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Sample records for delinquent behavior problems

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral Training of Problem-Solving and Impulse-Control with Delinquent Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hains, Anthony A.; Hains, Ann Higgins

    1988-01-01

    Examined cognitive-behavioral training procedures designed to enhance social problem-solving and impulse-control skills of delinquent adolescents. Explored multiple baseline design across subjects and tasks and an alternating-treatments design. Presented two different forms of hypothetical social problems to subjects (N=5). Results indicated…

  2. Co-Occurrence of Delinquency and Other Problem Behaviors. Youth Development Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Thornberry, Terence P.; Cothern, Lynn

    This bulletin presents findings from the Program of Research on Causes and Correlates of Delinquency. The co-occurrence or overlap of serious delinquency with drug use, problems in school, and mental health are discussed using data from the first 3 years of the program. Youth who are seriously delinquent often experience difficulties in other…

  3. [Lunar phases as triggers for delinquent behavior?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    For many centuries, mankind has been concerned about the potential impact that the moon may have on human behavior, especially delinquency. The author presents a case report, in which the delinquency of the offender seems to show a certain synchronisation with the lunar phases. Finally, the issue is discussed on the basis of today's scientific literature on this topic.

  4. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  5. A Cohort-Sequential Multivariate Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Normative CBCL Aggressive and Delinquent Problem Behavior: Associations with Harsh Discipline and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzie, P.; Onghena, P.; Hellinckx, W.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the normative developmental trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in young children. Cohort-sequential univariate latent growth modeling (LGM) analyses were employed to conceptualize and analyze intraindividual changes in children's aggressive and delinquent behavior and interindividual differences…

  6. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  7. Rule-violating behavior of delinquent and non-delinquent youth in games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serok, S; Blum, A

    1982-01-01

    Viewing delinquency as rule-violating behavior resulting from a failure in the socialization process, it was assumed that delinquents and non-delinquents would demonstrate differences in the frequency of rule-violating behavior, and in reactions to rule-violating behavior in games. Fifty delinquent and fifty non-delinquent members of ten, ongoing neighborhood peer groups were rated by group workers in relation to their rule-violating behavior in group activities and games as it occurred in the natural group setting. It was found that there were no differences between the two groups on the boys' willingness to participate in games, their conformity to peer expectations, and their choice of competitive games. Delinquents were found to violate rules more often, to react more aggressively to rule violations of others, and to deny more often, their responsibility for rule violations. Implications as to the importance of games in socialization and their potential use in treatment are discussed.

  8. Problem Gambling Among Ontario Students: Associations with Substance Abuse, Mental Health Problems, Suicide Attempts, and Delinquent Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven; Turner, Nigel E; Ballon, Bruce; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Murray, Robert; Adlaf, Edward M; Ilie, Gabriela; den Dunnen, Wendy; Mann, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes gambling problems among Ontario students in 2009 and examines the relationship between gambling problems and substance use problems, mental health problem indicators, and delinquent behaviors. Data were derived from the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12. Gambling problems were measured as 2 or more of 6 indicators of problem gambling. In total 2.8% of the students surveyed endorsed two or more of the problem gambling items. The odds of problem gamblers reporting mental distress was 4.2 times higher than the rest of the sample and the odds of problem gamblers reporting a suicide attempt were 17.8 times greater than the rest of the sample. In addition compared to the rest of the students, delinquent behaviors were also more common among problem gamblers, including theft (OR = 14.5), selling marijuana (OR = 19.6), gang fights (OR = 11.3) and carrying a handgun (OR = 11.2). In a multivariate analysis, substance-use problems, mental health problems, and the participation in a variety of delinquent behaviors remained significantly associated with youth problem gambling behavior. Students who report problem gambling behaviors show increased substance abuse, mental health, and delinquency/criminal problems that are similar to those seen among adult problem gamblers. The association between these problems suggests that these problems could be addressed in a unified manner.

  9. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  10. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  11. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  12. Associations between Discussions of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Internationally Adoptive Families and Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adopted Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kayla N; Lee, Richard M; Rueter, Martha A; Kim, Oh Myo

    2015-04-01

    Internationally adopted adolescents may have more delinquent behavior than non-adopted adolescents. One explanation is these adolescents experience discrimination and loss of culture, and adoptive parents are not adequately addressing these experiences. However, studies have not examined the effects of family discussions of racial and ethnic differences within adoptive families on adopted adolescents' delinquent behavior. To test this relationship, this study utilized data from 111 U.S. internationally adoptive families with 185 South Korean adopted adolescents (55% female, M age = 17.75). During an observational assessment, families discussed the importance of their racial and ethnic differences, and adolescents completed a delinquent behavior questionnaire. Analysis of covariance showed differences in adolescent delinquent behavior across three ways adoptive families discussed racial and ethnic differences; adolescents whose families acknowledged differences had the fewest mean delinquent behaviors. There were no significant differences in delinquent behavior between adolescents whose families acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. However, adopted adolescents whose families held discrepant views of differences had significantly more problem behavior than adolescents whose families either acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. Clinicians, adoption professionals, and other parenting specialists should focus on building cohesive family identities about racial and ethnic differences, as discrepant views of differences are associated with the most adoptee delinquent behavior.

  13. Early Language Impairment and Young Adult Delinquent and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlie, E.B.; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Escobar, Michael; Young, Arlene; Atkinson, Leslie; Johnson, Carla; Wilson, Beth; Douglas, Lori

    2004-01-01

    Clinic and forensic studies have reported high rates of language impairments in conduct- disordered and incarcerated youth. In community samples followed to early adolescence, speech and language impairments have been linked to attention deficits and internalizing problems, rather than conduct problems, delinquency, or aggression. This study…

  14. Problem Solving Appraisal of Delinquent Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ruperto M.; And Others

    The study investigated the following: (1) the relationship of problem solving appraisal to narcissistic vulnerability, locus of control, and depression; (2) the differences in problem solving appraisal, locus of control, and depression in first-time and repeat offenders; and (3) the prediction of problem solving appraisal by narcissistic…

  15. Maltreated Female Delinquents Speak about Their Communication Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Dixie; Scheffler, Marilyn; Drake, Brian; Hilgert, Koree; Creswell, John W.; Hansen, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Qualitative methodology was used to explore how incarcerated adolescent female delinquents (N=20) described their communication behaviors in multiple contexts. Four themes emerged: (1) participant communication, (2) feelings and emotions, (3) trust, and (4) maltreatment. Implications suggest that speech-language pathologists and educators need to…

  16. Changes in Conventional Attitudes and Delinquent Behavior in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott; Huizinga, David

    1994-01-01

    Data from the National Youth Study of 1976 are analyzed to explore the relations between conventional beliefs and attitudes and delinquent behavior. Using a stage-state analysis in addition to structural-equation models reveals aspects of the relation that are not apparent from structural equations alone. (SLD)

  17. Autistic symptoms in childhood arrestees : longitudinal association with delinquent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, Charlotte A. M. L.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van Domburgh, Lieke; de Bildt, Annelies; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To compare childhood arrestees with matched comparison groups on levels of autistic symptoms and to assess the unique predictive value of autistic symptoms for future delinquent behavior in childhood arrestees. Methods: Childhood first-time arrestees (n = 308, baseline age 10.7 +/- 1.5 y

  18. Autistic Symptoms in Childhood Arrestees: Longitudinal Association with Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geluk, Charlotte A. M. L.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van Domburgh, Lieke; de Bildt, Annelies; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To compare childhood arrestees with matched comparison groups on levels of autistic symptoms and to assess the unique predictive value of autistic symptoms for future delinquent behavior in childhood arrestees. Methods: Childhood first-time arrestees (n = 308, baseline age 10.7 plus or minus 1.5 years) were followed up for 2 years.…

  19. Sports Participation and Juvenile Delinquency: The Role of the Peer Context among Adolescent Boys and Girls with Varied Histories of Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Roth, Jodie; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    In a study of 1,344 urban adolescents, the authors examined the relation between participation in organized sports and juvenile delinquency. They compared youth who participated in sports to those who only participated in nonathletic activities and to those who did not participate in any organized activities. They also examined the indirect…

  20. Parenting factors, social skills, and value commitments as precursors to school failure, involvement with deviant peers, and delinquent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, R L; Whitbeck, L B; Conger, R D; Conger, K J

    1991-12-01

    Elements of social control theory were combined with social learning theory to construct a model of delinquency which specifies the manner in which parenting factors, social skills, value commitments, and problems in school contribute to association with deviant peers and involvement in delinquent behavior. The model was tested using a sample of 61 families, each of which included a seventh grader. Questionnaire responses and coded videotaped family interaction were employed as measures of study constructs. The results largely supported the proposed model.

  1. Is Neighborhood Context Differently Related to Externalizing Problems and Delinquency for Girls Compared with Boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroneman, Leoniek; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison E.

    2004-01-01

    Although a number of reviews of gender differences in conduct problems and delinquency exist, this paper fills a gap in reviewing neighborhood influences on gender differences in conduct problems and delinquency. These influences are known to be important for boys in childhood and adolescence, but cannot be assumed to be influential in the same…

  2. Pals, problems, and personality: the moderating role of personality in the longitudinal association between adolescents' and best friends' delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim

    2013-10-01

    We examined the potential moderating role of Block's personality types (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, and resilients) on the longitudinal associations between adolescents' and their best friends' delinquency. Across three annual waves, 497 Dutch adolescents (283 boys, M(Age) = 13 years at Wave 1) and their best friends reported on their delinquent behaviors. Adolescents' three personality types were obtained by latent class growth analysis on their annual reports on Big Five personality. A three-group cross-lagged panel analysis was performed on three waves of data. Delinquency of overcontrollers was predicted by their best friends' delinquency, whereas delinquency of undercontrollers and resilients was not. Delinquency of undercontrollers and resilients predicted their best friends' delinquency, but overcontrollers' delinquency did not. These findings suggest that personality may play an important role in adolescents' susceptibility to the influence of friends' delinquency, as well as in youths' ability to influence friends through their own delinquency.

  3. Self-report study of impulsive and delinquent behavior in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, B; Wood, P B

    1994-06-01

    This self-report study of college students sought to examine the relationship between risk-taking and delinquent behavior, to develop reliable measures of impulsiveness and attraction to thrill-seeking and risk-taking, and to measure the relationships among conventional correlates of delinquent behavior, personality factors, and delinquent behavior itself. A sample of 296 undergraduate college students completed questionnaires pertaining to delinquent behavior and other activities, identification with educational goals and behavior, and attraction to thrill-seeking and risk-taking behavior, as well as items from the Self-Control and Socialization scales of the California Personality Inventory. Males who measured high in thrill-seeking behavior and low in self-control reported significantly more property delinquency. Interpersonal delinquency was most influenced by a lack of self-control. There was a negative correlation between substance abuse and socialization. The reasons most often given for property and substance delinquency were "fun/thrills" while those most often given for interpersonal delinquency involved "anger/revenge." Variables representing conventional sociological theories have often been treated as the immediate causal factors in juvenile delinquency, but their impact may be mediated through factors such as impulsiveness and an attraction to thrill-seeking and risk-taking.

  4. The Relationship between Adolescent Alcohol Use and Delinquent and Violent Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A.; Williams, Carolyn L.; Forster, Jean L.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Stigler, Melissa H.

    1999-01-01

    Study analyzed the relationship between alcohol use, psychological risk, and delinquent and violent behaviors using self-reported data from eighth and ninth grade students from a small, rural town population. Results suggest that alcohol use is an independent risk factor for delinquent and violent behaviors among young people (Author/JDM)

  5. PARENTAL ACCEPTANCE / REJECTION AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG ADOLESCENTS WITH AND WITHOUT DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhideja ŠURBANOVSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This paper analyzes the parental acceptance or rejection and the emotional intelligence among adolescents with and without delinquent behavior. Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to explore the differences between parents’ acceptance/rejection (by mother and father, respectively and the emotional intelligence among adolescentswith and without delinquent behavior, as well as the correlation between parents’ acceptance/rejection (by mother and father, respectively and the emotional intelligence among minors with delinquent behavior. Methods: The survey was conducted on two groups of adolescents, that is, 30 respondents serving a prison sentence for minors and/or have been imposed an educational measure of referral to an Educational and Correctional Facility aged 14 to 18, and 40 respondents that are secondary school students at the same age. In this research, the terms minors and adolescents both refer to persons aged 14-18 years. All respondents were males. The following measuring instruments were used: Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire and a Questionnaire for Measuring Emotional Intelligence – 45. Results: Minors with and without delinquent behavior differ considerably in terms of perceiving parental acceptance (by the mother and by the father, aggressiveness, neglect and undifferentiated rejection. The feeling of being rejected by the parents is more common among minors with delinquent behavior than in those without such behavior. Furthermore, minors with delinquent behavior have lower emotional intelligence compared with their peers without delinquent behavior. Positive associations were found between parental acceptance and emotional intelligence. Conclusion: Minors with delinquent behavior have experienced lower acceptance and higher rejection from the parents and have lower emotional intelligence than their peers without delinquent behavior. In general, parental acceptance is associated with

  6. Effects of self-concept and perceived disapproval of delinquent behavior in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K; Lau, S

    1988-08-01

    It is argued that a multidimensional approach to self-concept may reveal intricate relations between self-concept and delinquent behavior, and that perceived approval of delinquent behaviors from referent groups may be related to the frequency of their occurrence. To evaluate these hypotheses, 1668 students from Grade 7 to Grade 9 responded to a questionnaire that measured their general self-esteem; their self-concept with regard to physical ability, social ability, physical appearance, and academic ability; the frequency they committed 15 delinquent acts; and the perceived approval of committing these acts from their parents, teachers, and friends. Regression analyses indicated that poor academic self-concept and poor relationship with school and parents were related to a higher frequency of delinquent behavior. However, a higher frequency of delinquent behavior was related to a more positive selfconcept with regard to social ability and physical ability. Finally, higher perceived approval from parents and peers was related to more delinquent behavior. Implications of these findings for identifying the antecedents and consequences of delinquent behavior were discussed.

  7. Delinquent behaviors among students exposed to family violence in Quebec schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cénat, Jude Mary; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    Objective Juvenile delinquency is one of the major public concerns in many countries. This study aims to document the association between exposure to interparental violence and delinquent behaviors among high school students in Quebec (Canada). Methods A representative sample of 8194 students aged 14–20 years was recruited in Quebec (Canada) high schools. Participants completed a questionnaire describing delinquent behaviors as well as exposure to interparental psychological and physical violence. Findings Overall, one out of two participants has experienced delinquent behaviors and 61.8% of them have reported having been exposed to at least one of the two forms of family violence. Overall, youth exposed to interparental violence are more likely to experience delinquent behaviors. Both psychological and physical interparental violence were significantly and independently associated with delinquent behaviors. Conclusion The findings of this study point out the vulnerability of youth exposed to interparental violence. They also highlight the need in the prevention of juvenile delinquency to focus not only on youth but also on both parents that may have been involved in family violence. PMID:28111591

  8. Problem Behavior and Heart Rate Reactivity in Adopted Adolescents: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimmel, Nicole; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; De Geus, Eco J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset delinquent adolescents showed heart rate…

  9. Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, M Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Robins, Richard W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom

    2005-04-01

    The present research explored the controversial link between global self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. In three studies, we found a robust relation between low self-esteem and externalizing problems. This relation held for measures of self-esteem and externalizing problems based on self-report, teachers' ratings, and parents' ratings, and for participants from different nationalities (United States and New Zealand) and age groups (adolescents and college students). Moreover, this relation held both cross-sectionally and longitudinally and after controlling for potential confounding variables such as supportive parenting, parent-child and peer relationships, achievement-test scores, socioeconomic status, and IQ. In addition, the effect of self-esteem on aggression was independent of narcissism, an important finding given recent claims that individuals who are narcissistic, not low in self-esteem, are aggressive. Discussion focuses on clarifying the relations among self-esteem, narcissism, and externalizing problems.

  10. Adolescent alcohol use in Spain: Connections with friends, school, and other delinquent behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Diane Goldberg-Looney

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the connections between adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and variables reflecting academic problems, potentially delinquent behaviors, friends’ alcohol consumption, and friendship quality. Information about alcohol use and a number of school and social variables was collected from adolescent students (N = 640 who completed the National Students School-Based Drug Survey in a classroom setting. Results suggested that gender was not significantly associated with alcohol use. Alcohol use increased with age and was more likely for adolescents enrolled in public schools in comparison to private. Academic problems explained 5.1% of the variance in adolescents’ alcohol use, potentially delinquent behaviors explained 29.0%, friends’ alcohol use 16.8%, and friendship quality 1.6%. When all unique predictors from these four models were included in a comprehensive model, they explained 32.3% of the variance in adolescents’ alcohol use. In this final model, getting expelled, participating in a fight, going out at night, the hour at which one returns, and the number of friends who have consumed alcohol were uniquely and positively associated with adolescents’ alcohol use. These results provide important information about multi-system influences on adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and suggest potential areas of focus for intervention research.

  11. Violent video games and delinquent behavior in adolescents: A risk factor perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exelmans, Liese; Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Over the years, criminological research has identified a number of risk factors that contribute to the development of aggressive and delinquent behavior. Although studies have identified media violence in general and violent video gaming in particular as significant predictors of aggressive behavior, exposure to violent video games has been largely omitted from the risk factor literature on delinquent behavior. This cross-sectional study therefore investigates the relationship between violent video game play and adolescents' delinquent behavior using a risk factor approach. An online survey was completed by 3,372 Flemish adolescents, aged 12-18 years old. Data were analyzed by means of negative binomial regression modelling. Results indicated a significant contribution of violent video games in delinquent behavior over and beyond multiple known risk variables (peer delinquency, sensation seeking, prior victimization, and alienation). Moreover, the final model that incorporated the gaming genres proved to be significantly better than the model without the gaming genres. Results provided support for a cumulative and multiplicative risk model for delinquent behavior. Aggr. Behav. 41:267-279, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Delinquent behavior, poor relationship quality with parents, and involvement with deviant peers in delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents: different processes, informant bias, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asscher, Jessica J; Wissink, Inge B; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether two risk factors that are frequently selected as targets for prevention and intervention purposes-involvement with deviant peers and parent-adolescent relationship quality-are associated with delinquent behavior in the same way in a juvenile general population sample (n = 88) as in a juvenile offender sample (n = 85). Information on delinquency and the quality of parent-adolescent relationship was obtained from adolescents and parents. The results of path analyses showed that relations between poor parent-adolescent relationship quality, involvement with deviant peers, and delinquency depended on whose point of view is used (adolescent or parent) and which sample is used (general population or delinquent sample). These findings indicate that caution is warranted when theories based on research with community samples are used for development of intervention programs for juvenile delinquents. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Delinquency and association with behavioral disorders and substance abuse

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    Gustavo Manoel Schier Dória

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, conduct disorder (CD, and substance abuse disorder (SAD in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (range, 12-16.9 years and most adolescents originated from disadvantaged social classes (87%. They resided in neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city or towns in the greater metropolitan area. Truancy and low educational achievement were common, with 73.9% not currently attending school and 43.4% not having finished the 5th grade. The great majority lived in single-parent families and many had relatives who themselves had problems with the law. Psychiatric disorders were apparent in 81.1% of the subjects, with the most common disorders being CD (59.4%, SAD (53.6%, and ADHD (43.5%. Both ADHD (p <0.001 and CD (p <0.01 had significant associations with substance abuse. Conclusion: in male adolescents in conflict with the law, ADHD, CD, and SAD were all found to be associated with delinquency.

  14. The moderating effects of religiosity on the relationship between stressful life events and delinquent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew C; Morris, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that many forms of strain are positively related to delinquency. Evidence also suggests that religiosity buffers the effects of strain on offending, but this issue requires further research. Using data from a national sample of adolescents, this study examined whether or not religiosity conditioned the relationship between strain and delinquency. This study also looked at the ability of social support, self-esteem, and depression to moderate the influence of strain on delinquent behavior. The findings here lend support to general strain theory in that strain had a direct positive effect on delinquency, yet there was little evidence that the relationship was moderated by religiosity or other conditioning variables. The roles of moderating variables on strain across genders were also considered.

  15. Clustering of health-compromising behavior and delinquency in adolescents and adults in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijzen, M. van; Junger, M.; Velderman, M.K.; Wiefferink, K.H.; Paulussen, T.W.G.M.; Hox, J.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the clustering of a broad range of health-compromising and delinquent behaviors. We examine whether these behaviors belong to a single but broad cluster, 'risk-taking behavior', and whether the nature and degree of clustering in adolescents differs from that in adu

  16. Clustering of health-compromising behavior and delinquency in adolescents and adults in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Junger, Marianne; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Wiefferink, Karin H.; Paulussen, Theo W. G. M.; Hox, Joop; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. This study investigates the clustering of a broad range of health-compromising and delinquent behaviors. We examine whether these behaviors belong to a single but broad cluster. 'risk-taking behavior', and whether the nature and degree of clustering in adolescents differs from that in adu

  17. The effect of negative experiences on delinquent behavior of youth in a social withdrawal situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gloria Hongyee; Lo, T Wing

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between negative experiences, negative emotions, and delinquent behavior among young people in a social withdrawal situation. There were 533 participants in this study and various quantitative analyses were utilized. Results showed that participants with a longer period of social withdrawal were generally less affected by negative experiences, while those with a higher level of social withdrawal were more affected by negative experiences, particularly negative relationships with other people. Also, both negative emotions and higher level of social withdrawal mediated the relationship between negative experiences and involvement in delinquent behavior, with negative emotions displaying a higher mediating effect. This reflects that the root of delinquent behavior is the negative experiences which arouse negative emotions, rather than the social withdrawal behavior itself. Results imply that practitioners should first explore the negative experiences suffered by these young people, so as to provide them the most appropriate support.

  18. FORMATION OF THE THEORETICAL MODEL OF FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL READINESS OF THE FUTURE SOCIAL TEACHERS FOR PREVENTION OF DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR OF MINORS

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    Mikhail Chunosov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of training future social teachers for prevention of delinquent behavior. In article was analyzed theoretical approaches to defining the category of «concept of the educational system». The conceptual provisions of pedagogical system of formation of professional readiness of social teachers.

  19. Violent, Delinquent, and Aggressive Behaviors of Rural High School Athletes and Non-Athletes

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    Rhea, Deborah J.; Lantz, Christopher D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sports participation and self-reported violent, delinquent, and aggressive behaviors in rural high school populations. Three-hundred and thirty-eight athletes and non-athletes from four rural high schools completed the YRBSS and the Conflict Behavior Scale (CBS). The results…

  20. Clustering of health-compromising behavior and delinquency in adolescents and adults in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijzen, van Maroesjka; Junger, Marianne; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Wiefferink, Karin H.; Paulussen, Theo W.G.M.; Hox, Joop; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the clustering of a broad range of health-compromising and delinquent behaviors. We examine whether these behaviors belong to a single but broad cluster, ‘risk-taking behavior’, and whether the nature and degree of clustering in adolescents differs from that in adu

  1. Developmental associations between externalizing behaviors, peer delinquency, drug use, perceived neighborhood crime, and violent behavior in urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, David W; Brook, Judith S; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Saar, Naomi S

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the precursors of violent behavior among urban, racial/ethnic minority adults. Data are from an on-going study of male and female African Americans and Puerto Ricans, interviewed at four time waves, Time 1-Time 4 (T1-T4), from adolescence to adulthood. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze the developmental pathways, beginning in mid-adolescence (T1; age = 14.0 years), to violent behavior in adulthood (T4; age = 29.2 years). The variables assessed were: components of externalizing behaviors (i.e., rebelliousness, delinquency; T1, T3); illicit drug use (T2); peer delinquency (T2); perceived neighborhood crime (T4); and violent behavior (T3, T4). Results showed that the participants' externalizing behaviors (rebelliousness and delinquency) were relatively stable from mid-adolescence (T1; age = 14.0 years) to early adulthood (T3; age = 24.4 years). The participants' externalizing behaviors in mid-adolescence also had a direct pathway to peer delinquency in late adolescence (T2; age = 19.1 years). Peer delinquency, in turn, had a direct pathway to the participants' illicit drug use in late adolescence (T2), and to externalizing behaviors in early adulthood (T3). The participants' illicit drug use (T2; age = 19.1 years) had both direct and indirect paths to violent behavior in adulthood (T4). The participants' externalizing behaviors in early adulthood (T3) were linked with violent behavior at T3, and perceived neighborhood crime (T4), both of which had direct pathways to violent behavior in adulthood (T4). The findings suggest developmental periods during which externalizing behaviors, exposure to delinquent peers, illegal drug use, and neighborhood crime could be targeted by prevention and intervention programs in order to reduce violent behavior.

  2. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J

    2013-02-01

    To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents' preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). The results showed that early fans of different types of rock (eg, rock, heavy metal, gothic, punk), African American music (rhythm and blues, hip-hop), and electronic dance music (trance, techno/hardhouse) showed elevated minor delinquency concurrently and longitudinally. Preferring conventional pop (chart pop) or highbrow music (classic music, jazz), in contrast, was not related to or was negatively related to minor delinquency. Early music preferences emerged as more powerful indicators of later delinquency rather than early delinquency, indicating that music choice is a strong marker of later problem behavior. The mechanisms through which music preferences are linked to minor delinquency are discussed within the framework of MMT.

  3. Longitudinal associations between delinquent behavior of friends and delinquent behavior of adolescents: Moderation by adolescent personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, Meike; Dubas, Judith; Dekovic, Maja; Haselager, G.J.T.; van Aken, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined whether personality tra its (parent-rated Big Five personality traits) re nder some adolescents more su sceptib le than others to delin quent behaviour of friends, predicting rank-orde r changes in adolescents’ self-reported delinquent behaviour. We examine su

  4. Travel beyond the home neighborhood for delinquent behaviors: moderation of home neighborhood influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Carolyn J; Amrhein, Kelly E; Hassan, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    Neighborhood research indicates that adolescents are at higher risk for delinquency when they reside in neighborhoods low in collective efficacy, low in perceived prosocial norms and values, and high in availability of substances and firearms. However, as adolescents develop, they are more likely to independently travel during their day-to-day activities, and the effects of their home neighborhood may be weakened as they spend time in other communities. The current study surveyed 179 adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system in a small Midwestern city on their perceptions of their home neighborhood and self-reported delinquency. While perceptions of several home neighborhood characteristics significantly predicted severity of delinquency for all respondents, neighborhood effects were significantly weaker for those adolescents who tended to engage in illegal behaviors outside their home neighborhood. These findings suggest that future research and prevention efforts should include more attention to how adolescents may be influenced by multiple neighborhoods.

  5. Posttrauma Numbing of Fear, Detachment, and Arousal Predict Delinquent Behaviors in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Maureen A.; Bell, Debora J.; Horan, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This study elaborated on associations between youth's trauma-related emotional numbing across multiple affective domains (e.g., fear, sadness, happiness, anger) and delinquent behaviors. The study also examined whether the effects of posttrauma emotional numbing varied by the occurrence of posttrauma arousal symptoms. Participants were 123 middle…

  6. Community and School Practices to Reduce Delinquent Behavior: Intervening on the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippen, Margaret E.; Patterson, DaShaunda; Green, Kemeche L.; Smitherman, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Youth at risk for school failure need community and school supports to reduce the likelihood of developing delinquent behavior. This article provides an overview of community and school approaches aimed at intervening on the school-to-prison pipeline. Community and school efforts are emerging that take into account empirical evidence demonstrating…

  7. The Role of Life Satisfaction and Parenting Styles in Predicting Delinquent Behaviors among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Fulya Cenkseven; Yilmaz, Yasin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the parenting styles and life satisfaction predict delinquent behaviors frequently or not. Firstly the data were collected from 471 girls and 410 boys, a total of 881 high school students. Then the research was carried out with 502 students showing low (n = 262, 52.2%) and high level of delinquent…

  8. Adolescent Violence, Social Control, and the Subculture of Delinquency: Factors Related to Violent Behavior and Nonviolent Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Thorlindsson, Thorolfur

    1999-01-01

    Examines whether violence, rather than being an isolated subculture in itself, is part of a general subculture of delinquency. Data from 3,819 Icelandic high school students support the notion that violence is part of a general subculture of delinquency. (SLD)

  9. The moderating role of empathy in the association between parental support and adolescent aggressive and delinquent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Graaff, Jolien; Branje, Susan; De Wied, Minet; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The present two-wave longitudinal study addressed the role of affective empathy and parental support in aggressive and delinquent behavior in a sample of 323 adolescents (158 boys, 165 girls). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess affective empathy, perceived support from parents, delinquency, and aggression. Guided by theories on children's differential susceptibility to socialization, we expected adolescents with different levels of empathy to vary in their responsiveness to parental support. In agreement with our hypothesis, empathy moderated the relation of perceived parental support with aggressive and delinquent behavior. Controlling for the effect of gender and for the stability of aggression and delinquency, higher perceived parental support was predictive of lower levels of aggression at age 15, but only for adolescents high in empathy. Remarkably, adolescents low in empathy not only appeared to benefit less from parental support, but even showed more aggression and delinquency at age 15 when they perceived their parents to be more supportive at age 14.

  10. Peer Rejection, Affiliation with Deviant Peers, Delinquency, and Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior poses significant health risks by increasing sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Previous research has documented many factors related to risky sexual behavior. This study adds to the literature by proposing a prospective, developmental model of peer factors related to risky sexual behavior. Developmental pathways to risky sexual behavior were examined in a sample of 517 individuals (51% female; 82% European American, 16% African American, 2% other) followed from age 5 to 27. Structural equation models examined direct and indirect effects of peer rejection (assessed via peer nominations at ages 5, 6, 7, and 8), affiliation with deviant peers (assessed via self-report at ages 11 and 12), and delinquency (assessed via maternal report at ages 10 and 16) on risky sexual behavior (assessed via self-report at age 27). More peer rejection during childhood, affiliation with deviant peers during pre- adolescence, and delinquency in childhood and adolescence predicted more risky sexual behavior through age 27, although delinquency at age 16 was the only risk factor that had a significant direct effect on risky sexual behavior through age 27 above and beyond the other risk factors. Peer rejection was related to subsequent risk factors for girls but not boys. Peer risk factors as early as age 5 shape developmental pathways through childhood and adolescence and have implications for risky sexual behavior into adulthood. PMID:25150986

  11. Juvenile Victimization and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David

    1991-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of juvenile victims of crime and a potential relationship between victimization and self-reported delinquency are examined for 877 adolescents from a large midwestern city. Lifetime victimization rates (LVRs) are higher for those involved in delinquency, and LVRs rise with age and higher levels of delinquent behavior.…

  12. Impulsive and callous traits are more strongly associated with delinquent behavior in higher risk neighborhoods among boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H; Slutske, Wendy S; Arndt, Stephan; Cadoret, Remi J

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the effect of impulsive and callous personality traits on delinquent behavior varied across neighborhood context in a population-based, statewide sample of 85,000 Iowa schoolchildren ages 10-19. Two previous studies examining the association between impulsivity and delinquency across disadvantaged and affluent neighborhoods have yielded contrasting findings. Results of the present study suggested a robust moderating effect of neighborhood context on personality risk for delinquency. The relation between impulsivity and delinquency was greater in neighborhoods low in collective efficacy compared to neighborhoods high in collective efficacy. A similar interaction was found for callous personality traits, indicating the consistency of the moderating effect of neighborhood context on personality risk for delinquency. Gender differences were also examined, and results were replicated in a holdout sample.

  13. The role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning

    2015-06-01

    Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed.

  14. Early Pubertal Timing and Girls' Problem Behavior: Integrating Two Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret; Skoog, Therese

    2011-01-01

    Girls' early pubertal timing has been linked in many studies to behavioral problems such as delinquency and substance use. The theoretical explanations for these links have often involved the girls' peer relationships, but contexts have also been considered important in some explanations. By integrating two theoretical models, the…

  15. Advances in Preventing Childhood and Adolescent Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of prevention have led to a deeper understanding of the causes of adolescent problem behavior and to the identification of efficacious strategies to prevent delinquency, drug use, and other antisocial conduct. This 2009 Aaron Rosen lecture to members of the "Society for Social Work and Research" traces the evolution of…

  16. The Effects of School Bonds, Discipline Techniques in School and Victimization on Delinquency of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Halime; Cukur, Cem Safak

    2011-01-01

    Delinquency has become an import social problem in Turkey, especially in schools. Along with this trend, empirical studies have started to pay attention to delinquent acts in schools. However, most of these studies have mainly focused on the nature and prevalence of the delinquent behaviors. There are limited numbers of studies that explore…

  17. The Spread of Substance Use and Delinquency between Adolescent Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Hartl, Amy C.; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This investigation examines the spread of problem behaviors (substance use and delinquency) between twin siblings. A sample of 628 twins (151 male twin pairs and 163 female twin pairs) drawn from the Quebec Newborn Twin Study completed inventories describing delinquency and substance use at ages 13, 14, and 15. A 3-wave longitudinal actor-partner…

  18. Impulsive and Callous Traits Are More Strongly Associated With Delinquent Behavior in Higher Risk Neighborhoods Among Boys and Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Madeline H.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Arndt, Stephan; Cadoret, Remi J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the effect of impulsive and callous personality traits on delinquent behavior varied across neighborhood context in a population-based, statewide sample of 85,000 Iowa schoolchildren ages 10–19. Two previous studies examining the association between impulsivity and delinquency across disadvantaged and affluent neighborhoods have yielded contrasting findings. Results of the present study suggested a robust moderating effect of neighborh...

  19. Relations Between Neighborhood Factors, Parenting Behaviors, Peer Deviance, and Delinquency Among Serious Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined relations among neighborhood structural and social characteristics, parenting practices, peer group affiliations, and delinquency among a group of serious adolescent offenders. The sample of 14–18-year-old boys (N = 488) was composed primarily of economically disadvantaged, ethnic-minority youth living in urban communities. The results indicate that weak neighborhood social organization is indirectly related to delinquency through its associations with parenting behavior and peer deviance and that a focus on just 1 of these microsystems can lead to oversimplified models of risk for juvenile offending. The authors also find that community social ties may confer both pro- and antisocial influences to youth, and they advocate for a broad conceptualization of neighborhood social processes as these relate to developmental risk for youth living in disadvantaged communities. PMID:16569170

  20. Dimensions of Peer Influences and Their Relationship to Adolescents' Aggression, Other Problem Behaviors and Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Thompson, Erin L; Mehari, Krista R

    2016-11-03

    Although peers are a major influence during adolescence, the relative importance of specific mechanisms of peer influence on the development of problem behavior is not well understood. This study investigated five domains of peer influence and their relationships to adolescents' problem and prosocial behaviors. Self-report and teacher ratings were obtained for 1787 (53 % female) urban middle school students. Peer pressure for fighting and friends' delinquent behavior were uniquely associated with aggression, drug use and delinquent behavior. Friends' prosocial behavior was uniquely associated with prosocial behavior. Friends' support for fighting and friends' support for nonviolence were not as clearly related to behavior. Findings were generally consistent across gender. This study highlights the importance of studying multiple aspects of peer influences on adolescents' behavior.

  1. Gender, Race, and Delinquent Behavior: An Extension of Power-Control Theory to American Indian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David; Niedrist, Fallon; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Research testing Hagan's power-control theory has largely been tested with samples of non-Hispanic whites. We extend prior research by testing the theory's merits with a sample of American Indian (AI) adolescents. Overall, we find mixed support for the theory's merits. However, we find that our measure of patriarchy is a robust predictor of AI female delinquent activity. We also find that a grandparent in the household serves to greatly reduce involvement in violent behavior among AI females. Compared to a sample of non-Hispanic whites, these results reveal the importance of testing explanations of deviant behavior across racial and ethnic groups.

  2. Long-term consequences of membership in trajectory groups of delinquent behavior in an urban sample: violence, drug use, interpersonal, and neighborhood attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J; Brown, Elaine N; Brook, David W

    2013-01-01

    Research on stability and change in delinquent behavior over time has important implications for both the individual and the criminal justice system. The present research looks at this issue by examining the associations between the trajectories of delinquent behavior in adolescence and adult functioning. Data for the present study are from a four-wave longitudinal study of African American and Hispanic participants. Participants provided information at mean ages 14, 19, 24, and 29. We used growth mixture modeling to extract trajectory groups of delinquent behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Regression analyses were conducted to examine whether memberships in the trajectory groups of delinquent behavior from mean age 14 to mean age 24 were associated with violence, substance abuse and dependence, partner discord, peer substance use, and residence in a high-crime neighborhood at mean age 29 when compared with the reference trajectory group of participants with low or no delinquent behavior. Four trajectory groups of delinquent behavior were identified: the no/low, the decreasing, the moderate, and the high persistent trajectory groups. Memberships in the trajectory groups were significantly correlated with variations in adult functioning. Memberships in some trajectory groups of delinquent behavior are significant predictors of later violent behavior, substance abuse and dependence, partner discord, peer substance use, and residence in a high-crime neighborhood. The findings reinforce the importance of investing in interventions to address different patterns of delinquent behavior. Findings are discussed in relation to previous investigations with non-Hispanic White samples.

