomes, and describe when deterministic behaviour will occur within a MAS under specific system instantiations. We then investigate what obligation

  17. Mining Process Variants: Goals and Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, C.; Reichert, M.U.; Wombacher, A.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Process-Aware Information Systems (PAIS) were introduced, which allow for dynamic process and service changes. This, in turn, has led to a large number of process model variants, which are difficult to maintain and expensive to configure. This paper deals with goals and issues related to t

  18. Mapping to Curricular and Institutional Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, D'Arcy J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter will discuss how institutional research professionals might integrate co-curricular learning outcomes into larger measures of institutional effectiveness. By mapping co-curricular learning outcomes to align with curricular and institutional goals, linkages can be made that demonstrate mission-congruent activities and outcomes across…

  19. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress h...... be developed. Finally, political leadership, openness to discuss women's rights, including abortion, and involving the community i.e. MDG 3 is essential to attain MDG 5.......Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress has...... innovative strategy. Along with the strategy of aiming at increasing the number of health facility based deliveries and the empowerment of non physicians to provide obstetric surgery, some preventive functions of basic care targeting women who prefer to deliver outside the health facilities should...

  20. University Student's Goal Profiles and Metacomprehension Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingming

    2013-01-01

    In this study, undergraduate students provided confidence ratings to predict future performance in answering questions drawn from the text before reading the text, after reading the text and after rereading the text. Self-reports of achievement goal orientations during reading and posttest scores were also collected. Student's calibration index…

  1. Children's Memory for Goal-Directed Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levorato, M. Chiara

    1991-01-01

    Investigates whether children's representations of the linguistic description of a goal-directed event was similar to their representation of the same event observed visually. Finds that mode of presentation did not affect the recall of most important actions, but that verbal description led to recall characterized by greater cohesion than visual…

  2. Conation, Goal Accomplishment Style and Wholistic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atman, Kathryn S.; Romano, Patricia R.

    Conation is a domain of behavior or mental processes associated with goal directed action. Wholistic education stresses an integrated approach to an individual's learning process; thus, consideration of the integration of the four domains (cognitive, affective, psychomotor and conative) can find a receptive niche among educators who seek to…

  3. Exposure diversity as a policy goal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.

    2012-01-01

    The protection and promotion of media diversity is one of the primary goals of national media laws and policies. Existing laws and policies are typically concerned with the supply of a wide range of content from diverse sources. Law and policy makers have been until now far more cautious about addre

  4. Musically Meaningful: The Interpersonal Goals of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    To enhance music learning and performance, teachers can direct learners toward authentic, interpersonal goals. Teachers' aspirations for their students' positive musical experiences may be realized when learners seek to connect with their audiences and evoke responses in listeners. Instead of anxiety-promoting concerns over judgment,…

  5. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  6. Mentoring Beginning Teachers and Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Peter; Hudson, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Australia has delineated a new direction for teacher education by embedding mentoring programs for teachers who support early-careers teachers as a system approach. This case study investigated how mentors after involvement in a mentoring professional learning program focused on goal setting with beginning teachers in their schools. Data were…

  7. Parietofrontal circuits in goal-oriented behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medendorp, W.P.; Buchholz, V.N.; Werf, J. van der; Léoné, F.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Parietal and frontal cortical areas play important roles in the control of goal-oriented behaviour. This review examines how signal processing in the parietal and frontal eye fields is involved in coding and storing space, directing attention and processing the sensorimotor transformation for saccad

  8. Intentional change, intrinsic motivations, and goal generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzotti, Riccardo; Moderato, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    Wilson et al. draw our attention to the problem of a science of intentional change. We stress the connection between their approach and existing paradigms for learning and goal generation that have been developed in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and psychology. These paradigms outline the structural principles of a domain-general and teleologically open agent.

  9. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  10. Visualising Learning Goals with the Quail Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botturi, Luca

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the Quail Model, a device for the classification and visualisation of learning goals. The model is a communication tool that can smoothen the discussion within a course design team, support shared understanding, and improve decision making. Its theoretical background mingles contributions from instructional design (Bloom,…

  11. Detrimental Effects of “Stretch” Goals in Specialty Substance Use Disorder Treatment Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, G. James; Blum, Terry C.; Roman, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Background “Stretch” goals, a rarely examined concept that represents seemingly impossible, highly ambitious organizational goals ostensibly established to fill performance gaps and motivate employees, are examined within a sample of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment centers in the United States in terms of their prevalence and effects on organizational behavior. Stretch goals are defined as “seemingly impossible” goals intended to motivate employees to achieve high performance. In light of the high level of environmental change and unpredictability faced by SUD treatment centers in recent decades, we theorize that stretch goals would be both common and often detrimental (in terms of capacity utilization rate and efficiency) in these settings. Methods In a longitudinal analysis of data from leaders of a representative U. S. national sample of 219 SUD treatment centers characterized by entrepreneurial management structures, we examined the prevalence of stretch goals and their impact on key outcome variables of capacity utilization rate and efficiency. Results Widespread adoption of stretch goals was found, with 43% of our sample falling within the stretch category. Stretch goals had a negative main effect on capacity utilization rate as compared to less ambitious challenging goals. Stretch and prior performance interacted to further predict capacity utilization rate, whereas stretch and slack resource availability interacted to predict center efficiency. Discussion Although stretch goals are frequently used in the SUD treatment industry, we find them mostly detrimental to performance. Stretch goals may enhance the efficiency of treatment centers with prior limited resource availability, but they are negatively associated with capacity utilization, especially in centers with a record of already strong performance. Despite the high prevalence of such goals and positive values centered on aspirational behavior, these results strongly suggest caution in

  12. Goal Attainment Scaling in Individuals with Upper Limb Spasticity Post Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Parvin; Mochizuki, George; Dutta, Tilak; Richardson, Denyse; Brooks, Dina

    2016-12-01

    Focusing on rehabilitation goals is an effective approach for improving function in individuals with spasticity after stroke. The objectives of this study were to examine and map goals of post-stroke individuals with spasticity using the Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and to evaluate the impact of botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) on occupational performance based on the type of rehabilitation goals. Thirty-one patients were recruited from an outpatient spasticity management clinic. Each patient set one goal, was injected with BoNTA in their spastic upper limb muscles and received standard rehabilitation services twice a week for four weeks. Twenty-seven participants achieved the expected level, and four exceeded the expected level of their rehabilitation goals. Fifty-five percent of the goals were related to Activity/Participation, and 45% of the goals were categorized in the Body Structures and Function domain of the ICF. Fifteen goals focused on positioning, while 16 goals focused on (independent) activities of daily living (ADL/IADL). Both the positioning and ADL/IADL groups experienced a reduction in MAS following the administration of BoNTA. The positioning group was older and more impaired. Mapping goals to ICF identifies specific targets for intervention, establishes a common language within the interdisciplinary team and contextualizes the ways disability impacts goals. This study is limited by a relatively small sample size and absence of a functional measure. Further studies can explore the development of goal/item banks to advance the use of GAS for spasticity management. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Requirements as Goals and Commitments Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Amit K.; Mylopoulos, John; Dalpiaz, Fabiano; Giorgini, Paolo; Singh, Munindar P.

    In traditional software engineering research and practice, requirements are classified either as functional or non-functional. Functional requirements consist of all functions the system-to-be ought to support, and have been modeled in terms of box-and-arrow diagrams in the spirit of SADT. Non-functional requirements include desired software qualities for the system-to-be and have been described either in natural language or in terms of metrics. This orthodoxy was challenged in the mid-90 s by a host of proposals that had a common theme: all requirements are initially stakeholder goals and ought to be elicited, modeled and analyzed as such. Through systematic processes, these goals can be refined into specifications of functions the system-to-be needs to deliver, while actions assigned to external actors need to be executed. This view is dominating Requirements Engineering (RE) research and is beginning to have an impact on RE practice. We propose a next step along this line of research, by adopting the concept of conditional commitment as companion concept to that of goal. Goals are intentional entities that capture the needs and wants of stakeholders. Commitments, on the other hand, are social concepts that define the willingness and capability of an actor A to fulfill a predicate ϕ for the benefit of actor B, provided B (in return) fulfills predicate ψ for the benefit of actor A. In our conceptualization, goals are mapped to collections of commitments rather than functions, qualities, or actor assignments. We motivate the importance of the concept of commitment for RE through examples and discussion. We also contrast our proposal with state-of-the-art requirements modeling and analysis frameworks, such as KAOS, MAP, i * and Tropos.

  14. Probabilistic safety goals. Phase 2 - Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, J.-E.; Bjoerkman, K. Rossi, J. (VTT (Finland)); Knochenhauer, M.; Xuhong He; Persson, A.; Gustavsson, H. (Relcon Scandpower AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden))

    2008-07-15

    The second phase of the project, the outcome of which is described in this project report has mainly dealt with four issues: 1) Consistency in the usage of safety goals 2) Criteria for assessment of results from PSA level 2 3) Overview of international safety goals and experiences from their use 4) Safety goals related to other man-made risks in society. Consistency in judgement over time has been perceived to be one of the main problems in the usage of safety goals. Safety goals defined in the 80ies were met in the beginning with PSA:s performed to the standards of that time, i.e., by PSA:s that were quite limited in scope and level of detail compared to today's state of the art. This issue was investigated by performing a comparative review was performed of three generations of the same PSA, focusing on the impact from changes over time in component failure data, IE frequency, and modelling of the plant, including plant changes and changes in success criteria. It proved to be very time-consuming and in some cases next to impossible to correctly identify the basic causes for changes in PSA results. A multitude of different sub-causes turned out to combined and difficult to differentiate. Thus, rigorous book-keeping is needed in order to keep track of how and why PSA results change. This is especially important in order to differentiate 'real' differences due to plant changes and updated component and IE data from differences that are due to general PSA development (scope, level of detail, modelling issues). (au)

  15. Achievement goals and perfectionism of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been investigating one of the most contemporary approaches of achievement motivation - Achievement Goal Theory, which uses the construct of achievement goals. The construct of achievement goals involves three types of achievement goals: mastery goals, performance approach goals and performance avoidance goals. The main goal of the research was to examine correlation between perfectionism and its aspects with particular types of achievement goals. Also, the goal was to investigate the difference concerning gender regarding the achievement goals. The sample consisted of 200 senior year high school participants. The following instruments were used: Multi-dimensional scale of perfectionism (MSP and Test of achievement goals (TCP. The research results indicate that there is significant positive correlation between: perfectionism with performance approach goals and performance avoidance goals, concern over mistakes and parental expectations with performance approach goals and performance avoidance goals, personal standards and organization with mastery goals and performance approach goals, parental criticism and doubts about action with performance avoidance goals. Significant negative correlation was found between parental criticism and mastery goals. The results concerning the second goal indicates the female subjects have higher average scores in mastery goals.

  16. Personal goals systems and social cognitive theory: A motivational model of college student alcohol use

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Carl David

    2003-01-01

    College students drink at high rates. More than 80% of college students drink alcohol and about 40% engage in occasions of heavy drinking. Heavy episodic drinking among college students is associated with multiple negative consequences, such as verbal confrontations, physical fights, unprotected sex, vandalism, and driving while under the influence. Goals constitute a broad cognitive context in which behaviors occur. As an established technology for studying goal constructs, personal pro...

  17. Coping with spinal cord injury: Tenacious goal pursuit and flexible goal adjustment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lankveld, Wim; van Diemen, Tijn; van Nes, Ilse J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation of higher-order coping strategies of tenacious goal pursuit and flexible goal adjustment with adjustment after rehabilitation in spinal cordinjury. Design: Cross-sectional correlational study.Subjects/patients: All 397 eligible patients entered for spinal

  18. Neural correlates of idiographic goal priming in depression: goal-specific dysfunctions in the orbitofrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Kari M.; Dolcos, Florin; McLean, Amy Noll; Krishnan, K. Ranga; Cabeza, Roberto; Strauman, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether depressed (vs non-depressed) adults showed differences in cortical activation in response to stimuli representing personal goals. Drawing upon regulatory focus theory as well as previous research, we predicted that depressed patients would manifest attenuated left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation in response to their own promotion goals as well as exaggerated right OFC activation in response to their own prevention goals. Unmedicated adults with major depression (n = 22) and adults with no history of affective disorder (n = 14) completed questionnaires and a personal goal interview. Several weeks later, they were scanned during a judgment task which (unknown to them) included stimuli representing their promotion and prevention goals. Both groups showed similar patterns of task-related activation. Consistent with predictions, patients showed significantly decreased left OFC and increased right OFC activation compared to controls on trials in which they were exposed incidentally to their promotion and prevention goals, respectively. The results suggest that depression involves dysfunction in processing two important types of personal goals. The findings extend models of the etiology of depression to incorporate cognitive and motivational processes underlying higher order goal representation and ultimately may provide an empirical basis for treatment matching. PMID:19433416

  19. On goals and strategies : How a fit between performance goals and regulatory strategies affects performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, L.J.; Van Yperen, N.W.

    2008-01-01

    In the present research, we argue and demonstrate that a fit or non-fit between regulatory strategy and performance goal affects task performance. Specifically, we found that a prevention strategy results in better performance among performance avoidance (PAv) goal participants compared to performan

  20. Neural correlates of idiographic goal priming in depression: goal-specific dysfunctions in the orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Kari M; Dolcos, Florin; McLean, Amy Noll; Krishnan, K Ranga; Cabeza, Roberto; Strauman, Timothy J

    2009-09-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether depressed (vs non-depressed) adults showed differences in cortical activation in response to stimuli representing personal goals. Drawing upon regulatory focus theory as well as previous research, we predicted that depressed patients would manifest attenuated left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation in response to their own promotion goals as well as exaggerated right OFC activation in response to their own prevention goals. Unmedicated adults with major depression (n = 22) and adults with no history of affective disorder (n = 14) completed questionnaires and a personal goal interview. Several weeks later, they were scanned during a judgment task which (unknown to them) included stimuli representing their promotion and prevention goals. Both groups showed similar patterns of task-related activation. Consistent with predictions, patients showed significantly decreased left OFC and increased right OFC activation compared to controls on trials in which they were exposed incidentally to their promotion and prevention goals, respectively. The results suggest that depression involves dysfunction in processing two important types of personal goals. The findings extend models of the etiology of depression to incorporate cognitive and motivational processes underlying higher order goal representation and ultimately may provide an empirical basis for treatment matching.

  1. Building on the Enriched Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Mastery Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Michou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two motivational theories – the Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory – have recently been combined to explain students’ motivation, making it possible to study the “what” and the “why” of learners’ achievement strivings. The present study built on this approach by (a investigating whether the distinction between autonomous or volitional and controlling or pressuring reasons can be meaningfully applied to the adoption of mastery-avoidance goals, (b investigating the concurrent and prospective relations between mastery-avoidance goals and their underlying reasons and learning strategies when mastery-approach goals and their underlying reasons were also considered, and by (c incorporating psychological need experiences as an explanatory variable in the relation between achievement motives (i.e., the motive to succeed and motive to avoid failure and both mastery goals and their underlying reasons. In two Turkish university students samples ('N' = 226, 'Mage '= 22.36; 'N' = 331, 'Mage '= 19.5, autonomous and controlling reasons appeared applicable to mastery-avoidance goals and regression and path analysis further showed that mastery-avoidance goals and their underlying autonomous reasons fail to predicted learning strategies over and above the pursuit of mastery-approach goals and their underlying reasons. Finally, need experiences were established as mediators between achievement motives and both mastery goals and their underlying reasons.

  2. Personal goals and psychological growth: testing an intervention to enhance goal attainment and personality integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Kasser, Tim; Smith, Kendra; Share, Tamara

    2002-02-01

    We hypothesized that semester goal attainment provides a route to short-term psychological growth. In an attempt to enhance this process, we randomly assigned participants to either a goal-training program or to a control condition. Although there were no main effects of program participation on later goal attainment, important interactions were found. Consistent with a "prepared to benefit" model, participants already high in goal-based measures of personality integration perceived the program as most useful and benefited the most from the program in terms of goal attainment. As a result, they became even more integrated and also increased in their levels of psychosocial well-being and vitality. Implications for theories of short-term growth and positive change are discussed, as is the unanswered question of how to help less-integrated persons grow.

  3. Financing the Millennium Development Goals for health and beyond: sustaining the 'Big Push'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu Sanjay

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many of the Millennium Development Goals are not being achieved in the world's poorest countries, yet only five years remain until the target date. The financing of these Goals is not merely insufficient; current evidence indicates that the temporary nature of the financing, as well as challenges to coordinating its delivery and directing it to the most needy recipients, hinder achievement of the Goals in countries that may benefit most. Traditional approaches to providing development assistance for health have not been able to address both prevalent and emergent public health challenges captured in the Goals; these challenges demand sustained forms of financial redistribution through a coordinated mechanism. A global social health protection fund is proposed to address recurring failures in the modern aid distribution mechanism. Such a Fund could use established and effective strategies for aid delivery to mitigate many financial problems currently undermining the Millennium Development Goals initiative.

  4. Financing the Millennium Development Goals for health and beyond: sustaining the 'Big Push'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Gorik; Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2010-10-08

    Many of the Millennium Development Goals are not being achieved in the world's poorest countries, yet only five years remain until the target date. The financing of these Goals is not merely insufficient; current evidence indicates that the temporary nature of the financing, as well as challenges to coordinating its delivery and directing it to the most needy recipients, hinder achievement of the Goals in countries that may benefit most. Traditional approaches to providing development assistance for health have not been able to address both prevalent and emergent public health challenges captured in the Goals; these challenges demand sustained forms of financial redistribution through a coordinated mechanism. A global social health protection fund is proposed to address recurring failures in the modern aid distribution mechanism. Such a Fund could use established and effective strategies for aid delivery to mitigate many financial problems currently undermining the Millennium Development Goals initiative.

  5. Goals and priorities of socio-economic reforms with consideration of the current economic situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykha Mariya V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article defines goals and priorities of reforms in Ukraine with consideration of the current situation in economy and social sphere. It marks the necessity of changing strategic goals and giving realistic orientation to the process of reformation. The author marks the necessity of development of institutional grounds of state management, activation of internal reserves of development of socio-economic processes, development of science intensive technologies and innovation activity, development of the weighted socio-economic policy, refusal from the paternalistic model and consequent establishment of conditions for activation of possibilities of the population to solve their social problems independently. The article provides a strategic contour of participation of the state in achievement of goals of socio-economic development, which includes a strategic analysis and identification of goals, strategic and tactical levels of goal-setting, strategic control and regulation of socio-economic development.

