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Sample records for delhi city microbial

  1. Source apportionment of ambient VOCs in Delhi City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali; Sengupta, B; Dutta, S A

    2005-05-01

    Source apportionment using chemical mass balance (CMB) model was carried using a data set of 360 four hourly samples collected at 15 locations of five categories namely residential, commercial, industrial, traffic intersections and petrol pumps during August 2001-July 2002 in Delhi. The results indicate that emissions from diesel internal combustion engines dominate in Delhi. Vehicular exhaust and evaporative emissions also contribute significantly to VOCs in ambient air. Emission of VOCs associated with sewage sludge was also found to contribute to VOCs in Delhi's air. This points to the fact that open defecation and leaking sewage manholes are a problem in all categories of locations.

  2. Source apportionment of ambient VOCs in Delhi City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Anjali [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, 89/B, Dr.A.B.Road, Worli, Mumbai-400 018 (India); Sengupta, B.; Dutta, S.A. [Central Pollution Control Board, Parivesh Bhawan, East Arjun Nagar, Delhi-110032 (India)

    2005-05-01

    Source apportionment using chemical mass balance (CMB) model was carried using a data set of 360 four hourly samples collected at 15 locations of five categories namely residential, commercial, industrial, traffic intersections and petrol pumps during August 2001-July 2002 in Delhi. The results indicate that emissions from diesel internal combustion engines dominate in Delhi. Vehicular exhaust and evaporative emissions also contribute significantly to VOCs in ambient air. Emission of VOCs associated with sewage sludge was also found to contribute to VOCs in Delhi's air. This points to the fact that open defecation and leaking sewage manholes are a problem in all categories of locations. (author)

  3. Transport scenarios in two metropolitan cities in India: Delhi and Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Anjana; Parikh, Jyoti

    2004-01-01

    With rising population and increasing migration to the cities, it is expected that the urban population will increase and many more metropolitan cities will arise. Urban transport will also increase due to the high growth in population, travel demand and vehicles. In this paper, we look at the growth in vehicles and travel demand up to 2020, assuming business as usual, high GDP growth and low GDP growth scenarios for Mumbai and Delhi assuming a certain population growth. The consequent energy needs and local and global environment implications are studied. The case studies demonstrate that despite similar population and higher per capita GDP, due to the higher share of public bus transport and suburban railway system, the Mumbai transport results in 60% less energy and emissions compared to Delhi. This picture may change in the future with the introduction of metro in Delhi, but basic differences remain even in 2020, perhaps also due to the different urban design. The vehicle stock increases nearly three times in both cities in 23 years due to the increase in population, migration and economic growth. However, the vehicle ownership per 1000 persons only doubles and is far lower in 2020, even compared to the present world average ownership. Emissions, however, do not rise as much due to the introduction of more efficient vehicles and fuels, such as CNG or battery operated vehicles. The high share of public transport also helps. The effects of various policies, such as urban design, suburban railway system, transport management, control practices, etc. are very important

  4. Microzonation and site-specific ground motion modelling for Delhi city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2002-11-01

    Delhi - the capital of India - lies on a severe earthquake hazard threats not only from the local earthquakes but also from Himalayan events just 200-250 km apart. The seismic ground motion in a part of Delhi City is computed with a hybrid technique based (on the based) on the modal summation and the finite difference scheme for site-specific strong ground motion modelling. Complete realistic SH and P-SV wave seismograms are computed along two geological cross-sections, (1) North-South, from Inter State Bus Terminal (ISBT) to Sewanagar and (2) East- West, from Tilak Bridge to Punjabi Bagh. Two real earthquake sources of July 15, 1720 (MMI=IX, M=7.4) and August 27, 1960 (M=6.0) have been used in the modelling. The response spectra ratio (RSR), i.e. the response spectra computed from the signals synthesized along the laterally varying section normalized by the response spectra computed from the corresponding signals, synthesized for the bedrock reference regional model, have been determined. As expected, the sedimentary cover causes an increase of the signal amplitude particularly in the radial and transverse components. To further check the site-effects, we reversed the source location to the other side of the cross-section and re-computed the site amplifications. There are only a few sites where a large amplification is invariant with respect to the two source locations considered. The RSR ranges between 5 to 10 in the frequency range from 2.8 to 3.7 Hz, for the radial and transverse components of motion along the NS cross-section. Along the EW cross-section RSR varies between 3.5 to 7.5 in the frequency range from 3.5 to 4.1 Hz. The amplification of the vertical component is large at high frequency (>4 Hz) whereas it is negligible in lower frequency range. (author)

  5. Urban lakes and wetlands: opportunities and challenges in Indian cities - Case study of Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ritu; Bhatnagar, Manu

    2012-01-01

    12 p.; International audience; In India, urban water bodies commonly become cesspools due to lack of sanitation facilities. Delhi is continually urbanizing at a rapid pace that has affected the condition of water bodies. To identify water resource available within Delhi, an extensive field survey and remote sensing based mapping was carried out in Delhi to map all the water bodies including groundwater recharge sites - 44 lakes and 355 village ponds. Hauz Khas, a historical tank and important...

  6. Seasonal impact of regional outdoor biomass burning on air pollution in three Indian cities: Delhi, Bengaluru, and Pune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianjia; Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Westervelt, Daniel M.; Xia, Karen R.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Cusworth, Daniel H.; Milly, George

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution in many of India's cities exceeds national and international standards, and effective pollution control strategies require knowledge of the sources that contribute to air pollution and their spatiotemporal variability. In this study, we examine the influence of a single pollution source, outdoor biomass burning, on particulate matter (PM) concentrations, surface visibility, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from 2007 to 2013 in three of the most populous Indian cities. We define the upwind regions, or ;airsheds,; for the cities by using atmospheric back trajectories from the HYSPLIT model. Using satellite fire radiative power (FRP) observations as a measure of fire activity, we target pre-monsoon and post-monsoon fires upwind of the Delhi National Capital Region and pre-monsoon fires surrounding Bengaluru and Pune. We find varying contributions of outdoor fires to different air quality metrics. For the post-monsoon burning season, we find that a subset of local meteorological variables (air temperature, humidity, sea level pressure, wind speed and direction) and FRP as the only pollution source explained 39% of variance in Delhi station PM10 anomalies, 77% in visibility, and 30% in satellite AOD; additionally, per unit increase in FRP within the daily airshed (1000 MW), PM10 increases by 16.34 μg m-3, visibility decreases by 0.155 km, and satellite AOD increases by 0.07. In contrast, for the pre-monsoon burning season, we find less significant contributions from FRP to air quality in all three cities. Further, we attribute 99% of FRP from post-monsoon outdoor fires within Delhi's average airshed to agricultural burning. Our work suggests that although outdoor fires are not the dominant air pollution source in India throughout the year, post-monsoon fires contribute substantially to regional air pollution and high levels of population exposure around Delhi. During 3-day blocks of extreme PM2.5 in the 2013 post-monsoon burning season, which coincided

  7. PM2.5 exposure in highly polluted cities: A case study from New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Pallavi; Habib, Gazala; Marshall, Julian D; Peltier, Richard E

    2017-07-01

    Personal exposure (PE) to air pollutants is driven by a combination of pollutant concentrations in indoor and outdoor environments, and time-activity pattern of individuals. The objectives of this study were to estimate personal exposure to PM 2.5 and black carbon (BC), and assess the representability of ambient air quality monitoring stations to serve as surrogates for PE in New Delhi. Personal exposure to air pollutants (PM 2.5-PE and BC PE ) was measured using portable, battery-operated instruments (PM 2.5 - pDR1500 and BC- microAethalometer AE51) in a small cohort of healthy adults (n=12 in summer, n=6 in winter) with no occupational exposure. Average PM 2.5-PE and BC PE (µg/m 3 ) were 53.9±136 and 3.71±4.29 respectively, in summer and 489.2±209.2 and 23.3±14.9 respectively, in winter. Activities associated with highest exposure levels were cooking and indoor cleaning for PM 2.5 , and commuting for BC. Within transport microenvironments, autorickshaws were found to be the most polluted, and lowest BC exposure was registered in public buses. Comparison of fixed-site ambient monitoring data showed a higher correlation with personal exposure dataset in winter compared to summer (r 2 of 0.51 (winter) and 0.21 (summer); 51% (winter) and 20% (summer)). This study highlights the need for detailed assessment of PE to air pollutants in Indian cities, and calls for a denser network of monitoring stations for better exposure assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Delhi: India's urban example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, B

    1988-06-01

    Demography, migration, economy, employment, education, planning, housing and transportation in the Delhi Union Territory are described. The Territory is an administrative district that includes Old Delhi, the site of the ancient walled city, the New Delhi Municipal Corporation, the center of government, the Delhi Cantonment, a military center, and 27 smaller towns, many of which are rural in character. The Delhi Territory is notable for its relatively high per capita income ($321), high sex ratio (124), high proportion of recent migrants (over half), but also high employment rate and educational status of these migrants. Much of the economy is based on government service, retail trade and services. School enrollment is high, nearly 100% of primary school age children, 77% of middle school, and 50% of secondary school. Rapid growth has stressed the public health, sanitation, housing, electric power systems. Transportation is coping relatively well, considering that 20% of all motor vehicles in India are in Delhi. 50% of daily trips are made by bus, 22% by bicycle, 10% by motorcycles, and 4% by cars. Accommodations for tourists in Delhi's old center are good in both expensive and inexpensive hotels.

  9. Analysis of carbon monoxide (CO) with Delhi Finite Line Source (DFLS) in MT Haryono Street, Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmuzi, M.; Suryati, I.; Mashaly, E. T.; Batubara, F.

    2018-02-01

    One source to decrease urban air ambient quality is transportation sector. Important pollutants are released by gas emissions from vehicles are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter and others. The presence of CO pollutants in the ambient air can be predicted by modeling air quality. This study aims to estimate CO concentration resulting from transportation activities using Delhi Finite Line Source (DFLS) model, comparing CO prediction using a DFLS model with CO observation in the field, and determine the suitability of the DFLS model application on the MT Haryono street in Medan City. Research was conducted for 3 days at two sample points with frequency twice daily. Based on research results, the range of CO concentration from observation between 22.903 μg/m3 - 27.484 μg/m3. CO observation is still below the ambient air quality standard. According to the DFLS calculations, the range of CO concentration between 1.499 μg/m3- 2.051 μg/m3. The calculation index of agreement (IOA) validation test obtained value of d = 0.22. The DFLS model is not suitable to be applied on MT Haryono street because many factors affected such as wind direction and wind velocity, ambient air temperature and humidity

  10. The strong motion amplitudes from Himalayan earthquakes and a pilot study for the deterministic first order microzonation of Delhi City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Panza, G.F.; Gusev, A.A.; Vaccari, F.

    2001-09-01

    The interdependence among the strong-motion amplitude, earthquake magnitude and hypocentral distance has been established (Parvez et al. 2001) for the Himalayan region using the dataset of six earthquakes, two from Western and four from Eastern Himalayas (M w =5.2-7.2) recorded by strong-motion networks in the Himalayas. The level of the peak strong motion amplitudes in the Eastern Himalayas is three fold larger than that in the Western Himalayas, in terms of both peak acceleration and peak velocities. In the present study, we include the strong motion data of Chamoli earthquake (M w =6.5) of 1999 from the western sub-region to see whether this event supports the regional effects and we find that the new result fits well with our earlier prediction in the Western Himalayas. The minimum estimates of peak acceleration for the epicentral zone of M w =7.5-8.5 events is A peak =0.25-0.4 g for the Western Himalayas and as large as A peak =1.0-1.6 g for the Eastern Himalayas. Similarly, the expected minimum epicentral values of V peak for M w =8 are 35 cm/s for Western and 112 cm/s for Eastern Himalayas. The presence of unusually high levels of epicentral amplitudes for the eastern subregion also agrees well with the macroseismic evidence (Parvez et al. 2001). Therefore, these results represent systematic regional effects, and may be considered as a basis for future regionalized seismic hazard assessment in the Himalayan region. Many metropolitan and big cities of India are situated in the severe hazard zone just south of the Himalayas. A detailed microzonation study of these sprawling urban centres is therefore urgently required for gaining a better understanding of ground motion and site effects in these cities. An example of the study of site effects and microzonation of a part of metropolitan Delhi is presented based on a detailed modelling along a NS cross sections from the Inter State Bus Terminal (ISBT) to Sewanagar. Full synthetic strong motion waveforms have been

  11. Variability in optical properties of atmospheric aerosols and their frequency distribution over a mega city "New Delhi," India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S; Tiwari, Suresh; Hopke, P K; Attri, S D; Soni, V K; Singh, Abhay Kumar

    2016-05-01

    The role of atmospheric aerosols in climate and climate change is one of the largest uncertainties in understanding the present climate and in capability to predict future climate change. Due to this, the study of optical properties of atmospheric aerosols over a mega city "New Delhi" which is highly polluted and populated were conducted for two years long to see the aerosol loading and its seasonal variability using sun/sky radiometer data. Relatively higher mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) (0.90 ± 0.38) at 500 nm and associated Angstrom exponent (AE) (0.82 ± 0.35) for a pair of wavelength 400-870 nm is observed during the study period indicating highly turbid atmosphere throughout the year. Maximum AOD value is observed in the months of June and November while minimum is in transition months March and September. Apart from this, highest value of AOD (AE) value is observed in the post-monsoon [1.00 ± 0.42 (1.02 ± 0.16)] season followed by the winter [0.95 ± 0.36 (1.02 ± 0.20)] attributed to significance contribution of urban as well as biomass/crop residue burning aerosol which is further confirmed by aerosol type discrimination based on AOD vs AE. During the pre-monsoon season, mostly dust and mixed types aerosols are dominated. AODs value at shorter wavelength observed maximum in June and November while at longer wavelength maximum AOD is observed in June only. For the better understanding of seasonal aerosol modification process, the aerosol curvature effect is studied which show a strong seasonal dependency under a high turbid atmosphere, which are mainly associated with various emission sources. Five days air mass back trajectories were computed. They suggest different patterns of particle transport during the different seasons. Results suggest that mixtures of aerosols are present in the urban environment, which affect the regional air quality as well as climate. The present study will be very much useful to the modeler for

  12. Microbial Quality of Ready-to-Eat Salad Sold in Benin City, Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the microbial quality of ready-to-eat vegetable salads obtained from three fast food centres in Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria. Across the counter samples of salad were collected from randomly selected locations within the city and subjected to microbial culture in Nutrient and MacConkey agar media for ...

  13. Associations of Sleep Duration and Disturbances With Hypertension in Metropolitan Cities of Delhi, Chennai, and Karachi in South Asia: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the CARRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankar, Roopa; Kondal, Dimple; Ali, Mohammed K; Gupta, Ruby; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mohan, Viswanathan; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Narayan, K M Venkat; Tandon, Nikhil; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Peasey, Anne

    2017-09-01

    Sleep duration and disturbances may be risk factors for hypertension. Despite the high burden of hypertension in South Asia, little is known about this relationship in this region. We analyzed population-level cross-sectional data from the Centre for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) study that recruited representative samples of adults ≥ 20 years from three cities-Delhi, Chennai (India), and Karachi (Pakistan) during 2010-2011. We defined hypertension as self-reported treatment or measured blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mm Hg. Data on usual duration of sleep, insomnia, and snoring were collected using "The Sleep Habits Questionnaire" and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) using Epworth Sleepiness Score. Logistic and linear regression were done with hypertension and BP as outcome variables, respectively. Age, gender, education, wealth index, family history, and body mass index (BMI) were included as covariates. We used multiple imputation to account for missing variables. Prevalence of hypertension was 30.1%. The mean (SD) sleep duration was 7.3 (1.2) hours. Insomnia, snoring, and EDS were present in 13.6%, 28.7%, and 4.6%, respectively. Moderate and habitual snoring were associated with increased odds of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.04 to 1.33] and 1.47 [1.29 to 1.67], respectively), after adjusting for covariates. Rare, occasional, and frequent insomnia were associated with increased hypertension (OR 1.41 [1.12 to 1.77], 1.39 [1.16 to 1.67], and 1.34 [1.09 to 1.65], respectively). Sleep duration and EDS were not associated with hypertension. Self-reported snoring and insomnia were associated with hypertension in South Asia. This relationship needs further exploration through robust longitudinal studies in this region. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Characterization of Microbial Communities in Chinese Rice Wine Collected at Yichang City and Suzhou City in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yucai; Gong, Yanli; Li, Yajie; Pan, Zejiang; Yao, Yi; Li, Ning; Guo, Jinling; Gong, Dachun; Tian, Yihong; Peng, Caiyun

    2017-08-28

    Two typical microbial communities from Chinese rice wine fermentation collected in Yichang city and Suzhou city in China were investigated. Both communities could ferment glutinous rice to rice wine in 2 days. The sugar and ethanol contents were 198.67 and 14.47 mg/g, respectively, for rice wine from Yichang city, and 292.50 and 12.31 mg/g, respectively, for rice wine from Suzhou city. Acetic acid and lactic acid were the most abundant organic acids. Abundant fungi and bacteria were detected in both communities by high-throughput sequencing. Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Rhizopus oryzae were the dominant fungi in rice wine from Suzhou city, compared with R. oryzae , Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mucor indicus , and Rhizopus microsporus in rice wine from Yichang city. Bacterial diversity was greater than fungal diversity in both communities. Citrobacter was the most abundant genus. Furthermore, Exiguobacterium, Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Bacillus , and Lactococcus were highly abundant in both communities.

  15. A highly diverse, desert-like microbial biocenosis on solar panels in a Mediterranean city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Vilanova, Cristina; Peretó, Juli; Codoñer, Francisco M; Ramón, Daniel; Porcar, Manuel

    2016-07-05

    Microorganisms colonize a wide range of natural and artificial environments although there are hardly any data on the microbial ecology of one the most widespread man-made extreme structures: solar panels. Here we show that solar panels in a Mediterranean city (Valencia, Spain) harbor a highly diverse microbial community with more than 500 different species per panel, most of which belong to drought-, heat- and radiation-adapted bacterial genera, and sun-irradiation adapted epiphytic fungi. The taxonomic and functional profiles of this microbial community and the characterization of selected culturable bacteria reveal the existence of a diverse mesophilic microbial community on the panels' surface. This biocenosis proved to be more similar to the ones inhabiting deserts than to any human or urban microbial ecosystem. This unique microbial community shows different day/night proteomic profiles; it is dominated by reddish pigment- and sphingolipid-producers, and is adapted to withstand circadian cycles of high temperatures, desiccation and solar radiation.

  16. Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit,Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City

    OpenAIRE

    SS Khoramrooz; M Sarikhani; SA Khosravani; M Farhang Falah; Y Mahmoudi; A Sharifi

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Prevalence of diseases caused by consumption of contaminated food has always been a problem all over the world, and every year spent on improving the disease is costly.Cream suit, Ice cream & olowye for ingredient substance and manufacture & preservation conditional have very high possibility for contamination.The aim of this study is Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit, Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City Methods: This study is randomized cros...

  17. New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. New Delhi Birth Cohort. In childhood Less than 1% were obese (IOTF 30 kg/m2). Mean BMI SD ranged from –0.4 to –1.0 (CDC). At 26-32 years 10% were obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). ~50% overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2);. ~65% overweight (BMI > 23 kg/m2). 10% had IGT.

  18. "Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Sa; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the maximum PM10 limit by almost 10-times at 198 μg/m3. Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi. Studies on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality and morbidity increased with increased air pollution. Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution.

  19. Screening Microbial Contamination of Smoking Waterpipe (Narghile in Erbil city/ Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Tofik Jalal Balaky

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking, which is a traditional habit is a major health risk worldwide. However waterpipe (Narghile smoking is an emerging smoking type, specifically among Erbil/ Iraq. In the recent years, smoking of Shisha (Narghile has spread amongst adolescents and young adults in Erbil city. The aims of this study are to examine the prevalence of shisha pipe smoking in Erbil city and to determine the microbial pathogen contaminants present in these Shisha pipes. In this study, we performed a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the microbial contamination of (90 Shisha hose samples in Erbil. Eighteen samples were selected from each cafe and swabs were cultured and identified. Results showed that most Narghile users 82.2 % were male and half of them (50% were in the age group of 20-30 years followed by the age group of 30-40 years. Data showed that 54% of the samples were contaminated, from them most microbial pathogens were G+ve bacteria. Staphylococcus albus and Staphylococcus aureus were among the most isolated pathogens, however E. coli was the most common G-ve bacteria in this study. On the other hand the number of fungi and yeasts identified in this study were 7 isolates, among them Monilia, Paecillomycet spp and Aspergillus niger were most common isolates. In conclusion, data produced from this study showed that Narghile users are exposed to many infectious microbial agents, because many users are unaware of the associated microbial contaminations and smoke narghile as a safe alternative to cigarette smoking. More research, should focus on strategies on how to avoid shisha smoking as the impact of its use is expected to affect the health and life of many people in our local community.

  20. Microbial Contamination of Ice Machines Is Mediated by Activated Charcoal Filtration Systems in a City Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorioka, Katsuhiro; Oie, Shigeharu; Hayashi, Koji; Kimoto, Hiroo; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Although microbial contamination of ice machines has been reported, no previous study has addressed microbial contamination of ice produced by machines equipped with activated charcoal (AC) filters in hospitals. The aim of this study was to provide clinical data for evaluating AC filters to prevent microbial contamination of ice. We compared microbial contamination in ice samples produced by machines with (n = 20) and without an AC filter (n = 40) in Shunan City Shinnanyo Municipal Hospital. All samples from the ice machine equipped with an AC filter contained 10-116 CFUs/g of glucose nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. No microorganisms were detected in samples from ice machines without AC filters. After the AC filter was removed from the ice machine that tested positive for Gram-negative bacteria, the ice was resampled (n = 20). Analysis found no contaminants. Ice machines equipped with AC filters pose a serious risk factor for ice contamination. New filter-use guidelines and regulations on bacterial detection limits to prevent contamination of ice in healthcare facilities are necessary.

  1. Microbial Community Patterns Associated with Automated Teller Machine Keypads in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bik, Holly M; Maritz, Julia M; Luong, Albert; Shin, Hakdong; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Carlton, Jane M

    2016-01-01

    In densely populated urban environments, the distribution of microbes and the drivers of microbial community assemblages are not well understood. In sprawling metropolitan habitats, the "urban microbiome" may represent a mix of human-associated and environmental taxa. Here we carried out a baseline study of automated teller machine (ATM) keypads in New York City (NYC). Our goal was to describe the biodiversity and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in an urban setting while assessing the potential source of microbial assemblages on ATM keypads. Microbial swab samples were collected from three boroughs (Manhattan, Queens, and Brooklyn) during June and July 2014, followed by generation of Illumina MiSeq datasets for bacterial (16S rRNA) and eukaryotic (18S rRNA) marker genes. Downstream analysis was carried out in the QIIME pipeline, in conjunction with neighborhood metadata (ethnicity, population, age groups) from the NYC Open Data portal. Neither the 16S nor 18S rRNA datasets showed any clustering patterns related to geography or neighborhood demographics. Bacterial assemblages on ATM keypads were dominated by taxonomic groups known to be associated with human skin communities ( Actinobacteria , Bacteroides , Firmicutes , and Proteobacteria ), although SourceTracker analysis was unable to identify the source habitat for the majority of taxa. Eukaryotic assemblages were dominated by fungal taxa as well as by a low-diversity protist community containing both free-living and potentially pathogenic taxa ( Toxoplasma , Trichomonas ). Our results suggest that ATM keypads amalgamate microbial assemblages from different sources, including the human microbiome, eukaryotic food species, and potentially novel extremophilic taxa adapted to air or surfaces in the built environment. DNA obtained from ATM keypads may thus provide a record of both human behavior and environmental sources of microbes. IMPORTANCE Automated teller machine (ATM) keypads represent

  2. New directions: Air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Khare, Mukesh; Harrison, Roy M.; Bloss, William J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Coe, Hugh; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Most major cities around the world experience periods of elevated air pollution levels, which exceed international health-based air quality standards (Kumar et al., 2013). Although it is a global problem, some of the highest air pollution levels are found in rapidly expanding cities in India and China. The sources, emissions, transformations and broad effects of meteorology on air pollution are reasonably well accounted in air quality control strategies in many developed cities; however these key factors remain poorly constrained in the growing cities of countries with emerging economies. We focus here on Delhi, one of the largest global population centres, which faces particular air pollution challenges, now and in the future.

  3. Microbial Risk Assessment of Tidal−Induced Urban Flooding in Can Tho City (Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Quan Nguyen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Public health risks from urban flooding are a global concern. Contaminated floodwater may expose residents living in cities as they are in direct contact with the water. However, the recent literature does not provide much information about this issue, especially for developing countries. In this paper, the health risk due to a flood event occurred in Can Tho City (Mekong Delta, Vietnam on 7 October 2013 was investigated. The Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment method was used in this study. The data showed that the pathogen concentrations were highly variable during the flood event and exceeded water standards for surface water. Per 10,000 people in contact with the floodwater, we found Salmonella caused the highest number of infections to adults and children (137 and 374, respectively, while E. coli caused 4 and 12 cases, per single event, respectively. The results show that further investigations on health risk related to flood issues in Can Tho City are required, especially because of climate change and urbanization. In addition, activities to raise awareness- about floods, e.g., “living with floods”, in the Mekong Delta should also consider health risk issues.

  4. Delimiting the Boundary of Delhi for Effective Urban Political Ecology Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Singh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Delhi, capital of the world’s largest democracy, is witnessing large-scale increase in population since the beginning of the twentieth century. Two prominent factors that have contributed to this include the shifting of capital of the British Raj from Calcutta (now Kolkata to Delhi in 1911 and the partition of India that accompanied its independence in 1947. Delhi continued to witness high rate of migration in post-independent India due to uneven implementation of development policies. Rising population led to spatial expansion and the largest connotation of Delhi today (National Capital Region is an area 36 times its size in 1947. Rising population has also had an adverse impact on Delhi’s natural resources. Consequently, clean air, water and land availability have become limited and Delhi today is undergoing a severe sustainability crisis. The latter requires urgent intervention for restoring Delhi’s urban ecosystem. Since urban areas are highly contested ecological spaces, urban ecological interventions are incomplete without political overtones. Thus, the success of urban ecological interventions lies in identifying politically correct boundaries which encompasses true ‘urban Delhi’ despite the political boundaries. This research contribution attempts to identify the geographical expanse of ‘urban Delhi’ amidst the various political terminologies that define Delhi. An understanding of various divisions and definitions of Delhi is also presented from the perspective of appreciating the challenges in urban planning. We conclude that urban ecology investigations in Delhi should be embedded within the ‘Delhi conurbation’, which represents a geographical area greater than the Delhi city-state but much smaller than Delhi NCR.

  5. Characterization of microbial and metal contamination in flooded New York City neighborhoods following Superstorm Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueker, M.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Sahajpal, R.

    2013-12-01

    Large scale flooding of waterfront neighborhoods occurred in New York City (NYC) during Superstorm Sandy. While NYC waterways commonly experience combined sewer overflow (CSO) and associated water quality degradation during rain storms, Superstorm Sandy was unique in that these potentially contaminated waters were transported over the banks and into city streets and buildings. Sampling of waterways, storm debris on city streets, and flood water trapped in building basements occurred in the days following Sandy, including in neighborhoods bordering the Gowanus Canal and Newtown Creek, which are both Superfund sites known to frequently contain high levels of sewage associated bacteria and metal contamination. Samples enumerated for the sewage indicating bacterium, Enterococcus, suggest that well-flushed waterways recovered quickly from sewage contamination in the days following the storm, with Enterococci concentrations similar to background levels measured before flooding occurred. In contrast, storm debris on city streets and waters from flooded basements had much higher levels of sewage-associated bacteria days after flooding occurred. Analysis of 180,000 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from flood water samples and flood debris confirmed the presence of bacterial genera often associated with sewage impacted samples (e.g. Escherichia, Streptococcus, Clostridium, Trichococcus, Aeromonas) and a community composition similar to CSO discharge. Elemental analysis suggests low levels of metal contamination in most flood water, but much higher levels of Cu, Pb, and Cr were found in leach from some storm debris samples found adjacent to the Newtown Creek and Gowanus Canal superfund sites. These data suggest a rapid recovery of water quality in local waterways after Superstorm Sandy, but that trapped flood water and debris samples in urban neighborhoods retained elevated levels of microbial sewage pollution, and in some cases metal pollution, days after that

  6. Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit,Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Khoramrooz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Prevalence of diseases caused by consumption of contaminated food has always been a problem all over the world, and every year spent on improving the disease is costly.Cream suit, Ice cream & olowye for ingredient substance and manufacture & preservation conditional have very high possibility for contamination.The aim of this study is Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit, Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City Methods: This study is randomized cross sectional study was performed on 64 samples.The samples were taken from the ice cream and confectionery shops in Yasuj city and keep on cold box then the samples were transported in sterile conditions, to the department of medical microbiology laboratory in medical university of yasuj and  microbial contamination rate evaluated by national standard method. Collected data analysed with SPSS software for data description,from central dispersion and table frequency and draw chart.  RESULTS: The survey results showed that 40% o traditional ice cream,cream suit were infected by Staph aurous, Escherichia coli and salmonella respectly (6.7,87 and 0,(50,30 and 0.(0,0 and0 present, and no seen any bacteria on olowye. Conclusion: Due to our research contamination rate traditional ice cream,cream suit and olowye were by Staph aurous, Escherichia coli and salmonella were very high . therefore using different ways to control bacterial growth especaly E.coli the mostly transmited by fecal oral including the use of healthly and safe raw material for promoting health awareness of people involved in the food preparation and production is essential.

  7. Studies on Respirable Particulate Matter and Heavy Metal Pollution of Ambient Air in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod R. Chaudhari; D.G. Gajghate; Dheeraj Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Delhi is the large metro city and capital of India which has been reported to be having worst air pollution as per urban data base released by the World Health Organization in September 2011. Ambient air quality survey of Respirable Particulate Matter (PM10) and heavy metal pollution of air was carried out in Delhi in industrial, commercial and residential area in 2006 and 2011. Vehicular emission, dust emanated from heavy traffic and construction activity and industrial activities were fo...

  8. CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort. Crossing BMI centiles and early adiposity rebound associated with adult metabolic syndrome. BMI gain in infancy and early childhood – associated more with adult lean mass. BMI gain in later childhood / adolescence – associated more with adult fat mass and constituents of ...

  9. Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen Haileselassie; Habtamu Taddele; Kelali Adhana; Shewit Kalayou

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods: A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assesse...

  10. Coral microbial community dynamics in response to anthropogenic impacts near a major city in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren

    2016-01-04

    Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy.

  11. Evaluation of Critical Infrastructure in the Event of Earthquake: A Case Study of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    prasad, Suraj

    2016-04-01

    With changing paradigms of disaster preparedness, the safety and security of critical infrastructure in the event of a geo-hazard has become increasingly important. In a developing and densely populated country like India, which is vulnerable to many different geo-hazards, a lack of clear policy directive regarding safety of such infrastructure could be especially damaging both in terms of life and property. The problem is most acute in India's mega cities, where inefficient infrastructure means that facilities like transportation, communication, and electricity generation are obsolete and vulnerable to sudden disruptions. The present study takes the case of the National Capital Territory of Delhi and attempts to examine the critical infrastructures of the city in the event of an earthquake. Delhi lies in a very active seismic zone with various faults in and around the city. The Government of India has classified Delhi in Zone 4 (High Risk Zone) based on past and expected seismic activities in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. With a population of over 20 Million in the Urban Agglomeration of Delhi, any major earthquake in an already overstretched infrastructure could have a devastating impact. This study will test the critical infrastructures of the city in terms of their disaster preparedness and suggest ways and measures to increase the same. Keywords: Geo-hazards, Critical Infrastructure, vulnerable, Earthquakes, Delhi

  12. Evaluation of microbial and physico-chemical qualities of some cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Microbial contamination of cough syrups can bring clinical hazards to the users or patients as well as physical and chemical changes in the product. Aims: To evaluate the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of two hundred samples of four different types of cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen. Methods: All collected samples were subjected to the following examinations: the total microbial count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical parameters, and concentration of active ingredients were identified and assessed by standard techniques described in US Pharmacopeia. Results: All the cough syrup samples used contained viable microbial load within acceptable limit according Pharmacopeia specifications. Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most commonly recovered bacteria. However, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium notatum, Mucor sp., and Aspergillus flavus were the most fungi isolated. The physical properties represented in the appearance, density, and pH of the analyzed samples complied with Pharmacopoeia standards. The concentrations of diphenhydramine HCl (92,51 – 108,78%, pseudoephedrine HCl (94,55 – 109,07%, and triprolidine HCl (98,20 – 104,19% were recorded. Conclusions: All cough syrups marketed in Sana’a City had good microbiological and physico-chemical qualities.

  13. Source attribution and mitigation strategies for air pollution in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Gregor; Purohit, Pallav; Schoepp, Wolfgang; Liu, Jun; Amann, Markus; Bhanarkar, Anil

    2017-04-01

    Indian cities, and the megacity of Delhi in particular, have suffered from high air pollution for years. Recent observations show that ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Delhi strongly exceed the Indian national ambient air quality standards as well as the World Health Organization's interim target levels. At the same time, India is experiencing strong urbanization, and both Delhi's emissions as well as the exposed population are growing. Therefore the question arises how PM2.5 concentrations will evolve in the future, and how they can be improved efficiently. In the past, typical responses of the Delhi government to high pollution episodes have been restrictions on motorized road traffic, on power plant operations and on construction activities. However, to design sustainable and efficient pollution mitigation measures, the contribution of different source sectors and spatial scales needs to be quantified. Here we combine the established emission calculation scheme of the Greenhouse Gas - Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model with regional chemistry-transport model simulations (0.5° resolution) as well as local particle dispersion (2 × 2 km resolution) to arrive at a source attribution of ambient PM2.5 in Delhi. Calculated concentrations compare well to observations. We find that roughly 60% of total population-weighted PM2.5 originates from sources outside the national capital territory of Delhi itself. Consequently, mitigation strategies need to involve neighboring states and address the typical sources there. We discuss the likely evolution of ambient concentrations under different scenarios which assume either current emission control legislation, or application of a Clean Air Scenario foreseeing additional regulations in non-industrial sectors which are often overlooked, such as phase-out of solid fuel cookstoves, and road paving. Only in the case where the Clean Air Scenario is applied both in Delhi as well as in

  14. State of municipal solid waste management in Delhi, the capital of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talyan, Vikash; Dahiya, R.P.; Sreekrishnan, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the most densely populated and urbanized city of India. The annual growth rate in population during the last decade (1991-2001) was 3.85%, almost double the national average. Delhi is also a commercial hub, providing employment opportunities and accelerating the pace of urbanization, resulting in a corresponding increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Presently the inhabitants of Delhi generate about 7000 tonnes/day of MSW, which is projected to rise to 17,000-25,000 tonnes/day by the year 2021. MSW management has remained one of the most neglected areas of the municipal system in Delhi. About 70-80% of generated MSW is collected and the rest remains unattended on streets or in small open dumps. Only 9% of the collected MSW is treated through composting, the only treatment option, and rest is disposed in uncontrolled open landfills at the outskirts of the city. The existing composting plants are unable to operate to their intended treatment capacity due to several operational problems. Therefore, along with residue from the composting process, the majority of MSW is disposed in landfills. In absence of leachate and landfill gas collection systems, these landfills are a major source of groundwater contamination and air pollution (including generation of greenhouse gases). This study describes and evaluates the present state of municipal solid waste management in Delhi. The paper also summarizes the proposed policies and initiatives of the Government of Delhi and the Municipal Corporation of Delhi to improve the existing MSW management system

  15. Measurements and analysis of criteria pollutants in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, V P; Agarwal, A; Roelle, P A; Phillips, S B; Tong, Q; Watkins, N; Yablonsky, R

    2001-07-01

    Ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and total suspended particulates (TSP) were measured from January 1997 to November 1998 in the center of downtown [the Income Tax Office (ITO) located on B.S.G. Marg] New Delhi, India. The data consist of 24-h averages of SO2, NOx, and TSP as well as 8 and 24-h averages of CO. The measurements were made in an effort to characterize air pollution in the urban environment of New Delhi and assist in the development of an air quality index. The yearly average CO, NOx, SO2, and TSP concentrations for 1997 and 1998 were found to be 4810+/-2287 and 5772+/-2116 microg/m3, 83+/-35 and 64+/-22 microg/m3, 20+/-8 and 23+/-7 microg/m3, and 409+/-110 and 365+/-100 microg/m3, respectively. In general, the maximum CO, SO2, NOx, and TSP values occurred during the winter with minimum values occurring during the summer, which can be attributed to a combination of meteorological conditions and photochemical activity in the region. The ratio of CO/NOx (approximately 50) indicates that mobile sources are the predominant contributors for these two compounds in the urban air pollution problem in New Delhi. The ratio of SO2/NOx (approximately 0.6) indicates that point sources are contributing to SO2 pollution in the city. The averaged background CO concentrations in New Delhi were also calculated (approximately 1939 microg/m3) which exceed those for Eastern USA (approximately 500 microg/m3). Further, all measured concentrations exceeded the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) except for SO2. TSP was identified as exceeding the standard on the most frequent basis.

  16. Primary Education in Delhi, Hyderabad and Kolkata: Governance by Resignation, Privatisation by Default

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Mooij (Jos); J. Jalal (Jennifer)

    2009-01-01

    textabstract1. Introduction As described in the earlier chapters, one of the entry points in our study of urban governance was the supply and demand of services. Education is one important service that we studied in three of the four cities (Delhi, Hyderabad and Kolkata). Our focus was on primary

  17. Transport and land-use policies in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Geetam

    2003-01-01

    Current transportation policies in mega-cities worldwide lead to major threats to health through traffic injuries, air pollution, noise, reduction in physical activities, and adverse impact on urban quality of life. In addition, a large section of the population in cities in low-income countries has to live in informal-sector, substandard housing. Many transportation policies fail to take enough account of their impacts on poverty and social exclusion, and they neglect the access and transportation demands of the more economically disadvantaged groups of society, who rely mostly on public transportation, walking, and cycling. Delhi, the capital city of India, is an interesting case because failure to consider the broad spectrum of health effects that may result from transport and land-use policies and investments has resulted in decisions that penalize the least affluent groups of the population and make it more difficult for them to get to jobs, education, health care, amenities, and services.

  18. General morbidity prevalence in the Delhi slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the sickness prevalence in the slums of a metropolitan city? Objectives: To estimate the morbidity prevalence with reference to a socio-economic and demographic perspective of the slum population of Delhi. Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted and data were collected by a two-stage random sampling method. In the first stage, slum locations were selected and in the second stage households were selected. Participants: Data were collected from 1049 households consisting of 5358 individuals′ information. Results: The overall morbidity prevalence is 15.4%. It is 14.7 and 16.3% for males and females, respectively but the differences are not statistically significant. The reported higher morbidity prevalence and the illiteracy status are significantly associated. Diseases of the respiratory system appear to be very high among slum dwellers. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the number of years of staying in the slum area, presence of a separate kitchen, type of house, it being Pucca or Kuccha, types of toilet pits or open defecation are the important environmental factors for the reports of higher morbidity patterns from the slum area.

  19. The impact of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous on responses of microbial plankton to the Texas City "Y" oil spill in Galveston Bay, Texas (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alicia K; Bacosa, Hernando P; Quigg, Antonietta

    2017-08-15

    Ongoing bioremediation research seeks to promote naturally occurring microbial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation during and after oil spill events. However, complex relationships among functionally different microbial groups, nutrients and PAHs remain unconstrained. We conducted a surface water survey and corresponding nutrient amendment bioassays following the Texas City "Y" oil spill in Galveston Bay, Texas. Resident microbial groups, defined as either heterotrophic or autotrophic were enumerated by flow cytometry. Heterotrophic abundance was increased by oil regardless of nutrient concentrations. Contrastingly, autotrophic abundance was inhibited by oil, but this reaction was less severe when nutrient concentrations were higher. Several PAH compounds were reduced in nutrient amended treatments relative to controls suggesting nutrient enhanced microbial PAH processing. These findings provide a first-look at nutrient limitation during microbial oil processing in Galveston Bay, an important step in understanding if nutrient additions would be a useful bioremediation strategy in this and other estuarine systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini

    2014-10-01

    A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (Φ) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO ( 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.

  1. Pepsi and Coca Cola in Delhi, India: availability, price and sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Fiona C; Satija, Ambika; Khurana, Swati; Singh, Gurpreet; Ebrahim, Shah

    2011-04-01

    India is experiencing increased consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks, consumption that may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. The aim of the study was to determine the availability, price and quantity sold of 'Pepsi' and 'Coca Cola' in their 'regular' and 'diet' forms in Delhi and London. A questionnaire about the availability, price and quantity sold per day of both regular and diet Pepsi and Coca Cola was devised and piloted. Using this, a survey of food and drink outlets within a 100 m radius of randomly selected Metro stations was conducted in both cities. Store vendors, owners and staff of food and drink outlets. Delhi, India; London, United Kingdom. In Delhi, of the outlets stocking regular Pepsi and Coca Cola, only 34% sold diet versions and these were more readily available in the most affluent areas than in the poorest areas (34% v. 6%, Z=3.67, PCoca Cola was observed in Delhi; however, profit margins were better for regular, relative to diet, Coca Cola. Sales of regular products were significantly greater than those of diet products (PCoca Cola in less affluent areas of Delhi is likely to exacerbate the obesity and diabetes trends. Price differentials to promote diet versions and other healthier or traditional low-energy drinks may be beneficial.

  2. Simulating ozone concentrations using precursor emission inventories in Delhi - National Capital Region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumit; Khare, Mukesh

    2017-02-01

    This study simulates ground level ozone concentrations in a heavily populated and polluted National Capital Region (NCR- Delhi) in India. Multi-sectoral emission inventories of ozone precursors are prepared at a high resolution of 4 × 4 km2 for the whole region covering the capital city of Delhi along with other surrounding towns and rural regions in NCR. Emission inventories show that transport sector accounts for 55% of the total NOx emissions, followed by power plants (23%) and diesel generator sets (7%). In NMVOC inventories, transport sector again accounts for 33%, followed by evaporative emissions released from solvent use and fuel handling activities (30%), and agricultural residue burning (28%). Refuse burning contributes to 73% of CO emissions mainly due to incomplete combustion, followed by agricultural residue burning (14%). These emissions are spatially and temporally distributed across the study domain and are fed into the WRF-CMAQ models to predict ozone concentrations for the year 2012. Model validations are carried out with the observed values at different monitoring stations in Delhi. The performance of the models over various metrics used for evaluation was found to be satisfactory. Summers and post-monsoon seasons were better simulated than monsoon and winter seasons. Simulations have shown higher concentrations of ozone formation during summers and lesser during winters and monsoon seasons, mainly due to varying solar radiation affecting photo-chemical activities. Ozone concentrations are observed lower at those locations where NOx emissions are higher, and concentrations increase close to the boundary of study domain when compared to the center of Delhi city. Downwind regions to Delhi are influenced by the ozone formed due to plume of precursor emissions released from Delhi. Considering significant background contributions, regional scale controls are required for reducing ozone in NCR.

  3. Microbial Contamination of Date Rutab Collected from the Markets of Al-Hofuf City in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddig H. Hamad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial contamination of 60 samples from six date cultivars in the rutab stage purchased from different retail outlets in AL-Hofuf City, Saudi Arabia was studied. All samples were found contaminated with aerobic mesophilic bacteria at loads in the order 102 to 105 cfu/cm2 with some significant differences among varieties that can be attributed to differences in the weather conditions during rutab season. Also all samples, except only one, were contaminated with molds and yeasts at loads in the order 102 to 103 cfu/cm2. Potentially pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 57 samples and A. flavus/parasiticus in 13 samples, while coliforms were detected in 39 samples.

  4. Evaluation of microbial contamination of ready-to-eat foods (pizza, frankfurters, sausages in the city of Ilam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Eslami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today in the world, disease resulting from food is considered one of the most important problems in public health. This study aimed to determine the bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat foods, i.e. fast food, in Ilam city. Methods: In this cross-sectional, analytical study, 270 samples of ready-to-eat food, including pizza, frankfurters, and sausages, were randomly collected and tested for contamination with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella arizonae, and Enterococcus faecalis. After examination, the collected data was analyzed using SPSS 20 software and logistic regression. Results: From a total of 270 samples of ready-to-eat food, 27.77% was contaminated with E. coli, 21.48% with S. aureus, 13.33% with S. sonnei, 14.44% with S. arizonae, and 5.9% with E. faecalis. The results showed higher rates of E. coli and S. aureus contamination in pizza, frankfurters, and sausages. Also, a higher percentage of frankfurters were contaminated with microbial species than pizza or sausages. There were significant differences in microbial contamination rates (P < 0.05 among the three groups of food. In addition, factors such as indicators (health, sanitation, and lack of hygiene, age, gender, and education level of the operating staff had no effect on the results. Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat foods is significantly high in the city of Ilam; therefore, it is suggested that the examination of food in various stages of production and distribution can help reduce bacterial contamination, and training for the operators of shopping centers’ ready-to-eat food shops and controlling pathogens are essential.

  5. Evaluation of microbial contamination of ready-to-eat foods (pizza, frankfurters, sausages in the city of Ilam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Eslami

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today in the world, disease resulting from food is considered one of the most important problems in public health. This study aimed to determine the bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat foods, i.e. fast food, in Ilam city. Methods: In this cross-sectional, analytical study, 270 samples of ready-to-eat food, including pizza, frankfurters, and sausages, were randomly collected and tested for contamination with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella arizonae, and Enterococcus faecalis. After examination, the collected data was analyzed using SPSS 20 software and logistic regression. Results: From a total of 270 samples of ready-to-eat food, 27.77% was contaminated with E. coli, 21.48% with S. aureus, 13.33% with S. sonnei, 14.44% with S. arizonae, and 5.9% with E. faecalis. The results showed higher rates of E. coli and S. aureus contamination in pizza, frankfurters, and sausages. Also, a higher percentage of frankfurters were contaminated with microbial species than pizza or sausages. There were significant differences in microbial contamination rates (P < 0.05 among the three groups of food. In addition, factors such as indicators (health, sanitation, and lack of hygiene, age, gender, and education level of the operating staff had no effect on the results. Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat foods is significantly high in the city of Ilam; therefore, it is suggested that the examination of food in various stages of production and distribution can help reduce bacterial contamination, and training for the operators of shopping centers’ ready-to-eat food shops and controlling pathogens are essential.

  6. Microbial and physicochemical assays of paracetamol in different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City-Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Contamination of pharmaceuticals with microorganisms irrespective whether they are harmful or nonpathogenic can bring about changes in physicochemical characteristics of the drugs. Aims: To assay the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of paracetamol of two hundreds samples of different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City, Yemen. Methods: Total viable aerobic count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical properties, and content of active ingredients were identified and evaluated by standard methods and techniques. The SPSS program was used to statistical analysis of variance for results obtained. Results: The total bacterial count of <10 CFU/mL and <100 CFU/mL in 179 (89.5% and 21 (10.5% samples, respectively was recorded, while the total fungal count was ≤10 CFU/mL in all analyzed syrup samples. The isolated bacteria were Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis while isolated fungi were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium notatum. Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger were the predominant bacteria and fungi isolated. The color results had a light red liquid with a sweet taste in the analyzed analgesic syrups. The pH values were ranged from 4.44–5.88. However, the density fluctuated from 1.149–1.184 g/mL. The paracetamol concentration as an active ingredient in the analgesic syrup was recorded from 98.19% – 106.53%. Conclusions: This finding showed that all analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City followed Pharmacopeia specifications on microbial and physicochemical qualities.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Alternative Disinfectants in Reducing Microbial Contamination of Vegetables Supplied from City of Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sadeghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent decades, due to the scarcity of fresh water resources and high costs of wastewater treatment, cases of irrigation of cultivation of vegetables using raw sewage and polluted effluents or the use of human and animal faeces have been reported. Vegetables are important sources of exposure of human pathogenic pathogens such as fecal coliforms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of three different disinfectant on several kinds of vegetables that would normally be released in Kermanshah. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 180 randomly selected vegetable samples were collected from mobile and fixed stores of vegetables in Kermanshah. Then, to evaluate the effectiveness of disinfectants in eliminating microbial samples, three types of disinfectants containing active ingredient Benzalconium chloride, were studied. Heterotrophic plate count (HPC surface culture method, coliform count (VRBA Violet Red Bile Agar purplate method and Yeast Glucose Chloramphemicole Agar (YGCA surface culture method was used in order to count the microbial load. Results: The findings of this study suggest that the overall average performance of all three disinfectants was less than 75% and most disinfection efficiency was observed in two-fold concentrations of proposed by manufacturer. Based on the analysis of the resulting data, disinfectants examined in this study had an average efficiency of 76.13% for the removal of coliforms as an indicator of gram-negative bacteria and 100% for the removal of Streptococcus bacteria as indicators gram positive bacteria. Conclusion: Disinfection can not solely guarantees the maintaining the health of the consumer. We could have declared that recommended disinfection conditions and existing facilities can effectively reduce the microbial load of vegetables. However, preparing vegetables from safe and ensure proper burial are recommended. Moreover, consuming the raw vegetables in sensitive seasons

  8. Microbial sewage contamination associated with Superstorm Sandy flooding in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullan, G.; Dueker, M.; Sahajpal, R.; Juhl, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    The lower Hudson River Estuary commonly experiences degraded water quality following precipitation events due to the influence of combined sewer overflows. During Super-storm Sandy large scale flooding occurred in many waterfront areas of New York City, including neighborhoods bordering the Gowanus Canal and Newtown Creek Superfund sites known to frequently contain high levels of sewage associated bacteria. Water, sediment, and surface swab samples were collected from Newtown Creek and Gowanus Canal flood impacted streets and basements in the days following the storm, along with samples from the local waterways. Samples were enumerated for the sewage indicating bacterium, Enterococcus, and DNA was extracted and amplified for 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequence analysis. Waterways were found to have relatively low levels of sewage contamination in the days following the storm. In contrast, much higher levels of Enterococci were detected in basement and storm debris samples and these bacteria were found to persist for many weeks in laboratory incubations. These data suggest that substantial sewage contamination occurred in some flood impacted New York City neighborhoods and that the environmental persistence of flood water associated microbes requires additional study and management attention.