  3. Are qualitative and quantitative sleep problems associated with delinquency when controlling for psychopathic features and parental supervision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Heidi; Laajasalo, Taina; Saukkonen, Suvi; Salmi, Venla; Kivivuori, Janne; Aronen, Eeva T

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between sleep, including both qualitative and quantitative aspects, and delinquent behaviour while controlling for psychopathic features of adolescents and parental supervision at bedtime. We analysed data from a nationally representative sample of 4855 Finnish adolescents (mean age 15.3 years, 51% females). Sleep problems, hours of sleep and delinquency were evaluated via self-report. Psychopathic features were measured with the Antisocial Process Screening Device - Self-Report. In negative binomial regressions, gender and sleep-related variables acted as predictors for both property and violent crime after controlling for psychopathic features and parental supervision at bedtime. The results suggest that both sleep problems (at least three times per week, at least for a year) and an insufficient amount of sleep (less than 7 h) are associated with property crime and violent behaviour, and the relationship is not explained by gender, degree of parental supervision at bedtime or co-occurring psychopathic features. These results suggest that sleep difficulties and insufficient amount of sleep are associated with delinquent behaviour in adolescents. The significance of addressing sleep-related problems, both qualitative and quantitative, among adolescents is thus highlighted. Implications for a prevention technique of delinquent behaviour are discussed. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. A Review of Terminological, Conceptual, and Methodological Issues in the Developmental Risk Factor Literature for Antisocial and Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, David M.; Wanklyn, Sonya G.; Yessine, Annie K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The study of risk factors for antisocial and delinquent behavior has flourished in the past 20 years, as great strides have been made in understanding the developmental pathways that give rise to the onset, course, and desistance of the behavior. However, as a body of literature, risk factor research (RFR) is characterized by…

  5. Comorbidity and Behavior Characteristics of Russian Male Juvenile Delinquents With ADHD and Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Frank; Isaksson, Johan; Heiskala, Viktor; Koposov, Roman; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-04-29

    To test the previously suggested hypothesis that those with comorbid ADHD and Conduct Disorder (CD) diagnoses differ from other antisocially involved youth in terms of higher rates of violent behavior, impulsiveness, and psychopathic traits. Three hundred eighty juvenile incarcerated delinquents from Northern Russia were assessed by means of semi-structured psychiatric interview and by student and teacher self-reports. The study has demonstrated higher rates of psychiatric disorders and of comorbidity, as well as more complicated substance abuse and disruptive behaviors in those with combined ADHD-CD diagnosis, as compared with CD only, ADHD only, and no CD no ADHD groups. The results regarding psychopathic traits were inconclusive. The group with combined ADHD-CD diagnosis is more severely disturbed, both as concerns psychiatric comorbidity and more severe aggressive and disruptive behaviors. However, there is only limited evidence supporting a higher prevalence of psychopathic traits in this group. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  6. Cognitive impulsivity and the development of delinquency from late childhood to early adulthood: Moderating effects of parenting behavior and peer relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Barbara; Van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive impulsivity may increase children's risk of developing delinquent behavior. However, the influence of cognitive impulsivity may depend on social environmental risk factors. This study examined the moderating effect of late childhood parenting behaviors and peer relations on the influence of children's cognitive impulsivity on delinquency development across adolescence and early adulthood, while taking possible interactions with intelligence also into account. Delinquent behavior of 412 boys from the Pittsburgh Youth Study was measured annually from ages 13 to 29 years with official arrest records. Cognitive impulsivity (neurocognitive test scores) and intelligence were assessed at age 12-13. Parenting behaviors (persistence of discipline, positive reinforcement, and parental knowledge), peer delinquency, and peer conventional activities were assessed between ages 10 and 13 years. Results showed that, while controlling for intelligence, the influence of youths' cognitive impulsivity on delinquency depended on their parents' behaviors. An interaction was found among cognitive impulsivity, intelligence, and peer delinquency, but instead of cognitive impulsivity, the effect of intelligence on delinquency was particularly moderated. Overall, findings suggest that when there was moderation, high cognitive impulsivity and low intelligence were associated with an increased probability for engaging in delinquency predominantly among boys in a good social environment, but not in a poor social environment.

  7. Peculiarities of Students of Pedagogical Specialties Training in Preventive Work with Juveniles Delinquents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Maxim R.; Dorozhkin, Evgenij M.; Ozhiganova, Maria V.; Murzinova, Yana A.; Syssa, Daria O.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem under investigation is due to the high significance of preventive work with juvenile delinquents to society. The article aims to study the problems arising while developing students' competencies in professional activities for the prevention of the infringing behavior of juvenile delinquents, as well as the…

  8. Delinquent and Aggressive Behavior and Social Desirability Among Roma and Non-Roma Adolescents in Slovakia : A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    Rates of aggression and delinquency are assumed to be higher among Roma and other minorities, but sound evidence of this is lacking. Our aim was to assess delinquent and aggressive behavior among Roma and non-Roma adolescents and the effects on ethnic differences of parental education and social

  9. Delinquent and Aggressive Behavior and Social Desirability Among Roma and Non-Roma Adolescents in Slovakia : A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2016-01-01

    Rates of aggression and delinquency are assumed to be higher among Roma and other minorities, but sound evidence of this is lacking. Our aim was to assess delinquent and aggressive behavior among Roma and non-Roma adolescents and the effects on ethnic differences of parental education and social des

  10. Gender, Race, and Delinquent Behavior: An Extension of Power-Control Theory to American Indian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David; Niedrist, Fallon; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Research testing Hagan’s power-control theory has largely been tested with samples of non-Hispanic whites. We extend prior research by testing the theory’s merits with a sample of American Indian (AI) adolescents. Overall, we find mixed support for the theory’s merits. However, we find that our measure of patriarchy is a robust predictor of AI female delinquent activity. We also find that a grandparent in the household serves to greatly reduce involvement in violent behavior among AI females. Compared to a sample of non-Hispanic whites, these results reveal the importance of testing explanations of deviant behavior across racial and ethnic groups. PMID:25342866

  11. Youth Activity Involvement, Neighborhood Adult Support, Individual Decision Making Skills, and Early Adolescent Delinquent Behaviors: Testing a Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Hugh F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines a cross-sectional structural equation model of participation in youth activities, neighborhood adult support, individual decision making skills, and delinquent behavior in urban middle school youths (n = 2611). Results indicate extracurricular activity participation had both direct and indirect associations with delinquent…

  12. Delinquent Behavior and Emerging Substance Use in the MTA at 36 Months: Prevalence, Course, and Treatment Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Flory, Kate; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Hechtman, Lily; Jensen, Peter S.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hoza, Betsy; Pelham, William E.; Elliott, Glen R.; Wells, Karen C.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Marcus, Sue; Conners, C. Keith; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Severe, Joanne B.; Wigal, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare delinquent behavior and early substance use between the children in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA; N = 487) and those in a local normative comparison group (n = 272) at 24 and 36 months postrandomization and to test whether these outcomes were predicted by the randomly assigned treatments and…

  13. Psychopathy and facial emotion recognition ability in patients with bipolar affective disorder with or without delinquent behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Husrev; Yesilbas, Dilek; Ozver, Ismail; Yuksek, Erhan; Sahin, Feyzi; Aliustaoglu, Suheyla; Emul, Murat

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that patients with bipolar disorder are more prone to violence and have more criminal behaviors than general population. A strong relationship between criminal behavior and inability to empathize and imperceptions to other person's feelings and facial expressions increases the risk of delinquent behaviors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the deficits of facial emotion recognition ability in euthymic bipolar patients who committed an offense and compare with non-delinquent euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Fifty-five euthymic patients with delinquent behaviors and 54 non-delinquent euthymic bipolar patients as a control group were included in the study. Ekman's Facial Emotion Recognition Test, sociodemographic data, Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale were applied to both groups. There were no significant differences between case and control groups in the meaning of average age, gender, level of education, mean age onset of disease and suicide attempt (p>0.05). The three types of most committed delinquent behaviors in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder were as follows: injury (30.8%), threat or insult (20%) and homicide (12.7%). The best accurate percentage of identified facial emotion was "happy" (>99%, for both) while the worst misidentified facial emotion was "fear" in both groups (fear expressions was significantly worse in the case group than in the control group (pfear, disgusted and angry expressions had been significantly longer in the case group than in the control group (pfearful and modestly anger facial emotions and need some more time to response facial emotions even in remission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antecedents and behavior-problem outcomes of parental monitoring and psychological control in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, G S; Laird, R D; Dodge, K A; Bates, J E; Criss, M M

    2001-01-01

    The early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control were examined in this prospective, longitudinal, multi-informant study. Parenting data were collected during home visit interviews with 440 mothers and their 13-year-old children. Behavior problems (anxiety/depression and delinquent behavior) were assessed via mother, teacher, and/or adolescent reports at ages 8 through 10 years and again at ages 13 through 14. Home-interview data collected at age 5 years were used to measure antecedent parenting (harsh/reactive, positive/proactive), family background (e.g., socioeconomic status), and mother-rated child behavior problems. Consistent with expectation, monitoring was anteceded by a proactive parenting style and by advantageous family-ecological characteristics, and psychological control was anteceded by harsh parenting and by mothers' earlier reports of child externalizing problems. Consistent with prior research, monitoring was associated with fewer delinquent behavior problems. Links between psychological control and adjustment were more complex: High levels of psychological control were associated with more delinquent problems for girls and for teens who were low in preadolescent delinquent problems, and with more anxiety/depression for girls and for teens who were high in preadolescent anxiety/depression.

  15. Joint Trajectories of Symptoms of Disruptive Behavior Problems and Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence and Adjustment Problems during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J. Mark; Dishion, Thomas J.; Reid, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The joint, longitudinal trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and of depression were examined in a community sample drawn from neighborhoods with elevated rates of delinquency. Growth mixture modeling was applied to a 6 year transition period from childhood to adolescence, age 10 to 16 years, to identify latent classes of…

  16. Where Is the Syndrome? Examining Co-Occurrence among Multiple Problem Behaviors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Busseri, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined co-occurrence among a wide range of adolescent problem behaviors: alcohol, smoking, marijuana, hard drugs, sexual activity, major and minor delinquency, direct and indirect aggression, and gambling. Using a large self-report survey of high school students, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the problem syndrome…

  17. Can Institutionalized Adolescent Females With a Substantiated History of Sexual Abuse Benefit From Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Targeting Disruptive and Delinquent Behaviors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vugt, E.; Lanctôt, N.; Lemieux, A.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent adolescent females in residential care with a substantiated history of sexual abuse can benefit from a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) targeting disruptive and delinquent behaviors. In total, 104 adolescent females in the treatment group and 78

  18. Can Institutionalized Adolescent Females With a Substantiated History of Sexual Abuse Benefit From Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Targeting Disruptive and Delinquent Behaviors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vugt, E.; Lanctôt, N.; Lemieux, A.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent adolescent females in residential care with a substantiated history of sexual abuse can benefit from a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) targeting disruptive and delinquent behaviors. In total, 104 adolescent females in the treatment group and 78 adolesce

  19. Adverse life events and delinquent behavior among Kenyan adolescents: a cross-sectional study on the protective role of parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiru, Caroline W; Elung'ata, Patricia; Mojola, Sanyu A; Beguy, Donatien

    2014-01-01

    Past research provides strong evidence that adverse life events heighten the risk of delinquent behavior among adolescents. Urban informal (slum) settlements in sub-Saharan Africa are marked by extreme adversity. However, the prevalence and consequences of adverse life events as well as protective factors that can mitigate the effects of exposure to these events in slum settlements is largely understudied. We examine two research questions. First, are adverse life events experienced at the individual and household level associated with a higher likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya? Second, are parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem protective against delinquency in a context of high adversity? We used cross-sectional data from 3,064 males and females aged 12-19 years who participated in the Transitions to Adulthood Study. We examined the extent to which a composite index of adverse life events was associated with delinquent behavior (measured using a composite index derived from nine items). We also examined the direct and moderating effects of three protective factors: parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem. Fifty-four percent of adolescents reported at least one adverse life event, while 18% reported three or more adverse events. For both males and females, adversity was positively and significantly associated with delinquency in bivariate and multivariate models. Negative associations were observed between the protective factors and delinquency. Significant adverse events × protective factor interaction terms were observed for parental monitoring (females and males), religiosity (males), and self-esteem (females). Similar to research in high income countries, adverse life events are associated with an increased likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in urban slums in Kenya, a low-income country. However, parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem may

  20. Pendidikan Agama Islam Sebagai Pencegah Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Choirul Umah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of Islamic education in the era of globalization are getting stronger now. It’s visible clearly changes happening so fast. The rapid of globalization is not only affect for adults, but also children, adolescents. A problem that often arises in the community revolves around the problems of Juvenile (teenagers, education and social community. Because adolescence is known as self-identity searching, so teens that can fulfill their role will have a positive impact, such as children understand their responsibilities better, and if they cannot, then there will emerge the exact opposite behavior that occurs an aberration or delinquency (juvenile delinquency. The existence of juvenile delinquency at this time also affect increasing in crime or criminal behavior in community. Juvenile delinquency can destroy moral values, the noble values ​​of religion, and the various aspects of the subject matter contained therein. Understanding, deepening, and adherence to the teachings of religion, especially Islamic education is required by the juvenile. Because Islamic education is a systematic effort by educators and adults to students both physical and spiritual by Islamic law to led the formation of personality according to the standard of Islam. Because in fact the children or adolescents who commit delinquency or crime mostly less understand the norms of Islam, perhaps they are negligent in fulfill the commandments of religion.

  1. PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM SEBAGAI PENCEGAH JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Choirul Umah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of Islamic education in the era of globalization are getting stronger now. It’s visible clearly changes happening so fast. The rapid of globalization is not only affect for adults, but also children, adolescents. A problem that often arises in the community revolves around the problems of Juvenile (teenagers, education and social community. Because adolescence is known as self-identity searching, so teens that can fulfill their role will have a positive impact, such as children understand their responsibilities better, and if they cannot, then there will emerge the exact opposite behavior that occurs an aberration or delinquency (juvenile delinquency. The existence of juvenile delinquency at this time also affect increasing in crime or criminal behavior in community. Juvenile delinquency can destroy moral values, the noble values of religion, and the various aspects of the subject matter contained therein. Understanding, deepening, and adherence to the teachings of religion, especially Islamic education is required by the juvenile. Because Islamic education is a systematic effort by educators and adults to students both physical and spiritual by Islamic law to led the formation of personality according to the standard of Islam. Because in fact the children or adolescents who commit delinquency or crime mostly less understand the norms of Islam, perhaps they are negligent in fulfill the commandments of religion.

  2. Sex Stereotypes and Responses to Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Tineke M.; van Schie, Els C. M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes two studies to test the following hypotheses: (1) delinquent behavior that corresponds to sex stereotypes will be punished more severely; and (2) delinquent behavior that deviates will be evaluated more negatively. Presents model illustrating how sex stereotypes about delinquent behavior lead to sex-related differences in attribution and…

  3. Don't trust anyone over 30: parental legitimacy as a mediator between parenting style and changes in delinquent behavior over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkner, Rick; Cohn, Ellen S; Rebellon, Cesar J; Van Gundy, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Both law and society scholars and developmental psychologists have focused on the legitimacy of authority figures, although in different domains (police versus parents). The purpose of the current research is to bridge these two fields by examining the relations among parenting style (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative, permissive), the perception of parental legitimacy, and changes in delinquency over time. It is hypothesized that parental legitimacy mediates the relation between parenting style and future delinquent behavior. Middle school and high school students completed questionnaires three times over a period of 18 months. Parenting style and delinquent behavior were measured at time 1, parental legitimacy at time 2, and delinquency again at time 3. The results show that authoritative parenting was positively related to parental legitimacy, while authoritarian parenting was negatively associated with parental legitimacy. Furthermore, parental legitimacy was negatively associated with future delinquency. Structural equation modeling indicated that parental legitimacy mediated the relation between parenting styles and changes in delinquency over the 18-month time period. The implications for parenting style and parental legitimacy affecting delinquent behavior are discussed.

  4. Assessing the Relationships among Delinquent Male Students' Disruptive and Violent Behavior and Staff's Proactive and Reactive Behavior in a Secure Residential Treatment Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozalski, Michael; Drasgow, Erik; Drasgow, Fritz; Yell, Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among students' disruptive and violent behavior and staff's use of proactive and reactive strategies in a secure residential treatment center serving delinquent adolescent males. One hundred hours of observational data were collected, and linear regression models were used to explore the…

  5. Examining the Relation Between Adolescent Social Anxiety, Adolescent Delinquency (Abstention), and Emerging Adulthood Relationship Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercer, Natalie; Crocetti, Elisabetta|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371750946; Meeus, Wim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070442215; Branje, Susan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/192657860

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social anxiety symptoms and delinquency are two prevalent manifestations of problem behavior during adolescence and both are related to negative interpersonal relationships in adolescence and emerging adulthood. This study examined the relation between social anxiety and d

  6. The development and validation of the Dormitory Observation Report: a behavioral rating instrument for juvenile delinquents in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Louis; Veneziano, Carol

    2002-09-01

    In order to provide an objective measure of problematic behavioral patterns among juvenile delinquents in residential facilities, the Dormitory Observation Report (DOR) was developed. The DOR assesses 11 dimensions of problematic behavioral patterns (e.g., physical assaultiveness, manipulativeness), as well as three dimensions of desirable behavioral patterns expected in an institutional setting (e.g., independent functioning, personal hygiene, care of surroundings). Empirical study regarding the reliability and validity of the DOR are reported, and the results are discussed in terms of the theoretical and practical implications of this instrument.

  7. Relations Between Neighborhood Factors, Parenting Behaviors, Peer Deviance, and Delinquency Among Serious Juvenile Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    CHUNG, HE LEN; Steinberg, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relations among neighborhood structural and social characteristics, parenting practices, peer group affiliations, and delinquency among a group of serious adolescent offenders. The sample of 14–18-year-old boys (N = 488) was composed primarily of economically disadvantaged, ethnic-minority youth living in urban communities. The results indicate that weak neighborhood social organization is indirectly related to delinquency through its associations with parenting beh...

  8. [Current Problems Encountered by American Youth: Delinquency, Crime, School Violence, School Discipline, and Related Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, Alfred S.

    This paper presents a broad overview of information about delinquency, crime, and school discipline and violence in relation to U.S. youths. Part 1 compares U.S. and West Germany's crime rates for 1980-1985, while part 2 focuses on U.S. juvenile crime facts and on the contribution of the increasing number of U.S. family breakdowns to juvenile…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of the Prevalence, Development, and Persistence of HIV/STI Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth: Implications for Health Care in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Erin Gregory; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Abram, Karen M.; Welty, Leah J.; Washburn, Jason J.

    2009-01-01

    delinquent youth are a community public health problem, not just a problem for the juvenile justice system. Improving the coordination among systems that provide HIV/STI interventions to youth – primary care, education, mental health, and juvenile justice – can reduce the prevalence of risk behaviors and substantially reduce the spread of HIV/STI in young people. PMID:17473083

  10. Early Identification of Delinquency Prone Youth. The Eau Claire County Youth Study, Phase IV, 1969-1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhusen, John F.; And Others

    Procedures for early identification of delinquency-prone youth in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin, are described in this report of a 1961-1972 study designed to delineate the problems of aggressive and disruptive classroom behavior as related to delinquency. Data collection began in 1961, when each 3rd-, 6th-, and 9th-grade teacher in Eau Claire…

  11. Prospective association of childhood receptive vocabulary and conduct problems with self-reported adolescent delinquency: tests of mediation and moderation in sibling-comparison analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Van Hulle, Carol A; Rathouz, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    Associations among receptive vocabulary measured at 4-9 years, mother-reported childhood conduct problems at 4-9 years, and self-reported adolescent delinquency at 14-17 years were assessed using data from a prospective study of the offspring of a large U.S. nationally representative sample of women. A novel quasi-experimental strategy was used to rule out family-level confounding by estimating path-analytic associations within families in a sibling comparison design. This allowed simultaneous tests of the direct and indirect effects of receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems, and of their joint moderation, on adolescent delinquency without family-level environmental confounding. The significant association of receptive vocabulary with later adolescent delinquency was indirect, mediated by childhood conduct problems. Furthermore, a significant interaction between receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems reflected a steeper slope for the predictive association between childhood conduct problems and adolescent delinquency when receptive vocabulary scores were higher. These findings of significant indirect association were qualitatively identical in both population-level and within-family analyses, suggesting that they are not the result of family-level confounds.

  12. Juvenile Delinquents, the Martial Arts, and Behavior Modification: An Experimental Study for Social Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Donald F.

    Adolescents are particularly open to the influences of interventions that restructure their attitudes and self-concept. This study assesses the influence of martial arts training that incorporates a philosophy of life along with strict discipline. The hypothesis was that such training could positively influence juvenile delinquents and contribute…

  13. Juvenile Delinquents, the Martial Arts, and Behavior Modification: An Experimental Study for Social Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Donald F.

    Adolescents are particularly open to the influences of interventions that restructure their attitudes and self-concept. This study assesses the influence of martial arts training that incorporates a philosophy of life along with strict discipline. The hypothesis was that such training could positively influence juvenile delinquents and contribute…

  14. Effects of Social Metacognitive Training for Enhancing Overt Behavior in Learning Disabled and Low Achieving Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Katherine A.; Gerber, Michael M.

    1987-01-01

    Learning disabled (n=34) and low-achieving (n=34) incarcerated delinquents (16-19 years) were assigned to social metacognitive training, attention control, or test-only control groups. Those given metacognitive training improved in rehabilitation achievement and other areas of social adjustment, with a greater proportion of the learning disabled…

  15. Relations between Neighborhood Factors, Parenting Behaviors, Peer Deviance, and Delinquency among Serious Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Steinberg, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relations among neighborhood structural and social characteristics, parenting practices, peer group affiliations, and delinquency among a group of serious adolescent offenders. The sample of 14-18-year-old boys (N = 488) was composed primarily of economically disadvantaged, ethnic-minority youth living in urban…

  16. Dementia - behavior and sleep problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000029.htm Dementia - behavior and sleep problems To use the sharing ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. People with dementia , often have certain problems when it gets dark ...

  17. Travel Beyond the Home Neighborhood for Delinquent Behaviors: Moderation of Home Neighborhood Influences

    OpenAIRE

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Amrhein, Kelly E.; Hassan, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood research indicates that adolescents are at higher risk for delinquency when they reside in neighborhoods low in collective efficacy, low in perceived prosocial norms and values, and high in availability of substances and firearms. However, as adolescents develop, they are more likely to independently travel during their day-to-day activities, and the effects of their home neighborhood may be weakened as they spend time in other communities. The current study surveyed 179 adolesce...

  18. Parenting stress and children's problem behavior in China: the mediating role of parental psychological aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wang, Meifang

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the mediating effect of parents' psychological aggression in the relationship between parenting stress and children's internalizing (anxiety/depression, withdrawal) and externalizing (aggression, delinquency) problem behaviors 1 year later. Using a sample of 311 intact 2-parent Chinese families with preschoolers, findings revealed that maternal parenting stress had direct effects on children's internalizing and externalizing problem behavior and indirect effects through maternal psychological aggression. However, neither direct nor indirect effects of fathers' parenting stress on children's internalizing and externalizing problem behavior were found. The findings highlight the importance of simultaneously studying the effects of both mothers' and fathers' parenting on their children within a family systems framework.

  19. Perceived Best Friend Delinquency Moderates the Link between Contextual Risk Factors and Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula; Preddy, Teresa; Vitulano, Michael; Elkins, Sara; Grassetti, Stevie; Wimsatt, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of contextual risk factors (i.e., negative life events and neighborhood problems) and perceived best friend delinquency on child self-reported delinquency. More specifically, the present study extended the literature by evaluating whether best friend delinquency moderated the effects of contextual risk…

  20. Economic Stress, Emotional Quality of Life, and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and emotional quality of life (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, psychological morbidity) as well as problem behavior (substance abuse and delinquency) were examined in 1519 Chinese adolescents with and…

  1. Economic Stress, Emotional Quality of Life, and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and emotional quality of life (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, psychological morbidity) as well as problem behavior (substance abuse and delinquency) were examined in 1519 Chinese adolescents with and…

  2. A Longitudinal Examination of Family, Friend, and Media Influences on Competent versus Problem Behaviors among Urban Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Julia A.; Nichols, Tracy; Lynne, Sarah D.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines family, friend, and media influences on competent and problem behaviors in a sample of 1,174 urban minority youth followed over 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. Students completed annual surveys at their schools. Each of the contextual factors investigated was significantly associated with concurrent aggression and delinquency as…

  3. Macroeconomic environment during infancy as a possible risk factor for adolescent behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Natarajan; Krishnadas, Rajeev

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Economic difficulties at the individual level can lead to a number of behavioral problems, including substance abuse and delinquent behaviors. OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of a nationwide adverse economic environment during infancy, specifically, the high unemployment rates during and after the 1980 and 1981-1982 recessions, on rates of subsequent adolescent substance use and delinquent behaviors. DESIGN We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and estimated logit regressions to examine the effect of changes in unemployment rates during infancy on the incidence of adolescent behavioral problems, controlling for known youth, family, and environmental risk factors. SETTING Adolescents living in the United States in 1997. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of 8984 adolescents born from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1984. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Probability of engaging in substance use (marijuana, smoking, alcohol, and hard [ie, illegal] drugs) and delinquent behaviors (arrest, handgun use, gang affiliation, petty and major theft, property destruction, and assaultive behavior). RESULTS Exposure to a 1% deviation from mean regional unemployment rates at the age of 1 year was associated with an increase in the odds ratios of engaging in marijuana use (1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]), smoking (1.07 [1.03-1.11]), alcohol use (1.06 [1.02-1.10]), arrest (1.17 [1.09-1.25]), gang affiliation (1.09 [1.00-1.19]), and petty (1.06 [1.01-1.10]) and major theft (1.11 [1.05-1.18]). No significant associations were noted with use of hard drugs, property destruction, and assaultive behavior. CONCLUSIONS The macroeconomic environment during infancy can have serious long-term effects on substance use and delinquent behavior. These potential long-term effects can play an important role in policy making for adolescent mental health care.

  4. Associations between Prosocial and Problem Behavior from Early to Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Memmott-Elison, Madison K; Coyne, Sarah M

    2017-09-02

    Though recent research has highlighted prosocial behavior as negatively associated with problem behavior during adolescence, we know little about how these variables might be associated longitudinally, whether there are bidirectional effects, and whether there might be different patterns of co-occurrence of behaviors for different individuals. Thus, the current study examined relations between prosocial and problem behaviors in three different ways in an attempt to better understand these associations. Participants included 500 adolescents recruited from a Northwestern state in the USA who took part in the study every year from age 12 to 18 (50% female, 67% European American). Growth curve analyses suggested that change in prosocial behavior was negatively associated with change in aggression and delinquency over time. A longitudinal panel model suggested that prosocial behavior and aggression were negatively associated bidirectionally, and that prosocial behavior was negatively associated with delinquency over time. Finally, mixture modeling conducted at ages 12, 15, and 18 revealed heterogeneity in the ways in which prosocial and problem behaviors co-occur. The discussion focuses on the complexity of interrelations between prosocial behavior and problem behavior across adolescence.

  5. Growth in Adolescent Delinquency and Alcohol Use in Relation to Young Adult Crime, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Risky Sex: A Comparison of Youth from Low- versus Middle-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Hitch, Julia E.; Kosterman, Rick; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hawkins, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and risky sex. Analyses further examined the influences of late childhood involvement in these problem behavior outcomes, with mediation through teen delinquency and alcohol use, and examined differences in the…

  6. Growth in Adolescent Delinquency and Alcohol Use in Relation to Young Adult Crime, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Risky Sex: A Comparison of Youth from Low- versus Middle-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Hitch, Julia E.; Kosterman, Rick; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hawkins, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and risky sex. Analyses further examined the influences of late childhood involvement in these problem behavior outcomes, with mediation through teen delinquency and alcohol use, and examined differences in the…

  7. Delinquent and Aggressive Behavior and Social Desirability Among Roma and Non-Roma Adolescents in Slovakia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2016-02-01

    Rates of aggression and delinquency are assumed to be higher among Roma and other minorities, but sound evidence of this is lacking. Our aim was to assess delinquent and aggressive behavior among Roma and non-Roma adolescents and the effects on ethnic differences of parental education and social desirability. We conducted a cross-sectional study among Roma from separated and segregated settlements in the eastern part of Slovakia (N = 330; Mage = 14.50; interview) and non-Roma adolescents (N = 722; Mage = 14.86; questionnaire). The effect of ethnicity on antisocial behaviors was analyzed using linear regression (crude) and adjusted for gender, parental education, and social desirability. Adjustment for social desirability diminished the ethnic differences in delinquency (B = 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.12, -0.04]), led to an increase in the differences in hostility (B = 2.43; 95% CI = [0.87, 3.99]), and led to the disappearance of differences in physical aggression (B = 0.45; 95% CI = [1.14, 2.07]). Parental education did not affect the associations in an important way. Our findings indicate that Roma are not that much different from non-Roma, in terms of antisocial behavior, which contradicts the general perception of Roma. Our findings should be confirmed in other settings.

  8. Problem behavior in Dutch preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Koot (Hans)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe present study was an attempt to contribute to the standardized assessment and the study of prevalence of problem behavior in children 2- to 3-years old by means of empirically derived rating scales. The basic questions were: 1. What are the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch v

  9. CHILD VICTIMIZATION AND PARENTAL MONITORING AS MEDIATORS OF YOUTH PROBLEM BEHAVIORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela A; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Stein, Judith A

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the effects of family characteristics, parental monitoring, and victimization by adults on alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse, delinquency, and risky sexual behaviors among 761 incarcerated juveniles. The majority of youth reported that other family members had substance abuse problems and criminal histories. These youth were frequently the victims of violence. Relationships between victimization, parental monitoring, and problem behaviors were examined using structural equation modeling. Monitoring was negatively related to all problem behaviors. However, type of maltreatment was related to specific problem behaviors. The effects of family substance abuse and family criminal involvement on outcomes were mediated by monitoring and maltreatment. The study underscores the need to provide family-focused and trauma-related interventions for juvenile offenders.

  10. The role of acculturation and family functioning in predicting HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic delinquent youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the relationship between Berry's acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry's four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population.

  11. The importance of a positive family history of alcoholism, parental rejection and emotional warmth, behavioral problems and peer substance use for alcohol problems in teenagers: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc A; Lucht, Michael; John, Ulrich; Freyberger, Harald J

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothetical model of alcohol problems in German adolescents. Among 180 offspring, family history of alcoholism, parenting styles, behavioral and emotional problems, peer-group characteristics, feelings of self-esteem, behavioral problems and psychiatric comorbidity of the parents were examined. Data were generated from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), in which families were randomly selected if 12-18 year old biological offspring were members of the household; a smaller group of subjects was selected from local outpatient treatment centers. Members of 133 families, including 180 (50.6% male) offspring who were appropriate for the current analyses, received personal semistructured diagnostic interviews and several self-rating questionnaires. Analyses compared offspring with alcohol problems (AP; n = 40) and with no alcohol problems (NAP; n = 140), and used structural equation modeling to test a hypothetical model. The comparisons revealed that the AP group had significantly more behavioral problems (e.g., aggression/delinquency), more perceived parental rejection and less emotional warmth, a higher amount of alcohol consumption, were more likely to associate with substance-using peers and more often received a diagnosis of conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder. Whereas the family history of alcoholism did not differ significantly between groups, parents of offspring with an alcohol use disorder had significantly more additional diagnoses on DSM-IV Axis I. The evaluation of the model supported the importance of aggression/delinquency and association with substance-using peers for alcohol problems in people. An additional diagnosis in the parents was directly and indirectly (through aggression/delinquency) related to alcohol problems of the adolescents. The data indicate that alcohol problems in the offspring are associated with several domains of influence in their environment. Prospective studies

  12. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

  13. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

  14. Strengths and Limitations of the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY in Juvenile Delinquency Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Semel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights and discusses the usefulness of the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY in juvenile delinquency assessments. Psychiatric disorders have high prevalence rates among youths in the juvenile justice system. The PIY was developed to evaluate a broad range of behavioral and psychological characteristics, which may make it useful in juvenile delinquency assessment contexts. Practical and psychometric strengths and limitations of the PIY in the juvenile delinquency assessment context are presented, with reference to relevant research literature. The effectiveness of this instrument in detecting response bias, particularly under-reporting, and for identifying problems associated with delinquency is discussed. The issue of item overlap and spurious influences on scale correlations, especially between the PIY Defensiveness and Delinquency scales, is also addressed. A comparison of findings with the PIY and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–Adolescent (MMPI-A in juvenile justice samples helps to identify broader considerations about how youths in juvenile justice settings respond to self-report psychological inventories. Finally, the author offers some practical considerations for evaluators when using the PIY in juvenile delinquency assessments, and suggestions for future research.

  15. Collective efficacy as a task specific process: examining the relationship between social ties, neighborhood cohesion and the capacity to respond to violence, delinquency and civic problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickes, Rebecca; Hipp, John R; Sargeant, Elise; Homel, Ross

    2013-09-01

    In the neighborhood effects literature, collective efficacy is viewed as the key explanatory process associated with the spatial distribution of a range of social problems. While many studies usefully focus on the consequences of collective efficacy, in this paper we examine the task specificity of collective efficacy and consider the individual and neighborhood factors that influence residents' perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy for specific tasks. Utilizing survey and administrative data from 4,093 residents nested in 148 communities in Australia, we distinguish collective efficacy for particular threats to social order and assess the relative importance of social cohesion and neighborhood social ties to the development of collective efficacy for violence, delinquency and civic/political issues. Our results indicate that a model separating collective efficacy for specific problems from social ties and the more generalized notions of social cohesion is necessary when understanding the regulation potential of neighborhoods.

  16. HIV Risk Behavior among Delinquent and Mentally Ill Teens: Case Manager Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Seal, David Wyatt; Hartley, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    An HIV knowledge survey and qualitative interview were administered to 20 case managers in community-based programs for troubled youth to assess HIV knowledge and their perception of client HIV risk behaviors. Participants had good HIV knowledge. Case managers perceived client youth to be at high risk for HIV infection due to unsafe sexual…

  17. MAOA-uVNTR and Early Physical Discipline Interact to Influence Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Alexis C.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Budde, John P.; Goate, Alison M.; Dick, Danielle M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidizing gene "monoamine oxidase A" ("MAOA") has been associated with behavioral sensitivity to adverse environmental conditions in multiple studies (e.g., Caspi et al. 2002; Kim-Cohen et al., 2006). The present study investigates the effects of genotype and early…

  18. Parental Divorce and Adolescent Delinquency: Ruling out the Impact of Common Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Barnes, Ashlee R.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and…

  19. A Model of Family Background, Family Process, Youth Self-Control, and Delinquent Behavior in Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, So-Hee; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2009-01-01

    Using data from a national sample of two-parent families with 11- and 12-year-old youths (N = 591), we tested a structural model of family background, family process (marital conflict and parenting), youth self-control, and delinquency four years later. Consistent with the conceptual model, marital conflict and youth self-control are directly…

  20. The Influence of Future Certainty and Contextual Factors on Delinquent Behavior and School Adjustment among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roslyn M.; Wiebe, Richard P.; Cleveland, H. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the ability of future certainty--an individual's perception of future stability, operationalized as the likelihood of certain life outcomes--to explain variance in delinquency and school adjustment, while controlling for economic, neighborhood, and family factors, among a cross-sectional sample of 1422 male and 1562 female…

  1. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  2. Resurgence: The Unintended Maintenance of Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringdahl, Joel E.; St. Peter, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Researchers, teachers, practitioners, and parents are often concerned with how to program for and achieve the maintenance of appropriate behavior. The unintended maintenance of problem behavior is less often evaluated. This article describes a behavioral phenomenon, resurgence, that may result in the unintended maintenance of problem behavior.…

  3. FAST and the arms race: the interaction of group aggression and the families and schools together program in the aggressive and delinquent behaviors of inner-city elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Keith; Moberg, D Paul; McDonald, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    This study applies a multi-player arms race model to peer contagion in the aggressive and delinquent behaviors of inner-city elementary school students. Because this model of peer contagion differs from the usual model based on positive reinforcement of delinquent behavior, it raises the possibility that the persistent finding of iatrogenic effects of group treatment might not apply to group treatment of elementary school children if the possibility of aggressive behavior in the group is limited. One way of limiting aggressive behavior is to include parents in the groups. The study therefore applies the model to groups of elementary school students assigned to Families and Schools Together (FAST; a group treatment that includes parental participation) or to an intervention focused on individual families. The model effectively describes the relationship between group averages of aggressive behavior in the classroom and aggressive and delinquent behavior outside the classroom for those students assigned to the individual intervention. The model fits those children assigned to FAST less well, suggesting that FAST may make it less likely that aggressive and delinquent behavior is generalized outside of aggressive classroom settings. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors draw on evolutionary biology, developmental psychology, sociology, and learning theory to present an innovative prevention model and test the promising FAST program. Using longitudinal data from 403 children, their parents, and their teachers, the authors describe how FAST may interfere with the process of escalating aggression.