  6. An exploratory analysis of the self-reported goals of individuals with chronic upper-extremity paresis following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kimberly J; Birkenmeier, Rebecca L; Bland, Marghuretta D; Lang, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    To classify the self-identified goals of individuals post-stroke with chronic upper extremity (UE) paresis, and determine if age, UE functional capacity and pre-stroke hand dominance influence overall goal selection. Sixty-five subjects participated. Using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) to establish treatment goals, the top five goals were categorized using the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework into five categories: activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), leisure, work and general UE movement. A Chi-square analysis determined if age, UE functional capacity (measured by the Action Research Arm Test) and UE hand dominance influenced individual goal selection. The majority of goals were in the ADL (37%) and IADL (40%) categories. A small percentage (12%) was related to general UE movement. Individuals with moderate UE functional capacity identified more ADL goals than those with higher UE functional capacity. There was not a difference between age and UE dominance across all five goal areas. Individuals with chronic UE paresis had specific goals that were not influenced by age or hand dominance, but partially influenced by severity. General UE movement goals were identified less than goals related to specific activities. Considering the specificity of individual goals following stroke, it is recommended that clinicians regularly utilize a goal setting tool to help establish client goals. It is recommended that clinicians further inquire about general goals in order to link upper extremity deficits to functional activity limitations. Age, upper extremity functional capacity and hand dominance have little influence on the rehabilitation goals for individuals with chronic paresis after stroke.

  7. Goal preference shapes confrontations of sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Robyn K; Melchiori, Kala J

    2014-05-01

    Although most women assume they would confront sexism, assertive responses are rare. We test whether women's preference for respect or liking during interpersonal interactions explains this surprising tendency. Women report preferring respect relative to liking after being asked sexist, compared with inappropriate, questions during a virtual job interview (Study 1, n = 149). Women's responses to sexism increase in assertiveness along with their preference for being respected, and a respect-preference mediates the relation between the type of questions and response assertiveness (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2 (n = 105), women's responses to sexist questions are more assertive when the sense of belonging is enhanced with a belonging manipulation. Moreover, preference for respect mediates the effect of the type of questions on response assertiveness, but only when belonging needs are met. Thus the likelihood of confrontation depends on the goal to be respected outweighing the goal to be liked.

  8. Linking quality goals and product development competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Johanne Rønnow; Harmsen, Hanne; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Quality is a main determinant of consumer food choice. Product development is accordingly a key activity for companies, because it generates the products on the quality of which consumer choices are based. In this respect, product development managers have a focal role, as their personal quality......, including reversed laddering sessions with 18 product development managers. Discrepancies between managerial and consumer quality goals are uncovered. Furthermore, the results point to two general dilemmas faced by product development managers in relation to quality; an external stakeholder dilemma...... orientation influence the way product development is performed. The aim of this paper is to investigate managerial quality goals and how these may be linked to product development competences, which has not previously been studied. The study draws on an empirical, qualitative study in the Danish food industry...

  9. Goal-oriented Data Warehouse Quality Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Cachero, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Requirements engineering is known to be a key factor for the success of software projects. Inside this discipline, goal-oriented requirements engineering approaches have shown specially suitable to deal with projects where it is necessary to capture the alignment between system requirements and stakeholders' needs, as is the case of data-warehousing projects. However, the mere alignment of data-warehouse system requirements with business goals is not enough to assure better data-warehousing products; measures and techniques are also needed to assure the data-warehouse quality. In this paper, we provide a modelling framework for data-warehouse quality measurement (i*DWQM). This framework, conceived as an i* extension, provides support for the definition of data-warehouse requirements analysis models that include quantifiable quality scenarios, defined in terms of well-formed measures. This extension has been defined by means of a UML profiling architecture. The resulting framework has been implemented in the E...

  10. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress has...... been made. There is not a simple and straight-forward intervention, which by itself will bring maternal mortality significantly down; and it is commonly agreed on that the high maternal mortality can only be addressed if the health system is strengthened. There is a common consensus about...... the importance of skilled attendance at delivery to address the high, maternal mortality. This consensus is also reflected in the MDG 5, where the proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel is considered a key indicator. But even if countries invest massive efforts to increase skilled care...

  11. Establishing a Teaching Support Center at a Land Grant University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Diane H.; Swan, Michael K.

    The Teaching Support Center (TSC) at the University of North Dakota was established in 1992 to provide faculty and graduate assistants with a wide range of pedagogical, professional, and technological assistance in order to improve the quality of instruction. A 3-year plan was developed to implement 13 goals, which are: (1) determining the needs…

  12. Post-reform continuation of social goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graniere, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Public utility regulators are currently wrestling with the issue of how and to what extent the social goals that have grown up around traditional regulation might be continued in a restructured electric power industry. This report critically examines six mechanisms that could be used for this purpose in the wake of the introduction of competition in the generation segment. Their pros and cons are thoroughly appraised in economic terms.

  13. Wisdom: a goal of nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, Jocelyn

    2014-02-01

    The attainment of wisdom is a goal of intellectual development manifested in an individual by a solid knowledge base, effective critical thinking skills, creative problem solving, and a sense of duty and altruism to humankind. Promoting the achievement of wisdom as a focal point in a nursing program can provide a unifying perspective in the development of a curriculum. Teaching strategies such as case studies, small group discussions, mentoring, reflective writing, and professional networking are effective ways to promote wisdom in nursing students.

  14. Introducing Experience Goals into Packaging Design

    OpenAIRE

    Joutsela, Markus; Roto, Virpi; Lloyd, Peter; Bohemia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Consumer experiences are an increasingly important driving force for commerce, affecting also packaging design. Yet, experience design for packages is rarely studied. Specifically, there is a gap in research regarding the integration of experiential goals, Xgoals, into the packaging design process. Open questions include how to describe Xgoals in design briefs when package design is outsourced, how to deal with changes during the design process, and how to evaluate whether the delivered desig...

  15. Goals and plans in decision making

    OpenAIRE

    David H. Krantz; Howard C. Kunreuther

    2007-01-01

    We propose a constructed-choice model for general decision making. The model departs from utility theory and prospect theory in its treatment of multiple goals and it suggests several different ways in which context can affect choice. It is particularly instructive to apply this model to protective decisions, which are often puzzling. Among other anomalies, people insure against non-catastrophic events, underinsure against catastrophic risks, and allow extraneous factors to influence insuranc...

  16. Linking analytic performance goals to medical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M

    1997-04-25

    As laboratorians relate analytic performance to medical goals, they face complex choices among competing subjective and objective criteria for the assessment of acceptable analytic error. Defining desirable performance as some fraction of physiologic variability provides potentially excessive benchmarks for quality. More important than the recognition of health are the clinical decisions which deal with diseases, particularly the latters' degrees of severity and the different medical actions these prompt. It is equally essential to take into account the reasoning by which physicians arrive at these decisions, since their mental processes condition desirable performance goals. Considering these modalities, a universal model of analytic performance requirements uniformly applicable to all measured parameters clearly cannot be devised. Rather, tolerance limits for analytic error must be tailored to specific medical problems. To facilitate this seemingly Herculean task, this paper develops concepts and principles derived from operation research, and illustrates their application by three examples. The generic conclusion evidenced by the latter is that the linkage between analytic performance goals and medical strategies is reciprocal, namely that outcome can just as well be optimized by tailoring medical strategy to existing analytic performance as by adapting analytic performance to medical strategy.

  17. The neural basis of monitoring goal progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eBenn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The neural basis of progress monitoring has received relatively little attention compared to other sub-processes that are involved in goal directed behavior such as motor control and response inhibition. Studies of error-monitoring have identified the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC as a structure that is sensitive to conflict detection, and triggers corrective action. However, monitoring goal progress involves monitoring correct as well as erroneous events over a period of time. In the present research, 20 healthy participants underwent fMRI while playing a game that involved monitoring progress towards either a numerical or a visuo-spatial target. The findings confirmed the role of the dACC in detecting situations in which the current state may conflict with the desired state, but also revealed activations in the frontal and parietal regions, pointing to the involvement of processes such as attention and working memory in monitoring progress over time. In addition, activation of the cuneus was associated with monitoring progress towards a specific target presented in the visual modality. This is the first time that activation in this region has been linked to higher-order processing of goal-relevant information, rather than low-level anticipation of visual stimuli. Taken together, these findings identify the neural substrates involved in monitoring progress over time, and how these extend beyond activations observed in conflict and error monitoring.

  18. Setting Goals for Achievement in Physical Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghurst, Timothy; Tapps, Tyler; Kensinger, Weston

    2015-01-01

    Goal setting has been shown to improve student performance, motivation, and task completion in academic settings. Although goal setting is utilized by many education professionals to help students set realistic and proper goals, physical educators may not be using goal setting effectively. Without incorporating all three types of goals and…

  19. Setting Goals for Achievement in Physical Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghurst, Timothy; Tapps, Tyler; Kensinger, Weston

    2015-01-01

    Goal setting has been shown to improve student performance, motivation, and task completion in academic settings. Although goal setting is utilized by many education professionals to help students set realistic and proper goals, physical educators may not be using goal setting effectively. Without incorporating all three types of goals and…

  20. When and How Goals Are Contagious in Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    Goal contagion occurs when a perceiver interacts with a partner whose behavior implies he/she is pursuing a particular goal and the perceiver accurately infers and subsequently pursues the partner's goal. Goal contagion was assessed in conversations between unacquainted individuals. In 2 experiments, the ways in which goal specificity, inference…

  1. Developing Goals and Objectives for Gameplay and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces goals in games and then potential differences between learning goals and goalsin games, as well as the difficulties that may occur when implementing learning goals in games....

  2. Promotion of students' mastery goal orientations : does TARGET work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüftenegger, Marko; van de Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal orientations are important for students' ongoing motivation. Students with a mastery goal orientation show the most advantageous achievement and motivational patterns. Much research has been conducted to identify classroom structures which promote students' mastery goal orientation.

  3. Vectorial representation of spatial goals in the hippocampus of bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarel, Ayelet; Finkelstein, Arseny; Las, Liora; Ulanovsky, Nachum

    2017-01-13

    To navigate, animals need to represent not only their own position and orientation, but also the location of their goal. Neural representations of an animal's own position and orientation have been extensively studied. However, it is unknown how navigational goals are encoded in the brain. We recorded from hippocampal CA1 neurons of bats flying in complex trajectories toward a spatial goal. We discovered a subpopulation of neurons with angular tuning to the goal direction. Many of these neurons were tuned to an occluded goal, suggesting that goal-direction representation is memory-based. We also found cells that encoded the distance to the goal, often in conjunction with goal direction. The goal-direction and goal-distance signals make up a vectorial representation of spatial goals, suggesting a previously unrecognized neuronal mechanism for goal-directed navigation.

  4. Goal setting as a strategy for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecher, V J; Seijts, G H; Kok, G J; Latham, G P; Glasgow, R; DeVellis, B; Meertens, R M; Bulger, D W

    1995-05-01

    This article discusses the beneficial effects of setting goals in health behavior change and maintenance interventions. Goal setting theory predicts that, under certain conditions, setting specific difficult goals leads to higher performance when compared with no goals or vague, nonquantitative goals, such as "do your best." In contrast to the graduated, easy goals often set in health behavior change programs, goal setting theory asserts a positive linear relationship between degree of goal difficulty and level of performance. Research on goal setting has typically been conducted in organizational and laboratory settings. Although goal setting procedures are used in many health behavior change programs, they rarely have been the focus of systematic research. Therefore, many research questions still need to be answered regarding goal setting in the context of health behavior change. Finally, initial recommendations for the successful integration of goal setting theory in health behavior change programs are offered.

  5. Promotion of students' mastery goal orientations : does TARGET work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüftenegger, Marko; van de Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal orientations are important for students' ongoing motivation. Students with a mastery goal orientation show the most advantageous achievement and motivational patterns. Much research has been conducted to identify classroom structures which promote students' mastery goal orientation.

  6. catering establishments of Awassa Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    health sector, owners of the establishments and the community to work together and comply with the optimum ... vaious eating, drinking and hotel establishments ... Hotel and Tourism Commission (Proclamation. No 182/1980). ... parties in managing and improving of the business ... About 14,965 people were found to be.

  7. Chinese Women Lawyers Society Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    ON November 12, 1993, the Chinese Women Lawyers Society was established in Beijing. The more than 10,000 women lawyers in the country were excited to have their own organization. Xu Weihua, secretary-general of the society and a lawyer working in the All-China Women’s Federation, said: "The society’s establishment will promote the participation of

  8. Goal setting and action planning in the rehabilitation setting: development of a theoretically informed practice framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobbie, Lesley; Dixon, Diane; Wyke, Sally

    2011-05-01

    Setting and achieving goals is fundamental to rehabilitation practice but has been criticized for being a-theoretical and the key components of replicable goal-setting interventions are not well established. To describe the development of a theory-based goal setting practice framework for use in rehabilitation settings and to detail its component parts. Causal modelling was used to map theories of behaviour change onto the process of setting and achieving rehabilitation goals, and to suggest the mechanisms through which patient outcomes are likely to be affected. A multidisciplinary task group developed the causal model into a practice framework for use in rehabilitation settings through iterative discussion and implementation with six patients. Four components of a goal-setting and action-planning practice framework were identified: (i) goal negotiation, (ii) goal identification, (iii) planning, and (iv) appraisal and feedback. The variables hypothesized to effect change in patient outcomes were self-efficacy and action plan attainment. A theory-based goal setting practice framework for use in rehabilitation settings is described. The framework requires further development and systematic evaluation in a range of rehabilitation settings.

  9. U.N. report on sustainable development goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    A new United Nations report on sustainable development includes broad recommendations to protect water and other resources, preserve ecosystems, ensure universal access to sustainable energy, increase resources for adaptation and disaster risk reduction, scale up efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals for cutting poverty and reducing inequalities, establish price signals that value sustainability, and strengthen the interface between policy and science. The 30 January report, “Resilient people, resilient planet: A future worth choosing,” states, “Today our planet and our world are experiencing the best of times, and the worst of times. The world is experiencing unprecedented prosperity, while the planet is under unprecedented stress.” The report goes on to say that the current global development model is “unsustainable” and that by 2030 the world will need at least 50% more food, 45% more energy, and 30% more water.

  10. Sustainable Development and Corporate Social Responsibility: Linking Goals to Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radostina Bakardjieva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is the core of sustainable development of companies. On one hand, the corporate social responsibility of companies is a prerequisite for sustainable business, on the other - sustainable development sets specific requirements for the development of businesses in the context of increasing requirements to the degree of quality and reliability of financial information. In recent years, sustainable development has become a strategic issue for companies and this trend applies to Bulgarian companies too. Development of non-financial reporting is a very dynamic process, whose peak is the establishment of an integrated system of accountability. Current paper makes analyses of advantages of CSR linking it to the implementation of sustainable development goals through the integrated reporting following the requirements of the standards of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI.

  11. Millennium development goals and child undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwari, A K

    2013-05-01

    Reduction in prevalence of underweight children (under five years of age) has been included as an indicator for one of the targets to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (Goal 1) of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The most recent MDG report of 2012 indicates that the target of reducing extreme poverty by half has been reached five years ahead of the 2015 deadline but close to one third of children in Southern Asia were underweight. In India, at the historical rate of decline the proportion of underweight children below 3 years, required to be reduced to 26% by 2015, is expected to come down only to about 33%. With barely 3 years left for achieving MDGs, the level of commitment to reduce child undernutrition needs to be gauged and effectiveness of current strategies and programmes ought to be reviewed. Undernutrition in children is not affected by food intake alone; it is also influenced by access to health services, quality of care for the child and pregnant mother as well as good hygiene practices. Would the scenario be different if child undernutrition was a part of Goal 4 of MDGs? What difference it would have made in terms of strategies and programmes if reduction in undernutrition in children underfive was a target instead of an indicator? It is time for nutrition to be placed higher on the development agenda. A number of simple, cost-effective measures to reduce undernutrition in the critical period from conception to two years after birth are available. There is a need for choosing nutrition strategies relevant in Indian context. Experiences from other countries should lead India toward innovative nutritional strategies to reduce underfive undernutrition in the country- that too on a fast track.

  12. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  13. New Goals for a New School Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓玲

    2005-01-01

    Im a student of Senior 3and Ive set lots of new goals to achieve inthe new sem ester.First of all,Ill get up early in the m orning.In the past,I was usedto staying in bed for a little tim e longer, especially on weekends or onwinter m ornings. But from this autum n, Im determ ined to form a goodhabit of getting up early and then doing som e m orning exercises. Y ouknow,that will do m e good!O nly through these sports can I achieve m ygoalto becom e healthier and stronger.Secondly,Illm ake good use ofevery c...

  14. Power Goals for NASA's Exploration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    Exciting Future Programs ahead for NASA. Power is needed for all Exploration vehicles and for the missions. For long term missions as in Lunar and Mars programs, safe, high energy/ultra high energy batteries are required. Safety is top priority for human-rated missions. Two-fault tolerance to catastrophic failures is required for human-rated safety To meet power safety goals -inherent cell safety may be required; it can lessen complexity of external protective electronics and prevents dependency on hardware that may also have limitations. Inherent cell safety will eliminate the need to carry out screening of all cells (X-rays, vibration, etc.)

  15. College Goal: Internationalizing the Curriculum. White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eith, Gary; Fye, Chuck

    This paper asserts that internationalizing or globalizing the community college curriculum will be necessary to meet the emerging needs of an increasingly diverse U.S. workforce and employer demand for international communication skills. The paper discusses globalization, establishes a common base of understanding of where Lakeland Community…

  16. Consciousness, endogenous generation of goals and homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitolovsky, Lev E.

    2015-08-01

    Behaviour can be both unpredictable and goal directed, as animals act in correspondence with their motivation. Motivation arises when neurons in specific brain areas leave the state of homeostatic equilibrium and are injured. The basic goal of organisms and living cells is to maintain their life and their functional state is optimal if it does not lead to physiological damage. This can somehow be sensed by neurons and the occurrence of damage elicits homeostatic protection to recover excitability and the ability to produces spikes. It can be argued that the neuron's activity is guided on the scale of "damage-protection" and it behaves as an object possessing minimum awareness. The approach of death increases cellular efforts to operate. Thus, homeostasis may evidently produce both maintenance of life and will. The question is - how does homeostasis reach the optimum? We have no possibility of determining how the cell evaluates its own states, e.g. as "too little free energy" or in terms of "threat" to life. In any case, the approach of death increases cellular efforts to operate. For the outside observer, this is reminiscent of intentional action and a manifestation of will.