  9. Air pollution and public health: the challenges for Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun Kumar; Baliyan, Palak; Kumar, Prashant

    2018-03-28

    sites were at busy traffic intersections, some on the terraces of offices and residential houses and others in university campuses or airports. As a result, the key question of the extent of pollution and its distribution across various parts of the city could be inferred. None of the studies or a combination of them could present a complete picture of the burden of diseases like COPD, bronchial asthma and other allergic conditions attributable to pollution in Delhi. Neither could it be established what fraction of the burden of the above diseases is attributable to ambient air pollution, given that other factors like tobacco smoke and indoor air pollution are also contributors to the causation of such diseases. In our discussion, we highlight the knowledge gaps and in the conclusion, we suggested what research can be undertaken to fill the these research gaps.

  10. Microbiological evaluation of drinking water sold by roadside vendors of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Abhishek; Goyal, Pankaj; Varma, Ajit; Jindal, Tanu

    2017-07-01

    Delhi has emerged as one of the greenest capital city of the world. Microbiological assessment of drinking water emphasizes estimation of the hygienic quality of the water sold with reference to community health significance. This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors in east, west, north and south zones of capital of India. A total number of 36 samples (nine from each zone) were collected as per national guidelines and studied for microbiological assessment. All the drinking water samples were collected in gamma-sterilized bottles and were kept in an ice pack to prevent any significant change in the microbial flora of the samples during the transportation. The water samples were transported to the laboratory in vertical position maintaining the temperature 1-4 °C with ice pack enveloped conditions. Samples were analyzed for total MPN coliform per 100 ml and for the presence and absence of common human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the samples were found to be contaminated with coliform organisms in the range of 14 to >1600 per 100 ml of sample. Out of 36 water samples, the occurrence of E. coli was 61 %, Salmonella 25 % S. aureus 14 % and P. aeruginosa 53 % as 22, 9, 5 and 19 samples were found contaminated, respectively. The numbers of coliform bacteria and presence of some common pathogenic bacteria suggested that the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors is not within the Indian standard and WHO guidelines laid down for drinking water quality. Hence, there is a vital need to study the root cause in terms of hygiene, sanitation of vendors and source of contamination to prevent waterborne diseases.

  11. An Experiment with Air Purifiers in Delhi during Winter 2015-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Sangita; Srivastav, Nikhil; Spears, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Particulate pollution has important consequences for human health, and is an issue of global concern. Outdoor air pollution has become a cause for alarm in India in particular because recent data suggest that ambient pollution levels in Indian cities are some of the highest in the world. We study the number of particles between 0.5μm and 2.5μm indoors while using affordable air purifiers in the highly polluted city of Delhi. Though substantial reductions in indoor number concentrations are ob...

  12. Managing future air quality in megacities: A case study for Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Markus; Purohit, Pallav; Bhanarkar, Anil D.; Bertok, Imrich; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Cofala, Janusz; Heyes, Chris; Kiesewetter, Gregor; Klimont, Zbigniew; Liu, Jun; Majumdar, Dipanjali; Nguyen, Binh; Rafaj, Peter; Rao, Padma S.; Sander, Robert; Schöpp, Wolfgang; Srivastava, Anjali; Vardhan, B. Harsh

    2017-07-01

    Megacities in Asia rank high in air pollution at the global scale. In many cities, ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have been exceeding both the WHO interim targets as well as respective national air quality standards. This paper presents a systems analytical perspective on management options that could efficiently improve air quality at the urban scale, having Delhi as a case study. We employ the newly developed GAINS-City policy analysis framework, consisting of a bottom up emission calculation combined with atmospheric chemistry-transport calculation, to derive innovative insights into the current sources of pollution and their impacts on ambient PM2.5, both from emissions of primary PM as well as precursors of secondary inorganic and organic aerosols. We outline the likely future development of these sources, quantify the related ambient PM2.5 concentrations and health impacts, and explore potential policy interventions that could effectively reduce environmental pollution and resulting health impacts in the coming years. The analysis demonstrates that effective improvement of Delhi's air quality requires collaboration with neighboring States and must involve sources that are less relevant in industrialized countries. At the same time, many of the policy interventions will have multiple co-benefits on development targets in Delhi and its neighboring States. Outcomes of this study, as well as the modelling tools used herein, are applicable to other urban areas and fast growing metropolitan zones in the emerging Asian regions.

  13. Air quality assessment in Delhi: before and after CNG as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelani, Asha B; Devotta, Sukumar

    2007-02-01

    A number of policy measures have been activated in India in order to control the levels of air pollutants such as particulate matter, sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Delhi, which is one of the most polluted cities in the world, is also going through the implementation phase of the control policies. Ambient air quality data monitored during 2000 to 2003, at 10 sites in Delhi, were analyzed to assess the impact of implementation of these measures, specifically fuel change in vehicles. This paper presents the impact of policy measures on ambient air quality levels and also the source apportionment. CO and NO(2) concentration levels in ambient air are found to be associated with the mobile sources. The temporal variation of air quality data shows the significant effect of shift to CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) in vehicles.

  14. Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Gopal, Anand R.; Harris, Andrew; Jacobson, Arne

    2016-06-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a substantial opportunity for governments to reduce emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The Government of India has set a goal of deploying 6-7 million hybrid and PEVs on Indian roads by the year 2020. The uptake of PEVs will depend on, among other factors like high cost, how effectively range anxiety is mitigated through the deployment of adequate electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) throughout a region. The Indian Government therefore views EVCS deployment as a central part of their electric mobility mission. The plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure (PEVI) model—an agent-based simulation modeling platform—was used to explore the cost-effective siting of EVCS throughout the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India. At 1% penetration in the passenger car fleet, or ˜10 000 battery electric vehicles (BEVs), charging services can be provided to drivers for an investment of 4.4 M (or 440/BEV) by siting 2764 chargers throughout the NCT of Delhi with an emphasis on the more densely populated and frequented regions of the city. The majority of chargers sited by this analysis were low power, Level 1 chargers, which have the added benefit of being simpler to deploy than higher power alternatives. The amount of public infrastructure needed depends on the access that drivers have to EVCS at home, with 83% more charging capacity required to provide the same level of service to a population of drivers without home chargers compared to a scenario with home chargers. Results also depend on the battery capacity of the BEVs adopted, with approximately 60% more charging capacity needed to achieve the same level of service when vehicles are assumed to have 57 km versus 96 km of range.

  15. Caffeine intake among adolescents in Delhi

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    Mridul Gera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Availability and advertising of caffeinated drinks is on the rise in Indian market. Excess caffeine intake may have deleterious effects on health. Objective: To estimate the daily consumption of caffeine among urban school-going adolescents from Delhi. Materials and Methods: A school-based survey was conducted to determine the amount and pattern of caffeine consumption among students of classes 9-12, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of 300 participants (median age 15 year, 174 boys, 291 (97% were consuming caffeine [mean (SD: 121.0 (98.2 mg/day]. Nineteen (6% students were consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day. Tea/coffee contributed to more than 50% of the caffeine intake. The rest was derived from cola beverages, chocolates, and energy drinks. Conclusion: Average caffeine consumption among school-going adolescents from Delhi is high. The findings of this preliminary survey need to be confirmed in larger data sets.

  16. Caffeine Intake Among Adolescents in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Mridul; Kalra, Swati; Gupta, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Availability and advertising of caffeinated drinks is on the rise in Indian market. Excess caffeine intake may have deleterious effects on health. To estimate the daily consumption of caffeine among urban school-going adolescents from Delhi. A school-based survey was conducted to determine the amount and pattern of caffeine consumption among students of classes 9-12, using a self-administered questionnaire. Of 300 participants (median age 15 year, 174 boys), 291 (97%) were consuming caffeine [mean (SD): 121.0 (98.2) mg/day]. Nineteen (6%) students were consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day. Tea/coffee contributed to more than 50% of the caffeine intake. The rest was derived from cola beverages, chocolates, and energy drinks. Average caffeine consumption among school-going adolescents from Delhi is high. The findings of this preliminary survey need to be confirmed in larger data sets.

  17. Caffeine Intake Among Adolescents in Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Gera, Mridul; Kalra, Swati; Gupta, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Background: Availability and advertising of caffeinated drinks is on the rise in Indian market. Excess caffeine intake may have deleterious effects on health. Objective: To estimate the daily consumption of caffeine among urban school-going adolescents from Delhi. Materials and Methods: A school-based survey was conducted to determine the amount and pattern of caffeine consumption among students of classes 9-12, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of 300 participants (median age...

  18. Dengue fever among Israeli expatriates in Delhi, 2015: implications for dengue incidence in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Ami; Turgeman, Avigail; Lustig, Yaniv; Schwartz, Eli

    2016-03-01

    We present the data of 13 dengue cases diagnosed between 1 August and 15 September 2015 among 240 Israeli expatriates residing in Delhi. Attack rates were similar between adults (6/128, 4.7%) and children (7/112, 6.3%). dengue virus (DENV-2) was identified in two and DENV-1 in one dengue-seropositive sample. Another febrile patient was diagnosed with chikungunya virus infection. The reported incidence of dengue fever among people living in Delhi was lower than 0.1% as of September 2015. Based on our results, we hypothesize that the incidence of dengue fever in Delhi is grossly underestimated. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Estimation of microbial methane generation and oxidation rates in the municipal solid waste landfill of Kaluga city, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyakun, Anatoly M; Muravyev, Artem I; Baskunov, Boris P; Laurinavichius, Kestutis S; Zakharchenko, Vladimir N; Peshenko, Valentina P; Lykov, Igor N; Shestakova, Galina A

    2010-03-01

    Using a theoretical model and mass isotopic balance, biogas (methane and CO(2)) released from buried products at their microbial degradation was analysed in the landfill of municipal and non-toxic industrial solid organic waste near Kaluga city, Russia. The landfill contains about 1.34 x 10(6) tons of waste buried using a 'sandwich technique' (successive application of sand-clay and waste layers). The delta(13)C values of biogenic methane with respect to CO(2) were-56.8 (+/-2.5) per thousand, whereas the delta(13)C of CO(2) peaked at+9.12 per thousand (+1.4+/-2.3 per thousand on average), reflecting a virtual fractionation of carbon isotopes in the course of bacterial CO(2) reduction at the landfill body. After passing through the aerated soil layers, methane was partially oxidised and characterised by delta(13)C in the range of-50.6 to-38.2 per thousand, evidencing enrichment in (13)C, while the released carbon dioxide had delta(13)C of-23.3 to-4.04 per thousand, respectively. On the mass isotopic balance for the delta(13)C values, the methane production in the landfill anaerobic zone and the methane emitted through the aerated landfill surface to the atmosphere, the portion of methane oxidised by methanotrophic bacteria was calculated to be from 10 to 40% (averaged about 25%). According to the theoretical estimation and field measurements, the annual rate of methane production in the landfill reached about 2.9(+/-1.4)x10(9) g C CH(4) yr(-1) or 5.3(+/-2.6)x10(6) m(3) CH(4) yr(-1). The average rates of methane production in the landfill and methane emission from landfill to the atmosphere are estimated as about 53 (+/-26) g C CH(4) m(-2) d(-1) (or 4 (+/-2) mol CH(4) m(-2) d(-1)) and 33 (+/-12) g C CH(4) m(-2) d(-1) (or 2.7 (+/-1) mol CH(4) m(-2) d(-1)), respectively. The calculated part of methane consumed by methanotrophic bacteria in the aerated part of the landfill was 13(+/-7) g C CH(4) m(-2) d(-1) (or 1.1(+/-0.6) mol CH(4) m(-2) d(-1)) on average.

  20. Microbial Diversity of Carbonate Chimneys at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field: Implications for Life-Sustaining Systems in Peridotite Seafloor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrenk, M. O.; Cimino, P.; Kelley, D. S.; Baross, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is a novel peridotite-hosted vent environment discovered in Dec. 2000 at 30 N near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This field contains multiple large (up to 60 m), carbonate chimneys venting high pH (9-10), moderate temperature (45-75 C) fluids. The LCHF is unusual in that it is located on 1.5 my-old oceanic crust, 15 km from the nearest spreading axis. Hydrothermal flow in this system is believed to be driven by exothermic serpentinization reactions involving iron-bearing minerals in the underlying seafloor. The conditions created by such reactions, which include significant quantities of dissolved methane and hydrogen, create habitats for microbial communities specifically adapted to this unusual vent environment. Ultramafic, reducing hydrothermal environments like the LCHF may be analogous to geologic settings present on the early Earth, which have been suggested to be important for the emergence of life. Additionally, the existence of hydrothermal environments far away from an active spreading center expands the range of potential life-supporting environments elsewhere in the solar system. To study the abundance and diversity of microbial communities inhabiting the environments that characterize the LCHF, carbonate chimney samples were analyzed by microscopic and molecular methods. Cell densities of between 105 and 107 cells/g were observed within various samples collected from the chimneys. Interestingly, 4-11% of the microbial population in direct contact with vent fluids fluoresced with Flavin-420, a key coenzyme involved in methanogenesis. Enrichment culturing from chimney material under aerobic and anaerobic conditions yielded microorganisms in the thermophilic and mesophilic temperature regimes in media designed for methanogenesis, methane-oxidation, and heterotrophy. PCR analysis of chimney material indicated the presence of both Archaea and Eubacteria in the carbonate samples. SSU rDNA clone libraries constructed from the

  1. An Experiment with Air Purifiers in Delhi during Winter 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Sangita; Srivastav, Nikhil; Spears, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Particulate pollution has important consequences for human health, and is an issue of global concern. Outdoor air pollution has become a cause for alarm in India in particular because recent data suggest that ambient pollution levels in Indian cities are some of the highest in the world. We study the number of particles between 0.5μm and 2.5μm indoors while using affordable air purifiers in the highly polluted city of Delhi. Though substantial reductions in indoor number concentrations are observed during air purifier use, indoor air quality while using an air purifier is frequently worse than in cities with moderate pollution, and often worse than levels observed even in polluted cities. When outdoor pollution levels are higher, on average, indoor pollution levels while using an air purifier are also higher. Moreover, the ratio of indoor air quality during air purifier use to two comparison measures of air quality without an air purifier are also positively correlated with outdoor pollution levels, suggesting that as ambient air quality worsens there are diminishing returns to improvements in indoor air quality during air purifier use. The findings of this study indicate that although the most affordable air purifiers currently available are associated with significant improvements in the indoor environment, they are not a replacement for public action in regions like Delhi. Although private solutions may serve as a stopgap, reducing ambient air pollution must be a public health and policy priority in any region where air pollution is as high as Delhi's during the winter.

  2. Comparative prevalence of otitis media in children living in urban slums, non-slum urban and rural areas of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Shelly K; Gulati, Kriti; Garg, Suneela; Agarwal, Arun K

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to determine the prevalence and profile of otitis media in different parts of a city, i.e. non-slum urban areas, urban slums and rural areas. A door to door survey was conducted in identified areas of Delhi. A total of 3000 children (0-15 years) were randomly selected and examined for presence of otitis media. These children were equally distributed in the three areas under consideration. Data was analyzed to establish the prevalence of different types of otitis media. Chi-square test was then applied to compare disease prevalence among the three areas. 7.1% of the study population was identified with otitis media, which includes CSOM (4.26%), OME (2.5%) and ASOM (0.4%). In the non-slum urban parts of the city, 4.6% children had otitis media. This was significantly lower compared to 7% children in rural parts of Delhi and 9.9% in urban slums of the city. The prevalence of CSOM was considerably higher in slum areas (7.2%) as compared with rural (3%) and non-slum urban areas (2.6%). Ear infections are significantly more common in urban slums as compared to non-slum city areas and rural parts of Delhi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Health Risk Assessment for Transport Corridors in Delhi through Vehicular Air Polluting Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles are recognized as one of the major sources of air pollution. Delhi having  a very large number of vehicles produces a lot of air pollution. There is an utter need to ascertain the concentration of the pollutants and their impact on the health of the people of the concerned region. This paper makes an attempt towards such an examination. The method employed here is based on Epidemiology. The assessment of health risks due to increased levels of various pollutants on people represented in this paper is based on the spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri–MAP. This paper presents the findings of the study that evaluates the Impact of increasing air pollution on human health, especially vehicular pollution, in the monitored region, i.e., National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT Delhi during the year 2015 by choosing fifteen study sites from different parts of the capital city. The findings are in terms of  excess number of cases of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, and cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity for all fifteen transport corridors. Among others, Noida link road recorded highest excess number of cases of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and respiratory Morbidity. In case of respiratory mortality, Wazirabad road recorded maximum excess number of cases. With respect to least excess number of cases, it was Connaught Place (Outer circle. The excess number of cases are directly proportional to the population density of the respective region. Also, the regions showing smaller excess number of cases are the planned, less crowded and posh regions of the national capital territory of Delhi.

  4. Spatio-temporal variability of urban heat islands in local climate zones of Delhi-NCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhiraja, Bakul; Pathak, Prasad; Agrawal, Girish

    2017-10-01

    Land use change is at the nexus of human territory expansion and urbanization. Human intrusion disturbs the natural heat energy balance of the area, although a new equilibrium of energy flux is attained but with greater diurnal range and adversely affecting the geo/physical variables. Modification in the trend of these variables causes a phenomenon known as Urban Heat Island (UHI) i.e. a dome of heat is formed around the city which has 7-10 °C high temperature than the nearby rural area at night. The study focuses on Surface UHI conventionally studied using thermal band of the remotely sensed satellite images. Land Surface Temperature (LST) is determined for the year 2015 using Landsat 8 for Delhi National Capital Region (NCR). This region was chosen because it is the biggest urban agglomeration in India, many satellite cities are coming in periphery and it has temperate climate. Quantification of UHI is predictably done using UHI intensity that is the difference between representative Urban and rural temperature. Recently the definition of urban and rural has been questioned because of various kinds of configurations of urban spaces across the globe. Delhi NCR urban configurations vary spatially- thus one UHI intensity does not give a deep understanding of the micro-climate. Advancement was made recently to standardize UHI intensity by dividing city into Local Climate Zones (LCZ), comes with 17 broad categories. LCZ map of Delhi NCR has been acquired from World Urban Database. The seasonality in LST across LCZ has been determined along with identifying warmest and coolest LCZ.

  5. Justice in Urban Climate Change Adaptation: Criteria and Application to Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hughes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities around the world are increasingly developing plans to adapt to the consequences of climate change. These plans will have important consequences for urban populations because they are likely to reshape and reconfigure urban infrastructures, services, and decision making processes. It is critical that these adaptation plans are developed in a way that is just. Criteria was developed that can be used to assess justice in adaptation so that the processes, priorities, and impacts address the needs of the most vulnerable urban populations. Further, mechanisms are outlined that have been proposed as responsible for producing urban injustice. The justice criteria are applied to the case of adaptation planning in Delhi and the extent to which poor and informal populations are included and affected by this planning. The analysis shows that adaptation planning in Delhi does not meet the justice criteria in part because of a lack of capacity and the political economy of poverty in the city. The criteria for justice and mechanisms of injustice offer an important step toward developing a greater understanding of not only whether city-level adaptation planning is just, but also why it is or is not.

  6. Lost in transition? Comparing strategies of electricity companies in Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Laure; Zérah, Marie-Hélène

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of energy transition when implemented by private utilities. In 2000, the Delhi government privatized electricity distribution to three private distribution companies. Most research was concerned with the impact of privatization on energy reliability, tariff settings and regulation issues. This paper looks at two under-researched themes: the expansion of services to poorer neighborhoods and the rollout of clean energy policies. This focus allows to unpack the materiality of socio-technical systems, to analyze how energy infrastructures are being technically deployed on the ground and to identify which social approach is used. To detail the specific practices of each company provides a more nuanced and accurate understanding of the reform. In-depth analysis of the three private utilities show that they interpret the reform mandate differently: they use a varied range of technical tools; they respond differently to social concerns in poorer neighborhoods; and they have distinctive internal management choices and corporate cultures. All these four factors can strengthen or undermine the transition towards increased access and clean energy. - Highlights: • Energy transition in an emerging cities aims at balancing environmental and social concerns. • Utilities have distinct transition paths despite similar privatization and regulation framework. • Utilities paths depend on spatial, social, managerial and corporate considerations. • Utilities' strategies are shaped by urban challenges rather than by energy policies

  7. Sewage treatment effluents in Delhi: A key contributor of β-lactam resistant bacteria and genes to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Manisha; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2017-12-01

    Rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) in developing countries is posing a greater health risk and increasing the global disease burden. Lack of access to safe drinking water, poor sanitation and inadequate sewage treatment facilities in these countries are fueling the problem associated with emergence of AR. Rapid proliferation of AR mediated by treated and untreated discharges from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is a prime public health concern. This study aims to understand the occurrence, fate, and routes of proliferation of carbapenem (KPC) and extended spectrum β-lactam (ESBL) resistant bacteria, and selected resistant genes in the samples collected from different unit operations in 12 STPs in New Delhi over two seasons. Strong correlation observed between faecal coliform levels and KPC (R = 0.95, p = 0.005, n = 60) and ESBL (R = 0.94, p = 0.004, n = 60) resistant bacteria levels indicates possible association of resistant bacteria with faecal matter. Different unit operations in STPs proved inefficient in treating resistant bacteria and genes present in the wastewater. However, inclusion of tertiary treatment (chlorination) unit and anaerobic digester in the present STPs resulted in better removal of AR. Significant correlations between antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) and integron levels indicates a potential for higher rate of AR proliferation in the environment. Microbial culturing indicated the presence of clinically significant drug-resistant pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Acinetobacter baumannii, Shigella dysentery and Aeromonas caviae in the STP effluents. The emergence and spread of resistant bacteria through STP effluents poses exposure risk for the residents of the city. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. "Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health"

    OpenAIRE

    S A Rizwan; Baridalyne Nongkynrih; Sanjeev Kumar Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the ma...

  9. The Spread of Dengue in an Endemic Urban Milieu--The Case of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telle, Olivier; Vaguet, Alain; Yadav, N K; Lefebvre, B; Cebeillac, A; Nagpal, B N; Daudé, Eric; Paul, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major international public health concern, one of the most important arthropod-borne diseases. More than 3.5 billion people are at risk of dengue infection and there are an estimated 390 million dengue infections annually. This prolific increase has been connected to societal changes such as population growth and increasing urbanization generating intense agglomeration leading to proliferation of synanthropic mosquito species. Quantifying the spatio-temporal epidemiology of dengue in large cities within the context of a Geographic Information System is a first step in the identification of socio-economic risk factors. This Project has been approved by the ethical committee of Institut Pasteur. Data has been anonymized and de-identified prior to geolocalisation and analysis. A GIS was developed for Delhi, enabling typological characterization of the urban environment. Dengue cases identified in the Delhi surveillance system from 2008 to 2010 were collated, localised and embedded within this GIS. The spatio-temporal distribution of dengue cases and extent of clustering were analyzed. Increasing distance from the forest in Delhi reduced the risk of occurrence of a dengue case. Proximity to a hospital did not increase risk of a notified dengue case. Overall, there was high heterogeneity in incidence rate within areas with the same socio-economical profiles and substantial inter-annual variability. Dengue affected the poorest areas with high density of humans, but rich areas were also found to be infected, potentially because of their central location with respect to the daily mobility network of Delhi. Dengue cases were highly clustered in space and there was a strong relationship between the time of introduction of the virus and subsequent cluster size. At a larger scale, earlier introduction predicted the total number of cases. DENV epidemiology within Delhi has a forest fire signature. The stochastic nature of this invasion process likely smothers any

  10. The Spread of Dengue in an Endemic Urban Milieu--The Case of Delhi, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Telle

    Full Text Available Dengue is a major international public health concern, one of the most important arthropod-borne diseases. More than 3.5 billion people are at risk of dengue infection and there are an estimated 390 million dengue infections annually. This prolific increase has been connected to societal changes such as population growth and increasing urbanization generating intense agglomeration leading to proliferation of synanthropic mosquito species. Quantifying the spatio-temporal epidemiology of dengue in large cities within the context of a Geographic Information System is a first step in the identification of socio-economic risk factors.This Project has been approved by the ethical committee of Institut Pasteur. Data has been anonymized and de-identified prior to geolocalisation and analysis. A GIS was developed for Delhi, enabling typological characterization of the urban environment. Dengue cases identified in the Delhi surveillance system from 2008 to 2010 were collated, localised and embedded within this GIS. The spatio-temporal distribution of dengue cases and extent of clustering were analyzed. Increasing distance from the forest in Delhi reduced the risk of occurrence of a dengue case. Proximity to a hospital did not increase risk of a notified dengue case. Overall, there was high heterogeneity in incidence rate within areas with the same socio-economical profiles and substantial inter-annual variability. Dengue affected the poorest areas with high density of humans, but rich areas were also found to be infected, potentially because of their central location with respect to the daily mobility network of Delhi. Dengue cases were highly clustered in space and there was a strong relationship between the time of introduction of the virus and subsequent cluster size. At a larger scale, earlier introduction predicted the total number of cases.DENV epidemiology within Delhi has a forest fire signature. The stochastic nature of this invasion process

  11. Near Real Time Flood Warning System for National Capital Territory of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, A.; Yadav, H.; Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme floods are common phenomena during Indian Monsoons. The National Capital Territory area of India, Delhi, frequently experiences fluvial as well as pluvial inundation due to its proximity to river Yamuna and poor functioning of its stormwater drainage system. The urban floods result in severe waterlogging and heavy traffic snarls, bringing life in this megapolis to a halt. The city has witnessed six major floods since 1900 and thus its residents are well conscious of potential flood risks but the city still lacks a flood warning system. The flood related risks can be considerably reduced, if not eliminated, by issuing timely warnings and implementing adaptive measures. Therefore, the present study attempts to develop a web based platform that integrates Web-GIS technology and mathematical simulation modelling to provide an effective and reliable early flood warning service for Delhi. The study makes use of India Metorological Department's Doppler radar-derived near real time rainfall estimates of 15 minutes time step. The developed SWMM model has been validated using information from gauges, monitoring sensors and crowd sourcing techniques and utilises capabilities of cloud computing on server side for fast processing. This study also recommends safe evacuation policy and remedial measures for flooding hotspots as part of flood risk management plan. With heightened risk of floods in fast urbanizing areas, this work becomes highly pertinent as flood warning system with adequate lead time can not only save precious lives but can also substantially reduce flood damages.

  12. Trauma care - a participant observer study of trauma centers at Delhi, Lucknow and Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Chaudhary, Sushant; Kumar, Akshay; Agarwal, Arpit Kumar; Misra, M C

    2009-06-01

    Trained doctors and para-medical personnel in accident and emergency services are scant in India. Teaching and training in trauma and emergency medical system (EMS) as a specialty accredited by the Medical Council of India is yet to be started as a postgraduate medical education program. The MI and CMO (casualty medical officer) rooms at military and civilian hospitals in India that practice triage, first-aid, medico-legal formalities, reference and organize transport to respective departments leads to undue delays and lack multidisciplinary approach. Comprehensive trauma and emergency infrastructure were created only at a few cities and none in the rural areas of India in last few years. To study the infrastructure, human resource allocation, working, future plans and vision of the established trauma centers at the 3 capital cities of India - Delhi (2 centres), Lucknow and Mumbai. Participant observer structured open ended qualitative research by 7 days direct observation of the facilities and working of above trauma centers. Information on, 1. Infrastructure; space and building, operating, ventilator, and diagnostic and blood bank facilities, finance and costs and pre-hospital care infrastructure, 2. Human resource; consultant and resident doctors, para-medical staff and specialists and 3. Work style; first responder, type of patients undertaken, burn management, surgical management and referral system, follow up patient management, social support, bereavement and postmortem services were recorded on a pre-structured open ended instrument interviewing the officials, staff and by direct observation. Data were compressed, peer-analyzed as for qualitative research and presented in explicit tables. Union and state governments of Delhi, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh have spent heavily to create trauma and emergency infrastructure in their capital cities. Mostly general and orthopedics surgeons with their resident staff were managing the facilities. Comprehensively

  13. Analysis of Urban Heat Island (UHI in Relation to Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI: A Comparative Study of Delhi and Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakriti Grover

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The formation and occurrence of urban heat island (UHI is a result of rapid urbanization and associated concretization. Due to intensification of heat combined with high pollution levels, urban areas expose humans to unexpected health risks. In this context, the study aims at comparing the UHI in the two largest metropolitan cities of India, i.e., Delhi and Mumbai. The presence of surface UHI is analyzed using the Landsat 5 TM image of 5 May 2010 for Delhi and the 17 April 2010 image for Mumbai. The validation of the heat island is done in relation to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI patterns. The study reveals that built-up and fallow lands record high temperatures, whereas the vegetated areas and water bodies exhibit lower temperatures. Delhi, an inland city, possesses mixed land use and the presence of substantial tree cover along roads; the Delhi Ridge forests and River Yamuna cutting across the city have a high influence in moderating the surface temperatures. The temperature reaches a maximum of 35 °C in West Delhi and a minimum of 24 °C in the east at the River Yamuna. Maximum temperature in East Delhi goes to 30 °C, except the border areas. North, Central and south Delhi have low temperatures (28 °C–31 °C, but the peripheral areas have high temperatures (36 °C–37 °C. The UHI is not very prominent in the case of Delhi. This is proven by the correlations of surface temperature with NDVI. South Delhi, New Delhi and areas close to River Yamuna have high NDVI and, therefore, record low temperatures. Mumbai, on the other hand, is a coastal city with lower tree cover than Delhi. The Borivilli National Park (BNP is in the midst of dense horizontal and vertical growth of buildings. The UHI is much stronger where the heat is trapped that is, the built-up zones. There are four small rivers in Mumbai, which have low carrying capacity. In Mumbai suburban district, the areas adjoining the creeks, sea and the lakes act as

  14. Centro de conferencias en Nueva Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwal, S.

    1963-12-01

    Full Text Available Vigyan Bhavan, in New Delhi, is a centre specially built to hold in it national and international meetings and congresses. The north, east and west faces of the building follow closely the traditional local Indian style. The main frontage, to the south, has a simple but fine Buddhist arch in green marble and wide steps leading to it in white marble. This centre consists of three distinct, but well integrated, buildings. The main facilities of this project are: an auditorium with seating accommodation for 706 delegates, a public gallery, and two meeting rooms for 20 people each, on the first floor. A separate section houses 5 committee rooms, two rooms for other group meetings, and a cafeteria, on the lower floor. The offices and other administrative services have been placed in the east wing, which is three storeys high, and is separated from the rest of the centre by a paved patio. The peculiar beauty of this project and the surrounding landscape's picturesque charm induce a sense of relaxation that is indeed conducive to the better success of international meetings.El Vigyan Bhavan, de Nueva Delhi, constituye un Centro especialmente construido para la celebración de conferencias nacionales e internacionales. Sus alzados norte, este y oeste fueron concebidos siguiendo el estilo tradicional indio, y muestran interesantes efectos de claro-oscuro. La fachada principal —sur— presenta un sencillo pero distinguido arco budista en mármol verde, y una escalinata realizada con mármol blanco. Este conjunto está constituido por tres cuerpos diferenciados, pero conectado con fáciles comunicaciones. Como dependencias importantes del Centro figuran: un auditorio con capacidad para 706 delegados sentados, una galería para el público y dos salas de reunión para 20 personas en el primer piso. El cuerpo posterior del edificio, aislado del auditorio por un patio, contiene cinco salas de juntas y dos salas para comisiones; en la planta baja hay una

  15. The problem of the pillion rider: India's helmet law and New Delhi's exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaroop, Mamta; Marie Siddiqui, Selma; Sagar, Sushma; Crandall, Marie L

    2014-05-01

    In India, motorized two-wheeler (MTW) road traffic accidents injure or kill 72,000 women annually. Before the Motor Vehicle Act of 1988, which required mandatory helmet use for MTW riders, a study found 0.6% of all MTW pillions (backseat passengers) were helmeted. Citing religious protests to the legislation, Delhi's high court exempted the city's 12 million women from the law. We hypothesize that currently male pillions use helmets more frequently than females, and that overall pillion helmet usage has increased over the last 20 y. Continuous video was recorded in half-hour blocks at four locations in Delhi on separate days, totaling 8 hours of high- and low-volume traffic. Videos were reviewed with at least two reviewers extracting the number of MTW pillions, as well as their gender, approximate age, and helmet usage. Of 4010 pillions identified, 63.8% were male, 32.4% female, and 3.3% children. Among males, there were significantly more helmeted pillions (88.4%, P < 0.001); among females, there were significantly more unhelmeted pillions (99.4%, P < 0.001). Among unhelmeted pillions, significantly more were female (81.4%) than male (P < 0.001). Current overall pillion helmet use is significantly higher than historical rate (P < 0.001). The significantly higher male pillion helmet usage compared with females indicates Delhi's helmet law is associated with increased compliance among those who fall under its jurisdiction. This augments the growing body of evidence that mandatory helmet laws are efficacious, thus repealing the exemption of women is an important step in increasing female pillion helmet usage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbonaceous aerosol characteristics over Delhi in Northern India: Seasonal variability and possible sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Bisht, Ds; Tiwari, S.

    Carbonaceous aerosols have been the focus of extensive studies during the last decade due to its significant impacts on human health, visibility and climate change. As per Asian regions are concerned, aerosols in south-Asia are gaining considerable importance because of their potential impacts on regional climate, yet their possible sources are poorly understood. Semi-continuous measurements of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) and continuous measurements of black carbon (BC) aerosols were conducted simultaneously at Delhi during the period from January 2011 to May 2012. Delhi is the capital city of India and one of the densely populated and industrialized urban megacities in Asia, located at the Ganga basin in the northern part of India. Being highly polluted region, mass concentrations of OC, EC and BC over Delhi were found to vary from about 6-92 mug m (-3) (mean: 23±16 mug m (-3) ), 3-38 mug m (-3) (mean: 11±7 mug m (-3) ) and 1-24 mug m (-3) (mean: 7±5 mug m (-3) ), respectively during the entire measurement period, with about two times higher concentration during winter as compared to summer. A significant correlation between OC and EC (R=0.95, n=232) and relatively lower OC/EC ratio (range: 1.0-3.6; mean: 2.2±0.5) suggest fossil fuel emission as a dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols over the station. The average mass concentration of EC was found about 38% higher than BC during the study period, which is interestingly different as reported at other locations over Ganga basin. We also determined the associated optical properties of carbonaceous species (e.g. absorption coefficient and mass absorption efficiency) over the station. Significant loading of carbonaceous species over such regions emphasize an urgent need to focus on air quality management and proper impact assessment on health perspective.

  17. Passive air sampling of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai: Levels, homologous profiling and source apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Cheng, Hairong; Balasubramanian, Prithiviraj; Li, Jun; Jones, Kevin C

    2017-12-01

    Several studies in the recent past reported new sources for industrial persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from metropolitan cities of India. To fill the data gap for atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polyurethane foam disk passive air sampling (PUF-PAS) was conducted along urban-suburban-rural transects in four quadrilateral cities viz., New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai from northern, eastern, western and southern India respectively. Average concentration of Σ 8 PBDEs in pg/m 3 for New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai were 198, 135, 264 and 144 respectively. We observed a distinct urban > suburban > rural trend for atmospheric PBDEs in Mumbai. Principal component analysis (PCA) attributed three different source types. BDE-47, -99, -100, -153 and -154 loaded in the first component were relatively high in the sites where industrial and informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities were prevalent. Penta congener, BDE-99 and tetra congener, BDE-47 contributed 50%-75% of total PBDEs. Ratio of BDE-47 and -99 in Indian cities reflected the usage of penta formulations like Bromkal -70DE and DE-71 in the commercial and electrical products. PC-2 was loaded with BDE-28 and -35. Percentage of BDE-28 and BDE-35 (>10%) were comparatively much higher than commercial penta products. Abundance of BDE-28 in majority sites can be primarily due to re-emission from surface soil. PC-3 was loaded with BDE-183 and elevated levels were observed mostly in the industrial corridor of Indian cities. BDE-183 was notably high in the urban industrial sites of New Delhi. We suspect this octa-BDE congener resulted from recycling process of plastic products containing octa-BDE formulation used as flame retardants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Air quality of Beijing (China) and Delhi (India) and impact on Human Health and Climate in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S.; Singh, R. P.; Wu, Y.; Wu, C.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution has been estimated to represent a significant fraction of the total mortality attributable to 26 risk factors assessed by the World Health Organization global burden of disease project. Delhi is distributed over 1484 km2 with population density of 11297/km2 (as in 2011) and surrounded by highly industrialized National Capital region (NCR) with population density of 1050/km2. Beijing covers an area of 16,800 km2, with population density of 1300/km2 (upto 2014). It is located at the foothills of Yan Mountains and Taihang Mountains, in the North China Plain. Both these cities suffer with poor air quality and are severely affected by dense haze, fog and smog during summer and winter seasons. Earlier studies in developing countries have concentrated on limited air quality parameters. Detailed results from trace gases (O3, NO, NO2, and CO) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in two Asian megacities, Delhi (India) and Beijing (China), will be presented. Trace gases and particulate matter in Beijing were collected at 31 sites during 2013-2014. The measurements in Delhi were carried out at 8 sites during October 2010 - March 2013. The annual average of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO, NO2, and CO over Delhi in 2013 is 199 ug/m3, 123 ug/m3, 25.6 ppb, 21.5 ppb, 15.8 ppb, 1.7 ppb, respectively. The annual average of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, CO, and SO2 over Beijing is 113 ug/m3, 85 ug/m3, 51 ug/m3, 46 ug/m3, 1.3 mg/m3, 23 ug/m3, respectively. The annual and seasonal variations of trace gases and particulate matter in Beijing and Delhi are also analyzed, as well as spatial changes of air pollution in these two cities. A comparative analysis in these two cities and the sources of pollution and their impact on human health and Asian climate will be discussed.

  19. Evaluation of a Parchment Document, the 13th Century Incorporation Charter for the City of Krakow, Poland, for Microbial Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Tomasz

    2016-05-01

    The literature of environmental microbiology broadly discusses issues associated with microbial hazards in archives, but these publications are mainly devoted to paper documents. There are few articles on historical parchment documents, which used to be very important for the development of literature and the art of writing. These studies present a broad spectrum of methods for the assessment of biodeterioration hazards of the parchment document in question. They are based on both conventional microbiological methods and advanced techniques of molecular biology. Here, a qualitative analysis was conducted, based on genetic identification of bacteria and fungi present on the document as well as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling and examining the destructive potential of isolated microbes. Moreover, the study involved a quantitative and qualitative microbiological assessment of the indoor air in the room where the parchment was kept. The microbes with the highest destructive potential that were isolated from the investigated item were Bacillus cereus and Acinetobacter lwoffii bacteria and Penicillium chrysogenum,Chaetomium globosum, and Trichoderma longibrachiatum fungi. The presence of the B. cereuss train was particularly interesting since, under appropriate conditions, it leads to complete parchment degradation within several days. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Firecracker injuries during Diwali festival: The epidemiology and impact of legislation in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Tandon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting and Design: A hospital-based retrospective study of firecracker-related injuries was carried out at a government sponsored hospital in Delhi. Materials and Methods: 1373 patients attended the emergency burn care out-patients clinic during 2002-2010 pre-Diwali, Diwali and post-Diwali days. Every year, a disaster management protocol is revoked during these 3 days under the direct supervision of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Results: There was an increase in the number of patients of firecracker-related injuries in Delhi national capital region from the year 2002 to 2010, based on the hospital statistics. During the study period, the hospital received approximately one patient with firecracker-related injury per 100,000 population of the city. 73.02% of the victims were 5-30 years old. Majority (90.87% of them sustained <5% total body surface area burn. Conclusions: In spite of legislations and court orders, the number of patients is on the rise. The implementation agencies have to analyse the situation to find a way to control this preventable manmade accident. Websites, emails, SMS, social sites, etc. should be used for public education, apart from conventional methods of public awareness.

  1. Chemical analysis of fogwater at Delhi, North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, R. K.; Tiwari, S.; Ali, K.; Singh, G.

    Fogwater collected at Delhi (28° 35'N, 77°12'E, 217 m a.s.l.) during winter 1989-1990 was found to be acidic compared to pure water pH of 7. This was attributed to highway widening work in progress and an increase in vehicular traffic on the nearby road, apart from construction work in a residential complex and an increase in industrial activity within 6 km to the southwest. Results are compared with the earlier studies at Delhi and those with highly acidic fog data published for some regions of California in the United States of America.

  2. Using heronry birds to monitor urbanization impacts: a case study of painted stork Mycteria leucocephala nesting in the Delhi Zoo, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfi, Abdul Jamil

    2010-03-01

    Although urbanization is a frequently cited cause of biodiversity loss (Czech and Krausman 1997) our understanding about urban ecology is severely limited (Marzluff et al. 2001). Birds are popular bio-indicators of environmental change because they are ecologically versatile, their populations as well as select fitness parameters can be conveniently monitored, often with the voluntary involvement of local nature enthusiasts across large geographical scales, and their presence/absence in a particular area is consequential (Bibby et al. 1992; Urfi 2004). In India, while several studies have focused on changes in bird populations and distributions in natural habitats (Urfi et al. 2005), very few have actually attempted to study either the impacts of urbanization on birds or how different species have adjusted to environmental change. However, many Indian cities offer foraging and nesting habitat for birds, especially colonial waterbirds such as stork, ibis, spoonbill, heron, egret, cormorant, and spoonbill. Some notable examples in this regard are Piele Gardens in Bhavnagar city (Parasharya and Naik 1990), Karanji Tank in Mysore (Jamgaonkar et al. 1994) and the National Zoological Park (hence forth Delhi Zoo) in India's capital city New Delhi (Urfi 1997). In this article, I focus on the opportunities for meaningful ecological research offered by the wild waterbirds nesting in the Delhi Zoo premises and discuss the significance for initiating novel, long term conservation monitoring programs, involving volunteers and bird watchers, to create data bases that will be useful for understanding urbanization and climate change impacts on biodiversity.

  3. Impact of Thermal Inertia on Urban Climatology: A Case Study of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwal, S.; Kumar, D.; Singh, V. P.; Pandey, A. K.; Kumar, K.

    2016-12-01

    The ability with which a material can absorb, restore the heat and release it later during the nighttime is known as thermal inertia. In the context to urban areas, it measures the sub-surface's ability to store heat during the day and release it during the night. It prevents the overheating in summer and maintains heat during the winter thereby safeguarding the building comfort level. Due to huge population and urban sprawl this study can be very useful for Delhi and cities like it. The climatic modification in the context of urban areas due to human activities in relation to rural areas is termed as the urban heat island effect (UHI). The modelling for formation of urban UHI has been done using the geospatial technique. Apart from temperature, the amount of dust in the atmosphere is also a significant contributor in modifying the UHI formation. It is also an attempt to establish the role of land use and land cover patterns and respective thermal inertia affecting this phenomenon. The thermal inertia over Delhi-NCR was estimated using surface albedo and daytime-nighttime temperature differences from MODIS datasets. Higher thermal inertia were observed in urban areas than that of rural areas during the analysis of the thermal inertia maps. Furthermore, the study also reveals that the urban heat island intensity (UHI) and the thermal inertia has a relationship of strong inverse correlation. The results of this study will provide useful insights for urban planners and the local governments to devise appropriate strategies for making the urban climate favourable for the city residents.

  4. Role of meteorology in seasonality of air pollution in megacity Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K; Gurjar, Bhola R

    2012-05-01

    The winters in megacity Delhi are harsh, smoggy, foggy, and highly polluted. The pollution levels are approximately two to three times those monitored in the summer months, and the severity is felt not only in the health department but also in the transportation department, with regular delays at airport operations and series of minor and major accidents across the road corridors. The impacts felt across the city are both manmade (due to the fuel burning) and natural (due to the meteorological setting), and it is hard to distinguish their respective proportions. Over the last decade, the city has gained from timely interventions to control pollution, and yet, the pollution levels are as bad as the previous year, especially for the fine particulates, the most harmful of the criteria pollutants, with a daily 2009 average of 80 to 100 μg/m(3). In this paper, the role of meteorology is studied using a Lagrangian model called Atmospheric Transport Modeling System in tracer mode to better understand the seasonality of pollution in Delhi. A clear conclusion is that irrespective of constant emissions over each month, the estimated tracer concentrations are invariably 40% to 80% higher in the winter months (November, December, and January) and 10% to 60% lower in the summer months (May, June, and July), when compared to annual average for that year. Along with monitoring and source apportionment studies, this paper presents a way to communicate complex physical characteristics of atmospheric modeling in simplistic manner and to further elaborate linkages between local meteorology and pollution.

  5. RFID Technology Implementation in Two Libraries in New Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhan, Margam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the use and implementation of RFID technology at the Indian Law Institute Library and National Social Science Documentation Centre Library, New Delhi. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted at the two libraries, using a structured questionnaire comprising 20 questions. Findings: It was…

  6. Characterization of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus infecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus infecting cucurbits: Evidence for sap transmission in a host specific manner. ... infected plants from different factors like buffer combinations, source of inoculum, age of inoculum, genotypes of test plants, and species of plants, temperature, seasons and organic materials.

  7. Chemical Composition and Source Apportionment of high temporal resolution PM1 data for January-August 2017 in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, S.; Wang, D. S.; Gani, S.; Seraj, S.; Arub, Z.; Habib, G.; Apte, J.; Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) poses significant health risks, especially to residents in heavily populated areas. The current understanding of the sources and dynamics of PM pollution in developing countries like India is limited. Delhi, India is the second most populated city in the world that has extremely high winter PM concentrations and frequent severe pollution episodes. This study reports on composition measurements of submicron aerosol at 1 minute time resolution from January to August of 2017, collected at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi using an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and black carbon (BC) measurements using an Aethalometer. Source apportionment was conducted on organic and inorganic mass spectra measured by the ACSM and black carbon data measured using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). High concentrations of particulate matter were observed with total PM1 at times exceeding 200 µg m-3 in winter. A significant drop in PM1 concentrations was observed in the winter-spring transition. As observed elsewhere, organic species dominated the submicron mass, contributing 60% of the total mass over the duration of the campaign. However, this fractional contribution varied substantially over the day: from 48% early in the morning to 73% late at night. Along with diurnal variation in total PM1 mass loadings, particulate chloride levels also exhibited a strong diurnal cycle, with concentrations as high as 50 µg m-3 observed in the early mornings of January 2017. Literature review on identification of winter chloride sources in Delhi points to local and regional sources such as biomass/open-waste burning and coal combustion. PMF receptor modeling identified several factors with distinct diurnal patterns. While hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) factor has the largest mass fraction contribution, PMF results consistently suggest chloride presence as attributable to ammonium chloride. Interestingly, aerosol

  8. A cross-sectional study examining the prevalence and risk factors for anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in domestic dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    Anti-microbial resistance can threaten health by limiting treatment options and increasing the risk of hospitalization and severity of infection. Companion animals can shed anti-microbial-resistant bacteria that may result in the exposure of other dogs and humans to anti-microbial-resistant genes. The prevalence of anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in the faeces of dogs that visited dog parks in south-western Ontario was examined and risk factors for shedding anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli identified. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada. Owners completed a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including recent treatment with antibiotics. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 surveys were completed. Generic E. coli was isolated from 237 of the faecal samples, and up to three isolates per sample were tested for anti-microbial susceptibility. Eighty-nine percent of isolates were pan-susceptible; 82.3% of dogs shed isolates that were pan-susceptible. Multiclass resistance was detected in 7.2% of the isolates from 10.1% of the dogs. Based on multilevel multivariable logistic regression, a risk factor for the shedding of generic E. coli resistant to ampicillin was attending dog day care. Risk factors for the shedding of E. coli resistant to at least one anti-microbial included attending dog day care and being a large mixed breed dog, whereas consumption of commercial dry and home cooked diets was protective factor. In a multilevel multivariable model for the shedding of multiclass-resistant E. coli, exposure to compost and being a large mixed breed dog were risk factors, while consumption of a commercial dry diet was a sparing factor. Pet dogs are a potential reservoir of anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli; some dog characteristics and management factors are associated with the prevalence of anti-microbial

  9. Disability-adjusted life years and economic cost assessment of the health effects related to PM2.5 and PM10 pollution in Mumbai and Delhi, in India from 1991 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Kamal Jyoti; Dikshit, Anil Kumar; Deshpande, Ashok

    2017-02-01

    Particulate air pollution is becoming a serious public health concern in urban cities in India due to air pollution-related health effects associated with disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and economic loss. To obtain the quantitative result of health impact of particulate matter (PM) in most populated Mumbai City and most polluted Delhi City in India, an epidemiology-based exposure-response function has been used to calculate the attributable number of mortality and morbidity cases from 1991 to 2015 in a 5-year interval and the subsequent DALYs, and economic cost is estimated of the health damage based on unit values of the health outcomes. Here, we report the attributable number of mortality due to PM 10 in Mumbai and Delhi increased to 32,014 and 48,651 in 2015 compared with 19,291 and 19,716 in year 1995. And annual average mortality due to PM 2.5 in Mumbai and Delhi was 10,880 and 10,900. Premature cerebrovascular disease (CEV), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes are about 35.3, 33.3, and 22.9% of PM 2.5 -attributable mortalities. Total DALYs due to PM10 increased from 0.34 million to 0.51 million in Mumbai and 0.34 million to 0.75 million in Delhi from average year 1995 to 2015. Among all health outcomes, mortality and chronic bronchitis shared about 95% of the total DALYs. Due to PM 10 , the estimated total economic cost at constant price year 2005 US$ increased from 2680.87 million to 4269.60 million for Mumbai City and 2714.10 million to 6394.74 million for Delhi City, from 1995 to 2015, and the total amount accounting about 1.01% of India's gross domestic product (GDP). A crucial presumption is that in 2030, PM 10 levels would have to decline by 44% (Mumbai) and 67% (Delhi) absolutely to maintain the same health outcomes in year 2015 levels. The results will help policy makers from pollution control board for further cost-benefit analyses of air pollution management programs in Mumbai and Delhi.