  4. Treatment outcome and criminal offending by youth with sexual behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Chapman, Jason E; Schoenwald, Sonja K

    2008-05-01

    Children and adolescents treated for general delinquency problems and rated by caregivers as having sexual behavior problems (SBP; N = 696) were compared with youth from the same sample with no sexual behavior problems (NSBP; N = 1,185). Treatment outcome through 12-months posttreatment and criminal offending through an average 48-month posttreatment were compared for both groups. It was hypothesized that both groups would improve over time; however, the SBP group would evidence greater psychopathology at follow-up, and these hypotheses were supported. It was further hypothesized that youth with SBP would not differ from youth with NSBP in rates of future sexual or nonsexual offenses. These hypotheses were also supported. SBP group membership was not a significant predictive factor in analyses modeling future offending (any) or future person offenses. Few youth in either group had sexual offenses. The importance of these findings for clinical and policy decision making is discussed.

  5. Prevention of adolescent problem behavior: longitudinal impact of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2011-03-07

    The present study attempts to examine the longitudinal impact of a curriculum-based positive youth development program, entitled the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes), on adolescent problem behavior in Hong Kong. Using a longitudinal randomized group design, six waves of data were collected from 19 experimental schools (n = 3,797 at Wave 1) in which students participated in the Project P.A.T.H.S. and 24 control schools (n = 4,049 at Wave 1). At each wave, students responded to questions asking about their current problem behaviors, including delinquency and use of different types of drugs, and their intentions of engaging in such behaviors in the future. Results based on individual growth curve modeling generally showed that the participants displayed lower levels of substance abuse and delinquent behavior than did the control students. Participants who regarded the program to be helpful also showed lower levels of problem behavior than did the control students. The present findings suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is effective in preventing adolescent problem behavior in the junior secondary school years.

  6. Prevention of Adolescent Problem Behavior: Longitudinal Impact of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the longitudinal impact of a curriculum-based positive youth development program, entitled the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes, on adolescent problem behavior in Hong Kong. Using a longitudinal randomized group design, six waves of data were collected from 19 experimental schools (n = 3,797 at Wave 1 in which students participated in the Project P.A.T.H.S. and 24 control schools (n = 4,049 at Wave 1. At each wave, students responded to questions asking about their current problem behaviors, including delinquency and use of different types of drugs, and their intentions of engaging in such behaviors in the future. Results based on individual growth curve modeling generally showed that the participants displayed lower levels of substance abuse and delinquent behavior than did the control students. Participants who regarded the program to be helpful also showed lower levels of problem behavior than did the control students. The present findings suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is effective in preventing adolescent problem behavior in the junior secondary school years.

  7. Co-occurrence of antisocial behavior and substance use: testing for sex differences in the impact of older male friends, low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Tom A; Salekin, Randall T; Marti, C Nathan; Lester, Whiney S; Barker, Edward D

    2014-04-01

    Delinquency and substance use (SU) are commonly comorbid during adolescence. In the present study we investigate this co-morbidity with 3 main objectives: 1. Evaluate reciprocal relationships between delinquency/SU across early adolescence. 2. Assess the impact of older male friends, low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency on subsequent development and inter-relationships of delinquency and SU. 3. Evaluate sex differences in these relationships. We applied cross-lagged structural equation models to the analysis of a longitudinal sample (n=3699). Findings demonstrated: (1) At ages 13-14 delinquency predicted SU more so than vice versa but effects became equal between ages 14 and 15. (2) Low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency predicted delinquency and SU. Older male friends predicted ASB. (3) Sex differences were present. For example, in the absence of antisocial friends low parent knowledge at age 12 indirectly predicted increased age 15 SU for girls more than boys.

  8. Can they recover? An assessment of adult adjustment problems among males in the abstainer, recovery, life-course persistent, and adolescence-limited pathways followed up to age 56 in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G; Rocque, Michael; Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P

    2016-05-01

    Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers.

  9. The interaction between self-regulation and motivation prospectively predicting problem behavior in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jessica D; Colder, Craig R; Trucco, Elisa M; Speidel, Carolyn; Hawk, Larry W; Lengua, Liliana J; Das Eiden, Rina; Wieczorek, William

    2013-01-01

    A large literature suggests associations between self-regulation and motivation and adolescent problem behavior; however, this research has mostly pitted these constructs against one another or tested them in isolation. Following recent neural-systems based theories (e.g., Ernst & Fudge, 2009 ), the present study investigated the interactions between self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation prospectively predicting delinquency and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. The community sample included 387 adolescents aged 11 to 13 years old (55% female; 17% minority). Laboratory tasks were used to assess self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation, and adolescent self-reports were used to measure depressive symptoms and delinquency. Analyses suggested that low levels of approach motivation were associated with high levels of depressive symptoms, but only at high levels of self-regulation (p = .01). High levels of approach were associated with high levels of rule breaking, but only at low levels of self-regulation (p theories that posit integration of motivational and self-regulatory individual differences via moderational models to understand adolescent problem behavior.

  10. Developmental Associations Between Externalizing Behaviors, Peer Delinquency, Drug Use, Perceived Neighborhood Crime, and Violent Behavior in Urban Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, David W.; Brook, Judith S.; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Saar, Naomi S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the precursors of violent behavior among urban, racial/ethnic minority adults. Data are from an on-going study of male and female African Americans and Puerto Ricans, interviewed at four time waves, Time 1-Time 4 (T1-T4), from adolescence to adulthood. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze the developmental pathways, beginning in mid-adolescence (T1; X̄ age=14.0 years), to violent behavior in adulthood (T4; X̄ age=29.2 years). The variables assessed were: compon...

  11. Behavior problems in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wei-Chieh; Lee, Li-Ang; Liu, Tien-Chen; Tsou, Yung-Ting; Chan, Kai-Chieh; Wu, Che-Ming

    2015-05-01

    (1) To examine behavior problems in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs); (2) to investigate the associated factors of problem behaviors; (3) to understand the relationships between behavior problems and parenting stress. Sixty patients (25 boys, 35 girls) aged 6-18 years (mean=12.2±3.2) who used CIs for a mean duration of eight years participated in the study. Behavior problems were assessed by Achenbach's child behavior checklist (CBCL). Categorical auditory performance (CAP) and speech intelligibility rating (SIR) scales were utilized to investigate auditory performance and speech production intelligibility. Parenting stress index (PSI) was filled out by parents to measure parenting stress level. Significantly more CI subjects had problems with 'Withdrawn/Depressed' (p=0.010), 'Social Problems' (pProblems' (pProblems' (pProblems' was the most common problem and could be independently associated with gender, socioeconomic status and CAP (R(2)=0.361). CAP score was also associated with Overall Behaviors (R(2)=0.081). The results of PSI had a significant positive correlation with almost all CBCL subscales (pproblems, which may in turn increase parenting stress. Good family support as well as aural-verbal rehabilitation are of particular importance in determining behavioral outcomes in CI children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Afghan Refugees and War-Zone Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Babapour-Kheiroddin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Wars' stress and violence can have tremendous effects on children's and adolescents' health and general well being; it may result in patterns of bio-psychosocial problems. The goal of this study was to compare emotional and behavioral problems in Afghan refugees and war-zone adolescents. "n Method: One hundred and eighty high school students (90 students in the refugee group and 90 in the war-zone group in Harat were included in this research. All participants completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR. War zone and refugee adolescents were compared based on their scores on different scales of behavioral and emotional problems. "n Results: War-zone adolescents scored significantly higher on Anxious/Depression, Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Attention Problems, and Internalizing Problems scales than refugee adolescents. In this study, no significant difference was found between the two groups on Social Problems, Thought Problems, Delinquent Behavior, Aggressive Behavior, and Externalizing scales. "nConclusion: Findings revealed that although asylum is not an ideal condition for children's and adolescents' psychological development and prosperity, it can have a protective role in comparison with war zone's circumstances. Further investigation is needed, however, to elucidate the lack of significant differences in externalizing scales among war zone and refugee adolescents

  13. Girls' childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior predict adjustment problems in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A J; Hipwell, Alison E; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Loeber, Rolf

    2015-07-01

    It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males, later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls' childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. This study used nine waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semiparametric group-based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior predict adjustment problems in early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A. J.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.; Doreleijers, Theo A.H.; Loeber, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. Methods The current study used 9 waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semi-parametric group based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, PTSD, substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Results Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Conclusion Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. PMID:25302849

  15. Elementary Teachers' Tolerance of Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 46 teachers rated observable mild-to-moderate school-related problem behaviors in order to identify aspects of teacher tolerance specific to the elementary classroom. Findings indicated that behaviors least tolerated are other-directed or disruptive; self- or teacher-directed behaviors elicited less negative ratings. (RH)

  16. Treating Problem Behaviors Maintained by Negative Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio; Spooner, Fred

    1997-01-01

    Identifies four treatment techniques that may be applied when problem behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement: (1) functional communication training; (2) behavioral momentum; (3) differential reinforcement or an alternative escape behavior; and (4) errorless learning. Each of the techniques is defined, and applications and guidelines for…

  17. The neophyte female delinquent: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, G; Jurgens, J; Chen, F

    1993-01-01

    During the 1950s, most of the attention on juvenile delinquency concentrated on males. Recently, however, the incidence of female delinquency has escalated. Female delinquency that did exist a generation ago centered primarily on sexual misconduct; today, much greater numbers of females are involved in armed robbery, gang activity, drug trafficking, burglary, weapons possession, aggravated assault, and prostitution. Research on the etiology of this behavior is inconclusive, with some of the theories centering around dysfunctional families, victimization, aggression, neglect, rejection, physical and sexual abuse, self-perception, gender role, and intellectual ability. This paper attempts to ascertain the status of female delinquency, with special focus on definition, etiology, and treatment.

  18. Depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness in adolescence: Impact of two decades of war and political violence on adolescent mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences in Serbia in the last two decades have caused significant psychological consequences in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness among high school and elementary school students in Belgrade, Serbia. The participants were 899 students (51.8% were female with no prior treatment for psychological problems, with a mean age of 16.70±1.95. All used instruments were taken from the modified Social and Health Assessment (SAHA. Our findings show that delinquent behavior or exposure to delinquency was significantly related to depressive symptoms. The strongest predictors of depression were variables concerning legal consequences, affiliation with delinquent peers, victimization by community violence and peer victimization. This study confirmed a strong correlation between depression and exposure to violence. Identifying adolescents with depressive symptoms is important for prevention of serious mental health consequences.

  19. Indoor Tanning and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Banerjee, Smita; Greene, Kathryn; Campo, Shelly

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined factors predicting college students' use of tanning beds. Participants and Methods: Undergraduate students (N = 745) at a large Northeastern university participated in the study by answering a survey measuring tanning behavior and other psychosocial variables, including sensation seeking, self-esteem, tanning image…

  20. Teachers' Judgments of Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1987-01-01

    After viewing videotaped vignettes of classroom situations, 155 teachers rated severity, tolerance, manageability, and contagion factors related to a target child. Ratings indicated significant multivariate differences between regular/special education teachers and disruptive/nondisruptive behaviors, with regular educators being less tolerant and…

  1. Are Teen Delinquency Abstainers Social Introverts?: A Test of Moffitt's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojin; Adams, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has identified a small group of adolescents who completely refrain from delinquent behavior. Researchers have hypothesized that these adolescents may be excluded from normative peer activities and are thus insulated from delinquent peer role models. A central argument in Moffitt's account of delinquency abstention, for example, is…

  2. Are Teen Delinquency Abstainers Social Introverts?: A Test of Moffitt's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojin; Adams, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has identified a small group of adolescents who completely refrain from delinquent behavior. Researchers have hypothesized that these adolescents may be excluded from normative peer activities and are thus insulated from delinquent peer role models. A central argument in Moffitt's account of delinquency abstention, for example, is…

  3. Familial Religiosity, Family Processes, and Juvenile Delinquency in a National Sample of Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Spencer D.

    2014-01-01

    Personal religiosity has been identified as a protective factor against juvenile delinquency. However, the influence of familial religiosity on delinquent behavior is less known. This study addresses this gap by investigating how family participation in organizational religious activities is related to delinquent involvement in early adolescence.…

  4. DELINQUENT BEHAVIOUR OF CHILDREN FROM DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bateva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of my research in the paper are the children from dysfunctional families, primarily their delinquent behavior, education and moral, actually, who takes care of them and who undertakes the family roles and whether this care is sufficient for building these personalities.This research approaches towards the study of the delinquent behavior of children from dysfunctional families. It examines to what extent the educational level of parents, the material condition, the health condition, the leisure time, the average monthly income of the family, the available permanent goods, the educational resources, the social communications within the very family, all affect the delinquent behavior of children from dysfunctional families. 

  5. Parenting practices as predictors of substance use, delinquency, and aggression among urban minority youth: moderating effects of family structure and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, K W; Botvin, G J; Scheier, L M; Diaz, T; Miller, N L

    2000-06-01

    This study examined how parenting factors were associated with adolescent problem behaviors among urban minority youth and to what extent these relationships were moderated by family structure and gender. Sixth-grade students (N = 228) reported how often they use alcohol, smoke cigarettes, or engage in aggressive or delinquent behaviors; a parent or guardian reported their monitoring and other parenting practices. Findings indicated that boys and those from single-parent families engaged in the highest rates of problem behavior. More parental monitoring was associated with less delinquency overall, as well as less drinking in boys only. Eating family dinners together was associated with less aggression overall, as well as less delinquency in youth from single-parent families and in girls. Unsupervised time at home alone was associated with more smoking for girls only. Implications for prevention interventions are discussed.

  6. Associations Between Long-Term Gang Membership and Informal Social Control Processes, Drug Use, and Delinquent Behavior Among Mexican American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Alice; Saint Onge, Jarron M; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Valdez, Avelardo

    2016-10-01

    Research has found that among juveniles weak ties to informal social control entities such as parents, school, and conventional peers increase the probability of the initiation and continuation of deviant behaviors such as drug use and crime. Given the weak ties of formal social control mechanisms in highly disadvantaged communities, informal social control mechanisms are often an important deterrent that reduce or moderate engagement in deviant behaviors among serious and persistent offenders. This analysis examines the association between long-term gang membership and adolescent informal social control processes, drug use, and delinquency. This research is based on data from a study of 160 Mexican American male gang members between the ages of 16 and 20. Findings suggest that among gang members in this context, commonly studied informal control mechanisms such as the family and schools do not function to deter long-term gang membership that is associated with serious criminal and violent behavior and drug use. The implications for future research on desistance or continuation of antisocial behavior across the life course are discussed.

  7. Children with behavioral problems and motor problems have a worse neurological condition than children with behavioral problems only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Lieke H. J.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some evidence suggests that children with specific behavioral problems are at risk for motor problems. It is unclear whether neurological condition plays a role in the propensity of children with behavioral problems to develop Motor problems. Aims: To examine the relation between

  8. Behavior Disorders in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Herbert C.

    1978-01-01

    The research findings of most studies on student behavior problems have shown that these behaviors can be reduced to four major clusters of interrelated characteristics--conduct disorder, personality disorder, inadequacy-immaturity and socialized delinquency. Discusses these behaviors and some research on behavior change. (Author/RK)

  9. Different Slopes for Different Folks: Genetic Influences on Growth in Delinquent Peer Association and Delinquency During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A; Nedelec, Joseph L; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C

    2015-07-01

    An extensive line of research has identified delinquent peer association as a salient environmental risk factor for delinquency, especially during adolescence. While previous research has found moderate-to-strong associations between exposure to delinquent peers and a variety of delinquent behaviors, comparatively less scholarship has focused on the genetic architecture of this association over the course of adolescence. Using a subsample of kinship pairs (N = 2379; 52% female) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child and Young Adult Supplement (CNLSY), the present study examined the extent to which correlated individual differences in starting levels and developmental growth in delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency were explained by additive genetic and environmental influences. Results from a series of biometric growth models revealed that 37% of the variance in correlated growth between delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency was explained by additive genetic effects, while nonshared environmental effects accounted for the remaining 63% of the variance. Implications of these findings for interpreting the nexus between peer effects and adolescent delinquency are discussed.

  10. D-amphetamine and delinquency: hyperkinesis persisting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletzky, B M

    1974-12-01

    The clinical efficacy of d-amphetamine for delinquent behavior in adolescents and the relationships between such delinquency and hyperactivity of childhood were explored employing the methods of sequential analysis. Fourteen subject pairs of delinquent teenagers were examined, and a significant positive effect documented for d-amphetamine as compared to placebo when both were added to an ongoing psychotherapeutic regimen. Tolerance, withdrawal, and euphoria were not associated with d-amphetamine's use in the experimental subjects. Parallels were drawn between d-amphetamine' s effects in delinquent adolescents and hyperactive children; a re-analysis of the data demonstrated surprisingly close links between a history or presence of hyperactive traits and a clinical response to d-amphetamine. Difficulties in employing d-amphetamine in this age group are acknowledged and suggestions for further research offered. The notion that children "outgrow" hyperactivity may be simplistic: hyperactive children as teenagers may not be overly active; however, they continue to manifest behavioral difficulties, primarily of an antisocial nature. While this may be partially explained on the basis of negative aspects in their upbringing, there is some evidence of hereditary and neurologic mechanisms at fault. One method of documenting continuing neurologic dysfunction in the hyperactive child turned teenager is by direct examination. A number of investigators have demonstrated electroencephalographic abnormalities in juvenile delinquents, many of whom had histories of hyperactivity as children. More recently, this kind of individual has been shown to suffer some frontal lobe dysfunction and to manifest subtle, but definite, abnormalities on intensive neurological examination. Continuing central nervous system dysfunction in delinquency might also be demonstrated by pharmacologic means: should delinquent adolescents respond to drugs that help the hyperactive child, similar mechanisms

  11. Behavioral problems in children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Novriska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that most often affects children. Most cases of epilepsy are found in developing countries. Children with epilepsy are at risk of behavioral disorders that can affect their quality of life. Studies on behavioral problems in children with epilepsy have been limited in Indonesia. Objective To compare behavioral disorders in children with epilepsy to those in normal children, and to assess for possible factors associated with the occurrence of behavioral disorders. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 47 children with epilepsy and 46 children without epilepsy, aged 3-16 years. Behavioral problems were screened with the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ, Indonesian version. Information about EEG description, medication, onset, and duration of epilepsy were obtained from medical records. Results Behavioral problems were found in 19.1% of children with epilepsy and only in 2.2 % of children without epilepsy (PR 8.8; 95%CI 1.16 to 66.77; P= 0.015. Significant differences were also found in the percentage of conduct problems and emotional disorders. Multivariate analysis with logistic regression revealed that the factors associated with behavioral disorders in children with epilepsy were uncontrolled epilepsy (PR 13.9; 95%CI 1.45 to 132.4; P=0.023 and focal EEG appearance (PR 19; 95%CI 1.71 to 214.43; P=0.017. We also found that uncontrolled epilepsy was a factor related to emotional (PR 6.7; 95%CI 1.66 to 26.76; P=0.007 and conduct problems (PR 6.1; 95%CI 1.35 to 27.29; P=0.019. Conclusion Uncontrolled epilepsy and focal EEG results are factors associated with increased risk of behavioral problems in children with epilepsy. Children with epilepsy should undergo behavioral disorder screening, followed by diagnosis confirmation and treatment. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:324-9.].

  12. Positive Youth Development, Life Satisfaction and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents in Intact and Non-Intact Families in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tan Lei Shek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and risk behavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies, life satisfaction, and risk behavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior. Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of risk behaviors than those growing up in intact families.

  13. DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A; Rulison, Kelly; Moody, James

    2011-02-01

    Gangs and group-level processes were once central phenomena for criminological theory and research. By the mid-1970's, however, gang research was primarily displaced by studies of individual behavior using randomized self-report surveys, a shift that also removed groups from the theoretical foreground. In this project, we return to the group level to test competing theoretical claims about delinquent group structure. We use network-based clustering methods to identify 897 friendship groups in two ninth grade cohorts of 27 Pennsylvania and Iowa schools. We then relate group-level measures of delinquency and drinking to network measures of group size, friendship reciprocity, transitivity, structural cohesion, stability, average popularity, and network centrality. We find significant negative correlations between group delinquency and all of our network measures, suggesting that delinquent groups are less solidary and less central to school networks than non-delinquent groups. Further analyses, however, reveal that these correlations are primarily explained by other group characteristics, such as gender composition and socioeconomic status. Drinking behaviors, on the other hand, show net positive associations with most of the network measures, suggesting that drinking groups have higher status and are more internally cohesive than non-drinking groups. Our findings shed light on a longstanding criminological debate by suggesting that any structural differences between delinquent and non-delinquent groups may be attributable to other attributes coincidental with delinquency. In contrast, drinking groups appear to provide peer contexts of greater social capital and cohesion.

  14. DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.; Rulison, Kelly; Moody, James

    2010-01-01

    Gangs and group-level processes were once central phenomena for criminological theory and research. By the mid-1970's, however, gang research was primarily displaced by studies of individual behavior using randomized self-report surveys, a shift that also removed groups from the theoretical foreground. In this project, we return to the group level to test competing theoretical claims about delinquent group structure. We use network-based clustering methods to identify 897 friendship groups in two ninth grade cohorts of 27 Pennsylvania and Iowa schools. We then relate group-level measures of delinquency and drinking to network measures of group size, friendship reciprocity, transitivity, structural cohesion, stability, average popularity, and network centrality. We find significant negative correlations between group delinquency and all of our network measures, suggesting that delinquent groups are less solidary and less central to school networks than non-delinquent groups. Further analyses, however, reveal that these correlations are primarily explained by other group characteristics, such as gender composition and socioeconomic status. Drinking behaviors, on the other hand, show net positive associations with most of the network measures, suggesting that drinking groups have higher status and are more internally cohesive than non-drinking groups. Our findings shed light on a longstanding criminological debate by suggesting that any structural differences between delinquent and non-delinquent groups may be attributable to other attributes coincidental with delinquency. In contrast, drinking groups appear to provide peer contexts of greater social capital and cohesion. PMID:21572969

  15. Sensory integrative processing in delinquent-prone and non-delinquent-prone adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchiang, S P; Snyder, C; Zobel-Lachiusa, J; Loeffler, C B; Thompson, M E

    1990-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to obtain a preliminary description of the sensory integrative and practic abilities of 114 non-delinquent-prone adolescents aged 12 through 18 years and to compare their performances with those of 12 delinquent-prone adolescents with learning problems. Ten of the 17 subtests of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) (Ayres, 1989) as well as the Finger Posture Imitation Test (Druker, 1980) and the MacQuarrie Test for Mechanical Ability (MacQuarrie, 1925/1953) were administered to both groups. It was hypothesized that performance on some tests would correlate with age in the non-delinquent-prone adolescents. It was also hypothesized that some delinquent-prone adolescents with learning problems would perform significantly worse on the tests of sensory integrative and practic abilities than would the non-delinquent-prone adolescents. A data analysis indicated that performance on the praxis tests, Manual Form Perception, Graphesthesia, and Bilateral Motor Coordination showed a significant age correlation. The results of this study indicated a difference between the two groups, and it was concluded that the delinquent-prone group performed more poorly on all of the praxis-related tests and on the absolute values of the tests of Postrotary Nystagmus, Standing and Walking Balance, and Bilateral Motor Coordination. Some of the vestibular- and praxis-related tests, therefore, may still provide useful information on children older than 8 years of age.

  16. Behavioral/Emotional Problems of Preschoolers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, L.A.; Achenbach, T.M.; Ivanova, M.Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested societal effects on caregiver/teacher ratings of behavioral/emotional problems for 10,521 preschoolers from 15 societies. Many societies had problem scale scores within a relatively narrow range, despite differences in language, culture, and other characteristics. The small age...... and gender effects were quite similar across societies. The rank orders of mean item ratings were similar across diverse societies. For 7,380 children from 13 societies, ratings were also obtained from a parent. In all 13 societies, mean Total Problems scores derived from parent ratings were significantly...... higher than mean Total Problems scores derived from caregiver/teacher ratings, although the size of the difference varied somewhat across societies. Mean cross-informant agreement for problem scale scores varied across societies. Societies were very similar with respect to which problem items, on average...

  17. Vividness of the future self predicts delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, Jean-Louis; Hershfield, Hal E; Nordgren, Loran F

    2013-06-01

    The tendency to live in the here and now, and the failure to think through the delayed consequences of behavior, is one of the strongest individual-level correlates of delinquency. We tested the hypothesis that this correlation results from a limited ability to imagine one's self in the future, which leads to opting for immediate gratification. Strengthening the vividness of the future self should therefore reduce involvement in delinquency. We tested and found support for this hypothesis in two studies. In Study 1, compared with participants in a control condition, those who wrote a letter to their future self were less inclined to make delinquent choices. In Study 2, participants who interacted with a realistic digital version of their future, age-progressed self in a virtual environment were less likely than control participants to cheat on a subsequent task.

  18. Robot response behaviors to accommodate hearing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroon, Jered; Kim, Jaebok; Koster, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    One requirement that arises for a social (semi-autonomous telepresence) robot aimed at conversations with the elderly, is to accommodate hearing problems. In this paper we compare two approaches to this requirement; (1) moving closer, mimicking the leaning behavior commonly observed in elderly with

  19. Parental divorce and adolescent delinquency: ruling out the impact of common genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S Alexandra; Barnes, Ashlee R; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2008-11-01

    Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and increases the risk that the parent will experience divorce. To test these alternative hypotheses, the authors made use of a novel design that incorporated timing of divorce in a sample of 610 adoptive and biological families. They reasoned that if genes common to parent and child mediate this association, nonadopted youth should manifest increased delinquency in the presence of parental divorce even if the divorce preceded their birth (i.e., was from a prior parental relationship). However, should the association be environmental in origin, the authors reasoned that adolescents should manifest increased delinquency only in response to divorce exposure, and this association should not vary by adoption status. Results firmly supported the latter, suggesting that it is the experience of parental divorce, and not common genes, that drives the association between divorce and adolescent delinquency.

  20. Codevelopment of Delinquent and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence: Time-Invariant and Time-Varying Effects of School and Social Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Calamai, Giulia; Menesini, Ersilia

    2012-01-01

    The codevelopment of delinquent behaviors and depressive symptoms from Grade 9 to 11 was investigated on an Italian sample of 518 adolescents (399 male) after the transition to high school, evaluating the time-invariant effects of past school failure and social failure and the time-varying effects of school achievement and social problems.…

  1. Impact of Brief Intervention Services on Drug-Using Truant Youths' Self-Reported Delinquency and Arrest Charges: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Schmeidler, James; Wareham, Jennifer; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocio

    2016-01-01

    The issue of delinquency among truant youths is insufficiently documented in the literature. There is a need to elucidate this issue, and assess the efficacy of interventions to reduce this problem behavior. The present National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded study addressed this gap by examining the impact of a Brief Intervention (BI),…

  2. Spatial Analysis of Urban Delinquency in 22 Regions of Tehran Megapolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSpatial analysis of urban delinquency at the level of regions and providing security is one of the basic factors in optimum urban management. Spatial analysis of urban delinquency and interpretation of its distribution in different locations make it possible to organize and manage spaces. Tehran megalopolis, with 22 municipality regions had the highest rate urban delinquency in Iran in recent years. Preliminary study of documents at the department of social issues, located at police organization show that data related to urban delinquency are collected for each year. Data reflects this fact that one of the most important social and security problems in Tehran are the high number of delinquency and crime. On the basis of daily police report, about 15 to 20 house thefts occur in Tehran. This problem leads to devoting considerable amounts of budget and human resources to control and to provide security. Also, the problem of crime, individual and group fights, theft, stealing from pockets, car and motor cycle theft, social corruption specially, rape, drug and alcoholic beverages sales are the most important among urban delinquencies. Some of these problems are very important for police force, considering the political- security, social and cultural dimensions. Therefore, it is necessary to study and analyze the distribution of delinquency and its types in different regions of Tehran city. It can be considered as the first step to prevent and control urban delinquency. Therefore, these questions were answered in this research:1-How is the distribution of delinquencies in 22 municipality regions of Tehran city?2-How are the reciprocal relationships of the urban delinquencies in these 22 regions?3-What are the relations between distributions of urban delinquencies with population density in these 22 regions?To confront the problem, considering the literature review, urban delinquencies were analyzed at two spatial levels: 1- Micro

  3. Prevalence and Development of Child Delinquency. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Howard N.; Espiritu, Rachele C.; Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuk, David

    The number of child delinquents entering the juvenile justice system is increasing, as evidenced by rising arrest rates and court caseloads. Compared with adolescents who become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents between the ages of 7 and 12 have a two- to threefold greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic…

  4. Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  5. Ethnic Differences in the Effect of Parenting on Gang Involvement and Gang Delinquency: A Longitudinal, Hierarchical Linear Modeling Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency among ninth-graders. Found that gang involvement decreased over the school year, with average levels of gang delinquency remaining constant. Gang involvement and gang-related delinquency were most strongly predicted by…

  6. Delinquency Prevention Works. Program Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilchik, Shay

    The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) compiled this summary in order to assist states and jurisdictions in their delinquency prevention efforts. The summary provides a synthesis of current information on a broad range of programs and strategies which seek to prevent delinquency. The theory of risk-focused prevention is…

  7. Traumatic Stress Among Seriously Delinquent Youth: Considering the Consequences of Neighborhood Circumstance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggers, Jeremiah W; Prattini, Robert J; Church, Wesley T

    2016-09-01

    Myriad factors have been found to have an impact on delinquent behavior and traumatic stress. This study proposes a model that tests the relationship between common predictors of delinquency (neighborhood condition, antisocial peer socialization, and exposure to violence) with traumatic stress. Serial mediation was used to test the relationships between these predictors and traumatic stress. Results indicate the mediation effect between neighborhood conditions and traumatic stress significantly reduces the total effect. Implications for traumatic stress in the context of delinquent behavior are discussed.

  8. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: A study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Eslami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire and interrelations among them based on Jessor′s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory. Methods: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. Results: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The a range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. Conclusions: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents.

  9. Emotional And Behavioral Problems of Single Parent Vs. Two Parent Children: Imam Khomeini Charity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hajebi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this survey is to compare the emotional and behavioral problems of children with only one parent versus those from two-parent families. We analyzed behavioral problems such as aggression, delinquency and socialization issues, as well as emotional problems such as depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints.Methods: Using a multi-stage cluster sampling, 10 of the 20 geographic regions covered by Imam Khomeini Charity were selected. Using systematic random sampling, 460 families with children aged 4-18 years were selected. All children were evaluated using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL to determine behavioral and emotional problems. Logistic regression tests were conducted to measure the effects variables, including age, gender, number of parents in the family, psychiatric history of each child and history of parental psychiatric treatment, on the internalizing, externalizing and total CBCL scores. A cut-off score of 64 was used to convert raw scores.Results: No differences were observed in CBCL subscales between single-parent children vs. children of two-parent families.Conclusion: Regarding the two-parent families among the study population, the results could not be generalized. As these families have qualified for assistance, the father cannot manage the family because of his disability, such as physical or mental problems. This minimizes the effect of having a father in a two-parent family, rendering them similar to single-parent families. Thus, differences were not observed between the two types of families. Further studies are necessary to compare single-parent families with two-parent families among the community.

  10. DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Structure in Disaster-Exposed Adolescents: Stability across Gender and Relation to Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xing; Wang, Li; Cao, Chengqi; Zhang, Jianxin; Elhai, Jon D

    2017-05-01

    Given the significant modifications to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom criteria from DSM-IV to DSM-5, a better understanding of the dimensionality underlying DSM-5 PTSD symptoms among adolescents is needed. However, to date, whether gender moderates the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in youth remains unclear. Meanwhile, little is known about how distinct PTSD dimensions relate to adolescent behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to fill these gaps. A sample of 1184 disaster-exposed Chinese adolescents (53.8 % girls) with age ranging from 13 to 17 years (M = 14.3, SD = 0.8) completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, and the Withdrawn, Aggressive Behavior, and Delinquent Behavior subscales of the Youth Self-Report. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the seven-factor hybrid PTSD model provided the best fit to the data for both girls and boys. Measurement equivalence of this model held across gender, although girls had higher mean scores than boys on some factors. Differential patterns of associations emerged between PTSD dimensions and behavioral problems, with anhedonia symptoms most strongly relating to social withdrawal, and externalizing behavior symptoms most strongly relating to aggression and delinquency. These findings further support the gender invariance and external criterion validity of the newly refined hybrid model that best represents DSM-5 PTSD symptom structure in youth, and carry implications for accurate assessment, diagnosis, and gender comparison of DSM-5 PTSD symptomatology, and potential symptom targets for PTSD intervention among adolescent disaster survivors.

  11. Ant Foraging Behavior for Job Shop Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahad Diyana Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is a new algorithm approach, inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants. It has frequently been applied to many optimization problems and one such problem is in solving the job shop problem (JSP. The JSP is a finite set of jobs processed on a finite set of machine where once a job initiates processing on a given machine, it must complete processing and uninterrupted. In solving the Job Shop Scheduling problem, the process is measure by the amount of time required in completing a job known as a makespan and minimizing the makespan is the main objective of this study. In this paper, we developed an ACO algorithm to minimize the makespan. A real set of problems from a metal company in Johor bahru, producing 20 parts with jobs involving the process of clinching, tapping and power press respectively. The result from this study shows that the proposed ACO heuristics managed to produce a god result in a short time.

  12. Child Delinquency and Pupils' Academic Performance in Fumesua Municipal Assembly Primary School in the Ejisu-Juaben Municipality, Ashanti Region, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyansah, Samuel Tieku; Soku, Rejoice; Esilfie, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted purposely to examine child delinquency on pupils' academic performance. Fumesua Municipal Assembly (M/A) primary school was used as the case study for the research. The specific objectives of the study are to find out the factors that contribute to child delinquent behavior, identify, if delinquent behavior influence…

  13. Examining Associations between Narcissism, Behavior Problems, and Anxiety in Non-Referred Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational…

  14. Examining Associations between Narcissism, Behavior Problems, and Anxiety in Non-Referred Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational…

  15. School, Alienation, and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liazos, Alexander

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter states that social scientists and others have argued that schools contribute to delinquency by their failure to prepare students properly for later life. It follows that the solution is better schools and better education. The author argues that schools make…

  16. Psychotherapy for Delinquents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Ian; Sullivan, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Presents the results of a psychotherapy consultation service for delinquents (n=47). Based on data obtained from this program and a review of relevant literature, a working model of individual psychotherapy related to attachment theory as it applies to this population is presented. Discusses difficulties that warrant resolution. (JPS)

  17. Mothers' night work and children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle A; Su, Jessica Houston

    2013-10-01

    Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9-5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. In the present article, we used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3-5 years) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children's behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers' night shift work. We employed 3 analytic strategies with various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provided an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children's behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious or depressed behavior in children compared with children whose mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts.