  17. Probabilistic safety goals. Phase 3 - Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, J.-E. (VTT (Finland)); Knochenhauer, M. (Relcon Scandpower AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden))

    2009-07-15

    The first phase of the project (2006) described the status, concepts and history of probabilistic safety goals for nuclear power plants. The second and third phases (2007-2008) have provided guidance related to the resolution of some of the problems identified, and resulted in a common understanding regarding the definition of safety goals. The basic aim of phase 3 (2009) has been to increase the scope and level of detail of the project, and to start preparations of a guidance document. Based on the conclusions from the previous project phases, the following issues have been covered: 1) Extension of international overview. Analysis of results from the questionnaire performed within the ongoing OECD/NEA WGRISK activity on probabilistic safety criteria, including participation in the preparation of the working report for OECD/NEA/WGRISK (to be finalised in phase 4). 2) Use of subsidiary criteria and relations between these (to be finalised in phase 4). 3) Numerical criteria when using probabilistic analyses in support of deterministic safety analysis (to be finalised in phase 4). 4) Guidance for the formulation, application and interpretation of probabilistic safety criteria (to be finalised in phase 4). (LN)

  18. Reliance on luck: identifying which achievement goals elicit superstitious behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerman, Eric J; Morewedge, Carey K

    2015-03-01

    People often resort to superstitious behavior to facilitate goal achievement. We examined whether the specific type of achievement goal pursued influences the propensity to engage in superstitious behavior. Across six studies, we found that performance goals were more likely than learning goals to elicit superstitious behavior. Participants were more likely to engage in superstitious behavior at high than at low levels of chronic performance orientation, but superstitious behavior was not influenced by chronic learning orientation (Studies 1 and 2). Similarly, participants exhibited stronger preferences for lucky items when primed to pursue performance goals rather than learning goals (Studies 3 and 4). As uncertainty of goal achievement increased, superstitious behavior increased when participants pursued performance goals but not learning goals (Study 5). Finally, assignment to use a lucky (vs. unlucky) item resulted in greater confidence of achieving performance goals but not learning goals (Study 6). © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. The nucleus accumbens as a nexus between values and goals in goal-directed behaviour: a review and a new hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eMannella

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Goal-directed behaviour is a fundamental means by which animals can flexibly solve the challenges posed by variable external and internal conditions. Recently, the processes and brain mechanisms underlying such behaviour have been extensively studied from behavioural, neuroscientific and computational perspectives. This research has highlighted the processes underlying goal-directed behaviour and associated brain systems including prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and, in particular therein, the nucleus accumbens. This paper focusses on one particular process at the core of goal-directed behaviour: how motivational value is assigned to goals on the basis of internal states and environmental stimuli, and how this supports goal selection processes. Various biological and computational accounts have been given of this problem and of related multiple neural and behaviour phenomena, but we still lack an integrated hypothesis on the generation and use of value for goal selection. This paper proposes an hypothesis that aims to solve this problem and is based on this key elements: (a amygdala and hippocampus establish the motivational value of stimuli and goals; (b prefrontal cortex encodes various types of action outcomes; (c nucleus accumbens integrates different sources of value, representing them in terms of a common currency with the aid of dopamine, and thereby plays a major role in selecting action outcomes within prefrontal cortex. The ‘goals’ pursued by the organism are the outcomes selected by these processes. The hypothesis is developed in the context of a critical review of relevant biological and computational literature which offer it support. The paper shows how the hypothesis has the potential to integrate existing interpretations of motivational value and goal selection.

  20. Psychometric assessment of scales for a Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices (MGDVPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetable intake has been related to lower risk of chronic illnesses in the adult years. The habit of vegetable intake should be established early in life, but many parents of preschoolers report not being able to get their child to eat vegetables. The Model of Goal Directed Behavior (MGDB) has been...

  1. The Challenges of Attaining Millennium Development Goals in Education in Africa by 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojogwu, C. N.

    2009-01-01

    Millennium Development Goals were established by the United Nations to help underdeveloped countries to overcome problems of illiteracy, poverty, low health status and quality of life. Much emphasis was placed on the attainment of MDG targets in education because of its pivotal role in national development. The targets include education for all…

  2. Exploration of Quality-of-Life Goals in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Lajos; Toth, Katalin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the applicability of structured interviews for exploration of quality-of-life goals using an established instrument. Structured interviews were performed using WHOQOL-BREF and Disabilities Module as guideline with 35 clients admitted for first rehabilitation intervention after spinal cord injury. Although…

  3. Exploration of Quality-of-Life Goals in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Lajos; Toth, Katalin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the applicability of structured interviews for exploration of quality-of-life goals using an established instrument. Structured interviews were performed using WHOQOL-BREF and Disabilities Module as guideline with 35 clients admitted for first rehabilitation intervention after spinal cord injury. Although…

  4. Getting on the Same Page: Identifying Goals for Technology Use in Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    Technology use among young children is increasingly a fact of life, and establishing a clear set of goals that are broadly accepted by stakeholders is critical to planning for the successful integration of technology into early childhood education (ECE). However, debates about the role of technology in ECE settings are ongoing, with some…

  5. Nothing but the Truth? The United Nations and the Millennium Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, with the target for achievement set at 2015. On the UN website a special section is devoted to the MDGs. In this article the website as it was presented in late 2013 is examined. Although the website was easy to negotiate, it was difficult to ascertain any…

  6. How to establish a company

    OpenAIRE

    Konečný, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    This diploma thesis is focused on a franchising business establishment, particularly on the business establishment of a fictive coffe house which could become a well known franchising concept on the Czech market. Primary advantage of franchise compared to the other types of business cooperation is mainly risk reduction for the investor (franchisee) who obtains proven model of the business. For the franchisor the franchise means an easier way how to widen his business without taking higher lab...

  7. Shifting goals: effects of active and observational experience on infants’ understanding of higher order goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Mahajan, Neha; Sommerville, Jessica A.; Matz, Lauren; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Action perception links have been argued to support the emergence of action understanding, but their role in infants’ perception of distal goals has not been fully investigated. The current experiments address this issue. During the development of means-end actions, infants shift their focus from the means of the action to the distal goal. In Experiment One, we evaluated whether this same shift in attention (from the means to the distal goal) when learning to produce multi-step actions is reflected in infants’ perception of others’ means-end actions. Eight-months-old infants underwent active training in means-end action production and their subsequent analysis of an observed means-end action was assessed in a visual habituation paradigm. Infants’ degree of success in the training paradigm was related to their subsequent interpretation of the observed action as directed at the means versus the distal goal. In Experiment Two, observational and control manipulations provided evidence that these effects depended on the infants’ active engagement in the means-end actions. These results suggest that the processes that give rise to means-end structure in infants’ motor behavior also support the emergence of means-end structure in their analysis of others’ goals. PMID:25852622

  8. Shifting goals: effects of active and observational experience on infants' understanding of higher order goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Sarah A; Mahajan, Neha; Sommerville, Jessica A; Matz, Lauren; Woodward, Amanda L

    2015-01-01

    Action perception links have been argued to support the emergence of action understanding, but their role in infants' perception of distal goals has not been fully investigated. The current experiments address this issue. During the development of means-end actions, infants shift their focus from the means of the action to the distal goal. In Experiment One, we evaluated whether this same shift in attention (from the means to the distal goal) when learning to produce multi-step actions is reflected in infants' perception of others' means-end actions. Eight-months-old infants underwent active training in means-end action production and their subsequent analysis of an observed means-end action was assessed in a visual habituation paradigm. Infants' degree of success in the training paradigm was related to their subsequent interpretation of the observed action as directed at the means versus the distal goal. In Experiment Two, observational and control manipulations provided evidence that these effects depended on the infants' active engagement in the means-end actions. These results suggest that the processes that give rise to means-end structure in infants' motor behavior also support the emergence of means-end structure in their analysis of others' goals.

  9. The Concept of Goals-Driven Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T Bjornard; B. Castle

    2009-02-01

    The IAEA, NRC, and DOE regulations and requirements for safeguarding nuclear material and facilities have been reviewed and each organization’s purpose, objectives, and scope are discussed in this report. Current safeguards approaches are re-examined considering technological advancements and how these developments are changing safeguards approaches used by these organizations. Additionally, the physical protection approaches required by the IAEA, NRC, and DOE were reviewed and the respective goals, objectives, and requirements are identified and summarized in this report. From these, a brief comparison is presented showing the high-level similarities among these regulatory organizations’ approaches to physical protection. The regulatory documents used in this paper have been assembled into a convenient reference library called the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Reference Library. The index of that library is included in this report, and DVDs containing the full library are available.

  10. Health as the goal for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, I M

    1990-01-01

    Health is a basic concept in the discipline and profession of nursing. A review of literature from several disciplines revealed that health is viewed as a multidimensional concept. Several approaches to categorize health were presented by various authors. An overview of King's conceptual framework and theory of goal attainment related to her concept of health was discussed. The need to develop reliable and valid instruments to measure the dimensions of health was identified. Several instruments developed by nurses were reviewed. The importance of deriving a conceptual and operational definition of health was related to advancing nursing science. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the meaning of health and its relevance for nursing science. A synthesis of the literature will be discussed first, then King's concept of health will be presented along with the relevance of this knowledge for nursing science and the nursing profession.

  11. The goal a process of ongoing improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Goldratt, Eliyahu M

    2014-01-01

    Written in a fast-paced thriller style, The Goal, a gripping novel, is transforming management thinking throughout the world. It is a book to recommend to your friends in industry - even to your bosses - but not to your competitors. Alex Rogo is a harried plant manager working ever more desperately to try improve performance. His factory is rapidly heading for disaster. So is his marriage. He has ninety days to save his plant - or it will be closed by corporate HQ, with hundreds of job losses. It takes a chance meeting with a professor from student days - Jonah - to help him break out of conventional ways of thinking to see what needs to be done. The story of Alex's fight to save his plant is more than compulsive reading. It contains a serious message for all managers in industry and explains the ideas, which underline the Theory of Constraints (TOC), developed by Eli Goldratt.

  12. Goals in Nutrition Science 2015–2020

    KAUST Repository

    Allison, David B.

    2015-09-08

    With the definition of goals in Nutrition Science, we are taking a brave step and a leap of faith with regard to predicting the scope and direction of nutrition science over the next 5 years. The content of this editorial has been discussed, refined, and evaluated with great care by the Frontiers in Nutrition editorial board. We feel the topics described represent the key opportunities, but also the biggest challenges in our field. We took a clean-slate, bottom-up approach to identify and address these topics and present them in eight categories. For each category, the authors listed take responsibility, and deliberately therefore this document is a collection of thoughts from active minds, rather than a complete integration or consensus. At Frontiers in Nutrition, we are excited to develop and share a platform for this discussion. Healthy Nutrition for all – an ambition too important to be handled by detached interest groups.

  13. Merging Educational Finance Reform and Desegregation Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M. Kazal-Thresher

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Educational finance reforms and desegregation have both sought to address inequities in educational opportunities for minorities and low income families. The recent methods of addressing desegregation issues have tended to focus on attaining racial balance rather than educational quality, however. This paper explores how desegregation goals can be merged with educational finance reform to more systematically address educational quality in schools serving low income and minority populations. By moving toward centralized control over school financing, the inequity of school outcomes that are based on unequal school resources can be reduced. In addition, state determined expenditures when combined with desegregation monies, would meet the original intention of desegregation funds by clearly providing add-on monies for additional services for minority children, while at the same time, creating a better monitoring mechanism.

  14. EARLY GOAL DIRECTED THERAPY AT SEPTIC SYOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Widyanti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is the most commom cause of death in children with critically ill. Using WHO criteria (severe sepsis defined as sepsis with acidosis, hypotension or both, it was determined that in 1995 there were more than 42.000 cases of severe sepsis in children in the United States with mortality rate was 10.3%. To answer that finding, evicende based protocol was made, it called early goal directed therapy (EGDT. EGDT is a comprehensive strategy to evaluate patient with septic shock include, challenge of fluid, antibiotic, vasopressor, measurement of central vein oxygen saturation, PRC transfusion, administering inotropic dan mechanic ventilation. All of these must be done in the first 6 hours since sepsis or septic shock was found, because if there is a delay of resuscitation, anything we do to increase oxygenation level of the cell will be useless.

  15. Prospective ergonomics: origin, goal, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Jean-Marc; Brangier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    So far ergonomics has been concerned with two categories of activities: correction and design. We propose to add a third category: prospection, and by so doing, we introduce a new series of activities that opens up the future of ergonomics. Corrective ergonomics relates to the past and comes with a demand and a client. It is turned towards the correction of existing situations and aims to reduce or eliminate problems. Here, after delimiting and defining the problem, the challenge is to find the best solution. Ergonomics for design relates to the present and also comes with a demand and a client. It is turned towards the design of new artefacts that have already been identified by a client, and that will allow users to do some activity and attain their goals. Here, after defining the scope of the project and the functional requirements, the challenge is to do the best design. Finally, prospective ergonomics relates to the future and does not come with a demand and a client. It is turned towards the creation of future things that have not been identified yet. Here the challenge is to detect existing user needs or anticipate future ones, and imagine solutions. These three categories of activities overlap and are not exclusive of each other. In this paper we define prospective ergonomics and compare it with corrective ergonomics and ergonomics for design. We describe its origin, goal, and prospects, we analyze its impacts on education and practice, and we emphasize the need of new collaboration between ergonomics and other disciplines.

  16. Normative, gain and hedonic goal frames guiding environmental behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses new developments about goal-dependent framing and multiple goal frames (sometimes also called "multiple motives"), which are highly relevant for understanding environmental behavior. We introduce goal-framing theory, which postulates that goals "frame" the way people process

  17. Teachers' Attitudes toward Educational Goals as Reflected in Classroom Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Liya

    1978-01-01

    Effects of the trend to prefer progressive over traditional goals of education were investigated in Israeli teachers. Attitudes toward educational goals; expectations of achieving goals; perceived knowledge about strategies for achieving goals; personality traits and teaching behaviors were studied. Pseudoprogressivism was reflected in the…

  18. Paying with Self-Chosen Goals : Incentives and Gender Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Gonzalez Jimenez, V.H.; Noussair, C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: To boost employees’ performance, firms often offer monetary bonuses when production goals are reached. However, the evidence suggests that the particular level of a goal is critical to the effectiveness of this practice. Goals must be challenging yet achievable. Computing optimal goals

  19. Forcing your luck: Goal-striving behavior in chance situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, D.; van der Pligt, J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that desired end-states (i.e., goals) initiate a set of motivational processes supporting goal-attainment. For example, motivational intensity (e.g., effort investment) increases as distance to the goal decreases. The present studies investigate whether this goal-gradient

  20. Colombian public policies contributing to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals in the health sector, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina M. Grisales

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available During the General Assembly of the United Nations, in September 2000,189 countries (including Colombia committed to eight objectives leading to a more human and fairer world. Such objectives are called the Millennium Development Goals (mdg and to achieve them it is crucial to incorporate them in the action agendas of each country. The purpose of this monograph is to recognize current public policies in Colombia and Antioquia leading the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, specifically those related to the reduction of mortality among children less than 5 years of age, improvement of maternal health and fighting against hiv/aids, malaria and dengue.In Colombia, Conpes 91 of 2005 is the only guideline given by the Government establishing goals and strategies to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in 2015. Nevertheless, other policies, programs and projects before and even after the Millennium Statement (but without explicit purpose contribute to achieving such goals. Revision of those policies is an effort for the research project “Degree of contribution of public policies to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals related to the health sector, Antioquia, 2006”, which will evaluate the impact these guidelines have had in the achievement of the development goals in that particular sector.

  1. Metaphoric identity mapping: facilitating goal setting and engagement in rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylvisaker, Mark; McPherson, Kathryn; Kayes, Nicola; Pellett, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Difficulty re-establishing an organised and compelling sense of personal identity has increasingly been identified as a critical theme in outcome studies of individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a serious obstacle to active engagement in rehabilitation. There exists little empirical support for approaches to identity reconstruction that address common impairments associated with TBI. Similarly, there is as yet little empirical support for theoretically sound approaches to promoting engagement in goal setting for this population. This article has two purposes. First, theory and procedures associated with metaphoric identity mapping are discussed in relation to goal setting in TBI rehabilitation. Second, the results of a qualitative pilot study are presented. The study explored metaphoric identity mapping as a facilitator of personally meaningful goal setting with five individuals with significant disability many years after their injury. Drawing on principles of grounded theory, the investigators extracted data from semi-structured interviews with clients and clinicians, from focus groups with the clinicians, and from observation of client-clinician interaction. Analysis of the data yielded five general themes concerning the use of this approach: All clients and clinicians found identity mapping to be an acceptable process and also useful for deriving meaningful rehabilitation goals. Both clients and clinicians saw client-centred goals as important. Cognitive impairments posed obstacles to this goal-setting intervention and mandated creative compensations. And finally, identity-related goal setting appeared to require a "mind shift" for some clinicians and demanded clinical skills not uniformly distributed among rehabilitation professionals.

  2. Establishment of a Nesting Gadwall Population at Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge Progress Report Four

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The main goal of the project is to establish a nesting population of Gadwalls on the Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge by capturing ducklings by night-lighting on...

  3. Establishment of a Nesting Gadwall Population at Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge Progress Report Five

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The main goal of the project is to establish a nesting population of Gadwalls on the Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge by capturing ducklings by night-lighting on...

  4. Establishment of a Nesting Gadwall Population at Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge Progress Report Three

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The main goal of the project is to establish a nesting population of gadwalls on the Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge by capturing ducklings by night lighting on...

  5. 77 FR 30904 - Connect America Fund; A National Broadband Plan for Our Future; Establishing Just and Reasonable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... reduction beginning with January support payments and continue until the next rate floor filing. We note... for the first time established ubiquitous mobile service as a universal service goal. To meet this goal, the Commission established a new support mechanism for mobile competitive ETCs within the...

  6. Goal Setting and Task Performance: 1969-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Organizatioral Effectivene ss Program, office of Naval Research(Code 452),under Contract No.1 Nh7-C-FT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELIASE : DISTRIBUTION UNL...to set goals in the participative goal conditions than in the assigned conditions which may have accounted for the higher performance of this groc"p...goal acceptance and choice. (b) Values . When the perceived value of attaining or trying for a goal is higher, the goal is more likely to be accepted

  7. INFORMATIONAL CONSTRAINTS-DRIVEN ORGANIZATION IN GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    SANDER G. VAN DIJK; DANIEL POLANI

    2013-01-01

    We study goal-directed behavior in the light of informationally constrained cognition. In a formal information-theoretical model, based on a description of goal-directed behavior as a family of Markov Decision Processes, we study lower bounds of constraints on the information about a goal needed to generate behavior that achieves such a goal at a certain level of optimality. We assume a working memory that operates on this minimally relevant goal information and study the necessary dynamics o...