  10. Understanding urban vehicular pollution problem vis-a-vis ambient air quality--case study of a megacity (Delhi, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S K; Ghatge, S V; Nema, P; M Tamhane, S

    2006-08-01

    Air pollution has become a growing problem in megacities and large urban areas through out the globe, and transportation is recognized as the major source of air pollution in many cities, especially in developing countries. Contribution of automobiles is reported in the range of 40 to 80% of the total air pollution. The challenge facing megacities is how to reduce the adverse environmental impacts and other negative effects of transportation without giving up the benefits of mobility. The dilemma becomes most pressing under conditions of rapid urban growth, which is likely to increase travel demand significantly. The paper is aimed at understanding the problem of vehicular pollution vis-a-vis ambient air quality for a highly traffic affected megacity, Delhi, wherein, the contribution of transport sector was estimated to be as high as 72%. An effort has been made to review and evaluate the benefits (in terms of improved air quality) of the technological interventions/policies adopted for vehicular pollution control in Delhi. It also highlights the outcome of the efforts and suggests further improvements thereon. The importance of public participation and awareness are also discussed. The paper focuses on deriving the benefits of the implementation of management strategies, supported by scientific and technical data/interpretation, so that the people can realize and participate in the government's endeavor for clean city drive in a more effective manner.

  11. Health risks of NO 2, SPM and SO 2 in Delhi (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Jai Shanker; Kumar, Rakesh; Devotta, Sukumar

    There is increasingly growing evidence linking urban air pollution to acute and chronic illnesses amongst all age groups. Therefore, monitoring of ambient concentrations of various air pollutants as well as quantification of the dose inhaled becomes quite important, specially in view of the fact that in many countries, policy decisions for reducing pollutant concentrations are mainly taken on the basis of their health impacts. The dose when gets combined with the likely responses, indicates the ultimate health risk (HR). Thus, as an extension of our earlier studies, HR has been estimated for three pollutants, namely, suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) for Delhi City in India. For estimation and analyses, three zones have been considered, namely, residential, industrial and commercial. The total population has been divided into three age classes (infants, children and adults) with different body weights and breathing rates. The exercise takes into account age-specific breathing rates, body weights for different age categories and occupancy factors for different zones. Results indicate that health risks due to air pollution in Delhi are highest for children. For all age categories, health risks due to SO 2 (HR_SO 2) are the lowest. Hence, HR_SO 2 has been taken as the reference with respect to which HR values due to SPM and NO 2 have been compared. Taking into account all the age categories and their occupancy in different zones, average HR values for NO 2 and SPM turn out to be respectively 22.11 and 16.13 times more than that for SO 2. The present study can be useful in generating public awareness as well as in averting and mitigating the health risks.

  12. On-road PM2.5 pollution exposure in multiple transport microenvironments in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rahul; Gani, Shahzad; Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Wilson, Daniel; Tiwari, Geetam

    2015-12-01

    PM2.5 pollution in Delhi averaged 150 μg/m3 from 2012 through 2014, which is 15 times higher than the World Health Organization's annual-average guideline. For this setting, we present on-road exposure of PM2.5 concentrations for 11 transport microenvironments along a fixed 8.3-km arterial route, during morning rush hour. The data collection was carried out using a portable TSI DustTrak DRX 8433 aerosol monitor, between January and May (2014). The monthly-average measured ambient concentrations varied from 130 μg/m3 to 250 μg/m3. The on-road PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the ambient measurements by an average of 40% for walking, 10% for cycle, 30% for motorised two wheeler (2W), 30% for open-windowed (OW) car, 30% for auto rickshaw, 20% for air-conditioned as well as for OW bus, 20% for bus stop, and 30% for underground metro station. On the other hand, concentrations were lower by 50% inside air-conditioned (AC) car and 20% inside the metro rail carriage. We find that the percent exceedance for open modes (cycle, auto rickshaw, 2W, OW car, and OW bus) reduces non-linearly with increasing ambient concentration. The reduction is steeper at concentrations lower than 150 μg/m3 than at higher concentrations. After accounting for air inhalation rate and speed of travel, PM2.5 mass uptake per kilometer during cycling is 9 times of AC car, the mode with the lowest exposure. At current level of concentrations, an hour of cycling in Delhi during morning rush-hour period results in PM2.5 dose which is 40% higher than an entire-day dose in cities like Tokyo, London, and New York, where ambient concentrations range from 10 to 20 μg/m3.

  13. Organic matter determination for street dust in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandilya, Kaushik K; Khare, Mukesh; Gupta, A B

    2013-06-01

    The organic matter of street dust is considered as one of the causes for high human mortality rate. To understand the association, the street dust samples were collected from four different localities (industrial, residential, residential-commercial, and commercial) situated in the greater Delhi area of India. The loss-on-ignition method was used to determine the organic matter (OM) content in street dust. The OM content, potassium, calcium, sulfate, and nitrate concentrations of street dust in Delhi, India is measured to understand the spatial variation. Correlation analysis, analysis of variance, and factor analysis were performed to define the sources. The dust OM level ranges from 2.63 to 10.22 %. It is found through correlation and factor analysis that OM is primarily contributed from secondary aerosol and vehicular exhaust. The OM levels suggest that the use of a residential-commercial site for commercial purposes is polluting the street dust and creating the environmental and human health problems.

  14. An urban systems framework to assess the trans-boundary food-energy-water nexus: implementation in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Anu; Boyer, Dana; Singh Nagpure, Ajay; Fang, Andrew; Bogra, Shelly; Bakshi, Bhavik; Cohen, Elliot; Rao-Ghorpade, Ashish

    2017-02-01

    This paper develops a generalizable systems framework to analyze the food-energy-water (FEW) nexus from an urban systems perspective, connecting in- and trans-boundary interactions, quantifying multiple environmental impacts of community-wide FEW provisioning to cities, and visualizing FEW supply-chain risks posed to cities by the environment. Delhi’s community-wide food demand includes household consumption by socio-economic-strata, visitors- and industrial food-use. This demand depends 90%, 76%, and 86% on trans-boundary supply of FEW, respectively. Supply chain data reveal unique features of trans-boundary FEW production regions (e.g. irrigation-electricity needs and GHG intensities of power-plants), yielding supply chain-informed coupled energy-water-GHG footprints of FEW provisioning to Delhi. Agri-food supply contributes to both GHG (19%) and water-footprints (72%-82%) of Delhi’s FEW provisioning, with milk, rice and wheat dominating these footprints. Analysis of FEW interactions within Delhi found >75% in-boundary water-use for food is for urban agriculture and >76% in-boundary energy-use for food is from cooking fuels. Food waste-to-energy and energy-intensity of commercial and industrial food preparation are key data gaps. Visualizing supply chains shows >75% of water embodied in Delhi’s FEW supply is extracted from locations over-drafting ground water. These baseline data enable evaluation of future urban FEW scenarios, comparing impacts of demand shifts, production shifts, and emerging technologies and policies, within and outside of cities.

  15. Land-Air Interactions over Urban-Rural Transects Using Satellite Observations: Analysis over Delhi, India from 1991–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Jain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past four decades Delhi, India, has witnessed rapid urbanization and change in land use land cover (LULC pattern, with most of the cultivable areas and wasteland being converted into built-up areas. Presently around 40% land is under built-up area, a drastic rise of 30% from 1977. The effect of changing LULC, at a local scale, on various variables-land surface temperature (LST, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, emissivity, albedo, evaporation, Bowen ratio, and planetary boundary layer (PBL height, from 1991–2016, is investigated. To assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of land-air interactions, we select two different 100 km transects covering the NE-SW and NW-SE expanse of Delhi and its adjoining areas. High NDVI and emissivity is found for regions with green cover and drastic reduction is noted in built-up area clusters. In both of the transects, land surface variations manifest itself in patterns of LST variation. Parametric and non-parametric correlations are able to statistically establish the land-air interactions in the city. NDVI, an indirect indicator for LULC classes, significantly helps in understanding the modifications in LST and ultimately air temperature. Significant, strong positive relationships exist between skin temperature and evaporation, skin temperature and PBL height, and PBL height and evaporation, providing insights into the meteorological changes that are associated with urbanization.

  16. Inter-Seasonal Variations of Surface Temperature in the Urbanized Environment of Delhi Using Landsat Thermal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Babu Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex land use/cover patterns in urban areas significantly influence their prevailing surface temperature conditions. As a result of differential cooling and heating of various land use/cover, large temperature ranges are associated with bare land, built-up land, etc. and low ranges are found in vegetation cover and water bodies. Extremely high and low temperature conditions in built-up land have direct and negative impacts on health conditions, and therefore are imperative to study. Thus, an attempt has been made in this research to analyze seasonal variations in surface temperature in city of Delhi. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM 5 satellite images for the four seasons, viz., 16 January (winter, 5 March (spring, 8 May (summer and 29 September (autumn 2011 have been used to interpret the distribution and changes in surface temperature. A total of 80 samples from all land use/cover categories were taken to generalize the patterns along with north-south and west-east profiles. The extracted surface temperature patterns reflect the spatial and temporal dynamics of temperature over different land use/cover. The north-south and west-east gradient of temperature demonstrates that the core of Delhi has a much lower temperature and weak urban heat island (UHI phenomenon.

  17. Estimation of S-wave site response in and around Delhi region from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Site response in and around Delhi is studied using digital seismograms recorded by a thirteen- station VSAT-based 24-bit digital Delhi telemetry network of the India Meteorological Department. Nine local (Ml ≥ 2.3) and nine regional (Ml ≥ 3.9) earthquakes are selected for the estimation of site amplification factor using the ...

  18. Estimation of S-wave site response in and around Delhi region from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Site response in and around Delhi is studied using digital seismograms recorded by a thirteen-station VSAT-based 24-bit digital Delhi telemetry network of the India Meteorological Department. Nine local (l ≥ 2.3) and nine regional (l ≥ 3.9) earthquakes are selected for the estimation of site amplification factor using the ...

  19. Review of medal predictions for South Africa in the Delhi 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This paper reviews South Africa's performance in the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games relative to predicted medal success. Methods. Forecasts based on the nation's previous success are compared against medals won in Delhi. Results. Actual performance is in line with predicted performance in terms of gold ...

  20. Attitudes of Secondary Regular School Teachers toward Inclusive Education in New Delhi, India: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Nisha; Das, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the attitudes of regular school teachers in Delhi, India, toward the inclusion of students with disabilities. It also explored their views regarding facilitators of inclusive education. Respondents were secondary school teachers working in schools in Delhi that implement inclusive education for students with…

  1. ICOM commitee for conservation, 15th Triennial Conference New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A l’automne dernier s’est tenue, à New-Delhi, la 15 session d’ICOM-CC, le plus important des groupes de travail d’ICOM. Plusieurs ateliers ont fonctionné simultanément et ont rassemblé une moisson d’informations relatives à tous les champs de la conservation-restauration. Traditionnellement, les Preprints du symposium mettent l’ensemble des communications à disposition du lecteur. La version électronique de la publication nous étant parvenue alors que l’édition du présent numéro était en cour...

  2. India: Delhi high court annuls law criminalizing adult homosexual relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skanland, Celeste A

    2009-12-01

    In what is considered by many to be a landmark decision on equality and non-discrimination in India, the Delhi High Court declared in July 2009 that Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which criminalizes people who engage in "unnatural offences", violates the rights to equality, freedom from discrimination, and life and personal liberty, pursuant to the India Constitution (Constitution). The court also agreed with the petitioner in the case that the law severely impairs HIV/AIDS prevention efforts by discouraging men who have sex with men (MSM) from participating for fear of stigma, discrimination and police abuse under the guise of enforcing the Section.

  3. Health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrew; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-03-01

    This, the first systematic study, quantifies the health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, which adopted radical measures to improve air quality, including, for example, the conversion of all commercial vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG), and the closure of polluting industries in residential areas from 2000 to 2002. Air pollution data, collected at 113 sites (spread across Delhi and its neighboring areas) from July-December 2003, were used to compute exposure at the place of residence of 3989 subjects. A socio-economic and respiratory health survey was administered in 1576 households. This survey collected time-use, residence histories, demographic information, and direct measurements of lung function with subjects. The optimal interpolation methods were used to link air pollution and respiratory health data at the place of their residence. Resident histories, in combination with secondary data, were used to impute cumulative exposure prior to the air-quality interventions, and the effects of recent air quality measures on lung function were then evaluated. Three important findings emerge from the analysis. First, the interventions were associated with a significant improvement in respiratory health. Second, the effect of these interventions varied significantly by gender and income. Third, consistent with a causal interpretation of these results, effects were the strongest among those individuals who spend a disproportionate share of their time out-of-doors.

  4. Double burden of malnutrition among elderly population of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Goswami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional status is an important determinant for elderly, directly influencing their susceptibility to diseases, adversely affecting their quality of life.  Aim & Objective: To assess the nutritional status of elderly persons aged ≥60 years residing in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a resettlement colony in Delhi. Cluster random sampling was used. Three out of ten blocks were selected randomly. All elderly persons present in the selected blocks were included.  Information on socio-demographic variables was collected. Arm span and weight were measured by trained investigators. Data was entered in MS Excel 2007 and analyzed in Stata 11.0. Multiple logistic regression was done to determine the association between nutritional status and socio-demographic variables Results: A total of 711 elderly persons were recruited. About half (53.2% had normal nutritional status, 20.8% were underweight and 19.4% were overweight and 6.6% were obese. Under-nutrition was significantly associated with gender, while overweight/obesity was found to be significantly associated with age (p<0.001, gender (p<0.001, occupation (p<0.001 and economic dependency (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Dual burden of malnutrition was seen, so there is a need to promote healthy eating and lifestyle to address both spectrum of malnutrition.

  5. Radiation accident at Mayapuri scrap market, Delhi, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, A. B.; Mohanan, S.; Damodaran, D.; Soneja, M.; Jain, N.; Mohan, A.; Vikram, N. K.; Sood, R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the accidental public radiation exposure in a scrap market in Delhi (India)), on March 2010. The source, a gamma unit containing Cobalt-60 pencils, was improperly disposed of by a research institution in violation of national regulations for radiation protection and safety of radioactive sources. The unit was sold off to unsuspecting scrap dealers who dismantled the equipment. This event subsequently caused the most severe radiation accident reported in India to date, resulting in seven radiation injuries and one death. The clinical course of five of the patients treated at the All India Inst. of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi, is summarised in this report. All five patients suffered from the haematological form of the acute radiation syndrome and local cutaneous radiation injury as well. While four patients exposed to doses between 0.6 and 2.8 Gy survived with intensive or supportive treatment, the patient with the highest exposure of 3.1 Gy died due to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure on Day 16 after hospitalisation. The incident highlights the current gaps in the knowledge, infrastructure and legislation in handling radioactive materials. Medical institutions need to formulate individualised triage and management guidelines to immediately respond to future public radiological accidents. (authors)

  6. Seasonality of Tuberculosis in Delhi, India: A Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is highly cost effective to detect a seasonal trend in tuberculosis in order to optimize disease control and intervention. Although seasonal variation of tuberculosis has been reported from different parts of the world, no definite and consistent pattern has been observed. Therefore, the study was designed to find the seasonal variation of tuberculosis in Delhi, India. Methods. Retrospective record based study was undertaken in a Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS centre located in the south district of Delhi. Six-year data from January 2007 to December 2012 was analyzed. Expert modeler of SPSS ver. 21 software was used to fit the best suitable model for the time series data. Results. Autocorrelation function (ACF and partial autocorrelation function (PACF at lag 12 show significant peak suggesting seasonal component of the TB series. Seasonal adjusted factor (SAF showed peak seasonal variation from March to May. Univariate model by expert modeler in the SPSS showed that Winter’s multiplicative model could best predict the time series data with 69.8% variability. The forecast shows declining trend with seasonality. Conclusion. A seasonal pattern and declining trend with variable amplitudes of fluctuation were observed in the incidence of tuberculosis.

  7. Seasonality of tuberculosis in delhi, India: a time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varun; Singh, Abhay; Adhikary, Mrinmoy; Daral, Shailaja; Khokhar, Anita; Singh, Saudan

    2014-01-01

    Background. It is highly cost effective to detect a seasonal trend in tuberculosis in order to optimize disease control and intervention. Although seasonal variation of tuberculosis has been reported from different parts of the world, no definite and consistent pattern has been observed. Therefore, the study was designed to find the seasonal variation of tuberculosis in Delhi, India. Methods. Retrospective record based study was undertaken in a Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) centre located in the south district of Delhi. Six-year data from January 2007 to December 2012 was analyzed. Expert modeler of SPSS ver. 21 software was used to fit the best suitable model for the time series data. Results. Autocorrelation function (ACF) and partial autocorrelation function (PACF) at lag 12 show significant peak suggesting seasonal component of the TB series. Seasonal adjusted factor (SAF) showed peak seasonal variation from March to May. Univariate model by expert modeler in the SPSS showed that Winter's multiplicative model could best predict the time series data with 69.8% variability. The forecast shows declining trend with seasonality. Conclusion. A seasonal pattern and declining trend with variable amplitudes of fluctuation were observed in the incidence of tuberculosis.

  8. A comparative study of air pollution-related morbidity among exposed population of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Vinod

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vehicular pollution is increasing in Indian cities, which may lead to increased number of patients with diseases related to air pollution. Present study was undertaken to assess the pattern of morbidity in two areas of Delhi, one highly polluted area (HPA and the other low polluted area (LPA. Materials and Methods: Subjects were interviewed regarding socioeconomic status and exposure history. Symptoms during the last month were recorded in a questionnaire and weight, height and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR were measured. Air pollution data were obtained from the monitoring stations of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB. Results: A total of 640 subjects participated in the study. Majority of the patients in both the areas were educated till primary but 24% in HPA and 13% in LPA were graduates. Current levels of all pollutants (except SO2 and NOx were above the safety levels prescribed by CPCB in both the areas, but the values were much higher in HPA. The values of PEFR amongst study population were more compromised in HPA. The difference in mean PEFR values among the populations in LPA and HPA were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05. The mean number of symptoms experienced by subjects of HPA was more as compared to LPA (P < 0.05. Frequency of occurrence of symptoms varied with duration of stay in the study area. Children were affected more than the adults. Conclusion: Air pollution has a deleterious effect on various systems of the body.

  9. Urban Heat Island Over Delhi Punches Holes in Widespread Fog in the Indo-Gangetic Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ritesh; Singh, Manoj K.

    2018-01-01

    Persistent and widespread fog affects several densely populated and agriculturally fertile basins around the world. Dense and polluted fog is especially known to impact transportation, air quality, and public health. Here we report a striking observation of holes in fog over urban areas in satellite imagery. The extent of fog holes appear highly correlated with city populations in fog-prevalent regions of Asia, Europe, and the United States. We find the highest frequency and largest extent of fog holes over Delhi along with suppressed fog fraction, amidst increased fog occurrence over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, based on 17 years of satellite data (2000-2016). This apparent urban heat impact is characterized in sharp urban-rural gradients in surface temperatures and fog thickness. Urban heating seems to have already amplified the long-term fog decline in Europe and the United States and should be assessed over regions undergoing urban expansion including India, where no previous linkages are reported between urban heating and fog.

  10. Assessment of PM2.5 concentrations on Human Health: A case study of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, P.; Mishra, D.

    2015-12-01

    Connection of air quality with human health is well established in the literature. However the associated health risks due to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration is not well known in India, while the assigned mean threshold values are 60 μg/m3 for 24-hour period and 40 μg/m3 for annual period. Both are considered safe concentration limits regarding human health effects. However, the daily and annually concentrations of PM2.5 were observed more than three times of NAAQS in the present study for a year. This study relates the incessant exposure to significant levels of PM2.5 to deleterious health effects, such as heart and lung diseases. The relation between environmental air quality and human health has been studied through different parameters e.g., hazard quotient (HQ), lifetime incremental cancer risk (LICR), and individual risk for different groups of ages in Delhi, the capital city of India. These analysis lead to additional insights into health disparities and may suggest that more rigorous strategies. This may be application to other urban areas across the nation. In this study, we propose to quantify such impacts through estimation of different health risk factors.

  11. Particle size distribution in ambient air of Delhi and its statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelani, A B; Gajghate, D G; Chalapatirao, C V; Devotta, S

    2010-07-01

    Particle size distribution in ambient air has been studied in an urban city, Delhi. Different activity sites namely; kerbside, industrial and residential were selected for the study. The statistical analysis was carried out to study the frequency distribution and sources of different particle size fractions. The dominance of coarse particles attributed to local activities was observed at all the sites. It was observed that at kerbside sites, up to 52% of the particles were lower respiratory tract and up to 47% of the particles were upper respiratory tract particles. At residential and industrial sites, up to 40% and 31% were lower and upper respiratory tract particles, respectively. Factor analysis results indicated auto-exhaust as the dominant source of particulate matter at two of the kerbside sites. Resuspended dust was dominant at remaining two kerbside and residential sites. It was inferred using geometric standard deviation of particle size fractions that these were from different sources at residential and industrial site and from similar sources at three of the kerbside sites.

  12. Assessing the water quality index of water treatment plant and bore wells, in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, M K; Bassin, J K

    2010-04-01

    Water quality monitoring exercise was carried out with water quality index (WQI) method by using water characteristics data for bore wells and a water treatment plant in Delhi city from December 2006 to August 2007. The water treatment plant received surface water as raw water, and product water is supplied after treatment. The WQI is used to classify water quality as excellent, good, medium, bad, and very bad. The National Sanitation Foundation WQI procedure was used to calculate the WQI. The index ranges from 0 to 100, where 100 represents an excellent water quality condition. Water samples were collected monthly from a bore well in Nehru Camp (site 1), a bore well in Sanjay Gandhi pumping station (site 2), and water treatment plant in Haiderpur (site 3). Five parameters were analyzed, namely, nitrate, pH, total dissolved solids, turbidity, and temperature. We found that the WQI was around 73-80 in site 3, which corresponds to "good," and it decreased to 54.32-60.19 and 59.93-70.63 in site 1 and site 2, respectively, indicating that these bore wells were classified as "medium" quality.

  13. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  14. Mohalla Clinics of Delhi, India: Could these become platform to strengthen primary healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2017-01-01

    The mohalla or community clinics in Delhi, India aims to provide basic health services to underserved population in urban settings. This article reviews and analyzes the strengths & limitations of the concept and explores the role these clinics can play in (1) reforming urban health service delivery, (2) addressing health inequities, and (3) strengthening primary health care. These clinics provide basic healthcare services to people, in underserved areas, in a responsive manner, have brought health higher on the political agenda and the governments of a number of Indian states have shown interest in adoption (of a variant) of this concept. Strengths notwithstanding, the limitations of these clinics are: curative or personal health services focus and relatively less attention on public/population health services. It is proposed that while setting up these clinics, the government should built upon existing health system infrastructure such as dispensaries, addressing the existing challenges. The new initiative need not to be standalone infrastructure, rather should aimed at health system strengthening. These need to have a functional linkage with existing programs, such as Urban Primary Health Centres (U-PHCs) under national urban health mission (NUHM) and could be supplemented with overall efforts for innovations and other related reforms. The author proposes a checklist 'Score-100' or 'S-100', which can be used to assess the readiness and preparedness for such initiative, should other state governments and/or major city in India or other countries, plan to adopt and implement similar concept in their settings. In last 18 months, the key contribution of these clinics has been to bring health to public and political discourse. Author, following the experience in Delhi, envisions that these clinics have set the background to bring cleanliness-health-education-sanitation-social sectors (C-H-E-S-S or CHESS) as an alternative to Bijli-Sadak-Paani (B-S-P) as electoral

  15. Chemical and microbial properties of farmer's field soils fertilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the chemical and microbial characteristic of soils receiving different quantity of waste for several years (20, 10 and 7 years). Soils were sampled around the city of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Soil chemical (C, N, P and pH) and microbial (basal respiration, microbial biomass and microbial diversity) ...

  16. Studies on allergenic algae of Delhi area: botanical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, A; Agarwal, M K; Shivpuri, D N

    1979-04-01

    To study distribution of algae in and around Delhi aerobiological surveys were undertaken for two consecutive years (September, 1972, to August, 1974). The surveys were accomplished by (a) slide exposure method and (b) culture plate exposure method. A total of 850 slides were exposed using Durham's gravity sampling device. Of these, 560 slides were exposed during 1973 (272 slides at two meter and 288 at ten meter height) and the rest (290 slides) were exposed during 1974 at ten meter height. A total of 858 culture plates were exposed (276 for one hour and 282 for two hours) during 1973 and the rest (300 culture plates) were exposed during 1974 at ten meter height for two hours duration only. Air was found to be rich in algae flora during the months of September to November. The dominant forms of algae present were all blue greens. This might be due to the relative greater resistance of blue green algae to unfavorable conditions.

  17. Gadget Dependency among Medical College Students in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gupta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gadget holds the great importance in everyday life. Mobile phone and internet usage have become universal practice especially among the student community. Gadgets usage has both pros and cons. Objective: To assess the magnitude of gadget utilization among medical college students in Delhi and to estimate the burden of gadget dependency. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted in three medical colleges. The participants were 957 medical students selected by systematic random sampling, interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. Result: The sample consisted of 485 (50.7% males and 472 (49.3% females, aged 17-25 years. Gadgets of at least one variety were uniformly used by all the students, 22.4% of the students surveyed were found to be gadget dependent. Conclusion: Our study shows high prevalence of gadget dependency among medical students. There is need to create awareness regarding the problem of gadget dependency and its social and health effects.

  18. Indoor air pollution and asthma in children at Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Nagar, Jitendra K; Goel, Nitin; Kumar, Pawan; Kushwah, Alka S; Gaur, Shailendra N

    2015-01-01

    Several studies in developed countries have shown association between indoor air pollution and asthma in children. The present research was undertaken to study this association at Delhi, India. This study took place at Delhi, capital of India. Eight locations based on the source of pollution such as industrial, residential and villages were included. Recording of the demographic profile and clinical examination of each child was conducted at their residence. Indoor SO₂, NO₂ and SPM (suspended particulate matter) levels were measured by using Handy Air Sampler (Low Volume Sampler). A total of 3104 children were examined of which 60.3% were male and 39.7% were female. 32.4% children were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. 31.5 % children's families were using biomass fuels for cooking. History of respiratory symptoms included cough (43.9%), phlegm production (21.9%), shortness of breath (19.3%) and wheezing (14.0%). 7.9% children were diagnosed as having asthma, which was highest in industrial areas (11.8%), followed by residential (7.5%) and village areas (3.9%). The mean indoor SO₂, NO₂ and SPM levels were 4.28 ± 4.61 mg/m³, 26.70 ± 17.72 mg/m³ and 722.0 ± 457.6 mg/m³ respectively. Indoor SPM was the highest in industrial area followed by residential area and urban village area. Indoor SPM level was significantly (p < 0.001) higher in the asthmatic children's houses. This study suggests that industry plays an important role in increasing the concentration of indoor suspended particulate matter and occurrence of asthma in children in developing countries like India.

  19. Current trends of some organochlorinated pesticides in Yamuna River sediments around Delhi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sethi, P.K.; Bhattacharyya, A; Sarkar, A

    Organochlorinated pesticides viz. DDTs, HCHs, and Cyclodiene compounds have been detected in the sediment samples of Yamuna River around Delhi, India during the three seasons namely pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon. Five sampling sites were...

  20. Mobilisation and Protests in the Aftermath of the New Delhi Gang Rape Case

    OpenAIRE

    Smith-Sivertsen, Rebecca; Kristensen, Pernille Bo; H. Noori, Hans Peter Jonas; Riis, Vagn

    2014-01-01

    This project examines the social mobilization that occurred in the aftermath of the gang rape and murder of a young female student in New Delhi in 2012. Violence against women is a widespread problem in India, and reports of especially violent incidences of rape against young women, children and tourists have filled the news in the last couple of years both nationally in India and Internationally. Especially the gang rape in New Delhi caused outrage both in India and abroad, resulting in p...

  1. Development of Geospatial Map Based Portal for New Delhi Municipal Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A. Kumar Chandra; Kumar, P.; Sharma, P. Kumar

    2017-09-01

    The Geospatial Delhi Limited (GSDL), a Govt. of NCT of Delhi Company formed in order to provide the geospatial information of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD) to the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) and its organs such as DDA, MCD, DJB, State Election Department, DMRC etc., for the benefit of all citizens of Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD). This paper describes the development of Geospatial Map based Portal (GMP) for New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) of NCT of Delhi. The GMP has been developed as a map based spatial decision support system (SDSS) for planning and development of NDMC area to the NDMC department and It's heaving the inbuilt information searching tools (identifying of location, nearest utilities locations, distance measurement etc.) for the citizens of NCTD. The GMP is based on Client-Server architecture model. It has been developed using Arc GIS Server 10.0 with .NET (pronounced dot net) technology. The GMP is scalable to enterprise SDSS with enterprise Geo Database & Virtual Private Network (VPN) connectivity. Spatial data to GMP includes Circle, Division, Sub-division boundaries of department pertaining to New Delhi Municipal Council, Parcels of residential, commercial, and government buildings, basic amenities (Police Stations, Hospitals, Schools, Banks, ATMs and Fire Stations etc.), Over-ground and Underground utility network lines, Roads, Railway features. GMP could help achieve not only the desired transparency and easiness in planning process but also facilitates through efficient & effective tools for development and management of MCD area. It enables a faster response to the changing ground realities in the development planning, owing to its in-built scientific approach and open-ended design.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF GEOSPATIAL MAP BASED PORTAL FOR NEW DELHI MUNICIPAL COUNCIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kumar Chandra Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Geospatial Delhi Limited (GSDL, a Govt. of NCT of Delhi Company formed in order to provide the geospatial information of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD to the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD and its organs such as DDA, MCD, DJB, State Election Department, DMRC etc., for the benefit of all citizens of Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD. This paper describes the development of Geospatial Map based Portal (GMP for New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC of NCT of Delhi. The GMP has been developed as a map based spatial decision support system (SDSS for planning and development of NDMC area to the NDMC department and It’s heaving the inbuilt information searching tools (identifying of location, nearest utilities locations, distance measurement etc. for the citizens of NCTD. The GMP is based on Client-Server architecture model. It has been developed using Arc GIS Server 10.0 with .NET (pronounced dot net technology. The GMP is scalable to enterprise SDSS with enterprise Geo Database & Virtual Private Network (VPN connectivity. Spatial data to GMP includes Circle, Division, Sub-division boundaries of department pertaining to New Delhi Municipal Council, Parcels of residential, commercial, and government buildings, basic amenities (Police Stations, Hospitals, Schools, Banks, ATMs and Fire Stations etc., Over-ground and Underground utility network lines, Roads, Railway features. GMP could help achieve not only the desired transparency and easiness in planning process but also facilitates through efficient & effective tools for development and management of MCD area. It enables a faster response to the changing ground realities in the development planning, owing to its in-built scientific approach and open-ended design.

  3. Study on air pollution trends (2010-2015 due to fireworks during Diwali festival in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Pandey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The burning of massive amount of fire crackers on the evening(s of a nation-wide celebrated festival called ‘Diwali’ in India, gives rise to a remarkably high concentration of criteria air pollutants and it is of utmost importance to investigate the impact of such high loads originated during a relatively shorter time span in a mega-city like Delhi where the situation of ambient air quality has already been alarming almost through-out the year. In view of the same, the present study analyzes available concentration data during this festival’s night for five criteria pollutants namely PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO (Particulate Matter, Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide respectively along with NH3 at six key locations of Delhi. Following the analysis, PM10 concentration in Anand Vihar during nighttime of Diwali was reported to be ~8 times higher than the 24 hours values prescribed by National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS. On the other hand, the same at IGI airport was recorded lowest even though about 3.5 times that of the guiding standard. PM2.5 concentrations were reported as highest and lowest at RK Puram and Civil lines respectively, in both the cases quite exceeding the comparable standard values. Interestingly, remaining criteria pollutants, namely, SO2, NO2 and CO along with NH3 measured in 2015 showed no values in excess of corresponding 24-hrs guidelines, thereby reporting a better scenario compared to previous years. Further, the extensive use of firecrackers during Diwali festival leads to substantial increase in air pollutants necessitating special measures to control.

  4. Mobile radiation monitoring of Delhi for the prevention of malicious acts during the Common Wealth Games (CWG-2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saindane, Shashank S.; Chatterjee, M.K.; Romal, Jis; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Singh, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in industry, research, agriculture and medical applications. In spite of various measures adopted for ensuring the safety and security of these sources, similar to Mayapuri incident, many cases of lost, misplaced, stolen radioactive sources and inadvertent radiation exposure due to radiological emergencies are reported world over. In the aftermath of the attack on the World Trade Center 2001, malicious acts using radioactive material is considered as a threat for which prevention and preparedness for response are recommended by IAEA. Hence radiation monitoring of all related area prior to and during Major Public Events (MPEs) like Olympics, World cup football etc are implemented by many nations for prevention and preparedness to such radiological threats/emergencies. Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) through their Emergency Response Centres planned and executed detailed radiation monitoring programme for the Delhi Common Wealth Games (CWG 2010) which covered all CWG stadiums. Commonwealth village etc. In addition to DAE emergency response teams of 15 members in readiness, source recovery and shielding facilities, Portable Personnel Decontamination Unit (PPDU), Radiation monitors, Protective gears, Aerial Gamma Spectrometry System (AGSS for Aerial surveys) etc. were maintained at two DAE control rooms. This paper discusses the mobile radiation monitoring carried out on Delhi city roads with the help of various state-of-the-art monitoring systems to detect the presence or movement of any orphan sources. The mobile radiation monitoring was focused on main road networks connecting to stadiums, areas surrounding stadiums, airport and Games village. For this state-of-the-art systems like Portable Mobile Gamma Spectrometry System (PMGSS), Portable Radiation Scanner (PRS), Compact Radiation Monitoring System integrated with GPS, GSM based Radiation Monitoring System (GRaMS), Gammatracers, Selection and placement of different monitoring

  5. Long term ionospheric electron content variations over Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Gupta

    Full Text Available Ionospheric electron content (IEC observed at Delhi (geographic co-ordinates: 28.63°N, 77.22°E; geomagnetic co-ordinates: 19.08°N, 148.91°E; dip Latitude 24.8°N, India, for the period 1975–80 and 1986–89 belonging to an ascending phase of solar activity during first halves of solar cycles 21 and 22 respectively have been used to study the diurnal, seasonal, solar and magnetic activity variations. The diurnal variation of seasonal mean of IEC on quiet days shows a secondary peak comparable to the daytime peak in equinox and winter in high solar activity. IECmax (daytime maximum value of IEC, one per day shows winter anomaly only during high solar activity at Delhi. Further, IECmax shows positive correlation with F10.7 up to about 200 flux units at equinox and 240 units both in winter and summer; for greater F10.7 values, IECmax is substantially constant in all the seasons. IECmax and magnetic activity (Ap are found to be positively correlated in summer in high solar activity. Winter IECmax shows positive correlation with Ap in low solar activity and negative correlation in high solar activity in both the solar cycles. In equinox IECmax is independent of Ap in both solar cycles in low solar activity. A study of day-to-day variations in IECmax shows single day and alternate day abnormalities, semi-annual and annual variations controlled by the equatorial electrojet strength, and 27-day periodicity attributable to the solar rotation.

    Key words: Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere · Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere · ionosphere interactions · Radio science (ionospheric physics

  6. Reflections on the society’s reaction towards rape victims in Delhi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetu Vibha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, most people display stronger beliefs in ‘aggravated rape‘ or ‘real rape‘; including victims of such rape cases who often identify themselves as ‘rape victims’ than the victims of ‘simple rape’, where none of the aggravating circumstances are present. Despite myths to the contrary these ‘simple rape’ cases in fact make up the majority of cases. This article considers the implications of ‘real rape‘ and demonstrates how notions about what a ‘typical rape‘ should be, in the form of rape myths, directly impact on societal attitudes towards rape victims and how the media continue to reinforce and perpetuate the notion of real rape through their selective reporting of ‘serial rape’, ‘stranger rape’ or especially ‘violent rapes’.

  7. Challenges of mainstreaming: Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government health institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmistha Mallick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to understand the project of mainstreaming in India's health care system that has started with an aim to bring marginalized and alternative systems of medicine in mainstream. The project has gained much attention with the establishment of Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH in the year 2003, which is now a ministry. It has ushered some positive results in terms of growth of AYUSH hospitals and dispensaries. However, it has also raised challenges around the theory and practice of mainstreaming. With an emphasis on Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government Health Institutions, this article has tried to analyze some of those challenges and intricacies. Drawing on Weber's theory of bureaucratization and Giddens's theory of structuration, the paper asks what happens to an alternative medical system when it becomes part of the bureaucratic set-up. Along with the questions of structures, it also tries to combine the question of the agency of both patients and doctors considered to be the cornerstone of the Ayurvedic medical system. Although our study recognizes some of the successes of the mainstreaming project, it also underlines the challenges and problems it faces by analyzing three points of view (institutions, doctors, and patients.

  8. Challenges of mainstreaming: Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Sharmistha

    2016-03-01

    This paper is an attempt to understand the project of mainstreaming in India's health care system that has started with an aim to bring marginalized and alternative systems of medicine in mainstream. The project has gained much attention with the establishment of Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) in the year 2003, which is now a ministry. It has ushered some positive results in terms of growth of AYUSH hospitals and dispensaries. However, it has also raised challenges around the theory and practice of mainstreaming. With an emphasis on Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government Health Institutions, this article has tried to analyze some of those challenges and intricacies. Drawing on Weber's theory of bureaucratization and Giddens's theory of structuration, the paper asks what happens to an alternative medical system when it becomes part of the bureaucratic set-up. Along with the questions of structures, it also tries to combine the question of the agency of both patients and doctors considered to be the cornerstone of the Ayurvedic medical system. Although our study recognizes some of the successes of the mainstreaming project, it also underlines the challenges and problems it faces by analyzing three points of view (institutions, doctors, and patients). Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aural hygiene practices among underprivileged children of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A; Ray, T K; Sahni, J K

    2015-01-01

    Though ear hygiene is important for proper hearing, it is usually neglected. Improper ear care practices may have serious consequences such as loss of hearing. In childhood, loss of hearing may affect learning and development. There is scarcity of information on ear care practices in the community in India. We aimed to ascertain the magnitude of problems related to aural hygiene and assess ear care practices among children of schoolgoing age in a resettlement colony of Delhi. A cross-sectional community-based survey was done among 1398 children 5-14 years of age. The houses were selected by systematic random sampling and all eligible children in the selected house were interviewed and examined. The data were analysed using SPSS version 12 and chi-square test was used to ascertain significance between two variables. Almost two-thirds (60%; 834) of the children gave a history of themselves or an elder cleaning the ear using unhealthy methods. Earbuds were used by 21.7% (304) of children. Match and broomsticks were used for cleaning by 18.3% (256) and 3% (43) of children, respectively. One hundred and fifty-nine children (11.3%) were applying oil to clean the ear canal. Ear cleaning with unhealthy means was significantly higher (56% v. 44%, pmiddle ear infection (p<0.001). A majority of children practised unhealthy/ not recommended methods for cleaning their ear. There is a need to raise awareness about healthy ear cleaning practices in the community. Copyright 2015, NMJI.

  10. General practitioners' knowledge of childhood asthma in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, V P; Shah, A; Malhotra, A; Dewanwala, A; Taneja, D K; Gupta, V K; Ingle, G K

    2008-06-01

    To assess knowledge of childhood asthma among general practitioners (GPs) in Delhi, India. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 157 GPs were interviewed using a validated questionnaire, including six questions of local and social relevance. A response rate of 78.5% was obtained. Although the GPs who participated in the study had adequate knowledge of the importance of appropriate treatment, the safety of inhalers/oral steroids and the role of medicines in the prevention of frequent asthma attacks, the majority lacked knowledge of symptomatology, exercise-induced asthma and inhaled corticosteroids. GPs with >5 years of practice were more likely to have significantly less knowledge about preventive drugs, certain aspects of treatment of acute asthma and misconceptions, such as 'drinking milk increases mucus production' or 'children with asthma should not consume dairy products, chilled drinks, sour or chilled food'. On the other hand, GPs with < or =5 of practice had misconceptions such as 'children with asthma have abnormally sensitive airways' and 'asthmatic children develop dependence on inhalers'. The gaps in knowledge about asthma and its management highlight the need to design well-structured educational strategies for health professionals.

  11. Attitude of doctors toward euthanasia in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Deliberation over euthanasia has been enduring for an extended period of time. On one end, there are populaces talking for the sacrosanctity of life and on the other end, there are those, who promote individual independence. All over the world professionals from different areas have already spent mammoth period over the subject. A large number of cases around the world have explored the boundaries of current legal distinctions, drawn between legitimate and nonlegitimate instances of ending the life. The term euthanasia was derived from the Greek words "eu" and "thanatos" which means "good death" or "easy death." It is also known as mercy killing. Euthanasia literally means putting a person to painless death especially in case of incurable suffering or when life becomes purposeless as a result of mental or physical handicap. Objective: To study the attitude of doctors toward euthanasia in Delhi. Methodology: It was a questionnaire based descriptive cross-sectional study carried out between July 2014 and December 2014. The study population included Doctors from 28 hospitals in Delhi both public and private. Equal numbers of doctors from four specialties were included in this study (50 oncologists, 50 hematologists, 50 psychiatrists, and 50 intensivists. Demographic questionnaire, as well as the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS, a 30 items Likert-scale questionnaire developed by (Holloway, Hayslip and Murdock, 1995 was used to measure attitude toward Euthanasia. The scale uses both positively (16 items and negatively (14 items worded statements to control the effect of acquiescence. The scale also has four response categories, namely "definitely agree," "agree," "disagree," and "definitely disagree." The total score for the EAS was generated by adding all the sub-scales (question′s responses. The demographic questionnaire and EAS, a 30 items Likert-scale questionnaire developed by (Holloway, Hayslip and Murdock, 1995 was distributed

  12. Noncommunicable disease risk profile of factory workers in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Jugal; Kohli, Charu; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Sharma, Ekta

    2012-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are becoming more prevalent in India. The data for presence of NCDs and its risk factors among factory workers is deficient in India. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among 37 factory workers and equal number of comparable subjects from general population. Screening for presence of diabetes along with its risk factors was made in both the groups using pretested predesigned World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance (WHO STEPS) questionnaire in rural area of Delhi. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. The estimation of risk in two groups was done with calculation of odds ratio (OR). P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. A total of 74 participants were included in the present study. Hypertension and diabetes was present in 13.5 and 5.4% of factory workers and four (10.8%) and three (8.8%) subjects in comparative group, respectively. Seven (18.9%) factory and eight (21.6%) non-factory subjects fell in the category of current smoker or smokeless tobacco users. High density lipoprotein levels were found abnormal among one (2.7%) factory worker and nine (24.3%) subjects in comparative group (P-value = 0.01). Behavioral risk factors, alcohol consumption, and fruits and vegetable intake were significantly different among two groups. Factory workers were having better profile than non-factory subjects except for risk factors such as alcohol intake and inadequate fruits and vegetable intake. However, healthy worker effect phenomenon cannot be ruled out.

  13. Beta-thalassaemia mutations in northern India (Delhi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, N; Sharma, S; Rusia, U; Sen, S; Sood, S K

    1998-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to define beta-thalassaemia mutations prevalent in northern India (Delhi). Forty six children of beta-thalassaemia major and their families were investigated. DNA was extracted from leucocytes and screened for mutations prevalent in the Indian population. These mutations included 619bp deletion, IVS 1-1 (G-T), IVS 1-5 (G-C), frameshift mutations FS 8/9 (+G), FS 41/42 (-CTTT), Codon 16(-C), Codon 15 (G-A), codon 30 (G-C), IVS 1-110 (G-A) and -88 (C-T). 619 bp deletion mutation was detected directly by amplification of DNA by PCR followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Other mutations were studied by DNA amplification and dot blot hybridization using synthetic normal and mutant oligonucleotide probes labelled at 5' end with gamma-32 P-ATP. Five mutations accounted for all the chromosomes in 46 patients. 619 bp deletion mutation was found to be the commonest mutation (34.8%) followed by IVS 1-5 (G-C) in 22.8 per cent, IVS 1-1 (G-T) in 19.6 per cent, FS 8/9 (+G) in 13 per cent and FS 41/42 (-CTTT) in 9.8 per cent. Nineteen (41.3%) patients were homozygous and 27 (58.7%) double heterozygous for different beta-thalassaemia mutations. This observation of limited number of mutations is significant and will be useful in planning strategies for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassaemia in northern India.

  14. Group B Streptococcal Colonization Among Pregnant Women in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Manu; Rench, Marcia A; Baker, Carol J; Singh, Pushpa; Hans, Charoo; Edwards, Morven S

    2017-07-01

    Little is known regarding maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization prevalence and capsular (CPS) serotype distribution among pregnant women in India. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine GBS recto-vaginal colonization prevalence in pregnant women at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital in Delhi, India. Literature review identified reports from India assessing GBS colonization prevalence in pregnant women. Rectal and vaginal swabs were inoculated into Strep B Carrot Broth (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA) and subcultured onto GBS Detect plates (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA). Isolates were serotyped using ImmuLex Strep-B latex kits (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark). Thirteen studies were identified citing GBS colonization prevalence during pregnancy as 0.47%-16%. Among 300 pregnant women (mean age: 26.9 years; mean gestation: 34 weeks) enrolled (August 2015 to April 2016), GBS colonization prevalence was 15%. Fifteen percent of women had vaginal only, 29% had rectal only and 56% had both sites colonized. CPS types were Ia (13.3%), Ib (4.4%), II (20%), III (22.2%), V (20%) and VII (6.7%); 13.3% were nontypable. Fetal loss in a prior pregnancy at ≥20-weeks gestation was more common in colonized than noncolonized women (15.6% vs. 3.5%; P = 0.004). Employing recent census data for the birth cohort and estimating that 1%-2% of neonates born to colonized women develop early-onset disease, at least 39,000 cases of early-onset disease may occur yearly in India. Using optimal methods, 15% of third trimester pregnant women in India are GBS colonized. A multivalent vaccine containing 6 CPS types (Ia, Ib, II, III, V and VII) would encompass ~87% of GBS carried by pregnant women in India.

  15. Soil microbial community response to land use and various soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil microbial community response to land use and various soil elements in a city landscape of north China. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Legumes played an important role in stimulating the growth and reproduction of various soil microbial populations, accordingly promoting the microbial catabolic activity.

  16. Water footprints of cities - indicators for sustainable consumption and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, H.; Döll, P.; Fader, M.; Gerten, D.; Hauser, S.; Siebert, S.

    2014-01-01

    Water footprints have been proposed as sustainability indicators, relating the consumption of goods like food to the amount of water necessary for their production and the impacts of that water use in the source regions. We further developed the existing water footprint methodology, by globally resolving virtual water flows from production to consumption regions for major food crops at 5 arcmin spatial resolution. We distinguished domestic and international flows, and assessed local impacts of export production. Applying this method to three exemplary cities, Berlin, Delhi and Lagos, we find major differences in amounts, composition, and origin of green and blue virtual water imports, due to differences in diets, trade integration and crop water productivities in the source regions. While almost all of Delhi's and Lagos' virtual water imports are of domestic origin, Berlin on average imports from more than 4000 km distance, in particular soy (livestock feed), coffee and cocoa. While 42% of Delhi's virtual water imports are blue water based, the fractions for Berlin and Lagos are 2 and 0.5%, respectively, roughly equal to the water volumes abstracted in these two cities for domestic water use. Some of the external source regions of Berlin's virtual water imports appear to be critically water scarce and/or food insecure. However, for deriving recommendations on sustainable consumption and trade, further analysis of context-specific costs and benefits associated with export production will be required.