  18. Brief Intervention Impact on Truant Youth Attitudes to School and School Behavior Problems: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C; Ungaro, Rocío; Schmeidler, James

    2014-01-01

    Truancy continues to be a major problem, affecting most school districts in the U.S. Truancy is related to school dropout, with associated adverse consequences, including unemployment and delinquency. It is important to obtain a more complete picture of truants' educational experience. First, the present study sought to examine the longitudinal growth (increasing/decreasing trend) in truant youths' attitudes toward school and misbehavior in school (disobedience, inappropriate behavior, skipping school). Second, this study focused on examining the impact of a Brief Intervention (BI) targeting the youths' substance use, as well as socio-demographic and background covariates, on their attitudes toward school and school behavior problems over time. A linear growth model was found to fit the attitudes toward school longitudinal data, suggesting the youths' attitudes toward school are related across time. An auto-regressive lag model was estimated for each of the school misbehaviors, indicating that, once initiated, youth continued to engage in them. Several socio-demographic covariates effects were found on the youths' attitudes towards school and school misbehaviors over time. However, no significant, overall BI effects were uncovered. Some statistically significant intervention effects were found at specific follow-up points for some school misbehaviors, but none were significant when applying the Holm procedure taking account of the number of follow-ups. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. 國中學生偏差行為之研究:社會資本的觀點 Delinquent Behaviors of Junior High School Students: A Social Capital Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    謝志龍 Chih-Lung Hsieh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 本文使用封閉性網絡與擴展性網絡兩種不同的社會資本型式,探討親代與子代的社會網絡對國中學生偏差行為的影響。前者指父母網絡,是由父母、子女同學以及子女同學的父母共同形塑出有效規範與訊息傳遞的封閉性網絡,它隱含父母主導子女行動模式的權力與態度。後者指同儕網絡,是青少年所擁有的朋友之數量與品質而開展出向外聯繫的擴展性網絡,具有多元、複雜與異質的特色。研究結果如下:第一,父母網絡對於國中學生的偏差行為不具影響力,代間封閉性網絡並非是有效理解國中青少年偏差行為的機制。第二,國中學生所結交的朋友相當重要,擴展性的「負向」同儕網絡 會加劇青少年的偏差行為,但擴展性的「正向」同儕網絡則會減緩青少年的偏差行為。 This paper was aimed to explore the impact that social capital had on the delinquency of junior high school students. It was expected that both closure and expansion of social networks would play active roles in the formation of children’s behaviors. The former referred to parental networks that seemed to have the authority to control children’s behaviors in schools, and the later referred to adolescents’ ego-networks. When adolescents’ friends were more diverse and from mixed backgrounds, peer networks might affect their behaviors. The results showed that peer networks had a significant effect on adolescent delinquency. While “negative” peers could worsen the degree of delinquency, “positive” peers appeared to exert positive influence on their deviated behaviors. Parental networks, on the other hand, had no significant connection with junior high school students’ delinquency.

  20. 青少年犯罪的影响因素分析%Analysis of Influenting Factors of Juvenile Delinquency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金灿灿; 邹泓

    2012-01-01

    目的:分析和评估影响青少年犯罪的因素.方法:采用社会问题解决技能问卷、亲子冲突问卷、师生关系问卷、友谊质量问卷、青少年生活事件核查表和问题行为问卷对来自上海和昆明的549名犯罪青少年和555名普通青少年进行测量.结果:问题行为、母亲受教育程度、父亲受教育程度、日常生活事件次数能显著预测青少年犯罪的概率,预测力依次降低.结论:干预青少年犯罪需从个体、家庭、学校和社会各方面同时入手.%Objective: To explore the influenting factors of juvenile delinquency. Methods: The demographic question-naire, Social Problem Skill Scale, Parent-child Conflict Scale, Teacher-student Relationship Scale, Friendship Quality Scale, ASLEC, Problem behavior Scale were used to investigate the 548 juvenile delinquents and 555 normal adolescents from Shanghai and Kunming. Results: Problem behavior, parents' educational level and the frequency of ordinary life events could predict observably the probability of juvenile delinquency, the prediction effect of the above factors decreased in turn. Conclusion: It is considered to reduce problem behavior and criminal behavior from the aspects of individual, family, school and society, so as to prevent juvenile delinquents.

  1. Parental characteristics, parenting style, and behavioral problems among chinese children with Down syndrome, their siblings and controls in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Lee, Ming-Been

    2008-09-01

    The literature has documented maternal distress and behavioral problems among children with Down syndrome (DS), however, little is known about paternal adjustment and behavioural problems among the siblings of children with DS. Here, we examined parental psychopathology, parenting style and emotional/behavioral problems among children with DS, their siblings, and controls in Taiwan. We recruited 45 families of children with DS (age, 2-4 years) and 50 families of normally developing children (age, 3-5 years). If there were more than two children in the case family, the sibling whose age was closest to the child with DS was recruited (age, 3-8 years). Both parents completed self-administered measures of their personality characteristics, psychopathology, family functioning, parenting styles, and child behavioral problems, using the Chinese versions of the Maudsley Personality Inventory, Brief Symptom Rating Scale, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Child Behavioral Checklist, respectively. Children with DS demonstrated significantly more severe symptoms than normal children of a wide range of behavioral problems such as attention problems, delinquency, social problems, somatic complaints, thought problems, and withdrawal compared with the other two groups, and obtained similar parental treatment, except for paternal overprotection. Their parents suffered from more psychopathology and their mothers were less often employed than their counterparts. The siblings of children with DS obtained less overprotection from their mothers than children with DS and less maternal care and control than normal children. There was no difference in emotional/behavioral problems between the siblings and normal controls. Our findings suggest that in addition to the physical, educational and psychological needs of children with DS, the psychological care of their mothers, fathers and siblings also needs to be evaluated. Moreover, parenting

  2. Behavioral Problems in the Classroom and Underlying Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommerdahl, Jodi; Semingson, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Dealing with the behavioral problems of students is one of many dimensions of most educators' and schools' requirements. While research has repeatedly shown that a large number of children with behavior problems have underlying, unrecognized language difficulties, few schools have implemented programs where children with problem behavior are…

  3. Health and problem behavior among people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael E; Kennedy, Craig H

    2010-01-01

    Good health significantly improves a person's quality of life. However, people with intellectual disabilities disproportionately have more health problems than the general population. Further complicating the matter is that people with more severe disabilities often cannot verbalize health complications they are experiencing, which leads to health problems being undiagnosed and untreated. It is plausible these conditions can interact with reinforcement contingencies to maintain problem behavior because of the increased incidence of health problems among people with intellectual disabilities. This paper reviews common health problems influencing problem behavior and reinforcement processes. A clear implication of this review is the need for comprehensive functional assessments of problem behavior involving behavior analysts and health professionals.

  4. The Longitudinal Effects of Behavioral Problems on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Phuong Anna

    2012-01-01

    Students' behavior and emotional well being are instrumental for their success in the school setting. The present study examined the effects of behavioral problems on the academic performance of students three years later. The behavioral problems consisted of individual externalizing, internalizing, and inattentive behaviors. Next, this study…

  5. Neighborhood disorder, individual protective factors, and the risk of adolescent delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Wilma J

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, violent and delinquent behaviors have been addressed by the criminal justice system, with the focus being secondary and tertiary interventions. During the last decade, the focus on violence as a public health issue has increased. The purpose of this research was to examine how individual protective factors for adolescent delinquency varied according to neighborhood quality. The researcher conducted a secondary data analysis, using data from the National Youth Survey A total of 1,621 adolescents comprised the sample. The majority of the respondents participated in some type of delinquent behavior, with more Blacks reporting participation in violent behaviors. There was a positive relationship between academic history and no participation in delinquent behavior. The regression model for violent delinquency accounted for 10% of the variance in the disordered neighborhoods. Primary prevention efforts, commonly used by public health nurses, should be aimed at eliminating risk factors such as those found in disordered neighborhoods.

  6. Blood manganese levels in relation to comorbid behavioral and emotional problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Kim, Jae-Won; Choi, Bum-Sung; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Eun-Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Cho, In-Hee; Bhang, Soo-Young; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2014-12-15

    Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appear to be more vulnerable to the development of other psychiatric disorders than the general population. The proposed neurotoxic mechanisms of manganese involve striatal dopamine neurotransmission, implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD. We investigated whether the adverse impact of manganese is particularly pronounced in children with ADHD. Blood manganese concentration and diagnosis of ADHD were assessed in a general population of 890 children, aged 8-11 years. The main outcome measure was the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). A significant interaction was found between ADHD status and blood manganese level in predicting CBCL total problems score as well as anxiety/depression, social problems, delinquent behavior, aggressive behavior, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. The directions of the interactions indicated that blood manganese level was more positively correlated with CBCL scores in ADHD children than in the healthy population. In ADHD children, only the fifth quintile of blood manganese concentration was significantly associated with the CBCL total problems score. ADHD children may be more vulnerable than the general school-age population to the neurotoxic effects of manganese exposure, which lead to an elevated risk of developing comorbid mental conditions.

  7. 性罪错人员的社会、心理和行为及性病危险因素研究%The risk factors of community, mentality and behavior in sexual delinquency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓斌; 戴永江; 岳筱雯; 林岷格; 曾慧明

    2009-01-01

    目的:了解海口市性罪错人员的社会、心理和行为及性病危险因素.方法:对2007~2008年海口市所辖收教所的2 674名性罪错人员进行体检以及性病实验室检测,并采用预先设计好的问卷,进行开放性面对面问答.结果:在2 674名被检测者中.共检出1 695名学员感染性病,检出率为63.39%.其中HIV感染者8例,男、女学员各4例.女学员性病检出率明显高于男学员;调查显示文化水平低下、性及STD知识匮乏、婚恋受挫、家庭破裂、性道德扭曲、经济利益驱动和精神空虚,是性罪错人员的主要因素;性罪错人员感染性病多与未婚,性伴多而不固定,不坚持使用避孕套,STD知识匮乏有关.结论:性罪错人员是性病的重要传染源,加强对性罪错人员的性病流行病学监测及健康教育是预防和控制性病流行的有效措施之一.%Objective: To find out the risk factors of community, mentality and behavior in sexual delinquency. Methods: Physical examination, laboratory tests of STD and open face-to-face inquiry by predesigned questionnaire were performed on 2 674 sexual delinquency persons accommodated between 2007-2008 in Haikou asylums. Results: 1 695 cases(63.39%) of all sexual delinquency persons were found to be STD patients or carriers. There were 8 HIV-positive samples among these people. The detected ratio in female was higher than male. The main risk factors in sexual delinquency include: low-levels of education, poor knowledge of STD, disappointment in love and marriage, breakdown of family, demoralization in sexual behavior and emotional emptiness. The STD infection had correlation with multiple and unstable sexual partners, ir-regular use of condom and shortage of STD knowledge. Conclusion: Sexual delinquency people are major contagiums. Epi-demiological surveillance and health education of sexual delinquency people are important measures to prevent and control the prevailing trend of STD.

  8. Parenting Practices as Predictors of Substance Use, Delinquency, and Aggression Among Urban Minority Youth: Moderating Effects of Family Structure and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Lawrence M. Scheier; Diaz, Tracy; Miller, Nicole L.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined how parenting factors were associated with adolescent problem behaviors among urban minority youth and to what extent these relationships were moderated by family structure and gender. Sixth-grade students (N = 228) reported how often they use alcohol, smoke cigarettes, or engage in aggressive or delinquent behaviors; a parent or guardian reported their monitoring and other parenting practices. Findings indicated that boys and those from single-parent families engaged in t...

  9. The Relationships of Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana, and Other Illegal Drug Use to Delinquency among Mexican-American, Black, and White Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, W. David; Wright, Loyd S.

    1990-01-01

    Examined relationship between drug use and delinquent behavior among 348 high school males and 89 adjudicated delinquent males in maximum-security facility for violent and repeat offenders. Self-reported alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and other illegal drug use were all significantly related to minor and violent delinquency for all 3 racial groups…

  10. Person × Environment Interactions on Adolescent Delinquency: Sensation Seeking, Peer Deviance and Parental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2015-04-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior.

  11. The Impact of Family Violence, Family Functioning, and Parental Partner Dynamics on Korean Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the family factors related to juvenile delinquency and identifying the effect of family violence, family functioning, parental partner dynamics, and adolescents' personality on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-reporting…

  12. Delinquency and Peer Acceptance in Adolescence: A Within-Person Test of Moffitt's Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L.; Kreager, Derek A.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    We tested 2 hypotheses derived from Moffitt's (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. We tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent…

  13. Delinquency and Peer Acceptance in Adolescence: A Within-Person Test of Moffitt's Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L.; Kreager, Derek A.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    We tested 2 hypotheses derived from Moffitt's (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. We tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent…

  14. Parenting styles, self-control and male juvenile delinquency: The mediating role of self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exter Blokland, E.A.W. den; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Finkenauer, C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important environmental factors in explaining adolescent delinquency is the young offender's family It is therefore crucial to examine which aspects of parenting predict delinquent behavior in adolescents. An important study of Feldman and Weinberger on the direct link between

  15. Parenting styles, self-control and male juvenile delinquency: The mediating role of self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exter Blokland, E.A.W. den; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Finkenauer, C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important environmental factors in explaining adolescent delinquency is the young offender's family It is therefore crucial to examine which aspects of parenting predict delinquent behavior in adolescents. An important study of Feldman and Weinberger on the direct link between parent

  16. Sex Differences in Overt Aggression and Delinquency among Urban Minority Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2006-01-01

    Given the recent debate over whether differential pathways to overt aggression and delinquency exist between boys and girls, this study examined sex differences in overt aggressive and delinquent acts along with potential differences in precursors (anger, self-control, family disruption) to antisocial behaviors among a sample of urban minority…

  17. Special Education Disabilities and Juvenile Delinquency: A Unique Challenge for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Christopher A.; Stoddard-Dare, Patricia; Workman-Crewnshaw, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In pursuit of their mission to augment the educational process, school social workers provide service to special education students and to youths at risk for juvenile delinquency. This paper builds on previous literature that has looked at the relationship between special education disabilities and youths offending behaviors and delinquency. In…

  18. Parent and Peer Pathways to Adolescent Delinquency: Variations by Ethnicity and Neighborhood Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Arielle R.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wolff, Jennifer M.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of ethnicity and neighborhood quality often are confounded in research on adolescent delinquent behavior. This study examined the pathways to delinquency among 2,277 African American and 5,973 European American youth residing in high-risk and low-risk neighborhoods. Using data from a national study of youth, a meditational model was tested…

  19. Juvenile Delinquency and Attention Deficit Disorder: Boys' Developmental Trajectories from Age 3 to Age 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    1990-01-01

    In this study of developmental precursors of adolescent behavior, the developmental trajectories of 435 boys from ages 3 through 15 were traced for selected correlates of delinquency (childhood antisocial behavior, low verbal intelligence, reading difficulty, and family adversity). (PCB)

  20. Personality, Delinquency, and Criminal Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Coleta; De Bruyn, Eric E. J.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between PEN profiles, delinquency, and recidivism in young offenders. According to Eysenck, personality is based on three basic Dimensions: Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism (PEN-model). Eysenck states that delinquents score high on all three dimensions. A group of young male offenders in a juvenile…

  1. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  2. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  3. Problem Behavior and Romantic Relationships: Assortative Mating, Behavior Contagion, and Desistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhule-Louie, Dana M.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Antisocial behavior and substance misuse are forms of problem behavior demonstrating considerable continuity over time. Accordingly, problem behavior influences interpersonal contexts across the life course, which may result in the replication of coercive interactions and a problem behavior lifestyle within romantic relationships. Furthermore,…

  4. Behavioral Problem Children in the Schools; Recognition, Diagnosis, and Behavioral Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert H.

    Directed primarily for classroom teachers, school counselors, and school psychologists, the book considers the psychology of behavioral problem children and ways of coping with their behavior. Aspects of recognition and diagnosis discussed are the school and the behavioral problem child, causes and characteristics of behavior problems, detection…

  5. Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Corina J

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop's Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments.

  6. Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior Evoked by Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Scott D.; Newchok, Debra K.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of differential negative reinforcement of other behavior (DNRO) on problem behavior evoked by music in a 7-year-old child with pervasive developmental disorder. Following an auditory stimulus assessment, DNRO was used to reduce problem behavior to near-zero levels. Results are discussed in terms of…

  7. Gender-related pathways for behavior problems in the offspring of alcoholic fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furtado E.F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine gender differences in the influence of paternal alcoholism on children's social-emotional development and to determine whether paternal alcoholism is associated with a greater number of externalizing symptoms in the male offspring. From the Mannheim Study of Risk Children, an ongoing longitudinal study of a high-risk population, the developmental data of 219 children [193 (95 boys and 98 girls of non-alcoholic fathers, non-COAs, and 26 (14 boys, 12 girls of alcoholic fathers, COAs] were analyzed from birth to the age of 11 years. Paternal alcoholism was defined according to the ICD-10 categories of alcohol dependence and harmful use. Socio-demographic data, cognitive development, number and severity of behavior problems, and gender-related differences in the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using standardized instruments (IQ tests, Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire and diagnostic interviews. The general linear model analysis revealed a significant overall effect of paternal alcoholism on the number of child psychiatric problems (F = 21.872, d.f. = 1.217, P < 0.001. Beginning at age 2, significantly higher numbers of externalizing symptoms were observed among COAs. In female COAs, a pattern similar to that of the male COAs emerged, with the predominance of delinquent and aggressive behavior. Unlike male COAs, females showed an increase of internalizing symptoms up to age 11 years. Of these, somatic complaints revealed the strongest discriminating effect in 11-year-old females. Children of alcoholic fathers are at high risk for psychopathology. Gender-related differences seem to exist and may contribute to different phenotypes during development from early childhood to adolescence.

  8. Family power structure and identity styles in delinquent and nondelinquent Adolescents: A Comparative study in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khodabakhshi Koolaee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA Background: The present study was conducted to investigate the Family Power Structure (FPS and identity style in delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles in Tehran.Methods: To accomplish the goal of the study, 80 adolescent delinquents of the Correction and Rehabilitation Centers, aged between 15 and 18, were selected following cluster sampling procedure as well as 80 students of secondary school, aged between 15 and 18, in Tehran in 2014. To obtain data, FPS (Saidian, 2004 and Identity Style Inventory (ISI-6G: White et al, 1998 instruments were used. Data was analyzed between these two groups using independent t test, and Chi square test.Results: The findings indicated that there is a significant difference between delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles in FPS and its subscales (P<0.001 and identity style (P<0.001. Moreover, the informational identity style was related to lower levels of delinquency. In addition, a diffuse-evident identity style was found to be related to the delinquency.Conclusion: These findings emphasize that an inappropriate decision-making process pattern in a family has a significant effect on deviant behavior and identity style in adolescents. So, family counselors must pay attention to FPS in the therapeutic interventions (prevention and treatment for adolescent delinquency.Keywords: Parenting; Family; Juvenile Delinquency; Adolescent

  9. Psychosocial adversity, delinquent pathway and internalizing psychopathology in juvenile male offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Ida; Faísca, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a set of risk factors relating to childhood life events and other psychosocial factors that may be associated with criminal indicators and with the prevalence of internalizing psychopathology in a sample of adolescent offenders. Fifty male adolescents in the custody of the Portuguese Juvenile Justice System participated in the study (M=15.8 years of age). The Adolescent Psychopathology Scale - Short Form (APS-SF) was administered in a structured interview format, and the sociodemographic, family and criminal data questionnaire was filled in by the justice professional after consulting the adolescent's file. Forty-six percent of all subjects had previous delinquent behavior. About 32% of the boys had committed violent offenses and 88% acted with peers. Also, the persistence of the delinquent behavior (50% of the offenders), coupled with the increase in the severity of the crimes committed (38% of the sample), suggests that these adolescents were at risk for serious and chronic delinquency at the time of the intervention. About 32% of the participants reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 20% had suicide ideation, and a lower percentage reported other internalizing problems. Institutionalization, maltreatment and conduct problems in childhood, and family risk factors (parental conflict, absence of a father figure, lack of parental control and family substance addiction) were related with the report of internalizing problems. Moreover, the increase in the severity of criminal offenses and living in a correctional facility were associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, interpersonal problems, anxiety and depression. This study draws attention to the importance of assessing indicators of psychopathology and of psychosocial risk in intervention programs with young offenders, but also to the need of family focused interventions in order to help prevent recidivism.

  10. Behavioral problems in deaf populations: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guita Movallali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Studies have found that deaf individuals have higher rates of psychiatric disorders, such as behavioral problems, than those who can hear. The aim of this review was to provide a summary of the literature on behavioral problems, with specific reference to deaf individuals. The objectives of the review were to establish the prevalence of behavioral problems in deaf populations; describe the risk factor for behavioral problems in deaf populations; and describe approaches to intervention and behavioral problems prevention that have been used in deaf populations.Recent Findings: A review of articles published between 1991 and 2013 showed that the prevalence of behavioral problems in deaf people is higher than that of hearing people. Risk factors for behavioral problems in deaf populations include language impairments, communication problems, the role of parents, and the community’s beliefs and attitudes regarding the issue.Conclusion: Given the high prevalence of behavioral problems in deaf people, the effectiveness of prevention strategies should be examined. Consequently, it would be advantageous to increase the availability of specialist mental health services, promote deaf awareness including their abilities, promote awareness and skills development among teachers, staff, and specialists and implement behavior change programs.

  11. Out-of-school care and problem behavior trajectories among low-income adolescents: individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics as added risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Morris, Jodi Eileen; Hernandez, Daphne

    2004-01-01

    Using a developmental systems approach, this study considered longitudinal links between adolescents' out-of-school care experiences and behavioral trajectories within a random sample of 819 adolescents ages 10 to 14 years at Wave 1 from low-income, urban families. Multiple aspects of context were considered, including the location, supervision, and structure of adolescents' care arrangements, as well as parenting practices and perceived neighborhood environments. Regression models indicated that out-of-home care, whether supervised or unsupervised, showed modest longitudinal relations with heightened rates of delinquency, drug and alcohol use, and school problems. Out-of-home care was linked with particularly deleterious outcomes for adolescents with high earlier rates of behavior problems, low parental monitoring, and low perceived neighborhood collective efficacy.

  12. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  13. Behaviorism: part of the problem or part of the solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J G

    1978-01-01

    The form frequently taken by behavior-modification programs is analyzed in terms of the parent science, Behaviorism. Whereas Behaviorism assumes that behavior is the result of contingencies, and that lasting behavior change involves changing the contingencies that give rise to and support the behavior, most behavior-modification programs merely arrange special contingencies in a special environment to eliminate the "problem" behavior. Even when the problem behavior is as widespread as alcoholism and crime, behavior modifiers focus on "fixing" the alcoholic and the criminal, not on changing the societal contingencies that prevail outside the therapeutic environment and continue to produce alcoholics and criminals. The contingencies that shape this method of dealing with behavioral problems are also analyzed, and this analysis leads to a criticism of the current social structure as a behavior control system. Although applied behaviorists have frequently focused on fixing individuals, the science of Behaviorism provides the means to analyze the structures, the system, and the forms of societal control that produce the "problems". PMID:649524

  14. Behaviorism: part of the problem or part of the solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J G

    1978-01-01

    The form frequently taken by behavior-modification programs is analyzed in terms of the parent science, Behaviorism. Whereas Behaviorism assumes that behavior is the result of contingencies, and that lasting behavior change involves changing the contingencies that give rise to and support the behavior, most behavior-modification programs merely arrange special contingencies in a special environment to eliminate the "problem" behavior. Even when the problem behavior is as widespread as alcoholism and crime, behavior modifiers focus on "fixing" the alcoholic and the criminal, not on changing the societal contingencies that prevail outside the therapeutic environment and continue to produce alcoholics and criminals. The contingencies that shape this method of dealing with behavioral problems are also analyzed, and this analysis leads to a criticism of the current social structure as a behavior control system. Although applied behaviorists have frequently focused on fixing individuals, the science of Behaviorism provides the means to analyze the structures, the system, and the forms of societal control that produce the "problems".

  15. Utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, William F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Determined the utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist (BPC) with preschool children. Found the BPC sensitive in differentiating clinical from nonclinical groups. Findings suggest that the Behavior Problem Checklist, although not specifically designed to assess preschool age children, may be effective with this population. (Author)

  16. Problem Behaviors Associated with 15q- Angelman Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David J.; Marston, Geoff

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-three caregivers of persons with Angelman syndrome completed the Aberrant Behavior checklist and Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behavior. Responses indicate that 15q- Angelman syndrome is associated with problems such as lack of speech, over activity, restlessness, and eating and sleeping problems. Inappropriate laughter was only reported…

  17. Sleep and Behavioral Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Sohl, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for sleep disturbance and behavioral dysregulation. However, the relationships between these difficulties are not fully understood. The current study examined the relationships between specific types of sleep and behavioral problems among 81 children with ASD. Sleep problems were…

  18. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  19. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  20. Descriptive Analysis of Teachers' Responses to Problem Behavior Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Laura; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2009-01-01

    The procedures described by Sloman et al. (2005) were extended to an analysis of teachers' responses to problem behavior after they had been taught to withhold potential sources of positive and negative reinforcement following instances of problem behavior. Results were consistent with those reported previously, suggesting that escape from child…

  1. Preventing Problem Behaviors in Young Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivette, Kristine; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Morrier, Michael J.; Lambert, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Young children with disabilities acquire behavior problems as a result of many factors. When planning interventions, it is important to remember that all children may display stages of inappropriate behaviors at various times during their early development. In most cases, the problems are short-lived and typically improve with guidance and age.…

  2. Utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, William F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Determined the utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist (BPC) with preschool children. Found the BPC sensitive in differentiating clinical from nonclinical groups. Findings suggest that the Behavior Problem Checklist, although not specifically designed to assess preschool age children, may be effective with this population. (Author)

  3. Socioeconomic Status, IQ, and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Results from two Danish prospective longitudinal studies are presented to support the view that IQ bears a causal relationship to delinquency that is independent of the effects of socioeconomic status (SES). (CL)

  4. Parental Low Self-Control, Family Environments, and Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Ryan C; Connolly, George M; Flexon, Jamie; Guerette, Rob T

    2016-10-01

    Research consistently finds that low self-control is significantly correlated with delinquency. Only recently, however, have researchers started to examine associations between parental low self-control, family environments, and child antisocial behavior. Adding to this emerging area of research, the current study examines associations between parental low self-control, aspects of the family environment, and officially recoded juvenile delinquency among a sample (N = 101) of juveniles processed through a juvenile justice assessment facility located in the Southeastern United States. Furthermore, it considers whether aspects of family environments, particularly family cohesion, family conflict, and parental efficacy, mediate the influence of parental low self-control on delinquency. The results of a series of analyses indicate that parental low self-control is correlated with various aspects of family environments and juvenile delinquency, and that the association between parental low self-control and juvenile delinquency is mediated by family environments. Supplementary analyses also suggest that the association between parental low self-control and the family environment may be reciprocal.

  5. BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH MILD AND MODERATE INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIKJ-IVANOVIKJ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Large number of children with intellectual disabilities encounters behavioral problems or show disharmonic behavior within the family, at school and in the community. Researches show that 30-50% of persons with intellectual disabilities have some behavioral problems. The behavior of children with intellectual disabilities depends on many factors: age of the child, level of intellectual disability, cognitive potentials, level of psycho-physical development, differentiation of emotions, communicative skills, social status and conditions of the environment (in the family and the wider community where the child lives. The influence of some of these factors has been analyzed by this research. There are many ins truments (questionnaires, scales that evaluate behavior of persons with intellectual disabilities, and reveal problems that these persons have in their psychosocial development and social life. This research used the AAMD Adaptive behavior Scale (part II and Scale for evaluating behavior of the child in school by authors Bojanin, Savanovikj.

  6. Psycho-cognitive behavioral problems in sleep disordered children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parvaneh Karimzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in childhood and adolescence. Sleep problems in early infants tend to be persistent and prominent in preschool and school-aged children. Chronic sleep disorders, especially in young children may lead to neurobehavioral problems and psycho-cognitive impairment. Sleep difficulties may be the result of underlying medical conditions, (breathing disorders) or psychological problems. Research studies have shown the association between sleep disorders and day time cognitive impairment, behavioral problems, poor school performance and inattention in children. Appropriate diagnosis and early management of sleep disorders in children lead to improvement of neurocognitive function and behavioral problems in these children.

  7. Bad Boys or Poor Parents: Relations to Female Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Farruggia, Susan P.; Goldweber, Asha

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the interrelations between parental relationships, romantic relationships, and antisocial behavior among female and male juvenile delinquents. Participants from a diverse sample of 1,354 adolescents (14-17 years) adjudicated of a serious (i.e. felony) offense were matched based on age, race, and committing offense, yielding a…

  8. School and Family Origins of Delinquency: Comparisons by Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, Margaret E.; And Others

    This paper concerns early social adaptational and family antecedents of teenage delinquent behavior in a population of black first graders who were reassessed 10 years after the initial study. Subjects were 705 teenagers who had participated in the 1966-67 Woodlawn study and whose mothers had given permission for reassessment. At the time of the…

  9. Enhancing Motivation for Overcoming Learning and Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Howard S.; Taylor, Linda

    1983-01-01

    The paper highlights motivation itself as a problem, suggests times when correction of the motivation problem should be the initial focus of intervention, and describes a framework and specific procedures for enhancing positive motivation and reducing avoidance as key aspects of correcting students' learning and behavior problems. (Author/MC)

  10. Juvenile delinquency in Russia: Ccriminal justice, trends, key issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, as well as in international statistical surveys, we can rarely find more detailed information on juvenile delinquency in the Russian Federation, as well as on the criminal reaction towards juvenile offenders. Due to the turbulent conditions and great social turmoil which took place in the last few decades in this country, there should be a greater interest in the problem of juvenile delinquency. For Serbia, the experience of the Russian Federation could be especially important if one bears in mind that our country is still going through a transition, population stratification and through economic crisis, and also that Serbia and the Russian Federation share some cultural and religious similarities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present, in the summary way, the basic features of juvenile delinquency and the criminal justice system, and thereby build a basis for future research and comparison.

  11. Functional analysis screening for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querim, Angie C; Iwata, Brian A; Roscoe, Eileen M; Schlichenmeyer, Kevin J; Ortega, Javier Virués; Hurl, Kylee E

    2013-01-01

    A common finding in previous research is that problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement continues to occur in the alone condition of a functional analysis (FA), whereas behavior maintained by social reinforcement typically is extinguished. Thus, the alone condition may represent an efficient screening procedure when maintenance by automatic reinforcement is suspected. We conducted a series of 5-min alone (or no-interaction) probes for 30 cases of problem behavior and compared initial predictions of maintenance or extinction to outcomes obtained in subsequent FAs. Results indicated that data from the screening procedure accurately predicted that problem behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement in 21 of 22 cases and by social reinforcement in 7 of 8 cases. Thus, results of the screening accurately predicted the function of problem behavior (social vs. automatic reinforcement) in 28 of 30 cases.

  12. Brief report: An examination of the relationships between parental monitoring, self-esteem and delinquency among Mexican American male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roslyn M; Beutler, Larry E; An Ross, Sylvia; Clayton Silver, N

    2006-06-01

    The present study examined relationships between parental monitoring (mother and father), self-esteem, and delinquency among 95 adjudicated Mexican American male adolescents who were on probationary status with the juvenile justice system. Consistent with previous literature pertaining to familial processes and delinquency among the general adolescent population, findings from the current study revealed that parental monitoring was negatively associated with delinquency. In addition, self-esteem was shown to be positively correlated with delinquency. These results highlight the generalizability of previous research related to familial, emotional, and behavioral processes among Mexican American male adolescents.

  13. Music Taste Groups and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Juul; ter Bogt, Tom; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Cluster analysis on their music…

  14. Music taste groups and problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Juul; Bogt, Tom ter; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-

  15. Juvenile delinquency among students of an approved sheltered girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile delinquency among students of an approved sheltered girls' school in Lagos, ... 65.6% did so from financial problems, 6.3% as a result of poor performance ... Mother's educational level (p=0.0245), maternal alcohol consumption ...

  16. Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse. Initial Findings. Research Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Thornberry, Terence P.

    In collaborative efforts three research teams have investigated the problems of urban delinquency and substance abuse in longitudinal studies that have gone on since 1986. The Denver Youth Study is a longitudinal survey that involves annual interviews with probability samples of five different birth cohorts and their parents from areas of Denver…

  17. Language ability predicts the development of behavior problems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Isaac T; Bates, John E; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Coyne, Claire A; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Van Hulle, Carol A

    2013-05-01

    Prior studies have suggested, but not fully established, that language ability is important for regulating attention and behavior. Language ability may have implications for understanding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorders, as well as subclinical problems. This article reports findings from two longitudinal studies to test (a) whether language ability has an independent effect on behavior problems, and (b) the direction of effect between language ability and behavior problems. In Study 1 (N = 585), language ability was measured annually from ages 7 to 13 years by language subtests of standardized academic achievement tests administered at the children's schools. Inattentive-hyperactive (I-H) and externalizing (EXT) problems were reported annually by teachers and mothers. In Study 2 (N = 11,506), language ability (receptive vocabulary) and mother-rated I-H and EXT problems were measured biannually from ages 4 to 12 years. Analyses in both studies showed that language ability predicted within-individual variability in the development of I-H and EXT problems over and above the effects of sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and performance in other academic and intellectual domains (e.g., math, reading comprehension, reading recognition, and short-term memory [STM]). Even after controls for prior levels of behavior problems, language ability predicted later behavior problems more strongly than behavior problems predicted later language ability, suggesting that the direction of effect may be from language ability to behavior problems. The findings suggest that language ability may be a useful target for the prevention or even treatment of attention deficits and EXT problems in children.

  18. Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Blokland, A.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  19. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Blokland, A.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  20. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  1. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Blokland, A.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  2. Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hoeve; A. van Blokland; J.S. Dubas; R Loeber; J.R.M. Gerris; P.H. van der Laan

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  3. Violence Breeds Violence: Childhood Exposure and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal…

  4. Juvenile delinquency among students of an approved sheltered girls' school in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, O M; Omogbemi, K B

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is the involvement of a child younger than 18 years in behavior that violates the law. Its cost in terms of human potential, public safety and tax expenditures can be very high. Research that assesses how and why children become delinquent is a sound investment, because it can provide the foundation for effective intervention in its prevention and control. The study is to determine the factors associated with juvenile delinquency. A cross-sectional study was conducted among sixty (60) students of the approved sheltered girls' school, Idi-Araba, Lagos, using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Findings revealed that the respondents were within the ages of 10-18 years with a mean age of 14.2 +/- 2.0 years, 70% had attained primary school education. Of the 53.3% that dropped out of school, 65.6% did so from financial problems, 6.3% as a result of poor performance and peer pressure accounted for 28.1%. A total of 71.7% of the students were brought to the school by the police; 52.5% on account of roaming while lack of parental control, stealing, robbery and fighting accounted for 16.9%, 11.9%, 10.2%, and 8.5% respectively. Majority (58.6%) of the students had both parents alive while 12.1% had both parents deceased. About 25 (41.7%) of the respondents admitted to committing a crime out of which 88% was stealing, 4% were involved in armed robbery and 8% in house breaking. Of all the socio-demographics characteristics of the respondents explored, only their educational level was found to be significantly associated (p = 0.0197) with criminal behaviour. Mother's educational level (p = 0.0245), maternal alcohol consumption (p = 0.0173) and kind of treatment (0.0245) received from step mums were significantly associated with criminal behaviour. Poor parental supervision, poverty and peer pressure played key roles in delinquency among the juveniles. An effective prevention and control of juvenile delinquency will require collective

  5. Development pathways from abusive parenting to delinquency: the mediating role of depression and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sukkyung; Lim, Sun Ah

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the long-term relationship between abusive parenting and adolescent mental health, and the path to delinquent behavior. Longitudinal data from 5th through 7th graders from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) were analyzed to examine if abusive parenting was a predictor of early adolescent delinquency behavior, via aggression and depression as mediating factors. The results were as follows. First, parental abuse (both emotional and physical) was found to have significant effects on children's psychosocial factors (aggression and depression), while parental neglect (both emotional and physical) had significant effects on depression alone and not on aggression. Second, aggression exerted significant effects on both violent and non-violent delinquent behaviors, while depression had a significant effect on only non-violent delinquent behaviors. Third, children's psychosocial factors (aggression and depression) played significant mediating roles between earlier abusive parenting and delinquent behaviors. Fourth, for children living in a family with their grandparents, paths from abusive parenting, psychosocial adaptation, and later delinquent behaviors were not significant, implying that living with grandparents played a protective factor in these relationships.