  8. Establishment of different riparian plant communities from the same soil seed bank

    OpenAIRE

    ter Heerdt, Gerhardus

    2016-01-01

    This thesis shows that weather conditions during the first year of establishment, strongly affect the composition of riparian plant communities. This is one of the factors determining if some goals of the Water Framework Directive and Natura 2000, reed beds and accompanying bird species, can be met. Increased summer drought due to climate change will make it more difficult to reach these goals. The composition of riparian plant communities establishing during a drawdown can vary largely. For ...

  9. Science Goals in Radiation Protection for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francs A.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Health risks of concern include cancer, degenerative and performance risks to the central nervous system, heart and lens, and the acute radiation syndromes. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contain high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, which have been shown to cause qualitatively distinct biological damage compared to terresterial radiation, such as X-rays or gamma-rays, causing risk estimates to be highly uncertain. The biological effects of solar particle events (SPE) are similar to terresterial radiation except for their biological dose-rate modifiers; however the onset and size of SPEs are difficult to predict. The high energies of GCR reduce the effectiveness of shielding, while SPE s can be shielded however the current gap in radiobiological knowledge hinders optimization. Methods used to project risks on Earth must be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting health risks from space radiation, and thus impact mission requirements and costs. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies probabilistic risk assessments and uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts and to mission design. The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in radiation risk projection models. Exploration science goals in radiation protection are centered on ground-based research to achieve the necessary biological knowledge, and in the development of new technologies to improve SPE monitoring and optimize shielding. Radiobiology research is centered on a ground based program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and HZE nuclei at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

  10. Toward a more social understanding of achievement goals: The interpersonal effects of mastery and performance goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, P.M.; Darnon, C.

    2010-01-01

    The current article presents an overview of recent research into social outcomes that accompany the pursuit of achievement goals. On the basis of investigations in various subdisciplines of psychology, we conclude that mastery goals—striving to improve one’s own performance—lead to investments in ex

  11. Social Goals and Youth Aggression: Meta-Analysis of Prosocial and Antisocial Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Jennifer E.; Ojanen, Tiina; Hollo, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    To advance research evaluating the relationship between social information processing (Crick & Dodge) and youth aggression, this meta-analytic study examined associations between social goals and aggression in children in 21 separate research reports. Eligible studies provided descriptive or preintervention measurement of children's aggression and…

  12. Goal setting in teams : Goal clarity and team performance in the public sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van der M.A.; Groeneveld, S.M.; Kuipers, B.S.

    2017-01-01

    With the rise of performance management, work in the public sector has changed. An output focus has become more common. Other changes include decentralization and managing organizations more horizontally. Setting performance goals and working in teams exemplify these developments. Despite an

  13. The Goal Trumps the Means: Highlighting Goals is More Beneficial than Highlighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerson, S.A.; Woodward, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    Means-end actions are an early-emerging form of problem solving. These actions require initiating initial behaviors with a goal in mind. In this study, we explored the origins of 8-month-old infants' means-end action production using a cloth-pulling training paradigm. We examined whether highlightin

  14. Parental goal orientations for their kindergarten children: Introducing the Nuremberg Parental Goal Orientation Scales (NuPaGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marold Reutlinger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the Nuremberg Parental Goal Orientation Scales (NuPaGOS which were designed to measure kindergarten children’s parents’ goal orientations for their children. The postulated four goal orientations are learning goal orientation, performance goal orientation, well-being goal orientation and fear of over-demanding orientation. We expected that the four factors underlie a g-factor. The hypothesis concerning the structure of the goal orientations was confirmed in a study with 203 parents of kindergarten children. Correlational analyses with validation variables provide initial evidence for the concurrent and discriminant validity of the NuPaGOS.

  15. Establishing operations and the mand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, J

    1988-01-01

    In Verbal Behavior Skinner identifies a small number of elementary verbal relations, one of which is the mand. Because its introduction is at first in terms of unlearned motivative variables, and because the mand's relation to prior controlling events is quite complex, its general significance has probably been underestimated. An extensive treatment of establishing operations, including the warning and the blocked-response conditioned establishing operations is provided, followed by a description of the mand in terms of such operations. The importance of the mand for language training programs is suggested, as well as the reasons why it is typically neglected in such programs.

  16. Goal striving, goal attainment, and well-being: adapting and testing the self-concordance model in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alison; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan

    2007-12-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and the self-concordance model (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999), this study examined the motivational processes underlying goal striving in sport as well as the role of perceived coach autonomy support in the goal process. Structural equation modeling with a sample of 210 British athletes showed that autonomous goal motives positively predicted effort, which, in turn, predicted goal attainment. Goal attainment was positively linked to need satisfaction, which, in turn, predicted psychological well-being. Effort and need satisfaction were found to mediate the associations between autonomous motives and goal attainment and between attainment and well-being, respectively. Controlled motives negatively predicted well-being, and coach autonomy support positively predicted both autonomous motives and need satisfaction. Associations of autonomous motives with effort were not reducible to goal difficulty, goal specificity, or goal efficacy. These findings support the self-concordance model as a framework for further research on goal setting in sport.

  17. Millennium development goals and eye health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah B Faal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 2000, world leaders made a commitment to build a more equitable, prosperous and safer world by 2015 and launched the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. In the previous year, the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in partnership launched the global initiative to eliminate avoidable blindness by the year 2020-VISION 2020 the Right to Sight. It has focused on the prevention of a disability-blindness and recognized a health issue-sight as a human right. Both global initiatives have made considerable progress with synergy especially on MDG 1-the reduction of poverty and the reduction in numbers of the blind. A review of the MDGs has identified the need to address disparities within and between countries, quality, and disability. Noncommunicable diseases are emerging as a challenge to the MDGs and Vision 2020:0 the Right to Sight. For the future, up to and beyond 2015, there will be need for both initiatives to continue to work in synergy to address present and emerging challenges.

  18. The Two Main Goals of Bioequivalence Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrenyi, Laszlo; Blume, Henning H; Tothfalusi, Laszlo

    2017-02-02

    The principal goal of bioequivalence (BE) investigations has crucial importance and has been the subject of extensive discussions. BE studies are frequently considered to serve as procedures for sensitive discrimination. The BE investigation should be able to provide methods and conditions sensitively identifying relevant differences between drug products if such differences in fact exist. Alternatively, BE studies can be deemed as surrogates of clinical investigations assessing therapeutic equivalence. Bioequivalent drug products will be provided to patients for their benefits. Both points of view are valid since they represent two aspects of product performance. It has been argued that both should be equally sustained and applied. In practice, however, they collide when regulatory conditions and statements are developed. For instance, some regulators prefer to conduct BE studies following single drug administrations since these conditions are considered to provide the highest sensitivity of discrimination between pharmacokinetic profiles and thus, a product's in-vivo performance. Others suggest that, at least for modified-release products, BE investigations should be performed in the steady state since it represents clinical conditions. Preference for one point of view or the other pervades other regulatory statements including suggestions for subjects to be selected in studies and pharmacokinetic measures to be evaluated. An overview is provided on the disturbing inconsistency of statements within and between regulations. It is argued that harmonization would be highly desirable, and relevant recommendations are offered.

  19. Elucidating a Goal-Setting Continuum in Brain Injury Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Anne W; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Trentham, Barry; Polatajko, Helene J; Dawson, Deirdre R

    2015-08-01

    For individuals with brain injury, active participation in goal setting is associated with better rehabilitation outcomes. However, clinicians report difficulty engaging these clients in goal setting due to perceived or real deficits (e.g., lack of awareness). We conducted a study using grounded theory methods to understand how clinicians from occupational therapy facilitate client engagement and manage challenges inherent in goal setting with this population. Through constant comparative analysis, a goal-setting continuum emerged. At one end of the continuum, therapists embrace client-determined goals and enable clients to decide their own goals. At the other, therapists accept preset organization-determined goals (e.g., "the goal is discharge") and pay little attention to client input. Although all participants aspired to embrace client-determined goal setting, most felt powerless to do so within perceived organizational constraints. Views of advocacy and empowerment help to explain our findings and inform more inclusive practice.

  20. The influence of goals on movement kinematics during imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Kelly S; Poliakoff, Ellen; Jerrison, Andrew; Gowen, Emma

    2010-07-01

    This study took a quantitative approach to investigate movement kinematics during the imitation of goal-directed and non-goal directed movements. Motion tracking equipment was used to record the hand movements of 15 healthy participants during an imitation task involving aiming movements that varied in speed. We predicted that movement kinematics would be most similar to the observed movements in the non-goal condition, as a result of direct visuomotor mapping of the action, and least similar in the goal-directed condition because more importance would be given to the end goal. We also predicted that precues (prior information about the movement) would increase imitation accuracy in the non-goal condition by reducing cognitive demand, and that precues would reduce accuracy in the goal-directed condition, as less attention would be paid to the movement. Results showed that imitation was modulated by the speed of the observed action in the non-goal condition only. Contrary to predictions, precues did not improve imitation in the non-goal condition or improve imitation accuracy in the goal-directed condition. These results demonstrate that visuomotor mapping is favoured in non-goal imitation, regardless of prior information, and that accurate imitation of movement detail is compromised by the presence of goals. Such differences in movement kinematics indicate that different processes mediate the imitation of non-goal and goal-directed actions.

  1. Iran Millennium Development Goal's in a Glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GhR Heidari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nThe Millennium Development Goal's (MDG's represent a global partnership that has grown from the comments and targets established at the world summits of the 1990's. Responding to the world's main development challenges and to the calls of civil society, the MDG's promote poverty reduction, education, maternal health, gender equality , and aims  at combating child mortality, AIDs and other diseases, environmental sustainability and global partnership. Set for the year 2015, the MDG's are an agreed set of goals that can be achieved if all actors work together and do their part. Poor countries have pledged to govern better, and to invest in their people through health care and education. Rich countries have pledged to support poor countries through aid, debt relief and fairer trade. MDG's at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran aims to, reduce the under- five mortality rate to two thirds between 1990 and 2015,  improve maternal health by reduc­ing to three quarters the mortality ratio and  achieve universal access to reproductive health, to combat  HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and TB, and  to have them halted by 2015, to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS and to achieve by 2010 a universal access to treatment to all those who need it and  by 2015 begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and TB.

  2. Establishing truthfulness, consistency and transferability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Christine

    2008-01-01

    This article by Christine Kirkman shows how a Convergent Truthfulness Evaluation was used to establish the veracity of accounts given by women who had partnered psychopathic men. The study investigated the nature of the relationships and the manner in which the characteristics of the men were manifested.

  3. Establishing Time for Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Staff Development, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Time for collaborative learning is an essential resource for educators working to implement college- and career-ready standards. The pages in this article include tools from the workbook "Establishing Time for Professional Learning." The tools support a complete process to help educators effectively find and use time. The following…

  4. Effort in emotion work and well-being: The role of goal attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elena; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K

    2017-02-01

    It is well established that regulating one's emotion display in social settings entails psychological costs such as lower well-being. However, regulating emotion display may also help achieving goals, and goal attainment is known to enhance well-being. We therefore investigated the hypothesis that success in attaining goals during social interactions would reduce the negative impact of regulatory effort on well-being. In an experience sampling study, 115 Swiss employees reported their social encounters for 7 consecutive days. For each interaction, participants were asked to report their effort in regulating their emotions, their level of goal attainment, and their momentary well-being after the interaction. Data being nested (Level 1: interactions; Level 2: person), multilevel analyses were conducted. Continuous level 1 predictors were group mean centered, implying that their effects on well-being were strictly intraindividual. Gender, age, extraversion, and neuroticism were controlled on the person level, the context of the interaction (private vs. work) as well as positive and negative emotions felt during the social encounter were controlled on the situation level. Analysis of 1,674 social interactions containing a goal confirmed that regulatory effort predicted lower well-being after social interactions (Hypothesis 1), that degree of goal attainment predicted better well-being after these interactions (Hypothesis 2), and that degree of goal attainment buffered the negative effect of effort (Hypothesis 3). Research and theory should pay more attention to the fact that emotions often are regulated in the service of goals, and that attaining these goals may, at least partially, compensate for the effort invested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. 财务困境、退市监管与审计意见--基于我国连续亏损上市公司的经验证据%Financial Distress,Delisting Regulation and Audit Opinion:An Empirical Research Based on Consecutive Loss Companies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美霞; 李增泉

    2014-01-01

    本文以2004—2010年因连续亏损而触碰退市政策临界点的 A 股上市公司为研究对象,分析了其连续亏损前后四年期间的审计意见及其变化特征。研究发现:连续亏损公司非标准审计意见的比例更高;审计意见与财务能力相关,获得标准审计意见公司的财务能力要显著好于非标准审计意见公司;审计意见类型与退市监管政策临界点具有显著相关性;对凭借非经常性损益避免亏损或扭亏为盈的上市公司,审计师倾向于发表非标准审计意见。可以认为,审计意见类型传递了公司盈余质量和经营不确定性风险的信息;在审计意见不具有直接退市管制后果的制度背景下,审计师能够保持一定的职业谨慎性。%This paper studies the audit opinions of listed companies which suffered con-secutive losses during 2004—2010.According to China Securities Regulatory Commission, consecutive losses will result in special treatment,suspending or termination of the listing of stocks.And if these firms get dirty audit opinions,SSE and SZSE may call for investigations into the reality of the earnings.So these firms will force pressure on the auditors.However, consecutive losses means the company has fallen into financial distress and financial distress usually causes audit risk.So auditors would prefer to issue non-standard audit opinions. This study collects 258 samples which suffered two year’s consecutive losses and ana-lyzed the audit opinions for four years in a row:the two consecutive loss years (T 1 and T 2 ), the previous year(T -1 )and the third year(T 3 ).We presume that auditors can identify the difference of earnings quality,and also know clearly that the loss companies are exposed to the risk of delisting.We examine the statistical significance of the difference of audit opinion and financial capability by the independent two-sample t-test,and then set up two logistic models to find those

  6. Establishing a sense of urgency for leading transformational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2011-04-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses successful tactics for establishing a sense of urgency to facilitate organizational change.

  7. The Personalized Medicine Coalition: goals and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Edward; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Silver, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The concept of personalized medicine--that medical care can be tailored to the genomic and molecular profile of the individual--has repercussions that extend far beyond the technology that makes it possible. The adoption of personalized medicine will require changes in healthcare infrastructure, diagnostics and therapeutics business models, reimbursement policy from government and private payers, and a different approach to regulatory oversight. Personalized medicine will shift medical practices upstream from the reactive treatment of disease, to proactive healthcare management including screening, early treatment, and prevention, and will alter the roles of both physician and patient. It will create a greater reliance on electronic medical records and decision support systems in an industry that has a long history of resistance to information technology. Personalized medicine requires a systems approach to implementation. But in a healthcare economy that is highly decentralized and market driven, it is incumbent upon the stakeholders themselves to advocate for a consistent set of policies and legislation that pave the way for the adoption of personalized medicine. To address this need, the Personalized Medicine Coalition (PMC) was formed as a nonprofit umbrella organization of pharmaceutical, biotechnology, diagnostic, and information technology companies, healthcare providers and payers, patient advocacy groups, industry policy organizations, major academic institutions, and government agencies. The PMC provides a structure for achieving consensus positions among these stakeholders on crucial public policy issues, a role which will be vital to translating personalized medicine into widespread clinical practice. In this article, we outline the goals of the PMC, and the strategies it will take to foster communication, debate, and consensus on issues such as genetic discrimination, the reimbursement structures for pharmacogenomic drugs and diagnostics, regulation

  8. Space project IONOSAT- MICRO - goals and realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanov, Valery; Lizunov, Georgii; Fedorov, Oleg

    2013-04-01

    The IONOSAT-MICRO project is a first stage of IONOSAT program devoted to the multi-point global monitoring of dynamic processes in the ionosphere. The IONOSAT program is planned to be realized in 2015-2020 with the help of three satellites at coordinated low Earth orbits (LEO). IONOSAT-MICRO is the forerunner project scheduled for launch in 2014 at sun-synchronous orbit with the aim to test the IONOSAT mission scientific postulates and preliminary collection of related space data. The main goal of the IONOSAT-MICRO project is the systematic study of the dynamic response of the ionosphere to the influence "from above" (sun, geomagnetic activity) and "from below" (powerful meteorological, seismic and anthropogenic impacts). More in details, the study of following formations in the ionosphere is foreseen: - Space-temporal structure and global distribution of inhomogeneities in neutral atmosphere and ionosphere; - Global structure and dynamics of quasi-stationary electric currents, electric and magnetic fields; - Wave structures and turbulences at different spatial and temporal scales. To realize such a research, the scientific payload of the MICROSAT spacecraft will provide the measurements of following parameters: - Neutral gas and plasma parameters - concentration, temperature; - DC-ELF-VLF electromagnetic field vectors and ELF-VLF plasma current fluctuations; - Total electron content (TEC); - Spectral content of plasma oscillations. Synchronous experiments with ground support facilities - both active and passive ones - are also foreseen. The IONOSAT-MICRO project will be realized onboard of MICROSAT microsatellite platform, manufactured by Yuzhnoye Design Office with new experimental models of ammonia propulsion system, battery, solar arrays and panels with thermal control coating, the in-flight tests of which are also planned in frames of the project. The composition of the scientific equipment developed by the international team of participants and sensors

  9. Goals and status of the CBM experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senger P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the heavy-ion collision program at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR in Darmstadt (Germany is to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the region of the highest baryon densities. The CBM research program addresses fundamental aspects of QCD such as the equation-of-state of highly compressed baryonic matter, the deconfinement phase transition and its critical endpoint, chiral symmetry restoration at high baryon densities, and the in-medium properties of hadrons. The corresponding key observables comprise low-mass vector mesons decaying into lepton pairs which serve as penetrating probes, hidden and open charm produced at threshold beam energies, (multi- strange particles, and global features like collective flow and event-by-event fluctuations. The experimental task is to identify both hadrons and leptons and to detect rare probes in a heavy-ion environment. The experimental challenge is to select rare events in nucleus-nucleus collisions with charged particle multiplicities of about 1000 per central event at reaction rates of up to 10 MHz. Such measurements require fast and radiation hard detectors, fast and selftriggered read-out electronics, a high-speed data acquisition system, and online event selection based on full track reconstruction. The layout of the CBM detector system and the results of feasibility studies will be presented. More than 400 scientists from 50 institutions and 15 countries actually participate in the realization of the CBM experiment which represents a major international effort in future heavy-ion physics.