  17. Quantifying the Influence of Agricultural Fires in Northwest India on Urban Air Pollution in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusworth, D.; Mickley, L. J.; Payer Sulprizio, M.; Marlier, M. E.; DeFries, R. S.; Liu, T.; Guttikunda, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, farmers in northwest India have switched to mechanized combine harvesting to boost efficiency. This harvesting technique leaves abundant crop residue on the fields, which farmers burn to ready their fields for subsequent planting. A key question is to what extent the intense smoke emitted by these fires contributes to the already severe pollution in Delhi and across the heavily populated Indus-Ganges Plain, downwind of the fires. Using a combination of observed and modeled variables, including surface measurements of PM2.5, we quantify the magnitude of the influence of agricultural fire emissions on surface air pollution in Delhi. We first derive the signal of regional PM2.5 enhancements from the Delhi network of surface air monitors during each winter burning season (Oct. 17 - Nov. 30) for 2012-2016. We next use the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (STILT) to generate particle back-trajectories from Delhi, which allows us to map the sensitivity of Delhi pollution to agricultural fires in each grid cell upwind. By combining these sensitivity maps with emissions from a suite of fire inventories, we can reproduce 15-36% of the weekly variability in observed PM2.5. Our method attributes 7-84% of maximum observed PM2.5 enhancement in Delhi to fires upwind, depending on the year and emission inventory. The large range of these attribution estimates points to the uncertainties in fire emission parameterizations, especially in regions where thick smoke may mask the hotspots of fire radiative power. Although our model can generally reproduce the largest PM2.5 enhancements in Delhi air quality for 1-3 consecutive days each fire season, it fails to capture many smaller daily enhancements, which we attribute to the challenge of detecting small fires in the satellite retrieval. By quantifying the magnitude of the influence of agricultural fire emissions on Delhi air pollution, our work helps clarify the pollution exposure and potential

  18. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  19. Education Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  20. Microbial pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Interest in the use of microbial pesticides has intensified because of public concern about the safety of chemical pesticides and their impact in the environment. Characteristics of the five groups of entomopathogens that have potential as microbial pesticides are briefly discussed and an update is provided on research and development activities underway to enhance the...

  1. Migration and hypertension: a cross-sectional study among neo-migrants and settled-migrants in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Yadlapalli; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pandav, Chandrakant

    2009-10-01

    Understanding the blood pressure (BP) distribution within populations is fundamental to an understanding of the etiology of cardiovascular diseases and to develop effective preventive strategies. This study focuses on whether the BP levels and hypertension prevalence differ between neo-migrants and settled-migrants in the city of Delhi. Data on BP, anthropometry, social variables, and demographic variables were collected from a cross-sectional sample of 226 settled-migrants and 227 neo-migrants. Men possessed significantly higher BP levels than women. Settled-migrants possessed higher BP levels, except diastolic BP in males. The prevalence of hypertension ranges from 15% (neo-migrant women) to 25% (settled-migrant men), with no significant gender differences. Group differences were significant for men. Hypertension was more prevalent in older settled-migrants and younger neo-migrants. Recent migration was found to be a significant contributor to hypertension prevalence. Age contributed significantly to BP variation in both groups except in neo-migrant men. Pulse rate also contributed to systolic BP among neo-migrant women and settled-migrant men. Thus, urban residence and migration to urban areas can be a leading cause of increased prevalence of hypertension. Neo-migrants were subjected to more lifestyle insults and the stress generated during the adjustment process may be contributing to rise of BP even at younger ages.

  2. Surface ozone scenario at Pune and Delhi during the decade of 1990s

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    there is no trend whatsoever in the variation of surface ozone concentration at Delhi. Minimum value of surface ozone occurs before sunrise and maximum in the afternoon hours. Regression ... Introduction. Surface ozone is of immense societal concern due to .... in the presence of high concentration of ozone precursor ...

  3. Using an OSAE to Learn about Life in Two New Delhi Hutments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Kay E.

    2005-01-01

    This manuscript is a description of personal observations of two hutments in New Delhi, India. Data was gathered from my hotel window using the OSAE method of landscape observation. The OSAE is the method I use to understand processes that can be seen when studying a landscape. It is the most useful tool I have ever used when teaching geography.…

  4. English Language Teaching Strategies Used by Primary Teachers in One New Delhi, India School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Bonnie; Skillings, Mary Jo

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated teacher behaviors, lesson delivery and sequence of content and learning expectations used by K-5 teachers at one school in New Delhi, India. This research brings broader understanding of strategies for teaching English reading and writing to students whose first language is not English. The rationale for the study stems…

  5. Women's rights and access to water and sanitation in Delhi | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To improve water and sanitation services for women in New Delhi's low-income communities by understanding the needs of women and girls in relation to basic service delivery, and facilitating better relationships between residents and their local governments. The challenge. In low-income resettlement areas on the fringes ...

  6. Prevalence of Dog Bites in Rural and Urban Slums of Delhi: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    India. A study carried out a decade earlier had reported the national incidence of animal bites as 17.4/1000 population.[4]. The World Health Organization (WHO) ... Medicine, University College of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India ... management practices is a worrisome trend which policy makers should take into account.

  7. Emergence of New Delhi metalo-β- lactamase (NDM-1) – producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The New Delhi metallo-beta- lactamase (NDM-1) gene is an emerging well acknowledged public health threats among human and animal pathogens worldwide. Since its first ... The Gram negative bacteria were. identified by conventional bacteriological procedures and with16s RNA PCR method. In all, 7.3% (4/55) of the ...

  8. Delhi Recreation-Education Project Report. Volume Three, Curriculum: Educational Program in Outdoor Recreation Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Henry G., Jr.; And Others

    A survey of colleges offering 2-year programs in some phase of recreation was undertaken to determine what should be the major thrust of the recreation-education program for SUNY Agricultural and Technical College in Delhi, New York. In planning the curriculum, it was recommended that there be a flexible educational program which would allow a…

  9. Connecting Activists and Journalists: Twitter communication in the aftermath of the 2012 Delhi rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, T.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how feminist activists, women's organizations, and journalists in India connected with each other through Twitter following the gang rape incident in New Delhi in December 2012. First, the investigation draws on a set of +15 million tweets specifically focused on rape and gang

  10. A note on some behavioral aspects of radiation protection staff working in hospitals around Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to collect information concerning radiation protection staff working in hospitals in and around Delhi. The information included the organization of the department, the status and involvement of the radiation protection staff and their performance and job satisfaction. Answers received from departments of Radiotherapy, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine were used to assess the relationship between involvement, performance and job satisfaction. (author)

  11. Women's rights and access to water and sanitation in Delhi | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... Research focus To improve water and sanitation services for women in New Delhi's low-income communities by understanding the needs of women and girls in relation to basic service delivery, and facilitating better relationships between residents and their local governments.

  12. Challenges constraining access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Kaplan, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    India's majority of patients-including those living with diabetes-seek healthcare in the private sector through out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. We studied access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi state, India. A modified World Health Organization/Health Action International (WHO/HAI) standard survey to assess insulin availability and prices, and qualitative interviews with insulin retailers (pharmacists) and wholesalers to understand insulin market dynamics. In 40 pharmacy outlets analysed, mean availability of the human and analogue insulins on the 2013 Delhi essential medicine list was 44.4% and 13.1%, respectively. 82% of pharmacies had domestically manufactured human insulin phials, primarily was made in India under licence to overseas pharmaceutical companies. Analogue insulin was only in cartridge and pen forms that were 4.42 and 5.81 times, respectively, the price of human insulin phials. Domestically manufactured human phial and cartridge insulin (produced for foreign and Indian companies) was less expensive than their imported counterparts. The lowest paid unskilled government worker in Delhi would work about 1.5 and 8.6 days, respectively, to be able to pay OOP for a monthly supply of human phial and analogue cartridge insulin. Interviews suggest that the Delhi insulin market is dominated by a few multinational companies that import and/or license in-country production. Several factors influence insulin uptake by patients, including doctor's prescribing preference. Wholesalers have negative perceptions about domestic insulin manufacturing. The Delhi insulin market is an oligopoly with limited market competition. Increasing competition from Indian companies is going to require some additional policies, not presently in place. As more Indian companies produce biosimilars, brand substitution policies are needed to be able to benefit from market competition.

  13. Quantifying the influence of agricultural fires in northwest India on urban air pollution in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusworth, Daniel H.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; Liu, Tianjia; Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Gupta, Pawan

    2018-04-01

    Since at least the 1980s, many farmers in northwest India have switched to mechanized combine harvesting to boost efficiency. This harvesting technique leaves abundant crop residue on the fields, which farmers typically burn to prepare their fields for subsequent planting. A key question is to what extent the large quantity of smoke emitted by these fires contributes to the already severe pollution in Delhi and across other parts of the heavily populated Indo-Gangetic Plain located downwind of the fires. Using a combination of observed and modeled variables, including surface measurements of PM2.5, we quantify the magnitude of the influence of agricultural fire emissions on surface air pollution in Delhi. With surface measurements, we first derive the signal of regional PM2.5 enhancements (i.e. the pollution above an anthropogenic baseline) during each post-monsoon burning season for 2012–2016. We next use the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (STILT) to simulate surface PM2.5 using five fire emission inventories. We reproduce up to 25% of the weekly variability in total observed PM2.5 using STILT. Depending on year and emission inventory, our method attributes 7.0%–78% of the maximum observed PM2.5 enhancements in Delhi to fires. The large range in these attribution estimates points to the uncertainties in fire emission parameterizations, especially in regions where thick smoke may interfere with hotspots of fire radiative power. Although our model can generally reproduce the largest PM2.5 enhancements in Delhi air quality for 1–3 consecutive days each fire season, it fails to capture many smaller daily enhancements, which we attribute to the challenge of detecting small fires in the satellite retrieval. By quantifying the influence of upwind agricultural fire emissions on Delhi air pollution, our work underscores the potential health benefits of changes in farming practices to reduce fires.

  14. Challenges constraining access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    Objective India's majority of patients—including those living with diabetes—seek healthcare in the private sector through out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. We studied access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi state, India. Methods A modified World Health Organization/Health Action International (WHO/HAI) standard survey to assess insulin availability and prices, and qualitative interviews with insulin retailers (pharmacists) and wholesalers to understand insulin market dynamics. Results In 40 pharmacy outlets analysed, mean availability of the human and analogue insulins on the 2013 Delhi essential medicine list was 44.4% and 13.1%, respectively. 82% of pharmacies had domestically manufactured human insulin phials, primarily was made in India under licence to overseas pharmaceutical companies. Analogue insulin was only in cartridge and pen forms that were 4.42 and 5.81 times, respectively, the price of human insulin phials. Domestically manufactured human phial and cartridge insulin (produced for foreign and Indian companies) was less expensive than their imported counterparts. The lowest paid unskilled government worker in Delhi would work about 1.5 and 8.6 days, respectively, to be able to pay OOP for a monthly supply of human phial and analogue cartridge insulin. Interviews suggest that the Delhi insulin market is dominated by a few multinational companies that import and/or license in-country production. Several factors influence insulin uptake by patients, including doctor's prescribing preference. Wholesalers have negative perceptions about domestic insulin manufacturing. Conclusions The Delhi insulin market is an oligopoly with limited market competition. Increasing competition from Indian companies is going to require some additional policies, not presently in place. As more Indian companies produce biosimilars, brand substitution policies are needed to be able to benefit from market competition. PMID:28588966

  15. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...... and urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works.......The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever...

  16. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    , the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  17. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever......, any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...... conference, which invites you to discuss the contemporary tendencies for a greener city. Come and listen to five international key note speakers, whose projects have showed new directions for planting in urban spaces: The conference presents key note speakers from landscape architecture, urban design...

  18. Informed Consent in Medical Decision-Making in Commercial Gestational Surrogacy: A Mixed Methods Study in New Delhi, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi

    2015-01-01

    and agencies in Delhi, India, between December 2011 and December 2012. POPULATION: Doctors providing conceptive technologies to commissioning couples and carrying out surrogacy procedures; surrogate mothers; agents functioning as links for surrogacy. METHODS: Interviews using semi-structured interview guides...

  19. ECOHYDROLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES OF DEGRADING BAOLIS DURING MEDIEVAL PERIOD IN DELHI: traditional practices of water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Anand

    2017-03-01

    Baolis es el depósito de agua en los monumentos arquitectónicos que habían sido construidos por varios sultanato de Delhi en diferentes períodos de tiempo y la mayoría de Baolis fueron construidos durante el período de tiempo medieval. Los Baolis se encuentran en todo el país, pero todos son diferentes en lo que respecta al arte y la arquitectura. Los sultanatos de Delhi habían construido una serie de Baolis en Delhi para mostrar su control y prestigio en la sociedad. Hay alrededor de 12 Baolis existentes en Delhi y de ellos, cuatro Baolis están a punto de extinguirse y pocos Baolis como Nizamuddin, Firoz Shah y Rajon ki Baolis están siendo utilizados por la gente local. Este artículo comprende la información relacionada con Baolis que fue construida por sultanatos de Delhi durante el período de tiempo medieval en Delhi. El presente trabajo intenta describir el método tradicional de gestión del agua como Baolis en época medieval y su estado actual. El estudio se basa en fuentes primarias y secundarias de información y se realizó una encuesta primaria y personal y se han utilizado fuentes secundarias de datos e información en este documento. El artículo concluyó que Baolis no está teniendo buenas condiciones y estas están muy contaminadas y degradadas y su degradación también conduce a la pérdida ecológica hidrológica en sus áreas adyacentes. Los acercamientos descuidados de la gente hacia estos Baolis son causas principales detrás de la extinción y de la degradación de estos Baolis. La conciencia de la comunidad y la participación es la única manera de proteger a estos Baolis de la extinción. Palabras clave: Baolis; Arquitectónico; Monumento; Medieval; Degradación; Eco hidrología; Contaminación; Manejo.

  20. Five-year study of unidentified/unclaimed and unknown deaths brought for medicolegal autopsy at Premier Hospital in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Abhishek; Kumar, Adarsh; Swain, Rajanikanta; Gupta, Sudhir Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest city of the world both in terms of population and area, as well as being the capital of India. Every year, thousands of people from different states throng to the capital in search of a job in order to earn a living. When these people die and their bodies are found without any identifying documentation, it is very difficult for the police to establish their identities. These bodies are labelled as unidentified/unclaimed or unknown, and are sent for usually sent for medicolegal autopsy. Invariably, skeletonised bodies are also recovered, which are also subjected to medicolegal autopsy. Female foeticide is another social problem, and whenever such foetuses are disposed of illegally, they are also grouped under this category and brought for medicolegal autopsy. We undertook a five-year retrospective analysis (for the period 2010-2014) of all such cases brought for medicolegal autopsy at our centre, which caters only for the south and south-east districts of Delhi. A total of 7964 cases were brought for medicolegal autopsy, of which unknown cases accounted for about 16%. About 25-30 foetuses and skeletonised bodies were brought each year that was studied. The manner of death was certified as natural in about 71% of cases, with predominant pathology in the lungs. There was a clear predominance of males over females, with the 31- to 50-year age group accounting for half of all cases. There was an increase in the number of deaths during months of extreme temperatures. The average time between the recovery of a body by the police and the post-mortem was about seven days. These findings raise many questions, including the failure of governmental policies, police investigating agencies and social menace. The creation of a national missing-persons database as well as a DNA databank is needed to aid in the identification of unidentified/unclaimed and unknown bodies.

  1. Alineando uso energético, calidad del aire y cambio climático vía desarrollo sostenible: El caso de Delhi en India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Garg

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available La rápida industrialización y urbanización en India en la última década ha resultado en un alto consumo de combustibles fósiles, incremento en la emisión de gases de invernadero y deterioro de la calidad del aire. India ha emprendido varias iniciativas para resolver estos problemas como son nuevas políticas de combustibles de automóviles, medidas de uso eficiente de la energía, promoción del uso de recursos renovables, relocalización de industrias altamente contaminantes, uso de combustibles bajos en emisiones como el CNG en ciudades grandes, e introducción de redes de metro-ferrocarriles en mega-ciudades. El presente artículo resume los resultados de políticas adoptadas en Delhi que muestran los nexos entre calidad del aire y cambio climático teniendo como fuerza impulsora el desarrollo sostenible con énfasis en las dimensiones ambientales y sociales./ High consumption of fossil fuels, increased greenhouse gas emissions and deterioration of local air quality have resulted from rapid industrialization and urbanization in India in the last decade. India has taken many initiatives to address these problems such as new automobile fuel policies, energy efficiency measures, promotion of renewable energy use, relocation of highly polluting industries, enforcing use of low emission fuels like CNG for public transport in large cities, and introducing metro rail networks in megacities. This paper highlights results of adopted policies in Delhi showing relationships between air quality and climate change and having sustainable development as the driving force with focus on environmental and social dimensions.

  2. The Deployment of Clean Energy in Delhi in the Context of the Distrust of Urban Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerah, Marie-Helene; Kohler, Gautier

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the deployment of clean energy in Delhi and aims to understand how the interactions between technology, society and regulation promote or hinder an energy transition. Our assumption considers that the support or the resistance of urban society to this transition needs to be understood as a conflicting and democratic process toward the construction of new technical and social paradigms. The methodology of the article is based on an analysis of public policies as well as the practices of companies and users related to power sector reform in Delhi. Our analysis shows that the wait-and-see attitude of electricity companies and the resistance of households and even government institutions is explained as much by the lack of clarity of public policies and a desire to maintain low energy prices as it is in the deep diffidence in the legitimacy and competence of the political and bureaucratic elites defining the content of this transition

  3. Physical inactivity among college students is associated with living in hostels: a study from Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Khera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity figures as an important modifiable factor for non-communicable diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess physical activity among college students in East Delhi region of Delhi, India. Of a total 297 students, 58.2% had high physical activity, 27.9% had moderate while 13.8% had low activity level. Low physical activity was significantly more among the students aged <20 years (p=0.002 and among those residing in hostel (p<0.001. There was no significant difference by gender (p=0.40. Residing in hostel emerged as significant factor in multivariate analysis. Hostellers had significantly lesser physical activity compared to the day scholars in the transport domain (p=0.048 and recreational domain (p<0.001. Hostel residents emerged as a specific at-risk group for physical inactivity.

  4. Delhi: dynamique démographique et spatiale d'une grande métropole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Dupont

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available algré un fléchissement au cours des dernières décennies, le rythme de croissance démographique de Delhi depuis 1947 est remarquable pour une ville de cette taille. Cette dynamique globale recouvre une tendance au desserrement de la population, avec un dépeuplement du vieux centre historique et une croissance accélérée des zones périphériques. Cette croissance déborde les limites administratives du Territoire de Delhi. La migration, surtout depuis les États voisins, a joué un rôle majeur.

  5. Desirable factors for maintaining normal BMI of urban affluent women of Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Anu Taneja Gupta; Anupa Siddhu

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify desirable social, familial, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle factors for maintaining normal body mass index (BMI) of urban affluent women (25-45 years) in Delhi, India. A total of 387 urban affluent women with at least one living child participated in this cross-sectional study conducted from March 2008 to April 2010. Women were classified into four BMI categories on the basis of World Health Organization (WHO; 2004) classification for Asians. Significant facto...

  6. A retrospective study of clinico-pathological spectrum of carcinoma breast in a West Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh Nigam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the demographic profile of breast cancer patients from Delhi is scarce and whatever is available is from higher referral center. Our hospital caters to patients from an urban population of the lower socioeconomic strata and is a representation of cases at a tertiary care hospital in west Delhi. In Delhi, breast cancer (26.8% is commonest cancer among the female followed by cervix (12.5%, gallbladder (7.2%, ovary (7.1%, and uterus (3.3%. Aims and Objectives: A retrospective audit of breast cancer patients presenting at a tertiary referral center from 2004 to 2011. Materials and Methods: A total of 328 cases diagnosed as carcinoma breast on histopathology from year 2004 to 2011 were retrieved and studied retrospectively with regards to demographic profile and their histological features with estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and Her2neu status. Results: The median age of presentation was 49 years of age. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC, not otherwise specified (NOS was the commonest histopathological variant (81.40% followed by medullary carcinoma (10.36% and mucinous carcinoma (2.74%. Triple negative were found to be the commonest group comprising 39.4% of all the cases followed by ER and PR both positive. Pathological tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM staging showed most common group was T 2 N 0 M 0 ( 19.5% followed by T 2 N 1 M 0 (17.1% and T 2 N 2 M 0 (14%. Conclusion: The incidence of breast cancer in the India and include a higher incidence of ER, PR, and Her2neu negative disease in west Delhi.

  7. Estimation of vehicular emissions using dynamic emission factors: A case study of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dhirendra; Goyal, P.

    2014-12-01

    The estimation of vehicular emissions depends mainly on the values of emission factors, which are used for the development of a comprehensive emission inventory of vehicles. In this study the variations of emission factors as well as the emission rates have been studied in Delhi. The implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG), in the diesel and petrol, public vehicles in the year 2001 has changed the complete air quality scenario of Delhi. The dynamic emission factors of criteria pollutants viz. carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10) for all types of vehicles have been developed after, which are based on the several factors such as regulated emission limits, number of vehicle deterioration, vehicle increment, vehicle age etc. These emission factors are found to be decreased continuously throughout the study years 2003-2012. The International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model is used to estimate the emissions of criteria pollutants by utilizing a dataset available from field observations at different traffic intersections in Delhi. Thus the vehicular emissions, based on dynamic emission factors have been estimated for the years 2003-2012, which are found to be comparable with the monitored concentrations at different locations in Delhi. It is noticed that the total emissions of CO, NOx, and PM10 are increased by 45.63%, 68.88% and 17.92%, respectively up to the year 2012 and the emissions of NOx and PM10 are grown continuously with an annual average growth rate of 5.4% and 1.7% respectively.

  8. Pepsi and Coca Cola in Delhi, India: availability, price and sales.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, FC; Satija, A; Khurana, S; Singh, G; Ebrahim, S

    2010-01-01

    : India is experiencing increased consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks, consumption that may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. The aim of the study was to determine the availability, price and quantity sold of 'Pepsi' and 'Coca Cola' in their 'regular' and 'diet' forms in Delhi and London. : A questionnaire about the availability, price and quantity sold per day of both regular and diet Pepsi and Coca Cola was devised and piloted. Using this, a surv...

  9. Niobium quarter-wave cavity for the New Delhi booster linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Roy, A.; Potukuchi, P.N. [Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi (India)

    1997-09-01

    This paper reports the completion of development of a 97 Mhz niobium coaxial quarter-wave cavity to be used in a booster linac for the New Delhi 16UD pellatron electrostatic accelerator. A prototype cavity, which incorporates a niobium-bellows tuning device, has been completed and operated at 4.2 K at accelerating gradients above 4 MV/m for extended periods of time.

  10. Niobium quarter-wave cavity for the New Delhi booster linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Roy, A.; Potukuchi, P.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports the completion of development of a 97 Mhz niobium coaxial quarter-wave cavity to be used in a booster linac for the New Delhi 16UD pellatron electrostatic accelerator. A prototype cavity, which incorporates a niobium-bellows tuning device, has been completed and operated at 4.2 K at accelerating gradients above 4 MV/m for extended periods of time

  11. Prevalence of Hypertension and Determination of Its Risk Factors in Rural Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore, Jugal; Gupta, Neeru; Kohli, Charu; Kumar, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Hypertension is an important public health challenge in both economically developing and developed countries. It is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Data is available on hypertension in urban population but few studies are reported in rural areas. Materials and Methods. It was a community based cross-sectional study conducted in two rural areas in Delhi among 1005 subjects selected using systematic random sampling method. WHO STEPS approach was used to colle...

  12. Quantifying the effect of air quality control measures during the 2010 Commonwealth Games at Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, Gufran; Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin. D.; Mahajan, A. S.; Srinivas, R.; Ali, K.; Sahu, S. K.; Parkhi, N.; Surendran, D.; Trimbake, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the XIX Commonwealth Games (CWG-2010) were held in India for the first time at Delhi and involved 71 commonwealth nations and dependencies with more than 6000 athletes participating in 272 events. This was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in India and strict emission controls were imposed during the games in order to ensure improved air quality for the participating athletes as a significant portion of the population in Delhi is regularly exposed to elevated levels of pollution. The air quality control measures ranged from vehicular and traffic controls to relocation of factories and reduction of power plant emissions. In order to understand the effects of these policy induced control measures, a network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across different areas in Delhi under the Government of India's System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. Simultaneous measurements of aerosols, reactive trace gases (e.g. NOx, O3, CO) and meteorological parameters were made before, during and after CWG-2010. Contrary to expectations, the emission controls implemented were not sufficient to reduce the pollutants, instead in some cases, causing an increase. The measured pollutants regularly exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality limits over the games period. The reasons for this increase are attributed to an underestimation of the required control measures, which resulted in inadequate planning. The results indicate that any future air quality control measures need to be well planned and strictly imposed in order to improve the air quality in Delhi, which affects a large population and is deteriorating rapidly. Thus, the presence of systematic high resolution data and realistic emission inventories through networks such as SAFAR will be directly useful for the future.

  13. Environmental and comfort upgrading through lean technologies in informal settlements: Case study in Nairobi, Kenia and New Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Enrico; Tagliabue, Lavinia Chiara; Zecchini, Paolo; Milanesi, Mattia

    2016-07-01

    Informal settlements, namely slums (or bidonville or favelas) are one of the stronger challenge for urban context in developing countries. The increase of urban population leads to a widespread poverty and critical life conditions for a large segment of population, in particular in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a high percentage of people lives in informal settlements. The problems in slums are multiple: people suffer malnutrition and poor sanitation, flooding or drought, and live in shelters providing no thermal comfort in many days of the year, furthermore scarce and highly polluting energy sources are available. Climate change and an unavoidable heat island effect make these living conditions nearly catastrophic. This paper focuses on the main characters of these slums and on how to what promote the improvement of living conditions with a lean, low cost, low impact, feasible upgrading of the housing or more properly shelters. The subject of the analysis is the Mathare 4A Upgrading Programme in the city of Nairobi, Kenya, one of the highest slum-dwellers growing rate. The technological solutions applied in this context have been verified in a different climate condition such as the city of New Delhi, India where the phenomenon of the slums is significantly burdensome. The analysis of the comfort conditions inside a type housing has been carried out using hourly weather data and dynamic heat transfer simulation, without any HVAC system and striving only natural ventilation. Data about internal temperature and relative humidity conditions have been applied to evaluate the comfort hours using the Predicted Mean Vote method, the adaptive thermal comfort principles and the bioclimatic charts for the two climates in Nairobi and New Delhi. The percentage of hours within the comfort range and the amount of degree-hours exceeding comfort values showed for different upgrading strategies, how it is possible to deeply influence the living conditions by technological and

  14. A comparative study of air pollution in Indian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Gupta, H K; Gupta, K; Singh, P; Gupta, V B; Sharma, R C

    2007-05-01

    Rapid and unplanned industrialization and urbanization has resulted in the deterioration of India's air quality according to air-quality monitoring carried out in seven major Indian cities in industrial and residential areas between 1995 and 2000. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) levels in Indian cities are in the range 50 to 550 microg/m(3). NO(x) values are high in Delhi's residential areas, with values of 33 microg/m(3) in 1995 and 34.6 microg/m(3) in 2000, while in an industrial area values of 29.4 microg/m(3) were found in 1995, increasing to 33.7 microg/m(3) in 2000. SO(2) values are very high in Pune city, ranging from 43.3 microg/m(3) in residential to 43.69 microg/m(3) in an industrial area in 2000.

  15. Evolutionary Analysis of Dengue Serotype 2 Viruses Using Phylogenetic and Bayesian Methods from New Delhi, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Afreen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is the most important arboviral disease in the tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Delhi, the metropolitan capital state of India, has reported many dengue outbreaks, with the last outbreak occurring in 2013. We have recently reported predominance of dengue virus serotype 2 during 2011-2014 in Delhi. In the present study, we report molecular characterization and evolutionary analysis of dengue serotype 2 viruses which were detected in 2011-2014 in Delhi. Envelope genes of 42 DENV-2 strains were sequenced in the study. All DENV-2 strains grouped within the Cosmopolitan genotype and further clustered into three lineages; Lineage I, II and III. Lineage III replaced lineage I during dengue fever outbreak of 2013. Further, a novel mutation Thr404Ile was detected in the stem region of the envelope protein of a single DENV-2 strain in 2014. Nucleotide substitution rate and time to the most recent common ancestor were determined by molecular clock analysis using Bayesian methods. A change in effective population size of Indian DENV-2 viruses was investigated through Bayesian skyline plot. The study will be a vital road map for investigation of epidemiology and evolutionary pattern of dengue viruses in India.

  16. Impact Of IEC Intervention On Knowledge Regarding AIDS Amongst Senior Secondary School Children Of East Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhasin S. K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: 1. What is the level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS amongst school children in East Delhi? 2. What is the impact of IEC intervention on the level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS in these children? Objective: To find out the impact of IEC intervention on awareness regarding HIV/AIDS amongst senior secondary boys and girls in schools of East Delhi. Study design: Pre and post IEC interventional study. Settings: In four randomly selected senior secondary schools in East Delhi. Participants: 294 boys and 333 girls of class XI and XII in pre IEC group and 239 boys and 203 girls in post IEC group. Intervention: An IEC package of exhibition of posters, videotapes and intra group open discussion. Outcome variables: Proportion (prevalence of school children having correct knowledge of various aspects of HIV/AIDS after IEC intervention. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test. Results: IEC intervention significantly generated an enhancing effect on most aspects of their awareness towards HIV/AIDS among both boys and girls. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to impart health education for dispelling misconceptions regarding this disease.

  17. Evolutionary Analysis of Dengue Serotype 2 Viruses Using Phylogenetic and Bayesian Methods from New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afreen, Nazia; Naqvi, Irshad H; Broor, Shobha; Ahmed, Anwar; Kazim, Syed Naqui; Dohare, Ravins; Kumar, Manoj; Parveen, Shama

    2016-03-01

    Dengue fever is the most important arboviral disease in the tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Delhi, the metropolitan capital state of India, has reported many dengue outbreaks, with the last outbreak occurring in 2013. We have recently reported predominance of dengue virus serotype 2 during 2011-2014 in Delhi. In the present study, we report molecular characterization and evolutionary analysis of dengue serotype 2 viruses which were detected in 2011-2014 in Delhi. Envelope genes of 42 DENV-2 strains were sequenced in the study. All DENV-2 strains grouped within the Cosmopolitan genotype and further clustered into three lineages; Lineage I, II and III. Lineage III replaced lineage I during dengue fever outbreak of 2013. Further, a novel mutation Thr404Ile was detected in the stem region of the envelope protein of a single DENV-2 strain in 2014. Nucleotide substitution rate and time to the most recent common ancestor were determined by molecular clock analysis using Bayesian methods. A change in effective population size of Indian DENV-2 viruses was investigated through Bayesian skyline plot. The study will be a vital road map for investigation of epidemiology and evolutionary pattern of dengue viruses in India.

  18. Psychosocial Determinants of Tobacco Use among School Going Adolescents in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. Many psychosocial factors were found to influence tobacco use. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the role of psychosocial factors associated with tobacco use among school going adolescents in Delhi, India. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2013 to September 2013 in four government schools in South district of Delhi, India. The questionnaire contains questions adapted from GYTS (Global Youth Tobacco Survey to find the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results. The prevalence of ever and current tobacco use was found in 16.4% and 13.1%. Current smoking and current tobacco chewing were found in 10.2% and 9.4% students, respectively. The risk of current tobacco use was found to be higher among males (P value = 0.000 and in those who got higher pocket money (P value = 0.000. Psychosocial factors like lower general self-efficacy and maladjustments with peers, teachers, and schools were also found to be significant predictors of current tobacco use. Conclusion. The study has revealed higher prevalence of ever and current tobacco use among adolescent students in Delhi, India.

  19. NMT as Green Mobility Solution for First/Last Mile Connectivity to Mass Transit Stations for Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidambara Chidambara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the role of non-motorized transport (NMT as green mobility solutions in improving the last mile connectivity (LMC to mass transit systems. There are evidences of its growing significance, which is established through various international experiences, and case studies. The paper discusses transport policies for Indian cities with respect to LMC, NMT and transit systems and their interface. The paper also presents the empirical findings of a study on NMT usage as first/last mile options for a few metro stations in Delhi, India. It analyses metro user characteristics and choices for the selected stations with a lens on NMT usage for covering the last mile. It is observed that NMT comes out as the most preferred option for covering the first/last mile to transit systems, despite the challenging situations under which NMTs operate. The study further points out that the type of NMT mode availed by commuters varies with varying situational context and depends on locational and user attributes. It is interesting to note that while introduction of “bicycles on hire” worked very well at a particular station, the same had no takers at another. The paper contends that resorting to standard solutions for LMC may not be the right approach; rather it must be based on user and other contextual analysis. The paper concludes with outlining a holistic policy approach that treats NMT planning as a non-negotiable component of transit planning to achieve higher ridership (for the transit operator, better journey experience (for the commuter and larger sustainability goals.

  20. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  1. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  2. Community monitoring of the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme in the National Capital Region of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Juhi; Pandav, Chandrakant S; Karmarkar, Madhukar G; Nair, Sirimavo

    2011-05-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the current status of iodine-deficiency disorders (IDD) in the National Capital Region of Delhi (NCR Delhi) and evaluate the implementation and impact of the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP). Cross-sectional study. School-going children (n 1230) in the age group of 6-12 years were enrolled from thirty primary schools in the Municipal Corporation of Delhi. Thirty schools were selected using the probability-proportional-to-size cluster sampling methodology. In each identified school forty-one children were surveyed. Urine and salt samples were collected and studied for iodine concentration. A total of sixty salt samples from retail level were also collected. Schoolchildren aged 6-12 years. The median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was found to be 198·4 μg/l. The percentage of children with UIE levels of salt (salt with iodine levels of at least 15 ppm at consumption level) was 88·8%. The assessment of iodine content of salt revealed that only 6·1% of the families were consuming salt with iodine content less than 7 ppm. At retail level 88·3% of salt samples had >15 ppm iodine. Significant progress has been achieved towards elimination of IDD from NCR Delhi. There is a need for further strengthening of the system to monitor the quality of iodized salt provided to the beneficiaries under the universal salt iodization programme and so eliminate IDD from NCR Delhi.

  3. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...... emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social...... experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...

  4. Heavy metal levels, physicochemical properties and microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... out to assess the microbial, physicochemical and heavy metal characteristics of soil samples from five different waste collection sites within the University of Benin, Benin City and evaluated using standard analytical and classical microbiological methods.

  5. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  6. Universal access to DOTS in Delhi Prisons: Where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuria, Meera; Sharma, Nandini; Chopra, K K; Chandra, Shivani

    2016-01-01

    Universal access implies that all tuberculosis (TB) patients in the community should have access to early, good quality diagnosis and treatment services that are affordable and convenient to the patient in time, place, and person. To achieve universal access, all affected vulnerable and marginalized population like prison inmates should have access to TB diagnostic and treatment services. To assess the TB control activities in prisons of Delhi, the capital of India, and to suggest interventions for strengthening the program based on the observations. Study was conducted at Tihar Prison, Delhi. TB case notification data from the Revised National TB Control Program (RNTCP) between 2008 and 2012 and log process framework were used to assess various parameters. Mean number of patients initiated on TB treatment was 120.6 annually between 2008 and 2012. The RNTCP has been implemented in Delhi Prisons since 2002; however, gaps were identified in human resource, training needs, case finding, diagnostic and treatment services, and supervision on situational analysis. Coordination between prison authorities and RNTCP authorities in relation to initial screening and discharge process appeared to be weak. Because of the restricted access, vulnerability of the prison population, increase in drug-resistant TB, the TB control activities in the prison require restructuring. Initial screening for early diagnosis and treatment and "Discharge planning" needs to be devised so that there is sufficient time before release or transfer of individuals from prison. This needs strong commitment from the prison health authorities and RNTCP staff. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Compliance of Specific Provisions of Tobacco Control Law around Educational Institutions in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh; Swasticharan, Leimapokpam; Garg, Renu

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use is leading preventable cause of premature deaths. Sales of tobacco products within 100 yards of educational institutions (EIs) in India are restricted under Section 6 of Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA), 2003. This study accessed compliance of Section 6 of COTPA around EIs in Delhi. A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected 100 EIs from 6600 schools/colleges in Delhi. Activities related to Section 6 of COTPA around EIs, such as the sale of tobacco products within a radius of 100 yards, sale of tobacco products to and by minors, and existence of display boards prohibiting sale of tobacco products were observed using Global Positioning System (GPS)-enabled tablet computers preloaded with maps and Open Data Kit software. Data analysis was done using Epi Info version 7. Among the 100 EIs surveyed (53 government, 47 private), tobacco products were sold at 43 outlets within a radius of 100 yards of 27 EIs. No outlet had a display board prohibiting sale of tobacco products to minors. One outlet sold tobacco products to minors during the period of observation, but sale of tobacco products by minors was not observed. Only 38% of EIs displayed board prohibiting tobacco sales; private EIs were significantly less likely to display signs prohibiting tobacco sales than government EIs (45% vs. 81%; P < 0.001). Sale of tobacco products is common around EIs in Delhi. The use of simple technology provided quick results to policy-makers. Similar periodic surveys should help regulatory agencies to strictly enforce provisions of COTPA.

  8. Microbial effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, V.J.

    1985-10-01

    The long term safety and integrity of radioactive waste disposal sites proposed for use by Ontario Hydro may be affected by the release of radioactive gases. Microbes mediate the primary pathways of waste degradation and hence an assessment of their potential to produce gaseous end products from the breakdown of low level waste was performed. Due to a number of unknown variables, assumptions were made regarding environmental and waste conditions that controlled microbial activity; however, it was concluded that 14 C and 3 H would be produced, albeit over a long time scale of about 1500 years for 14 C in the worst case situation

  9. PAHs contamination in bank sediment of the Yamuna river, Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Tripti; Khillare, P S; Shridhar, Vijay

    2006-12-01

    This study was performed to elucidate the distribution, concentration trend and possible sources of PAHs in bank sediment of river Yamuna in Delhi, India. The levels of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in the sediment fraction Tax Office (ITO) was found to be the hotspot attaining highest concentration. Predominance of 2-4 ring PAHs suggests a relatively recent local sources of PAHs in the study area. Moreover, molecular indices based source apportionment also illustrates pyrogenic source fingerprint of PAHs. No significant temporal trend was observed.

  10. Corrosion resistance of the Delhi iron pillar-Scale characterisation and passive film growth models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Dillmann, P.

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of the Delhi pillar iron has been reviewed. The corrosion products on several ancient Indian irons have been characterised. The role of entrapped slag particles in aiding passive film formation in ancient Indian iron has been analysed by mixed potential theory. The protective rust formation process has been elucidated and possible models proposed. After an initial period of high corrosion rate, the initial corrosion resistance is conferred by the formation of protective amorphous compact layer of δ-FeOOH. The corrosion rate is further lowered by the formation of phosphates and their phase transformations. (authors)

  11. Status of the first batch of niobium resonator production for the New Delhi booster linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potukuchi, P. N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the status and details of the costs of construction of niobium superconducting resonant cavities for a linear accelerator, presently being built as a booster for the 15 UD tandem Pelletron accelerator at the Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi. The linear accelerator will have three cryostat modules, each holding eight quarter-wave resonators. Construction of a batch of ten resonators for the linac started at Argonne National Laboratory in May 1997. For production, all fabrication and all electron beam welding is being done through commercial vendors. Details of construction and present status of the project are presented

  12. Uranium exploration in albitised rocks of North Delhi Fold Belt in Rajasthan and Haryana, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, P.; Khandelwal, M.; Bhairam, C.; Parihar, P.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium deposits in Na-metasomatised granites and metasediments are reported from several places in the world. In India, uranium mineralization associated with soda metasomatic activity has been recognized at a number of places in North Delhi Fold Belt (NDFB) in Rajasthan and adjoining Haryana. Exploration activities for uranium in Khetri Sub Basin (KSB) of North Delhi Fold Belt (NDFB) in last six decades have resulted in locating number of uranium occurrences in the albitites and albitised metasediments at Sior, Siswali, Maonda, Hurra ki Dhani, Diara, Saladipura, Khandela, Rohil, Ghateshwar, Bichun, Sakhun, Ladera and Chota Udaipur in parts of Rajasthan and Dhancholi, Raghunathpura, Rambas and Gorir, in parts of Haryana. Incidentally, the occurrences fall along a NNE-SSW trending “Albitite line”, which comprises a 170 km long, structurally weak zone/lineament and axial trace of major folds in the KSB extending from Raghunathpura in Mahendragarh district of southern Haryana to Ladera-Sakun-Bichun in Rajasthan. Lithounits of KSB comprise lower Alwar Group consisting quartzite, amphibole quartzite, subordinate phyllite and schist and upper Ajabgarh Group consisting schist, phyllite, marble, quartzite and carbon phyllite. The post-Delhi magmatic activity in NDFB is represented by alkali granites, pegmatites, aplites and albitites. The rocks of Delhi supergroup have undergone low to medium grade metamorphism (amphibolite facies) and polyphase deformation. First two deformations with N-S to NNE-SSW axial plane are coaxial while the third phase have E-W axial plane. Prominent shear zones are developed along the N-S to NNE-SSW axial planes, characterized by intense silicification, brecciation and ferruginisation. The NE-SW trending disposition of albitised granites indicate that the metasomatic fluids originated during reactivation of the NE-SW trending Khetri lineament, caused pervasive albitisation of the preexisting rocks, the deformed lithounits providing conduits

  13. Cutaneous Involvement in Acute Meningococcemia (Study of an Epidemic in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Ramesh

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty (88.2% out of 34 children with skin lesions were observed during the recent epidemic of meningococcus group A infection in Delhi. Purpuric lesions were the commonest (60%, maculo-papular in 26-67% and faint pink macules′m 13.33% Conjunctivae were affected m 3. These eruptions appeared within 6 hours: ulcers and gangrene appeared after 7 days in one child. Severe vascular damage was seen on histoplthology of the ulcers as compared to the early lesions. Gangrene of the extremities developed during the recovery phase when all other signs of the disease had subsided.

  14. Microbial Ecosystems, Protection of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Conservation of microbial diversity and ecosystem functions provided by microbes; Preservation of microbial diversity and ecosystem functions provided by microbes Definition The use, management, and conservation of ecosystems in order to preserve microbial diversity and functioning.

  15. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid...

  16. Vatican City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Vatican City, the administrative and spiritual capital of the Roman catholic Church, has a population of 1000. Citizenship is generally accorded only to those who reside in Vatican City for reasons of office of employment. Supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power is currentily exercised by Pope John Paul II, the 1st non-italian pope in 5 centuries. The State of Vatican City is recognized by many nations as an independent sovereign state under the temporal jurisdiction of the Pope. By 1984, 108 countries had established diplomatic relations with the Holy See, most of which are not Roman Catholic. Third World countries comprise a large proportion of countries that have recently established relations with the Holy See. The US re-established relations with the Vatican in 1984 and there is frequent contact and consultation between the 2 states on key international issues.

  17. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... to both central and new peripheral areas. This paper reports on studies carried out in Accra and Dar es Salaam to address and link 1) mobility practices of residents, 2) local strategies for ‘post-settlement’ network extension, and 3) the city-wide performance of the transport system. The studies draw...... in advance. However, such solutions are often impeded by costly and cumbersome land-acquisition processes, and because of the reactive and often piecemeal approach to infrastructure extensions, the development will often be more costly. Moreover, the lack of compliance to a city-wide development plan...

  18. On-road assessment of light duty vehicles in Delhi city: Emission factors of CO, CO2 and NOX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiprakash; Habib, Gazala

    2018-02-01

    This study presents the technology based emission factors of gaseous pollutants (CO, CO2, and NOX) measured during on-road operation of nine passenger cars of diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas (CNG). The emissions from two 3-wheelers, and three 2-wheelers were measured by putting the vehicles on jacks and operating them according to Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) at no load condition. The emission factors observed in the present work were significantly higher than values reported from dynamometer study by Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI). Low CO (0.34 ± 0.08 g km-1) and high NOX (1.0 ± 0.4 g km-1) emission factors were observed for diesel passenger cars, oppositely high CO (2.2 ± 2.6 g km-1) and low NOX (1.0 ± 1.6 g km-1) emission factors were seen for gasoline powered cars. The after-treatment technology in diesel vehicles was effective in CO reduction. While the use of turbocharger in diesel vehicles to generate high combustion temperature and pressure produces more NOx, probably which may not be effectively controlled by after-treatment device. The after-treatment devices in gasoline powered Post-2010, Post-2005 vehicles can be acclaimed for reduced CO emissions compared to Post-2000 vehicles. This work presents a limited data set of emission factors from on-road operations of light duty vehicles, this limitation can be improved by further measurements of emissions from similar vehicles.

  19. Cardiovascular risk behavior among students of a Medical College in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rustagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life style related behavioural risk factors are mainly implicated for increased burden of cardio- vascular diseases. Research related to these risk behaviours especially among medical students is essential, considering their role as future physicians and role models in public health intervention programmes. Objective: To evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk behaviours among students of a medical college of Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among undergraduate medical students of a medical college in Delhi. Self administered questionnaire was used to collect information on identification data and risk behaviours in relation to cardiovascular diseases. Binary logistic regression analysis was done to calculate adjusted odds ratio to assess association between risk behaviours and covariates. Results: The minimum recommendation of taking at least five servings per day of fruits and vegetables was complied only by 12% of students. Consumption of carbonated soft drinks either once or more on daily basis was present in 23.7% students and 32.0% reported frequent consumption of fast foods in past week. Consumption of alcohol was present in 28.8% students but only small proportion of students (7% was current tobacco users. Large proportions of students (42.6% were either not carrying out or were involved in only occasional physical activity in past week. Conclusions: Unhealthy behavioural practises are present and may progress as student advance through medical college. Developing strategies targeting at these risk behaviours and determining factors is necessary to promote healthy life style among medical students.

  20. Low back pain and associated risk factors among undergraduate students of a medical college in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Nupur; Anand, Tanu; Kishore, Jugal; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is the most common orthopedic problem worldwide and is known to affect both younger and older adults. The stressful and time consuming curriculum of medical students predisposes them to this problem. Few statistics are available on prevalence rates of LBP among medical students in India. This study assesses the prevalence and risk factors of LBP in students of a medical college in Delhi. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a medical college in Delhi. The study subjects (n = 160; 100% participation) were selected via stratified random sampling from all undergraduate medical students (aged 17-25 years). A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data. The overall prevalence of LBP among the students over the past one year was 47.5% (n = 76) with a prevalence of 32.5% at the time of data collection. Prevalence among males and females was 45.3% and 50%, respectively. Significant associations were found between LBP in the past year and coffee drinking (Regular = 57%, Occasional = 38.9%, Never = 65.2%, χ2 = 7.24, P= 0.02), body posture (Normal = 32.6%, Abnormal = 75%, χ2 = 18.97, P students and its association with poor study habits, lifestyle habits, and psychological factors highlight a need for life skills training, education, counseling, and restructuring of the medical curriculum.

  1. Seasonal variability of aerosols and their characteristics in urban and rural locations of Delhi-NCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Purnima; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Krishan; Jain, V. K.

    2017-10-01

    Present study shows the seasonal variation of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and aerosols characteristics in an urban and rural environment over Delhi-NCR. Aerosol sampling was carried out using a Mini-Volume sampler at an urban and rural location in Delhi-NCR. A relatively higher PM2.5 (particulate matter of size agglomerate (soot) in urban area whereas the rural area was relatively clean. The winter season SEM results showed the presence of aggregates of smaller particles at urban site whereas flaky, round and irregular shaped particles were observed at the rural site. EDX analysis showed the presence of elements such as C, Cu, Zn, Ga and Fe (representative elements) in varying concentrations at both the urban and rural sampling locations. NASA's Aqua satellite MODIS sensor AOD data for summer and winter seasons have been used to study the spatial distributions of aerosols over the study region. AOD was found to be relatively higher in urban area as compared to the rural area in both the summer and winter seasons indicating the contribution of high amount of anthropogenic aerosols in the urban atmosphere.

  2. Prevalence of anemia amongst overweight and obese children in NCT of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kapil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anemia amongst children has been associated with impaired cognitive functions, developmental delays, behavioral and learning disturbances. Young children from high-income groups could be also being affected from anemia. Objective: To assess the prevalence of anemia amongst overweight and obese children in the age group of 5-18 years residing in National Capital Territory (NCT of Delhi. Material and Methods: Total of 413 children was included in the present study. The hemoglobin (Hb estimation was done by cyanmethemoglobin method. Results: In the age group of 5-11 years, the prevalence of anemia amongst overweight and obese children was found to be 38.4% and 29.2%. And in the age group of 12-18 years, the prevalence of anemia amongst overweight and obese children was found to be 33.3% and 21.7%; respectively. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed that there is a high prevalence of anemia amongst overweight and obese children in the age group of 5-18 years in NCT, Delhi.