  6. Alcohol Use Problem Severity and Problem Behavior Engagement among School-Based Youths in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas-Neese, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2010-01-01

    This study created an alcohol use problem severity taxonomy and examined its association to engagement in other problem behaviors. Minnesota youths were categorized based on their frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence criteria. Greater alcohol use problem severity was generally associated with higher prevalence of…

  7. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADDH) and Delinquency Subgroups

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1988-01-01

    Two subgroups of hyperactive children (25 non-delinquent and 9 delinquent) and 1 group of 34 non-delinquent normal children were evaluated from childhood to adolescence at the National Center for Hyperactive Children, Encino, CA, using auditory evoked response potential (AERP) measures and EEG recordings.

  8. The Link between Body Issues and Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, James R.; Hoover, John H.

    2000-01-01

    This article highlights the myriad behavioral and adjustment problems that flow from negative self-perceptions about body image in children and adolescents. These negative beliefs are often exacerbated by peer harassment. (Author/MKA)

  9. Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

  10. Families and Positive Behavior Support: Addressing Problem Behavior in Family Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M., Ed.; Dunlap, Glen, Ed.; Albin, Richard W., Ed.

    The 19 chapters of this volume address theory, research, and practice concerning positive behavior support with families of children and youth with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. The chapters are: (1) "Positive Behavior Support with Families" (Joseph Lucyshyn and others); (2) "Finding Positive Behavior Support One Piece at a…

  11. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.

  12. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, problem behaviors, and mental health among minority urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Amy L; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Staras, Stephanie A S; O'Mara, Ryan J; Livingston, Melvin D; Komro, Kelli A

    2013-01-01

    We examined perceived frequency and intensity of racial/ethnic discrimination and associations with high-risk behaviors/conditions among adolescents. With surveys from 2490 racial/ethnic minority adolescents primarily with low socioeconomic status, we used regression analysis to examine associations between racial/ethnic discrimination and behavioral health outcomes (alcohol use, marijuana use, physical aggression, delinquency, victimization, depression, suicidal ideation, and sexual behaviors). Most adolescents (73%) experienced racial/ethnic discrimination and 42% of experiences were 'somewhat-' or 'very disturbing.' Adolescents reporting frequent and disturbing racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk of all measured behaviors, except alcohol and marijuana use. Adolescents who experienced any racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk for victimization and depression. Regardless of intensity, adolescents who experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at least occasionally were more likely to report greater physical aggression, delinquency, suicidal ideation, younger age at first oral sex, unprotected sex during last intercourse, and more lifetime sexual partners. Most adolescents had experienced racial/ethnic discrimination due to their race/ethnicity. Even occasional experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination likely contribute to maladaptive behavioral and mental health outcomes among adolescents. Prevention and coping strategies are important targets for intervention.

  13. CONDUCTING FUNCTIONAL ANALYSES OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR VIA TELEHEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, David P.; Lee, John F.; Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Kopelman, Todd G.; Lindgren, Scott D.; Kuhle, Jennifer; Pelzel, Kelly E.; Waldron, Debra B.

    2017-01-01

    Behavior consultants conducted functional analyses (FAs) via telehealth with 20 young children with autism spectrum disorders between the ages of 29 and 80 months who displayed problem behavior and lived an average of 222 miles from the tertiary hospital that housed the behavior consultants. Participants’ parents conducted all procedures during weekly telehealth consultations in regional clinics located an average of 15 miles from the participants’ homes. Behavior consultants briefly trained parent assistants to provide on-site support for families during consultations. FAs completed within a multielement design identified environmental variables that maintained problem behavior for 18 of the 20 cases, and interrater agreement averaged over 90%. Results suggested that behavior analysts can conduct FAs effectively and efficiently via telehealth. PMID:24114083

  14. Adolescent problem behavior in school : the role of peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geven, S.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a notable period during which a considerable share of students tends to engage in problem behavior in school. Students for example skip class, fail to do their best in school, or have serious arguments with their teachers. A student’s decision to engage in such behavior is not usually

  15. Adolescent problem behavior in school : the role of peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geven, S.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/406587965

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a notable period during which a considerable share of students tends to engage in problem behavior in school. Students for example skip class, fail to do their best in school, or have serious arguments with their teachers. A student’s decision to engage in such behavior is not usually

  16. Emerging Themes in the Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Edward G.

    1994-01-01

    The successful application of functional analysis to problem behavior suggests the need to examine: additional functional properties of behavior involving social avoidance, biological reinforcement, and respondent conditioning; the role of context (including social factors and biological factors); and the multidimensional character of assessment…

  17. Functional Assessment of Problem Behaviors in Adults with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paclawskyj, Theodosia R.; Kurtz, Patricia F.; O'Connor, Julia T.

    2004-01-01

    Functional assessment has significantly improved the success of behavioral treatment of problem behaviors in adults with mental retardation. Functional assessment methods (i.e., techniques that yield a hypothesis of functional relationships) include direct observation, interviews, and checklists. Functional analysis consists of empirical methods…

  18. Understanding child sexual behavior problems: a developmental psychopathology framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkovitch, Natasha; Latzman, Robert D; Hansen, David J; Flood, Mary Fran

    2009-11-01

    Children exhibiting sexual behavior have increasingly gained the attention of child welfare and mental health systems, as well as the scientific community. While a heterogeneous group, children with sexual behavior problems consistently demonstrate a number of problems related to adjustment and overall development. In order to appropriately intervene with these children, a comprehensive understanding of etiology is imperative. The overarching goal of the present paper is to review the extant research on mechanisms associated with the development of problematic sexual behavior in childhood within a developmental psychopathology framework. What is known about normative and nonnormative sexual behavior in childhood is reviewed, highlighting definitional challenges and age-related developmental differences. Further, the relationship between child sexual abuse and child sexual behavior problems is discussed, drawing attention to factors impacting this relationship. Risk factors for child sexual behavior problems, beyond that of sexual abuse, are also reviewed utilizing a transactional-ecological framework. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of implications of a developmental psychopathology perspective on problematic child sexual behaviors to inform future research and intervention efforts. Such implications include the need for attention to normative childhood sexual behavior, developmental sensitivity, and examinations of ecological domain in concert.

  19. [Relationship between phonological awareness and behavioral problems in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Linda P; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2010-07-01

    Phonological awareness is a key precursor of reading and writing skills in preschool children. Many children with reading and spelling problems have comorbid disorders that have a negative impact on their development. Research to date has rarely focused on the interaction between behavioral problems and phonological awareness. The study investigates whether preschool children with difficulties in phonological awareness already show behavioral problems. Children (N = 188) were interviewed to assess their level of phonological awareness and teachers used the SDQ to rate their behavioral strengths and difficulties. Children with low levels of phonological awareness have more emotional problems, are more hyperactive, and have more problems with peers than children with higher levels of phonological awareness. No gender differences were found. The results indicate that already at preschool age children with low levels of phonological awareness show more behavioral problems than children with higher levels of phonological awareness. The results are comparable to those of school children who have writing and reading difficulties and behavioral problems.

  20. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to 15 years in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity-score-matched sample of children from intact families, according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents' separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 years for teacher reports, or 15 years for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of predivorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their postdivorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families.

  1. School context, gender, and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiqueira-McDonough, J

    1986-02-01

    This study compares two high schools serving the same community and compares student bodies with similar background characteristics. The purpose is to examine how control/strain variables predict delinquency in two distinct school contexts. It was found that minor delinquency occurred more often in the environment dominated by competitive academic achievement, routine handling of discipline, and unpredictable supervision. Examination of the model paths suggest that this environment is also conservative and unlikely to offer legitimate opportunities to girls with gender-egalitarian orientation. The school context characterized by a broader definition of success, more specialized discipline, and predictable supervision promotes stronger bonds with its students and lower levels of delinquency for both genders.

  2. African American Males in Foster Care and the Risk of Delinquency: The Value of Social Bonds and Permanence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Testa, Mark F.; Zhai, Fuhua

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency remains a significant problem for child welfare systems throughout the United States. Victims of child abuse and neglect are more likely relative to children in the general population to engage in delinquency (Ryan & Testa, 2005; Widom, 1989). Although the magnitude of this relationship is not fully understood (Zingraff,…

  3. Music Education Preservice Teachers' Confidence in Resolving Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Debra G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there would be a change in preservice teachers' (a) confidence concerning the resolution of behavior problems, (b) tactics for resolving them, (c) anticipation of problems, (d) fears about management issues, and (e) confidence in methodology and pedagogy over the time period of a one-semester…

  4. Heavy alcohol use in early adulthood as a function of childhood ADHD: developmentally specific mediation by social impairment and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Brooke S G; Walther, Christine A P; Cheong, Jeewon; Pedersen, Sarah L; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E

    2014-04-01

    Frequent heavy drinking in early adulthood, particularly prior to age 21, is associated with multiple health and legal consequences including continued problems with drinking later into adulthood. Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk of alcohol use disorder in adulthood, but little is known about their frequency of underage drinking as young adults or about mediational pathways that might contribute to this risky outcome. The current study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study to test social impairment and delinquency pathways from childhood ADHD to heavy drinking in early adulthood for individuals with (n = 148) and without (n = 117) childhood ADHD. Although ADHD did not predict heavy drinking, indirect mediating effects in opposing directions were found. A delinquency pathway from childhood ADHD to increased heavy drinking included adolescent and subsequently adult delinquent behavior. A social impairment pathway from childhood ADHD to decreased heavy drinking included adolescent, but not adult, social impairment. These findings help explain the heterogeneity of results for alcohol use among individuals with ADHD and suggest that common ADHD-related impairments may operate differently from each other and distinctly across developmental periods. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems: Schoolwide positive behavior support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Kincaid, Donald

    2005-01-01

    School discipline is a growing concern in the United States. Educators frequently are faced with discipline problems ranging from infrequent but extreme problems (e.g., shootings) to less severe problems that occur at high frequency (e.g., bullying, insubordination, tardiness, and fighting). Unfortunately, teachers report feeling ill prepared to deal effectively with discipline problems in schools. Further, research suggests that many commonly used strategies, such as suspension, expulsion, and other reactive strategies, are not effective for ameliorating discipline problems and may, in fact, make the situation worse. The principles and technology of behavior analysis have been demonstrated to be extremely effective for decreasing problem behavior and increasing social skills exhibited by school children. Recently, these principles and techniques have been applied at the level of the entire school, in a movement termed schoolwide positive behavior support. In this paper we review the tenets of schoolwide positive behavior support, demonstrating the relation between this technology and applied behavior analysis.

  6. Gender differences in behavioral problems and shool outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. Grøne; Obel, Carsten; Smith, Nina

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes gender differences in behavioral problems and school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for approximately 6000 Danish children 10–12 years of age who were born in 1990–1992. The sample has been merged...... with extensive register data on parental background and student outcomes. Our findings show a large negative association between indicators of externalizing behavioral and school outcomes. Only a minor percentage of the gender difference in average reading and math test scores, however, can be attributed...... to gender differences in the prevalence of low-scoring individuals with behavioral problems....

  7. REDUCING AMBIGUITY IN THE FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooker, Griffin W.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Severe problem behavior (e.g., self-injury and aggression) remains among the most serious challenges for the habilitation of persons with intellectual disabilities and is a significant obstacle to community integration. The current standard of behavior analytic treatment for problem behavior in this population consists of a functional assessment and treatment model. Within that model, the first step is to assess the behavior–environment relations that give rise to and maintain problem behavior, a functional behavioral assessment. Conventional methods of assessing behavioral function include indirect, descriptive, and experimental assessments of problem behavior. Clinical investigators have produced a rich literature demonstrating the relative effectiveness for each method, but in clinical practice, each can produce ambiguous or difficult-to-interpret outcomes that may impede treatment development. This paper outlines potential sources of variability in assessment outcomes and then reviews the evidence on strategies for avoiding ambiguous outcomes and/or clarifying initially ambiguous results. The end result for each assessment method is a set of best practice guidelines, given the available evidence, for conducting the initial assessment. PMID:26236145

  8. THE ISSUES OF COMBATING OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY OF TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Tarchokov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reveals the problem of juvenile delinquency: a condition, the dynamics of crime; the main risk factors affecting juvenile delinquency, as well as the measures undertaken for the prevention of juvenile delinquency offenses The study, which was always urgent, now acquired a special significance. Adolescence is traditionally considered problematic period in the formation and development of personality. You should also take into account the fact that exacerbated existing internal contradictions in their teens. Numerous studies and centuries of history show that the crime, in fact, is deep-rooted and deal with it, known to date, methods can not be, because it is as natural as the human nature. The phenomenon, which is now troubling modern society, juvenile delinquency, its scope and the criminalization of teenage environment. Of course, we will not cover all background and factors influencing the crime, but will discuss the social side of the problem and the measures that may have a positive effect. One of reasons is the imperfection of the legislative framework in this sphere. This is not, as such, the possibility of setting on the register persons engaged in vagrancy, begging, difficult adolescents, persons who evade education. A consequence of the lack of a unified preventive system is its low efficiency. According to various reports in the country of about 3 million homeless children living at railway stations, in the cellars, in the streets.

  9. Sexual behaviors in autism: problems of definition and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, G M; Ruble, L A

    1999-04-01

    Surveys of sexual behavior in autism suggest a variety of behavioral expression. However, the course of sexual development in autism is unplotted, leaving questions about the normalcy of specific behaviors. Even less is known about deviations of sexual development and the incidence of paraphilias in this population. We explore the problems of definition of sexual behaviors and describe a case report that highlights the difficulties of management. An application of a testosterone-suppressing medication and its effect on sexual behavior are reported. After failure of behavioral and educational programs, leuprolide, an injectable antiandrogen, resulted in suppression of behaviors and retention of the participants' community placement. Follow-up for almost 3 years shows no abnormal physical effects. Dosage has been tapered over that period to a low but effective dose. Directions for research are discussed.

  10. Antisocial process screening device: validation on a Russian sample of juvenile delinquents with the emphasis on the role of personality and parental rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väfors Fritz, Marie; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Koposov, Roman; Af Klinteberg, Britt

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were 1) to validate the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in a sample of Russian juvenile delinquents; 2) to examine subgroups of delinquents with higher versus lower levels of childhood problem behaviors with respect to the APSD subscales, personality traits, and parental rearing; and 3) to attempt to replicate the previous finding that the APSD subscale measuring callous/unemotional traits can differentiate subgroups of delinquents with different precursors for problem behaviors (predominantly biological versus predominantly social). A group of 250 Russian juvenile inmates (mean age=16.4) was examined by means of the APSD completed by the staff at the correctional institution. The inmates completed several self-reports assessing their current and childhood behavior problems, personality traits and experienced parental rearing practices. A factor structure of the APSD was obtained that is similar, albeit not identical, to that from the original studies by Frick and colleagues [Frick, P.J., O'Brien, B.S., Wootton, J.M., McBurnett, K., (1994). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 700-707]; [Frick, P.J., Barry, C.T., Bodin, S.D., (1999). Applying the concept of psychopathy to children: Implications for the Assessment of antisocial youth. In Gacono, C.B. (Ed), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioners guide. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum]; [Frick, P.J., Lilienfeld, S.O., Ellis, M., Loney, B., Silverthorn, P., (1999). The association between anxiety and psychopathy dimensions in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 383-392]; callous unemotional traits in the present sample were expressed in manipulative behavior. Results further disclosed higher levels of antisocial and aggressive activities, higher levels of personality attributes such as narcissism and novelty seeking, as well as lower cooperativeness, and negatively perceived parental rearing

  11. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel A; Rowe, Hillary L; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P

    2014-06-01

    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency.

  12. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancha, Brent E; Rojas, Vanessa C; Latimer, William W

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol-use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7-12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol-use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Several alcohol-use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol-use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions.

  13. [Behavioral problems in children of Turkish guest workers in Vienna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalan, S; Fischer, P; Naske, R

    1993-12-01

    This paper describes the behaviour disturbances and emotional problems of Turkish immigrant children aged 9 to 13 years living in Vienna. The children's behaviour was rated with Rutter's scales and the relationship of the results to any language problems, the socioeconomic situation and the sociocultural background of the immigrant families was then analyzed. A consecutive series of 111 Turkish and 25 Austrian children were rated by their parents and by both Turkish- and German-speaking teachers. Psychiatric symptoms of the children's parents were assessed with the symptom checklist SCL-90. The prevalence of behavior problems did not differ between the Turkish and Austrian children, who were of similar social class. The most common symptoms were restlessness, overactivity, poor concentration and anxiety. Whereas socioeconomic and sociocultural factors did not influence the frequency or severity of behavior problems in the Turkish children, there was a highly significant relationship between behavior problems and problems with German or Turkish. Moreover, the children very frequently had problems with both languages. Therefore intervention strategies with such children should focus on the language problems.

  14. Mentoring Programs to Affect Delinquency and Associated Outcomes of Youth At-Risk: A Comprehensive Meta-Analytic Reviewi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolan, Patrick H.; Henry, David B.; Schoeny, Michael S.; Lovegrove, Peter; Nichols, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a meta-analytic review of selective and indicated mentoring interventions for effects for youth at risk on delinquency and key associated outcomes (aggression, drug use, academic functioning). We also undertook the first systematic evaluation of intervention implementation features and organization and tested for effects of theorized key processes of mentor program effects. Methods Campbell Collaboration review inclusion criteria and procedures were used to search and evaluate the literature. Criteria included a sample defined as at-risk for delinquency due to individual behavior such as aggression or conduct problems or environmental characteristics such as residence in high-crime community. Studies were required to be random assignment or strong quasi-experimental design. Of 163 identified studies published 1970 - 2011, 46 met criteria for inclusion. Results Mean effects sizes were significant and positive for each outcome category (ranging form d =.11 for Academic Achievement to d = .29 for Aggression). Heterogeneity in effect sizes was noted for all four outcomes. Stronger effects resulted when mentor motivation was professional development but not by other implementation features. Significant improvements in effects were found when advocacy and emotional support mentoring processes were emphasized. Conclusions This popular approach has significant impact on delinquency and associated outcomes for youth at-risk for delinquency. While evidencing some features may relate to effects, the body of literature is remarkably lacking in details about specific program features and procedures. This persistent state of limited reporting seriously impedes understanding about how mentoring is beneficial and ability to maximize its utility. PMID:25386111

  15. Which behavioral, emotional and school problems in middle-childhood predict early sexual behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alison; Waylen, Andrea; Sayal, Kapil; Heron, Jon; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Macleod, John

    2014-04-01

    Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16-18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-childhood problems and early sexual behavior, using a subsample (N = 4,739, 53 % female, 98 % white, mean age 15 years 6 months) from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Adolescents provided information at age 15 on early sexual behavior (oral sex and/or intercourse) and sexual risk-taking, and at age 13 on prior risk involvement (sexual behavior, antisocial behavior and substance use). Information on hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, depressive symptoms, peer relationship problems, school dislike and school performance was collected in middle-childhood at Time 1 (6-8 years) and Time 2 (10-11 years). In agreement with previous research, conduct problems predicted early sexual behavior, although this was found only for persistent early problems. In addition, Time 2 school dislike predicted early sexual behavior, while peer relationship problems were protective. Persistent early school dislike further characterized higher-risk groups (early sexual behavior preceded by age 13 risk, or accompanied by higher sexual risk-taking). The study establishes middle-childhood school dislike as a novel risk factor for early sexual behavior and higher-risk groups, and the importance of persistent conduct problems. Implications for the identification of children at risk and targeted intervention are discussed, as well as suggestions for further research.

  16. Convergent Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and Behavior Problems Inventory with People with Complex Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jennie; Powlitch, Stephanie; Furniss, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to replicate and extend Rojahn et al. [Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., Matson, J. L., & Mayville, E. (2003). "The aberrant behavior checklist and the behavior problems inventory: Convergent and divergent validity." "Research in Developmental Disabilities", 24, 391-404] by examining the convergent validity of the behavior problems…

  17. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist and the Behavior Problems Inventory: Convergent and Divergent Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Aman, Michael G.; Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A study compared the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI) for assessing the maladaptive behavior of 226 adults, mostly with severe or profound mental retardation. Individuals with elevated BPI scores generally had higher ABC scores, however, the extent of covariation differed across subscales. (Contains…

  18. Unpacking Links between Fathers' Antisocial Behaviors and Children's Behavior Problems: Direct, Indirect, and Interactive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer; Lewin-Bizan, Selva

    2011-01-01

    Building upon previous evidence for the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviors, this research assessed and compared three models seeking to explain links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. A representative sample of children from low-income families (N = 261) was followed from age 3 through age…

  19. Parenting, criminogenic settings and delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Heleen J.

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this dissertation was to examine the relative contribution of mediators derived from different theoretical perspectives (i.e. self-control theory, differential association theory, and routine activity theory) to explaining the relationship between parenting and delinquency. It is exa

  20. Parenting, criminogenic settings and delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Heleen J.

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this dissertation was to examine the relative contribution of mediators derived from different theoretical perspectives (i.e. self-control theory, differential association theory, and routine activity theory) to explaining the relationship between parenting and delinquency. It is exa

  1. Factors Affecting Teenager Cyber Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young Ju; Lim, Kyu Yon; Cho, Sun Yoo; Jung, Bo Kyung; Choi, Se Bin

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to investigate structural relationships among teenagers' peer attachment, self-control, academic stress, internet usage time, and cyber delinquency. The data source was the Korea Youth Panel Survey, and the responses from 920 teenagers in the 12th grade provided the study data. Structural equation modeling was used for the analysis.…

  2. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ages 3 to 7, and the influence of those pathways on property crime and substance use by age 11. We identified a normative, non-antisocial pathway; a pathway marked by oppositional behavior and fighting; a pathway marked by impulsivity and inattention; and a rare pathway characterized by a wide range of antisocial tendencies. Children with developmental and family risks that emerged by age 3—specifically difficult infant temperament, low cognitive ability, weak parental closeness, and disadvantaged family background—face increased odds of antisocial tendencies. There is minimal overlap between the risk factors for early antisocial tendencies and those for preteen delinquency. Children on an antisocial pathway are more likely to engage in preteen delinquency and substance use by age 11, even after accounting for early life risk factors. PMID:26900167

  3. Dissolving Borders: Reframing Risk, Delinquent Peers, and Youth Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K

    2013-08-01

    Although "association with delinquent peers" is commonly identified as "a risk factor for youth violence," this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these "doubly diverse" friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and "delinquent peers." It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk.

  4. Parental Body Mass Index and Behavioral Problems in Their Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Susanne Hvolgaard; Hohwü, Lena; Olsen, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    Maternal obesity has been associated with increased risk of offspring behavioral problems. We examined whether this association could be explained by familial factors by comparing associations for maternal body mass index (BMI) with associations for paternal BMI. We studied 38,314 children born...... to mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002. Data on maternal BMI was collected at 15 weeks of gestation, and paternal BMI was assessed when the child was 18 months old. When the child was 7 years old, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was completed by the parents. We...... estimated odds ratios for behavioral problems in offspring born to overweight/obese parents, and we found that maternal BMI was associated with offspring behavioral problems. Maternal BMI of 25.0-29.9 was associated with a 33% (odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.57) higher risk of total...

  5. Identifying Unbiased Items for Screening Preschoolers for Disruptive Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studts, Christina R; Polaha, Jodi; van Zyl, Michiel A

    2016-10-25

    OBJECTIVE : Efficient identification and referral to behavioral services are crucial in addressing early-onset disruptive behavior problems. Existing screening instruments for preschoolers are not ideal for pediatric primary care settings serving diverse populations. Eighteen candidate items for a new brief screening instrument were examined to identify those exhibiting measurement bias (i.e., differential item functioning, DIF) by child characteristics. METHOD : Parents/guardians of preschool-aged children (N = 900) from four primary care settings completed two full-length behavioral rating scales. Items measuring disruptive behavior problems were tested for DIF by child race, sex, and socioeconomic status using two approaches: item response theory-based likelihood ratio tests and ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS : Of 18 items, eight were identified with statistically significant DIF by at least one method. CONCLUSIONS : The bias observed in 8 of 18 items made them undesirable for screening diverse populations of children. These items were excluded from the new brief screening tool.

  6. Chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency: A longitudinal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Semanchin Jones, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment in the United States, yet its impact on development remains understudied, especially for chronic neglect. Chronic neglect is also one of the most costly burdens on child welfare systems. This study examines the effects of chronic neglect, including two subtypes (Failure to Provide and Lack of Supervision) on adolescent aggression and delinquency using a diverse longitudinal sample of youth. Chronic neglect and chronic failure to provide (ages 0-12) predicted aggression/delinquency (age 14) even after controlling for the effects of other maltreatment (ages 0-12). Chronic lack of supervision, however, did not. Gender significantly moderated these effects, suggesting that males are more likely to respond to neglect by becoming aggressive/delinquent. Finally, social problems (age 12) partially mediated for boys, and fully mediated for girls, the connections between chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency, bolstering theorizing that neglect impairs social functioning broadly. Implications include the need for further research on chronic neglect, especially in providing guidance for child welfare systems. Interventions for chronically neglected youth should include social skill development.

  7. Behavioral and emotional problems of schoolchildren according to gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Martins Saur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate mental health problems, including behavioral and emotional problems, in a cohort of schoolchildren according to gender and to assess the associations of family characteristics and behavioral performance for boys and girls. Data from 677 children born in Ribeirão Preto (SP, Brazil, when they were 10/11 years old was available. The mental health assessment was performed using the Brazilian version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence rates for boys and girls were, respectively: 41.7% and 34.5% for total difficulties score, 50.4% and 57.6% for emotional symptoms, 31.2% and 18.8% for hyperactivity, 38.8% and 27.6% for conduct problems, 27.1% and 26.7% for peer problems and, 4.7% and 2.7% for prosocial behavior. The family characteristics associated with behavioral problems were low socioeconomic status for boys and low maternal education and families with more than four members for girls.

  8. Language, motor skills and behavior problems in preschool years

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Mari Vaage

    2014-01-01

    Child language development is a complex process. This process cannot be understood without considering its relationship to other developmental domains. Language development in preschool years is associated with development of motor skills and behavior problems, and these associations are the focus of the current thesis. Despite a large number of studies examining the co-occurrence of such developmental delays and problems, few studies have examined the developmental relationship between these...

  9. Precursor manic behavior in the assessment and treatment of episodic problem behavior for a woman with a dual diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marissa B; Baker, Jonathan C; Nuernberger, Jodi E; Vargo, Kristina K

    2013-01-01

    A functional analysis examined the relation between consequences that maintained episodic problem behavior (aggression, property destruction, and elopement) in the presence and absence of manic behaviors (MB). Results suggested that the presence of MB was correlated with the sensitivity of problem behavior to attention as a reinforcer during a functional analysis and that problem behaviors were maintained by attention. Noncontingent reinforcement was subsequently implemented and demonstrated to be effective in reducing problem behavior during the presence of manic behaviors.

  10. Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuura Naomi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. Methods We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photographs of facial expressions illustrating six basic emotions, participants matched each emotional facial expression with an appropriate verbal label. Results Delinquents were less accurate in the recognition of facial expressions that conveyed disgust than were control participants. The delinquents misrecognized the facial expressions of disgust as anger more frequently than did controls. Conclusion These results suggest that one of the underpinnings of delinquency might be impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions, with a specific bias toward interpreting disgusted expressions as hostile angry expressions.

  11. Associations Between Behavioral Inhibition and Children's Social Problem Solving Behavior During Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Olga L; Henderson, Heather A; Degnan, Kathryn A; Penela, Elizabeth C; Fox, Nathan A

    2014-08-01

    The current study examined the associations between the early childhood temperament of behavioral inhibition and children's displays of social problem-solving (SPS) behavior during social exclusion. During toddlerhood (ages 2-3), maternal report and behavioral observations of behavioral inhibition were collected. At age 7, children's SPS behaviors were observed during a laboratory social exclusion task based on the commonly used Cyberball game. Results showed that behavioral inhibition was positively associated with displayed social withdrawal and negatively associated with assertive behavior during the observed social exclusion task at 7 years of age. These results add to our understanding of inhibited children's SPS behaviors during social exclusion and provide evidence for the associations between toddler temperament and children's social behavior during middle childhood.

  12. Iron Supplements Reduce Behavior Problems in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Commemorative Giving Employment at AAP Advertise with AAP Advertising on AAP.org Advertising on AAP Journals & Publications AAP Mailing and eMail ... Help/Feedback a a a print email share Facebook Twitter Iron Supplements Reduce Behavior Problems in Low ...

  13. How Digital Scaffolds in Games Direct Problem-Solving Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Wang, Dai-Yi; Chan, Hui-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Digital systems offer computational power and instant feedback. Game designers are using these features to create scaffolding tools to reduce player frustration. However, researchers are finding some unexpected effects of scaffolding on strategy development and problem-solving behaviors. We used a digital Sudoku game named "Professor Sudoku" to…

  14. Classroom Context and Teachers' Perceptions of Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy-four elementary school teachers rated five behavior problems portrayed in videotaped vignettes in terms of severity, manageability, tolerance, and contagion. Only contagion yielded significant differences (stronger within the disruptive context), suggesting that teachers held the target child responsible for the classroom disorder.…

  15. Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Behavior Problems and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Parents and children completed measures that assessed children's behavior problems and depression. Children had experienced abuse, witnessed spouse abuse, experienced and witnessed abuse, or experienced no domestic violence. Reports of effects of domestic violence on children varied, depending on the type of violence and the person reporting it.…

  16. Future Orientation, Impulsivity, and Problem Behaviors: A Longitudinal Moderation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, based on a sample of 1,873 adolescents between 11.4 and 20.9 years of age from the first 3 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we investigated the longitudinal effects of future orientation on levels of and developmental changes in problem behaviors, while controlling for the effects by impulsivity;…

  17. Future Orientation, School Contexts, and Problem Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0% females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…

  18. Topographical and Functional Properties of Precursors to Severe Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmie, Tara A.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    A literature search identified 17 articles reporting data on 34 subjects who engaged in precursors to severe problem behavior, which we examined to identify topographical and functional characteristics. Unintelligible vocalization was the most common precursor to aggression (27%) and property destruction (29%), whereas self- or nondirected…

  19. Future Orientation, School Contexts, and Problem Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0% females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…

  20. Helping Parents Address Their Child's Sexual Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Marsha

    2001-01-01

    Describes a model for helping parents address their child's sexually inappropriate behavior. The model focuses on: supporting parents and facilitating their ability to accept their child's sexual problems, processing their affective and cognitive reactions, and devising a plan to help parents talk directly with their child about the sexually…

  1. Early Adolescent Romantic Partner Status, Peer Standing, and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a…

  2. The problem resident behavior guide: strategies for remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kelly; Quattromani, Erin; Aldeen, Amer

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, the ACGME supplemented the core competencies with outcomes-based milestones for resident performance within the six competency domains. These milestones address the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and experiences that a resident is expected to progress through during the course of training. Even prior to the initiation of the milestones, there was a paucity of EM literature addressing the remediation of problem resident behaviors and there remain few readily accessible tools to aid in the implementation of a remediation plan. The goal of the "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is to provide specific strategies for resident remediation based on deficiencies identified within the framework of the EM milestones. The "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is a written instructional manual that provides concrete examples of remediation strategies to address specific milestone deficiencies. The more than 200 strategies stem from the experiences of the authors who have professional experience at three different academic hospitals and emergency medicine residency programs, supplemented by recommendations from educational leaders as well as utilization of valuable education adjuncts, such as focused simulation exercises, lecture preparation, and themed ED shifts. Most recommendations require active participation by the resident with guidance by faculty to achieve the remediation expectations. The ACGME outcomes-based milestones aid in the identification of deficiencies with regards to resident performance without providing recommendations on remediation. The Problem Resident Behavior Guide can therefore have a significant impact by filling in this gap.

  3. Do Children's Behavior Problems Limit Poor Women's Labor Market Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Ribar, David; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Economically disadvantaged mothers face numerous barriers to stable, quality employment opportunities. One barrier that has received limited attention in previous research is having a child with significant psychological or behavioral problems. Using a representative sample of low-income mothers and early adolescent children from the Three-City…

  4. Perceived Neighborhood Characteristics and Problem Behavior among Disadvantaged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moren-Cross, Jennifer L.; Wright, Darlene R.; LaGory, Mark; Lanzi, Robin Gaines

    2006-01-01

    Using survey data from former Head Start children in the third grade from 15 sites across the nation (n = 576), this study examines the relationship between maternal subjective neighborhood attributions and their children's behavioral problems. Maternal perceptions of neighborhood characteristics were measured across five domains, including…

  5. A Genetic Study of Problem Behaviors in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.C.G. van den Oord (Edwin)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral/emotional problems are common among children of preschool and school age. Verhulst, and Koot (1992, p. 130) reviewed prevalence studies published since 1965. They reported a median prevalence rate for general psychiatric dysfunction in children and adolescents of l3%. This num

  6. Developmental and behavioral problems in pediatric primary care : Early identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Mathilda

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the early identification of developmental and behavioral problems in pediatric primary care. The social environment is considered a fundamental determinant of early child development. In our study countries with generous redistributive policies had a better organization of ear

  7. Disorganized Attachment and Inhibitory Capacity: Predicting Externalizing Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Gunilla; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin Cecilia; Thorell, Lisa B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether attachment insecurity, focusing on disorganized attachment, and the executive function (EF) component of inhibition, assessed at age 5, were longitudinally related to general externalizing problem behaviors as well as to specific symptoms of ADHD and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and…

  8. Peers and delinquency among girls and boys: are sex differences in delinquency explained by peer factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, F.M.; Hoeve, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate sex differences in the relationship between peers and delinquency. We analyse to what extent peers have different effects on delinquency among girls and boys, and to what extent sex differences in the level of delinquency can be explained by differential exposure or v

  9. Attributions of Delinquency by Delinquent Minors, Their Families, and Probation Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 68 delinquent minors, 57 parents, and 101 probation officers to compare attributions of responsibility for delinquency. All three groups saw the minor, the family, and friends as three factors most responsible for delinquency, but in varying degrees and combinations. Findings demonstrate importance of studying perceptions of different…

  10. Risk and Protective Factors of Child Delinquency. OJJDP Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Gail A.; Keenan, Kate; Tremblay, Richard E.; Coie, John D.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuck, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  11. Peers and delinquency among girls and boys: are sex differences in delinquency explained by peer factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, F.M.; Hoeve, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate sex differences in the relationship between peers and delinquency. We analyse to what extent peers have different effects on delinquency among girls and boys, and to what extent sex differences in the level of delinquency can be explained by differential exposure or

  12. Peers and delinquency among girls and boys: are sex differences in delinquency explained by peer factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, F.M.; Hoeve, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate sex differences in the relationship between peers and delinquency. We analyse to what extent peers have different effects on delinquency among girls and boys, and to what extent sex differences in the level of delinquency can be explained by differential exposure or v

  13. Diet and behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Høigaard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different communities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy (e.g. fruits, vegetables, and fish and unhealthy (e.g. sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and crisps food items, questions of meal frequency, and four questions regarding behavioral problems at school. Results: Having breakfast regularly was significantly associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems (OR: 0.29 (0.15 − 0.55, p≤0.001. A high intake of unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks (OR: 2.8 (1.06 − 7.42, p=0.03 and sweets (OR: 2.63 (1.39 − 4.98, p=0.003, was significantly associated with increased odds of behavioral problems. At the same time, a high intake of fruits was associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems in Norwegian adolescents (OR: 0.30 (0.10 − 0.87, p=0.03. All ORs are adjusted for sex and BMI. Conclusions: This study shows that having an optimal diet and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents. Hence, it is important to improve the dietary intake and meal pattern of Norwegian adolescents. The cross-sectional design of this study limits any causal interpretations of the results of the study.

  14. Mapping the academic problem behaviors of adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Margaret H; Altszuler, Amy R; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M

    2014-12-01

    This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a sample of 324 adolescents with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosed ADHD (age M = 13.07, SD = 1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, interrater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth.