  10. Setting Goals for Urban Scale Climate Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, J. K.; Brunner, E.

    2007-12-01

    The impacts of climate change on temperate urban areas may include the increase in frequency and intensity of damaging extreme weather events, such as heat waves, hurricanes, heavy rainfall or drought, and coastal flooding and erosion, and potential adverse impacts on infrastructure, energy systems, and public health. Warmer average summertime temperatures are also associated with environmental and public health liabilities, such as decreased air quality and increased peak electrical demand. Simultaneously, a strong global trend towards urbanization of poverty exists, with increased challenges for local governments to protect and sustain the well-being of growing cities and populations currently stressed by poverty, health and economic inequities. In the context of these trends, research at the city scale has sought to understand the social and economic impacts of climate change and variability and to evaluate strategies in the built environment that might serve as adaptive and mitigative responses to climate change. We review the goals and outcomes of several municipal climate protection programs, generally categorized as approaches based on technological innovation (e.g., new materials); changes in behavior and public education (e.g., neighborhood watch programs and cooling centers); improvements in urban design (e.g., zoning for mixed land-use; the use of water, vegetation and plazas to reduce the urban heat island effect); and efforts to incentivize the use of non-fossil-fuel based energy sources. Urban initiatives in European and American cities are assessed within the context of the global collective efforts enacted by the Kyoto Protocol and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Our concern is to understand the active networked role of urban managers in climate policies and programs in relation to supranational objectives and non-state actors.

  11. Goal-oriented Balancing: a New Model of Contemporary Sales Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars-Johan Åge

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the substantive area of sales management and it suggests that the main concern of a sales manager is to reach the sales and economical goals of the sales organization. The social process by which this main concern is resolved is called goal-oriented balancing and it describes two complementary organizational dimensions, frame development and individual development that are continuously balanced against each other. That is, the sales manager must establish effective organizational processes and structures as well as find the keys to maximum individual performance. These two processes have to be in balance and supportive of each other.

  12. Law & psychiatry: Assisting people in recovery who have criminal records to reach their employment goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimowitz, Stephan; Rio, John

    2014-04-01

    Working, a goal of most people in recovery from mental disorders, can be impeded by legal exclusions and by employers' rejections based on an applicant's criminal record. This column describes established tools that can partially lower these barriers and recent legal developments that provide additional strategies, in particular the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's Enforcement Guidance. These developments address the permissible use of arrest and conviction information in employment contexts, focusing on individualized consideration of specific factors, including rehabilitation. The authors also suggest strategies for job interview preparation that, when combined with job retention planning, can improve clients' prospects of achieving their employment goals.

  13. Establishing an Energy Efficiency Recommendation for Commercial Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, Michelle, J.

    2000-08-01

    To assist the federal government in meeting its energy reduction goals, President Clinton’s Executive Order 12902 established the Procurement Challenge, which directed all federal agencies to purchase equipment within the top 25~ percentile of efficiency. Under the direction of DOE’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Procurement Challenge’s goal is to create efficiency recommendations for all energy-using products (e.g. commercial boilers, chillers, motors) that could substantially impact the government’s energy reduction goals. When establishing efficiency recommendations, FEMP looks at standardized performance ratings for products sold in the U.S. marketplace. Currently, the commercial boiler industry uses combustion efficiency and, sometimes, thermal efficiency as metrics when specifying boiler performance. For many years, the industry has used both metrics interchangeably, causing confusion in the market place about boiler performance. This paper discusses the method used to establish FEMP’s efficiency recommendation for commercial boilers in lieu of the various, and somewhat confusing, efficiency ratings currently available. The paper also discusses potential energy cost savings for federal agencies that improve the efficiency of boilers specified and purchased.

  14. Move two: establishing a niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasima Shehzad

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The significant purpose of the author in the Introduction of a research article is to convince the reader about the importance of the work to be presented. To achieve this end, a convincing “niche” needs to be built by evaluating, rejecting or indicating gaps in previous related work. The purpose of “establishing a niche” is to emphasize the current research project presented by the author. The present paper investigates how Computer scientists use this obligatory step of “Create a Research Space” (CARS model (Swales & Feak, 1994 & 2004 to highlight their own research work. This paper not only compares the results with other similar studies but also presents an in-depth analysis of various types of gap statements used in Computer Science research article Introductions. The issue of cyclicity of this step and the linguistic indicators used for the establishment of “niche” (the gap statements are both discussed.

  15. PARTICULARITIES REGARDING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAGY CRISTINA MIHAELA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercial companies from the insurance field have, under the law, features that distinguish them from other commercial companies in respect of the establishment and the company's operation and control. For insurance companies there is a unique authorization system, by the member state in which their head office is located (home member state, and based on this authorization they can carry out insurance activities in any member states by opening agencies or subsidiaries, with prior notification to the ISC by the authorities of those States. Apparently the number of documents required to establish a company in the insurance sector is large and the stages are laborious but necessary because the State has to act prudentially as insurance services are addressed to natural or legal persons potentially vulnerable.

  16. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco-Walter, Jessica J.; Bleck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE)) is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT). Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus), elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE. PMID:27120626

  17. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Falco-Walter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT. Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus, elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE.

  18. Factors affecting forage stand establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulc R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should be expanded in the industry to enable matching seed lot performance to specific environmental conditions where performance can be maximized. Seed treatment and seed coating are used in the forage seed industry, and studies have shown they are of benefit in some environments. There is an increase in no-tillage seeding of forage crops, but improvements in the no-tillage planting equipment are needed to make them better suited to small seeds. Other recent developments in seeding techniques include broadcasting seed with dry granular and fluid fertilizers, which improves the efficiency of the seeding operation.

  19. A Round Trip Ticket from Goal Development ot Boardroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, John B.

    The speaker comments on a goal development process that has been used in the Milwaukee Public Schools for planning and implementing policy. Improvement of attendance was the goal selected for use in illustrating the model. (Author/IRT)

  20. Goal setting: an integral component of effective diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla K; Bauman, Jennifer

    2014-08-01

    Goal setting is a widely used behavior change tool in diabetes education and training. Prior research found specific relatively difficult but attainable goals set within a specific timeframe improved performance in sports and at the workplace. However, the impact of goal setting in diabetes self-care has not received extensive attention. This review examined the mechanisms underlying behavioral change according to goal setting theory and evaluated the impact of goal setting in diabetes intervention studies. Eight studies were identified, which incorporated goal setting as the primary strategy to promote behavioral change in individual, group-based, and primary care settings among patients with type 2 diabetes. Improvements in diabetes-related self-efficacy, dietary intake, physical activity, and A1c were observed in some but not all studies. More systematic research is needed to determine the conditions and behaviors for which goal setting is most effective. Initial recommendations for using goal setting in diabetes patient encounters are offered.

  1. The influence of goals on sense of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wen; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asama, Hajime

    2015-12-01

    We examined the influence of goals on sense of control relative to that experienced when taking action randomly. In the experimental task, participants controlled the direction of a moving dot by pressing the left and right keys at will without a specific goal (the control condition), directed the moving dot to a destination as often as possible (the strong goal condition), or kept the moving dot in the central area of the screen (the weak goal condition) for as long as possible. The results showed that the strong goal impaired the sense of control, but the weak goal did not exert an influence. We concluded that the goal-based expectation influenced sense of control, but the goal-directed action selection did not. Furthermore, we proposed a modified comparator model of the sense of control, offering a promising approach to integration of the predictive and postdictive processes involved in the sense of control.

  2. Relative Effects of Forward and Backward Planning on Goal Pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jooyoung; Lu, Fang-Chi; Hedgcock, William M

    2017-09-01

    Considerable research has shown that planning plays an important role in goal pursuit. But how does the way people plan affect goal pursuit? Research on this question is scarce. In the current research, we examined how planning the steps required for goal attainment in chronological order (i.e., forward planning) and reverse chronological order (i.e., backward planning) influences individuals' motivation for and perceptions of goal pursuit. Compared with forward planning, backward planning not only led to greater motivation, higher goal expectancy, and less time pressure but also resulted in better goal-relevant performance. We further demonstrated that this motivational effect occurred because backward planning allowed people to think of tasks required to reach their goals more clearly, especially when goals were complex to plan. These findings suggest that the way people plan matters just as much as whether or not they plan.

  3. [Overcoming difficulties is our goal in 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena

    2011-03-01

    During the past two years, Investigación Clínica has undergone a substantial reduction in its funding caused by the insufficient budget allotment that the University of Zulia has received from the Venezuelan Government. The progressive increase in the number of articles contained in each issue of the journal caused its weight to exceed the established limits, affecting the distribution costs. Therefore, some adjustments to its structure and distribution are required to maintain its frequency and quality, including reducing the number of papers per issue and sacrificing free shipping to many libraries and health centers in our country and abroad. The "Instructions to Authors" will appear only in the first issue and we will keep the "Index of Authors" in the last issue of the year. Also the publishing of reprints will be limited and only will be sent to authors upon request and shipment pre-payment. Likewise, color pages fees will be canceled to the Publishers, prior to printing. For the above mentioned difficulties, we recommend our regular readers to use the website https://sites.google.com/site/revistainvestigacionesclinicas/, where all articles can be found in PDF format, as they appear in our printed edition. Despite these difficulties, all our collaborators will keep working to maintain the high standards that have characterized this journal for over 50 years, inspired by our founder, Dr. Américo Negrette.

  4. TQM information systems: an elusive goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, L W

    1994-11-01

    An information support system is needed to locate, integrate, and present data to track and communicate the progress of quality efforts. Bethesda Hospital's executive information system (EIS) has been developed and refined on an ongoing basis to support a variety of total quality management (TQM) functions. One basic area where information systems must support TQM is in the availability of data for use by process improvement teams; without such support the entire process of data gathering and analysis would often be prohibitively difficult. Teams also need data to evaluate the results of changes to the improved process. Once core and critical work processes are identified and improvement targets are set, a system of interlinking measures can be established to allow the monitoring and improvement of the processes. Models have been used to support and facilitate design or redesign of major processes. The purpose of this decision support system is to monitor a department's core processes and to provide data and a process for quick response to environmental changes. The use of information services to support tracking systems, process improvement teams, Hoshin planning, daily control/process management, simulation modeling, and a continuous operational assessment and response (COAR) system has been an integral part of the TQM effort at Bethesda Hospital.

  5. Analysis Method for Quantifying Vehicle Design Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimognari, Peter; Eskridge, Richard; Martin, Adam; Lee, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses a method for using Design Structure Matrices (DSM), coupled with high-level tools representing important life-cycle parameters, to comprehensively conceptualize a flight/ground space transportation system design by dealing with such variables as performance, up-front costs, downstream operations costs, and reliability. This approach also weighs operational approaches based on their effect on upstream design variables so that it is possible to readily, yet defensively, establish linkages between operations and these upstream variables. To avoid the large range of problems that have defeated previous methods of dealing with the complex problems of transportation design, and to cut down the inefficient use of resources, the method described in the document identifies those areas that are of sufficient promise and that provide a higher grade of analysis for those issues, as well as the linkages at issue between operations and other factors. Ultimately, the system is designed to save resources and time, and allows for the evolution of operable space transportation system technology, and design and conceptual system approach targets.

  6. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 2: Compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The principal elements and functions of the Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) compiler are presented. The technique used to transcribe the syntax diagrams into machine processable format for use by the parsing routines is described. An explanation of the parsing technique used to process GOAL source statements is included. The compiler diagnostics and the output reports generated during a GOAL compilation are explained. A description of the GOAL program package is provided.

  7. Some Evidence for the Usefulness of an Optimal Foraging Theory Perspective on Goal Conflict and Goal Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Martin J; Knecht, Michaela; Freund, Alexandra M

    2017-08-31

    Based on optimal foraging theory, we propose a metric that allows evaluating the goodness of goal systems, that is, systems comprising multiple goals with facilitative and conflicting interrelations. This optimal foraging theory takes into account expectancy and value, as well as opportunity costs, of foraging. Applying this approach to goal systems provides a single index of goodness of a goal system for goal striving. Three quasi-experimental studies (N = 277, N = 145, and N = 210) provide evidence for the usefulness of this approach for goal systems comprising between 3 to 10 goals. Results indicate that persons with a more optimized goal-system are more conscientious and open to new experience, are more likely to represent their goals in terms of means (i.e., adopt a process focus), and are more satisfied and engaged with their goals. Persons with a suboptimal goal system tend to switch their goals more often and thereby optimize their goal system. We discuss limitations as well as possible future directions of this approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Infant Emotional and Cortisol Responses to Goal Blockage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation of infant emotional responses of anger and sadness to cortisol response in 2 goal blockage situations. One goal blockage with 4-month-old infants (N=56) involved a contingency learning procedure where infants' learned response was no longer effective in reinstating an event. The other goal blockage with 6-month-old…

  9. The Effects of Goal Setting on Rugby Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellalieu, Stephen D.; Hanton, Sheldon; O'Brien, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Goal-setting effects on selected performance behaviors of 5 collegiate rugby players were assessed over an entire competitive season using self-generated targets and goal-attainment scaling. Results suggest that goal setting was effective for enhancing task-specific on-field behavior in rugby union. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. Temperament, Personality and Achievement Goals among Chinese Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Li-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Temperament and personality have been presumed to affect achievement goals based on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. This research investigated the relationships of temperament dimensions and the Big Five personality traits to achievement goals based on the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework among 775 Chinese adolescent students.…

  11. Leaders' achievement goals and their reactions to subordinates' creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2010-01-01

    The present experimental research examined the impact of leaders' achievement goals on their reactions to creative input provided by their subordinates. In Experiment 1, performance goal leaders were found to be less receptive to subordinates' creative input than mastery goal leaders. In Experiment

  12. Predictors and consequences of daily goal adaptation: a diary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    König, C.J.; van Eerde, W.; Burch, A.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient self-regulation has been argued to consist of more than just setting goals and tenaciously pursuing them - it also requires that people adapt their goals to changing circumstances. Although previous studies have already focused on interindividual differences in goal disengagement (one aspe

  13. General Chemistry Students' Goals for Chemistry Laboratory Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on college students' learning goals in chemistry, let alone specifically pertaining to laboratory coursework. Because students' learning goals are linked to achievement and dependent on context, research on students' goals in the laboratory context may lead to better understanding about the efficacy of lab curricula. This…

  14. Goal Setting and Its Application with Exceptional Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, LeAnn A.; Graham, Steve

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on goal setting in instruction of exceptional students. Goals types and such properties as specificity, proximity and difficulty are discussed, along with additional factors including feedback, commitment, participation, and student ability. Goal setting guidelines for reading, writing, mathematics, assignment completion, and…

  15. Do Goals Affect the Structure of Students' Argumentative Writing Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Ralph P.; Lewis, William E.; Andrews-Weckerly, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Fourth- and sixth-grade students with and without learning disabilities wrote essays about a controversial topic after receiving either a general persuasion goal or an elaborated goal that included subgoals based on elements of argumentative discourse. Students in the elaborated goal condition produced more persuasive essays that were responsive…

  16. Correlates of Achievement Goal Orientations in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Joan L.; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2003-01-01

    Achievement goal theory suggests that the motivational processes operating in achievement settings such as PE are dependent on the achievement goals manifested in that setting. In this paper, research is reviewed examining the motivation-related correlates of task and ego (approach) goal orientations in physical education, namely (a)…

  17. The influence of mastery-avoidance goals on performance improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Anseel, Frederik

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments focused on examining the influence of mastery-avoidance goals on performance improvement, and more specifically, on mastery-avoidance goals grounded in an intrapersonal standard. That is, herein, mastery-avoidance goals entail striving to avoid doing worse than one has done before. B

  18. Typical Faulty Goals of Adolescents: A Base for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Eugene W.; Sweeney, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Proposes that the behavior of many teenagers may be understood as a function of 11 immediate goals, each of which represents a coherent set of attitudes and behaviors by which the ultimate goals of belonging and self-esteem are sought. These goals are rooted in faulty beliefs and elicit characteristic reactions from adults. (Author)

  19. Goal Setting and Expectancy Theory Predictions of Effort and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, Dennis L.; Luce, Helen E.