  3. Seroprevalence and incidence of rubella in and around Delhi (1988-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhoke I

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD has been engaged in rubella testing for serodiagnosis of the infection and screening for immunity status. The compiled and evaluated data of the work done on rubella testing for the past fifteen years has been presented here to show the trend and changing scenario of the disease in Delhi. Blood samples were from 7424 patients referred to NICD, Delhi for serodiagnosis of congenital Rubella s yndrome (CRS in malformed babies, in utero rubella infection in women and immunity status of pregnant women and women with bad obstetric history. They were tested for rubella IgG and/or rubella IgM antibodies using commercially available reagents and kits. The data from the 15 years of testing was then compiled and evaluated. From the available data it was seen that immunity status against rubella in childbearing age group of women increased steadily from 49% in 1988 to 87% in 2002. Reported cases of CRS at NICD are also on the decline over the time period. There is periodic indication of high incidence of rubella in the year 1988; 1991and 1998 as the reported cases of acute rubella infection in childbearing age group is high during these years.

  4. The emotional labour of former street children working as tourist guides in Delhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Tore Elias Harsløf Mukherjee

    2018-01-01

    In Delhi, India, former street children guide visiting tourists around the streets that they used to inhabit, and show how the NGO they work for try to resocialise current street children. The article analyses how the guides shape and co-perform their ‘personal stories’ with the tourists on these......In Delhi, India, former street children guide visiting tourists around the streets that they used to inhabit, and show how the NGO they work for try to resocialise current street children. The article analyses how the guides shape and co-perform their ‘personal stories’ with the tourists......’ performances thereby produce a comfortable space, where the transference of emotions and capital is made uncomplicated. Interviews with the guides reveal, however, that it is also in the interest of the guides to create such a space, because it allows them the opportunity to set boundaries for their own...... emotional involvement, in the performance of their past suffering. The guides are thus incentivised to work within a neoliberal logic where they are situated as emotional labourers selling their stories as commodities, and these stories then crate an incentive for the tourists to act as consumers, who have...

  5. Emergence of multiple drug resistance Vibrio cholerae O1 in East Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shukla; Choudhry, Shilpee; Saha, Rumpa; Ramachandran, Vishnampettai G; Kaur, Kamaldeep; Sarkar, B L

    2011-04-26

    Considering the changing geographical and temporal occurrence of Vibrio cholerae, there is a continuing need to monitor the strain characteristics and antibiotic resistance patterns of this pathogen. The present study was conducted to document the changing biology of V. cholerae isolates in and around Delhi, India, and the development of antibiotic resistance. A total of 1,424 stool samples or rectal swabs from patients with acute secretory diarrhoea admitted to Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, between January 2007 and December 2009 were processed using standard bacteriological methods. Strains identified as V. cholerae were further subjected to serogrouping, phage typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of gentamicin and tetracycline was determined. V. cholerae was isolated in 242/1,424 (17.0%) specimens. Of these, the majority were V. cholerae O1 serotype (98.3%) and serovar Ogawa. The drugs to which V. cholerae O1 isolates showed high levels of resistance were nalidixic acid, furazolidone, and cotrimoxazole throughout the study period, whereas strains were usually susceptible to chloramphenicol and cefotaxime. In 2007, there was a sudden increase of resistance to gentamicin and tetracycline, followed by a slow reversal to previous levels in subsequent years. The phage typing pattern (Basu and Mukherjee scheme) showed a dominance of phage type 2 throughout the study period. The importance of reporting all cases of V. cholerae, should be greatly emphasized, with the ultimate goal of understanding the constantly changing resistance patterns of this pathogen.

  6. Trend of antibiotic resistance of Vibrio cholerae strains from East Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shukla; Saha, Rumpa; Kaur, Iqbal R

    2008-05-01

    Epidemics of cholera caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 (Bengal strain) represent a major public health problem in most developing countries. In view of the reported shift in epidemiology and pattern of antibiotic resistance in this was study carried out to assess the development of resistance to essential drugs like fluoroquinolones during treatment of cholera and cholera like cases in Delhi. Faecal specimens collected from 1184 patients with cholera and cholera like illness between 2001-2006 admitted to Guru Teg Bahadur hospital, East Delhi were subjected to culture isolation. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of V. cholerae isolates was done by disc diffusion method. Of the 1184 faecal samples examined, 670 (56.6%) were positive for V. cholera from 2001- 2006. V. cholerae El Tor Ogawa (54.6%) was more common than serotype Inaba (32.5%). During 2004-2006 V. cholerae Inaba emerged as the predominant serotype. Resistance to nalidixic acid, furazolidone and co-trimoxazole was constantly high (100%). Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) V. cholerae O1 Inaba isolates exhibited increased resistance to ciprofloxacin with MIC >4 microg/ml, but largely all remained susceptible to other antibiotics like, gentamicin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. V. cholerae have a permanent existence in the environment and during the quiescent period, their survival in water bodies allows dissipation of resistance patterns to different serotypes or strains of V. cholerae O1 and therefore there is need for constant observation.

  7. Prevalence of Hypertension and Determination of Its Risk Factors in Rural Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugal Kishore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hypertension is an important public health challenge in both economically developing and developed countries. It is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Data is available on hypertension in urban population but few studies are reported in rural areas. Materials and Methods. It was a community based cross-sectional study conducted in two rural areas in Delhi among 1005 subjects selected using systematic random sampling method. WHO STEPS approach was used to collect data. Blood pressure, body mass index, and blood sugar were measured. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Odds of hypertension among subjects with risk factors were calculated. p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results. The prevalence of hypertension was 14.1% among study subjects. Hypertension was significantly higher in individuals more than 35 years than those less than 35 years. Hypertension was significantly higher in those who take alcohol and in subjects with raised total cholesterol level but in multivariate analysis only age, education, and cholesterol levels were independently associated with hypertension. Conclusion. There is significant burden of hypertension in rural areas in Delhi. Age, education, and cholesterol levels were independent risk factors of hypertension.

  8. Deuterium and oxygen-18 studies in groundwater of the Delhi area, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Brijraj K.; Kakar, Y. P.; Moser, H.; Stichler, W.

    1988-03-01

    Groundwater in the Delhi area occurs under different hydrogeological conditions: west of the Delhi Ridge, closed basin of Chattarpur, between the Ridge and the Yamuna River and east of the Yamuna River with depth to the water table ranging from 1.53 to 19.12m below ground level. A comparison of isotopic data of groundwater with that of rainfall (during the period 1961-1978) indicates that groundwater in all the subbasins and at different depths is of meteoric origin having undergone direct evaporation and is genetically similar. Deviation of the points from the meteoric line on a D- 18O diagram is attributed to evaporation from falling rain drops and retardation in infiltration rate of rainwater, the latter due to the predominance of clayey soils at several places. The present study has shown that the major sources of high salinity are high rate of evaporation, recycling of irrigation water, and re-solution of precipitated minerals by monsoon recharge along with nonflushing of deeper waters. This is contrary to the findings of earlier workers who proposed that the high salinity of groundwater is related to marine origin and/or fallout of airborne salts from the Arabian Sea.

  9. A Study of Emotional Intelligence Among Postgraduate Medical Students in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Rajkrishna; Rajoura, O P; Sharma, Rahul; Bhatia, Manjeet S

    2017-01-22

    The importance of emotional intelligence (EI) in the successful practice of medicine has been well established. However, efforts to study the same in India, especially in doctors and medical students, are lacking. This study has measured the emotional intelligence of postgraduate medical students in Delhi and aimed to identify some of the factors affecting it. A cross-sectional analytical study, using the Schutte's Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test, to measure the EI of 200 postgraduate medical students of two medical colleges in Delhi. Students working in clinical specialties were selected randomly and contacted by the first author. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The mean scores of EI among the study participants was 124.4 with a standard deviation of 12.8. The total scores possible in the scale range from 33 to 165, with higher scores representing higher EI. The age of the participants was positively associated with emotional intelligence (r = 0.187, p = 0.008). EI was also found to decrease with the increase in total workload (p=0.013), having night duty hours (p = 0.019), and having emergency duty (p = 0.037).   Conclusions: More studies to measure the EI of doctors, the factors affecting it, and possible measures to improve it, are needed. The workload of the resident doctors needs to be assessed with appropriate changes made in the total work done and the quality of work done.

  10. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance......The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...

  11. Vacant city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Marzot

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if  not recognized by any instrument. It is the Vacant city, magmatic, formless, pervasive and widespread, marginal and interstitial. Its spaces express, in their programmatic essence, those conditions of re-colonization of the territory intended to minimum investment  of financial capital and maximum return in terms of social value as a result of a transformation. 

  12. Key drivers of the e-waste recycling system: Assessing and modelling e-waste processing in the informal sector in Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streicher-Porte, Martin; Widmer, Rolf; Jain, Amit; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth; Kytzia, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    The management and recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment WEEE was assessed in the city of Delhi, India. In order to do this, the personal computer was defined as the tracer for which a model was designed. The model depicts the entire life cycle of the tracer, from production through sale and consumption-including reuse and refurbishment-to the material recovery in the mainly informal recycling industry. The field work included interviews with the relevant stakeholders, transect walks and literature study, which was followed by a software-supported material flow analysis (MFA) of the whole life cycle chain of the tracer item. In addition to the MFA, several economic aspects of the recycling system were investigated. The study revealed that the life span of a personal computer has considerable influence upon the system, most notably in the following two aspects: (i) a prolonged life span creates value by means of refurbishing and upgrading activities, and (ii) it slows down the flow rate of the whole system. This is one of the simplest ways of preventing an uncontrolled increase in environmentally hazardous emissions by the recycling sector. The material recovery of the system is mainly driven by the precious metal content of personal computers. A first estimate showed that precious metal recovery contributes to over 80% of the personal computer materials' market value, despite the small quantity of them found in computers

  13. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  14. INAA of toxic heavy metals in solid wastes from Indian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.N.; Ramakrishna, V.V.S.; Singh, V.

    1997-01-01

    Solid wastes and sewage sludges in metropolitan cities are potential health hazards due to toxic heavy metal pollutants. Sewage sludges from six Indian cities viz., Ahmedabad, Bikaner, Bombay, Calcutta, Jaipur, Kanpur and solid wastes from six different disposal sites of the capital city of Delhi have been analyzed for 26 elements (As, Au, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th and Zn) by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Sewage sludges from Bombay after different treatments (settled, digested, aerobic, anaerobic) along with several environmental SRMs were also analyzed. An attempt has been made to attribute the pollutant sources to the degree of urbanisation and industrialization of the city. Role of treatment processes in the removal/retention of heavy metals is discussed. (author)

  15. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  16. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  17. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    with their relatively concrete dimensions are absent when the main question is one of values. Furthermore, when  the relatively straightforward identification and power structures of corporations and consumers are replaced by the more diversified structures of city government, their poplulations, and potential visitors...

  18. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult......This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... and cultural experience are emerging. The physical, cultural and democratic consequences of this development are discussed in the paper, which concludes with a presentation of a new field of research that highlights the problems and the new opportunities with which "the experience city" is faced. Special...... attention is put on a new research project called "Experience City - hybrid cultural projects and performative urban spaces". The thesis and research themes are presented and related to the general framework of present cultural planning and post industrial urban transformation....

  19. Vacant city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzot, N.

    2013-01-01

    Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if not recognized by any

  20. An integrated hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach to study groundwater Salinization in the overexploited aquifers of Indo-Gangetic Plain, a part of NCR Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, R.

    2017-12-01

    roundwater resources in arid and semi-arid areas are highly vulnerable to salinity problems. Inadequate availability of surface water supply, vagaries of mansoonal rainfall and overexploitation due to population pressure and rapid landuse change induced decline in groundwater levels and salinization has been observed in many Asian cities. After green revolution, large part of Indo-Gangetic plain groundwater salinization has been reported. One such region is National Capital Region, Delhi- India's largest and the world's second largest agglomeration of people and economic hub of Northern India. The present study includes National capital territory, Delhi, Gurgaon and Faridabad. In the present study, different graphical plots, Piper plot, saturation index values (using PHREEQC), stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) and GIS is used to create the database for analysis of spatial variation in respective water quality parameters as well as to decipher the hydrogeochemical process occurring in the area. Major ions are analysed to describe the composition and distribution of salinization and dissolution/precipitation dynamics. It was observed that groundwater weathering is governed by carbonate and silicate weathering and reverse ion-exchange, however due to semi-arid climate evaporation is also playing a major role in groundwater chemistry and salinity of the area. δ18O and δD regression line of groundwater samples of the study area is below the LMWL also suggest from non-equilibrium fractionation during evaporation. Large lateral variation in chloride concentration indicates impact of evapotranspiration rate during recharge. Most of water facies are of Na-Cl. Stable isotope (δ18O and δD) analysis helps to identify evaporation and to better understand recharge processes and mixing dynamics in the study region. Limited availability of surface water supply, no pricing exists for groundwater extraction has resulted in a widespread decline in the water table and intermixing of

  1. Meteorologically-adjusted trend analysis of surface observed ozone at three monitoring sites in Delhi, India: 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, J.; Farooqui, Z.; Guttikunda, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that meteorological parameters have significant impact on surface ozone concentrations. Therefore it is important to remove the effects of meteorology on ozone concentrations to correctly estimate long-term trends in ozone levels due to the alterations in precursor emissions. This is important for the development of effectual control strategies. In this study surface observed ozone trends in New Delhi are analyzed using Komogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter, US EPA ozone adjustment due to weather approach and the classification and regression tree method. The statistical models are applied to the ozone data at three observational sites in New Delhi metropolitan areas, 1) Income Tax Office (ITO) 2) Sirifort and 3) Delhi College of Engineering (DCE). The ITO site is located adjacent to a traffic crossing, Sirifort is an urban site and the DCE site is located in a residential area. The ITO site is also influenced by local industrial emissions. DCE has higher ozone levels than the other two sites. It was found that ITO has lowest ozone concentrations amongst the three sites due to ozone titrating due to industrial and on-road mobile NOx emissions. The statistical methods employed can assess ozone trends at these sites with a high degree of confidence and the results can be used to gauge the effectiveness of control strategies on surface ozone levels in New Delhi.

  2. New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 Escherichia coli isolated from household vacuum cleaner—Oregon, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve L. Buser

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The first Oregon case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1-producing Escherichia coli was reported during November 2013. Epidemiologic investigation revealed only local outpatient medical care and no travel outside Oregon for both the patient and his household contact. Environmental sampling discovered a matching isolate from the patient’s household vacuum cleaner, suggesting environmental persistence.

  3. Quality of life, depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation among men who inject drugs in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental disorders such as depression, anxiety and suicide represent an important public health problem in India. Elsewhere in the world a high prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders have been found among people who inject drugs (PWID). Research in India has largely overlooked symptoms of common mental disorders among this high risk group. This paper reports on the results of a survey examining quality of life, depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation among adult males who inject drugs living in Delhi. Methods Participants (n = 420) were recruited from needle and syringe programs using time location sampling and were interviewed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Self-report symptom scales were used to measure the severity of symptoms of depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-2) within the preceding 2 weeks. We assessed the presence of suicidal thoughts and attempts within the past 12 months. Results The mean length of injecting career was 20.9 years indicating a sample of chronic injecting drug users, of whom only one-third (38%) were born in Delhi. The level of illiteracy was very high (62%), and just 2% had completed class 12. Scavenging / rag picking was the main form of income for 48%, and many were homeless (69%). One-third (33%) had been beaten up at least twice during the preceding 6 months, and many either never (45%) or rarely (27%) attended family events. We found a high prevalence of depressive (84%, cut-off ≥10) and anxiety (71%, cut-off score of ≥3) symptoms. Fifty-three percent thought about killing themselves in the past 12 months, and 36% had attempted to kill themselves. Conclusions Our findings revealed a socially excluded population of PWID in Delhi who have minimal education and are often homeless, leaving them vulnerable to physical violence, poverty, poor health, imprisonment and disconnection from family. The high prevalence of psychological distress found in this study has implications for

  4. Implementation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme through private hospitals of Delhi--policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Garg, C R; Joshi, B C; Rawat, N; Dabla, V; Gupta, A

    2015-01-01

    In India, programme for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is primarily implemented through public health system. State AIDS Control Societies (SACSs) encourage private hospitals to set up integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTCs). However, private hospitals of Delhi did not set up ICTCs. Consequently, there is no information on PMTCT interventions in private hospitals of Delhi. This study was undertaken by Delhi SACS during March 2013 through September 2013 to assess status of implementation of PMTCT programme in various private hospitals of Delhi to assist programme managers in framing national policy to facilitate uniform implementation of National PMTCT guidelines. Out of total 575 private hospitals registered with Government of Delhi, 336 (58.4%) catering to pregnant women were identified. About 100 private hospitals with facility of antenatal care, vaginal/caesarean delivery and postnatal care and minimum 10 indoor beds were selected for study. Study sample comprised of large corporate hospitals (≥100 beds; n = 29), medium-sized hospitals (25 to Policy, HIV testing was done without pre/post-test counselling/or consent of women, no PMTCT protocol existed, delivery of HIV-positive women was not undertaken and no efforts were made to link HIV-positive women to antiretroviral treatment. Major intervention observed was medical termination of pregnancy, which indicates lack of awareness in private hospitals about available interventions under national programme. The role of private hospitals in management of HIV in pregnant women must be recognized and mainstreamed in HIV control efforts. There is an urgent need for capacity building of private health care providers to improve standards of practice. National AIDS Control Organization may consider establishing linkages or adopting model developed by some countries with generalized epidemic for delivering PMTCT services in private health sector.

  5. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  6. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Solutions of sharing that seeks to improve our cities and local communities in both urban and rural environments. 24 sharing economy organisations and businesses addressing urban and rural issues are being portrayed and seven Danish municipalities that have explored the potentials of sharing economy....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  7. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. Objective: To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh, Bengaluru (Karnataka, Chennai (Tamil Nadu, Kolkata (West Bengal, Hyderabad (Telangana, Nasik (Maharashtra, Rohtak (Haryana, Pune (Maharashtra, New Delhi (Delhi, Srinagar (Kashmir, and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. Results: We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388, using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613, whereas 40% (n = 155 of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%, majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country.

  8. Solar cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roaf, S.; Fuentes, M.; Gupta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, climate change has moved from being the concern of few to a widely recognized threat to humanity itself and the natural environment. The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, and ever-increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), could, if left unchecked lead to serious consequences globally, including increased risks of droughts, floods and storms, disruption to agriculture, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has been recognized as the principal cause of the atmospheric changes that drive these climate trends. Globally, buildings are the largest source of indirect carbon emissions. In 2000, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution estimated that in order to stabilise carbon emissions at levels, which avoid catastrophic alterations in the climate, we would have to reduce emissions from the built environment by at least 60% by 2050 and 80% by 2100 relative to 1997 levels. Studies of the Oxford Ecohouse have demonstrated that it is not difficult to reduce carbon emissions from houses by 60% or more through energy efficiency measures, but it is only possible to reach the 90% level of reductions required by using renewable energy technologies. Solar energy technologies have been the most successfully applied of all renewable to date largely because they are the only systems that can be incorporated easily into the urban fabric. In addition, the short fossil fuel horizons that are predicted (c. 40 years left for oil and 65 years for gas) will drive the markets for solar technologies. For these reasons, the cities of the future will be powered by solar energy, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the city form and location. In recognition of the need to move rapidly towards a renewable energy future, a group of international cities, including Oxford, have started the Solar City Network. In this paper we outline the

  9. Reproductive Ethics in Commercial Surrogacy: Decision-Making in IVF Clinics in New Delhi, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi

    2015-01-01

    As a neo-liberal economy, India has become one of the new health tourism destinations, with Commercial gestational surrogacy as an expanding market. Yet the Indian Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Bill has been pending for five years, and the guidelines issued by the Indian Council of Medical...... Research are somewhat vague and contradictory, resulting in self-regulated practices of fertility clinics. This paper broadly looks at clinical ethics in reproduction in the practice of surrogacy and decision-making in various procedures. Through empirical research in New Delhi, the capital of India, from...... success rates, surrogates faced the risk of multiple pregnancy and fetal reduction with little information regarding the risks involved. In the globalized market of Commercial surrogacy in India, and with clinics compromising on ethics, there is an urgent need for formulation of regulative law...

  10. Respiratory symptoms and their determinants among adult women in an urban slum area of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Arora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, respiratory disorders accounted for 7.4% deaths, out of total deaths during the year 2015. Aim & Objective: - To estimate the magnitude of respiratory symptoms and their determinants in adult women of 18-59 years. Material & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 500 women of 18-59 years in an urban slum of Delhi. Assessment of respiratory symptoms was done using questionnaire and observations on environmental conditions. Results: Overall prevalence of major respiratory symptoms was 24.8% in the study population. Dyspnea, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, wheeze was observed in 14.2%, 5.6%, 2.4% and 2.6% respectively.

  11. A Novel Strain of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus Has Spread to the Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Fortes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV is a whitefly-transmitted bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae that causes damage to multiple cultivated plant species mainly belonging to the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae families. ToLCNDV was limited to Asian countries until 2012, when it was first reported in Spain, causing severe epidemics in cucurbit crops. Here, we show that a genetically-uniform ToLCNDV population is present in Spain, compatible with a recent introduction. Analyses of ToLCNDV isolates reported from other parts of the world indicated that this virus has a highly heterogeneous population genetically with no evident geographical, plant host or year-based phylogenetic groups observed. Isolates emerging in Spain belong to a strain that seems to have evolved by recombination. Isolates of this strain seem adapted to infecting cucurbits, but poorly infect tomatoes.

  12. New Delhi Metallo-Β-Lactamase-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriacae Isolated From Bronchial Washings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullivan, S

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of Carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriacae species is increasing and poses a potential major public health risk. In recent years, several new carbapenemases have been identified, including New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM). A 78-year-old non-smoking female with prior medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and prior coronary artery bypass grafting was referred to our respiratory outpatient service for evaluation of a chronic cough and dyspnoea in 2013. Clinical examination revealed bibasal pulmonary crepitations but was otherwise unremarkable. Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated atelectasis of the lingula and right middle lobe. She underwent bronchoscopy, which demonstrated laryngeal mucosa inflammation, consistent with her GERD. There was no growth on bacterial, fungal or mycobacterial bronchial washings cultures.

  13. Why women choose to give birth at home: a situational analysis from urban slums of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; George, Mathew Sunil; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Negandhi, Himanshu; Alagh, Gursimran; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increasing institutional births is an important strategy for attaining Millennium Development Goal -5. However, rapid growth of low income and migrant populations in urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, including India, presents unique challenges for programmes to improve utilisation of institutional care. Better understanding of the factors influencing home or institutional birth among the urban poor is urgently needed to enhance programme impact. To measure the prevalence of home and institutional births in an urban slum population and identify factors influencing these events. Design Cross-sectional survey using quantitative and qualitative methods. Setting Urban poor settlements in Delhi, India. Participants A house-to-house survey was conducted of all households in three slum clusters in north-east Delhi (n=32 034 individuals). Data on birthing place and sociodemographic characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires (n=6092 households). Detailed information on pregnancy and postnatal care was obtained from women who gave birth in the past 3 months (n=160). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from the community and healthcare facilities. Results Of the 824 women who gave birth in the previous year, 53% (95% CI 49.7 to 56.6) had given birth at home. In adjusted analyses, multiparity, low literacy and migrant status were independently predictive of home births. Fear of hospitals (36%), comfort of home (20.7%) and lack of social support for child care (12.2%) emerged as the primary reasons for home births. Conclusions Home births are frequent among the urban poor. This study highlights the urgent need for improvements in the quality and hospitality of client services and need for family support as the key modifiable factors affecting over two-thirds of this population. These findings should inform the design of strategies to promote institutional births. PMID:24852297

  14. Dietary practices and nutritional profile of female nurses from Government Hospitals in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing is a demanding profession and nurses face a considerable degree of stress at work that can adversely influence their dietary practices and nutritional status. The current study was designed to conduct a preliminary investigation of the dietary practices and nutritional profile of nurses from government hospitals in Delhi. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 80 female nurses aged between 25 and 39 years from government hospitals. Data on demographic profile and dietary practices were gathered using a questionnaire-cum-interview schedule. Nutrient intake of the participants was determined using a 2-day 24-hour diet recall method, and adequacy of intake of nutrients was assessed using the Nutrient Adequacy Ratio approach. Weight, height, and waist circumference were recorded and the body mass index (BMI and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR were computed. Results: Findings revealed that though majority of nurses were involved in rotating shift duties in their hospitals, more than two-thirds of them had more or less appropriate dietary practices. Intake of most nutrients, except iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, dietary folate, and riboflavin ranged from fairly adequate to adequate among nearly 85% of the nurses. Approximately 70% of the nurses were categorized as overweight and obese and had a WHtR above 0.52. Conclusions: The study indicated that most female nurses in government hospitals in Delhi had appropriate dietary practices and nutrient intakes but still had high BMI and WHtR, which increased their vulnerability to health problems.

  15. Prevalence of dental caries among adults and elderly in an urban resettlement colony of New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patro Binod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries remains the most important dental health problem in developing countries. In India the prevalence of dental caries is reported to be about 50-60%. Most of the Indian studies have been carried out in school children and very few in adults. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dental caries in the adult population (aged 35-44 years and in the elderly (60 years and above in an urban resettlement colony in New Delhi. Methodology: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Dakshinpuri, New Delhi, from January to February 2007. A local adaptation of the WHO questionnaire was used. Oral examination was done and dentition status was recorded by trained investigators and according to the standard procedures. Results: A total of 452 participants were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of dental caries in the 35-44 years age-group was 82.4% and it was 91.9% in those ≥60 years. The DMF index was 5.7 ± 4.7 in the 35-44 years age-group and 13.8 ± 9.6 in the ≥60 years age-group. Of the participants, 27.9% were currently using tobacco. A statistically significant association was found between tobacco consumption and dental caries ( P = 0.026. The awareness about good and bad dental practices was found to be low among the study participants. One-fifth of the individuals with dental problems relied on home remedies. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries among adults is high in this population. There is a need to generate awareness about oral health and the prevention of dental caries and to institute measures for the provision of dental care services at the primary level.

  16. Changing profile of Vibrio cholerae O1, O139 in Delhi & its periphery (2003-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N C; Mandal, P K; Dhillon, Rohini; Jain, Madhu

    2007-05-01

    Cholera caused by either Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139 is endemic in Delhi and its peripheral areas. The present study was carried out to understand the changing epidemiology of V. cholerae in terms of prevalence of serotypes, antibiogram pattern and phage types. A total of 9858 stool samples from the admitted diarrhoea patients were used for the isolation of V. cholerae O1 and O139. Subsets of isolates were tested against thirteen antimicrobials and phage typed. Among 4251 (43.1%) confirmed cases, 41.6 per cent were V. cholerae O1 and rest (1.5 %) V. cholerae O139. Detection of V. cholerae O1 serotype Inaba was 87.7 per cent during 2005 and rest were serotype Ogawa. Majority of cases (93.1%) were from Delhi. Male:Female ratio remained 1.5:1.0. Children below 5 yr age group constituted 32.7 per cent cases. Shift in the age groups and seasonal incidence were recorded. All 226 strains of V. cholerae O1 and O139 were resistant to nalidixic acid; 96 per cent V. cholerae O1 isolates were multidrug resistant (FX NA SXT). Phage type 27 (98.7%) was the most prevalent and the new phage types were 4, 16 and 25 in this area. Enhanced surveillance helped in bringing down cases from 47.7 per cent in 2003 to 36.8 per cent in 2005. Additionally, the changing epidemiology of V. cholerae O1 and O139 infections and drug resistance need regular monitoring.

  17. Social Security Measures for Elderly Population in Delhi, India: Awareness, Utilization and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Charu; Gupta, Kalika; Banerjee, Bratati; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2017-05-01

    World population of elderly is increasing at a fast pace. The number of elderly in India has increased by 54.77% in the last 15 years. A number of social security measures have been taken by Indian government. To assess awareness, utilization and barriers faced while utilizing social security schemes by elderly in a secondary care hospital situated in a rural area in Delhi, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 individuals aged 60 years and above in a secondary care hospital situated in a rural area in Delhi. A pre-tested, semi-structured schedule prepared in local language was used. Data was analysed using SPSS software (version 17.0). Chi-square test was used to observe any statistical association between categorical variables. The results were considered statistically significant if p-value was less than 0.05. A majority of study subjects were females (54.2%), Hindu (89.7%), married (60.3%) and were not engaged in any occupation (82.8%). Awareness about Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS) was present among 286 (79.4%) and Annapurna scheme in 193 (53.6%) subjects. Among 223 subjects who were below poverty line, 179 (80.3%) were aware of IGNOAPS; while, 112 (50.2%) were utilizing the scheme. There was no association of awareness with education status, occupation, religion, family type, marital status and caste (p>0.05). Corruption and tedious administrative formalities were major barriers reported. Awareness generation, provision of information on how to approach the concerned authority for utilizing the scheme and ease of administrative procedures should be an integral part of any social security scheme or measure. In the present study, about 79.4% of elderly were aware and 45% of the eligible subjects were utilizing pension scheme. Major barriers reported in utilization of schemes were corruption and tedious administrative procedures.

  18. High HIV incidence in a cohort of male injection drug users in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Avina; Saraswati, Lopamudra Ray; Sebastian, Mary; Sharma, Vartika; Madan, Ira; Lewis, Dean; Pulerwitz, Julie; Thior, Ibou; Tun, Waimar

    2014-06-01

    India has an estimated 177,000 injection drug users (IDU) with a national HIV prevalence of 7.14%. Reliable estimates of HIV incidence are not available for this population. We report HIV incidence in a cohort of male, HIV-negative IDUs recruited through peer-referral, targeted outreach and as walk-in clients in Delhi from May to October, 2011. Fourth-generation Antigen-Antibody tests were used to diagnose new infections and results were confirmed using Western blot tests. HIV incidence based on HIV seroconversion was calculated as number of events/person-years. Cox regression was used to identify significant (p<0.05) seroconversion predictors. A total of 2790 male HIV-negative IDUs were recruited at baseline; 67.4% (n=1880) returned for their first follow-up visit and 96% (n=1806) underwent HIV testing. Participants were followed for a median of 9.7 months. A total of 112 new HIV infections occurred over a cumulative 1398.5 person-years of follow-up resulting in an incidence rate of 8.01 new infections/100 person-years (95% CI: 6.65-9.64); 74% of these participants reported risky injection practices in the past month. In multivariate analysis, moderate-high risk injection behaviors (Adjusted Hazard Ratio [AHR] 2.59; 95% CI 1.45-4.62) were associated with a higher risk of new infections. Male IDUs in Delhi continue to practice unsafe injection practices leading to high sero-incidence despite the availability of HIV prevention services offered through targeted intervention programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence and pattern of self-medication practices in an urban area of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is one of the major health concerns worldwide and World Health Organization has laid emphasis on correctly investigating and controlling it. There is much public and professional concern regarding self-medication practices, which has dramatically increased in the last few decades, especially in the developing countries. Hence, this study was designed to study the prevalence and practice of self-medication practices in an urban area of Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2013 and data were collected by personal interviews using pretested questionnaires. An urban colony in the south district of Delhi was chosen and the eldest member of the family, present at the time of the visit was interviewed. Data were collected from 236 persons and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was 92.8% (95 confidence interval: 66.5-79.4. 74.9% preferred allopathic medicines. Self-medication was found to be practiced more among younger persons than older age group persons (P = 0.000. Graduates and postgraduates practiced self-medication more than others (P = 0.002. Common cold (61.6% and fever (51.8% were the most common ailments for which self-medication were practiced. Paracetamol and cough syrups were the most commonly used class of drugs. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication in this study was high. Drugs especially antimicrobials were not taken for the proper length of time. Awareness regarding self-medication practices to help patients decide on the appropriateness of self-medication is required.

  20. Rapid assessment of visual impairment in urban population of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Malhotra, Sumit; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, causes and associated demographic factors related to visual impairment amongst the urban population of New Delhi, India. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in East Delhi district using cluster random sampling methodology. This Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) survey involved examination of all individuals aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of the district. Visual acuity (VA) assessment and comprehensive ocular examination were done during the door-to-door survey. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information of the study population. Blindness and Visual Impairment was defined as presenting VA visual impairment. Of 2421 subjects enumerated, 2331 (96.3%) were available for ophthalmic examination. Among those examined, 49.3% were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VI) in the study population, was 11.4% (95% C.I. 10.1, 12.7) and that of blindness was 1.2% (95% C.I. 0.8, 1.6). Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of VI accounting for 53.4% of all VI followed by cataract (33.8%). With multivariable logistic regression, the odds of having VI increased with age (OR = 24.6[95% C.I.: 14.9, 40.7]; p visual impairment is considerable in this region despite availability of adequate eye care facilities. Awareness generation and simple interventions like cataract surgery and provision of spectacles will help to eliminate the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in this region.

  1. An epidemiological profile of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A community-based study in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different definitions used for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD preclude getting reliable prevalence estimates. Study objective was to find the prevalence of COPD as per standard Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, risk factors associated, and treatment seeking in adults >30 years. Methodology: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Delhi, among 1200 adults, selected by systematic random sampling. Pretested questionnaire was used to interview all subjects and screen for symptoms of COPD. Postbronchodilator spirometry was done to confirm COPD. Statistical Analysis: Adjusted odds ratio (aOR was calculated by multivariable analysis to examine the association of risk factors with COPD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was developed to assess predictability. Results: The prevalence of COPD was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.5, 11.9%. Tobacco smoking was the strongest risk factor associated (aOR 9.48; 95% CI 4.22, 14.13 followed by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, occupational exposure, age, and biomass fuel. Each pack-year of smoking increased 15% risk of COPD. Ex-smokers had 63% lesser risk compared to current smokers. Clinical allergy seems to preclude COPD (aOR 0.06; 95% CI 0.02, 0.37. ROC analysis showed 94.38% of the COPD variability can be assessed by this model (sensitivity 57.4%; positive predictive value 93.3%. Only 48% patients were on treatment. Treatment continuation was impeded by its cost. Conclusion: COPD prevalence in the region of Delhi, India, is high, and our case-finding population study identified a high rate of patients who were not on any treatment. Our study adds to creating awareness on the importance of smoking cessation, early diagnosis of COPD, and the need for regular treatment.

  2. Commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Gupta, N C

    2016-01-15

    A public health concern is to understand the linkages between specific pollution sources and adverse health impacts. Commuting can be viewed as one of the significant-exposure activity in high-vehicle density areas. This paper investigates the commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi, India. Air pollution levels are significantly contributed by automobile exhaust and also in-vehicle exposure can be higher sometime than ambient levels. Motorcycle, auto rickshaw, car and bus were selected to study particles concentration along two routes in Delhi between Kashmere Gate and Dwarka. The bus and auto rickshaw were running on compressed natural gas (CNG) while the car and motorcycle were operated on gasoline fuel. Aerosol spectrometer was employed to measure inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles during morning and evening rush hours for five weekdays. From the study, we observed that the concentration levels of these particles were greatly influenced by transportation modes. Concentrations of inhalable particles were found higher during morning in auto rickshaw (332.81 ± 90.97 μg/m(3)) while the commuter of bus exhibited higher exposure of thoracic particles (292.23 ± 110.45 μg/m(3)) and car commuters were exposed to maximum concentrations of alveolic particles (222.37 ± 26.56 μg/m(3)). We observed that in evening car commuters experienced maximum concentrations of all sizes of particles among the four commuting modes. Interestingly, motorcycle commuters were exposed to lower levels of inhalable and thoracic particles during morning and evening hours as compared to other modes of transport. The mean values were found greater than the median values for all the modes of transport suggesting that positive skewed distributions are characteristics of naturally occurring phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Most probable mixing state of aerosols in Delhi NCR, northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Parul; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Singh, Sachchidanand; Tiwari, Suresh

    2018-02-01

    Unknown mixing state is one of the major sources of uncertainty in estimating aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF). Aerosol DRF in India is usually reported for external mixing and any deviation from this would lead to high bias and error. Limited information on aerosol composition hinders in resolving this issue in India. Here we use two years of aerosol chemical composition data measured at megacity Delhi to examine the most probable aerosol mixing state by comparing the simulated clear-sky downward surface flux with the measured flux. We consider external, internal, and four combinations of core-shell (black carbon, BC over dust; water-soluble, WS over dust; WS over water-insoluble, WINS and BC over WINS) mixing. Our analysis reveals that choice of external mixing (usually considered in satellite retrievals and climate models) seems reasonable in Delhi only in the pre-monsoon (Mar-Jun) season. During the winter (Dec-Feb) and monsoon (Jul-Sep) seasons, 'WS coating over dust' externally mixed with BC and WINS appears to be the most probable mixing state; while 'WS coating over WINS' externally mixed with BC and dust seems to be the most probable mixing state in the post-monsoon (Oct-Nov) season. Mean seasonal TOA (surface) aerosol DRF for the most probable mixing states are 4.4 ± 3.9 (- 25.9 ± 3.9), - 16.3 ± 5.7 (- 42.4 ± 10.5), 13.6 ± 11.4 (- 76.6 ± 16.6) and - 5.4 ± 7.7 (- 80.0 ± 7.2) W m- 2 respectively in the pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. Our results highlight the importance of realistic mixing state treatment in estimating aerosol DRF to aid in policy making to combat climate change.

  4. An evaluation of prosthetic status and treatment needs among institutionalized elderly individuals of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oral health is essential for elderly person's general health and well-being. The most common oral problem in elderly is tooth loss which results due to periodontal diseases and caries. Prosthetic status is very important as it is related to dietary intake and maintaining nutritional status. Hence, to promote the oral health of the elderly, we need to know their prosthetic status and need. Aims: The aim of this study is to find the prosthetic status and need of 65–74 years old elderly residing in old age homes of Delhi, India. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 464 residents of 20 old age homes of Delhi, India. Material and Methods: Residents with age group of 64–75 were included in the study. The prosthetic status with treatment need was recorded using the World Health Organization Oral Health Assessment Form (1997. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test and t-test were used to find significance of variables. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Full removable dentures were worn by 7.30% of participants with predominance in upper arch, and one bridge was seen in 9.10% of participants with predominance in lower arch. Full removable denture was required in 25.20% of participants. Most of participants required multiunit prosthesis in both upper as well as lower arch (42.20% and 36.20%, respectively. Conclusion: The present study underlines a considerable need for dental treatment in elderly as the prosthetic status of participants was poor, and prosthetic needs were high.

  5. Microbial Observatory (ISS-MO): Microbial diversity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The environmental microbiome study was designed to decipher microbial diversity of the International Space Station surfaces in terms of spatial and temporal...

  6. Whose city?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Die Stadt als Beute. But where most of these films follow the money and dissect the power relations in today’s urban planning, Whose city? instead moves back in time to the almost forgotten, but defining architectural disputes of the 1990s. With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the rest of the Iron...... the fundamental question was no longer asked: Who are we building for? The film represents a meditative journey through Berlin, from Potsdamer Platz in the West to Alexanderplatz in the East, and from the male-dominated conservative urban planning of the early 1990s to the more open-minded, women-led urban...

  7. 76 FR 80334 - U.S. Medical Trade Mission to India; Mumbai, New Delhi and Hyderabad March 2-8, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... individuals covered by health plans is estimated at 20 million presently, leaving a large portion of the... II Monday, March 5 New Delhi Morning: Breakfast briefing by the U.S. Commercial Service at hotel...

  8. Inhibition of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase 1 (NDM-1 Producing Escherichia coli IR-6 by Selected Plant Extracts and Their Synergistic Actions with Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda Chandar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Improper use of antibiotics has led to a great concern in the development of pathogenic microbial resistance. New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1 producing bacteria are resistant to most of the β-lactam antibiotics, and so far, no new compounds have been clinically tested against these bacteria. In this study, ethanol extracts from the leaves of 240 medicinal plant species were screened for antibacterial activity against an NDM-1 Escherichia coli strain. The extracts that showed antibacterial activity were then tested for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and zones of inhibition. The extract from Combretum albidum G. Don, Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern, Hibiscus cannabinus L., Hibiscus furcatus Willd., Punica granatum L., and Tamarindus indica L. showed bactericidal activity between 5 and 15 mg/ml and the MIC was between 2.56 and 5.12 mg/ml. All six plant extracts inhibited activity of the NDM-1 enzyme in vitro, and the IC50 value ranged between 0.50 and 1.2 ng/μl. Disruption of bacterial cell wall integrity by the plant extracts was clearly visible with scanning electron microscopy. Increases in membrane permeability caused 79.4–89.7% bacterial cell deaths as investigated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. All the plant extracts showed synergistic effects when combined with colistin [fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC = 0.125–0.375], meropenem (ΣFIC = 0.09–0.313, and tetracycline (ΣFIC = 0.125–0.313. Thus, the plant extracts can be fractionated for the identification of active compounds, which could be used as new antibacterial compounds for the development of drugs against NDM-1 E. coli in addition to their use in combination therapy.

  9. Conservation tillage, optimal water and organic nutrient supply enhance soil microbial activities during wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Singh, Geeta; Singh, Rana P.

    2011-01-01

    The field experiments were conducted on sandy loam soil at New Delhi, during 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of conservation tillage, irrigation regimes (sub-optimal, optimal and supra-optimal water regimes), and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices on soil biological parameters in wheat cultivation. The conservation tillage soils has shown significant (pbiofertilizer+25% Green Manure) has been used in combination with the conservation tillage and the optimum water supply. Study demonstrated that microbial activity could be regulated by tillage, water and nitrogen management in the soil in a sustainable manner. PMID:24031665

  10. Microfluidics and microbial engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Songzi; Cheng, Danhui; Sun, Fei; Hsing, I-Ming

    2016-02-07

    The combination of microbial engineering and microfluidics is synergistic in nature. For example, microfluidics is benefiting from the outcome of microbial engineering and many reported point-of-care microfluidic devices employ engineered microbes as functional parts for the microsystems. In addition, microbial engineering is facilitated by various microfluidic techniques, due to their inherent strength in high-throughput screening and miniaturization. In this review article, we firstly examine the applications of engineered microbes for toxicity detection, biosensing, and motion generation in microfluidic platforms. Secondly, we look into how microfluidic technologies facilitate the upstream and downstream processes of microbial engineering, including DNA recombination, transformation, target microbe selection, mutant characterization, and microbial function analysis. Thirdly, we highlight an emerging concept in microbial engineering, namely, microbial consortium engineering, where the behavior of a multicultural microbial community rather than that of a single cell/species is delineated. Integrating the disciplines of microfluidics and microbial engineering opens up many new opportunities, for example in diagnostics, engineering of microbial motors, development of portable devices for genetics, high throughput characterization of genetic mutants, isolation and identification of rare/unculturable microbial species, single-cell analysis with high spatio-temporal resolution, and exploration of natural microbial communities.

  11. Field tests of Sub-Synchronous Oscillation damping and frequency controllers of the Rihand-Delhi HVDC bipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Mata [ABB, New Delhi (India); Rao, L.V.; Chakravorty, S.; Moni, R.S.; Dass, R. [National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd., New Delhi (India); Mishra, R.B.; Tripathi, D.B. [Powergrid (India); Bjorklund, Hans; Duchen, Hugo; Westling, Soren [ABB Power Systems, Ludvika (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    The Rihand-Delhi Hvdc transmission system comprises of two poles in bipolar mode, each of 750 MW nominal capacity. The length of the transmission line is 814 km and the main objective of the link is the transmission of bulk power from the Singrauli/Rihand thermal generating complex to the major load centers near the National Capital region. As in all major Hvdc schemes, the Rihand-Delhi Hvdc project has also been provided with a SSO damping controller which was extensively tested in the simulator prior to installation. This paper describes some of the important field tests conducted to ascertain actual performance and compares the same with corresponding simulator cases. Also covered is the performance of the frequency controller. (author) 3 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Molecular characterization of Fasciola gigantica in Delhi, India and its phylogenetic relation to the species from South Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kei; Mohanta, Uday K; Neeraja, Tambireddy; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to phylogenetically analyze Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) from mainland India and to reveal the expansion history of F. gigantica in the Indian subcontinent. We analyzed 40 Fasciola flukes that were collected from Delhi, in the Indian mainland, and identified them as F. gigantica by using nucleotide analyses of the nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold) genes. Based on the nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene, the flukes had 18 haplotypes. The haplotypes were classified under haplogroup A, which is predominant in the F. gigantica of South Asia. The population genetics of haplogroup A revealed that Delhi population showed higher π value than eastern India population. These results suggest that F. gigantica of haplogroup A might have spread from the west to the east in India along with the artificial migration of the domestic Zebu cattle, Bos indicus.

  13. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  14. An investigation of potential regional and local source regions affecting fine particulate matter concentrations in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saikat; Biswas, Jhumoor; Guttikunda, Sarath; Roychowdhury, Soma; Nayak, Mugdha

    2015-02-01

    In this study, potential regional and local sources influencing PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter >2.5 μm) concentrations in Delhi, India, are identified and their possible impact evaluated through diverse approaches based on study of variability of synoptic and local airflow patterns that transport aerosol concentrations from these emission sources to an urban receptor site in Delhi, India. Trajectory clustering of 72-hr and 48-hr back trajectories simulated at arrival heights of 500 m and 100 m, respectively, every hour for representative years 2008-2010 are used to assess the relative influence of long-distance, regional, and subregional sources on this site. Nonparametric statistical procedures are employed on trajectory clusters to better delineate various distinct regional pollutant source regions. Trajectory clustering and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) analyses indicate that regional and subregional PM2.5 emission sources in neighboring country of Pakistan and adjacent states of Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh contribute significantly to the total surplus of aerosol concentrations in the Delhi region. Conditional probability function and Bayesian approach used to identify local source regions have established substantial influence from highly urbanized satellite towns located southwest (above 25%) and southeast (above 45%) of receptor location. There is significant seasonal variability in synoptic and local air circulation patterns, which is discerned in variability in seasonal concentrations. Mean of daily averaged PM2.5 concentrations at the Income Tax Office (ITO) receptor site over Delhi at 95% confidence level is highest in winter, ranging between 209 and 185 μg m⁻³ for the entire study period. The annual variability in air transport pathways is more in winter than in other seasons. Year-to-year variability is present in aerosol concentrations, especially during winter, with standard deviations varying from a

  15. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    MR Pradhan; FC Taylor; S Agrawal; D Prabhakaran; S Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance...

  16. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  17. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city......Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  18. Urbanisation and greening of Indian cities: Problems, practices, and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Aabshar U K; Banerjee, Uttam Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Progress of the Indian economy is threatened by the impact of climate change. Generation of urban heat islands (UHIs), waning of urban green cover, increase in carbon emissions and air pollution deteriorate the living environment. Rise in urban temperatures and heat stress induced mortality remain major concerns. Although the National Action Plan on Climate Change emphasises the national missions of 'enhanced energy efficiency', and 'green India', little research has been devoted to explore the passive cooling potential of urban greenery in India, thus lending uniqueness to this study. The manifestations of unplanned urban development (UHIs, escalated carbon emissions, air pollution) are discussed and corroborated with identification of contributory factors. Contemporary greening practices and bye-laws in four major Indian cities (New Delhi, Pune, Chennai, and Visakhapatnam) are analysed and compared with global best practices. The findings are used to propose planning guidelines which are expected to assist in consolidating natural sustainability of emerging economies.

  19. Dental fluorosis and its association with the use of fluoridated toothpaste among middle school students of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Poornima; Kaur, Suminder; Sodhi, Alka

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis can manifest as dental fluorosis (seen mostly in secondary dentition), skeletal fluorosis, and systemic fluorosis. Groundwater with high fluoride concentrations, diet rich in fish and tea, indoor air-pollution, and use of fluoride toothpastes may contribute considerably to total exposure. To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated factors particularly fluoridated toothpastes, among middle school children of a resettlement colony in Delhi. This survey was conducted among the middle school students (VI th -VIII th ) studying in three government schools of Sangam Vihar, South Delhi. Students were examined for dental fluorosis by experts. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data regarding age, source of drinking water, toothpaste used, etc. Height, weight, and hemoglobin were recorded. Two repeat visits were made. Out of 432 students enrolled in these schools, 413 students were examined. Descriptive and chi-square statistics were used. Dental fluorosis was prevalent in 121 (29.3%) study subjects. It was significantly more in children of age 13 years or above, in those who used fluoridated toothpaste for dental cleaning (P=0.033) and in anemic children (Pdental fluorosis is very common (in about one-fourth) among the middle school children, in this resettlement colony of Delhi, various control measures e.g. discouraging the fluoridated toothpastes, educating parents about fluorosis, de-fluoridation of water in the high risk areas, etc may help to tackle this situation.