  15. Dimensions of problem gambling behavior associated with purchasing sports lottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai; Mao, Luke Lunhua; Zhang, James J; Wu, Yin; Li, Anmin; Chen, Jing

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the dimensions of problem gambling behaviors associated with purchasing sports lottery in China. This was accomplished through the development and validation of the Scale of Assessing Problem Gambling (SAPG). The SAPG was initially developed through a comprehensive qualitative research process. Research participants (N = 4,982) were Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets, who responded to a survey packet, representing a response rate of 91.4%. Data were split into two halves, one for conducting an EFA and the other for a CFA. A five-factor model with 19 items (Social Consequence, Financial Consequence, Harmful Behavior, Compulsive Disorder, and Depression Sign) showed good measurement properties to assess problem gambling of sports lottery consumers in China, including good fit to the data (RMSEA = 0.050, TLI = 0.978, and CFI = 0.922), convergent and discriminate validity, and reliability. Regression analyses revealed that except for Depression Sign, the SAPG factors were significantly (P lottery. This study represents an initial effort to understand the dimensions of problem gambling associated with Chinese sports lottery. The developed scale may be adopted by researchers and practitioners to examine problem gambling behaviors and develop effective prevention and intervention procedures based on tangible evidence.

  16. DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS*

    OpenAIRE

    Kreager, Derek A.; Rulison, Kelly; Moody, James

    2011-01-01

    Gangs and group-level processes were once central phenomena for criminological theory and research. By the mid-1970's, however, gang research was primarily displaced by studies of individual behavior using randomized self-report surveys, a shift that also removed groups from the theoretical foreground. In this project, we return to the group level to test competing theoretical claims about delinquent group structure. We use network-based clustering methods to identify 897 friendship groups in...

  17. Study of behavioral problems in multi-transfused thalassemic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongally, Chandrashekar; Benakappa, Asha D; Reena, Shankar

    2012-10-01

    Beta-thalassemia major is a chronic disorder of blood, having an extensive impact on the affected child. It involves lifelong therapeutic regime, with repeated blood transfusions. With improved life expectancy, due to improved medical management psychosocial aspects of thalassemia are gaining importance. To assess the behavioral problems in multi-transfused thalassemic children and psychosocial factors affecting them. The study was conducted in a tertiary care level hospital and research institute catering mainly to a population of low socioeconomic status. The study was a cross-sectional study involving 50 multi-transfused thalassemic children of age 5-10 years. Fifty multi-transfused thalassemic children, aged 5-10 years, not suffering from any other major medical illness, were included. Child Behavior Check List (Achenbach) (CBCL) was used to collect data from each parent regarding the child's behavior. Parental Attitude Scale (Rangaswamy 1989) was applied. Descriptive statistical analysis was used with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student's t test to find the significance of data. The CBCL total scores were high in 32% patients, indicating the presence of behavioral problems. Higher CBCL scores were found in children of older age group, those with poor school performance, whose mothers' education was more than eighth standard, had history of death of thalassemic relative in family, greater duration of diagnosed illness, poor pre-transfusion hemoglobin level, and who had longer periods of school absenteeism. Behavioral problems are common in multi-transfused thalassemic children. Early diagnosis and intervention of behavioral problems in these children would make them cope with thalassemia better.

  18. 27 CFR 479.50 - Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes Penalties and Interest § 479.50 Delinquency. Any...

  19. A Brief Measure of Children's Behavior Problems: The Behavior Rating Index for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffman, Arlene R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development of the Behavior Rating Index for Children (BRIC), a 13-item summated category partition scale that provides a prothetic measure of children's behavior problems. Evaluation of the BRIC with 600 referred and nonreferred children suggested adequate reliability and validity. (JAC)

  20. The Effect of Parenting Behaviors on Subsequent Child Behavior Problems in Autistic Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The current research explored the relationship between parenting behaviors in parents of children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and subsequent child behavior problems. The sample consisted of 72 children (aged 5-16 years) and their parents, who were assessed over a period of 9-10 months. There was a relationship between parenting…

  1. School climate and delinquency among Chinese adolescents: analyses of effortful control as a moderator and deviant peer affiliation as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    School climate is the quality and character of school life and reflects the norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and the organizational structure of a school. There is substantial literature documenting the negative association between positive school climate and adolescent delinquency, but little is known about the moderating and mediating mechanisms underlying this relationship. The aim of this study was to examine whether the direct and indirect pathways between school climate and adolescent delinquency would be moderated by effortful control. A sample of 2,758 Chinese adolescents (M age = 13.53 years, SD = 1.06) from 10 middle schools completed anonymous questionnaires regarding school climate, effortful control, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquency. After gender, age, geographical area, and socioeconomic status were included as covariates, the results revealed that school climate was significantly associated with adolescent delinquent behavior. This direct association was moderated by effortful control, such that the negative relationship between positive school climate and delinquency was only significant among adolescents low in effortful control. Moreover, the indirect association between school climate and delinquency via deviant peer affiliation was also moderated by effortful control. Specifically, the moderating effect of effortful control was not only manifested in the relationship between school climate and deviant peer affiliation, but also in the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and delinquency. These findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms through which positive school climate might reduce delinquent behavior and have important implications for prevention efforts aimed at diminishing adolescent delinquency.

  2. The academic consequences of early childhood problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; McLanahan, Sara

    2015-11-01

    Social/emotional skills in early childhood are associated with education, labor market, and family formation outcomes throughout the life course. One explanation for these associations is that poor social/emotional skills in early childhood interfere with the development of cognitive skills. In this paper, we use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2302) to examine how the timing of social/emotional skills-measured as internalizing, externalizing, and attention problem behaviors in early childhood-is associated with cognitive test scores in middle childhood. Results show that externalizing problems at age 3 and attention problems at age 5, as well as externalizing and attention problems at both ages 3 and 5, are associated with poor cognitive development in middle childhood, net of a wide array of control variables and prior test scores. Surprisingly, maternal engagement at age five does not mediate these associations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-03-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Personality and Delinquency: A Multi-Variate Examination of Eysenck's Theory with Scottish Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Russell; Eysenck, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Eysenck Junior P.I. questionnaire was administered to groups of institutionalized and non-institutionalized delinquents and to non-delinquents. Items were analyzed to determine their effectiveness in predicting group membership. Comments by H.J. Eysenck are also presented. (Author/BP)

  5. Personality and Delinquency: A Multi-Variate Examination of Eysenck's Theory with Scottish Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Russell; Eysenck, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Eysenck Junior P.I. questionnaire was administered to groups of institutionalized and non-institutionalized delinquents and to non-delinquents. Items were analyzed to determine their effectiveness in predicting group membership. Comments by H.J. Eysenck are also presented. (Author/BP)

  6. Management strategies for problem behaviors in the patient with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehninger, F W; Ravindran, V L; Stewart, J T

    1998-04-01

    Psychiatric and behavioral problems are present in most patients with dementia and are usually the clinician's main focus of management. Differential diagnosis of these problems can be challenging, but the effort is essential for planning appropriate therapy. Pharmacologic interventions are available for treatment of depression, agitation, aggression, psychotic symptoms, wandering, and sleep disorders. Given the less than favorable risk-benefit ratio of most psychotropic drugs in the population of older patients with dementia, the importance of nonpharmacologic strategies and limiting treatment goals should not be overlooked.

  7. Problem Behavior and Urban, Low-Income Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Schure, Marc B.; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Silverthorn, Naida; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Youth problem behaviors remain a public health issue. Youth in low-income, urban areas are particularly at risk for engaging in aggressive, violent, and disruptive behaviors. Purpose To evaluate the effects of a school-based social–emotional learning and health promotion program on problem behaviors and related attitudes among low-income, urban youth. Design A matched-pair, cluster RCT. Setting/participants Participants were drawn from 14 Chicago Public Schools over a 6-year period of program delivery with outcomes assessed for a cohort of youth followed from Grades 3 to 8. Data were collected from Fall 2004 to Spring 2010, and analyzed in Spring 2012. Intervention The Positive Action program includes a scoped and sequenced K–12 classroom curriculum with six components: self-concept, social and emotional positive actions for managing oneself responsibly, and positive actions directed toward physical and mental health, honesty, getting along with others, and continually improving oneself. The program also includes teacher, counselor, family, and community training as well as activities directed toward schoolwide climate development. Main outcome measures Youth reported on their normative beliefs in support of aggression and on their bullying, disruptive and violent behaviors; parents rated youths’ bullying behaviors and conduct problems; schoolwide data on disciplinary referrals and suspensions were obtained from school records. Results Multilevel growth-curve modeling analyses conducted on completion of the trial indicated that Positive Action mitigated increases over time in (1) youth reports of normative beliefs supporting aggressive behaviors and of engaging in disruptive behavior and bullying (girls only); and (2) parent reports of youth bullying behaviors (boys only). At study end-point, students in Positive Action schools also reported a lower rate of violence-related behavior than students in control schools. Schoolwide findings indicated

  8. Effect on behavior problems of teen online problem-solving for adolescent traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Walz, Nicolay C; Carey, Joanne; McMullen, Kendra M; Cass, Jennifer; Mark, Erin; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2011-10-01

    To report the results of a randomized clinical trial of teen online problem-solving (TOPS) meant to improve behavioral outcomes of adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). A randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of TOPS with access to Internet resources in teenagers with TBI in improving parent and self-reported behavior problems and parent-teen conflicts. Participants included 41 adolescents aged 11 to 18 years (range: 11.47-17.90 years) who had sustained a moderate-to-severe TBI between 3 and 19 months earlier. Teens in the TOPS group received 10 to 14 online sessions that provided training in problem-solving, communication skills, and self-regulation. Outcomes were assessed before treatment and at a follow-up assessment an average of 8 months later. Groups were compared on follow-up scores after we controlled for pretreatment levels. Injury severity and socioeconomic status were examined as potential moderators of treatment efficacy. Forty-one participants provided consent and completed baseline assessments, and follow-up assessments were completed for 35 participants (16 TOPS, 19 Internet resource comparison). The TOPS group reported significantly less parent-teen conflict at follow-up than did the Internet-resource-comparison group. Improvements in teen behavior after TOPS were moderated by injury severity; there were greater improvements in the teens' internalizing symptoms after TOPS among adolescents with severe TBI. Family socioeconomic status also moderated the efficacy of TOPS in improving behavior problems reported by both parents and teens, although the nature of the moderation effects varied. Our findings suggest that TOPS contributes to improvements in parent-teen conflict generally and parent and self-reported teen behavior problems for certain subsets of participants.

  9. Study of behavioral problems in multi-transfused thalassemic children

    OpenAIRE

    Hongally, Chandrashekar; Benakappa, Asha D; Reena, Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Beta-thalassemia major is a chronic disorder of blood, having an extensive impact on the affected child. It involves lifelong therapeutic regime, with repeated blood transfusions. With improved life expectancy, due to improved medical management psychosocial aspects of thalassemia are gaining importance. Objective: To assess the behavioral problems in multi-transfused thalassemic children and psychosocial factors affecting them. Setting: The study was conducted in a tertiary care ...

  10. Calculus Problem Solving Behavior of Mathematic Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, M.; Mansyur, J.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain a description of the problem-solving behaviour of mathematics education students. The attainment of the purpose consisted of several stages: (1) to gain the subject from the mathematic education of first semester students, each of them who has a high, medium, and low competence of mathematic case. (2) To give two mathematical problems with different characteristics. The first problem (M1), the statement does not lead to a resolution. The second problem (M2), a statement leads to problem-solving. (3) To explore the behaviour of problem-solving based on the step of Polya (Rizal, 2011) by way of thinking aloud and in-depth interviews. The obtained data are analysed as suggested by Miles and Huberman (1994) but at first, time triangulation is done or data’s credibility by providing equivalent problem contexts and at different times. The results show that the behavioral problem solvers (mathematic education students) who are capable of high mathematic competency (ST). In understanding M1, ST is more likely to pay attention to an image first, read the texts piecemeal and repeatedly, then as a whole and more focus to the sentences that contain equations, numbers or symbols. As a result, not all information can be received well. When understanding the M2, ST can link the information from a problem that is stored in the working memory to the information on the long-term memory. ST makes planning to the solution of M1 and M2 by using a formula based on similar experiences which have been ever received before. Another case when implementing the troubleshooting plans, ST complete the M1 according to the plan, but not all can be resolved correctly. In contrast to the implementation of the solving plan of M2, ST can solve the problem according to plan quickly and correctly. According to the solving result of M1 and M2, ST conducts by reading the job based on an algorithm and reasonability. Furthermore, when SS and SR understand the

  11. State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions…

  12. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10-19, we identified five distinct…

  13. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  14. Juvenile delinquency, welfare, justice and therapeutic interventions: a global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; Greer, Ben; Church, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This review considers juvenile delinquency and justice from an international perspective. Youth crime is a growing concern. Many young offenders are also victims with complex needs, leading to a public health approach that requires a balance of welfare and justice models. However, around the world there are variable and inadequate legal frameworks and a lack of a specialist workforce. The UK and other high-income countries worldwide have established forensic child and adolescent psychiatry, a multifaceted discipline incorporating legal, psychiatric and developmental fields. Its adoption of an evidence-based therapeutic intervention philosophy has been associated with greater reductions in recidivism compared with punitive approaches prevalent in some countries worldwide, and it is therefore a superior approach to dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency. PMID:28184313

  15. Parentification, Stress, and Problem Behavior of Adolescents who have a Parent with Mental Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, Linda M A; Van de Ven, Monique O M; Van Doesum, Karin T M; Hosman, Clemens M H; Witteman, Cilia L M

    2017-03-01

    When adolescents live with a parent with mental illness, they often partly take over the parental role. Little is known about the consequences of this so-called parentification on the adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. This survey study examined this effect cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a sample of 118 adolescents living with a parent suffering from mental health problems. In addition, the study examined a possible indirect effect via perceived stress. Path analyses were used to examine the direct associations between parentification and problem behavior as well as the indirect relations via perceived stress. The results showed that parentification was associated with both internalizing and externalizing problems cross-sectionally, but it predicted only internalizing problems 1 year later. An indirect effect of parentification on adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems via perceived stress was found, albeit only cross-sectionally. These findings imply that parentification can be stressful for adolescents who live with a parent with mental health problems, and that a greater awareness of parentification is needed to prevent adolescents from developing internalizing problems. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  16. A social work study on juvenile delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical study to study the effects of different factors on juvenile delinquency. The investigation distributes 100 questionnaires among people who are involved with crime and analyzes their feedbacks. There are five hypotheses in our survey and we look to see whether family conditions, religion, economical conditions, media and physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency in Iranian society. The results shows that while family conditions, physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency, other factors do not statistically have any impact on juvenile delinquency. The study suggests that a better family condition could help reduce juvenile delinquency and people could guide their children through better consultations.

  17. The Association of Maternal Depressive Symptoms with Child Externalizing Problems: The Role of Maternal Support Following Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Aaron; Smith, Daniel; Begle, Angela M.; Ayer, Lynsay

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the role of abuse-specific maternal support in the association between parent depressive symptoms and child externalizing problems in a sample of children with a history of sexual abuse. In total, 106 mother-child dyads were studied. The association between maternal depressive symptoms and child delinquency behaviors was found…

  18. An Investigation of Violent and Nonviolent Adolescents' Family Functioning, Problems Concerning Family Members, Anger and Anger Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songul Sonay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to (a) investigate the families of violent and nonviolent adolescents in terms of family functioning, trait anger and anger expression, and (b) compare incidence of psychological problems, alcohol usage and delinquent behaviors. The sample consisted of families of both violent (n = 54) and nonviolent adolescents (n =…

  19. The Short-Term Dynamics of Peers and Delinquent Behavior: An Analysis of Bi-weekly Changes Within a High School Student Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Weerman (Frank); P. Wilcox (Pamela); C.J. Sullivan (Christopher J.)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract_Objectives:_ To analyze short-term changes in peer affiliations, offending behavior and routine activities in order to evaluate three different processes: peer selection, peer socialization and situational peer influences. _Methods:_ The short-term longitudinal TEENS study was

  20. Parental incarceration and multiple risk experiences: effects on family dynamics and children's delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Lauren; Dallaire, Danielle H

    2010-12-01

    Children of incarcerated parents are exposed to factors that place them at risk for delinquency. Few studies have examined the effects of having an incarcerated parent after controlling for other experiences such as contextual risk factors and family processes. Past studies have also not examined effects of recent, but not current, parental incarceration on children. The present study examines an archival dataset, in which children aged 10-14 years and their parents/guardians reported children's risk experiences (e.g., exposure to poverty, parental substance use), family processes (e.g., level of family victimization, family conflict), and children's delinquent behaviors at two time points. Parents also reported their recent and past incarceration history. Hierarchical linear regression analyses show that a history of parental incarceration predicted family victimization, delinquent behaviors of children's older siblings, and delinquent behaviors of the child participants, over and above children's demographic characteristics and other risk experiences. Recent parental incarceration predicted family conflict, family victimization, and parent-reports of children's delinquency after also controlling for previous parental incarceration. The role of family processes in research and intervention directions involving children of incarcerated parents is discussed.

  1. Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 and high school academic achievement: longitudinal latent variable modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth; Raykov, Tenko

    2011-02-28

    Previous studies documented long-run effects of behavior problems at the start of school on academic achievement. However, these studies did not examine whether the observed effects of early behavior problems are explained by more proximate behavior problems, given the tendency of children's behavior problems to persist. Latent variable modeling was applied to estimate the effects of behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 on academic achievement at age 17, using data from a longitudinal study (n=823). Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11, each stage independently of the other, predicted lower math and reading test scores at age 17, controlling for intelligence quotient (IQ), birth weight, maternal characteristics, family and community environment, and taking into account behavior problems at age 17. Behavior problems at the start of school, independent of later behavior problems, exert lingering effects on achievement by impeding the acquisition of cognitive skills that are the foundation for later academic progress.

  2. Increased Parent Reinforcement of Spontaneous Requests in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Effects on Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Rachel E.; Wehby, Joseph H.; King, Susannah M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of response classes in individuals with developmental disabilities (DD) and problem behavior have shown that mild problem behavior, precursor behavior, and mands or requests can occur as functionally equivalent to severe problem behavior in some individuals. Furthermore, participants in some studies chose to use functionally…

  3. Every child is different : differential parental treatment and adolescent problem behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tamrouti-Makkink, Ilse Diana

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation is an important contribution to the research on differential parental treatment and adolescent problem behavior. First, it extends earlier studies by exploring possible moderating factors explaining the level of differential parental treatment and the link between differential parental treatment and adolescent problem behavior. Secondly, it establishes whether differential parental treatment has any predictive power on adolescence problem behavior above parental behavior sha...

  4. Contributions of circadian tendencies and behavioral problems to sleep onset problems of children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber Reut

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are two to three times more likely to experience sleep problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the relative contributions of circadian preferences and behavioral problems to sleep onset problems experienced by children with ADHD and to test for a moderation effect of ADHD diagnosis on the impact of circadian preferences and externalizing problems on sleep onset problems. Methods After initial screening, parents of children meeting inclusion criteria documented child bedtime over 4 nights, using a sleep log, and completed questionnaires regarding sleep, ADHD and demographics to assess bedtime routine prior to PSG. On the fifth night of the study, sleep was recorded via ambulatory assessment of sleep architecture in the child’s natural sleep environment employing portable polysomnography equipment. Seventy-five children (26 with ADHD and 49 controls aged 7–11 years (mean age 8.61 years, SD 1.27 years participated in the present study. Results In both groups of children, externalizing problems yielded significant independent contributions to the explained variance in parental reports of bedtime resistance, whereas an evening circadian tendency contributed both to parental reports of sleep onset delay and to PSG-measured sleep-onset latency. No significant interaction effect of behavioral/circadian tendency with ADHD status was evident. Conclusions Sleep onset problems in ADHD are related to different etiologies that might require different interventional strategies and can be distinguished using the parental reports on the CSHQ.

  5. "It does affect me” Disruptive behaviors in preadolescents directly and indirectly abused at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Aggressive and delinquent behaviors in preadolescents may be indicators of problems suffered at home from direct child abuse by one or both parents or indirect abuse, such as exposure to domestic violence. A total of 532 Italian preadolescents recruited in their schools took part in this study. They

  6. Self-regulation assessment among preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Slavec, Janine; Ros, Rosmary; Garb, Leanna; Hart, Katie; Garcia, Alexis

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the construct validity and clinical utility of a brief self-regulation assessment (Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders, HTKS) among a clinical sample of children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 101 preschool children (72% male; Mage = 5.10 years; 79% Hispanic) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. Self-regulation measures included the HTKS task, 4 standardized subtests from the Automated Working Memory Assessment (AWMA), parent and teacher reports of children's executive functioning (EF), and children's self-regulation performance across a series of executive functioning classroom games conducted as part of a summer treatment camp. Additional outcomes included school readiness as measured by standardized achievement tests, and parent and teacher reports of kindergarten readiness and behavioral impairment related to academic functioning. Performance on the HTKS task was moderately correlated with children's performance on the standardized working memory tasks and observed self-regulation performance in the classroom. Low to moderate correlations were observed between performance on the HTKS task and parent report of children's EF difficulties, as well as parent and teacher reports of children's kindergarten readiness and behavioral impairment related to academic functioning. Moderate to high correlations were observed between performance on the HTKS task and standardized academic outcomes. These findings highlight the promise of the HTKS task as a brief, ecologically valid, and integrative EF task tapping into both behavioral and cognitive aspects of self-regulation that are important for children with EBP's success in school.

  7. Parenting Style and Child Behavior Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Margaret H.

    1993-01-01

    Data from the National Survey of Children were used to study the relationships between children's perceptions of parental support and control and measures of self-esteem and behavior problems over time. Data were collected in 1976 , when the children were aged 7-11; 1981, when the children were in their early to mid teens (age 12 to 16); and 1987, when the children were in their late teens and early 20s (age 17 to 22). Parenting measures , based on children's reports, were developed for each ...

  8. Eveningness as a risk for behavioral problems in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikanto, Ilona; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Kuula, Liisa; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri

    2017-01-01

    Circadian preference toward eveningness has been associated with increased risk for mental health problems both in early adolescence and in adulthood. However, in late adolescence, when circadian rhythm naturally shifts to later, its significance for mental health is not clear. Accordingly, we studied how circadian rhythm estimated both by self-reported chronotype and by actigraph-defined midpoint of sleep was associated with self-reported psychiatric problems based on Youth Self Report (YSR). The study builds on a community cohort born in 1998, Helsinki, Finland. At age 17 years (mean age = 16.9, SD = 0.1 years), 183 adolescents (65.6% of the invited) participated in the study. We used the shortened version of the Horne-Östberg morningness-eveningness Questionnaire to define the chronotype, and actigraphs to define the naturally occur circadian rhythm over a 4 to 17 days' period (mean nights N = 8.3, SD = 1.8). The Achenbach software was used to obtain T-score values for YSR psychiatric problem scales. The analyses were adjusted for important covariates including gender, socioeconomic status, body mass index, pubertal maturation, mother's licorice consumption during pregnancy, and actigraph-defined sleep duration and quality. Eveningness was associated with higher scores in rule-breaking behavior and conduct problems (as assessed either by midpoint of sleep or by self-reported chronotype, p-values adolescents, is also present in late adolescence when circadian rhythms shift toward evening.

  9. [Analysis of sick leaves due to mental and behavioral problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Gonzalo H; Alvarado, Sergio O; Kaufman, Jay S

    2012-02-01

    In Chile, the number of sick leaves due to mental health problems has systematically increased in recent years. To perform an analysis of sick leaves due to mental problems managed by the Fondo Nacional de Salud (FONASA) during 2008. Analysis of all sick leaves awarded during 2008 for mental or behavioral problems, that were managed at FONASA. A negative binomial regression, was performed to predict the effects of different variables on the total duration of sick leaves. A total of 546,477 sick leaves were awarded to 198,752 individuals (2.27 per subject). The mean duration of each leave was 15.6 days. Summing all leaves, the lapse off work was 98 ± 96 days (median 65 days). Women had longer leaves than men. The type of medical leave, occupation, working for private or public institutions, economic activity and diagnosis were significantly associated with duration of time off work. Sick leaves for mental problems are prolonged and related to gender and socioeconomic variables.

  10. The Prevalence and Comorbidity between Delinquency, Drug Abuse, Suicide Attempts, Physical and Sexual Abuse, and Self-Mutilation among Delinquent Hispanic Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Jeanette; Curry, Theodore R.

    2007-01-01

    Representative data show that drug abuse, delinquency, and suicide attempts are major concerns among adolescent Hispanic females. Although comorbidity research indicates that such problems tend to be related to each other, this research largely neglects Hispanic females. Using data from presentence investigations on 141 Hispanic girls sentenced to…

  11. Beyond Behavioral Modification: Benefits of Socio-Emotional/Self-Regulation Training for Preschoolers with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A.; Hart, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; M[subscript age] = 5.16 years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically…

  12. 关于完善我国未成年人犯罪社会矫正问题的建议%On improving China's social correct juvenile delinquency problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋月

    2009-01-01

    未成年人犯罪作为全球性问题一直广受关注,虽然在实践中贯彻以"教育为主、惩罚为辅"的原则,在我国已经取得了较好的社会效果,但从建立和谐社会的视角来看,还是远远不够的.因此,本文结合国内外未成年人犯罪防治及矫正的具体做法,就如何建立未成年人犯罪社会矫正制度提出一些粗浅的建议,以期对我国正在开展的防治未成年人重新犯罪社会矫正试点工作有所帮助.%Juvenile Delinquency as a global issue has been well received by the concern, although in practice the "education, sup-plemented by punishment" principle, China has achieved good social effects, but the establishment of a harmonious society per-spective, is far from sufficient. Therefore, this combination of domestic and juvenile delinquency prevention and correction of spe-cific practices, on how to create a community of Juvenile Correction's proposal to make some shallow, with a view of our ongoing crime prevention and control of minors to the pilot to correct the work of community.

  13. Increased parent reinforcement of spontaneous requests in children with autism spectrum disorder: effects on problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Rachel E; Wehby, Joseph H; King, Susannah M

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies of response classes in individuals with developmental disabilities (DD) and problem behavior have shown that mild problem behavior, precursor behavior, and mands or requests can occur as functionally equivalent to severe problem behavior in some individuals. Furthermore, participants in some studies chose to use functionally equivalent alternatives over severe problem behavior to produce the maintaining reinforcer. The present study added to this literature by having parents reinforce spontaneous requests functionally equivalent to problem behavior in their children with autism at home. First, parent-implemented functional analyses identified conditions associated with increased problem behavior and requests in two children with autism. Then, parents provided the maintaining reinforcer contingent on problem behavior alone or both problem behavior and requests in a withdrawal design. The treatment analysis indicated that the same reinforcer maintained child requests and problem behavior. In addition, when parents reinforced both requests and problem behavior, child participants demonstrated a preference for requests, thereby decreasing problem behavior. Implications of this relation for function-based treatment of problem behavior in children with autism are discussed.

  14. Relationships between child behavior problems and family functioning: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, N.M.C. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research examining the relationship between family functioning and child behavior problems. Focuses on parenting styles, intergenerational relationships, family structure, and family interaction patterns. Finds that child behavior problems are related to a lack of parental support, an imbala

  15. An internet-based survey of 96 German-speaking users of "bath salts": frequent complications, risky sexual behavior, violence, and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoll, Sabrina; Romanek, Katrin; Stich, Raphael; Bekka, Elias; Stenzel, Jochen; Geith, Stefanie; Eyer, Florian; Rabe, Christian

    2017-07-28

    To define the demographics of German-speaking "bath salt" users. Prospective web-based survey of volunteer users of "bath salts". Subject recruitment/exclusion: Participation was solicited by posts in web forums frequented by users of synthetic cathinones. An invitation to participate was also disseminated via regional drug information centers. Responses were discarded if participants refused data analysis, provided incomplete surveys, were under 18 years of age (five cases), and in case of clearly improbable answers (i.e., two cases with profanity typed in free-form input fields). Overall 96 out of 180 participants provided complete questionnaires. These were further analyzed. 74% of respondents were male. 41% were under the age of 30 and a further 38% between 30 and 39 years old. Cathinones were used on more than 10 days in the preceding year by 62% of study subjects. The nasal and intravenous routes of administration were most often used. About 80% of respondents reported binge use. There were frequent co-administrations of opioids and opiates. The most common complication was prolonged confusion (47%). 16% had been involuntarily confined. One third had thoughts of violence and 16% acted on these thoughts either against themselves or others. About 44% reported high-risk sexual activity under the influence of cathinones. About 31% had driven or ridden a bike while intoxicated. About 6% had problems with law-enforcement for selling cathinones and 16% for crimes committed under the influence of cathinones. In conclusion, cathinone users are typically young males in their twenties and thirties. Most are experienced drug users, particularly of alcohol and opiates/opioids. The impact on society is tremendous as evidenced by high rates of self-reported violence, high-risk sexual activity, crimes, and traffic violations.

  16. Maternal Expressed Emotion Predicts Children's Antisocial Behavior Problems: Using Monozygotic-Twin Differences to Identify Environmental Effects on Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morgan, Julia; Rutter,Michael; Taylor,Alan; Arseneault, Louise; Tully, Lucy; Jacobs, Catherine; Kim-Cohen, Julia

    2004-01-01

    If maternal expressed emotion is an environmental risk factor for children's antisocial behavior problems, it should account for behavioral differences between siblings growing up in the same family even after genetic influences on children's behavior problems are taken into account. This hypothesis was tested in the Environmental Risk…

  17. An Investigation of the Impact of Function of Problem Behavior on Effectiveness of the Behavior Education Program (BEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; O'Neill, Robert E.; MacLeod, K. Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The Behavior Education Program (BEP) is a check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at-risk for engaging in more severe problem behavior. Previous research with middle and elementary school students found that the BEP was more effective with students who had adult attention maintained problem behavior. The purposes of this…

  18. Psychopathology, trauma and delinquency: subtypes of aggression and their relevance for understanding young offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plattner Belinda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To examine the implications of an ontology of aggressive behavior which divides aggression into reactive, affective, defensive, impulsive (RADI or "emotionally hot"; and planned, instrumental, predatory (PIP or "emotionally cold." Recent epidemiological, criminological, clinical and neuroscience studies converge to support a connection between emotional and trauma related psychopathology and disturbances in the emotions, self-regulation and aggressive behavior which has important implications for diagnosis and treatment, especially for delinquent populations. Method Selective review of preclinical and clinical studies in normal, clinical and delinquent populations. Results In delinquent populations we observe an increase in psychopathology, and especially trauma related psychopathology which impacts emotions and self-regulation in a manner that hotly emotionally charged acts of aggression become more likely. The identification of these disturbances can be supported by findings in cognitive neuroscience. These hot aggressive acts can be delineated from planned or emotionally cold aggression. Conclusion Our findings support a typology of diagnostic labels for disruptive behaviors, such as conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, as it appears that these acts of hot emotional aggression are a legitimate target for psychopharmacological and other trauma specific interventions. The identification of this subtype of disruptive behavior disorders leads to more specific clinical interventions which in turn promise to improve hitherto unimpressive treatment outcomes of delinquents and patients with disruptive behavior.

  19. Parent and Teacher Perspectives about Problem Behavior in Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.; Lira, Ernesto N.; Li-Barber, Kirsten T.; Gallo, Frank J.; Brei, Natalie G.

    2015-01-01

    Problem behavior of 52 children with Williams syndrome ages 6 to 17 years old was examined based on both parent and teacher report. Generally good inter-rater agreement was found. Common areas of problem behavior based both on parent and teacher report included attention problems, anxiety difficulties, repetitive behaviors (e.g., obsessions,…

  20. Early Attachment Organization with Both Parents and Future Behavior Problems: From Infancy to Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag

    2013-01-01

    Links between children's attachment security with mothers and fathers, assessed in Strange Situation with each parent at 15 months ("N" = 101), and their future behavior problems were examined. Mothers and fathers rated children's behavior problems, and children reported their own behavior problems at age 8 ("N" = 86). Teachers rated behavior…

  1. Effects of Punishment and Response-Independent Attention on Severe Problem Behavior and Appropriate Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Shannon S.; Poe, Susannah G.; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2005-01-01

    Problem behavior can interfere with learning, the development of appropriate skills, and socialization in persons with developmental disabilities. In severe cases, problem behavior could result in life-threatening injury. For one 21-month-old participant diagnosed with autism engaging in severe problem behavior for whom reinforcement-based…

  2. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Alcohol Use: A Parallel Process Growth Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Barrett, Kimberly; Gulledge, Laura; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Truant youths frequently experience family problems, emotional/psychological issues, substance misuse, and delinquency. They are likely engaging in alcohol use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate than the general youth population. Early intervention services would benefit them, their families, and society. We present interim findings from an…

  3. Drug and alcohol use, delinquency, and vandalism among upper middle class pre- and post-adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, E M; Kozak, C

    1979-03-01

    This article analyzes data from a survey research study of students in the fifth through twelfth grades of an upper middle class Chicago suburban community. The findings indicate the use of alcohol and drugs among both prepubertal and teenage students, and the involvement of both groups in theft and vandalism. The level of community affluence and quality of community institutions and services rule out the explanations ("the tangle of pathology") usually offered in studies of delinquency in lower class and low-income communities. Peer group pressures and psychogenic factors appear to influence these kinds of acting-out behavior. And since considerable numbers of students noted that their parents had not established certain important regulations for them, the view advanced by this study is that deficient socialization and inadequate parenting also appear to be causes of these behavioral problems. However, since the study did not categorize the data in a way to permit cross-tabulations either supporting or invalidating this argument, this conclusion is a tentative one. It is suggested that future research dealing with these problems among this social stratum investigate the influence of parenting on acting-out behavior.

  4. The relationships between problem characteristics, achievement-related behaviors, and academic achievement in problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, Nachamma; Rotgans, Jerome I; Schmidt, Henk G

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characteristics were: (1) problem clarity, (2) problem familiarity, (3) the extent to which the problem stimulated group discussion, (4) self-study, and (5) identification of learning goals. The results showed that problem clarity led to more group discussion, identification of learning goals, and self-study than problem familiarity. On the other hand, problem familiarity had a stronger and direct impact on academic achievement.

  5. The Influence of Culture-Specific Personality Traits on the Development of Delinquency in At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tat Seng; Ku, Lisbeth; Zaroff, Charles Mark

    2016-04-01

    The association between culture-specific personality variables and family factors, and juvenile delinquency, was assessed in a sample of 402 adolescents of Chinese ethnicity between 12 and 17 years of age (Mage = 15.13, SD = 1.41; 135 girls), a subgroup of whom were considered at risk for juvenile delinquency owing to addictive behavior tendencies. Culture-specific personality variables were assessed using the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-Adolescent version Interpersonal Relatedness factor. The General Function subscale of the Chinese version of the Family Assessment Device was utilized to assess the influence of perceived levels of family functioning. Both culture-specific personality variables and non-culture-specific familial factors were significantly and negatively associated with self-reported juvenile delinquency (p culture-specific variable measuring orientation toward the family was able to predict self-reported juvenile delinquency (p < .001). Implications of the current results are discussed.

  6. The implications of different developmental patterns of disruptive behavior problems for school adjustment. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L

    1998-01-01

    Based upon developmental models of disruptive behavior problems, this study examined the hypothesis that the nature of a child's externalizing problems at home may be important in predicting the probability of and nature of school adjustment problems at school entry. Parent ratings were collected for a sample of 631 behaviorally disruptive children using the Child Behavior Checklist. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed differentiated ratings of oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home. Teacher and peer nominations assessed school adjustment at the end of first grade. As expected from a developmental perspective, aggressive behaviors indicated more severe dysfunction and were more likely to generalize to the school setting than were oppositional behaviors. Hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home led to more classroom disruption than did aggressive or oppositional behaviors. Co-occurring patterns of oppositional/aggressive and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors were more common than were single-problem patterns, and were associated with broad dysfunction in the social and classroom contexts. The results were interpreted within a developmental framework, in which oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors may reflect distinct (as well as shared) developmental processes that have implications for the home-to-school generalization of behavior problems and subsequent school adjustment.

  7. Ethnic differences in the effect of parenting on gang involvement and gang delinquency: a longitudinal, hierarchical linear modeling perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Barnes, C J; Mason, C A

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency. An ethnically diverse sample of 300 ninth-grade students was recruited and assessed on eight occasions during the school year. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that, in general, adolescents decreased their level of gang involvement over the course of the school year, whereas the average level of gang delinquency remained constant over time. As predicted, adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency were most strongly predicted by peer gang involvement and peer gang delinquency, respectively. Nevertheless, parenting behavior continued to significantly predict change in both gang involvement and gang delinquency, even after controlling for peer behavior. A significant interaction between parenting and ethnic and cultural heritage found the effect of parenting to be particularly salient for Black students, for whom higher levels of behavioral control and lower levels of lax parental control were related to better behavioral outcomes over time, whereas higher levels of psychological control predicted worse behavioral outcomes.