    Neither expectancy (VIE) theory nor goal setting alone are effective determinants of individual effort and task performance. To test the combined ability of VIE and goal setting to predict effort and performance, 44 real estate agents and their managers completed questionnaires. Quarterly income goals predicted managers' ratings of agents' effort,…

  20. Motivating Readers: Helping Students Set and Attain Personal Reading Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Márquez, Consuelo

    2015-01-01

    The motivational, cognitive, and performance benefits associated with setting goals are presented in light of goal-setting theory. These theoretical principles provide a framework that teachers can use to guide students in setting and pursuing personal reading goals that are proximal, specific, and compatible with students' reading abilities…

  1. Assessing Goal Intent and Achievement of University Learning Community Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer-Lachs, Carole F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the goal intent and achievement of university students, during the Fall 2011 semester, at Blue Wave University, a high research activity public institution in the southeast United States. This study merged theories of motivation to measure goal setting and goal attainment to examine if students who chose to…

  2. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  3. 77 FR 75361 - 2012-2014 Enterprise Housing Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... RIN 2590-AA49 2012-2014 Enterprise Housing Goals AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Final... new benchmark levels for the single-family housing goals for 2012, 2013 and 2014 that originally... Enterprise Housing Goals.'' DATES: Effective December 20, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  4. From User Goals to Service Discovery and Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonino da Silva Santos, Luiz Olavo; Guizzardi, Giancarlo; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Sinderen, van Marten

    2009-01-01

    Goals are often used to represent stakeholder's objectives. The intentionality inherited by a goal drives stakeholders to pursuit the fulfillment of their goals either by themselves or by delegating this fulfillment to third parties. In Service-Oriented Computing, service client's requirements are c

  5. Goal Orientations, Coping with School Failure and School Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Ingrid; Rijavec, Majda; Loncaric, Darko

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between goal orientation, coping with school failure and school achievement. Two questionnaires. Goal Orientation (Niemivirta, 1996a) and The School Failure Coping Scale (Rijavec & Brdar, 1997), were administered to 1057 high school students (aged from 15 to 17 years). The first goal of this study…

  6. Science Motivation of University Students: Achievement Goals as a Predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Serhat; Akcaalan, Mehmet; Yurdakul, Cengiz

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to make a study of the relationship between achievement goals and science motivation. Research data were collected from 295 university students. Achievement goals and science motivation scales were utilized as measure tools. The link between achievement goals orientation and science motivation was…

  7. General Chemistry Students' Goals for Chemistry Laboratory Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on college students' learning goals in chemistry, let alone specifically pertaining to laboratory coursework. Because students' learning goals are linked to achievement and dependent on context, research on students' goals in the laboratory context may lead to better understanding about the efficacy of lab curricula. This…

  8. Goal Setting for Learning English Language of EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichanyachon, Napaporn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated goal setting for learning English language of Bangkok University students. A set of questionnaires for the assessment of goal settings and problems of learning English was administered to 370 second-year students. The study revealed that the goal setting was at a moderate level. There were statistically significant…

  9. Motivating Readers: Helping Students Set and Attain Personal Reading Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Márquez, Consuelo

    2015-01-01

    The motivational, cognitive, and performance benefits associated with setting goals are presented in light of goal-setting theory. These theoretical principles provide a framework that teachers can use to guide students in setting and pursuing personal reading goals that are proximal, specific, and compatible with students' reading abilities…

  10. Setting Writing Revision Goals after Assessment for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of goal setting for revision in an EFL writing classroom where principles of assessment "for" learning (AfL) were followed. Following draft writing, instruction, and assessment, college freshmen were put into control, goal, and goal+ groups. Before students started to revise their drafts, individuals in…

  11. Goal Setting and Student Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Aleidine J.; Theiler, Janine M.; Wu, Chaorong

    2012-01-01

    The connection between goals and student motivation has been widely investigated in the research literature, but the relationship of goal setting and student achievement at the classroom level has remained largely unexplored. This article reports the findings of a 5-year quasi-experimental study examining goal setting and student achievement in…

  12. Dominant Achievement Goals across Tracks in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltinga, Peter A. M.; Kuyper, Hans; Timmermans, Anneke C.; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant achievement goals (DAGs) of 7,008 students in the third grade of Dutch secondary education (US grade 9) were investigated, based on Elliot & McGregors' 2 × 2 framework (2001), in relation to track-level and motivational variables. We found the mastery-approach goal and the performance-approach goal, generally considered adaptive,…

  13. Leaders' achievement goals and their reactions to subordinates' creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2010-01-01

    The present experimental research examined the impact of leaders' achievement goals on their reactions to creative input provided by their subordinates. In Experiment 1, performance goal leaders were found to be less receptive to subordinates' creative input than mastery goal leaders. In Experiment

  14. What is the Value of Course-Specific Learning Goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Beth; Taylor, Jared

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined student and faculty opinions regarding the use of detailed learning goals in three courses. Students reported the use of learning goals to be positive, aiding them with studying, in lectures, and in determining the important material to learn. Likewise, faculty indicated that using learning goals was a positive experience,…

  15. The Effects of Goal Setting on Rugby Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen D. Mellalieu; Hanton, Sheldon; O'Brien, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Goal-setting effects on selected performance behaviors of 5 collegiate rugby players were assessed over an entire competitive season using self-generated targets and goal-attainment scaling. Results suggest that goal setting was effective for enhancing task-specific on-field behavior in rugby union.

  16. Goal Orientation and Commitment to Working of MBA Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mary L.; Ekstrom, Ruth B.

    The goal orientation and commitment to working of 89 women beginning MBA studies was examined. Approximately 75% have defined career goals. Presence or absence of goals is affected by work experience, prior graudate training, interruption of academic training, age, marital status, full versus part-time program status, and selected attitudes toward…

  17. Life Goals in Vision Rehabilitation: Are They Addressed and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Boerner, Kathrin; Wang, Shu-wen

    2006-01-01

    This study explored if and how vision rehabilitation services address important life goals of young and middle-aged adults who are visually impaired. It found that services that teach functional skills and offer psychosocial therapeutic-type services were instrumental in addressing life goals and that independence-related goals were most often…

  18. Progress towards Millennium Development Goals with women empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Chaturvedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women empowerment is a powerful determinant of their own, children’s and their families’ health. Perhaps, due to this fact, promotion of gender equality and empowering women was kept as one of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs.Objective: The present analysis was undertaken to study the effect of women empowerment on health of women, family planning and various health indicators of children.Methods: Available data from National Surveys in India, various research studies and evidences from published global studies were gathered and further analyzed.Results: Census 2011 (India have shown that states having higher women literacy, like Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra (75%, have better positive indicators of health than states like Rajasthan with 53 % literacy. NFHS -3 (India showed that empowered women had better access to maternal services (76 %, more use of contraception (66.6% and resultantly, had lower neonatal mortality (36%. As against this, for less empowered women, access to maternal services (72 % is low, lesser use of contraception (44% and relatively higher neonatal mortality (43%. A systematic analysis of 175 countries (Lancet, 2010 has established that increase in women education decreases under five child mortality.Conclusions: Investments in women’s employment, health and education, are correlated with a range of positive outcomes, including greater economic growth and children’s health and survival.

  19. Every Child Deserves Two Parents: Establishing Paternity for Children of Single Teenage Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Janet M.

    Single teenage parents and expectant parents in four community-based programs were provided with information about establishing the paternity of their children. The information presented included the benefits, obligations and consequences of paternity establishment for the mother, father, child and society. The goal was to educate single teenagers…

  20. The "Madman" Rhetoric of Richard Nixon: An Alternative Means to Establish Geopolitical Ethos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David K.

    2005-01-01

    In a geopolitical context, the means of establishing deterrence is premised on the military capability of a country and the perceived willingness of a leader to use force as a means to achieve policy goals. A key function of rhetoric is to establish the personal ethos of a leader regarding their willingness to use force. During the Cold War the…

  1. A well-established profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2011-01-01

    It was during the economic boom of the 1960s that the demand for landscape architects began to explode in Denmark as the expanding welfare state brought about rapid physical changes. At this time the country’s first specific education for landscape architects was established and 2010 marked the 5......th anniversary of landscape architecture teaching, at the Faculty of Life Science – the University of Copenhagen(KU-Life). It’s origins can be traced further back but, then as now, the essence of the education is that of creating a dynamic synergy of the sciences and the arts....

  2. Goal conflict, goal facilitation and health professionals’ provision of physical activity advice in primary care: An exploratory prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Presseau, J.; Francis, J.; Campbell, N C; Sniehotta, F. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The theory of planned behaviour has well-evidenced utility in predicting health professional behaviour, but focuses on a single behaviour isolated from the numerous potentially conflicting and facilitating goal-directed behaviours performed alongside. Goal conflict and goal facilitation may influence whether health professionals engage in guideline-recommended behaviours, and may supplement the predictive power of the theory of planned behaviour. We hypothesised that goal facilita...

  3. Goal conflict, goal facilitation, and health professionals' provision of physical activity advice in primary care: An exploratory prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell Neil C; Francis Jill J; Presseau Justin; Sniehotta Falko F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The theory of planned behaviour has well-evidenced utility in predicting health professional behaviour, but focuses on a single behaviour isolated from the numerous potentially conflicting and facilitating goal-directed behaviours performed alongside. Goal conflict and goal facilitation may influence whether health professionals engage in guideline-recommended behaviours, and may supplement the predictive power of the theory of planned behaviour. We hypothesised that goal ...

  4. Patient-relevant needs and treatment goals in nail psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blome, C; Costanzo, A; Dauden, E;

    2015-01-01

    , but not with age or disease duration. Manual dexterity and social interaction were of particular importance. Goal importance and quality of life were associated, but not redundant (r = 0.612, p specific treatment goals. Goal importance...... is a construct different from disease-specific quality of life and should be assessed separately. The new questionnaire can support goal setting in clinical practice.......PURPOSE: Patient-centered health care implies that medical decisions are made jointly by physician and patient, based on patient needs. Aims were to (a) identify treatment goals for a new questionnaire on patient needs and benefits in nail psoriasis treatment; (b) analyze the importance...

  5. Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas Clement; Christensen, Hanne Krarup

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases......, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). METHODS: We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 health-related SDG indicators for 188 countries from 1990 to 2015. We rescaled each indicator on a scale from 0 (worst observed value between 1990...... and 2015) to 100 (best observed). Indices representing all 33 health-related SDG indicators (health-related SDG index), health-related SDG indicators included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG index), and health-related indicators not included in the MDGs (non-MDG index) were computed...

  6. The Process of Transforming an Advanced Lab Course: Goals, Curriculum, and Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Zwickl, Benjamin M; Lewandowski, H J

    2012-01-01

    A thoughtful approach to designing and improving labs, particularly at the advanced level, is critical for the effective preparation of physics majors for professional work in industry or graduate school. With that in mind, physics education researchers in partnership with the physics faculty at the University of Colorado Boulder have overhauled the senior-level Advanced Physics Lab course. The transformation followed a three part process of establishing learning goals, designing curricula that align with the goals, and assessment. Similar efforts have been carried out in physics lecture courses at the University of Colorado Boulder, but this is the first systematic research-based revision of one of our laboratory courses. The outcomes of this effort include a set of learning goals, a suite of new lab-skill activities and transformed optics labs, and a set of assessments specifically tailored for a laboratory environment. While the particular selection of advanced lab experiments varies widely between institu...

  7. [Goal analysis and goal operationalisation: a group intervention for the enhancement of work motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Rana; Fiedler, Rolf G; Dietrich, Hilke; Greitemann, Bernhard; Heuft, Gereon

    2010-08-01

    Work motivation, mental well-being and competencies of self-regulation are linked to successful job-related reintegration after rehabilitation. Based on the Diagnostical Instrument to assess Work motivation (Diagnostikinstrument für Arbeitsmotivation DIAMO) and existing training programs, a new group intervention, the goal analysis and goal operationalization, was developed and evaluated. The objective of this intervention, designed for participants of a rehabilitation program was to enhance work motivation and volitional control processes (self-regulation and self-control), to encourage job-related goal orientation and to thereby increase the probability of goal achievement. In a quasi-experimental longitudinal design 207 patients (111 experimental group/96 control group) were tested. The experimental group took part in the job-related training (ZAZO) in addition to the usual rehabilitation. The evaluation was conducted through various scales at t0 (beginning) and t1 (end of the training). Scales for the measurement of work motivation, mental well-being, status of rehabilitation, competencies of self-regulation and the subjective prognosis of the ability to work were used. As direct effects of the training an enhancement of work motivation and of an improved subjective prognosis of the ability to work were expected. Accordingly, a positive influence on the subjective well-being as indirect effects, were anticipated in the long run, the experimental group should also show an enhanced job-related reintegration. Participants of the experimental group showed significantly higher values on particular scales of the Diagnostical Instrument of Work motivation as opposed to the control group (curiosity motive, attitudes to work and contact motive). Most notably, significant interactional effects could be found on the scale for the subjective prognosis of the ability to work, which is a highly reliable instrument and important predictor for prospective job

  8. Personal Goals as Predictors of Intended Classroom Goals: Comparing Elementary and Secondary School Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Lia M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Stewart, Tara L.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: The literature documents fewer classroom mastery goal structures in secondary school compared to elementary. However, little is known about how personal achievement goals may influence classroom goal structures. This is especially true at the level of pre-service teachers. Our objective was to investigate if pre-service…

  9. Providing Goal-Based Autonomy for Commanding a Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Liu, Ning

    2008-01-01

    A computer program for use aboard a scientific-exploration spacecraft autonomously selects among goals specified in high-level requests and generates corresponding sequences of low-level commands, understandable by spacecraft systems. (As used here, 'goals' signifies specific scientific observations.) From a dynamic, onboard set of goals that could oversubscribe spacecraft resources, the program selects a non-oversubscribing subset that maximizes a quality metric. In an early version of the program, the requested goals are assumed to have fixed starting times and durations. Goals can conflict by exceeding a limit on either the number of separate goals or the number of overlapping goals making demands on the same resource. The quality metric used in this version is chosen to ensure that a goal will never be replaced by another having lower priority. At any time, goals can be added or removed, or their priorities can be changed, and the 'best' goal will be selected. Once a goal has been selected, the program implements a robust, flexible approach to generation of low-level commands: Rather than generate rigid sequences with fixed starting times, the program specifies flexible sequences that can be altered to accommodate run time variations.

  10. Structure and Relationships of University Instructors’ Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumiller, Martin; Grassinger, Robert; Dickhäuser, Oliver; Dresel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the achievement goals of university instructors, particularly the structure of such goals, and their relationship to biographic characteristics, other aspects of instructors’ motivation, and teaching quality. Two hundred and fifty-one university instructors (184 without Ph.D., 97 with Ph.D., thereof 51 full professors; 146 males, 92 females) answered a questionnaire measuring achievement goals, self-efficacy, and enthusiasm in altogether 392 courses. Teaching quality was assessed using reports from 9,241 students who were attending these courses. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed mastery, performance approach, performance avoidance, work avoidance, and relational goals as being distinguishable from each other. Distinct relationships were found between different instructors’ achievement goals, and gender, age, and career status as well as self-efficacy and enthusiasm. Hierarchical linear models suggested positive associations of instructors’ mastery goals with teaching quality, while negative associations were indicated for performance avoidance goals and work avoidance goals in relation to teaching quality. Exploratory analyses conducted due to a quite large correlation between performance approach and performance avoidance goals indicated that for university instructors, differentiating performance goals into appearance and normative components might also be adequate. All in all, the study highlights the auspiciousness of the theoretical concept of university instructors’ achievement goals and contributes to making it comprehensively accessible. PMID:27047411

  11. Structure and Relationships of University Instructors’ Achievement Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eDaumiller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the achievement goals of university instructors, particularly the structure of such goals, and their relationship to biographic characteristics, other aspects of instructors’ motivation, and teaching quality. Two hundred and fifty-one university instructors (184 without PhD, 97 with PhD, thereof 51 full professors; 146 males, 92 females answered a questionnaire measuring achievement goals, self-efficacy, and enthusiasm in altogether 392 courses. Teaching quality was assessed using reports from 9,241 students who were attending these courses. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed mastery, performance approach, performance avoidance, work avoidance, and relational goals as being distinguishable from each other. Distinct relationships were found between different instructors’ achievement goals, and gender, age, and career status as well as self-efficacy and enthusiasm. Hierarchical linear models suggested positive associations of instructors’ mastery goals with teaching quality, while negative associations were indicated for performance avoidance goals and work avoidance goals in relation to teaching quality. Exploratory analyses conducted due to a quite large correlation between performance approach and performance avoidance goals indicated that for university instructors, differentiating performance goals into appearance and normative components might also be adequate. All in all, the study highlights the auspiciousness of the theoretical concept of university instructors’ achievement goals and contributes to making it comprehensively accessible.

  12. Inconsistency of goals of a German power exchange. Zielkonflikte einer deutschen Stromboerse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, M. (Fachhochschule Mannheim, Hochschule fuer Technik und Gestaltung (Germany))

    1999-06-01

    The article discusses aspects of the establishment of a power exchange in Germany. For the time being, German traders in the energy sector and competitors in the European internal market for electricity perform exchange transactions on the stock exchanges in other European countries, as for instance on the recently established spot market APX in Amsterdam/Netherlands, which is open for traders from Germany and Belgium. Denmark will soon be admitted to the Scandinavian NordPool, so that German traders will have at their disposal a further spot market and a forward exchange. So far, initiatives for establishing a German power exchange got stuck in debates about the location, or inconsistency of goals, as the parties involved are at dispute about whether to establish a spot market first, or a forward exchange. The author nevertheless is of the opinion that the German government should not intervene but give time to the private sector to solve the conflicts. (orig./CB)

  13. Establishing nuclear facility drill programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of DOE Handbook, Establishing Nuclear Facility Drill Programs, is to provide DOE contractor organizations with guidance for development or modification of drill programs that both train on and evaluate facility training and procedures dealing with a variety of abnormal and emergency operating situations likely to occur at a facility. The handbook focuses on conducting drills as part of a training and qualification program (typically within a single facility), and is not intended to included responses of personnel beyond the site boundary, e.g. Local or State Emergency Management, Law Enforcement, etc. Each facility is expected to develop its own facility specific scenarios, and should not limit them to equipment failures but should include personnel injuries and other likely events. A well-developed and consistently administered drill program can effectively provide training and evaluation of facility operating personnel in controlling abnormal and emergency operating situations. To ensure the drills are meeting their intended purpose they should have evaluation criteria for evaluating the knowledge and skills of the facility operating personnel. Training and evaluation of staff skills and knowledge such as component and system interrelationship, reasoning and judgment, team interactions, and communications can be accomplished with drills. The appendices to this Handbook contain both models and additional guidance for establishing drill programs at the Department`s nuclear facilities.

  14. The Influence of culture on goal perception: Qatar versus Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottsen, Christina L.; Koppel, Jonathan; Johannessen, Kim Berg

    2016-01-01

    Expectations of control put forth by societal norms impose a constant influence on goal perception. To examine the influence of culture on perception of personal goals, 124 Middle Easterners and 128 Scandinavians rated their perceived locus of control, generated goals and evaluated goal...... characteristics. Findings show several cultural and gender differences, most notably in perceived locus of control, unhappiness despite goal achievement and adherence to cultural life script. Many differences were qualified by interactions, suggesting that Middle Eastern men deviate from Middle Eastern women...... and Scandinavians of both sexes. The Middle Eastern men demonstrated greater ambivalence regarding goal achievement, and contrary to previous findings from other cultural samples, they also showed a significant positive association between internal and external control. Furthermore , goals generated by Middle...

  15. Departures from optimality when pursuing multiple approach or avoidance goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Timothy; Yeo, Gillian; Neal, Andrew; Farrell, Simon

    2016-07-01

    This article examines how people depart from optimality during multiple-goal pursuit. The authors operationalized optimality using dynamic programming, which is a mathematical model used to calculate expected value in multistage decisions. Drawing on prospect theory, they predicted that people are risk-averse when pursuing approach goals and are therefore more likely to prioritize the goal in the best position than the dynamic programming model suggests is optimal. The authors predicted that people are risk-seeking when pursuing avoidance goals and are therefore more likely to prioritize the goal in the worst position than is optimal. These predictions were supported by results from an experimental paradigm in which participants made a series of prioritization decisions while pursuing either 2 approach or 2 avoidance goals. This research demonstrates the usefulness of using decision-making theories and normative models to understand multiple-goal pursuit. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Investigating goal conflict as a source of mixed emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Raul; Totterdell, Peter; Kellett, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated whether (1) the experience of mixed emotions is a consequence of activating conflicting goals and (2) mixed emotions are distinct from emotional conflict. A preliminary experiment (Study 1, N = 35) showed that an elicited goal conflict predicted more mixed emotions than a condition where the same goals were not in conflict. The second experiment was based on naturally occurring goal activation (Study 2, N = 57). This illustrated that mixed emotions were experienced more following conflicting goals compared with a facilitating goals condition-on both a direct self-report measure of mixed emotions and a minimum index measure. The results also showed that mixed emotions were different to emotional conflict. Overall, goal conflict was found to be a source of mixed emotions, and it is feasible that such states have a role in resolving personal dilemmas.