  20. Sleep Quality of Call Handlers Employed in International Call Centers in National Capital Region of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, J D; Bhasin, S K

    2016-10-01

    Call center sector in India is a relatively new and fast growing industry driving employment and growth in modern India today. Most international call centers in National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi operate at odd work hours corresponding to a time suitable fortheir international customers. The sleep quality of call handlers employed in these call centers is in jeopardy owing to their altered sleep schedule. To assess the sleep quality and determine its independent predictors among call handlers employed in international call centers in NCR of Delhi. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted on 375 call handlers aged 18-39 years employed in international call centers in NCR of Delhi. Sleep quality was assessed using Athens Insomnia scale along with a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. The mean age of respondents was 24.6 (SD 2.4) years. 78% of participants were male. 83.5% of respondents were unmarried. 44.3% of call handlers were cigarette smokers. Physical ailments were reported by 37% call handlers. 77.6% of call handlers had somesuspicion of insomnia or suspected insomnia; the rest had no sleep problem. Smoking, poor social support, heavy workload, lack of relaxation facility at office, and prolonged travel time to office were independent predictors of sleep quality (pSafeguarding their health becomes an occupational health challenge to public health specialists.

  1. Assessment of air quality after the implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel in public transport in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Khaiwal; Wauters, Eric; Tyagi, Sushil K; Mor, Suman; Van Grieken, René

    2006-04-01

    Public transport in Delhi was amended by the Supreme Court of India to use Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) instead of diesel or petrol. After the implementation of CNG since April 2001, Delhi has the highest fraction of CNG-run public vehicles in the world and most of them were introduced within 20 months. In the present study, the concentrations of various criteria air pollutants (SPM, PM(10), CO, SO(2) and NO(x)) and organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed before and after the implementation of CNG. A decreasing trend was found for PAHs, SO(2) and CO concentrations, while the NO(x) level was increased in comparison to those before the implementation of CNG. Further, SPM, PM(10), and BTX concentrations showed no significant change after the implementation of CNG. However, the BTX concentration demonstrated a clear relation with the benzene content of gasoline. In addition to the impact of the introduction of CNG the daily variation in PAHs levels was also studied and the PAHs concentrations were observed to be relatively high between 10 pm to 6 am, which gives a proof of a relation with the limited day entry and movement of heavy vehicles in Delhi.

  2. Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjam, Suraj Singh; Vashist, Praveen; Gupta, Noopur; Malhotra, Sumit; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit; Gupta, Vivek

    2016-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) due to uncorrected refractive error (URE) and to assess the barriers to utilization of services in the adult urban population of Delhi. A population-based rapid assessment of VI was conducted among people aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of East Delhi district. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was assessed in each eye using Snellen's "E" chart. Pinhole examination was done if PVA was refractive error were recorded with questionnaires. Of 2421 individuals enumerated, 2331 (96%) individuals were examined. Females were 50.7% among them. The mean age of all examined subjects was 51.32 ± 10.5 years (standard deviation). VI in either eye due to URE was present in 275 individuals (11.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.5-13.1). URE was identified as the most common cause (53.4%) of VI. The overall prevalence of VI due to URE in the study population was 6.1% (95% CI: 5.1-7.0). The elder population as well as females were more likely to have VI due to URE (odds ratio [OR] = 12.3; P prevalence of VI due to URE among the urban adult population of Delhi is still high despite the availability of abundant eye care facilities. The majority of reported barriers are related to human behavior and attitude toward the refractive error. Understanding these aspects will help in planning appropriate strategies to eliminate VI due to URE.

  3. Influence of ozone precursors and particulate matter on the variation of surface ozone at an urban site of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of surface O3 and its precursors (NO, NO2, CO, CH4 and NMHCs at an urban site of Delhi, India during January 2012 to December 2013 are presented. In the present study, the annual average mixing ratios of surface O3, NO, NO2, CO, CH4 and NMHC were 30 ± 6 ppb, 24 ± 6 ppb, 15 ± 4 ppb, 1.5 ± 0.4 ppm, 2.4 ± 0.4 ppm and 0.4 ± 0.1 ppm, respectively. The maximum average mixing ratios of surface O3, NO and NO2 were observed during the summer, whereas, the minimum average mixing ratios of ambient NO and NO2 were during monsoon seasons. The surface O3, NO and NO2 have shown the prominent diurnal variations during all the seasons at the observational site of Delhi. The result reveals that the surface O3 was negatively correlated with NOx and CO during the study. The linear scatter plot analysis shows that the PM2.5 and PM10 present in the ambient air of Delhi influence the production of surface O3 at observational site.

  4. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-24

    A \\'smart city\\' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. Yanbu Industrial City- Smart City Project - First large scale smart city in The kingdom.

  5. Why women choose to give birth at home: a situational analysis from urban slums of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; George, Mathew Sunil; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Negandhi, Himanshu; Alagh, Gursimran; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2014-05-22

    Increasing institutional births is an important strategy for attaining Millennium Development Goal -5. However, rapid growth of low income and migrant populations in urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, including India, presents unique challenges for programmes to improve utilisation of institutional care. Better understanding of the factors influencing home or institutional birth among the urban poor is urgently needed to enhance programme impact. To measure the prevalence of home and institutional births in an urban slum population and identify factors influencing these events. Cross-sectional survey using quantitative and qualitative methods. Urban poor settlements in Delhi, India. A house-to-house survey was conducted of all households in three slum clusters in north-east Delhi (n=32 034 individuals). Data on birthing place and sociodemographic characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires (n=6092 households). Detailed information on pregnancy and postnatal care was obtained from women who gave birth in the past 3 months (n=160). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from the community and healthcare facilities. Of the 824 women who gave birth in the previous year, 53% (95% CI 49.7 to 56.6) had given birth at home. In adjusted analyses, multiparity, low literacy and migrant status were independently predictive of home births. Fear of hospitals (36%), comfort of home (20.7%) and lack of social support for child care (12.2%) emerged as the primary reasons for home births. Home births are frequent among the urban poor. This study highlights the urgent need for improvements in the quality and hospitality of client services and need for family support as the key modifiable factors affecting over two-thirds of this population. These findings should inform the design of strategies to promote institutional births. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  6. An evaluation of outdoor school environments to promote physical activity in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarun, Samiksha; Arora, Monika; Rawal, Tina; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2017-01-05

    Increasing physical activity in children is an important public health goal in India. Schools may be a target for physical activity promotion, but little is known about outdoor school environments. The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of the surrounding outdoor school environments that may promote children's physical activity in Delhi, India. For this cross-sectional study, we conducted a structured observation of outdoor school environments in a random sample of 16 private schools in Delhi, India using the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behavior: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) audit tool. The SPEEDY school audit measured six categories, including (1) access to the school; (2) surrounding area; (3) school grounds; (4) aesthetics; (5) usage; and (6) overall environment. Six trained data collectors conducted the audit independently in the summer of 2012 while schools were in session. Of the 16 schools, one had cycle lanes separated from the road while two schools had cycle lanes on the road. Two schools had pavement on both sides of the road for pedestrians. One school had marked pedestrian crossings. No schools had school warning signs, road safety signs, or route signs for cyclists that would help calm vehicular traffic. Fifteen schools had playground equipment and nine had courts, an assault course (a sequence of equipment designed to be used together), and a quadrangle (an enclosed or semi-enclosed courtyard) for outdoor physical activity. The majority of schools were shielded from the surrounding area by hedges, trees, or fences (n = 13) and were well maintained (n = 10). One school had evidence of vandalism. Two schools had graffiti, seven had litter, and 15 had murals or art. The majority of schools did not have infrastructure to support physical activity, such as cycle lanes, marked pedestrian crossings, or traffic calming mechanisms such as school warning signs. However, most had playground equipment

  7. City Revenues and Expenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — City Revenues and Expenses from the Operating Budget from 2012 to Present, updated every night from the City's JD Edwards ledger.

  8. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers, Pool...

  9. Learning to Be Gendered: Gender Socialization in Early Adolescence Among Urban Poor in Delhi, India, and Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sharmistha; Zuo, Xiayun; Lou, Chaohua; Acharya, Rajib; Lundgren, Rebecka

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to understand the gender socialization process in early adolescence. The study was located in two disadvantaged urban communities in Delhi, India and Shanghai, China and was part of the multicountry (15) Global Early Adolescent Study. Qualitative methodologies were used with boys and girls aged 11-13 years, including 16 group-based timeline exercises and 65 narrative interviews. In addition, 58 parents of participating adolescents were interviewed. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and uploaded into Atlas.ti for coding and thematic analysis. Boys and girls growing up in the same community were directed onto different pathways during their transition from early to late adolescence. Adolescents and parents in both sites identified mothers as the primary actor, socializing adolescents into how to dress and behave and what gender roles to play, although fathers were also mentioned as influential. Opposite-sex interactions were restricted, and violations enforced by physical violence. In Delhi, gender roles and mobility were more strictly enforced for girls than boys. Restrictions on opposite-sex interactions were rigid for both boys and girls in Delhi and Shanghai. Sanctions, including beating, for violating norms about boy-girl relationships were more punitive than those related to dress and demeanor, especially in Delhi. Education and career expectations were notably more equitable in Shanghai. Parents teach their children to adhere to inequitable gender norms in both Delhi and Shanghai. However, education and career expectations for boys and girls in the two sites differed. Although gender norms varied by site according to the particular cultural and historical context, similar patterns of gender inequity reflect the underlying patriarchal system in both settings. The tendency of parents to pass on the norms they grew up with is evident, yet these results illustrate the social construction of gender through children

  10. Artificial intelligence based approach to forecast PM2.5 during haze episodes: A case study of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dhirendra; Goyal, P.; Upadhyay, Abhishek

    2015-02-01

    Delhi has been listed as the worst performer across the world with respect to the presence of alarmingly high level of haze episodes, exposing the residents here to a host of diseases including respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and lung cancer. This study aimed to analyze the haze episodes in a year and to develop the forecasting methodologies for it. The air pollutants, e.g., CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 as well as meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, wind speed, wind direction index, relative humidity, visibility, dew point temperature, etc.) have been used in the present study to analyze the haze episodes in Delhi urban area. The nature of these episodes, their possible causes, and their major features are discussed in terms of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and relative humidity. The correlation matrix shows that temperature, pressure, wind speed, O3, and dew point temperature are the dominating variables for PM2.5 concentrations in Delhi. The hour-by-hour analysis of past data pattern at different monitoring stations suggest that the haze hours were occurred approximately 48% of the total observed hours in the year, 2012 over Delhi urban area. The haze hour forecasting models in terms of PM2.5 concentrations (more than 50 μg/m3) and relative humidity (less than 90%) have been developed through artificial intelligence based Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) techniques and compared with the other modeling techniques e.g., multiple linear regression (MLR), and artificial neural network (ANN). The haze hour's data for nine months, i.e. from January to September have been chosen for training and remaining three months, i.e., October to December in the year 2012 are chosen for validation of the developed models. The forecasted results are compared with the observed values with different statistical measures, e.g., correlation coefficients (R), normalized mean square error (NMSE), fractional bias (FB) and index of agreement (IOA). The performed

  11. A study of visual and musculoskeletal health disorders among computer professionals in NCR Delhi

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    Talwar Richa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of health disorders among computer professionals and its association with working environment conditions. Study design: Cross sectional. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 200 computer professionals, from Delhi and NCR which included software developers, call centre workers, and data entry workers. Result: The prevalence of visual problems in the study group was 76% (152/200, and musculoskeletal problems were reported by 76.5% (153/200. It was found that there was a gradual increase in visual complaints as the number of hours spent for working on computers daily increased and the same relation was found to be true for musculoskeletal problems as well. Visual problems were less in persons using antiglare screen, and those with adequate lighting in the room. Musculoskeletal problems were found to be significantly lesser among those using cushioned chairs and soft keypad. Conclusion: A significant proportion of the computer professionals were found to be having health problems and this denotes that the occupational health of the people working in the computer field needs to be emphasized as a field of concern in occupational health.

  12. "I am witness to": a profile of Sakshi Violence Intervention Centre in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, A

    1998-11-01

    Sakshi, a group formed in New Delhi, India, in 1992, seeks to create awareness of violence against women and promote justice for its victims. Its creation was spurred by the gang rape by police officers of a girl in custody and the subsequent minimization on the part of the Supreme Court of India of the seriousness of the crime. Program activities have included informational workshops for governmental and nongovernmental organizations, feminist legal research into violations of women's human rights, counseling for victims of violence, and sensitization programs for police and the judiciary. As a result of Sakshi's lobbying, the Supreme Court passed a set of Guidelines on Sexual Harassment at the Workplace in 1997. An ongoing problem has been Sakshi's dependence on donor funding and the related requirement of adopting development agencies' agendas rather than allowing development to be a demand-driven, needs-based process. Sakshi's experience has led to the awareness that violence cannot be countered by intervention measures alone; rather, program activities must be linked with other forms of gender development. The group has adopted use of the term "substantive equality" to form links between different systems in society and to empower women.

  13. Domestic violence against women and their mental health status in a colony in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachher Alka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence against women is a major public health and human rights issue in the world today. This study was conducted to assess the consequences of domestic violence on the mental health of women of reproductive age group. Materials and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Raj Nagar- I, urban locality in west Delhi near Palam. 350 women of 15-49 years age group residing in the community were selected by stratified random sampling. These women were administered an interview schedule adapted from WHO multi-country study on women′s health and domestic violence. They were assessed for the presence of domestic violence. Mental health status of these women was estimated by using self-reporting questionnaire 20. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12 software. The test applied was chi square test for proportion and binary logistic regression. Results: 42.8% of the women reported one or the other types of violence. 34.9% of the women reported either physical or sexual violence ever in life. 29.1% of the women reported either physical or sexual violence in past 1 year (current violence. 12% of the women reported mental ill health. Women who had experienced domestic violence were more likely to report mental ill health status and suicidal tendencies as compared to women who had not experienced violence. Conclusion: Domestic violence is associated with mental ill health.

  14. Desirable factors for maintaining normal BMI of urban affluent women of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anu Taneja; Siddhu, Anupa

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify desirable social, familial, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle factors for maintaining normal body mass index (BMI) of urban affluent women (25-45 years) in Delhi, India. A total of 387 urban affluent women with at least one living child participated in this cross-sectional study conducted from March 2008 to April 2010. Women were classified into four BMI categories on the basis of World Health Organization (WHO; 2004) classification for Asians. Significant factors for maintaining normal BMI were: Younger age, less parity, nuclear family, normal weight status of parents, postpartum weight gain between 2 and 3 kg, regularity in taking meals, fixed meal size, self-perceived normal weight, and shorter sitting time and television viewing time. Multivariate regression analysis identified five determining factors for maintaining BMI, which are normal weight of father, self-perceived normal weight, fixed meal size, sitting time less than 6 h/day, and television viewing time less than 1 h/day. By small lifestyle modifications, normal BMI can be maintained.

  15. The Challenges of Spanish Language Teaching in Multilingual India: A Case Study of Delhi

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    Dhiraj Kumar Rai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The multilingual surrounding of Spanish Language Teaching (SLT in India has presented a unique linguistic principle. This principle relies upon the application of English language instructions (as FL1 to combine several methods for teaching-learning Spanish language (as FL2. However, the effectiveness and appropriateness of this linguistic principle, whereby English language instructions are used for SLT, remain undiagnosed. In fact, the technique of SLT in India needs to take into account the local linguistic or dialectical make-up of the actual or potential learners. As such, the process of Spanish Language acquisition in India as inspired by an exposure to local languages/dialects needs to be creatively explored. Furthermore, the recently increasing entries of specific Spanish words/terms in the Indian ‘popular language usage’, and their implications for SLT in India require to be sufficiently investigated. This article aims at filling in the above-mentioned lacunae by conducting a case study of the status of Spanish Language Teaching in Delhi. It draws the conclusion that the maximum flexibility in the process of eclectically mixing various pedagogical methods of SLT could go a long way in motivating and benefitting both the teachers as well as the students, thereby enhancing the overall efficiency of SLT in multilingual India.

  16. Poverty indicators and mental health functioning among adults living with HIV in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ezer; Delzell, Darcie A P; McNamara, Paul E; Cuffey, Joel; Cherian, Anil; Matthew, Saira

    2016-01-01

    Poor mental health functioning among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) has gained considerable attention particularly in low-income countries that disproportionately carry the global HIV/AIDS burden. Fewer studies, however, have examined the relationship between poverty indicators and mental health among PHLIV in India. Based on this cross-sectional study of 196 HIV-seropositive adults who received medical services at Shalom AIDS Project in Delhi, India, structural equation modeling and mediation analysis were employed to estimate the associations between poverty indices (household asset index, food security, unemployment, water treatment, sanitation), HIV-health factors (illness in the past 3 months, co-morbid medical conditions), and psychological distress. In the final model, ownership of fewer household assets was associated with higher levels of food insecurity, which in turn was associated with higher psychological distress. Also, the household asset index, food insecurity, and unemployment had a larger effect on psychological distress than new opportunistic infections. These findings build on increasing evidence that support concerted efforts to design, evaluate, and refine HIV mental health interventions that are mainstreamed with livelihood programming in high poverty regions in India.

  17. Effectiveness of Awareness Package on Occupational Health Hazards among Ragpickers of New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwalla, Rashmi; Pathak, Rambha; Singh, Mitasha; Islam, Farzana; Parashar, Mamta

    2017-01-01

    Ragpickers are informal workers who collect recyclable materials to earn a small wage on daily basis. They work in vulnerable conditions and awareness regarding occupational and environmental hazard is essential for them. To study the effectiveness of awareness program on various occupational health hazards among the ragpickers. This interventional study was conducted from May through October 2016 among the ragpickers living near field practice area of Department of Community Medicine and those living in slum areas around HAHC Hospital, New Delhi, India. The awareness regarding occupational and environmental health hazards was assessed using a pretested and predesigned pro forma. Snowball sampling technique was used to select the ragpickers from the various areas. Health awareness and education package was designed for the ragpickers. The package was delivered by medical officers and health workers. A posttest assessment was done 2 weeks after the awareness activity. Among 150 ragpickers, there was significant improvement in knowledge immediate post training on knowledge of occupational hazard and hygiene. Efforts should be put to develop training materials on occupation and environmental health and injury issue relating to waste management.

  18. Sexual and Reproductive Health: Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions among Young Unmarried Male Residents of Delhi

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    Jitendra Kumar Meena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Men play a significant role in all spheres of domestic life including reproduction. Youth is a period of critical development and ignoring sexual and reproductive health (SRH needs of young men ought to have wider social and health consequences. Aims and Objectives. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and perceptions regarding SRH among young unmarried men (18–25 years. Settings and Design. A semiqualitative study conducted across four health centers (2 rural, 2 urban across Delhi. Materials and Methods. Focus group discussions (FGDs were held among sixty-four participants regarding various aspects of SRH. Data Analysis. The data generated were analyzed using free listing and thematic content analysis along with simple quantitative proportions for different variable groups. Results. Good knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS was observed though found poor regarding other STIs/RTIs. Inadequate knowledge and negative attitude towards SRH and condom use were observed among rural participants. Peer group and mass media were the commonest SRH information sources among rural and urban participants, respectively. Conclusions. Poor SRH knowledge, perceptions, and available nonformal, unreliable information sources expose young men to poor SRH outcomes. Early, comprehensive SRH information provision can have life-long protective benefits to them and their partners.

  19. Evaluation of pharmacists' services for dispensing emergency contraceptive pills in Delhi, India: A mystery shopper study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI, has not been well documented. Objective: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. Results: None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57% or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%; 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. Conclusion: There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter.

  20. Our lives, our say: Street and working children talk about their rights in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Couch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently a “new sociology of childhood” has been proposed arguing that childhood must be seen as a social construct and considered like race, class and gender as an important analytical variable. It is asserted that children and their life worlds are  topics worthy of study and that children must be seen as active agents in creating their own social worlds and society at large. The main implication of such a conceptualization is that childhood takes a multiplicity of forms over time and across cultures.  Essentially these approaches privilege the perspectives of children and reject the representation of them as passive vessels into which the rules of society are poured as merely adults in training. This paper examines this new discourse by drawing upon the experiences of Butterflies, a non-government organization working for the empowerment of street and working children in Delhi. In particular the paper will explore Butterflies’ rights-based approach to working with street and working children and give space to children’s own experiences and perceptions in regards to this approach. The article focuses on four key areas: the right to participation; the right to freedom of assembly; the right to protection from economic exploitation and the right to work. Keywords: children, work, rights, poverty, marginalisation, participation

  1. Emergence of Acinetobacter pittii harboring New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase genes in Daejeon, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ji Youn; Koo, Sun Hoe; Kim, Semi; Kwon, Gye Cheol

    2015-09-01

    Carbapenemase production has been reported worldwide in gram-negative bacteria, including Acinetobacter species. We detected carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter pittii in clinical isolates in Daejeon, Korea. Twenty-one ertapenem-resistant A. pittii isolates screened with a disk diffusion method were characterized by using the Epsilon test, four multiplex PCR assays, and a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. A total of 21 A. pittii isolates harbored the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) gene bla(IMP-1) or bla(NDM-1). Nineteen isolates containing bla(IMP-1) were resistant to imipenem and meropenem, but two isolates harboring bla(NDM-1) were susceptible to them. The sequence types (STs) of the two New Delhi MBL (NDM-1)-producing A. pittii isolates were ST70 and ST207, which differed from the STs (ST63, ST119, ST396, and a novel ST) of the IMP-1-producing A. pittii. This is the first report on NDM-1-producing A. pittii isolates in Korea. Our results emphasize that the study of NDM-1-producing gram-negative bacteria should involve carbapenem-susceptible as well as carbapenem-resistant isolates.

  2. Evaluation of Pharmacists' Services for Dispensing Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Delhi, India: A Mystery Shopper Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Nigam, Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI), has not been well documented. To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57%) or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%); 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter.

  3. AIDS : A Survey Of Knowledge, Attitudes And Beliefs Of Undergraduate Students Of Delhi University

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    Benara S.K

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The 513 undergraduate students (262 male and 251 female surveyed from five colleges of Delhi University were aware of AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome. They knew from different sources that sexually promiscuous people, prostitutes, intravenous drug abusers, professional blood donors and recipients of HIV infected blood were at risk for AIDS. About half of the students (57.5% knew that AIDS was incurable and ultimately led to death. A majority of them (60-72%, also knew that AIDS could be prevented by using condoms during sexual intercourse, disposable needles during injection and avoiding sex with multiple partners. On the other hand their knowledge on non-sexual transmission was inadequate. Most of them (58% believed that one could get AIDS by airborne, oral and kinesthetic routes, some (41% felt that AIDS patients should not be allowed to mix in society, and 24% had an attitude of severing contact with their best friends or divorcing their spouses. The most impotent viewpoint was that 49% of them wrongly believed that AIDS could be prevented by vaccination. The need for more information on AIDS was felt by all of them.

  4. Patient safety in maternal healthcare at secondary and tertiary level facilities in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is insufficient information on causes of unsafe care at facility levels in India. This study was conducted to understand the challenges in government hospitals in ensuring patient safety and to propose solutions to improve patient care. Materials and Methods: Desk review, in-depth interviews, and focused group discussions were conducted between January and March 2014. Healthcare providers and nodal persons for patient safety in Gynecology and Obstetrics Departments of government health facilities from Delhi state of India were included. Data were analyzed using qualitative research methods and presented adopting the "health system approach." Results: The patient safety was a major concern among healthcare providers. The key challenges identified were scarcity of resources, overcrowding at health facilities, poor communications, patient handovers, delay in referrals, and the limited continuity of care. Systematic attention on the training of care providers involved in service delivery, prescription audits, peer reviews, facility level capacity building plan, additional financial resources, leadership by institutional heads and policy makers were suggested as possible solutions. Conclusions: There is increasing awareness and understanding about challenges in patient safety. The available local information could be used for selection, designing, and implementation of measures to improve patient safety at facility levels. A systematic and sustained approach with attention on all functions of health systems could be beneficial. Patient safety could be used as an entry point to improve the quality of health care services in India.

  5. Traffic Related Aerosol Exposure And Their Risk Assessment Of Associated Metals In Delhi, India

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    Rajesh Kushwaha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study was carried out in New Delhi, India, to assess the level of traffic related aerosol exposure, individually and associated metals. These investigations also try to formulate their risk assessment using different modes of transport on a typical journey to work route and compared Bus, Auto-rickshaws and Bike (Two Wheelers during the journey. The inhalable particulate matter monitored in winter period and also evaluated the potential health risk due to inhalation in the study. The exposure of Particulate matter was observed maximum in the Bike (502 ± 176.38 μgm-3 and minimum in the Auto-rickshaw (208.15 ± 61.38 μgm-3. In case of human exposure to metals (viz. Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, Zn, it was mostly exposed by Fe, Zn and Co and least exposed by Cd, Cr and Pb. Human health risk was estimated based on exposure and dosage response. The assessment of particulate-bound elements was calculated by assuming exposure of 6 h. The findings indicated that the exposure to particulate bound elements have relatively more adverse health effects. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 26-36 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9205

  6. Source identification and metallic profiles of size-segregated particulate matters at various sites in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Naba; Jain, V K; Srivastava, Arun

    2015-09-01

    A study of elemental composition in the ambient air of Delhi was carried out in the monsoon, winter and summer seasons at four different sites from August 2012 to April 2013 in the size ranges 10 μm using "Dekati PM10" impactor. At each site, three samples were collected and were analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The presence of elements was found to be very common and highly concentrated in aerosol particles at all the sites, which are Na, Al, Si, K, Ca, Zn and Ba. Total suspended particulate matters (TSPMs) of fine particles were found high in comparison to coarse particles at all seasons. The TSPM of fine particles was found to be varied in the range from 303.6 to 416.2 μg/m(3). Similarly, the range of coarse TSPM was observed from 162.9 to 262.8 μg/m(3). Correlation matrices were observed between fine (size ranges 10 μm) size particles for all elements with seasons. Source apportionments of elements were carried out using MS Excel 2010 through XLSTAT software. The source apportionments between fine and coarse particles were carried out through factor analysis and dominated sources found to be crustal re-suspension and industrial activities.

  7. New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-Mediated Carbapenem Resistance: Origin, Diagnosis, Treatment and Public Health Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Juan Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the origin, diagnosis, treatment and public health concern of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-producing bacteria. Data Sources: We searched database for studies published in English. The database of PubMed from 2007 to 2015 was used to conduct a search using the keyword term "NDM and Acinetobacter or Enterobacteriaceae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa." Study Selection: We collected data including the relevant articles on international transmission, testing methods and treatment strategies of NDM-positive bacteria. Worldwide NDM cases were reviewed based on 22 case reports. Results: The first documented case of infection caused by bacteria producing NDM-1 occurred in India, in 2008. Since then, 13 blaNDM variants have been reported. The rise of NDM is not only due to its high rate of genetic transfer among unrelated bacterial species, but also to human factors such as travel, sanitation and food production and preparation. With limited treatment options, scientists try to improve available therapies and create new ones. Conclusions: In order to slow down the spread of these NDM-positive bacteria, a series of measures must be implemented. The creation and transmission of blaNDM are potentially global health issues, which are not issues for one country or one medical community, but for global priorities in general and for individual wound care practitioners specifically.

  8. Heavy Metal Content and Microbial Composition of the Rhizosphere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, en-hancement of this process for successful phytoremediation processes requires a sound understand-ing of the complex interactions of the rhizosphere. The present study thus investigated the chemi-cal and microbial composition of rhizosphere of Eleusine indica in an auto-mechanic workshop in Benin City.

  9. Studies of heavy metal contents and microbial composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the heavy metal content and microbial composition of rhizosphere of Panicum maximum obtained from some auto mechanic workshops in Benin City, Nigeria. The grass was uprooted and soil sample was taken from its rhizosphere. The sample were labeled appropriately and immediately transported ...

  10. Lead Contamination and Microbial Lead Tolerance in Soils at Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Devika

    ABSTRACT: Lead pollution and lead tolerance levels of microbes in soil at major road junctions in Benin. City were investigated. Results revealed that distance from the road junctions affected the concentrations of lead in soil, as well as the microbial population density and types of microbes present in the soil. The highest ...

  11. Evaluation of bisphenol A, physicochemical properties and microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bisphenol A (BPA), physicochemical properties and microbial characterization of borehole water stored in plastic containers. Three brands of plastic containers filled with borehole water were collected from homes in Ugbowo, Benin city. Physicochemical parameters were determined ...

  12. Extent of microbial contamination of sausages sold in two Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three shops were randomly selected in Abeokuta (South-West Nigeria) and Benin-City (South-South Nigeria) for the purchase of sausages which were then screened for microbial contamination. For the Abeokuta sausage samples the total aerobic counts ranged from 2.06-2.80 x 106 cfu/g; Staphylococcus aureus count ...

  13. Assessment of microbial population and physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was conducted in order to determine the effect of abattoir effluent on the microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics of the receiving soils in Ikpoba Hill and Oluku located in Benin City, Nigeria. Microbial analysis was carried out using standard microbiological techniques. The microorganisms isolated ...

  14. Lead Contamination and Microbial Lead Tolerance in Soils at Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead pollution and lead tolerance levels of microbes in soil at major road junctions in Benin City were investigated. Results revealed that distance from the road junctions affected the concentrations of lead in soil, as well as the microbial population density and types of microbes present in the soil. The highest concentrations ...

  15. Microbial electrosynthetic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Harold D.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Labelle, Edward V.

    2018-01-30

    Methods are provided for microbial electrosynthesis of H.sub.2 and organic compounds such as methane and acetate. Method of producing mature electrosynthetic microbial populations by continuous culture is also provided. Microbial populations produced in accordance with the embodiments as shown to efficiently synthesize H.sub.2, methane and acetate in the presence of CO.sub.2 and a voltage potential. The production of biodegradable and renewable plastics from electricity and carbon dioxide is also disclosed.

  16. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  17. Magnitude and Correlates of Anemia in Elderly Women of a Resettlement Colony of Delhi

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    Tulika Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia of any degree contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality and has a significant effect on the quality of life of elderly women. Despite its clinical importance, anemia in the elderly women is underrecognized. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and correlates of anemia in elderly women of a resettlement colony of Delhi. Materials and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study for the duration of 1 year was conducted among 512 geriatric women (≥60 years. Demographic characteristics, dietary assessment, and behavioral risk factors were determined by interview, and the participants underwent physical examination followed by hemoglobin estimation by HemoCue. Anemia was defined using the WHO criteria of hemoglobin <12 g/dl. Chi-square test was employed to study the association between sociodemographic factors and anemia followed by multivariate regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of anemia was 79.9% according to the WHO criteria of hemoglobin <12 g/dl in females. Age, education, marital status, financial dependence, diagnosed chronic disease, diet, calorie intake, history of worm infestation, and body mass index (BMI were significantly associated with anemia on univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, age, marital status, financial dependence, diagnosed chronic disease, diet, calorie intake, and BMI were significant explanatory variables for anemia. Conclusion: Our study points out high prevalence of and some of the major factors associated with anemia in elderly women. The need of the hour is to include our elderly women under the gamut of National Anemia Prophylaxis Program.

  18. Allergic Rhinitis: A neglected disease — A community based assessment among adults in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, B; Vibha; Singla, R; Chowdhury, R

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Allergic Rhinitis is rather erroneously viewed as a trivial disease. It is important in that it can significantly affect quality of life. There is paucity of community based prevalence studies on the disease in India. This study was planned to assess the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in adults, the proportion of asthmatics among them, risk factors associated and treatment seeking behaviour among the patients. Materials and Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in Mehrauli, South Delhi among 1200 adults, aged 30 years and over selected by systematic random sampling from two randomly selected wards. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information regarding symptoms, risk factors and treatment seeking behaviour. Allergic Rhinitis was diagnosed as per ARIA guidelines. Spirometry was done to diagnose asthma among them. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to find the association of risk factors with disease. Results: The prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis was found to be 11% (132 subjects) and 33.3% (44 patients) among them also had asthma. Overcrowding (aOR = 6.4), absence of cross-ventilation (aOR = 2.5), occupational exposure to dust/smoke (aOR = 2.1), tobacco smoking (aOR = 2.1), family history of allergic diseases (aOR = 2.7) and clinical allergy (aOR = 10.2) were found to be independent risk factors associated with Rhinitis. More patients of Rhinitis with asthma (75%) took treatment, relative to those without asthma (40%) who, mostly relied on home remedies (42%) or, did not seek any treatment (18%) (P = 0.031). Interpretations and Conclusion: The burden of Allergic Rhinitis is high with a considerable overlap with asthma. These allergic diseases and emphasize the importance of early and regular treatment. PMID:26119436

  19. Workplace violence against resident doctors in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Tanu; Grover, Shekhar; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Madhan; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare workers particularly doctors are at high risk of being victims of verbal and physical violence perpetrated by patients or their relatives. There is a paucity of studies on work-related violence against doctors in India. We aimed to assess the exposure of workplace violence among doctors, its consequences among those who experienced it and its perceived risk factors. This study was done among doctors working in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire containing items for assessment of workplace violence against doctors, its consequences among those who were assaulted, reporting mechanisms and perceived risk factors. Of the 169 respondents, 104 (61.4%) were men. The mean (SD) age of the study group was 28.6 (4.2) years. Sixty-nine doctors (40.8%) reported being exposed to violence at their workplace in the past 12 months. However, there was no gender-wise difference in the exposure to violence (p=0.86). The point of delivery of emergency services was reported as the most common place for experiencing violence. Verbal abuse was the most common form of violence reported (n=52; 75.4%). Anger, frustration and irritability were the most common symptoms experienced by the doctors who were subjected to violence at the workplace. Only 44.2% of doctors reported the event to the authorities. 'Poor communication skills' was considered to be the most common physician factor responsible for workplace violence against doctors. A large proportion of doctors are victims of violence by their patients or relatives. Violence is being under-reported. There is a need to encourage reporting of violence and prepare healthcare facilities to tackle this emerging issue for the safety of physicians.

  20. Epidemiological study of ocular trauma in an urban slum population in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, S; Chandra, M; Gupta, S K; Vashist, P; Gogoi, M

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To study the epidemiology and clinical profile of victims of ocular trauma in an urban slum population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted on 500 families each in three randomly selected urban slums in Delhi, collected demographic data for all members of these families, and clinical data for all those who suffered ocular trauma at any time, that required medical attention. Data was managed on SPSS 11.0. Results: Of 6704 participants interviewed, 163 episodes of ocular trauma were reported by 158 participants (prevalence = 2.4%, confidence interval = 2.0 to 2.7) Mean age at trauma was 24.2 years. The association between the age of participants and the history of ocular trauma was significant (P < 0.001), when adjusted for sex, education and occupation. Males were significantly more affected. Blunt trauma was the commonest mode of injury (41.7%). Blindness resulted in 11.4% of injured eyes ( P = 0.028). Of 6704 participants, 1567 (23.4%) were illiterate, and no association was seen between education status and trauma, when adjusted for sex and age at injury. A significant association was noted between ocular trauma and workplace (Chi-square = 43.80, P < 0.001), and between blindness and place (Chi-square = 9.98, P = 0.041) and source (Chi-square = 10.88, P = 0.028) of ocular trauma. No association was found between visual outcome and the time interval between trauma and first consultation (Chi-square = 0.50, P = 0.78), between receiving treatment and the best corrected visual acuity (Chi-square = 0.81, P = 0.81), and between the person consulted and blinding ocular trauma (Chi-square = 1.88, P = 0.170). Conclusion: A significant burden of ocular trauma in the community requires that its prevention and early management be a public health priority. PMID:18579991

  1. Epidemiological study of ocular trauma in an urban slum population in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vats S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the epidemiology and clinical profile of victims of ocular trauma in an urban slum population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted on 500 families each in three randomly selected urban slums in Delhi, collected demographic data for all members of these families, and clinical data for all those who suffered ocular trauma at any time, that required medical attention. Data was managed on SPSS 11.0. Results: Of 6704 participants interviewed, 163 episodes of ocular trauma were reported by 158 participants (prevalence = 2.4%, confidence interval = 2.0 to 2.7 Mean age at trauma was 24.2 years. The association between the age of participants and the history of ocular trauma was significant ( P < 0.001, when adjusted for sex, education and occupation. Males were significantly more affected. Blunt trauma was the commonest mode of injury (41.7%. Blindness resulted in 11.4% of injured eyes ( P = 0.028. Of 6704 participants, 1567 (23.4% were illiterate, and no association was seen between education status and trauma, when adjusted for sex and age at injury. A significant association was noted between ocular trauma and workplace (Chi-square = 43.80, P < 0.001, and between blindness and place (Chi-square = 9.98, P = 0.041 and source (Chi-square = 10.88, P = 0.028 of ocular trauma. No association was found between visual outcome and the time interval between trauma and first consultation (Chi-square = 0.50, P = 0.78, between receiving treatment and the best corrected visual acuity (Chi-square = 0.81, P = 0.81, and between the person consulted and blinding ocular trauma (Chi-square = 1.88, P = 0.170. Conclusion: A significant burden of ocular trauma in the community requires that its prevention and early management be a public health priority.

  2. Usage and Perceived Side Effects of Personal Protective Measures against Mosquitoes among Current Users in Delhi

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    Charu Kohli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The use of personal protective measures (PPM like mats, bednets, screening, repellents, liquid vaporizers, mosquito coils, and so forth has been advocated as an effective tool in control of mosquito-borne diseases, but data about the safety profile of personal protective measures is still scarce. Objective. To study the usage and side effects of personal protective measures against mosquitoes among current users in Delhi. Materials and Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study among 350 adult individuals selected by systematic sampling method. Data was collected using pretested semistructured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square/Fisher’s Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results. Out of 350 families selected, 210 belonged to rural area and 140 to urban area. Personal protective measures were used by 219 (62.5% subjects. Liquid vaporizer was the most preferred method (41.4%. Most common perceived side effect of personal protective measures was headache (7.7%. Other perceived side effects were cough (3.2%, sore throat (2.7%, allergy (1.3%, and eye irritation (0.9% predominantly among coil users. Conclusion. There is a need to have a close watch for side effects of personal protective measures among users. Further research is also needed to develop safe and effective personal protective measures against mosquitoes.

  3. Screening for visual impairment: Outcome among schoolchildren in a rural area of Delhi

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    Neeti Rustagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncorrected refractive errors are the main cause of vision impairment in school-aged children. The current study focuses on the effectiveness of school eye screening in correcting refractive errors. Objectives: 1. To study the magnitude of visual impairment among school children. 2. To assess the compliance of students for refraction testing, procurement and use of spectacles. Materials and Methods: An intervention study was conducted in schools of the north- west district of Delhi, in the rural field practice area of a medical college. Students studying in five government schools in the field practice area were chosen as the study subjects. Results: Out of 1123 students enrolled, 1075 (95.7% students were screened for refractive errors. Low vision (visual acuity < 20/60 in the better eye was observed in 31 (2.9% children and blindness (visual acuity <20/200 in 10 (0.9% children. Compliance with referral for refraction was very low as only 51 (41.5% out of 123 students could be tested for refraction. Out of 48 students, 34 (70.8% procured spectacles from family resources but its regular use was found among only 10 (29.4% students. The poor compliance among students stems out of various myths and perceptions regarding use of spectacles prevalent in the community. Conclusion: Refractive error is an important cause of avoidable blindness among rural school children. Behavior change communication among rural masses by spreading awareness about eye health and conducting operational research at school and community level to involve parent′s teachers associations and senior students to motivate students for use of spectacles may improve utilization of existing eye health services in rural areas.

  4. Mechanical characterization of municipal solid waste from two waste dumps at Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, B J; Ramana, G V; Datta, Manoj

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the physical and mechanical properties of the emplaced municipal solid waste (MSW) recovered from different locations of the Ghazipur and Okhla dumps both located at Delhi, India. Mechanical compressibility and shear strength of the collected MSW were evaluated using a 300×300mm direct shear (DS) shear box. Compression ratio (C c ') of MSW at these two dumps varied between 0.11 and 0.17 and is falling on the lower bound of the range (0.1-0.5) of the data reported in the literature for MSW. Low C c ' of MSW is attributed to the relatively low percentages of compressible elements such as textiles, plastics and paper, coupled with relatively high percentages of inert materials such as soil-like and gravel sized fractions. Shear strength of MSW tested is observed to be displacement dependent. The mobilized shear strength parameters i.e., the apparent cohesion intercept (c') and friction angle (ϕ') of MSW at these two dumps are best characterized by c'=13kPa and ϕ'=23° at 25mm displacement and c'=17kPa and ϕ'=34° at 55mm displacement and are in the range reported for MSW in the literature. A large database on the shear strength of MSW from 18 countries that includes: the experimental data from 277 large-scale DS tests (in-situ and laboratory) and the data from back analysis of 11 failed landfill slopes is statistically analyzed. Based on the analysis, a simple linear shear strength envelope, characterized by c'=17kPa and ϕ'=32°, is proposed for MSW for preliminary use in the absence of site-specific data for stability evaluation of the solid waste landfill under drained conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reproductive Ethics in Commercial Surrogacy: Decision-Making in IVF Clinics in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun

    2015-09-01

    As a neo-liberal economy, India has become one of the new health tourism destinations, with commercial gestational surrogacy as an expanding market. Yet the Indian Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Bill has been pending for five years, and the guidelines issued by the Indian Council of Medical Research are somewhat vague and contradictory, resulting in self-regulated practices of fertility clinics. This paper broadly looks at clinical ethics in reproduction in the practice of surrogacy and decision-making in various procedures. Through empirical research in New Delhi, the capital of India, from December 2011 to November 2012, issues of decision-making on embryo transfer, fetal reduction, and mode of delivery were identified. Interviews were carried out with doctors in eighteen ART clinics, agents from four agencies, and fourteen surrogates. In aiming to fulfil the commissioning parents' demands, doctors were willing to go to the greatest extent possible in their medical practice. Autonomy and decision-making regarding choice of the number of embryos to transfer and the mode of delivery lay neither with commissioning parents nor surrogate mothers but mostly with doctors. In order to ensure higher success rates, surrogates faced the risk of multiple pregnancy and fetal reduction with little information regarding the risks involved. In the globalized market of commercial surrogacy in India, and with clinics compromising on ethics, there is an urgent need for formulation of regulative law for the clinical practice and maintenance of principles of reproductive ethics in order to ensure that the interests of surrogate mothers are safeguarded.

  6. Study of psychiatric morbidity among residents of government old age homes in Delhi

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    Raj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The increased demand on long-term old age care homes in urban India is a result of demographic transition together with the disintegration of joint family system and changing social values which make them increasingly vulnerable to mental health problems. Aims: This study attempted to find out an array of mental health problems and associated morbidity among inhabitant of government old age homes. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study which included government run old age homes (OAHs in Delhi. Subjects and Methods: The sample comprised a total of 148 elderly in four OAHs with a mean age of 72.81 years. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Scale (QOL, Mini-Mental State Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and Kesseler-10 Scale were administered. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 version. Frequency distribution and cross-tabulation used to create summary tables and compare items. Results: Female constituted two-third of study population whereas one-third of subjects were illiterate and two-third without income. The study demonstrated psychiatric morbidity profile among OAH inhabitants and exhibited mild-moderate anxiety symptoms in almost 95% followed by mild-severe depression reported by 85%, mild-moderate psychotic illnesses, psychological distress, cognitive impairments, and poor QOL. Low income and education, low social connections and loss of spouse were key risk factors. Conclusions and Recommendation: Psychiatric morbidity profile and QOL among OAH residents is influenced by various psychological, social, and economic factors. This emphasized the need for better management of the government-run OAHs to ensure better overall mental health of the residents.

  7. Uterine rupture: A seven year review at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India

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    Maruti Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the obstetric risk factors, incidence, and causes of uterine rupture, management modalities, and the associated maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in one of the largest tertiary level women care hospital in Delhi. Materials and Methods: A 7-year retrospective analysis of 47 cases of uterine rupture was done. The charts of these patients were analyzed and the data regarding demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, risk factors, management, operative findings, maternal and fetal outcomes, and postoperative complications was studied. Results: The incidence of rupture was one in 1,633 deliveries (0.061%. The vast majority of patients had prior low transverse cesarean section (84.8%. The clinical presentation of the patients with rupture of the unscarred uterus was more dramatic with extensive tears compared to rupture with scarred uterus. The estimated blood loss ranged from 1,200 to 1,500 cc. Hemoperitoneum was identified in 95.7% of the patient and 83% of the patient underwent repair of rent with or without simultaneous tubal ligation. Subtotal hysterectomy was performed in five cases. There were no maternal deaths in our series. However, there were 32 cases of intrauterine fetal demise and five cases of stillbirths. Conclusions: Uterine rupture is a major contributor to maternal morbidity and neonatal mortality. Four major easily identifiable risk factors including history of prior cesarean section, grand multiparity, obstructed labor, and fetal malpresentations constitute 90% of cases of uterine rupture. Identification of these high risk women, prompt diagnosis, immediate transfer, and optimal management needs to be overemphasized to avoid adverse fetomaternal complications.

  8. Prevalence of dental fear and its causes using three measurement scales among children in New Delhi

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    Anju Singh Rajwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a great need for identifying fearful children, who often present problems in patient management, thus affecting the quality of dental care rendered to them. This study is unique in the way that dental fear was assessed through three fear scales as research has suggested the use of more than one scale because each scale has its own restrictions and is open to criticism. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate dental fear and anxiety (DFA among children aged 3–14 years using three fear measurement scales. Methods: The study was conducted on children (3–14 years who visited the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry at Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, New Delhi. The DFA levels were measured using three fear measurement scales, i.e., facial image scale (FIS, dental fear scale (DFS, and children's fear survey schedule-dental subscale (CFSS-DS. The dental behavior was estimated using the Frankl's behavior rating scale (FBRS. Results: The prevalence of dental fear according to FIS was 14.3%, according to DFS was 22.6%, and according to CFSS-DS was 7.4%. In assessment of the behavior of children in the clinics through FBRS, it was observed that he maximum number of respondents (69.8% showed Frankl's Rating 3 i.e. positive. In the DFS and CFSS-DS, the factor which caused most fear was “feeling the needle injected” and “injections,” respectively. Conclusion: Assessment of dental fear is an extremely useful tool for the dental practitioner, who can use it to customize the behavioral treatment and management for child patients.

  9. Identification of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 in Acinetobacter lwoffii of food animal origin.

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    Yang Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the presence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL genes and the genetic environment of the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene bla(NDM-1 in bacteria of food animal origin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gram-negative bacteria with low susceptibility to imipenem (MIC>8 µg/mL were isolated from swab samples collected from 15 animal farms and one slaughterhouse in eastern China. These bacteria were selected for phenotypic and molecular detection of known MBL genes and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For the bla(NDM-1 positive isolate, conjugation and transformation experiments were carried out to assess plasmid transfer. Southern blotting was conducted to localize the bla(NDM-1 genes, and DNA sequencing was performed to determine the sequences of bla(NDM-1 and the flanking genes. In total, nine gram-negative bacteria of four different species presented a MBL phenotype. bla(NDM-1 was identified on a mobile plasmid named pAL-01 in an Acinetobacter lwoffii isolate of chicken origin. Transfer of pAL-01 from this isolate to E. coli J53 and JM109 resulted in resistance to multiple β-lactams. Sequence analysis revealed that the bla(NDM-1 gene is attached to an intact insertion element ISAba125, whose right inverted repeat (IR-R overlaps with the promoter sequence of bla(NDM-1. Thus, insertion of ISAba125 likely enhances the expression of bla(NDM-1. CONCLUSION: The identification of a bla(NDM-1- carrying strain of A. lwoffii in chickens suggests the potential for zoonotic transmission of bla(NDM-1 and has important implications for food safety.

  10. Numerical simulation of a rare winter hailstorm event over Delhi, India on 17 January 2013

    KAUST Repository

    Chevuturi, A.

    2014-12-19

    This study analyzes the cause of the rare occurrence of a winter hailstorm over New Delhi/NCR (National Capital Region), India. The absence of increased surface temperature or low level of moisture incursion during winter cannot generate the deep convection required for sustaining a hailstorm. Consequently, NCR shows very few cases of hailstorms in the months of December-January-February, making the winter hail formation a question of interest. For this study, a recent winter hailstorm event on 17 January 2013 (16:00–18:00 UTC) occurring over NCR is investigated. The storm is simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) microphysics scheme with two different options: hail and graupel. The aim of the study is to understand and describe the cause of hailstorm event during over NCR with a comparative analysis of the two options of GCE microphysics. Upon evaluating the model simulations, it is observed that the hail option shows a more similar precipitation intensity with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observation than the graupel option does, and it is able to simulate hail precipitation. Using the model-simulated output with the hail option; detailed investigation on understanding the dynamics of hailstorm is performed. The analysis based on a numerical simulation suggests that the deep instability in the atmospheric column led to the formation of hailstones as the cloud formation reached up to the glaciated zone promoting ice nucleation. In winters, such instability conditions rarely form due to low level available potential energy and moisture incursion along with upper level baroclinic instability due to the presence of a western disturbance (WD). Such rare positioning is found to be lowering the tropopause with increased temperature gradient, leading to winter hailstorm formation.