  8. Testing the Oregon delinquency model with 9-year follow-up of the Oregon Divorce Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgatch, Marion S; Patterson, Gerald R; Degarmo, David S; Beldavs, Zintars G

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents experimental tests of the Oregon delinquency model applied within a randomized design of an at-risk sample of single mothers and their elementary school-aged sons. In the theoretical model, ineffective parenting practices and deviant peer association serve as the primary mechanisms for growth in adolescent delinquent behavior and early arrests. Multiple-method assessments of 238 mothers and sons include delinquency as measured by teacher reports and official arrest records, parenting skills measured by observations of parent-child interactions, and deviant peer association as reported by focal boys. Analyses of the 9-year follow-up data indicate that the Oregon model of parent management training significantly reduced teacher-reported delinquency and police arrests for focal boys. As hypothesized, the experiments demonstrated that improving parenting practices and reducing contacts with deviant peers served as mediating mechanisms for reducing rates of adolescent delinquency. As predicted, there was also a significant delay in the timing of police arrests for youth in the experimental as compared to the control group.

  9. Family context and externalizing correlates of childhood animal cruelty in adjudicated delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Noon, Alexandria

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood animal cruelty is primarily a feature of family context or of externalizing behavior. Twenty measures of family context and proactive (fearlessness) and reactive (disinhibition) externalizing behavior were correlated with the retrospective accounts of childhood animal cruelty provided by 1,354 adjudicated delinquents. A cross-sectional analysis revealed that all 20 family context, proactive externalizing, and reactive externalizing variables correlated significantly with animal cruelty. Prospective analyses showed that when the animal cruelty variable was included in a regression equation with the 10 family context variables (parental arguing and fighting, parental drug use, parental hostility, and parental knowledge and monitoring of offspring behavior) or in a regression equation with the five reactive externalizing variables (interpersonal hostility, secondary psychopathy, weak impulse control, weak suppression of aggression, and short time horizon), it continued to predict future violent and income (property + drug) offending. The animal cruelty variable no longer predicted offending, however, when included in a regression equation with the five proactive externalizing variables (early onset behavioral problems, primary psychopathy, moral disengagement, positive outcome expectancies for crime, and lack of consideration for others). These findings suggest that while animal cruelty correlates with a wide range of family context and externalizing variables, it may serve as a marker of violent and nonviolent offending by virtue of its position on the proactive subdimension of the externalizing spectrum.

  10. Institutional Misconduct, Delinquent Background, and Rearrest Frequency among Serious and Violent Delinquent Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trulson, Chad R.; DeLisi, Matt; Marquart, James W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of institutional misconduct to postrelease rearrest, controlling for a battery of preincarceration variables typically found to influence recidivism among institutionalized delinquent offenders. Based on data from 1,804 serious and violent male delinquents released from a large southern juvenile correctional…

  11. General Strain Theory and Delinquency: Focusing on the Influences of Key Strain Characteristics on Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; Blurton, David; McCluskey, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the effects of recent, older, and chronic strains and of perceived injustice of strain on delinquency, sampling 777 Korean youth. Seven key strains most likely leading to delinquency, some of which were often overlooked in previous research, were included, and these are family conflict, parental punishment, teachers' punishment,…

  12. Problem Internet Overuse Behaviors in College Students: Readiness-to-Change and Receptivity to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; Li, Wen; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores college students' readiness-to-change and receptivity to treatment for problem Internet overuse behaviors. Focus groups were conducted with 27 college students who self-identified as Internet over-users, and had experienced biopsychosocial problems related to Internet overuse. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing their Internet use and sociodemographic forms. Focus groups explored readiness to change problem Internet overuse behaviors and receptivity to treatment. Similar to college students with other addictive behaviors, students with problem Internet overuse fall along a continuum vis-à-vis readiness-to-change their behaviors. Over half of the participants were receptive to treatment for their problem Internet overuse behaviors.

  13. Persistence during extinction: examining the effects of continuous and intermittent reinforcement on problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Jacquelyn M; Ahearn, William H; Parry-Cruwys, Diana; Bancroft, Stacie; Dube, William V

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavioral persistence during extinction following continuous or intermittent reinforcement in the context of an analogue functional analysis of problem behavior. Participants were 4 children who had been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder and who engaged in problem behavior maintained by social reinforcement. Experimental sessions included 4 successive 5-min components: no social interaction, continuous or intermittent reinforcement for problem behavior (alternating across sessions), extinction, and no social interaction. All participants' problem behavior was more persistent during extinction following continuous reinforcement, suggesting that behavior during extinction was affected by the preceding schedule of reinforcement.

  14. Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

  15. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR; ADIBSERESHKI, Narges; Masome POURMOHAMADREZA-TAJRISHI; Samaneh HOSSEINZADEH

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were chosen and randomly divided into two ...

  16. Genetics study on behavior problems in school-age twins%学龄儿童行为遗传双生子研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉玲; 季成叶; 关宏岩; 陆舜华; 赵曼; 栾天抒

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the heritability of behavior problems in school-age children by twins data. Methods The behavior problems were assessed in a total of 166 twin pairs aged 6-12 years in Huhhot with the Child Behavior Checklist ( CBCL). Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the heritability of behavior problems in school-age children. Results For behavior problems of school-age children, the genetic factors ( heritability) explained about 30. 26% in boys and 32.80% in girls of the total variance. The heritabilities of anxiety/depression, withdrawn, thought problems, attention problems, social problems, delinquent problems, aggressive behavior and other problems were 46. 79% , 56. 45% , 58. 59% , 79. 14% , 26.13% , 37.09% , 84.57% and 75.21% in the boys and 74.99% , 78.33% , 63.25% , 40.11% , 52.09% , 0.00% , 50.51% and 70. 29% in the girls respectively. The gender effect existed in the heritabilities of attention problems and aggressive behavior, and the males heritabilities of them were higher than those of females. The genetic and environmental effects of the behavior problems of school-age children were not influenced by the age. Conclusion The behavior problems of school-age children are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. There are gender effects on the heritabilities of attention problems and aggressive behavior.%目的 利用双生子人群估计学龄儿童行为指标的遗传度,为降低儿童行为问题的发生提供依据.方法 采用Achenbach's儿童行为量表对在呼和浩特市募集的166对6~12岁双生子心理行为问题进行调查.对调查结果进行结构方程模型拟合,估算学龄儿童行为指标的遗传度.结果 行为总粗分遗传度为男30.26%,女32.80%;各行为分因子遗传度分别为焦虑/抑郁(男46.79%,女74.99%)、退缩(男56.45%,女78.33%)、思维(男58.95%,女63.25%)、注意力(男79.14%,女40.11%)、社会化问题(男26.13%,女52.09

  17. The Effect of Corporal Punishment and Verbal Abuse on Delinquency: Mediating Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sara Z.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    While the link between parenting and delinquency is well established, there is less consensus among scholars with regards to the processes that account for this link. The current study had two objectives. The first was to disentangle the effects of African American parents' use of corporal punishment and verbal abuse on the conduct problems of…

  18. Self-concept and Academic Achievement of Delinquent and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    secondary schools and 60 delinquent inmate from Boys Approved. Remand home for ... self concept of their students for better academic achievement. Introduction ... schools where not only teaching and learning take place but the delinquents ...

  19. The Role of Peer Contacts in the Relationship between Parental Knowledge and Adolescents' Externalizing Behaviors: A Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Ellen; Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct and indirect effects (through peer contacts) of parental knowledge on adolescents' delinquent and aggressive problem behavior, using latent growth curve modeling. A sample of 457 13- to 14-year old adolescents at first measurement wave (M = 13.27; SD = 0.45 years) filled out questionnaires…

  20. TEMPERAMENT, FAMILY ENVIRONMENT, AND BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH NEW-ONSET SEIZURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Katherine T.; Byars, Anna W.; deGrauw, Ton J.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Perkins, Susan M.; Dunn, David W.; Bates, John E.; Austin, Joan K.

    2007-01-01

    Children with epilepsy, even those with new-onset seizures, exhibit relatively high rates of behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among early temperament, family adaptive resources, and behavior problems in children with new-onset seizures. Our major goal was to test whether family adaptive resources moderated the relationship between early temperament dimensions and current behavior problems in 287 children with new-onset seizures. Two of the three temperament dimensions (difficultness and resistance to control) were positively correlated with total, internalizing, and externalizing behavior problems (all p < 0.0001). The third temperament dimension, unadaptability, was positively correlated with total and internalizing problems (p < 0.01). Family adaptive resources moderated the relationships between temperament and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at school. Children with a difficult early temperament who live in a family environment with low family mastery are at the greatest risk for behavior problems. PMID:17267291

  1. Randomized Trial of Treatment for Children with Sexual Behavior Problems: Ten-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Melissa Y.; Silovsky, Jane F.; Chaffin, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This study prospectively follows 135 children 5-12 years of age with sexual behavior problems from a randomized trial comparing a 12-session group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with group play therapy and follows 156 general clinic children with nonsexual behavior problems. Ten-year follow-up data on future juvenile and adult arrests and…

  2. Persistence during Extinction: Examining the Effects of Continuous and Intermittent Reinforcement on Problem Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Jacquelyn M.; Ahearn, William H; Parry-Cruwys, Diana; Bancroft, Stacie; Dube, William V.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavioral persistence during extinction following continuous or intermittent reinforcement in the context of an analogue functional analysis of problem behavior. Participants were four children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder who engaged in problem behavior; and for whom functional analyses indicated sensitivity to social reinforcers. Experimental sessions included four successive 5-min components: No social interaction, continuous or intermittent reinforcement...

  3. The Effects of Consequence Manipulation during Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior Maintained by Negative Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoczak, Kathryn; Carr, James E.; Michael, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Two distinct analytic methods have been used to identify the function of problem behavior. The antecedent-behavior-consequence (ABC) method (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994) includes the delivery of consequences for problem behavior. The AB method (Carr & Durand, 1985) does not include consequence delivery, instead relying…

  4. Trauma Focused CBT for Children with Co-Occurring Trauma and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Berliner, Lucy; Mannarino, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood trauma impacts multiple domains of functioning including behavior. Traumatized children commonly have behavioral problems that therapists must effectively evaluate and manage in the context of providing trauma-focused treatment. This manuscript describes practical strategies for managing behavior problems in the context of…

  5. Parental Satisfaction in the Adoption of Children with Learning Disorders: The Role of Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalavany, Blace A.; Glidden, Laraine M.; Ryan, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which children's behavior problems would mediate the relationship between children's learning disorders and adoption satisfaction using nationally representative data from 1,865 adoptive parents. We found that high levels of behavior problems, operationalized as internalizing and externalizing behaviors,…

  6. Trauma Focused CBT for Children with Co-Occurring Trauma and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Berliner, Lucy; Mannarino, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood trauma impacts multiple domains of functioning including behavior. Traumatized children commonly have behavioral problems that therapists must effectively evaluate and manage in the context of providing trauma-focused treatment. This manuscript describes practical strategies for managing behavior problems in the context of…

  7. The Role of Gender in Juvenile Delinquency: Personality and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Amelia; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Three personality questionnaires were completed by 122 delinquent and 421 nondelinquent adolescents in Valencia, Spain. Delinquents scored higher than nondelinquents on factors of dogmatism, neuroticism, and criminal propensity and lower than nondelinquents on intelligence. Neuroticism was the best predictor of delinquency for females. (BC)

  8. Anxiety, attention problems, hyperactivity, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Anne; Raspa, Melissa; Bann, Carla; Bishop, Ellen; Hessl, David; Sacco, Pat; Bailey, Donald B

    2014-01-01

    Behavior problems are a common challenge for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and constitute the primary clinical outcome domain in trials testing new FXS medications. However, little is known about the relationship between caregiver-reported behavior problems and co-occurring conditions such as anxiety and attention problems. In this study, 350 caregivers, each with at least one son or daughter with full-mutation FXS, rated one of their children with FXS using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Version (ABC-C); the Anxiety subscale of the Anxiety, Depression, and Mood Scale; and the Attention/Hyperactivity Items from the Symptom Inventories. In addition to examining family consequences of these behaviors, this study also sought to replicate psychometric findings for the ABC-C in FXS, to provide greater confidence for its use in clinical trials with this population. Psychometric properties and baseline ratings of problem behavior were consistent with other recent studies, further establishing the profile of problem behavior in FXS. Cross-sectional analyses suggest that selected dimensions of problem behavior, anxiety, and hyperactivity are age related; thus, age should serve as an important control in any studies of problem behavior in FXS. Measures of anxiety, attention, and hyperactivity were highly associated with behavior problems, suggesting that these factors at least coincide with problem behavior. However, these problems generally did not add substantially to variance in caregiver burden predicted by elevated behavior problems. The results provide further evidence of the incidence of problem behaviors and co-occurring conditions in FXS and the impact of these behaviors on the family.

  9. Personality, Social Skills, Anomie and Delinquency: A Self-Report Study of a Group of Normal Non-Delinquent Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian

    1984-01-01

    Over 200 'normal' adolescents were administered self-report measures of personality (extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism), social skills, anomie, and delinquency in order to establish which of three theories best predicted delinquency. Eysenck's personality factors, particularly psychoticism, correlated most highly with delinquency. (RH)

  10. Personality, Social Skills, Anomie and Delinquency: A Self-Report Study of a Group of Normal Non-Delinquent Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian

    1984-01-01

    Over 200 'normal' adolescents were administered self-report measures of personality (extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism), social skills, anomie, and delinquency in order to establish which of three theories best predicted delinquency. Eysenck's personality factors, particularly psychoticism, correlated most highly with delinquency. (RH)

  11. Impact of social problem-solving training on aggressive boys: skill acquisition, behavior change, and generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevremont, D C; Foster, S L

    1993-02-01

    This study examined the impact of social problem-solving training on the behavior of five aggressive boys. Acquisition of problem-solving skills and changes in classroom behavior were evaluated using multiple-baseline designs within and across subjects. A generalization-programming procedure to promote the use of problem-solving skills in the natural environment was introduced across children in multiple-baseline fashion. Direct observation and behavior ratings were used to evaluate the treatment. Results indicated that each subject acquired the problem-solving skills at levels comparable to well-adjusted peers. Only one child showed behavioral improvement coincident with problem-solving skill acquisition. Three others showed moderate behavior change after the generalization-programming procedure was introduced. Only one child's gains on teacher ratings were maintained at the 6-month followup. The results suggest that cognitive-behavioral treatment of childrens' aggressive behavior may produce changes of limited magnitude and durability.

  12. Group Training for Parents of Children with Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Willie M.

    1986-01-01

    Ten mothers of children 8-12 with adjustment difficulties received group training in behavioral strategies and communication skills. After six weekly six-hour sessions, ratings on the Child Behavior Rating Scale and Family Adjustment Test indicated that the parents' children's perceptions of family functions, behavior, and adjustment were…

  13. Beyond behavior modification: Benefits of social-emotional/self-regulation training for preschoolers with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Hart, Katie

    2016-10-01

    The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; Mage=5.16years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. During the summer between preschool and kindergarten, children were randomized to receive three newly developed intervention packages. The first and most cost effective intervention package was an 8-week School Readiness Parenting Program (SRPP). Families randomized into the second and third intervention packages received not only the weekly SRPP, but children also attended two different versions of an intensive kindergarten summer readiness class (M-F, 8a.m.-5p.m.) that was part of an 8-week summer treatment program for pre-kindergarteners (STP-PreK). One version included the standard behavioral modification system and academic curriculum (STP-PreK) while the other additionally contained social-emotional and self-regulation training (STP-PreK Enhanced). Baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up data were collected on children's school readiness outcomes including parent, teacher, and objective assessment measures. Analyses using linear mixed models indicated that children's behavioral functioning significantly improved across all groups in a similar magnitude. Children in the STP-PreK Enhanced group, however, experienced greater growth across time in academic achievement, emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and executive functioning compared to children in the other groups. These findings suggest that while parent training is sufficient to address children's behavioral difficulties, an intensive summer program that goes beyond behavioral modification and academic preparation by targeting socio-emotional and self-regulation skills can have incremental benefits across multiple aspects of school readiness

  14. Buffering the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; McKelvey, Lorraine M; Pemberton, Joy R; Mesman, Glenn R; Holmes, Khiela J; Bradley, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to examine how mothers' warmth can protect children from the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on children's externalizing behavior and, alternately, how harsh parenting can exacerbate the problem. We used data from 1,563 families eligible for Early Head Start and assessed when children were age 5 and again at age 11. We examined whether mothers' warmth or harsh parenting at age 5 moderated the effect of maternal alcohol problems on children's behavior problems at age 11. Results indicated that mothers' symptoms of alcohol problems when children were age 5 predicted greater externalizing behavior problems (aggression and rule breaking) when children were age 11. Aggression and rule-breaking behaviors, externalizing behaviors commonly associated with maternal alcohol problems, were lessened when mothers were warm and did not engage in harsh parenting techniques. Our findings highlight the importance of positive parenting techniques in high-risk families.

  15. Behavior problems, foster home integration, and evidence-based behavioral interventions: What predicts adoption of foster children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Sonya J.; Spielfogel, Jill E.; Gleeson, James P.; Rolock, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adoption is particularly important for foster children with special mental health needs who are unable to return home, as adoption increases parental support often critically needed by youth with mental health issues. Unfortunately, significant behavior problems frequently inhibit foster parents from adopting, and little is known about factors that predict adoption when a child has behavior problems. Previous research suggests that foster parent behavioral training could potentially increase rates of successful adoptions for pre-school-aged foster children with behavior problems (Fisher, Kim, & Pears, 2009), but this has not been previously tested in older samples. In older children, effective treatment of behavior problems might also increase adoption by reducing the interference of behavior problems and strengthening the child’s foster home integration. This pilot study focused on this question by testing associations between behavior problems, foster home integration, an evidence-based foster parent intervention, and adoption likelihood. Methods This study used an intent-to-treat design to compare foster home integration and adoption likelihood for 31 foster children with histories of abuse and neglect whose foster parents received a foster behavioral parenting intervention (see Chamberlain, 2003) or usual services. Random effect regression analyses were used to estimate outcomes across four time points. Results As expected, externalizing behavior problems had a negative effect on both integration and adoption, and foster home integration had an independent positive effect on adoption. Internalizing behavior problems (e.g., depression/anxiety) were not related to adoption or integration. However, the intervention did not have a direct effect on either foster home integration or adoption despite its positive effect on behavior problems. Conclusions Results from this preliminary study provide further evidence of the negative effect of externalizing

  16. The relationships between problem characteristics, achievement-related behaviors, and academic achievement in problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Sockalingam (Nachamma); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characte

  17. Abolishing and establishing operation analyses of social attention as positive reinforcement for problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Molly A; Houchins-Juárez, Nealetta; McDaniel, Jill L; Kennedy, Craig H

    2010-03-01

    Three participants whose problem behavior was maintained by contingent attention were exposed to 45-min presessions in which attention was withheld, provided on a fixed-time (FT) 15-s schedule, or provided on an FT 120-s schedule. Following each presession, participants were then tested in a 15-min session similar to the social attention condition of an analogue functional analysis. The results showed establishing operation conditions increased problem behavior during tests and that abolishing operation conditions decreased problem behavior during tests.

  18. Individualism, collectivism, and delinquency in Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thao N; Stockdale, Gary D

    2005-12-01

    Although the study of delinquency has previously focused on identifying individual, family, peer, and social risk and protective factors, little empirical research has studied cultural factors and their relations to delinquency. In a large community sample of 329 Chinese, Cambodian, Laotian/Mien, and Vietnamese youths, individualism was positively related to, and collectivism negatively related to, self-reported delinquency, with partial mediation through peer delinquency (PD). Although the percentage of variance in delinquency attributable to individualism-collectivism was small compared to PD, it cannot be discounted as trivial. The results also supported the measurement and structural invariance of these associations across the 4 ethnic groups.

  19. Positive affect: phenotypic and etiologic associations with prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996), the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg et al., 1997), and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5-5 (Achenbach, 1991), respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and non-shared). In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children.

  20. Family material hardship and chinese adolescents' problem behaviors: a moderated mediation analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Wenqiang; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    ...; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors...

  1. Problematic Internet use and other risky behaviors in college students: an application of problem-behavior theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, Joseph Anthony; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2013-03-01

    Given the widespread use of the Internet, researchers have begun to examine the personal and social consequences associated with excessive online involvement. The present study examined college students' problematic Internet use (PIU) behaviors within the framework of Jessor and Jessor's (1977) problem-behavior theory. Its specific aim was to investigate the links between PIU with both internalizing (depression, social anxiety) and externalizing (substance use and other risky behaviors) problems. Relevant variables from the perceived environmental system, the personality system, and the behavioral system were entered in a canonical correlation analysis. The analysis yielded two distinct functions: the first function, titled traditional problem-behavior syndrome, characterized students who are impulsive, hold socially deviant attitudes and show a propensity to use tobacco and illicit drugs. The second function, titled problematic Internet-behavior syndrome, characterized students who are socially anxious, depressed, report conflictive family relations, and show a propensity toward PIU. Thus, PIU did not share the characteristics typically associated with the traditional problem-behavior syndrome consistent with problem-behavior theory, but showed correlates more consistent with internalizing rather than externalizing problems.

  2. A Comparison of Delinquent Prostitutes and Delinquent Non-Prostitutes on Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bour, Daria S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared social and demographic statistics and self-concept in 50 delinquent females (25 prostitutes and 25 nonprostitutes). Results indicated early sexual intercourse and a positive physical self-image were related to prostitution. (JAC)

  3. Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Preterm and Full-Term Children at School Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornman, Jorijn; de Winter, Andrea F; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preterm children, compared with term children, are at increased risk of emotional and behavioral problems (EB-problems). Prevalences of EB-problems seem to vary with degree of prematurity and age at assessment. We therefore assessed individual stability of EB-problems in p

  4. Control study of Stroop test of male juvenile delinquents with aggressive behaviors%男性犯罪青少年攻击行为Stroop测试对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢海岩; 母代斌; 伊其忠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristic and difference of the executive function of the premeditated group and attack group of male juvenile delinquents by the Stroop test.Methods 123 male juvenile delinquents and 128 normal controls were examined by a general information questionnaire,the Stroop test of the Chinese version and impulsive premeditated aggression scale (IPAS).SPSS17.0 statistical software used to analysis the survey results.Results ( 1 ) By Stroop test the premeditated group and impulsive group of juvenile delinquents was found that correct number of test 3( 109.97 ± 1.87),errors number of test 4(4.45 ±4.84),amend number of test 1 and test 4 ( 1.18 ± 1.50 ; 1.50 ± 1.59 ),and completion time of test 4 ( 143.74 ± 28.36) had statistically significant (P < 0.05 ),the others had no significant difference between the two groups.(2) The premeditated group of juvenile delinquents and normal adolescents in Stroop test comparison was statistically significant in completion time of test 1,test 2 (56.49 ± 14.90 ;88.31 ± 20.02)(P < 0.05 ).The impulse group of the juvenile delinquents and normal adolescents was statistically significant in the correct number of test 2 to test 4( 107.20 ± 3.39 ; 109.97± 1.87 ; 102.47 ± 5.62 ),errors number of test 2 ( 1.86 ± 2.27 ),amends number of test 3 ( 1.50 ± 1.59 ),and completion time of test 1 to test 4 (59.96 ± 11.08 ;92.03 ± 20.87 ;62.77 ± 12.31 ; 143.74 ± 28.36) (P < 0.05 ).The others of two groups were no significant difference.Conclusion It is found that juvenile delinquents exist defects of executive function,and perform functional defects in the attack group of juvenile delinquents is more obviously.%目的 采用Stroop测试探讨有预谋性攻击或冲动性攻击男性犯罪青少年执行功能特点及差异性.方法 研究对未成年犯管教所内的123名男性犯罪青少年和2所普通中学及1所中等职业学校的128名男生进行一般资料问卷、中文版Stroop测试和

  5. Choice-making treatment of young children's severe behavior problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Peck, S M; Wacker, D P; Berg, W K; Cooper, L J; K. A. Brown; Richman, D; McComas, J J; Frischmeyer, P; Millard, T

    1996-01-01

    The choice-making behavior of 5 young children with developmental disabilities who engaged in aberrant behavior was studied within a concurrent operants framework. Experimental analyses were conducted to identify reinforcers that maintained aberrant behavior, and functional communication training packages were implemented to teach the participants to gain reinforcement using mands. Next, a choice-making analysis, in which the participants chose one of two responses (either a mand or an altern...

  6. Problem in modern deviant behavior among youth ukrainian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Znakovska

    2014-05-01

    The causes of deviant behavior, sociologists looking in different directions: the imperfection of human nature and the various evils of people; in their biological and psychological characteristics; in the social conditions of life. Because the causes of deviant behavior can be reduced to three types of explanations: biological, psychological and sociological. Every member of society should know what behavior it can expect from the people around him what behavior the rest of the society expect from him, to which social norms need to be socialized children.

  7. A Qualitative Study of Family Influence on Women's Delinquency (The Case of Female prisoners in Isfahan's Central Jail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rabbani-Khorasgani

    2014-11-01

    conflicts“, “reduced care” and parent may "leave" children to themselves. We constructed these concepts from social control theory of Hirschi, who argues that the more individuals are connected with their family in terms of affiliations, beliefs, engagements, and personal commitments, the less they are likely to get involved in criminal behavior. In our country, we see improvements in some family relationships, but still parents' express of affections are usually indirect and weak. For example, they have problems such as embarrassment, and fear of losing their authority. Sociological theories of deviance, such as ecological theory and pressure theory, argue that social deviance is related to socio-economic status of the family. Thinkers of these theories believe that families with low socio-economic status suffer from a sense of deprivation, lake of adequate conditions of life, inappropriate or zero satisfaction of needs, especially needs of the youth, and delayed, if any, success. These conditions lead to social pathology and deviant parents, which in turn can affect the tendency of children towards delinquency and crime. Generally speaking, family is the first institution to prevent people from committing crime. It can also serve as a suitable context for development and growth of delinquency.

  8. Problem music and self-harming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Adrian C; Hargreaves, David J

    2006-10-01

    Academics and protest groups have claimed that "problem music" (hard rock, hip hop/rap, & punk) causes self-injurious thoughts/behaviors among fans. In this study we investigated whether the relationship is mediated by self-esteem, delinquency, and conservatism; and whether first exposure to problem music preceded self-injurious thoughts. A liking for problem music was associated with four of the five self-injurious measures, although these significant relationships were weakened (into nonsignificance in the case of two self-injurious measures) when the mediating variables were included. Listening to problem music did not precede self-injurious thoughts. Problem music is associated with self-injurious thoughts and behaviors, but this relationship is mediated by other factors and the former does not seem to cause the latter.

  9. Adolescent dispositions for antisocial behavior in context: the roles of neighborhood dangerousness and parental knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Cheong, JeeWon

    2009-08-01

    This study examined an ecological perspective on the development of antisocial behavior during adolescence, examining direct, additive, and interactive effects of child and both parenting and community factors in relation to youth problem behavior. To address this goal, the authors examined early adolescent dispositional qualities as predictors of boys' antisocial behavior within the context of parents' knowledge of adolescent activities and neighborhood dangerousness. Antisocial behavior was examined using a multimethod latent construct that included self-reported delinquency, symptoms of conduct disorder, and court petitions in a sample of 289 boys from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds who were followed longitudinally from early childhood through adolescence. Results demonstrated direct and additive findings for child prosociality, daring, and negative emotionality, which were qualified by interactions between daring and neighborhood dangerousness, and between prosociality and parental knowledge. The findings have implications for preventive intervention approaches that address the interplay of dispositional and contextual factors to prevent delinquent behavior in adolescence.

  10. Dissociative Disorders in Children: Behavioral Profiles and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical research has established a connection between childhood trauma and the development of dissociative disorders in adults. Pathological dissociation produces a range of symptoms and behaviors such as amnesias, rapid shifts in mood and behavior, and auditory and visual hallucinations. Many of these symptoms are misdiagnosed as attention,…

  11. Procedures and Problems in Behavioral Training for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Caven S.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive empirical evidence exists to support the efficacy and utility of parent-mediated alternative procedures in behavior modification for handicapped and normal children with academic, social, and behavioral difficulties. Specific and general reservations are reviewed with considerations for the prescription and implementation of programs;…

  12. Dissociative Disorders in Children: Behavioral Profiles and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical research has established a connection between childhood trauma and the development of dissociative disorders in adults. Pathological dissociation produces a range of symptoms and behaviors such as amnesias, rapid shifts in mood and behavior, and auditory and visual hallucinations. Many of these symptoms are misdiagnosed as attention,…

  13. Behavioral Treatment and Assessment of Childhood Cross-Gender Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekers, George A.; Lovaas, O. Ivar

    This study demonstrated reinforcement control over pronounced feminine behaviors in a male child. The clinical history of S paralleled the retrospective reports of adult transsexuals, including (a) cross-gender clothing preferences, (b) actual or imaginal use of cosmetic articles, (c) feminine behavior mannerisms, (d) aversion to masculine…

  14. Parenting Without Punishment: Making Problem Behavior Work for You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.

    1997-01-01

    Details the concepts of reinforcement and punishment and their roles in parenting. Claims that responding only to a child's negative behavior is problematic. Disputes contrary opinions of reinforcement techniques and outlines the importance of teaching and reinforcing desirable behavior. Provides examples as illustrations. (RJM)

  15. The relation of child maltreatment to shame and guilt among adolescents: psychological routes to depression and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuewig, Jeffrey; McCloskey, Laura A

    2005-11-01

    In a longitudinal study of children followed for 8 years into adolescence, the authors investigated how different forms of maltreatment (i.e., harsh parenting, sexual abuse, witnessing domestic violence) in childhood and parenting during adolescence influenced adolescents' shame- and guilt-proneness. Furthermore, the authors examined whether diminished feelings of guilt or heightened feelings of shame were related to delinquent behavior or depression in late adolescence. Results showed that whereas harsh parenting in childhood was related to shame proneness in adolescence, this relationship was mediated by parental rejection in adolescence. Findings confirmed that youth with rejecting parents were more shame-prone and less guilt-prone than other youth. Furthermore, shame-proneness was associated with higher depression when measured 2 years later and guilt-proneness was linked to less delinquent behavior. Results suggest that, as mediators, shame and guilt may provide useful focal points for intervention and prevention efforts in reducing adolescent depression and delinquency.

  16. 19 CFR 113.38 - Delinquent sureties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... individual or corporate surety when the surety, without just cause, is significantly delinquent either in the... not accept a bond secured by an individual or corporate surety when that surety, without just cause... for the failure to pay, or demonstrate the existence of a significant legal issue justifying further...

  17. Family Disruption and Delinquency. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Rivera, Craig; Huizinga, David; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    At study sites in Rochester (New York), Denver (Colorado) and Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), three research teams studying the impact of family disruption on juvenile delinquency have interviewed approximately 4,000 participants at regular intervals for a decade, recording their lives in detail. Findings to date indicate that preventing delinquency…

  18. Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Yu, Shuli; Cottrell, Lesley; Lunn, Sonja; Deveaux, Lynette; Brathwaite, Nanika V; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-07-02

    Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1) describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2) examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and one of their parents. The data used in these analyses were from the baseline assessment of a school-based HIV risk reduction intervention being conducted and evaluated among sixth grade students and one of their parents across 9 elementary schools in The Bahamas. Personal values were measured by the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ). Seven reported problem behaviors were queried from the students, which included physical fight with a friend, drank alcohol, beer, or wine, smoked a cigarette, pushed or carried any drugs, carried a gun, knife, screwdriver or cutlass to use as a weapon, had sex and used marijuana or other illicit drugs over the past 6 months. Multilevel modeling for binary data was performed to estimate the associations between adolescent and parental values and adolescent problem behaviors. Among 785 students, 47% of the students reported at least one problem behavior. More boys (54%) reported having one or more problem behaviors than girls (41%, p values (self-transcendence and conservation) were low or modestly correlated with youth' values (openness to change and self-enhancement). Parental-reported values documented limited association on adolescents' reported values and behaviors. In designing interventions for reducing adolescents' problem behaviors, it may be important to understand the values associated with specific problem behaviors. Further exploration regarding lack of association between adolescent and parental values and problem behaviors is needed.

  19. Impacts of autistic behaviors, emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed that caregivers of children with mild/moderate autistic behavior problems perceived lower parenting stress than did those of children with no or severe problems. In addition, prosocial behaviors and conduct problems respectively predicted stress in the parent-child relationship and child-related stress. The findings can provide guidance in evaluations and interventions with a focus on mitigating parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism.

  20. Functional Communication Training in the Treatment of Problem Behavior Maintained by Access to Rituals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; Camargo, Síglia; Machalicek, Wendy; Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the assessment and treatment of problem behaviors related to rituals for children with autism. After functional analyses, we used a multiple-probe design to examine the effects of functional communication training (FCT) plus extinction and schedule thinning as a treatment package for problem behavior and appropriate…

  1. Parental Self-Esteem and Behavior Problems in Children: Similarities between Mothers and Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finken, Laura L.; Amato, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between parental self-esteem and behavior problems in children, using responses of 1,624 married couples from the National Survey of Families and Households. Results indicate that parent self-esteem is negatively associated with behavior problems in children, but none of the hypothesized moderating variables have a…

  2. Brief Report: Association between Behavioral Features and Gastrointestinal Problems among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenner, Matthew J.; Arneson, Carrie L.; Levy, Susan E.; Kirby, Russell S.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Durkin, Maureen S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports suggest certain behaviors among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may indicate underlying gastro-intestinal (GI) problems, and that the presence of these behaviors may help alert primary care providers to the need to evaluate a child with ASD for GI problems. The purpose of this population-based study of 487 children…

  3. Problem Behaviors Associated with Deletion Prader-Willi, Smith-Magenis, and Cri Du Chat Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David J.; Boer, Harm

    1998-01-01

    Problem behaviors of 38 individuals with Cri-du-Chat syndrome, 55 individuals with Prader Willi syndrome, and 21 individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome were investigated. All three disorders were Associated with greater ratings of problem behaviors (besides eating abnormalities and sleep abnormalities) than comparison groups. (Author/CR)

  4. Psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the Behavior Problems Inventory-01 (BPI-01)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, E.L.M.; Kroes, D.B.H.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Didden, H.C.M.; Rojahn, J.

    2014-01-01

    There are only a limited number of Dutch validated measurement instruments for measuring behavioral problems in people with a moderate to profound intellectual disability. In this study, the psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the behavior Problems Inventory-01 (BPI-01; Rojahn et al., 2001

  5. Adventure Camp Programs, Self-Concept, and Their Effects on Behavioral Problem Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an adventure camp program on the self-concept of adolescents with behavioral problems. Subjects in the study included 61 randomly selected male and female adolescents ranging in age from 9 to 17 years with behavioral problems. The treatment group of 31 adolescents was randomly selected from a…

  6. The Utility of a Brief Experimental Analysis for Problem Behavior Maintained by Escape from Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Shanholtzer, Alison; Mezhoudi, Nabil; Scherbak, Bailey; Kahng, SungWoo

    2014-01-01

    Brief experimental analysis (BEA) is a useful tool for quickly evaluating intervention strategies for individuals with academic deficits and minor behavior problems. However, there is a lack of research investigating BEA for intervention strategies with individuals who emit severe problem behavior to avoid academic demands. For the current study,…

  7. Video Game Access, Parental Rules, and Problem Behavior: A Study of Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Mazurek, Micah O.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental correlates of problem behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorder remain relatively understudied. The current study examined the contribution of in-room (i.e. bedroom) access to a video game console as one potential correlate of problem behavior among a sample of 169 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ranging from 8 to…

  8. Unified Discipline: A School-Wide Approach for Managing Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard; Algozzine, Bob; Audette, Robert; Marr, Mary Beth; Ellis, Edward D., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This article explains how to implement "unified discipline" as a school-wide approach to managing problem behavior, an approach designed to support educators in meeting the needs of students with emotional and behavioral problems in general education classrooms by establishing unified attitudes, expectations, correction procedures, and team roles.…

  9. Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems: Moderation by Life Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2014-01-01

    Using both traditional composites and novel profiles of anger, we examined associations between infant anger and preschool behavior problems in a large, longitudinal data set (N = 966). We also tested the role of life stress as a moderator of the link between early anger and the development of behavior problems. Although traditional measures of…

  10. Problem Behavior and Developmental Tasks in Adolescents with Visual Impairment and Sighted Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study analyzed associations of problem behavior with the attainment of developmental tasks in 133 adolescents with visual impairment and 449 sighted peers. Higher levels of initial problem behavior predicted less progress in the attainment of developmental tasks at the one-year follow-up only in sighted adolescents. This…

  11. Developmental Risk and Young Children's Regulatory Strategies: Predicting Behavior Problems at Age Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Emily D.; Pedersen y Arbona, Anita; Crnic, Keith A.; Ryu, Ehri; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Children with early developmental delays are at heightened risk for behavior problems and comorbid psychopathology. This study examined the trajectories of regulatory capabilities and their potentially mediating role in the development of behavior problems for children with and without early developmental delays. A sample of 231 children comprised…

  12. Response Persistence: The Effects of Stimulus Control on Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior in a Concurrent Operant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Jennifer J.