  17. An analysis of budgetary goals impacting organizational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheok MUI YEE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a conceptual review of how budgetary goals impact organizational performance. The aim of this study is to get a better understanding of the direct and indirect relationship between the organization’s decision-making process and operational performances. Setting the budget particularly influences subordinates’ budget goal levels and motivations (i.e., budget goal acceptance and budget goal commitment, which ultimately enhances the organization’s performance. To test these relationships, data were collected using the three perspectives approach: budgetary goal, budgetary participation and budgetary evaluation. The study provided evidence that perception of fairness mediates the relation between the levels of budget participation and goal commitment, whereas goal commitment mediates the relation between fairness perceptions and performance. At the end of the article, there are some implications for SMEs industries and some suggestions for future studies.

  18. Developnemt of Integration Processes in Africa - from Political to Economic Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Marinov, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the historic development and current trends in integration processes in Africa. Integration is seen as a means for ensuring competitiveness by better opportunities in international trade and as a factor supporting the resolution of the political and economic problems of the continent. Integration processes go through several stages of development, in which the focus gradually shifted from political to economic goals – the establishment of a functioning African Economic Com...

  19. Are goals and topics influenced by gender and modality in the initial marriage and family therapy session?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Wilson, R J; Zimmerman, T S; Price, S J

    1999-04-01

    Establishment of a goal is crucial to therapy, but identification of therapeutic goals may be difficult in conjoint therapy because each participant may identify a different problem. We examined the influence of gender on ability to successfully introduce therapeutic topics in marital and family therapy by conducting two studies. The first study evaluates the ability of therapists to identify therapeutic goals that matched goals prioritized by both women and men clients on pretherapy questionnaires. The second study examines the process of initial therapy sessions to see whether gender influences a client's ability to introduce a therapeutic topic. Results suggest that therapeutic topic is influenced by the interaction of gender and treatment modality. Specifically, therapists were better able to match women's pretherapy stated goals in marital therapy than family therapy, men were more successful at introducing topics in family therapy, and women were more successful at introducing topics in marital therapy.

  20. Outperforming whom? A multilevel study of performance-prove goal orientation, performance, and the moderating role of shared team identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Bart; van Knippenberg, Daan; Hirst, Giles; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D

    2015-11-01

    Performance-prove goal orientation affects performance because it drives people to try to outperform others. A proper understanding of the performance-motivating potential of performance-prove goal orientation requires, however, that we consider the question of whom people desire to outperform. In a multilevel analysis of this issue, we propose that the shared team identification of a team plays an important moderating role here, directing the performance-motivating influence of performance-prove goal orientation to either the team level or the individual level of performance. A multilevel study of salespeople nested in teams supports this proposition, showing that performance-prove goal orientation motivates team performance more with higher shared team identification, whereas performance-prove goal orientation motivates individual performance more with lower shared team identification. Establishing the robustness of these findings, a second study replicates them with individual and team performance in an educational context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Establishing an energy efficiency recommendation for commercial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, Michelle J.

    2000-08-01

    To assist the federal government in meeting its energy reduction goals, President Clinton's Executive Order 12902 established the Procurement Challenge, which directed all federal agencies to purchase equipment within the top 25th percentile of efficiency. Under the direction of DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Procurement Challenge's goal is to create efficiency recommendations for all energy-using products that could substantially impact the government's energy reduction goals, like commercial boilers. A typical 5,000,000 Btuh boiler, with a thermal efficiency of 83.2%, can have lifetime energy cost savings of $40,000 when compared to a boiler with a thermal efficiency of 78%. For the federal market, which makes up 2% of the boiler market, this means lifetime energy cost savings of over $25,600,000. To establish efficiency recommendations, FEMP uses standardized performance ratings for products sold in the marketplace. Currently, the boiler industry uses combustion efficiency and, sometimes, thermal efficiency performance measures when specifying a commercial boiler. For many years, the industry has used these efficiency measures interchangeably, causing confusion about boiler performance measurements, and making it difficult for FEMP to establish the top 25th percentile of efficiency. This paper will illustrate the method used to establish FEMP's recommendation for boilers. The method involved defining a correlation between thermal and combustion efficiency among boiler classifications; using the correlation to model a data set of all the boiler types available in the market; and identifying how the correlation affected the top 25th percentile analysis. The paper also will discuss the applicability of this method for evaluating other equipment for which there are limited data on performance ratings.

  2. Sociological establishment of 'normative facts'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević Slobodan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Every science is searching for 'it's facts', it's concept and categorical decree, and by this defines specific subject of it's science researching. Here, the researching is steered on identification of ontological contents of 'normative fact' in the aim of comprehension of it's categorical entity and conceptual disposition.'The normative fact' refers to importance, significance and sense which norm has, in other words, which is attributed to the norm by man and society, and which in the air of importance influence on it's behavior. Exclusive term of sociological science is 'normative fact' as behavior of an individual, groups, institutions and society with regard to establishment, application and changes of social norms.

  3. Establishment and Characterization of a Newly Established Diabetic Gerbil Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Li

    Full Text Available We aimed to selectively breed a spontaneous diabetic gerbil when a sub-line of inbred gerbil showed increased blood glucose levels was found recently. Then we investigated the characteristics including the serum insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin and explored the underlying molecular mechanism for the diabetic phenotype.The spontaneous diabetic line of gerbils was selectively inbreed the sub-line of gerbil by monitoring blood glucose of each animal. The serum insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were tested using an ELISA kit. The expression levels of GLUT4, Akt, leptin, adiponectin, and calpain 10 (CAPN10 were tested by western blot and Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR in liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose.Our results show that the percentages of animals with FPG≥5.2 (mmol/l, PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l and both FPG≥5.2 and PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l were increased with the number of breeding generations from F0 (21.33% to F6 (38.46%. These diabetic gerbils exhibited insulin resistance and leptin resistance as well as decreased adiponectin level in the serum. We also observed decreased expression of adiponectin and increased expression of leptin in the skeletal muscle, respectively.These results indicate that we have primarily established a spontaneous diabetic gerbil line, and the diabetic phenotypes may have been accounted for by altered expression of leptin and adiponectin.

  4. IMRT treatment planning based on prioritizing prescription goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Jan J; Alaly, James R; Zakarian, Konstantin; Thorstad, Wade L; Deasy, Joseph O

    2007-03-21

    Determining the 'best' optimization parameters in IMRT planning is typically a time-consuming trial-and-error process with no unambiguous termination point. Recently we and others proposed a goal-programming approach which better captures the desired prioritization of dosimetric goals. Here, individual prescription goals are addressed stepwise in their order of priority. In the first step, only the highest order goals are considered (target coverage and dose-limiting normal structures). In subsequent steps, the achievements of the previous steps are turned into hard constraints and lower priority goals are optimized, in turn, subject to higher priority constraints. So-called 'slip' factors were introduced to allow for slight, clinically acceptable violations of the constraints. Focusing on head and neck cases, we present several examples for this planning technique. The main advantages of the new optimization method are (i) its ability to generate plans that meet the clinical goals, as well as possible, without tuning any weighting factors or dose-volume constraints, and (ii) the ability to conveniently include more terms such as fluence map smoothness. Lower level goals can be optimized to the achievable limit without compromising higher order goals. The prioritized prescription-goal planning method allows for a more intuitive and human-time-efficient way of dealing with conflicting goals compared to the conventional trial-and-error method of varying weighting factors and dose-volume constraints.

  5. A Fast Goal Recognition Technique Based on Interaction Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    E-Martin, Yolanda; R-Moreno, Maria D.; Smith, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Goal Recognition is the task of inferring an actor's goals given some or all of the actor's observed actions. There is considerable interest in Goal Recognition for use in intelligent personal assistants, smart environments, intelligent tutoring systems, and monitoring user's needs. In much of this work, the actor's observed actions are compared against a generated library of plans. Recent work by Ramirez and Geffner makes use of AI planning to determine how closely a sequence of observed actions matches plans for each possible goal. For each goal, this is done by comparing the cost of a plan for that goal with the cost of a plan for that goal that includes the observed actions. This approach yields useful rankings, but is impractical for real-time goal recognition in large domains because of the computational expense of constructing plans for each possible goal. In this paper, we introduce an approach that propagates cost and interaction information in a plan graph, and uses this information to estimate goal probabilities. We show that this approach is much faster, but still yields high quality results.

  6. Overarching goals: a strategy for improving healthcare quality and safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanji, Karen C; Ferris, Timothy G; Torchiana, David F; Meyer, Gregg S

    2013-03-01

    The management literature reveals that many successful organisations have strategic plans that include a bold 'stretch-goal' to stimulate progress over a ten-to-thirty-year period. A stretch goal is clear, compelling and easily understood. It serves as a unifying focal point for organisational efforts. The ambitiousness of such goals has been emphasised with the phrase Big Hairy Audacious Goal ('BHAG'). President Kennedy's proclamation in 1961 that 'this Nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth' provides a famous example. This goal energised the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and it captured the attention of the American public and resulted in one of the largest accomplishments of any organisation. The goal set by Sony, a small, cash-strapped electronics company in the 1950s, to change the poor image of Japanese products around the world represents a classic BHAG. Few examples of quality goals that conform to the BHAG definition exist in the healthcare literature. However, the concept may provide a useful framework for organisations seeking to transform the quality of care they deliver. This review examines the merits and cautions of setting overarching quality goals to catalyse quality improvement efforts, and assists healthcare organisations with determining whether to adopt these goals.

  7. IMRT treatment planning based on prioritizing prescription goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Jan J.; Alaly, James R.; Zakarian, Konstantin; Thorstad, Wade L.; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2007-03-01

    Determining the 'best' optimization parameters in IMRT planning is typically a time-consuming trial-and-error process with no unambiguous termination point. Recently we and others proposed a goal-programming approach which better captures the desired prioritization of dosimetric goals. Here, individual prescription goals are addressed stepwise in their order of priority. In the first step, only the highest order goals are considered (target coverage and dose-limiting normal structures). In subsequent steps, the achievements of the previous steps are turned into hard constraints and lower priority goals are optimized, in turn, subject to higher priority constraints. So-called 'slip' factors were introduced to allow for slight, clinically acceptable violations of the constraints. Focusing on head and neck cases, we present several examples for this planning technique. The main advantages of the new optimization method are (i) its ability to generate plans that meet the clinical goals, as well as possible, without tuning any weighting factors or dose-volume constraints, and (ii) the ability to conveniently include more terms such as fluence map smoothness. Lower level goals can be optimized to the achievable limit without compromising higher order goals. The prioritized prescription-goal planning method allows for a more intuitive and human-time-efficient way of dealing with conflicting goals compared to the conventional trial-and-error method of varying weighting factors and dose-volume constraints.

  8. IMRT treatment planning based on prioritizing prescription goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkens, Jan J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, and Siteman Cancer Center, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Alaly, James R [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, and Siteman Cancer Center, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Zakarian, Konstantin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, and Siteman Cancer Center, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Thorstad, Wade L [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, and Siteman Cancer Center, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Deasy, Joseph O [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, and Siteman Cancer Center, Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    2007-03-21

    Determining the 'best' optimization parameters in IMRT planning is typically a time-consuming trial-and-error process with no unambiguous termination point. Recently we and others proposed a goal-programming approach which better captures the desired prioritization of dosimetric goals. Here, individual prescription goals are addressed stepwise in their order of priority. In the first step, only the highest order goals are considered (target coverage and dose-limiting normal structures). In subsequent steps, the achievements of the previous steps are turned into hard constraints and lower priority goals are optimized, in turn, subject to higher priority constraints. So-called 'slip' factors were introduced to allow for slight, clinically acceptable violations of the constraints. Focusing on head and neck cases, we present several examples for this planning technique. The main advantages of the new optimization method are (i) its ability to generate plans that meet the clinical goals, as well as possible, without tuning any weighting factors or dose-volume constraints, and (ii) the ability to conveniently include more terms such as fluence map smoothness. Lower level goals can be optimized to the achievable limit without compromising higher order goals. The prioritized prescription-goal planning method allows for a more intuitive and human-time-efficient way of dealing with conflicting goals compared to the conventional trial-and-error method of varying weighting factors and dose-volume constraints.

  9. Preference structure of personal and social goals of the high-schoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Bora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is establishing structure of acceptance (of preferences 18 personal and 18 social goals. Sample has been consisted of 243 final year high school students. There are seven extracted factors in domain of the personal goals that were named: selfishness fulfillment of duties, strive for power and popularity, competence and independence, affiliation and love, material achievement, hedonistic orientation and conscientious and healthy life. There are another seven factor in domain of the social goals: normal state, tradition and territorial integrity, transition, and also sociodemocratic, traditional socialist, democratic and ethatistic orientation. There are significant but not so high linear correlations between two lists. It justifies idea to examine those two lists separately. The most acceptable, among personal goals, are friends, love and independence, and the least are popularity, obedience and social power. The biggest importance among social goals was given to employment and living standard, and the least to one-party state and finishing of privatization.

  10. Primary palliative care for the general internist: integrating goals of care discussions into the outpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahia, Chad L; Blais, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Primary palliative care consists of the palliative care competencies required of all primary care clinicians. Included in these competencies is the ability to assist patients and their families in establishing appropriate goals of care. Goals of care help patients and their families understand the patient's illness and its trajectory and facilitate medical care decisions consistent with the patient's values and goals. General internists and family medicine physicians in primary care are central to getting patients to articulate their goals of care and to have these documented in the medical record. Here we present the case of a 71-year-old male patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, congestive heart failure, and newly diagnosed Alzheimer dementia to model pertinent end-of-life care communication and discuss practical tips on how to incorporate it into practice. General internists and family medicine practitioners in primary care are central to eliciting patients' goals of care and achieving optimal end-of-life outcomes for their patients.

  11. Recovering from stroke: a qualitative investigation of the role of goal setting in late stroke recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, J; Dowswell, G; Hearn, J; Forster, A; Young, J

    1999-08-01

    This article examines the role of goal setting in the continuing relationship between specialist nurse and patients recovering from stroke. The nurse intervention was intended to ease the patient through the stages of recovery from stroke, focusing on emotional and social recovery rather than physical function. Literature on the use of goals in the nursing process is discussed. The article uses data from contemporary nurse records and from interviews with nurses and with patients and caregivers. The data from each of these elements were subjected to content analysis and were then synthesized using a grounded theory approach to interpret their significance. The perspective of patients and caregivers provides an additional insight into the use and limitations of goal setting which is largely developed in the literature from a nursing perspective. Nurses were found to have different interpretations of the use of goal setting. Some used it explicitly in their relationships with patients, whilst others used the concept to inform their actions whilst being less explicit and more informal. In all cases they demonstrate the tension between establishing and supporting progress towards realistic recovery goals and recognizing the limitations now placed on stroke victims.

  12. Identifying Patient Door-to-Room Goals to Minimize Left-Without-Being-Seen Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shea Pielsticker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency department (ED patients in the leave-without-being-seen (LWBS group risk problems of inefficiency, medical risk, and financial loss. The goal at our hospital is to limit LWBS to 60min. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess for DoorRoom cutoffs predicting high LWBS, while adjusting for patient acuity (triage scores and admission % and operations parameters. We used predictive marginal probability to assess utility of the regression-generated cutoffs. We defined statistical significance at p85% of meeting the LWBS goal. A secondary DoorRoom cutoff was indicated at 35’, to prevent a precipitous drop-off in likelihood of meeting the LWBS goal, from 61.1% at 35’ to 34.4% at 40’. Predictive marginal analysis using multivariate techniques to control for operational and patient-acuity factors confirmed the 20’ and 35’ cutoffs as significant (p35’ were a further 75% less likely to meet the LWBS goal than days with DoorRoom of 21-35’ (OR 0.25, 95% CI [0.15-0.41]. Conclusion: Operationally useful DoorRoom cutoffs can be identified, which allow for rational establishment of performance goals for the ED attempting to minimize LWBS.

  13. Stuck in the middle: the psychophysics of goal pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonezzi, Andrea; Brendl, C Miguel; De Angelis, Matteo

    2011-05-01

    The classic goal-gradient hypothesis posits that motivation to reach a goal increases monotonically with proximity to the desired end state. However, we argue that this is not always the case. In this article, we show that motivation to engage in goal-consistent behavior can be higher when people are either far from or close to the end state and lower when they are about halfway to the end state. We propose a psychophysical explanation for this tendency to get "stuck in the middle." Building on the assumption that motivation is influenced by the perceived marginal value of progress toward the goal, we show that the shape of the goal gradient varies depending on whether an individual monitors progress in terms of distance from the initial state or from the desired end state. Our psychophysical model of goal pursuit predicts a previously undiscovered nonmonotonic gradient, as well as two monotonic gradients.

  14. A motivated action theory account of goal orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShon, Richard P; Gillespie, Jennifer Z

    2005-11-01

    Rapid organizational change is increasing the pressure on employees to continually update their skills and adapt their behavior to new organizational realities. Goal orientation is a promising motivational construct that may explain why some individuals adapt to change better. Unfortunately, the current goal orientation literature is in a state of conceptual and methodological disarray. This presentation reviews the goal orientation literature and identifies numerous conceptual ambiguities, including definitional inconsistencies, dimensional inconsistencies, and inconsistencies in the conceptualization of stability. These conceptual ambiguities result in a confusing array of goal orientation measures and manipulations and ultimately an incoherent empirical database. A dynamic self-regulation model of goal orientation, termed motivated action theory, is presented to integrate the various conceptual perspectives and to provide guidelines for future goal orientation research.