  11. Dietary regimens of athletes competing at the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, Fiona E; Burkhart, Sarah J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary regimens reported by athletes competing at a major international competition and report whether these were based on nutrient composition, religious beliefs, cultural eating style, food intolerance or avoidance of certain ingredients. A questionnaire was randomly distributed to 351 athletes in the main dining hall of the athletes' village over the three main meal periods during the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games (23rd Sept-14th Oct, 2010). The majority (n = 218, 62%) of athletes reported following one or more dietary regimens, with 50% (n = 174) following a diet based on the nutrient composition of the food. Significantly more athletes from weight category and aesthetic sports (28%, p = .005) and from power/sprint sports (41%, p = .004) followed low fat and high protein regimens respectively. Other specialized dietary regimens were followed by 33% of participants, with avoidance of red meat (13%), vegetarian (7%), Halal (6%), and low lactose regimens (5%) reported most frequently. Significantly more athletes from non-Western regions followed a vegetarian diet (p < .001), while more vegetarians reported avoiding additives (p = .013) and wheat (p ≤ .001). A Western style of eating was the most commonly reported cultural regimen (72% of total with 23% from non-Western regions). Those following a Western diet were significantly more likely to report following a regimen based on nutrient composition (p = .02). As a high proportion of athletes from differing countries and sports follow specialized dietary regimens, caterers and organizers should ensure that adequate nutrition support and food items are available at similar events.

  12. Awareness About Anti-Smoking Related Laws and Legislation Among General Population in Slums of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nandini; Anand, Tanu; Grover, Shekhar; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Mongjam M; Ingle, Gopal K

    2018-04-02

    Almost 40% of Delhi's population lives in slums and is vulnerable to tobacco use. It is therefore important to assess their opinion and ensure compliance to antismoking legislation. The present study was undertaken to assess the awareness of the general public residing in slums in Delhi regarding the smoke-free initiative of 2009, 3 years after intensive implementation. It was a cross-sectional study conducted among participants selected by cluster sampling from the slums in six districts of Delhi using a pretested semistructured questionnaire. A total of 708 slum dwellers were interviewed. Out of the total, only 16.1% (n = 114) of the participants had heard of The Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003 (COTPA), though, they were aware about some of the provisions of the COTPA. Majority (n = 529; 74.7%) perceived the smoke-free zones as the places where smoking forms of tobacco are banned. Regarding the awareness about the places designated as smoke-free zones, 82.1% (n = 581) of the respondents named educational institutions. About 61% of the people interviewed reported to have seen people smoking at public places on the day of interview while only 21.5% reported to have seen any one getting punished for smoking. Awareness about COTPA was low. The study respondents perceived that no action was being taken against persons acting in violation of the law. Thus, there is a need for stricter implementation of COTPA and increased spreading of awareness among the general public. While awareness about antismoking legislation among general population (particularly slums) has been studied world over, this has not been the case in India. The study depicts opinion of one of the susceptible populations regarding tobacco control legislation, which has hitherto not been studied in the Indian context. This study has an important implication as it highlights the need

  13. Antigen sequence typing of outer membrane protein (fetA gene of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A from Delhi & adjoining areas

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    S Dwivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a fatal disease. Meningococcal meningitis is an endemic disease in Delhi and irregular pattern of outbreaks has been reported in India. All these outbreaks were associated with serogroup A. Detailed molecular characterization of N. meningitidis is required for the management of this fatal disease. In this study, we characterized antigenic diversity of surface exposed outer membrane protein (OMP FetA antigen of N. meningitidis serogroup A isolates obtained from cases of invasive meningococcal meningitis in Delhi, India. Methods: Eight isolates of N. meningitidis were collected from cerebrospinal fluid during October 2008 to May 2011 from occasional cases of meningococcal meningitis. Seven isolates were from outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis in 2005-2006 in Delhi and its adjoining areas. These were subjected to molecular typing of fetA gene, an outer membrane protein gene. Results: All 15 N. meningitides isolates studied were serogroup A. This surface exposed porin is putatively under immune pressure. Hence as a part of molecular characterization, genotyping was carried out to find out the diversity in outer membrane protein (FetA gene among the circulating isolates of N. meningitidis. All 15 isolates proved to be of the same existing allele type of FetA variable region (VR when matched with global database. The allele found was F3-1 for all the isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: There was no diversity reported in the outer membrane protein FetA in the present study and hence this protein appeared to be a stable molecule. More studies on molecular characterization of FetA antigen are required from different serogroups circulating in different parts of the world.

  14. A failure of the Red Pierrot Talicada nyseus Guérin-Méneville, 1843 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae butterfly to colonize Delhi area

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    Rajiv K. Singh Bais

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Red Pierrot Talicada nyseus Guérin-Méneville, 1843 is a butterfly of the semi-arid plains. Its historical distribution range includes Sri Lanka, southern India, northeastern India and Myanmar. It was recently reported from a few places in northern India far away from its known range boundaries in India. Dehradun, Kumaon Himalaya, Delhi and Kalatop are the places from where it has been reported in the recent past. Talicada nyseus nyseus appeared in the Delhi area in 2008, survived and bred for more than a year and then suddenly disappeared in the summer of 2009. The appearance of T.n. nyseus in Dehradun has been linked to the introduction of Kalanchoe ornamental plants in the newly developed residential areas. This paper examines the likely reasons for its disappearance from the Delhi area.

  15. Prevalence of myopia and its risk factors in urban school children in Delhi: the North India Myopia Study (NIM Study.

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    Rohit Saxena

    Full Text Available Assess prevalence of myopia and identify associated risk factors in urban school children.This was a cross-sectional study screening children for sub-normal vision and refractive errors in Delhi. Vision was tested by trained health workers using ETDRS charts. Risk factor questionnaire was filled for children with vision 11 years children (p 5 hours per day (p 2 hours / day (p 2 hours in a day.Myopia is a major health problem in Indian school children. It is important to identify modifiable risk factors associated with its development and try to develop cost effective intervention strategies.

  16. YouTube as a source of information for New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 superbug gene

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Sourabh; Singh, Harkirat; Bajaj, Navkaran; Sharma, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Internet has become an easy source for healthcare information. In recent years, websites like YouTube have become increasingly popular as a source of information. It is necessary to keep in check the information disseminated from these open-access sites to prevent the spread of false information. This study analyzed how information related to the superbug New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM1) was portrayed in video clips available on YouTube. METHODS: YouTube (www.youtube.com) wa...

  17. Prevalence of myopia and its risk factors in urban school children in Delhi: the North India Myopia Study (NIM Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Rohit; Vashist, Praveen; Tandon, Radhika; Pandey, R M; Bhardawaj, Amit; Menon, Vimala; Mani, Kalaivani

    2015-01-01

    Assess prevalence of myopia and identify associated risk factors in urban school children. This was a cross-sectional study screening children for sub-normal vision and refractive errors in Delhi. Vision was tested by trained health workers using ETDRS charts. Risk factor questionnaire was filled for children with vision 11 years) children (phistory (p 5 hours per day (p 2 hours / day (p video/mobile games (p 2 hours in a day. Myopia is a major health problem in Indian school children. It is important to identify modifiable risk factors associated with its development and try to develop cost effective intervention strategies.

  18. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  19. Phototrophic Microbial Mats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, L.J.; Bolhuis, H.; Cretoiu, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial mats are structured, small-scale microbial ecosystems, andsimilar as biofilms cover a substratum like a tissue. A general characteristic of amicrobial mat is the steep physicochemical gradients that are the result of the metabolicactivities of the mat microorganisms. Virtually every

  20. Networks of European cities in worlds of global economic and environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Derudder

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Geographers use a variety of economic, social, and demographic data to measure the importance of global cities and the linkages between cities. We analyze the importance and connectedness of European cities using hyperlinks, or the electronic information provided by the Google Search engine. Hyperlinks are Web sites representing information that is produced; they are especially useful in measuring the impact of contemporary crises. We use the phrases economic slowdown and global financial crisis to derive a Global Financial Score (GFS for 16 core, semiperiphery and peripheral European cities and global warming and climate change to derive a Global Environmental Score (GES. London and Paris are in the European core; Rome, Dublin, Madrid and Prague are in the semiperiphery; while Tallinn, Riga, and Belgrade are in the periphery. A strong positive relationship exists between the GES and GFS. We examine the linkages of the 16 cities to the 100 largest world cities and illustrate, with “clockgrams,” the linkages London, Brussels and Athens have with other world cities. We calculated the number of linkages each of the 16 cities had with other world cities to identify Europe’s urban cores, semiperipheries, peripheries, and deep peripheries. New York is in the core of both the economic and environmental maps. Some world cities are in the semiperiphery of one category and periphery of another. Milan, Istanbul, and Delhi are in the deep periphery for the GFS while Toronto and Athens are for the GES. Hyperlinks represent valuable databases to measure the impact of crises and regional and global urban linkages.

  1. Water quality assessment in Bangwe Township, Blantyre City, Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed microbial contamination of water in sources (boreholes and open wells) and selected households in four Malawian villages (situated in Bangwe Township, Blantyre city) by analyzing the presence of faecal coliforms using membrane filtration. Additionally, pH, conductivity and temperature of the water ...

  2. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  3. Suicidal ideation and HIV risk behaviors among a cohort of injecting drug users in New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Enisha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on mental health among injecting drug users in South Asia is scarce yet poor mental health among users has significant implications for the success of HIV prevention and treatment programmes. A cohort of 449 injecting drug users in Delhi was examined on the following issues (1 examine trends in suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicidal attempts over a 12-month period, (2 examine association between injecting practices (receive and give used syringes and suicidal ideation over a 12 month study period. Methods An observational study was conducted providing phased interventions with follow up interviews every 3 months to 449 injecting drug users (IDUs, from August 2004 to November 2005. The study was conducted in Yamuna Bazaar, a known hub of drug peddling in Delhi. Interventions included nutrition, basic medical services, needle exchange, health education, HIV voluntary counseling and testing, STI diagnosis and treatment, oral buprenorphine substitution, and detoxification, each introduced sequentially. Results Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, did not significantly change over 12 months of observation, while suicide plans actually increased over the time period. Keeping other factors constant, IDUs with suicidal ideation reported more giving and receiving of used syringes in the recent past. Conclusions: Mental health services are warranted within harm reduction programmes. Special attention must be paid to suicidal IDUs given their higher risk behaviours for acquiring HIV and other blood borne infections. IDU intervention programmes should assess and address suicide risk through brief screening and enhanced counseling.

  4. Providers′ knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of E-Pills in government dispensaries of south district in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Vertika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. Study Design: A descriptive epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Both medical and paramedical (n = 428 providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively ( P < 0.05 correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant ( P < 0.05 improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R 2 = 0.35. Conclusion: Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills.

  5. How did the TB patients reach DOTS services in Delhi? A study of patient treatment seeking behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Kapoor

    Full Text Available SETTING: Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP, Delhi, India. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the number and sequence of providers visited by TB patients before availing treatment services from DOTS; to describe the duration between onset of symptoms to treatment. STUDY DESIGN: A cross sectional, qualitative study. Information was gathered through in-depth interviews of TB patients registered during the month of Oct, 2012 for availing TB treatment under the Revised National TB Control Programme from four tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment centers in Delhi. RESULTS: Out of the 114 patients who registered, 108 participated in the study. The study showed that informal providers and retail chemists were the first point of contact and source of clinical advice for two-third of the patients, while the rest sought medical care from qualified providers directly. Most patients sought medical care from more than two providers, before being diagnosed as TB. Female TB patients and patients with extra-pulmonary TB had long mean duration between onset of symptoms to initiation of treatment (6.3 months and 8.4 months respectively. CONCLUSION: The pathways followed by TB patients, illustrated in this study, provide valuable lessons on the importance of different types of providers (both formal and informal in the health system in a society like India and the delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis.

  6. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AMONG ADOLESCENTS OF AN URBAN AREA OF DELHI, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The problem of overweight and obesity is not confined only to developed countries. It may lead to adverse metabolic changes and increased risk of non communicable diseases. Most studies conducted in India are school based. The present community based study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its sociodemographic correlates among adolescents of an urban area of Delhi.Material and Methods: A cross-sectional, community based study, using systematic random sampling was carried out during 2011 on 811 adolescents of both sexes from an urban area in South-West Delhi. A pre-designed and pre-tested proforma was used to collect information on socio-demographic and anthropometric variables. Subjects were classified as overweight or obese on the basis of NCHS/CDC 2000 Age and Sex Specific Percentile Growth Charts.Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.1% and 7.2% respectively. When analyzed by gender, prevalence of overweight and obesity was 17.4% and 7.7% among boys and 12.4% and 6.7% among girls respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that prevalence was significantly higher among subjects studying in private schools (OR: 2.56; CI: 1.77 – 3.71Conclusion: Overnutrition is an emerging health problem in adolescent population which needs to be addressed with priority.

  7. Routine immunization - do people know about it? A study among caretakers of children attending pulse polio immunization in east Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rahul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Do caretakers of children under five years have sufficient knowledge regarding routine immunization (RI? Objective: To assess the knowledge about RI among caretakers of young children. Settings: Pulse polio immunization centres in East Delhi. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: Six hundred and eighty-two caretakers accompanying children under 5 years to pulse polio booths in November 2006. Study tool: Pre-tested semi-open-ended questionnaire. Statistical analysis: Proportions, Chi-square test. Results: The proportions of respondents who had awareness about different aspects of RI, such as weekday of RI (37.0%, age group for RI (49.1%, number of visits required in the first year of life (27.0%, were all low. When asked to name the four diseases covered under the RI program in Delhi, only 268 (39.3% could name at least three. The education level of respondents was strongly associated with their knowledge about RI. Conclusion: The need of the hour is to make RI a ′felt need′ of the community. Making caretakers more aware about RI is a vital step in achieving this goal.

  8. Over the counter sale of drugs for medical abortion- Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of pharmacists of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Mishra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the well defined law and highly liberal policy Government approved medical facilities are not the leading provider of abortion in Indian Scenario. Whether legally or not Pharmacists are already acting as provider of medical abortion for large number of women in India. Dispense of Medical abortion drugs via pharmacist has the advantages of convenience, relative anonymity, hasty transaction, easy accessibility and saving cost.Aims and Objectives: Objective of present study was to assess the over the counter sale of medical abortion in terms of knowledge, attitude and practices of pharmacists of Delhi, India.Material and Methods: It was a cross sectional interview based study conducted in 110 pharmacies of 6 districts of State of Delhi.Results: A total of 75 pharmacists and 35 pharmacy workers were interviewed. Knowledge and practices of all of them was inadequate in some aspects. 68% knew Medical abortion is legal and 57% thought that over the counter sale of drugs of medical abortion is also legal. Only 40.9% knew the correct regimen of mifepristone + misoprostol combination.Most of them is not aware of any serious side effects and failure rate. Their attitude is indifferent towards the clients but positive towards training in updating knowledge if given option.Conclusion: Their knowledge, attitude and practices while dispensing drugs for medical abortion were inappropriate to qualify them as an independent mid level provider in present scenario. Unregulated OTC sale of abortifacients is responsible for high number of self induced abortion related complications.

  9. Risk behaviors related to inter-personal violence among school and college-going adolescents in south Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rahul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injuries are a major cause of death and disability among the adolescents in the world. Objective: To study risk behavior related to interpersonal violence amongst school- and college-going adolescents in South Delhi and its epidemiological correlates. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Three schools and two colleges in South Delhi. Participants: Five hundred and fifty adolescents aged 14-19 years. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Chi-square test, multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among the study participants, 65 (11.8% reported having carried a weapon in past 30 days. Seventy-four (13.5% respondents had threatened or injured someone with a weapon in past 12 months. Almost one in every two boys (49.1% reported being involved in a physical fight in past 12 months. Involvement in interpersonal violence was found to be significantly more amongst males than females. Adolescents who were working part time were more likely to be ′at risk′ (67.5% than those not working (48.5%. In logistic regression analysis, the significant correlates of interpersonal violence were male gender, lower age, number of close friends, having seen role models smoke/drink, and residing in resettlement colonies, slums or villages. The findings regarding violence-related behaviors among adolescents are remarkably similar to those in other countries.

  10. Weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors among overweight adolescents in Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastav Radhika

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is emerging as a public health problem among adolescents in India. The aim of this study was to describe specific weight-related concerns among school-going youth in Delhi, India and to assess the prevalence of weight control behaviors, including healthy and unhealthy ones. Differences by weight status, gender, grade level, and school-type (a proxy for SES in this setting are considered. Methods This study is cross-sectional by design. A sample of eighth and tenth graders (n = 1818 enrolled in Private (middle-high SES and Government (low SES schools (n = 8 in Delhi, India participated. All students' height and weight were measured. Students participated in a survey of weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors, as well. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test for differences in weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors across key factors of interest (i.e., weight status, gender, grade level, and SES. Results The combined prevalence of obesity and overweight was 16.6%, overall. Controlling one's weight was important to overweight and non-overweight youth, alike (94.2% v. 84.8%, p p Conclusions Interventions to promote healthy weight control should be pertinent to and well-received by school-going youth in India. Healthy weight control practices need to be explicitly encouraged and unhealthy practices reduced. Future interventions should address issues specific to body image, too, as body dissatisfaction was not uncommon among youth.

  11. Concurrent infections by all four dengue virus serotypes during an outbreak of dengue in 2006 in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guleria Randeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-circulation of multiple dengue virus serotypes has been reported from many parts of the world including India, however concurrent infection with more than one serotype of dengue viruses in the same individual is rarely documented. An outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS occurred in and around Delhi in 2006. This is the first report from India with high percentage of concurrent infections with different dengue virus serotypes circulating during one outbreak. Results Acute phase sera from patients were tested for the presence of dengue virus RNA by RT-PCR assay. Of the 69 samples tested for dengue virus RNA, 48 (69.5% were found to be positive. All the four dengue virus serotypes were found to be co-circulating in this outbreak with DENV-3 being the predominant serotype. In addition in 9 of 48 (19% dengue virus positive samples, concurrent infection with more than one dengue virus serotype were identified. Conclusion This is the first report in which concurrent infections with different dengue virus serotypes is being reported during an outbreak from India. Delhi is now truly hyperendemic for dengue.

  12. Variation of Ambient Ammonia Pollution in Relation With PM2.5 Characteristics in Winter of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    S., Sr.; Saxena, M., , Dr; Mandal, T. K., , Dr; Kotnala, R. K.; Sharma, S. K., , Dr

    2017-12-01

    Ambient ammonia, SO2 and NOx are primary precursor gases for the formation of particulate matter (PM2.5) which result in photochemical smog and haze formation specifically in winter season. The ambient ammonia, other trace gases and fine particles were monitored in winter season from Jan 2013 to Dec 2015 at CSIR-NPL, Delhi. The average mixing ratios of ambient NH3, NO, NO2 and SO2 over the entire period of winter season were recorded as 25.3±4.6 (ppb), 21.4±7.2 (ppb), 20.8±5.9 (ppb) and 1.9±0.5 (ppm), respectively. The NH4+ and other ionic species in PM2.5 were also simultaneously observed at the the study site to see the transformation of NH3 and NH4+. The results indicated that the concentration level of NH3 and NH4+/NH3 ratios grew simultaneously with the increase of PM2.5 levels. NH3 enhanced the formation of ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate and exert a significant impact on ion chemistry of PM2.5. In the wintertime atmosphere of urban Delhi, NH3 was sufficient in fully neutralizing the fine particulates. The important role of ammonia is recognized in increasing PM2.5 mass concentration as it help in formation of ammonium aerosol due to reaction with acid gases. Keywords: Air quality, Ammonia, Trace Gases, Particulates

  13. Resurrecting social infrastructure as a determinant of urban tuberculosis control in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Shivani; Sharma, Nandini; Joshi, Kulanand; Aggarwal, Nishi; Kannan, Anjur Tupil

    2014-01-17

    The key to universal coverage in tuberculosis (TB) management lies in community participation and empowerment of the population. Social infrastructure development generates social capital and addresses the crucial social determinants of TB, thereby improving program performance. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the concept of social infrastructure development for TB control in developing countries. This study aims to revive this concept and highlight the fact that documentation on ways to operationalize urban TB control is required from a holistic development perspective. Further, it explains how development of social infrastructure impacts health and development outcomes, especially with respect to TB in urban settings. A wide range of published Government records pertaining to social development parameters and TB program surveillance, between 2001 and 2011 in Delhi, were studied. Social infrastructure development parameters like human development index along with other indicators reflecting patient profile and habitation in urban settings were selected as social determinants of TB. These include adult literacy rates, per capita income, net migration rates, percentage growth in slum population, and percentage of urban population living in one-room dwelling units. The impact of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program on TB incidence was assessed as an annual decline in new TB cases notified under the program. Univariate linear regression was employed to examine the interrelationship between social development parameters and TB program outcomes. The decade saw a significant growth in most of the social development parameters in the State. TB program performance showed 46% increment in lives saved among all types of TB cases per 100,000 population. The 7% reduction in new TB case notifications from the year 2001 to 2011, translates to a logarithmic decline of 5.4 new TB cases per 100,000 population. Except per capita income, literacy, and net

  14. Assessment of land surface temperature and heat fluxes over Delhi using remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Surya Deb; Kant, Yogesh; Mitra, Debashis

    2015-01-15

    Surface energy processes has an essential role in urban weather, climate and hydrosphere cycles, as well in urban heat redistribution. The research was undertaken to analyze the potential of Landsat and MODIS data in retrieving biophysical parameters in estimating land surface temperature & heat fluxes diurnally in summer and winter seasons of years 2000 and 2010 and understanding its effect on anthropogenic heat disturbance over Delhi and surrounding region. Results show that during years 2000-2010, settlement and industrial area increased from 5.66 to 11.74% and 4.92 to 11.87% respectively which in turn has direct effect on land surface temperature (LST) and heat fluxes including anthropogenic heat flux. Based on the energy balance model for land surface, a method to estimate the increase in anthropogenic heat flux (Has) has been proposed. The settlement and industrial areas has higher amounts of energy consumed and has high values of Has in all seasons. The comparison of satellite derived LST with that of field measured values show that Landsat estimated values are in close agreement within error of ±2 °C than MODIS with an error of ±3 °C. It was observed that, during 2000 and 2010, the average change in surface temperature using Landsat over settlement & industrial areas of both seasons is 1.4 °C & for MODIS data is 3.7 °C. The seasonal average change in anthropogenic heat flux (Has) estimated using Landsat & MODIS is up by around 38 W/m(2) and 62 W/m(2) respectively while higher change is observed over settlement and concrete structures. The study reveals that the dynamic range of Has values has increased in the 10 year period due to the strong anthropogenic influence over the area. The study showed that anthropogenic heat flux is an indicator of the strength of urban heat island effect, and can be used to quantify the magnitude of the urban heat island effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. What Is Clean Cities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  16. Cities spearhead climate action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Following President Trump's withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, cities worldwide have pledged support to combat climate change. Along with a growing coalition of businesses and institutions, cities represent a beacon of hope for carbon reduction in politically tumultuous times.

  17. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...

  18. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate...

  19. Performance of a community-based health and nutrition-education intervention in the management of diarrhoea in a slum of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Smriti; Kumar, Geeta Trilok; Toteja, G S

    2010-12-01

    Diarrhoeal infections are the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and continue to take a high toll on child health. Mushrooming of slums due to continuous urbanization has made diarrhoea one of the biggest public-health challenges in metropolitan cities in India. The objective of the study was to carry out a community-based health and nutrition-education intervention, focusing on several factors influencing child health with special emphasis on diarrhoea, in a slum of Delhi, India. Mothers (n=370) of children, aged >12-71 months, identified by a door-to-door survey from a large urban slum, were enrolled in the study in two groups, i.e. control and intervention. To ensure minimal group interaction, enrollment for the control and intervention groups was done purposively from two extreme ends of the slum cluster. Baseline assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices on diarrhoea-related issues, such as oral rehydration therapy (ORT), oral rehydration salt (ORS), and continuation of breastfeeding during diarrhoea, was carried out using a pretested questionnaire. Thereafter, mothers (n=195) from the intervention area were provided health and nutrition education through fortnightly contacts achieved by two approaches developed for the study--'personal discussion sessions' and 'lane approach'. The mothers (n=175) from the control area were not contacted. After the intervention, there was a significant (p=0.000) improvement in acquaintance to the term 'ORS' (65-98%), along with its method of reconstitution from packets (13-69%); preparation of home-made sugar-salt solution (10-74%); role of both in the prevention of dehydration (30-74%) and importance of their daily preparation (74-96%); and continuation of breastfeeding during diarrhoea (47-90%) in the intervention area. Sensitivity about age-specific feeding of ORS also improved significantly (p=0.000) from 13% to 88%. The reported usage of ORS packets and sugar-salt solution improved significantly from 12% to 65

  20. Revisiting city connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a new perspective on city connectivity in order to analyze non-hub cities and their position in the world economy. The author revisits the different approaches discussed in the Global Commodity Chains (GCC), Global Production Networks (GPN) and World City Network (WCN)

  1. Smart city analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper; Hansen, Christian; Alstrup, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    is very useful when full records are not accessible or available. Smart city analytics does not necessarily require full city records. To our knowledge this preliminary study is the first to predict large increases in home care for smart city analytics....

  2. Imagineering the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.; Paddison, R.; Hutton, T.

    2015-01-01

    Cities today are products. The urban experience is commodified into marketable items by urban entrepreneurs. Urban administrations, city marketers, politicians, local businesses and other actors all over the world are developing entrepreneurial strategies to sell their city. From "‘I ♥ New York"’ to

  3. Forum on Microbial Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    communities adapt and respond to environmental stimuli; and potential applications for improving human, animal, plant, and ecosystem health... homeostasis ”, barrier integrity, and colonization re- sistance to pathogens. Research on these interactions will help to characterize microbial contributions

  4. Evolution of microbial pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DiRita, Victor J; Seifert, H. Steven

    2006-01-01

    ... A. Hogan vvi ■ CONTENTS 8. Evolution of Pathogens in Soil Rachel Muir and Man-Wah Tan / 131 9. Experimental Models of Symbiotic Host-Microbial Relationships: Understanding the Underpinnings of ...

  5. Ocean microbial metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhof, Lee J.; Goodman, Robert M.

    2009-09-01

    Technology for accessing the genomic DNA of microorganisms, directly from environmental samples without prior cultivation, has opened new vistas to understanding microbial diversity and functions. Especially as applied to soils and the oceans, environments on Earth where microbial diversity is vast, metagenomics and its emergent approaches have the power to transform rapidly our understanding of environmental microbiology. Here we explore select recent applications of the metagenomic suite to ocean microbiology.

  6. Occurrence and characterization of multidrugresistant new delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1- producing bacteria isolated between 2003 and 2010 in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Islam (Mohammad S.); M.N. Huq (Mohammed); A. Nabi (Ashikun); P.K. Talukdar (Prabhat Kumar); D. Ahmed (Dilruba); K.A. Talukder (Kaisar); A. Cravioto (Alejandro); H.P. Endtz (Hubert)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to screen for reduced susceptibility against imipenem and the presence of the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) gene in a collection of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Shigella spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae) from different surveillance studies

  7. Reducing Tobacco Use among Low Socio-Economic Status Youth in Delhi, India: Outcomes from Project ACTIVITY, a Cluster Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Melissa B.; Arora, Monika; Bassi, Shalini; Gupta, Vinay K.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2016-01-01

    To test the efficacy of an intervention to reduce tobacco use among youth (10-19 years old) in slum communities in Delhi, India. This community-based cluster-randomized trial included 14 slums composed of purposely built resettlement colonies and adjacent inhabitant-built Jhuggi Jhopris. Youth in the intervention received a 2 year…

  8. How can power discourses be changed? : Contrasting the ‘daughter deficit’ policy of the Delhi government with Gandhi and King’s transformational reframing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Sinha (Manisha); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSocial policy impact is partly determined by how policy is articulated and advocated, including which values are highlighted and how. We examine the influence of policy framing and reframing on outcomes, with particular reference to policies of the Delhi state government in India that

  9. How can power discourses be changed? - Contrasting the ‘daughter deficit’ policy of the Delhi government with Gandhi and King’s transformational reframing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); M. Sinha (Manisha)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSocial policy impact is partly determined by how policy is articulated and advocated, including which values are highlighted and how. In this paper, we examine the influence of policy framing and reframing on outcomes, with particular reference to the policies of the Delhi state

  10. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering Assessments and the Impact of City Size on Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe

    mass concentration, is also expected to scale the same way. Experimental data for five cities: Mexico City, Mexico; Las Vegas and Reno, NV, USA; Beijing, China; and Delhi, India (the data for the last two cities were obtained from the literature); are in reasonable accord with the model. The scaling relation provided by the model may be considered a useful metric depending on the assumption that specific city conditions (such as latitude, altitude, local meteorological conditions, degree of industrialization, population density, number of cars per capita, city shape, etc.) vary randomly, independent of city size. While more detailed studies (including data from more cities) are needed, we believe that this relatively weak dependence of the pollution concentration on the city population might help to explain why the worsening of urban air quality does not directly lead to a decrease in the rate of growth in city population.

  11. Microbial bioinformatics 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallen, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    Microbial bioinformatics in 2020 will remain a vibrant, creative discipline, adding value to the ever-growing flood of new sequence data, while embracing novel technologies and fresh approaches. Databases and search strategies will struggle to cope and manual curation will not be sustainable during the scale-up to the million-microbial-genome era. Microbial taxonomy will have to adapt to a situation in which most microorganisms are discovered and characterised through the analysis of sequences. Genome sequencing will become a routine approach in clinical and research laboratories, with fresh demands for interpretable user-friendly outputs. The "internet of things" will penetrate healthcare systems, so that even a piece of hospital plumbing might have its own IP address that can be integrated with pathogen genome sequences. Microbiome mania will continue, but the tide will turn from molecular barcoding towards metagenomics. Crowd-sourced analyses will collide with cloud computing, but eternal vigilance will be the price of preventing the misinterpretation and overselling of microbial sequence data. Output from hand-held sequencers will be analysed on mobile devices. Open-source training materials will address the need for the development of a skilled labour force. As we boldly go into the third decade of the twenty-first century, microbial sequence space will remain the final frontier! © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Assessment of the intensity and spatial variability of urban heat islands over the Indian cities for Regional Climate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, S.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.

    2016-12-01

    The Urban heat island (UHI) in general developed over cities, due to the drastic changes in land use and land cover (LULC), has profound impact on the atmospheric circulation patterns due to the changes in the energy transport mechanism which in turn affect the regional climate. In this study, an attempt has been made to quantify the intensity of UHI, and to identify the pockets of UHI over cities during last decade over fast developing cosmopolitan Indian cities such as New Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. For this purpose, Landsat TM and ETM+ images during winter period, in about 5 year intervals from 2002 to 2013, has been selected to retrieve the brightness temperatures and land use/cover, from which Land Surface Temperature (LST) has been estimated using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Normalized Difference Build-up Index (NDBI) and Normalized Difference Bareness Index (NDBaI) are estimated to extract build-up areas and bare land from the satellite images to identify the UHI pockets over the study area. For this purpose image processing and GIS tools were employed. Results reveal a significant increase in the intensity of UHI and increase in its area of influence over all the three cities. An increase of 2 to 2.5 oC of UHI intensity over the study regions has been noticed. The range of increase in UHI intensity is found to be more over New Delhi compared to Mumbai and Kolkata which is more or less same. The number of hotspot pockets of UHI has also been increased as seen from the spatial distribution of LST, NDVI and NDBI. This result signifies the impact of rapid urbanization and infrastructural developments has a direct consequence in modulating the regional climate over the Indian cities.

  13. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...... premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make...

  14. Digging the New York City Skyline: soil fungal communities in green roofs and city parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Krista L; Payne, Sara G; Palmer, Matthew I; Gillikin, Caitlyn M; Keefe, Dominique; Kim, Su Jin; Gedallovich, Seren M; Discenza, Julia; Rangamannar, Ramya; Koshner, Jennifer A; Massmann, Audrey L; Orazi, Giulia; Essene, Adam; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    In urban environments, green roofs provide a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings. However, little research has been done on the non-plant biota associated with green roofs, which likely affect their functionality. For the current study, we evaluated whether or not green roofs planted with two native plant communities in New York City functioned as habitats for soil fungal communities, and compared fungal communities in green roof growing media to soil microbial composition in five city parks, including Central Park and the High Line. Ten replicate roofs were sampled one year after planting; three of these roofs were more intensively sampled and compared to nearby city parks. Using Illumina sequencing of the fungal ITS region we found that green roofs supported a diverse fungal community, with numerous taxa belonging to fungal groups capable of surviving in disturbed and polluted habitats. Across roofs, there was significant biogeographical clustering of fungal communities, indicating that community assembly of roof microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities were compositionally distinct from city parks and only 54% of the green roof taxa were also found in the park soils. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed that park soils had greater microbial biomass and higher bacterial to fungal ratios than green roof substrates. City park soils were also more enriched with heavy metals, had lower pH, and lower quantities of total bases (Ca, K, and Mg) compared to green roof substrates. While fungal communities were compositionally distinct across green roofs, they did not differentiate by plant community. Together, these results suggest that fungi living in the growing medium of green roofs may be an underestimated component of these biotic systems functioning to support some of the valued ecological services of green roofs.

  15. Pattern of Self Prescribed Analgesic Use in a Rural Area of Delhi: Exploring the Potential Role of Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Anjali; Gupta, Tanya

    2017-07-01

    Analgesics are the most common self prescribed drugs. Although considered to be relatively safe, side effects are often seen when these drugs are used for prolonged period, in high doses or used where contraindicated. Majority of the consumers are not aware of the side effects. These days ample amount of information is available on web, it is important to explore its role in educating the population regarding the safe use of self prescribed analgesics. To explore pattern of analgesic use, to identify population at risk of developing side effects related to analgesic use, awareness of side effects and potential role of internet to bring awareness about safe use of self prescribed analgesic drugs in a rural area of Delhi. A cross-sectional survey based study was done on 500 adults in the age group of 18-65 years of Madanpur Khadar area of South Delhi, India. Data collection was done by conducting visits to pharmacy shops from the people who were buying drugs without prescription and taking face to face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive tests with Microsoft office excel 2007. Results of our study showed that among all the self prescribed analgesics paracetamol (57%) was used most frequently followed by aspirin and other NSAIDs. It was found that 9.6% of the consumers were having associated co-morbid illness, 11.4% were simultaneously taking other drugs and 15.2% were alcoholics. Majority (65.4%) of the buyers were not aware about any kind of side effects of the analgesics. Internet friendly consumers were found to be 44%. Ability to use internet and education level were found to be directly related (r=0.802). The pattern of analgesic consumption in the rural population of Delhi shows that a large number of consumers may be at risk of developing side effects of self prescribed analgesics. The awareness about the side effects is limited. A significant number of consumers are internet friendly. Hence

  16. Chemical characterization of PM1.0 aerosol in Delhi and source apportionment using positive matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiprakash; Singhai, Amrita; Habib, Gazala; Raman, Ramya Sunder; Gupta, Tarun

    2017-01-01

    Fine aerosol fraction (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <= 1.0 μm (PM) 1.0 ) over the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi campus was monitored day and night (10 h each) at 30 m height from November 2009 to March 2010. The samples were analyzed for 5 ions (NH 4 + , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , F - , and Cl - ) and 12 trace elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Ni). Importantly, secondary aerosol (sulfate and nitrate) formation was observed during dense foggy events, supporting the fog-smog-fog cycle. A total of 76 samples were used for source apportionment of PM mass. Six factors were resolved by PMF analyses and were identified as secondary aerosol, secondary chloride, biomass burning, soil dust, iron-rich source, and vehicular emission. The geographical location of the sources and/or preferred transport pathways was identified by conditional probability function (for local sources) and potential source contribution function (for regional sources) analyses. Medium- and small-scale metal processing (e.g. steel sheet rolling) industries in Haryana and National Capital Region (NCR) Delhi, coke and petroleum refining in Punjab, and thermal power plants in Pakistan, Punjab, and NCR Delhi were likely contributors to secondary sulfate, nitrate, and secondary chloride at the receptor site. The agricultural residue burning after harvesting season (Sept-Dec and Feb-Apr) in Punjab, and Haryana contributed to potassium at receptor site during November-December and March 2010. The soil dust from North and East Pakistan, and Rajasthan, North-East Punjab, and Haryana along with the local dust contributed to soil dust at the receptor site, during February and March 2010. A combination of temporal behavior and air parcel trajectory ensemble analyses indicated that the iron-rich source was most likely a local source attributed to emissions from metal processing facilities. Further, as expected, the vehicular emissions source did not show any seasonality and

  17. Association between full service and fast food restaurant density, dietary intake and overweight/obesity among adults in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Opal; Shahulhameed, Safraj; Shivashankar, Roopa; Tayyab, Mohammad; Rahman, Atiqur; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tandon, Nikhil; Jaacks, Lindsay M

    2017-07-19

    The food environment has been implicated as an underlying contributor to the global obesity epidemic. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between the food environment, dietary intake, and overweight/obesity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study was to assess the association of full service and fast food restaurant density with dietary intake and overweight/obesity in Delhi, India. Data are from a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in Delhi. Using multilevel cluster random sampling, 5364 participants were selected from 134 census enumeration blocks (CEBs). Geographic information system data were available for 131 CEBs (n = 5264) from a field survey conducted using hand-held global positioning system devices. The number of full service and fast food restaurants within a 1-km buffer of CEBs was recorded by trained staff using ArcGIS software, and participants were assigned to tertiles of full service and fast food restaurant density based on their resident CEB. Height and weight were measured using standardized procedures and overweight/obesity was defined as a BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 . The most common full service and fast food restaurants were Indian savory restaurants (57.2%) and Indian sweet shops (25.8%). Only 14.1% of full service and fast food restaurants were Western style. After adjustment for age, household income, education, and tobacco and alcohol use, participants in the highest tertile of full service and fast food restaurant density were less likely to consume fruit and more likely to consume refined grains compared to participants in the lowest tertile (both p fast food restaurant density were significantly more likely to be overweight/obese: odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.44 (1.24, 1.67). After adjustment for age, household income, and education, the effect was attenuated: 1.08 (0.92, 1.26). Results were consistent with further adjustment for tobacco and alcohol use, moderate physical

  18. A cross-sectional study of QOL of diabetic patients at tertiary care hospitals in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Yogesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to WHO estimates India will be the global capital of diabetes by 2025, accounting for 57.2 million diabetics. Worsening the situation is the fact that diabetes affects the economically productive age-group (45-65 years in developing countries. Objective : To measure quality of life (QOL and study the clinical profiles and associated sociodemographic factors affecting diabetic patients aged 20 years and above. Materials and Methods: We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study using a generic instrument, Short-Form 36 (SF-36 of the Medical Outcome Study Group to measure QOL of diabetic subjects aged ≥20 years. Two hundred and sixty diabetics, including 91 males and 169 females, were selected from the clinics of SSK Hospital and Dr RML Hospital of New Delhi. Data was analysed using SPSS for Windows, version 12. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 years, with 80% of respondents being in the age-group of 40-69 years. The majority (52.1% of female respondents were illiterate and 91.1% were economically dependent. Of the male respondents, 65.9% were skilled workers. Substance abuse was present among 41.8% male subjects. Type 2 diabetes was the commonest, with 94.6% of the subjects having this form. The mean duration of diabetes was 6.96 ± 6.08 years. Oral hypoglycemic agents were being taken by 70.77% of the respondents. Among the diabetics the most common comorbidity was hypertension (30.8% and the commonest complication was neuropathy (26.2%. We calculated the body mass index (BMI of all subjects and found that, 46.2% of the male and 59.8% of the female respondents were either overweight or obese. As predicted by the waist/hip ratio (WHR, 53.8% of the male and 66.9% of the female respondents had high risk for CHD. Regular physical activity was undertaken by less than half of the subjects (46.5%. Out of eight domains of QOL in the SF-36, the two most affected were ′General Health′ and

  19. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  20. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  1. Measurement of radon activity, exhalation rate and radiation dose in fly ash and coal samples from NTPC, Badarpur, Delhi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mamta; Verma, K.D.; Mahur, A.K.; Prasad, R.; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study radon activities and exhalation rates from fly ash and coal samples from NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation) situated at Badarpur, Delhi, India, have been measured. 'Sealed Can Technique' using LR-115 type II track detectors was employed. In fly ash samples, radon activity has been found to vary from 400.0 ± 34.7 to 483.9 ± 38.1Bqm -3 with an average value of 447.1 ± 36.6 Bqm -3 and in coal samples, radon activity has been found to vary from 504.0 ± 39.0 to 932.1 ± 52.9 Bqm -3 with an average value of 687.2 ± 45.2 Bqm -3 . Radon exhalation rate from coal is found to be higher than radon exhalation rate from its ash products, whereas the opposite is expected. Indoor inhalation exposure (radon) effective dose has also been estimated. (author)

  2. Breakdowns and solutions in 15 UD pelletron ion accelerator facility at Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, R.; Singh, P.; Suraj; Nishal, S.M.; Panwar, N.S.; Singh, M.P.; Kumar, R.; Prasad, J.; Sota, M.; Patel, V.P.; Sharma, R.P.; Kumar, Pankaj; Devi, K.D.; Ojha, S.; Gargari, S.; Chopra, S.; Kanjilal, D.

    2013-01-01

    15UD Pelletron accelerator, installed in Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, is a tandem ion accelerator and is performing well since its commissioning. Constant efforts have been put to keep high uptime and better performance of the accelerator for more than two decades. In recent years, the facility was improved by many modifications and up gradations. It has also gone through a few major breakdowns related to charging system and fiber optic cables. Out of two charging systems, one system failed and devices housed in tank stopped working due to the damage of fiber optic cables. The reasons for both of these breakdowns were studied thoroughly. The entire charging system and fiber optic cable network have been rebuilt and tested. The diagnostic techniques and maintenance methods for these two breakdowns will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  3. Empirical model for estimating dengue incidence using temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity: a 19-year retrospective analysis in East Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Vishnampettai G; Roy, Priyamvada; Das, Shukla; Mogha, Narendra Singh; Bansal, Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aedes mosquitoes are responsible for transmitting the dengue virus. The mosquito lifecycle is known to be influenced by temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity. This retrospective study was planned to investigate whether climatic factors could be used to predict the occurrence of dengue in East Delhi. The number of monthly dengue cases reported over 19 years was obtained from the laboratory records of our institution. Monthly data of rainfall, temperature, and humidity collected from a local weather station were correlated with the number of monthly reported dengue cases. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyse whether the climatic parameters differed significantly among seasons. Four models were developed using negative binomial generalized linear model analysis. Monthly rainfall, temperature, humidity, were used as independent variables, and the number of dengue cases reported monthly was used as the dependent variable. The first model considered data from the same month, while the other three models involved incorporating data with a lag phase of 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively. The greatest number of cases was reported during the post-monsoon period each year. Temperature, rainfall, and humidity varied significantly across the pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon periods. The best correlation between these three climatic factors and dengue occurrence was at a time lag of 2 months. This study found that temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity significantly affected dengue occurrence in East Delhi. This weather-based dengue empirical model can forecast potential outbreaks 2-month in advance, providing an early warning system for intensifying dengue control measures.

  4. Characteristics and programme-defined treatment outcomes among childhood tuberculosis (TB patients under the national TB programme in Delhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinath Satyanarayana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB patients under India's Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP are managed using diagnostic algorithms and directly observed treatment with intermittent thrice-weekly short-course treatment regimens for 6-8 months. The assignment into pre-treatment weight bands leads to drug doses (milligram per kilogram that are lower than current World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for some patients. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of our study was to describe the baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes reported under RNTCP for registered childhood (age <15 years TB patients in Delhi. Additionally, we compared the reported programmatic treatment completion rates between children treated as per WHO recommended anti-TB drug doses with those children treated with anti-TB drug doses below that recommended in WHO guidelines. METHODS: For this cross-sectional retrospective study, we reviewed programme records of all 1089 TB patients aged <15 years registered for TB treatment from January to June, 2008 in 6 randomly selected districts of Delhi. WHO disease classification and treatment outcome definitions are used by RNTCP, and these were extracted as reported in programme records. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Among 1074 patients with records available, 651 (61% were females, 122 (11% were <5 years of age, 1000 (93% were new cases, and 680 (63% had extra-pulmonary TB (EP-TB--most commonly peripheral lymph node disease [310 (46%]. Among 394 pulmonary TB (PTB cases, 165 (42% were sputum smear-positive. The overall reported treatment completion rate was 95%. Similar reported treatment completion rates were found in all subgroups assessed, including those patients whose drug dosages were lower than that currently recommended by WHO. Further studies are needed to assess the reasons for the low proportion of under-5 years of age TB case notifications, address challenges in reaching all childhood TB patients by RNTCP, the

  5. Non-albicans Candida species in blood stream infections in a tertiary care hospital at New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Jaswinder Kaur; Wattal, Chand; Goel, Neeraj; Raveendran, Reena; Datta, S; Prasad, Kamaljeet

    2012-12-01

    During recent decades, there has been a change in the epidemiology of Candida infections, characterized by a progressive shift from a predominance of Candida albicans to non-albicans Candida species. This study was undertaken to analyze the change in the epidemiology of candidaemia and antifungal use at tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India, over a period of 10 years. A retrospective review of candidaemia between 1999 and 2008 and antifungal use from 2000 to 2008 was performed at Sir Ganga Ram Hosptial, New Delhi. Initially (1999-2005), isolates were differentiated as C. albicans and non- albicans Candida species. Between 2006-2008, these were identified to the species level and antifungal susceptibility was performed. The occurrence of candidaemia and total antifungal use increased significantly. Candidaemia due to non-albicans species increased and this was correlated with an increasing use of fluconazole. There was emergence and increased isolation of a novel species C. haemulonii with decreased susceptibility to both amphotericin B and azoles. Overall, sensitivities of 89.6, 90.9, 88.6, 68.8 and 54.3 per cent to amphotericin B, 5 flucytosine, voriconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole, respectively were observed. Cross-resistance or reduced susceptibility to both fluconazole (MIC >16 μg/ml) and voriconazole was observed in 11.3 per cent isolates. The study demonstrates a shift to non-albicans Candida species causing fungaemia and the emergence of amphotericin B and azole resistant novel species, C. haemulonii. Decreased susceptibility to fluconazole, as well as the threat of emergence of cross-resistance to voriconazole in the background of high azole consumption may limit the use of these agents as a presumptive therapy for Candida blood stream infections (BSI).

  6. Periodontal status and oral health-related quality of life in elderly residents of aged care homes in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhi, Amit; Marya, Charu Mohan; Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Nagpal, Ruchi; Dhingra, Chandan; Kataria, Sakshi

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between clinical periodontal findings and oral health-related quality of life in elderly people residing in the aged care homes of Delhi, India. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 500 residents of aged care homes across Delhi. Data were collected by carrying out clinical oral examinations and by filling a self-administered questionnaire. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed by a pretested Hindi version of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-Hi). Periodontal status was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index - CPI, and loss of attachment and tooth mobility was assessed using a modified Miller's index. Of a total of 500 participants, 221 (44.20%) were men and 279 (55.80%) were women The mean additive score GOHAI score was 41.57 ± 6.07 and the mean number of negative impacts or mean simple count GOHAI score was 6.27 ± 1.54. Mean GOHAI scores were significantly higher among men than women, and were found to be decreasing continuously with the increasing age categories. Tooth mobility and loss of attachment scores were found to be significantly associated with oral health-related quality of life, whereas Community Periodontal Index scores showed a negative correlation with it. The geriatric population, especially those in aged care homes, is a special need group because of their inability to access dental care rather than some particular feature of their oral or general health The findings of the present study point to a need to improve access to oral healthcare for this elderly population. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Mineralogical Mapping using Field and Image Based Spectra in Parts of Delhi-Aravalli Fold Belt, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmuda Khatun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to retrieve reflectance utilizing the raw (radiance data from EO-1 Hyperion dataset and to evaluate its application potential in mineral exploration in parts of Delhi-Aravalli Fold Belt region of western India. The area is marked by basement Precambrian gneissic rocks, overlain by supra crustal cover of the Aravalli Super group, Delhi Super group, Vindhyan Super group and younger rocks. These rocks are highly metamorphosed, structurally deformed and show sporadic occurrences of important ore minerals deposits of metallic (Pb, Zn, Cu and non metallic minerals (Apatite and Marbles. This paper involves generation of hyperspectral image spectra and field spectra to identify spectral characteristics of minerals. FLAASH (expansion atmospheric correction model was applied to retrieve reflectance image from the radiance data. Preprocessing techniques involved selection of good spectral bands, correction of missing lines and pixels before application of FLAASH atmospheric model. Using image processing techniques suitable for hyperspectral image analysis (Spectral Angle Mapper, MNF, End-member matching, Hyperion data over Udaipur, Dungarpur and Chittorgarh districts was analysed and minerals were identified such as rectorite, pyrope, dolomite, montmorillonite, erionite, talc, phologopite, pyrrohite, hematite,olivine, diopside, pyrite, tephrite, lepidolite, andalusite and Fe-rich chlorite. The end member map generated by using advance techniques like SAM was validated using ground truth and spot sample collected, therein, was further analyzed using spectro radiometer in VNIR range. Keeping view on the ubiquitous hydrothermal origin of base metals, special emphasis was put to clay-mica group of minerals as they often proxy for the zone of alteration. This lead to defining the exact zone of hydrothermal alteration throwing light on proximity with igneous intrusion and type associated of metal. Application of such technology

  8. Distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in solid waste from selected sites in the industrial belt of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moturi, M C Z; Rawat, M; Subramanian, V

    2004-07-01

    Solid waste samples were collected from five small-scale industrial sites in the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi. These industrial sites represent the regional spread of the industrial belt in the NCT of Delhi. Solid waste samples were digested using aqua-regia and HF in air tight teflon bombs for the quantitative analysis of heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn) by GBC model 902 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Hg was analysed using hydrid generator attachment. Beside this sequential extraction was used to fractionate five heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd, Cu and Zn) into six operationally defined phases, viz. water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate-bound, Fe-Mn oxides, organic-bound and residual fractions to ascertain the relative mobility of these metals. The result obtained showed metal concentration to be in the range of Hg 0.42-2.3; Pb 23-530; Cd 014-224; Mn 494-19 964; Fe 35 684-233 119; Ni 192-1534; Cu 3065-10 144 and Zn 116-23 321 (all units in mg kg(-1)) in all the industrial areas studied. The fractionated toxic metals like Pb, Ni and Cd were observed to be in the range of 25-35, 15-50 and 40-50%, respectively, in mobile or bio-available fractions of solid waste. As this waste is often disposed-off by the roadsides, low lying areas, abandoned quarries or in landfill sites which are often not properly planned, thus posing potential risk to ground and surface water quality to millions of people living downstream.