    2009-01-01

    In the context of instructional demands, compliance and problem behavior can be considered concurrent operants. Of applied interest is increasing one response (i.e., compliance) while decreasing the other (i.e., problem behavior). Strategic arrangement of reinforcement can alter response allocation accordingly. Such schedules can also influence…

  13. Adolescents' use of care for behavioral and emotional problems: Types, trends, and determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Reijneveld (Sijmen); P.A. Wiegersma (Auke); J. Ormel (Johan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); W.A.M. Vollebergh (Wilma); D.E.M.C. Jansen (Daniëlle)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants,

  14. Adolescents' Use of Care for Behavioral and Emotional Problems : Types, Trends, and Determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Wiegersma, P. Auke; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants, for ages 10

  15. Using Additional Analyses to Clarify the Functions of Problem Behavior: An Analysis of Two Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Steven W.; Dozier, Claudia L.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Jowett, Erica S.; Newquist, Matthew H.

    2014-01-01

    Functional analyses (FA) have proven useful for identifying contingencies that influence problem behavior. Research has shown that some problem behavior may only occur in specific contexts or be influenced by multiple or idiosyncratic variables. When these contexts or sources of influence are not assessed in an FA, further assessment may be…

  16. The Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior Evoked by Auditory Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Sarah; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify specific stimuli associated with music that served as an establishing operation (EO) for the problem behavior of a 6-year-old child with a diagnosis of autism. Specific EOs for problem behavior evoked by auditory stimulation could be identified. A differential negative reinforcement procedure was implemented for…

  17. Treatment of Multiply Controlled Problem Behavior with Procedural Variations of Differential Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidert, Pamela L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Dozier, Claudia L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the assessment and treatment of 2 children with autism spectrum disorder whose problem behaviors (self-injury, aggression, and disruption) were multiply controlled. Results of functional analyses indicated that the children's problem behaviors were maintained by both positive reinforcement (attention) and negative reinforcement (escape…

  18. Monoamine Oxidase a Promoter Gene Associated with Problem Behavior in Adults with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael E.; Srour, Ali; Hedges, Lora K.; Lightfoot, David A.; Phillips, John A., III; Blakely, Randy D.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2009-01-01

    A functional polymorphism in the promoter of the gene encoding monoamine oxidase A has been associated with problem behavior in various populations. We examined the association of MAOA alleles in adult males with intellectual/developmental disabilities with and without established histories of problem behavior. These data were compared with a…

  19. Child and Family Predictors of Therapy Outcome for Children with Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Littlefield, Lyn

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of 106 children primarily referred for externalizing behavior problems and their families, and assessed the prediction of treatment outcome following a standardized short-term, cognitive behavioral group program. "Exploring Together" comprised a children's group (anger management, problem-solving and…

  20. Quality of Rapport as a Setting Event for Problem Behavior: Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; Carr, Edward G.

    2005-01-01

    Relationship quality (rapport) between people with developmental disabilities and their caregivers has long been suggested as an important variable influencing the likelihood of problem behavior. However, to date, the association between rapport and problem behavior has not been systematically investigated. The authors evaluated a multimethod…

  1. Effects of Matching Instruction Difficulty to Reading Level for Students with Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Amanda K.; Horner, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a literacy intervention matching student skill level with academic performance demands were examined through a multiple baseline across participants design. The dual dependent variables were problem behavior and academic engagement. Four students in Grades 2 or 3 who exhibited low academic performance and problem behavior during…

  2. A Model of Developing Communication Skills among Adolescents with Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, Natalia N.; Podgórecki, Józef

    2015-01-01

    The urgency of the problem under investigation is determined by the need to help the adolescents with behavioral problems to develop communication skills in the specific bilingual conditions in such regions as the Republic of Tatarstan where education should consider not only the specific skills of verbal behavior but also take into account the…

  3. A Follow-Up Study of Behavior Problems Associated with Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was completed by parents of 93 prepubertal children evaluated for sexual abuse and 80 nonabused children. Sexually abused children had significantly more behavior problems, including depression, aggression, sleep and somatic complaints, hyperactivity, and sexual problems. At four-month follow-up, children with…

  4. Foster Family Characteristics and Behavioral and Emotional Problems of Foster Children: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, John G.; Buehler, Cheryl

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the foster family characteristics that are thought to contribute to the behavioral and emotional problems of foster children. The review is shaped by an understanding of the personal and familial factors associated with children's problem behaviors. Factors include parenting, family home environment, family functioning,…

  5. Gender Differences in the Effects of Behavioral Problems on School Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Smith, Nina

    that most of the gender differences in Reading and Math cannot be related to gender differences in behavioral problems. The large overall gender gap in Reading seems mainly to be the result of gender differences between children without behavioral problems living in 'normal families', i.e. families which...... are not categorized as low-resource families....

  6. Parental Divorce, Marital Conflict and Children's Behavior Problems: A Comparison of Adopted and Biological Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Cheadle, Jacob E.

    2008-01-01

    We used adopted and biological children from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study the links between parents' marital conflict, divorce and children's behavior problems. The standard family environment model assumes that marital conflict and divorce increase the risk of children's behavior problems. The passive…

  7. Parenting Stress and Child Behavior Problems: A Transactional Relationship across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, Cameron L.; Green, Shulamite A.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    Parenting stress and child behavior problems have been posited to have a transactional effect on each other across development. However, few studies have tested this model empirically. The authors investigated the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems from ages 3 to 9 years old among 237 children, 144 of whom were…

  8. Interaction of adrenocortical activity and autonomic arousal on children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian; Soyfer, Liana; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    The psychobiology of stress involves two major components, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Research has revealed the association between behavior problems and the psychobiology of stress, yet findings are inconsistent and few studies have addressed the moderate correlations between behavior problems. This study examines the individual and interactive effects of HPA and ANS on child behavior problems while taking into account the comorbidity of externalizing and internalizing problems. Four saliva samples were collected from each participant in a community sample (N = 429; aged 11-12 years; 50.49 % male), which were assayed for cortisol (HPA) and alpha-amylase, sAA (ANS). Children's behavior problems were assessed using parent-report and self-report versions of the Child Behavior Checklist. Latent variables were constructed to represent trait-like individual differences in cortisol and sAA. Low levels of HPA axis activity were associated with higher levels of both externalizing and internalizing problems, but only among children with low ANS arousal. The association between externalizing and internalizing problems diminished to non-significant after taking into account the influence of HPA axis activity and ANS arousal, which suggests that the psychobiology of stress explains a fair proportion of comorbidity of behavior problems. The findings support that interaction between HPA axis and ANS functioning has potential to clarify prior mixed findings and advance our understanding of the child behavior problems.

  9. Behavioral problems of siblings of epileptic children in Enugu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... children's epilepsy has affected their healthy siblings in our own center. ... Information on the behavior of the school-age siblings and control was ... illness, for example, sickle cell disease, diabetes mellitus or epilepsy.

  10. The association between Internet addiction and problematic alcohol use in adolescents: the problem behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Weng, Chih-Chi; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to a) evaluate the association between Internet addiction and problematic alcohol use; b) based on problem behavior theory, explore whether Internet addiction, as well as problematic alcohol use, correlated with the psychosocial proneness of problem behaviors among adolescents. A total of 2,114 high school students (1,204 male and 910 female) were recruited to complete the questionnaire assessing Internet addiction, problematic alcohol use, and associated psychosocial variables. The result revealed that Internet addiction was associated with problematic alcohol use. Besides, the psychosocial proneness of problem behaviors is associated with Internet addiction as well as problematic alcohol use in adolescents. These results suggest Internet addiction might be included in the organization of problem behavior theory, and it is suggested that prevention and intervention can best be carried out when grouped with other problem behaviors.

  11. Infant Sleep Predicts Attention Regulation and Behavior Problems at 3-4 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; De Marcas, Gali; Guri, Yael; Berger, Andrea; Tikotzky, Liat; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the role of early sleep patterns in predicting attention regulation and behavior problems. Sleep of 43 infants was assessed using actigraphy at 12 months of age and then reassessed when the children were 3-4 years old. During this follow-up, their attention regulation and behavior problems were also assessed using a computerized test and parental reports. Lower quality of sleep in infancy significantly predicted compromised attention regulation and behavior problems. These findings underscore the need to identify and treat early sleep problems.

  12. Nipping early risk factors in the bud: preventing substance abuse, delinquency, and violence in adolescence through interventions targeted at young children (0-8 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster-Stratton, C; Taylor, T

    2001-09-01

    This bulletin describes state-of-the-art universal and selective prevention programs designed to promote parent and teacher competencies and to prevent conduct problems. In addition, it describes indicated interventions designed for children who already have been diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder. Emphasis is placed on empirically supported programs that have identified key malleable risk factors in children, families, and schools, which have been shown in longitudinal research to be related to later development of substance abuse, delinquency, and violence. We have targeted preschool and primary grade children, ages 0-8 years, in this review because research suggests that the most effective interventions can nip in the bud risk behaviors in the early years, before antisocial behaviors become crystallized. Guidelines for selecting effective interventions are provided.

  13. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received emotional intelligence training program in 17 sessions (2 sessions per week, 60 minutes per session and the control group received no training beyond their regular school program. After two months, in order to examine the stability (durability of training effect, the follow-up test was conducted. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimating equations. Results: The results showed that the intervention program had created a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control group (p<0.001 and the rate of behavioral problems (aggression, rule breaking occurrence has dropped. This was true for the follow-up results too. Conclusions: It can be concluded that Emotional Intelligence Training decreases the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder and helps to prevent high occurrence of these problems.

  14. Pattern of Behavior Problems amongst the Urban Slum Dwellers Aged 6 to 18 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip S Jogdand

    2013-06-01

    Method and Material: Children in the age group of 6-18 years residing in the urban slum area, their parents interviewed with the help of predesigned, pretested proforma, the proforma was prepared after review of CBCL and ASEBA behavior checklist also consultation with clinical psychologist running own child guidance clinic at Miraj, Dist Sangli. Results: Our study reveals that prevalent behavior problem in children was educational difficulties; male preponderance was observed for educational difficulties antisocial problems and habit problems. Educational difficulties were observed amongst lower age group while antisocial problems were observed amongst higher age groups. Both were statistically significant. Conclusion: In present study the prevalence rate of behavior problem was observed was very high i.e. 49.67%. The educational difficulties and antisocial behavior problem were most commonly observed. It was found that psycho-somatic disorders and different type of eating disorders contributed the least. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 245-248

  15. Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaoming

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1 describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2 examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and one of their parents. Methods The data used in these analyses were from the baseline assessment of a school-based HIV risk reduction intervention being conducted and evaluated among sixth grade students and one of their parents across 9 elementary schools in The Bahamas. Personal values were measured by the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ. Seven reported problem behaviors were queried from the students, which included physical fight with a friend, drank alcohol, beer, or wine, smoked a cigarette, pushed or carried any drugs, carried a gun, knife, screwdriver or cutlass to use as a weapon, had sex and used marijuana or other illicit drugs over the past 6 months. Multilevel modeling for binary data was performed to estimate the associations between adolescent and parental values and adolescent problem behaviors. Results Among 785 students, 47% of the students reported at least one problem behavior. More boys (54% reported having one or more problem behaviors than girls (41%, p Conclusion In designing interventions for reducing adolescents' problem behaviors, it may be important to understand the values associated with specific problem behaviors. Further exploration regarding lack of association between adolescent and parental values and problem behaviors is needed.

  16. Locus of control, problem-solving skills appraisal as predictors of waste prevention behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Karbalaei, S.; Abdollahi, A.; Talib, M.A.; Yaacob, S.N.; Ismail, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Given that waste generation is a devastating problem, it is necessary that we advance our knowledge about the etiology of waste prevention behaviors. Accordingly, this study sought to increase the existing literature of waste prevention behaviors by examining the relationships among the locus of control, problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, personal control style and participant’s age with waste prevention behaviors. Two hundred and forty participants (126 Women, and 114 men)...

  17. Designing training programs for the development of emotional intelligence in adolescents with behavioral problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Degtyarev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, deviant behavior is considered as a combination of different manifestations of personality, leading eventually to its social desaptation. It is shown that an effective method of preventing deviant behavior is psychological training. Group training activity helps to solve the problems associated with the development of various behavioral skills, to provide psychological support, and can be used as a means of psychological work with teenagers with behavioral problems. We discuss the basic points required to effectively create and conduct training programs in general, as well as the challenges and opportunities of designing trainings in order to develop emotional intelligence as a method of prevention of deviant behavior

  18. Behavior Problems: Differences among Intellectually Disabled Adults with Co-Morbid Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly R. M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    Behavior problems such as aggression, property destruction, stereotypy, self-injurious behavior, and other disruptive behavior are commonly observed among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and epilepsy residing at state-run facilities. However, it is unknown how these populations differ on behavior…

  19. Behavior Problems: Differences among Intellectually Disabled Adults with Co-Morbid Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly R. M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    Behavior problems such as aggression, property destruction, stereotypy, self-injurious behavior, and other disruptive behavior are commonly observed among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and epilepsy residing at state-run facilities. However, it is unknown how these populations differ on behavior…

  20. Goal-Setting Interventions for Students with Behavior Problems: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison L.; McDaniel, Sara C.; Fernando, Josephine; Troughton, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Students with persistent behavior problems, including those with or at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders, often struggle to be self-regulated learners. To improve self-regulation skills, numerous strategies have been suggested, including goal setting. Whereas goal setting has focused mostly on academic and life skills, behavioral goal…

  1. Factors Related to Social-Emotional Problem Behavior in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Esther O.; And Others

    Data on demographics, physical capability and social-emotional behavioral variables for 134 residents between the ages of 50 and 96 were collected in four nursing homes to examine the dimensions related to problem behaviors. Social-emotional behaviors related on six scales of reliabilities ranging from .90 to .74. The scales included depression,…

  2. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  3. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  4. Impacts of Autistic Behaviors, Emotional and Behavioral Problems on Parenting Stress in Caregivers of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed…

  5. Environmental Correlates of Gambling Behavior among College Students: A Partial Application of Problem Behavior Theory to Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, Emerson M., Jr.; McCausland, Claudia; Whelan, James P.; Luellen, Jason; Meyers, Andrew W.; Studaway, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relation between gambling behavior among college students and the perceived environment, the component of problem behavior theory (Jessor & Jessor, 1977) that assesses the ways that youth perceive their parents and peers. Two hundred and thirty-three ethnically diverse undergraduates at a large urban public university…

  6. Psychometric Evaluation of Romanian Translations of the "Behavior Problems Inventory-01" and the "Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircea, Camelia E.; Rojahn, Johannes; Esbensen, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    Psychometric properties of Romanian translations of the "Behavior Problems Inventory-01" ("BPI-01"; Rojahn, Matson, Lott, Esbensen, & Smalls, 2001) and the "Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form" ("NCBRF"; Aman, Tasse, Rojahn, & Hammer, 1996) were explored. Respondents completed the instruments for 115…

  7. The Association between Physical Activity in Leisure Time and Juvenile Delinquency in Detained Boys in Yazd Prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Behjati Ardakani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Leisure time is one of the critical issues in the dynamics of the process youth education and training and addressing to it is a solution for bottlenecks and is the key to solve its problems and finally can be consider as a strategy to planning for a desirable and worthy leisure time. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity in Leisure Time and Juvenile Delinquency in Detained Boys in Yazd city (Center of Iran. Materials and Methods In this descriptive correlation study, 254 boys in Yazd prison, were selected randomly according to the Morgan formula for determine the sample size. Demographic characteristics questionnaires, including Bahrami leisure time questionnaire and Bahrami delinquency rate questionnaire (2013 questionnaires were distributed among them. Finally to ensure the normal distribution of data the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was done and for data analysis Pearson correlation, simple linear regression, one sample t-test and ANOVA test were used.   Results A total of 254 boys, in Yazd prison, participated in this study. Our results demonstrated that there was a significant inverse relationship between training and exercise sessions and delinquency rate in imprisoned boys (P≤0.05. Also there was a significant inverse relationship between delinquency rate and the amount of interest to physical activity in imprisoned boys (P≤0.05. Between the satisfaction of spending leisure time with delinquency rate, there was a significant inverse relationship too (P≤0.05. Conclusion This study showed that there was a significant inverse relationship between physical activity and delinquency rate in imprisoned boys; it is suggested to be provided for Juvenile physical activity as the reduced rate of delinquency.

  8. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  9. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, Linda L; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L; Dansereau, Lynne M; Butner, Jonathan E; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Lester, Barry M

    2016-08-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (a) how these transactions originate, (b) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (c) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth to age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior.

  10. Behavior Problems of Psychic Nature in Shelter - Reared Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmed Yuksel Halil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the etiology, the species and the prevalence of pathoethological processes of psychic nature in sheltered dogs. The analysis was performed on the mandatory necessity of establishing the type of the dog’s temperament, in relation to the owners’ proper approach towards the specific animal, as well as its successful primary and secondary socialisation. A neurotic dog may exhibit chronic anxiety, fear, hyperactivity, obsessive behavior, and inappropriate responses to stimuli. Truly psychotic dogs, however, are deranged. Their behavior is acute and unpredictable.

  11. Understanding College Students' Problems: Dysfunctional Thinking, Mental Health, and Maladaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracchia, Jon T.; Pendleton, Shandrea

    2015-01-01

    Many college students experience mental health problems and engage in risky behavior. These problems perpetuate negative outcomes such as poor academic performance and health problems, which may ultimately result in dropping out of college. Maladaptive cognitions, such as criminogenic thinking, have been established as an important contributor to…

  12. Prediction of change in level of problem behavior among children of bipolar parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wals, M; Reichart, CG; Hillegers, MHJ; Nolen, WA; Van Os, J; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of familial loading, birth weight, and family problems on change in parent-reported problems across a 14-month period among children of bipolar parents. Method: Emotional and behavioral problems in a sample of 140 offspring of bipolar parents and familial loading

  13. Improving Mathematics Problem Solving Skills for Students with Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Peter J.; Wyrick, Amanda; Brown, E. Todd; Lingo, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that there is a reciprocal relationship between challenging behavior and poor academic performance and that this relationship will have a lifelong negative impact on individuals caught in this detrimental cycle. New interventions continue to be reported in the literature describing more effective ways to implement academic…

  14. Behavior Problems and Traumatic Events of Unaccompanied Refugee Minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourander, Andre

    1998-01-01

    A study examined the traumatic events and behavior symptoms of 46 unaccompanied refugee minors waiting for placement in an asylum center in Finland. The children had experienced numerous losses, separations, persecution, and threats. About half were functioning within clinical or borderline range. Younger children had more severe psychiatric…

  15. How to Respond to Problem Behavior in Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    Deals with types of behavior that cannot be allowed among staff or campers in the camp community--use of drugs or alcohol, personal abuse, crime, violence, and sexual activity. Urges camp directors to develop a written policy spelling out standards, expectations, and sanctions. Suggests staff orientation strategies. (JHZ)

  16. Functional analysis and extinction of different behavior problems exhibited by the same individual.

    OpenAIRE

    Richman, D M; Wacker, D P; Asmus, J M; Casey, S D

    1998-01-01

    Specific extinction procedures were matched to the function of two target behaviors displayed by the same individual, with results indicating that the matched extinction procedure suppressed the behavior for which it was designed. One of the target behaviors was exposed to an irrelevant extinction procedure, which produced no beneficial effects. These results support previous research indicating the need to match extinction procedures to the function of problem behavior.

  17. Parental attitude toward deviance as a predictor of delinquency: making the connection via perception and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2015-02-01

    This study tested a core postulate of social cognitive theory: i.e., that perception precedes cognition in the development of behavior. Using data from four of the first five waves of the 1725-member (918 males, 807 females) National Youth Survey (NYS), youth perception of parental attitude toward deviance and youth attitude toward deviance at Waves 2 and 3 were tested as possible mediators of the relationship between Wave 1 parental attitude toward deviance and self-reported delinquency at Wave 5. The target chain was both significant and significantly stronger than the reverse chain and there was no evidence that age, race, or sex moderated this mediated relationship. These results support the presence of a chaining process in which proximal social, perceptual, and cognitive events link to distal behavioral outcomes like delinquency.

  18. [Regulation of Positive and Negative Emotions as Mediator between Maternal Emotion Socialization and Child Problem Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way.

  19. Behavior problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities: an initial step towards prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embregts, Petri J C M; du Bois, Marleen Grimbel; Graef, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    To develop prevention activities, an analysis is conducted of child and parent characteristics that occur significantly more often among children with a mild intellectual disability and behavior problems than among children with a mild intellectual disability and no behavior problems and their families. The sample consisted of 45 children attending schools for special education. Data were collected from the children, their parents, and their teachers. The instruments used are the Dutch version of the Parenting Stress Index, the Nijmegen Child-Rearing Situation Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for parents, teachers and children. On the basis of the results of parents on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the research sample was divided into one group of children with behavior problems and one group without behavior problems. Parents of the children with behavior problems were found to feel less competent, more socially isolated, less satisfied about their relationship with their partner, and indicate more negative life occurrences than the parents of the children without behavior problems. Characteristics in the area of adaptability, mood, distractibility/hyperactivity, demandingness, reinforcement of parents, and acceptability were found to contribute to the total stress in the child-parent relationship for those children with behavior problems and their parents. On the basis of these results prevention activities will be developed and tested on their effectiveness.

  20. Child Behavior Problems: Role of Cocaine Use, Parenting and Child Exposure to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veira, Yvette; Finger, Brent; Eiden, Rina D; Colder, Craig R

    2014-07-01

    Studies examining the association between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and child behavior problems have yielded mixed results, suggesting a need to identify additional mediating and moderating influences. We hypothesized that the relation between PCE and behavior problems at kindergarten would be mediated/moderated by child exposure to violence; and that maternal warmth/sensitivity and harshness would moderate the association between violence exposure and behavior problems. Participants consisted of 216 (116 cocaine-exposed, 100 non-cocaine exposed (NCE) mother-child dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of PCE. Results yielded no direct or mediated/moderated association between PCE and child behavior problems, and no significant interaction effects between PCE and parenting quality. However, higher exposure to violence in kindergarten was significantly associated with higher child behavior problems. This association was moderated by maternal warmth/sensitivity and harshness. High maternal warmth/sensitivity buffered the association between violence exposure and behavior problems while high maternal harshness exacerbated this association. This study highlights the role of violence exposure in the development of behavior problems among high-risk children, and emphasizes the significance of parenting quality in buffering or exacerbating this risk among these children. Implications for prevention include targeting the potential role of maternal warmth/sensitivity as a protective influence among children exposed to violence.

  1. Growth and change in attention problems, disruptive behavior, and achievement from kindergarten to fifth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread interest in children's adjustment problems, existing research does not provide conclusive evidence regarding the direction of the associations of achievement with classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior over the course of elementary school. Using a nationally representative sample of 16,260 kindergarteners, this study examined the temporal sequence of achievement, classroom attention problems, and disruptive behavior, focusing on how changes in skills and problems unfold across key periods between kindergarten and fifth grade. Results indicate that improvements in attention during the earliest years of schooling predict achievement gains through third grade. However, changes in disruptive behavior do not predict subsequent changes in achievement. Evidence linking changes in achievement to changes in classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior was less consistent. These findings point to the need to develop and examine early interventions that can improve attention skills as a mechanism for improving children's academic trajectories in elementary school.

  2. Influence of Classroom and School Climate on Teacher Perceptions of Student Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brennan, Lindsey M; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Furlong, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Reducing student problem behavior remains a leading concern for school staff, as disruptive and aggressive behavior interferes with student achievement and the school climate. However, the multi-systemic nature of schools makes it difficult for researchers and practitioners to identify factors influencing to students' behavior. The current study examined student problem behavior through an ecological lens by taking into account individual (e.g., gender, ethnicity, prosocial behavior), classroom (e.g., class size, average classroom behavior), and school-level factors (e.g., location, school climate). Using data from 37 elementary schools, 467 classrooms, and 8,750 students, a series of hierarchical linear models was tested. Multilevel analyses revealed that while individual student characteristics had the largest influence on problem behavior, average prosocial behavior and concentration problems of students within the classroom, as well as teacher perceptions of the school climate significantly related to how students behaved. These findings support the use of classroom-based intervention programs to reduce student problem behavior.

  3. Personality Development and Problem Behavior in Russian Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…

  4. The Turner Syndrome: Cognitive Deficits, Affective Discrimination, and Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Elizabeth; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study attemped to link cognitive and social problems seen in girls with Turner syndrome by assessing the girls' ability to process affective cues. Seventeen 9- to 17-year-old girls diagnosed with Turner syndrome were compared to a matched control group on a task which required interpretation of affective intention from facial expression.…

  5. Using the internet: skill related problems in users’ online behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the conventional and superficial notion of measuring digital skills by proposing definitions for operational, formal, information and strategic skills. The main purpose was to identify individual skill related problems that users experience when navigating the Internet. In particu

  6. Obstetrical complications and violent delinquency: testing two developmental pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneault, Louise; Tremblay, Richard E; Boulerice, Bernard; Saucier, Jean-François

    2002-01-01

    This study focused on the interaction between specific obstetrical complications and early family adversity in predicting violent behavior during childhood and adolescence, in a sample of 849 boys from low socioeconomic areas of Montreal, Canada. Obstetrical complication data from medical records were used to create three scales using a nonlinear principal component analysis followed by rotation. Family adversity and teacher-rated physical aggression were assessed when the boys were in kindergarten and self-reports of delinquency were collected when they were 17. Elevated scores on the Deadly Risk Situation scale of obstetrical complications (preeclampsia, umbilical cord prolapse, and induced labor) increased the risk of being violent at both 6 and 17 years of age, only among boys who grew up in high adverse familial environments. Moreover, this interaction partly accounted for the continuity between violence in childhood and adolescence. Interventions for young pregnant women from deprived environments and their babies are discussed in light of these results.

  7. Prior Delinquency and Depression Differentially Predict Conditional Associations Between Discrete Patterns of Adolescent Religiosity and Adult Alcohol Use Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyland, Meredith A; Rowatt, Wade C; Latendresse, Shawn J

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that adolescent delinquency and depression are prospectively related to adult alcohol use and that adolescent religiosity may influence these relationships. However, such associations have not been investigated using person-centered approaches that provide nuanced explorations of these constructs. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examined whether adolescent delinquency and depression differentiated typologies of adult alcohol users and whether these relationships varied across religiosity profiles. Three typologies of self-identified Christian adolescents and 4 types of adult alcohol users were identified via latent profile analysis. Delinquency and depression were related to increased likelihood of membership in heavy drinking or problematic alcohol use profiles, but this relationship was most evident among those likely to be involved in religious practices. These results demonstrate the importance of person-centered approaches in characterizing the influences of internalizing and externalizing behaviors on subsequent patterns of alcohol use. PMID:28469423

  8. Moving in and out of Poverty: The Within-Individual Association between Socioeconomic Status and Juvenile Delinquency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderik Rekker

    Full Text Available A family's SES can be changeable over time. This study was the first to investigate if such within-individual changes in family SES are associated with parallel fluctuations in boys' delinquent behavior from childhood to adolescence. Participants were a community sample of boys and their caregivers (N = 503 who were assessed annually for ten consecutive years spanning ages 7-18. Fixed effects models revealed that changes in familial SES were related to changes in delinquency: Youths were more likely to offend during years in which their parents' SES was lower than during years in which their parents' SES was higher. Contrary to expectations, we found no evidence that this association was accounted for by families moving to different neighborhoods or by changes in parenting. Since within-individual models provide a stricter test of causality than between-individual models, these findings support claims that impacting familial SES may have a direct effect on youths' delinquency.

  9. Longitudinal associations between cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and problem behavior and mental health problems in young Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kotevski, Aneta; Heerde, Jessica A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate associations between Grade 9 and 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and Grade 11 problem behavior and mental health problems after controlling for risk factors for these outcomes in the analyses. The sample comprised 927 students from Victoria, Australia who completed a modified version of the self-report Communities That Care Youth Survey in Grades 9-11 to report on risk factors, traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, problem behavior, and mental health. Complete data on over 650 participants were analyzed. Five per cent of Grade 9 and 10 students reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 6-8% reported victimization only, and 8-9% both cyber-bullied others and were cyber-bullied. Results showed that cyber-bullying others in Grade 10 was associated with theft in Grade 11, cyber-victimization in Grade 10 was linked with Grade 11 depressive symptoms, and Grade 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization combined predicted Grade 11 school suspension and binge drinking. Prevention approaches that target traditional and cyber-bullying, and established risk factors are necessary. Such multi-faceted programs may also reduce problem behavior and mental health problems.

  10. The Behavior Problems Inventory-Short Form for individuals with intellectual disabilities: Part II: reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rojahn, J.; Rowe, E.W.; Sharber, A.C.; Hastings, R.P.; Matson, J.L.; Didden, H.C.M.; Kroes, D.B.H.; Dumont, E.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Behavior Problems Inventory-01 (BPI-01) is an informant-based behaviour rating instrument for intellectual disabilities (ID) with 49 items and three sub-scales: Self-injurious Behavior, Stereotyped Behavior and Aggressive/Destructive Behavior. The Behavior Problems Inventory-Short For

  11. Light phase testing of social behaviors: not a problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Yang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The rich repertoire of mouse social behaviors makes it possible to use mouse models to study neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits. The fact that mice are naturally nocturnal animals raises a critical question of whether behavioral experiments should be strictly conducted in the dark phase and whether light phase testing is a major methodologically mistake. Although mouse social tasks have been performed in both phases in different laboratories, there seems to be no general consensus on whether testing phase is a critical factor or not. A recent study from our group showed remarkably similar social scores obtained from inbred mice tested in the light and the dark phase, providing evidence that light phase testing could yield reliable results as robust as dark phase testing for the sociability test. Here we offer a comprehensive review on mouse social behaviors measured in light and dark phases and explain why it is reasonable to test laboratory mice in experimental social tasks in the light phase.

  12. Temperament and Common Disruptive Behavior Problems in Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M; Gremillion, Monica L; Roberts, Bethan

    2012-11-01

    The study evaluated trait associations with common Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), during an understudied developmental period: Preschool. Participants were 109 children ages 3 to 6 and their families. DBD symptoms were available via parent and teacher/caregiver report on the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale. Traits were measured using observational coding paradigms, and parent and examiner report on the Child Behavior Questionnaire and the California Q-Sort. The DBD groups exhibited significantly higher negative affect, higher surgency, and lower effortful control. Negative affect was associated with most DBD symptom domains; surgency and reactive control were associated with hyperactivity-impulsivity; and effortful control was associated with ADHD and inattention. Interactive effects between effortful control and negative affect and curvilinear associations of reactive control with DBD symptoms were evident. Temperament trait associations with DBD during preschool are similar to those seen during middle childhood. Extreme levels of temperament traits are associated with DBD as early as preschool.

  13. S/He's a Rebel: Toward a Sequential Stress Theory of Delinquency and Gendered Pathways to Disadvantage in Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, John; Foster, Holly

    2003-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health on 11,506 high school students were used to test a gendered and age-graded sequential stress theory in which delinquency can play an additive and intervening role in adolescents' movement from early anger through rebellious or aggressive forms of behavior to later depressive symptoms…

  14. Social Meta-Cognition: The Efficacy of Cognitive Training for Social Adjustment of Learning Disabled Delinquents. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Katherine A.; Gerber, Michael M.

    The study tests the efficacy of social meta-cognitive training for enhancing social competence in 34 learning disabled (LD) and 35 non LD low achieving incarcerated delinquents. Ss were randomly assigned to treatment, attention control and test-only control groups. Overt social behavior measures were examined in a pretest-posttest control group…

  15. Understanding Race and Gender Differences in Delinquent Acts and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Developmental Analysis of Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Ayers, Charles D.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hawkins, J. David

    2007-01-01

    Guided by social development constructs, this article investigates race and gender differences in the initiation of various types of delinquent behavior and alcohol and marijuana use among African American and Caucasian adolescents in grades 7 through 12. In addition, this study examined the potential direct or indirect effects of parental…

  16. Contingency Contracting with Delinquents: Effects of a Brief Training Manual on Staff Contract Negotiation and Writing Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Steven J.; Holborn, Stephen W.

    1988-01-01

    A brief training manual was developed to teach child-care workers to contingency contract with delinquent youths living in residential care facilities. Results from analogue training simulations and generalization tests indicated that workers became more proficient in contract negotiation and writing behaviors and were able to apply the skills.…

  17. Poverty and Child Behavioral Problems: The Mediating Role of Parenting and Parental Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Till; Li, Jianghong; Pollmann-Schult, Matthias; Song, Anne Y

    2017-08-30

    The detrimental impact of poverty on child behavioral problems is well-established, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are less well-known. Using data from the Families in Germany Study on parents and their children at ages 9-10 (middle childhood), this study extends previous research by examining whether or not and to what extent different parenting styles and parents' subjective well-being explain the relationship between poverty and child behavior problems. The results show that certain parenting styles, such as psychological control, as well as mothers' life satisfaction partially mediate the correlation between poverty and child behavioral problems.

  18. Ten-year trends in self-reported emotional and behavioral problems of Dutch adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tick, Nouchka T; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C

    2008-05-01

    Research comparing population samples from different time periods to investigate secular changes in adolescents' psychosocial problems have mostly focused on parent and teacher reports. The few studies using self-reports have limitations, such as using only school-based samples or investigating a limited range of problems. We investigated changes from 1993 to 2003 in Dutch 11- to 18-year-old girls' and boys' self-reported emotional and behavioral problems. We also examined whether trends were different for various socio-demographic groups. We used the Youth Self-Report (YSR) to assess emotional and behavioral problems, and obtained self-reports of police contact, substance abuse, suicidal ideation and self-harm across two adolescent population samples, assessed in 1993 and 2003. To investigate whether reports were different for the 2 years, we performed analyses of variance on the mean scores, and chi-square analyses on the percentages of deviant-scoring children and children reporting specific problem behaviors for boys and girls separately. Logistic regressions were conducted to investigate interactions of year with various sociodemographic variables. For boys, results showed a few small changes, indicating decreases from 1993 to 2003 in self-reported Social Problems, Externalizing, Aggressive Behavior, and Rule-Breaking Behavior. For girls, Thought problems, Somatic Complaints, Internalizing problems, suicidal ideation and self-harm increased. Drunkenness and drug use increased for both boys and girls. There were some differences between socio-demographic groups. Boys from low-SES families and younger adolescent girls experienced most increases. We found evidence for some small trends in self-reported problems. For boys, some decreases were seen, regarding mostly behavioral problems, whereas for girls, some increases were seen in emotional and behavioral problems. Changes appeared to have most negatively affected young adolescent girls' functioning.

  19. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaidat F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatin Mhaidat Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Abstract: This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. Keywords: adaptive problems, female teenage refugees, behavioral adjustment

  20. Negative Affectivity is Common to Pediatric Behavioral Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Behar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of youth in the United States experience mental illness; within these youth, comorbidity is considered the rule, not the exception. Rather than treat each disorder distinctly, recent research examines common psychopathological processes shaping various presenting problems to simultaneously target deficits and excesses. Contemporary research hypothesizes that negative affectivity pervades multiple psychiatric problems in youth. The present study sought to examine negative affectivity in an intent-to-treat sample of young patients presenting at an outpatient clinic in an academic medical center. Young patients (n=54 with internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, or both completed the Children’s Depression Inventory and the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders. MANOVA results indicated no significant difference between the groups. Additionally, no gender differences were found. Findings suggest negative affectivity is a core feature of psychopathology in general, and thus a valuable focus for transdiagnostic treatments.