  15. How the adoption of impression management goals alters impression formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bryan; Poposki, Elizabeth M

    2010-11-01

    Five experiments (N = 390) tested the hypothesis that adopting an impression management goal leads the impression manager to view an interaction partner as having less of the trait he or she is attempting to express. This hypothesis was confirmed for the impression management goals of appearing introverted, extraverted, smart, confident, and happy. Experiment 2 shows that adoption of the impression goal could alter judgments even when participants could not act on the goal. Experiment 3 provides evidence that adopting an impression management goal prompted a comparison mind-set and that this comparison mind-set activation mediated target judgments. Experiment 4 rules out a potential alternative explanation and provides more direct evidence that comparison of the impression manager's self-concept mediates the impression of the target. Experiment 5 eliminates a potential confound and extends the effect to another impression goal. These experiments highlight the dynamic interplay between impression management and impression formation.

  16. Prospective representation of navigational goals in the human hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thackery I; Carr, Valerie A; LaRocque, Karen F; Favila, Serra E; Gordon, Alan M; Bowles, Ben; Bailenson, Jeremy N; Wagner, Anthony D

    2016-06-10

    Mental representation of the future is a fundamental component of goal-directed behavior. Computational and animal models highlight prospective spatial coding in the hippocampus, mediated by interactions with the prefrontal cortex, as a putative mechanism for simulating future events. Using whole-brain high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging and multi-voxel pattern classification, we tested whether the human hippocampus and interrelated cortical structures support prospective representation of navigational goals. Results demonstrated that hippocampal activity patterns code for future goals to which participants subsequently navigate, as well as for intervening locations along the route, consistent with trajectory-specific simulation. The strength of hippocampal goal representations covaried with goal-related coding in the prefrontal, medial temporal, and medial parietal cortex. Collectively, these data indicate that a hippocampal-cortical network supports prospective simulation of navigational events during goal-directed planning.

  17. Motivation and Goal-Setting in College Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Cash, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Motivation and goal-setting are important concepts in athletics and sport and exercise psychology. However, little research has compared motivation and goal-setting by gender. The self-determination theory was used and the purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference between male and female athletes when looking at amotivation, external regulation, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation, and goal-setting. One hundred and six student-athletes (fifty one males and f...

  18. Beyond SMART? A new framework for goal setting

    OpenAIRE

    Day, T; Tosey, PC

    2011-01-01

    This article extends currently reported theory and practice in the use of learning goals or targets with students in secondary and further education. Goal-setting and action-planning constructs are employed in personal development plans (PDPs) and personal learning plans (PLPs) and are advocated as practice within the English national policy agenda with its focus on personalisation. The article argues that frameworks widely used for goal setting and action planning by UK educational practitio...

  19. Infant Emotional and Cortisol Responses to Goal Blockage

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation of infant emotional responses of anger and sadness to cortisol response in 2 goal blockage situations. One goal blockage with 4-month-old infants (N = 56) involved a contingency learning procedure where infants’ learned response was no longer effective in reinstating an event. The other goal blockage with 6-month-old infants (N = 84) involved the still face procedure where infants’ reactions to their mothers’ lack of responsivity were not effective in reestabl...

  20. Modeling the Development of Goal-Specificity in Mirror Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thill, Serge; Svensson, Henrik; Ziemke, Tom

    2011-12-01

    Neurophysiological studies have shown that parietal mirror neurons encode not only actions but also the goal of these actions. Although some mirror neurons will fire whenever a certain action is perceived (goal-independently), most will only fire if the motion is perceived as part of an action with a specific goal. This result is important for the action-understanding hypothesis as it provides a potential neurological basis for such a cognitive ability. It is also relevant for the design of artificial cognitive systems, in particular robotic systems that rely on computational models of the mirror system in their interaction with other agents. Yet, to date, no computational model has explicitly addressed the mechanisms that give rise to both goal-specific and goal-independent parietal mirror neurons. In the present paper, we present a computational model based on a self-organizing map, which receives artificial inputs representing information about both the observed or executed actions and the context in which they were executed. We show that the map develops a biologically plausible organization in which goal-specific mirror neurons emerge. We further show that the fundamental cause for both the appearance and the number of goal-specific neurons can be found in geometric relationships between the different inputs to the map. The results are important to the action-understanding hypothesis as they provide a mechanism for the emergence of goal-specific parietal mirror neurons and lead to a number of predictions: (1) Learning of new goals may mostly reassign existing goal-specific neurons rather than recruit new ones; (2) input differences between executed and observed actions can explain observed corresponding differences in the number of goal-specific neurons; and (3) the percentage of goal-specific neurons may differ between motion primitives.

  1. Neurology clerkship goals and their effect on learning and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strowd, Roy E; Salas, Rachel Marie E; Cruz, Tiana E; Gamaldo, Charlene E

    2016-02-16

    To define medical student goals in the neurology clerkship and explore the association between goal setting and student performance, clerkship satisfaction, self-directed learning (SDL), and interest in neurology. A 4-year prospective study of consecutive second- to fourth-year medical students rotating through a required 4-week neurology clerkship was conducted. A goal-generating cohort (first 2 years) was enrolled to describe the breadth of student-derived goals. A goal-evaluating cohort (second 2 years) was used to evaluate the frequency of goal achievement and assess associations with performance (e.g., National Board of Medical Examiners [NBME], examination), satisfaction, and SDL behaviors (both based on 5-point Likert scale). Of 440 evaluable students, 201 were goal-generating and 239 goal-evaluating. The top 3 goals were (1) improvement in neurologic examination, (2) understanding neurologic disease, and (3) deriving a differential diagnosis. More than 90% (n = 216/239) of students reported achieving goals. Achievers reported significantly higher clerkship satisfaction (4.2 ± 0.8 vs. 2.8 ± 1.0, p neurology (71% vs. 35%, p = 0.001), and higher observed tendency toward SDL (4.5 ± 0.5 vs. 4.1 ± 0.8, p neurology clerkship. Goal achievers had better adjusted standardized test scores, higher satisfaction, and greater tendency toward SDL. This student-generated, goal-setting program may be particularly appealing to clinicians, educators, and researchers seeking resource-lean mechanisms to improve student experience and performance in the clinical clerkships. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Hippocampal place cell sequences depict future paths to remembered goals

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer, Brad E; Foster, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Effective navigation requires planning extended routes to remembered goal locations. Hippocampal place cells have been proposed to play a role in navigational planning but direct evidence has been lacking. Here, we show that prior to goal-directed navigation in an open arena, the hippocampus generates brief sequences encoding spatial trajectories strongly biased to progress from the subject’s current location to a known goal location. These sequences predict immediate future behavior, even in...

  3. An Update on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Della Anne

    2017-03-08

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals initiative, designed to meet the needs of the world's poorest, ended in 2015. The purpose of this article is to describe the progress made through the Millennium Development Goals and the additional work needed to address vulnerable populations worldwide, especially women and children. A description of the subsequent Sustainable Development Goals, enacted to address the root causes of poverty and the universal need for development for all people, is provided.

  4. Something's got to give: the effects of dual-goal difficulty, goal progress, and expectancies on resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Aaron M; Dolis, Chad M

    2009-05-01

    The current study developed and tested a model of the interplay among goal difficulty, goal progress, and expectancy over time in influencing resource allocation toward competing demands. The results provided broad support for the theoretical model. As predicted, dual-goal expectancy-the perceived likelihood of meeting both goals in competition-played a central role, moderating the relationship between relative goal progress and resource allocation. Dual-goal difficulty was also found to exert an important influence on multiple-goal self-regulation. Although it did not influence total productivity across both tasks combined, it did combine with other model components to influence the relative emphasis of one task over another. These results suggest that the cumulative demands placed by multiple difficult goals may exceed individuals' perceived capabilities and may lead to partial or total abandonment of 1 goal to ensure attainment of the other. The model helps shed light on some of the conflicting theoretical propositions and empirical results obtained in prior work. Implications for theory and research regarding multiple-goal self-regulation are discussed.

  5. Guidelines of Decommissioning Schedule Establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Yun, Taesik; Kim, Younggook; Kim, Hee-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Decommissioning has recently become an issue highlighted in Korea due to the Permanent Shutdown (PS) of Kori-1 plant. Since Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) Company decided the PS of Kori-1 instead of further continued operation, Kori-1 will be the first decommissioning plant of the commercial reactors in Korea. Korean regulatory authority demands Initial Decommissioning Plan (IDP) for all the plants in operation and under construction. In addition, decommissioning should be considered for the completion of the life cycle of NPPs. To date, Korea has no experience regarding decommissioning of the commercial reactor and a lot of uncertainties will be expected due to its site-specific factors. However, optimized decommissioning process schedule must be indispensable in the safety and economic efficiency of the project. Differed from USA, Korea has no experience and know-hows of the operation and site management for decommissioning. Hence, in Korea, establishment of decommissioning schedule has to give more weight to safety than precedent cases. More economical and rational schedule will be composed by collecting and analyzing the experience data and site-specific data and information as the decommissioning progresses. In a long-range outlook, KHNP having capability of NPP decommissioning will try to decommissioning business in Korea and foreign countries.

  6. Institute for Rock Magnetism established

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subir K.

    There is a new focal point for cooperative research in advanced rock magnetism. The University of Minnesota in Minneapolis has established an Institute for Rock Magnetism (IRM) that will provide free access to modern equipment and encourage visiting fellows to focus on important topics in rock magnetism and related interdisciplinary research. Funding for the first three years has been secured from the National Science Foundation, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and the University of Minnesota.In the fall of 1986, the Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (GP) section of the AGU held a workshop at Asilomar, Calif., to pinpoint important and emerging research areas in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, and the means by which to achieve them. In a report of this workshop published by the AGU in September 1987, two urgent needs were set forth. The first was for interdisciplinary research involving rock magnetism, and mineralogy, petrology, sedimentology, and the like. The second need was to ease the access of rock magnetists and paleomagnetists around the country to the latest equipment in modern magnetics technology, such as magneto-optics or electronoptics. Three years after the publication of the report, we announced the opening of these facilities at the GP section of the AGU Fall 1990 Meeting. A classified advertisement inviting applications for visiting fellowships was published in the January 22, 1991, issue of Eos.

  7. Goal Programming for Investment Portfolio and Its Apllication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To solve the problem of investment portfolio with single goal of maximal NPV,10-1 programming model was proposed and proved effective;and to solve that concerning more elements of a project such as risk level and social benefit,a goal programming model is then introduced.The latter is a linear programming model adopting slack variable called deviation variable to turn inequation constraint into equation constraint,introducing a priority factor to denote different improtance of the goals.A case study has demonstrated that this goal programming model can give different results according to different priorty requirement of each objective.

  8. Onboard Run-Time Goal Selection for Autonomous Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; McLaren, David

    2010-01-01

    We describe an efficient, online goal selection algorithm for use onboard spacecraft and its use for selecting goals at runtime. Our focus is on the re-planning that must be performed in a timely manner on the embedded system where computational resources are limited. In particular, our algorithm generates near optimal solutions to problems with fully specified goal requests that oversubscribe available resources but have no temporal flexibility. By using a fast, incremental algorithm, goal selection can be postponed in a "just-in-time" fashion allowing requests to be changed or added at the last minute. This enables shorter response cycles and greater autonomy for the system under control.

  9. Goal Selection for Embedded Systems with Oversubscribed Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; McLaren, David

    2010-01-01

    We describe an efficient, online goal selection algorithm and its use for selecting goals at runtime. Our focus is on the re-planning that must be performed in a timely manner on the embedded system where computational resources are limited. In particular, our algorithm generates near optimal solutions to problems with fully specified goal requests that oversubscribe available resources but have no temporal flexibility. By using a fast, incremental algorithm, goal selection can be postponed in a "just-in-time" fashion allowing requests to be changed or added at the last minute. This enables shorter response cycles and greater autonomy for the system under control.

  10. Threat and defense as goal regulation: from implicit goal conflict to anxious uncertainty, reactive approach motivation, and ideological extremism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kyle; McGregor, Ian; Prentice, Mike

    2011-12-01

    Four studies investigated a goal regulation view of anxious uncertainty threat (Gray & McNaughton, 2000) and ideological defense. Participants (N = 444) were randomly assigned to have achievement or relationship goals implicitly primed. The implicit goal primes were followed by randomly assigned achievement or relationship threats that have reliably caused generalized, reactive approach motivation and ideological defense in past research. The threats caused anxious uncertainty (Study 1), reactive approach motivation (Studies 2 and 3), and reactive ideological conviction (Study 4) only when threat-relevant goals had first been primed, but not when threat-irrelevant goals had first been primed. Reactive ideological conviction (Study 4) was eliminated if participants were given an opportunity to attribute their anxiety to a mundane source. Results support a goal regulation view of anxious uncertainty, threat, and defense with potential for integrating theories of defensive compensation.

  11. Looking back to move forward: Nostalgia as a psychological resource for promoting relationship goals and overcoming relationship challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyta, Andrew A; Routledge, Clay; Juhl, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has shown that nostalgia is a highly social emotion that provides a sense of social connectedness. In the present research, we tested a social motivational function of nostalgia. Specifically, across 7 studies we found converging evidence that nostalgia mobilizes social goals. In Study 1, nostalgia increased the importance people assigned to relationship goals and how optimistic they felt about achieving these goals. In Study 2, nostalgia increased intentions to pursue goals of connecting with friends. In Study 3, experimentally induced pessimism about achieving relationship goals instigated nostalgia. In Study 4, we found evidence that it is the interpersonal nature of nostalgia that is associated with striving to connect with others. Specifically, nostalgia about aspects of the past that were high in sociality was associated with intentions to interact with others, whereas nostalgia for aspects of the past that were low in sociality was not. In Study 5, nostalgic reflection increased friendship-approach goal striving relative to reflecting on ordinary social memories, but did not increase friendship-avoidant goal striving. Finally, in Studies 6 and 7, we found evidence that social-efficacy mediated the effect of nostalgia on striving to connect with others and striving to overcome interpersonal challenges. Together, these findings establish nostalgia as catalyst for social goal pursuit and growth.

  12. Which Factors Are Associated with Monitoring Goal Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Betty P. I.; Webb, Thomas L.; Benn, Yael; Stride, Chris B.

    2017-01-01

    Three studies examined how people assess their progress on personal goals (e.g., whether they compare their progress to the past and/or to a desired target state), along with factors that might influence the nature of progress monitoring (e.g., whether the goal involves attaining a positive outcome or avoiding a negative outcome). Study 1 involved semi-structured interviews with 40 participants, in which we examined how participants monitored their progress and whether this was related to: (a) their level of self-efficacy, (b) whether the goal was prevention focused, and (c) whether goal progress was represented in quantifiable terms. Studies 2 (N = 492) and 3 (N = 481) were conducted online and additionally examined whether how participants monitored their progress differed as a function of the domain of the goal (i.e., whether it was related to physical development/health, finances, work/study, or social relationships). The findings suggest that participants: (i) were less likely to monitor their progress toward goals that were related to avoiding negative outcomes, (ii) were less likely to monitor their progress toward goals related to finances, work, or study with reference to the past, than progress toward other goals (e.g., those relating to physical development and health), (iii) found it easier to monitor their progress toward goals that they felt confident of attaining, but harder to monitor their progress toward goals related to work or study. Finally, the more participants thought about their goal in quantifiable terms, the more likely they were to monitor their progress, and the easier they found monitoring their progress to be. Taken together, these studies begin to describe the nature of progress monitoring and the factors that influence this important self-regulatory process.

  13. Determining the Importance of Self-Evaluation on the Goal-Performance Effect in Goal Setting: Primary Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Bruce; McNally, Jeffrey J.; Taggar, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Although goal-setting theory is among the most studied theories in organizational behavior and work motivation, the underlying motivations that drive the goal-performance effect have received less attention. The authors examined the role of self-evaluation in generating the goal-performance effect via blind testing in a laboratory experiment, in which participants (N = 405) performed an idea generation task under conditions eliminating the potential for external-evaluation. Designed to replic...

  14. Goals and everyday problem solving: examining the link between age-related goals and problem-solving strategy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2008-07-01

    Qualitative interviews on family and financial problems from 332 adolescents, young, middle-aged, and older adults, demonstrated that developmentally relevant goals predicted problem-solving strategy use over and above problem domain. Four focal goals concerned autonomy, generativity, maintaining good relationships with others, and changing another person. We examined both self- and other-focused problem-solving strategies. Autonomy goals were associated with self-focused instrumental problem solving and generative goals were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in family and financial problems. Goals of changing another person were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in the family domain only. The match between goals and strategies, an indicator of problem-solving adaptiveness, showed that young individuals displayed the greatest match between autonomy goals and self-focused problem solving, whereas older adults showed a greater match between generative goals and other-focused problem solving. Findings speak to the importance of considering goals in investigations of age-related differences in everyday problem solving.

  15. Simple Pleasures, Small Annoyances, and Goal Progress in Daily Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.L. Mead (Nicole); V.M. Patrick (Vanessa); M.P. Gunadi (Manissa); W. Hofmann (Wilhelm)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDespite the explosion of research on goal pursuit, relatively little is known about the shaping of goal progress by the simple experiences that characterize everyday life. Two literatures furnish competing predictions about the relationship between pleasant daily experiences (simple plea

  16. Transformational and transactional leadership and followers' achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamstra, M.R.W.; van Yperen, N.W.; Wisse, B.; Sassenberg, K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Achievement goals, or the standards of competence employees pursue in their work, have far-reaching consequences for employee and organizational functioning. In the current research, we investigated whether employees’ achievement goals can be predicted from their supervisor’s leadership

  17. Transformational and Transactional Leadership and Followers’ Achievement Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamstra, Melvyn R.W.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Wisse, Barbara; Sassenberg, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Achievement goals, or the standards of competence employees pursue in their work, have far-reaching consequences for employee and organizational functioning. In the current research, we investigated whether employees’ achievement goals can be predicted from their supervisor’s leadership

  18. The Role of Goal Orientation in Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeest, David; Brown, Kenneth G.

    2011-01-01

    Goal-orientation theory and research offer a lens to better understand the mechanisms of experiential learning in developmental assignments for managers. This study presents a research model that depicts how goal orientations influence the development of leadership skills from experience. The model indicates how individual and situational…

  19. Irrigation Alternatives to Meet Army Net Zero Water Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Up to 100 Rain Barrel Catchment Up to...US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG® Irrigation Alternatives to Meet Army Net Zero Water Goals Richard J. Scholze Dick L. Gebhart H...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Irrigation Alternatives to Meet Army Net Zero Water Goals 5a. CONTRACT

  20. Goal Orientation in Teams: The Role of Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Nederveen Pieterse (Anne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOrganizations make increasingly use of teams as their basic structure, making it more and more important to determine what enables optimal team functioning. Over the past decades, the goals people focus on in achievement settings (i.e. goal orientation) is shown to be highly important fo