  9. [Healthy Cities projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Takehito

    2002-05-01

    This is a review article on "Healthy Cities". The Healthy Cities programme has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to tackle urban health and environmental issues in a broad way. It is a kind of comprehensive policy package to carry out individual projects and activities effectively and efficiently. Its key aspects include healthy public policy, vision sharing, high political commitment, establishment of structural organization, strategic health planning, intersectoral collaboration, community participation, setting approach, development of supportive environment for health, formation of city health profile, national and international networking, participatory research, periodic monitoring and evaluation, and mechanisms for sustainability of projects. The present paper covered the Healthy Cities concept and approaches, rapid urbanization in the world, developments of WHO Healthy Cities, Healthy Cities developments in the Western Pacific Region, the health promotion viewpoint, and roles of research.

  10. Global Microbial Identifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Peter; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    -source systems. There is therefore an obvious need to develop a global system of whole microbial genome databases to aggregate, share, mine and use microbiological genomic data, to address global public health and clinical challenges, and most importantly to identify and diagnose infectious diseases. The global...... of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect outbreaks and emerging pathogens. To harness the full potential of WGS, a shared global database of genomes linked to relevant metadata and the necessary software tools needs to be generated, hence the global...... microbial identifier (GMI) initiative. This tool will ideally be used in amongst others in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in humans and animals, in the identification of microorganisms in food and environment, and to track and trace microbial agents in all arenas globally. This will require...

  11. Procedural semantic cities

    OpenAIRE

    Roglà Pujalt, Otger; Pelechano Gómez, Núria; Patow, Gustavo Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Procedural modeling of virtual cities has achieved high levels of realism with little effort from the user. One can rapidly obtain a large city using off-the-shelf software based on procedural techniques, such as the use of CGA. However in order to obtain realistic virtual cities it is necessary to include virtual humanoids that behave realistically adapting to such environment. The first step towards achieving this goal requires tagging the environment with semantics, which is a time consumi...

  12. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  13. Microbial Load Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, S. F.; Royer, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    The Microbial Load Monitor (MLM) is an automated and computerized system for detection and identification of microorganisms. Additionally, the system is designed to enumerate and provide antimicrobic susceptibility profiles for medically significant bacteria. The system is designed to accomplish these tasks in a time of 13 hours or less versus the traditional time of 24 hours for negatives and 72 hours or more for positives usually required for standard microbiological analysis. The MLM concept differs from other methods of microbial detection in that the system is designed to accept raw untreated clinical samples and to selectively identify each group or species that may be present in a polymicrobic sample.

  14. Population density controls on microbial pollution across the Ganga catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milledge, D G; Gurjar, S K; Bunce, J T; Tare, V; Sinha, R; Carbonneau, P E

    2018-01-01

    For millions of people worldwide, sewage-polluted surface waters threaten water security, food security and human health. Yet the extent of the problem and its causes are poorly understood. Given rapid widespread global urbanisation, the impact of urban versus rural populations is particularly important but unknown. Exploiting previously unpublished archival data for the Ganga (Ganges) catchment, we find a strong non-linear relationship between upstream population density and microbial pollution, and predict that these river systems would fail faecal coliform standards for irrigation waters available to 79% of the catchment's 500 million inhabitants. Overall, this work shows that microbial pollution is conditioned by the continental-scale network structure of rivers, compounded by the location of cities whose growing populations contribute c. 100 times more microbial pollutants per capita than their rural counterparts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Theme city or gated community - images of future cities

    OpenAIRE

    Helenius-Mäki, Leena

    2002-01-01

    The future of the cities has been under discussion since the first city. It has been typical in every civilisation and era to hope for a better city. Creek philosopher Platon created image of future city where all men were equal and the city was ruled by philosophers minds. Many philosopher or later social scientist have ended up to similar "hope to be city". The form and type of the better city has depended from creators of those future city images. The creators have had their future city im...

  16. Big data, smart cities and city planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Michael

    2013-11-01

    I define big data with respect to its size but pay particular attention to the fact that the data I am referring to is urban data, that is, data for cities that are invariably tagged to space and time. I argue that this sort of data are largely being streamed from sensors, and this represents a sea change in the kinds of data that we have about what happens where and when in cities. I describe how the growth of big data is shifting the emphasis from longer term strategic planning to short-term thinking about how cities function and can be managed, although with the possibility that over much longer periods of time, this kind of big data will become a source for information about every time horizon. By way of conclusion, I illustrate the need for new theory and analysis with respect to 6 months of smart travel card data of individual trips on Greater London's public transport systems.

  17. EVA Suit Microbial Leakage Investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to collect microbial samples from various EVA suits to determine how much microbial contamination is typically released during...

  18. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  19. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  20. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  1. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    cities. This theoretical curiosity is reflected in the rising interest in urban strategy from practice. For instance, the World Bank regularly organizes an Urban Strategy Speaker Series, while the powerful network CEOs for Cities lobbies for a strategic approach to urban development. Critical scholars...

  2. Feeding the Sustainable City

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , many Southern cities are now re-examining their attitude to urban agriculture. The challenge they face is how to control agricultural activity so that it can be integrated into the city environment for the benefit of the urban farmers and the rest of ...

  3. Walkout in Crystal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  4. Innovation in City Governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny M; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans

    project in Copenhagen, Barcelona and Rotterdam. The book provides major new insights on how structures, networks and leadership in city governments shape the social innovation capacity of cities. It provides ground-breaking analyses of how governance structures and local socio-economic challenges...

  5. Smart networked cities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tranos, E.; Gertner, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to critically assess the lack of a global inter-urban perspective in the smart city policy framework from a conceptual standpoint. We argue here that the smart city policy agenda should be informed by and address the structure of transnational urban networks as this can affect the

  6. Innovation and the City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Neil; Forman, Adam; Ko, Jae; Giles, David; Bowles, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    With Washington trapped in budget battles and partisan gridlock, cities have emerged as the best source of government innovation. Nowhere is this more visible than in New York City. Since taking office in 2002, Mayor Bloomberg has introduced a steady stream of innovative policies, from a competition to recruit a new applied sciences campus and a…

  7. Distance Estimation in Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canter, David; Tagg, Stephen K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of eleven distance estimation studies made in seven cities and five countries are reported. Distances were estimated between various points within the cities in which the subjects were resident. In general, undergraduate residents' distance estimates correlated highly with actual distance, but the nonundergraduate group's did not.…

  8. Preface (to Playable Cities)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    In this book, we address the issue of playfulness and playability in intelligent and smart cities. Playful technology can be introduced and authorized by city authorities. This can be compared and is similar to the introduction of smart technology in theme and recreational parks. However, smart

  9. in benin city, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CURRENT PRACTICES IN INFANT NUTRITION. IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA. U.H. Oparaocha, O.M.Ibadin, C.D. Muogbo. The Roding Medical Centre, Victoria Island, Lagos and Departments of Child Health,. University of Benin/Teaching Hospital, Benin City,. ABSTRACT. A community based prospective study was carried out ...

  10. City Bug Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the wider contexts of digital policy, transparency, digitisation and how this changes city administration and the role of the (digital) publics, using City Bug Report as a design case. Employing a mix between design research and action research, the authors exemplify and analy...

  11. Cities, knowledge and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107712741; Lambooy, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current theories and empirical research on cities and the knowledge economy. Two recent and interrelated streams of literature are discussed: the first focusing on agglomeration economies related to increasing returns and knowledge spillovers of firms in cities

  12. City profile: Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrest, H.J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Paramaribo, the largest and only significant urban area in Suriname, is a typical primate city. The majority of the countries’ population resides here and the majority of political, social and economic functions is clustered in the urban zone. In the course of the 20th century, the city changed

  13. Sustainability for Shrinking Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinking cities are widespread throughout the world despite the rapidly increasing global urban population. These cities are attempting to transition to sustainable trajectories to improve the health and well-being of urban residents, to build their capacity to adapt to changing...

  14. Perceptions on hypertension among migrants in Delhi, India: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Yadlapalli S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The developing countries are experiencing epidemiological transition and hypertension has emerged as a major threat to health in these countries. Understanding people's perceptions is important for any prevention and control activities and lay explanatory models (EMs provide an opportunity to gain insights into the people's perceptions. This qualitative study is taken up with an objective of understanding EMs of neo- and settled-migrants regarding hypertension. Methods Qualitative methods with grounded theory approach were used to elicit EMs of hypertension held by neo- and settled-migrants. In-depth interviews with key-informants and focus group discussions with community members were conducted. The data were subjected to thorough reading and analysed by segregating the text under different themes. Results Hypertension has been perceived as a common and serious problem in the community. Lay conceptions have identified hypertension as symptomatic with ambiguity over perceived symptoms. City life has been perceived as a major predisposing factor for developing hypertension. City life has been corroborated with pollution and adulteration of food, stress, high fat diet along with physical inactivity and certain attitudes. The concepts of hypertension were interconnected and linked to their day-to-day living in the city. Inadequacy of awareness has been acknowledged and there was a felt need for awareness campaigns and screening programmes in the community. The EMs of hypertension among the neo- and settled-migrants and men and women were broadly similar. However, there were slight variations by gender and migration status in the perceived pathways to hypertension. Conclusion Hypertension has been perceived as a common and serious problem in the community. Hypertension has been perceived as symptomatic; however, ambiguity prevails over perceived symptoms. Awareness and knowledge about hypertension and its consequences are

  15. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  16. Smart City Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    This article reflects on the challenges for urban planning posed by the emergence of smart cities in network societies. In particular, it reflects on reductionist tendencies in existing smart city planning. Here the concern is with the implications of prior reductions of complexity which have been...... undertaken by placing primacy in planning on information technology, economical profit, and top-down political government. Rather than pointing urban planning towards a different ordering of these reductions, this article argues in favor of approaches to smart city planning via complexity theory....... Specifically, this article argues in favor of approaching smart city plans holistically as topologies of organized complexity. Here, smart city planning is seen as a theory and practice engaging with a complex adaptive urban system which continuously operates on its potential. The actualizations in the face...

  17. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Arora Monika; Nazar Gaurang P; Gupta Vinay K; Perry Cheryl L; Reddy K Srinath; Stigler Melissa H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight scho...

  18. On the occurrence of Common Baron (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidinae: Euthalia aconthea Cramer, 1777 in the Delhi area and analysis of abiotic factors affecting its distribution in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajv K. Singh Bais

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives details of the occurrence of Euthalia aconthea from Delhi area situated in the Indo-Gangetic plains.  Occurrence records of this species suggest that it is most frequent in five zones of India, despite the fact that its main larval food plant Mango Mangifera indica is abundantly available almost throughout India.  Possible abiotic factors are hypothesized for this distribution. 

  19. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  20. Determination of wood burning and fossil fuel contribution of black carbon at Delhi, India using aerosol light absorption technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S; Pipal, A S; Srivastava, A K; Bisht, D S; Pandithurai, G

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive measurement program of effective black carbon (eBC), fine particle (PM2.5), and carbon monoxide (CO) was undertaken during 1 December 2011 to 31 March 2012 (winter period) in Delhi, India. The mean mass concentrations of eBC, PM2.5, and CO were recorded as 12.1 ± 8.7 μg/m(3), 182.75 ± 114.5 μg/m(3), and 3.41 ± 1.6 ppm, respectively, during the study period. Also, the absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE) was estimated from eBC and varied from 0.38 to 1.29 with a mean value of 1.09 ± 0.11. The frequency of occurrence of AAE was ~17 % less than unity whereas ~83 % greater than unity was observed during the winter period in Delhi. The mass concentrations of eBC were found to be higher by ~34 % of the average value of eBC (12.1 μg/m(3)) during the study period. Sources of eBC were estimated, and they were ~94 % from fossil fuel (eBCff) combustion whereas only 6 % was from wood burning (eBCwb). The ratio between eBCff and eBCwb was 15, which indicates a higher impact from fossil fuels compared to biomass burning. When comparing eBCff during day and night, a factor of three higher concentrations was observed in nighttime than daytime, and it is due to combustion of fossil fuel (diesel vehicle emission) and shallow boundary layer conditions. The contribution of eBCwb in eBC was higher between 1800 and 2100 hours due to burning of wood/biomass. A significant correlation between eBC and PM2.5 (r = 0.78) and eBC and CO (r = 0.46) indicates the similarity in location sources. The mass concentration of eBC was highest (23.4 μg/m(3)) during the month of December when the mean visibility (VIS) was lowest (1.31 km). Regression analysis among wind speed (WS), VIS, soot particles, and CO was studied, and significant negative relationships were seen between VIS and eBC (-0.65), eBCff (-0.66), eBCwb (-0.34), and CO (-0.65); however, between WS and eBC (-0.68), eBCff (-0.67), eBCwb (-0.28), and CO (-0.53). The regression analysis indicated

  1. Quantifying enhancement in aerosol radiative forcing during ‘extreme aerosol days’ in summer at Delhi National Capital Region, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sumant [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Dey, Sagnik [Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, IIT Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Srivastava, Arun [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Changes in aerosol characteristics (spectral aerosol optical depth, AOD and composition) are examined during the transition from ‘relatively clean’ to ‘extreme’ aerosol days in the summer of 2012 at Delhi National Capital Region (NCR), India. AOD smaller than 0.54 (i.e. 12-year mean AOD − 1σ) represents ‘relatively clean’ days in Delhi during the summer. ‘Extreme’ days are defined by the condition when AOD{sub 0.5} exceeds 12-year mean AOD + 1 standard deviation (σ). Mean (± 1σ) AOD increases to 1.2 ± 0.12 along with a decrease of Angstrom Exponent from 0.54 ± 0.09 to 0.22 ± 0.12 during the ‘extreme’ days. Aerosol composition is inferred by fixing the number concentrations of various individual species through iterative tweaking when simulated (following Mie theory) AOD spectrum matches with the measured one. Contribution of coarse mode dust to aerosol mass increased from 76.8% (relatively clean) to 96.8% (extreme events), while the corresponding contributions to AOD{sub 0.5} increased from 35.0% to 70.8%. Spectrally increasing single scattering albedo (SSA) and CALIPSO aerosol sub-type information support the dominant presence of dust during the ‘extreme’ aerosol days. Aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) at the top-of-the-atmosphere increases from 21.2 W m{sup −2} (relatively clean) to 56.6 W m{sup −2} (extreme), while the corresponding change in surface ADRF is from − 99.5 W m{sup −2} to − 153.5 W m{sup −2}. Coarse mode dust contributes 60.3% of the observed surface ADRF during the ‘extreme’ days. On the contrary, 0.4% mass fraction of black carbon (BC) translates into 13.1% contribution to AOD{sub 0.5} and 33.5% to surface ADRF during the ‘extreme’ days. The atmospheric heating rate increased by 75.1% from 1.7 K/day to 2.96 K/day during the ‘extreme’ days. - Graphical abstract: Deviation (in %) of aerosol properties from ‘relatively clean’ days to ‘extreme’ aerosol days. - Highlights:

  2. Association between full service and fast food restaurant density, dietary intake and overweight/obesity among adults in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opal Patel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The food environment has been implicated as an underlying contributor to the global obesity epidemic. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between the food environment, dietary intake, and overweight/obesity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The aim of this study was to assess the association of full service and fast food restaurant density with dietary intake and overweight/obesity in Delhi, India. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in Delhi. Using multilevel cluster random sampling, 5364 participants were selected from 134 census enumeration blocks (CEBs. Geographic information system data were available for 131 CEBs (n = 5264 from a field survey conducted using hand-held global positioning system devices. The number of full service and fast food restaurants within a 1-km buffer of CEBs was recorded by trained staff using ArcGIS software, and participants were assigned to tertiles of full service and fast food restaurant density based on their resident CEB. Height and weight were measured using standardized procedures and overweight/obesity was defined as a BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Results The most common full service and fast food restaurants were Indian savory restaurants (57.2% and Indian sweet shops (25.8%. Only 14.1% of full service and fast food restaurants were Western style. After adjustment for age, household income, education, and tobacco and alcohol use, participants in the highest tertile of full service and fast food restaurant density were less likely to consume fruit and more likely to consume refined grains compared to participants in the lowest tertile (both p < 0.05. In unadjusted logistic regression models, participants in the highest versus lowest tertile of full service and fast food restaurant density were significantly more likely to be overweight/obese: odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 1.44 (1.24, 1.67. After adjustment for age

  3. A study to assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use among male adolescents in suburban area of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Thankam Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: To assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use among male adolescents in Sunder Nagari, New Delhi. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was designed to assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use among male adolescents in New Delhi. One hundred and ten adolescents were conveniently selected from Sunder Nagari, New Delhi. Adolescents aged more than 11 years and able to read and write Hindi or English were included in the study. A structured questionnaire for demographic variables was developed by researchers. To assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use, a structured questionnaire was prepared with the reliability coefficient of 0.94 (test-retest reliability with a content validity index of 0.90 between the experts. Data were collected from the subjects after getting their written consent. Data analyzed using statistical package SPSS version 17.0. The level of significance was set as P < 0.05. Results: The study findings revealed that nearly more than half (55.6% of the male adolescents reported the use of one or more substances in their lifetime. About 44.26% of the adolescents started to use substances before 13 years of age. Most common reason specified by the subjects to take substance were to be liked by friends (57.38%, to feel like an adult (24.6%, and few of them reported: “like the feeling of substances” (13.11% as reason for taking substances. Common substances used by the subjects were any kind of tobacco (77.05%, inhalants (26.23%, and alcohol (11.47%. Most of the subjects were getting substances from their friends (85.25% and only a few (14.75% by themselves. Association analyses revealed that adolescents who studied less than 10th standard reported more usage of any kind of substances than who studied more than 10th standard. More prevalence of substance use was seen among adolescents who were from nuclear family. Subjects who had less than two siblings reported more substance

  4. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rojas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of  technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects  the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City,  creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  5. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  6. Five-year measurements of ambient ammonia and its relationships with other trace gases at an urban site of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati; Sharma, S. K.; Mandal, T. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we present the 5-year measurements of ambient ammonia (NH3), oxides of nitrogen (NO and NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) along with the meteorological parameters at an urban site of Delhi, India from January 2011 to December 2015. The average mixing ratios of ambient NH3, NO, NO2 and CO over the entire period of observations were recorded as 19.3 ± 4.4 (ppb), 20.1 ± 5.9 (ppb), 18.6 ± 4.6 (ppb) and 1.8 ± 0.5 (ppm), respectively. The mixing ratios of NH3, NO, NO2 and CO were recorded highest during winter season, followed by summer and monsoon season. In the present case, a substantial seasonal variation of NH3 was observed during all the seasons except NO, NO2 and CO. The results emphasized that the traffic could be one of the significant sources of ambient NH3 at the urban site of Delhi as illustrated by positive correlations of NH3 with traffic related pollutants (NO x and CO). Surface wind as well as back trajectory analysis also supports the road side traffic and agricultural activities at the nearby area indicating possible major sources of ambient NH3 at observational site. Trajectory analysis, potential source contribution function and concentration weighted trajectory analysis indicated the surrounding nearby areas (NCR, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh) as a significant source region of ambient NH3 at the observational site of Delhi.

  7. Health care expenditure associated with overweight/obesity: a study among urban married women in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a multifaceted problem with wide-reaching medical, social and economic consequences. While health consequences are much known, but due to paucity of data, economic consequences are less known in India. The prevalence for excessive weight particularly among women population has been increasing dramatically in India in the last decades. We examined the economic burden on individual and households due to overweight and obesity among women in the national capital territory of India, Delhi. We particularly examined the health expenditure pattern in absolute amount as well as a proportion to their household expenditure among women according to their level of body mass index (BMI). A population based follow-up survey of 325 ever-married women aged 20-54 years residing in the national capital territory of Delhi in India, systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. Women's expenditure on health has been seen as a gross and as a ratio of total household expenditure. Anthropometric measurements were obtained from women to compute their current body mass index. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios adjusting for various socio demographic confounders. A significantly (peconomic burden which accounts for more than 5% of their total household expenditure on their health compared to only 10% normal weight women. Significantly, obese and morbidly obese women were more than two times more likely to spend higher amount on their health (OR 2.29 95% CI: 1.07-4.90; p=0.033) than normal weight women. Also overweight women were significantly two times more likely to spend high proportion on their health with respect to total household expenditure (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.03-4.35; p=0.042) than normal weight women. There is substantial economic burden of obesity for individuals as well as for the households which calls for urgent

  8. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  9. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    There are over 20 cities world-wide with a population of over 10 million people. We have entered ‘The Millennium of the City’. The growth of urban populations has been accompanied by profound changes of the cities’ economic and social profile and of the cities themselves. The world economy...... on experience. We will argue for a human turn in the research on liveabil- ity and urbanisation, and debates the concept of liveability. We will take Copenhagen as our main case and compare with other cities from around the world....

  10. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus...... makes an investigation into the complex relationship between the words and policies of the ‘Experience Economy' and the actual urban transformations made in cities with reference to these changes. The paper discusses the cases researched in relation to the state, market, civil society framework as well...

  11. The guide to greening cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Sadhu Aufochs

    2013-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 CHAPTER 3. Leading in the Community: Using City Assets, Policy, Partnerships, and Persuasion . . Case in Point: Returning to Green City Roots and Loving El...

  12. Microbial Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Mena, K. D.; Nickerson, C.A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, microbiological spaceflight requirements have been established in a subjective manner based upon expert opinion of both environmental and clinical monitoring results and the incidence of disease. The limited amount of data, especially from long-duration missions, has created very conservative requirements based primarily on the concentration of microorganisms. Periodic reevaluations of new data from later missions have allowed some relaxation of these stringent requirements. However, the requirements remain very conservative and subjective in nature, and the risk of crew illness due to infectious microorganisms is not well defined. The use of modeling techniques for microbial risk has been applied in the food and potable water industries and has exceptional potential for spaceflight applications. From a productivity standpoint, this type of modeling can (1) decrease unnecessary costs and resource usage and (2) prevent inadequate or inappropriate data for health assessment. In addition, a quantitative model has several advantages for risk management and communication. By identifying the variable components of the model and the knowledge associated with each component, this type of modeling can: (1) Systematically identify and close knowledge gaps, (2) Systematically identify acceptable and unacceptable risks, (3) Improve communication with stakeholders as to the reasons for resource use, and (4) Facilitate external scientific approval of the NASA requirements. The modeling of microbial risk involves the evaluation of several key factors including hazard identification, crew exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization. Many of these factors are similar to conditions found on Earth; however, the spaceflight environment is very specialized as the inhabitants live in a small, semi-closed environment that is often dependent on regenerative life support systems. To further complicate modeling efforts, microbial dose

  13. Microbial field pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  14. Microbial field pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  15. Microbial Glycosidases for Nondigestible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bezerra, Thais; Montibra, Rubens; Hansen, Egon Bech

    2017-01-01

    There is much interest in the study and production of nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDOs), due to their bioactivities and beneficial effects to the human health. The main approach in the production of NDOs relies on the action of glycosidases performing hydrolysis or transglycosylation of polys...... of polysaccharides and sugars. In this chapter, a description of the main microbial glycosidases used for NDOs production, their sources, their principal properties, and a description of the production processes with the better results obtained are discussed....

  16. Pathogenesis of microbial keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhundi, Sahreena; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    Microbial keratitis is a sight-threatening ocular infection caused by bacteria, fungi, and protist pathogens. Epithelial defects and injuries are key predisposing factors making the eye susceptible to corneal pathogens. Among bacterial pathogens, the most common agents responsible for keratitis include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia and Serratia species. Fungal agents of corneal infections include both filamentous as well as yeast, including Fusarium, Aspergillus, Phaeohyphomycetes, Curvularia, Paecilomyces, Scedosporium and Candida species, while in protists, Acanthamoeba spp. are responsible for causing ocular disease. Clinical features include redness, pain, tearing, blur vision and inflammation but symptoms vary depending on the causative agent. The underlying molecular mechanisms associated with microbial pathogenesis include virulence factors as well as the host factors that aid in the progression of keratitis, resulting in damage to the ocular tissue. The treatment therefore should focus not only on the elimination of the culprit but also on the neutralization of virulence factors to minimize the damage, in addition to repairing the damaged tissue. A complete understanding of the pathogenesis of microbial keratitis will lead to the rational development of therapeutic interventions. This is a timely review of our current understanding of the advances made in this field in a comprehensible manner. Coupled with the recently available genome sequence information and high throughput genomics technology, and the availability of innovative approaches, this will stimulate interest in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanoporous microscale microbial incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhifei; Girguis, Peter R; Buie, Cullen R

    2016-02-07

    Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals abundant microbial diversity that has not been cultured in the laboratory. Many attribute this so-called 'great plate count anomaly' to traditional microbial cultivation techniques, which largely facilitate the growth of a single species. Yet, it is widely recognized that bacteria in nature exist in complex communities. One technique to increase the pool of cultivated bacterial species is to co-culture multiple species in a simulated natural environment. Here, we present nanoporous microscale microbial incubators (NMMI) that enable high-throughput screening and real-time observation of multi-species co-culture. The key innovation in NMMI is that they facilitate inter-species communication while maintaining physical isolation between species, which is ideal for genomic analysis. Co-culture of a quorum sensing pair demonstrates that the NMMI can be used to culture multiple species in chemical communication while monitoring the growth dynamics of individual species.

  18. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  19. The Sustainable City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Deborah

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on methods to make cities more sustainable through the processes of energy efficiency, pollution and waste reduction, capture of natural processes, and the merger of ecological, economic, and social factors. (LZ)

  20. Simulacrum City / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2000-01-01

    Veneetsia 7. arhitektuuribiennaali Eesti ekspositsiooni kataloogist Simulacrum City. Tallinn : Eesti Arhitektide Liit, 2000. Teksti autorid Anders Härm, Tarmo Maiste, Andres Kurg, Harry Charrington, kujundaja Jaanus Tamme, fotod Arne Maasik

  1. SmartCityWare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Jawhar, Imad

    2017-01-01

    rely heavily on utilizing various software, hardware, and communication technologies to improve the operations in areas, such as healthcare, transportation, energy, education, logistics, and many others, while reducing costs and resources consumption. One of the promising technologies to support...... such efforts is the Cloud of Things (CoT). CoT provides a platform for linking the cyber parts of a smart city that are executed on the cloud with the physical parts of the smart city, including residents, vehicles, power grids, buildings, water networks, hospitals, and other resources. Another useful...... services and components involved in smart city applications as services accessible through the service-oriented model. This enhances integration and allows for flexible inclusion and utilization of the various services needed in a smart city application. In addition, we discuss the implementation...

  2. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  3. Ecological city planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Rueda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A territory, a city, a neighbourhood are all ecosystems; a mixture of chemico-physical and organic elements related to each other. That which defines an ecological system is the set of rules and characteristics which condition its relationships, and its duration in time is guaranteed by its efficiency and internal organization which applied to the city is translated in the reduction of the use of natural resources and in the increase of social organization. To increase the efficiency of the urban systems is the necessary condition for the formulation of ecological city planning favouring the maximum liveability of sites. Liveability is directly correlated to the optimization of numerous elements (public space, equipment, services, building techniques, innovative technology, social cohesion, biodiversity. To carry out such objectives, ecological city planning proposes a new model of town planning on three levels (subsoil, ground level, and upper level.

  4. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets Arkitekt......Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets....... Competition: Ranko Radovic Student Competition, 193 projekter fra alle verdensdele indleveret til studenterkonkurrencen. I bogen er indlagt en cd-rom med en 4 minutter lang film udgivet af bogens forfattere og redigeret af Squint/Opera Ltd, UK. Musik af Martin Bennebo og Karen Duelund Mortensen, produceret af...

  5. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    WE LOVE THE CITY Byen i bygningen, bygningen i byen Lasse Andersson, Ph.d., arkitekt maa, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY vil vi formidle mødet mellem urban design oog arkitektur. Disciplinen ’at bygge by’ har de seneste 20 år ikke tændt hjerterne hos...... fjern og ’usexet’ for unge arkitekter in spe. Det kan fremtidens by ikke være tjent med, og WE LOVE THE CITY vil derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at her er et potentiale. Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY ønsker Utzon Centeret, LasseVegas Kontoret ApS og ADEPT...

  6. Smart Sustainable Cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Technology, Municipality of Montevideo, Uruguay) and Lark Yang Tan (Director, Infocomm Development ...... Since the last century and particularly since the industrial revolution when people started to move to cities ...... Engineering; Arts and Humanities; Economics, Econometrics and Finance; Psychology; Biochemistry,.

  7. the city otherwise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-06-01

    Irkutsk sociologists Mikhail Rozhansky and Elena Korkina, the ideologists of The City Otherwise Project, show the readers of PB how young citizens view their city. These views are expressed in their reflections and photos. Against common beliefs about modern youth, these young people are not obsessed with their gadgets. They use them quite well to take a fresh look at the environment. It should be noted that the project has attracted, among others, starting architects, especially those who have experience in participatory design. It is an interesting attempt to get in tune with the pulse of the city, with the common rhythm of images, which makes the city and its inhabitants a single whole.

  8. Environment, gas and city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Here are given all the advantages of natural gas among the others energies sources to avoid air pollution in cities. Pollution, energy economy, energy control are actions of environmental policy of natural gas industry in France

  9. Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

  10. Keys to the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsson, Christian Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118......Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118...

  11. Schizophrenia and city life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G; David, A; Andréasson, S; Allebeck, P

    1992-07-18

    Prevalence of schizophrenia and rates of first admission to hospital for this disorder are higher in most modern industrialised cities, and in urban compared with rural areas. The "geographical drift" hypothesis (ie, most schizophrenics tend to drift into city areas because of their illness or its prodrome) has remained largely unchallenged. We have investigated the association between place of upbringing and the incidence of schizophrenia with data from a cohort of 49,191 male Swedish conscripts linked to the Swedish National Register of Psychiatric Care. The incidence of schizophrenia was 1.65 times higher (95% confidence interval 1.19-2.28) among men brought up in cities than in those who had had a rural upbringing. The association persisted despite adjustment for other factors associated with city life such as cannabis use, parental divorce, and family history of psychiatric disorder. This finding cannot be explained by the widely held notion that people with schizophrenia drift into cities at the beginning of their illness. We conclude that undetermined environmental factors found in cities increase the risk of schizophrenia.

  12. Relative element levels in the paired samples of scalp hair and fingernails of patients from New Delhi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar, A. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067 (India)]. E-mail: sukumarindia@rediffmail.com; Subramanian, R. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067 (India)

    2007-01-01

    Specific elements are bioconcentrated in human hair and nails, which have unique advantages of application in population monitoring studies thereby, recognized as biological tools for disease diagnosis and prevention. However, investigations are meager for relative element profile in hair and nails of same subjects. In this study, hair and nails were analyzed to find effects of age, sex, smoking habit, diet, urban and rural exposure gradients, occupation, and health on element levels. Scalp hair and fingernails were sampled along with a questionnaire from urban and rural subjects of New Delhi; patients of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes were identified clinically. Cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc concentrations were determined by AAS in both the samples; CRM (human hair powder) analysis showed acceptable precision and accuracy in element measurement. In comparison to controls, Cr-H and Zn-H levels were lower respectively in female hypertensive and total hypertensive subjects, whereas, Zn-N and Cu-N were lower respectively in total CHD and diabetic subjects, and hypertensive and CHD urban subjects. Cd concentrations were higher in both the samples of tobacco smoking rural subjects than that of non-smokers. Farmers had lower Pb-H than rural businessmen did. Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations were different due to rural and urban gradient but not to the influence of age, sex, and diet. Pb value was alone correlated between the paired samples. Thus, higher Cd levels in the smokers and lower Cr, Cu and Zn levels in the patients were observed.

  13. Fatal carbon monoxide poisoning: A lesson from a retrospective study at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Kumar Sikary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon monoxide (CO is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nonirritating gas which makes it difficult for those who are exposed, to detect it, leading to unexpected death. This study was undertaken to see the pattern of fatal CO poisoning and to discuss preventive aspect. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective descriptive study of fatal CO cases which were autopsied at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, from the year 2010 to the year 2015. The cases were analyzed as per age groups, circumstances of death, season of death, and sources of CO formation. Results and Discussion: The study involved 40 cases of fatal CO poisoning. About 80% of cases were reported in winter months. The maximum cases were reported in the month of January followed by November and December. All the cases except one, died with a source of CO nearby and the person was inside a room or some closed space without ventilation. Source of CO was firepot and electric room heater in most of the cases. Some cases were of CO build inside the car with a running engine. Most of the cases occurred accidentally. Conclusion: Clustering of cases is seen in winters. Poisoning can occur in different ways. The study documents the various possibilities of CO poisoning and advocates community education targeting the high-risk groups and masses, especially during the winter season.

  14. Multi drug resistance and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases in clinical isolates of Shigella: A study from New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Prabhav; Uppal, Beena; Ghosh, Roumi; Krishna Prakash, S; Chakravarti, Anita; Jha, Arun Kumar; Rajeshwari, Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is an important cause of gastroenteritis in local Indian population, as well as of traveler's diarrhea in the international visitors to India. These patients often require appropriate antimicrobial therapy; however, rapid development of antimicrobial resistance poses a major hurdle in achieving this goal. A prospective study was conducted during 2009-12 in New Delhi, India, including 6339 stool samples from gastroenteritis patients. 121 Shigella strains were identified on the basis of colony morphology, biochemical reactions, serotyping and ipaH gene based PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disc diffusion, MIC determination by Vitek(®) 2 and phenotypic tests for ESBL/AmpC production were done. Nineteen percent strains (23/121) were found to be resistant to third generation cephalosporins and all were phenotypically confirmed to be ESBL producers; one strain was positive for AmpC. ESBL producing strains were also found to be significantly more resistant (p Shigella is a matter of concern for the local population as well as international travelers. Therefore, better national level antimicrobial management programs are the priority needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus on chayote (Sechium edule) in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, K; Mohankumar, S; Mohammed Faisal, P; Bagewadi, B; Karthikeyan, G

    2017-12-01

    During 2012-2014, mosaic disease on chayote in the farmers field of Kodaikanal region (high altitude zone) of Tamil Nadu was observed. The disease was characterized with severe mosaic, cupping and enation on leaves with reduced fruit size. Disease was found to causes an yield loss of more than 60% with the maximum disease incidence of 100% for the past 5 years consecutively. Preliminary serological and molecular screening indicated the association of begomovirus with the disease. Complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of DNA A revealed the identity of the virus as tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). In recombination analysis study, the major parent was identified as ToLCNDV from Pakistan infecting tomato. Thus the present finding confirms expansion of new geographical region and host for ToLCNDV causing mosaic disease on chayote from Tamil Nadu. To our knowledge this is the first confirmed report for the occurrence of ToLCNDV on chayote in southern India.

  16. Seeding Social Innovation in Private Schools: A Case Study of St. Mary’s School, Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niket Sagar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Education has an important role in creating new learning opportunities and driving social progress. As social institutions, schools form a fundamental block to understand about life and society. While schools have done a good job in preparing students for life and society, newer challenges facing humanity have now emerged. How can schools meaningfully engage students on various pressing social issues and empower their students to take action on issues like environmental crisis, social injustice and developmental challenges? Current school curriculum does not provide adequate opportunities where students can experiment and explore these issues and look for solutions. Problem identifications and their solutions can be explored by creating an interface between community and school. This would create an open space for creativity and innovation amongst students to explore, develop and understand social issues. Such practices would further fuel the students to think and act to address social and environmental challenges. Such approach will pave the way for students to implement and share innovative solutions rather than simply limiting their knowledge to the classroom. This paper is an attempt to highlight the initiatives taken by St. Mary’s School (Delhi, India under its social footprint projects and social innovation in the context of community engagement and emerging environmental issues.

  17. ABC-VED Analysis of a Drug Store in the Department of Community Medicine of a Medical College in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, T; Ingle, G K; Kishore, J; Kumar, R

    2013-01-01

    A matrix based on coupling of cost (always, better and control) analysis and criticality (vital, essential and desirable) analysis was employed for drug inventory containing 129 items of drug store in the Department of Community Medicine of a Medical College in Delhi. The annual drug expenditure incurred on 129 drug items for the year 2010-2011 was found to be Rs. 4,35,847.85. On always, better and control analysis, 18.6, 24.0 and 57.4% drugs were found to be always, better and control category items, respectively, amounting for 69.1, 20.8 and 10.1% of annual drug expenditure. About 13.2 (17), 38.8 (50) and 48.0% (62) items were found to be vital, essential and desirable category items, respectively, amounting for 18.7, 49.5 and 31.8% of annual drug expenditure. Based on always, better and control-vital, essential and desirable matrix analysis there were 37 (28.68%) items in category I, 53 (41.09%) items in category II and 39 (30.23%) items in category III, amounting for 73.0, 22.2 and 4.8% of annual drug expenditure, respectively. To conclude, scientific inventory management tools are needed to be applied in routine for efficient management of the pharmacy stores as it contributes to not only in improvement in patient care but also judicious use of resources as well.

  18. Removal of indigenous coliphages and enteric viruses during riverbank filtration from highly polluted river water in Delhi (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, C; Lorenzen, G; Grunert, A; Ronghang, M; Dizer, H; Selinka, H-C; Girones, R; Lopez-Pila, J M; Mittal, A K; Szewzyk, R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging countries frequently afflicted by waterborne diseases require safe and cost-efficient production of drinking water, a task that is becoming more challenging as many rivers carry a high degree of pollution. A study was conducted on the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi, India, to ascertain if riverbank filtration (RBF) can significantly improve the quality of the highly polluted surface water in terms of virus removal (coliphages, enteric viruses). Human adenoviruses and noroviruses, both present in the Yamuna River in the range of 10(5) genomes/100 mL, were undetectable after 50 m infiltration and approximately 119 days of underground passage. Indigenous somatic coliphages, used as surrogates of human pathogenic viruses, underwent approximately 5 log10 removal after only 3.8 m of RBF. The initial removal after 1 m was 3.3 log10, and the removal between 1 and 2.4 m and between 2.4 and 3.8 m was 0.7 log10 each. RBF is therefore an excellent candidate to improve the water situation in emerging countries with respect to virus removal.

  19. Perceptions of nonsurgical permanent contraception among potential users, providers, and influencers in Wardha district and New Delhi, India: Exploratory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengst, Jennifer C; Harrington, Elizabeth K; Bahulekar, Pramod; Shivkumar, Poonam; Jensen, Jeffrey T; Garg, B S

    2017-01-01

    New permanent contraceptive methods are in development, including nonsurgical permanent contraception (NSPC). In the present study, perceptions of NSPC in India among married women, married men, mothers-in-law, providers, and health advocates in Eastern Maharashtra (Wardha district) and New Delhi were examined. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 married women and 20 mothers-in-law; surveys with 150 married men; and focus group discussions with obstetrics/gynecology providers and advocates. Transcripts were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach, where emerging themes are analyzed during the data collection period. The majority of female respondents expressed support of permanent contraception and interest in NSPC, stating the importance of avoiding surgery and minimizing recovery time. They expressed concerns about safety and efficacy; many felt that a confirmation test would be necessary regardless of the failure rate. Most male respondents were supportive of female permanent contraception (PC) and preferred NSPC to a surgical method, as long as it was safe and effective. Providers were interested in NSPC yet had specific concerns about safety, efficacy, cost, uptake, and government pressure. They also had concerns that a nonsurgical approach could undermine the inherent seriousness of choosing PC. Advocates were interested in NSPC but had concerns about safety and potential misuse in the Indian context. Although perceptions of NSPC were varied, all study populations indicated interest in NSPC. Concerns about safety, efficacy, appropriate patient counseling, and ethics emerged from the present study and should be considered as NSPC methods continue to be developed.

  20. Evaluation of emission characteristics and compliance of emission standards for in-use petrol driven vehicles in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, S M; Singh, A; Sharma, N; Sharma, K; Shanmugum, P

    2001-01-01

    The tail pipe CO (carbon monoxide) and HC (hydrocarbon) emission characteristics of in-use petrol driven vehicles were evaluated between November 1996 through September 1997 in Delhi. A total of 4300 vehicles were checked at CRRI Pollution Checking Centre. Approximately 90% of the total vehicles meet the prescribed CO emission standards even without following routine I/M practices. The age of the vehicles appeared to have influence on the emission characteristics. The non-compliance level was found to be higher for older vehicles. Insignificant correlation was observed between CO and HC emissions for all categories of in-use petrol driven vehicles. The emission reduction (gain) in CO and HC emissions was observed for two wheelers equipped with four-stroke engines and four wheelers fitted with catalytic converters over their respective conventional vehicles. The observed high compliance levels indicate that existing tail pipe emission standards are lenient and need to be reviewed. The emission standards are proposed for different categories of in-use petrol driven vehicles.

  1. Relative element levels in the paired samples of scalp hair and fingernails of patients from New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukumar, A.; Subramanian, R.

    2007-01-01

    Specific elements are bioconcentrated in human hair and nails, which have unique advantages of application in population monitoring studies thereby, recognized as biological tools for disease diagnosis and prevention. However, investigations are meager for relative element profile in hair and nails of same subjects. In this study, hair and nails were analyzed to find effects of age, sex, smoking habit, diet, urban and rural exposure gradients, occupation, and health on element levels. Scalp hair and fingernails were sampled along with a questionnaire from urban and rural subjects of New Delhi; patients of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes were identified clinically. Cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc concentrations were determined by AAS in both the samples; CRM (human hair powder) analysis showed acceptable precision and accuracy in element measurement. In comparison to controls, Cr-H and Zn-H levels were lower respectively in female hypertensive and total hypertensive subjects, whereas, Zn-N and Cu-N were lower respectively in total CHD and diabetic subjects, and hypertensive and CHD urban subjects. Cd concentrations were higher in both the samples of tobacco smoking rural subjects than that of non-smokers. Farmers had lower Pb-H than rural businessmen did. Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations were different due to rural and urban gradient but not to the influence of age, sex, and diet. Pb value was alone correlated between the paired samples. Thus, higher Cd levels in the smokers and lower Cr, Cu and Zn levels in the patients were observed

  2. From rakhi to romance: negotiating 'acceptable' relationships in co-educational secondary schools in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Padmini

    2018-03-01

    Based on a multi-method study conducted with middle-class young people (aged 15-17) in three secondary schools in New Delhi, India, this paper focuses on heterosocial dynamics within school peer cultures as an important site of learning about gender and sexuality. Findings indicate that young people negotiate and adapt rakhi (brother-sister) relationships to form less strictly platonic heterosocial friendships, which leave open the possibility of romance. Students' preferences for certain heterosocial relationships are considered within the context of wider cultural narratives. For example, students often rejected rakhi relationships, tied to traditional, conservative values, in favour of heterosocial friendships associated with more modern and desirable social patterns. Moreover, students' own definitions of acceptable heterosocial interactions within peer cultures suggest that they are adept at negotiating norms of gender segregation that are enforced in co-educational schools. In contrast to other formal and informal sources of sexual learning available to them, experiences and stories of romances circulating in schools seemed to offer students alternative, more positive ways of understanding teenage intimacy and sexuality.

  3. FOOD ACQUISITION AND INTRA-HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: A STUDY OF LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN DELHI, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Mr; Taylor, Fc; Agrawal, S; Prabhakaran, D; Ebrahim, S

    2013-12-01

    Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure), milk and milk products (16%), and cereal and related products (15%). Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Women's key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs.

  4. First case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Ecuador: An update for South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Romero-Alvarez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe a clinical case of Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM plasmid in Ecuador and to present a map of reports of NDM isolates in South America. Methods: The modified Hodge test, carbapenem inactivation method, imipenem–EDTA disk method (synergy, and Rapidec Carba NP test were used to identify antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The presence of resistance genes was explored with a conjugation assay, and molecular confirmation of NDM was performed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Plasmid characterization was conducted by PCR-based replicon typing. A literature review was performed in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify reports from South America. Results: An HIV-infected patient, who had never traveled abroad, developed a bloodstream infection caused by K. pneumoniae ST147 harboring the NDM-1 resistance gene in a plasmid from the IncA/C group. Local circulation of NDM has also been described in other South American countries, in particular in Colombia and Brazil, although published scientific records were not found for other countries. Conclusions: This report presents the first evidence of autochthonous circulation of the NDM-1 resistance gene harbored by an IncA/C plasmid isolated from a K. pneumoniae ST147 in Ecuador. Efforts should be implemented to monitor and characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of NDM in Ecuador and other countries of South America. Keywords: NDM, South America, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Antibiotic resistance, Plasmid

  5. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soil, Irrigation Water and Vegetables in Peri-Urban Agricultural Areas and Markets of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Arti; Singh, ShivDhar; Kumar, Amit

    2015-11-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals, namely cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu), has been identified as a risk to human health through consumption of vegetable crops. The present study investigates heavy metal contamination in irrigation water, soil, and vegetables at four peri-urban and one wholesale site in Delhi, India, and estimates the health risk index. Most of the samples collected from peri-urban areas exceeded the safe limits of lead and cadmium, whereas only lead concentration was found to be higher in vegetable samples collected from the wholesale market. Average uptake of metals by vegetables from soil decreased in the order Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb. The order of metal uptake based on transfer factor was highest in okra, cauliflower, and spinach, from greatest to least. Among the vegetables from peri-urban sites, only okra crossed the safe limit for cadmium; whereas vegetables from the wholesale site exceeded the limit for lead (potato, coriander, chilies, pea, and carrot, in order from greatest to least) with respect to health risk index.

  6. Public-Private roundtables at the fourth Clean Energy Ministerial, 17-18 April 2013, New Delhi, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, Tracey [Energetics, Incorporated, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-06-30

    The Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) is a high-level global forum to share best practices and promote policies and programs that advance clean energy technologies and accelerate the transition to a global clean energy economy. The CEM works to increase energy efficiency, expand clean energy supply, and enhance clean energy access worldwide. To achieve these goals, the CEM pursues a three-part strategy that includes high-level policy dialogue, technical cooperation, and engagement with the private sector and other stakeholders. Each year, energy ministers and other high-level delegates from the 23 participating CEM governments come together to discuss clean energy, review clean energy progress, and identify tangible next steps to accelerate the clean energy transition. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a crucial role in launching the CEM, hosted the first annual meeting of energy ministers in Washington, DC, in June 2010. The United Arab Emirates hosted the second Clean Energy Ministerial in 2011, and the United Kingdom hosted the third Clean Energy Ministerial in 2012. In April 2013, India hosted the fourth Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM4) in New Delhi. Key insights from CEM4 are summarized in the report. It captures the ideas and recommendations of the government and private sector leaders who participated in the discussions on six discussion topics: reducing soft costs of solar PV; energy management systems; renewables policy and finance; clean vehicle adoption; mini-grid development; and power systems in emerging economies.

  7. First case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Ecuador: An update for South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Reyes, Jorge; Quezada, Viviana; Satán, Carolina; Cevallos, Nelson; Barrera, Sofía; Trueba, Gabriel; Escobar, Luis E; Villacís, José E

    2017-12-01

    To describe a clinical case of Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) plasmid in Ecuador and to present a map of reports of NDM isolates in South America. The modified Hodge test, carbapenem inactivation method, imipenem-EDTA disk method (synergy), and Rapidec Carba NP test were used to identify antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The presence of resistance genes was explored with a conjugation assay, and molecular confirmation of NDM was performed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Plasmid characterization was conducted by PCR-based replicon typing. A literature review was performed in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify reports from South America. An HIV-infected patient, who had never traveled abroad, developed a bloodstream infection caused by K. pneumoniae ST147 harboring the NDM-1 resistance gene in a plasmid from the IncA/C group. Local circulation of NDM has also been described in other South American countries, in particular in Colombia and Brazil, although published scientific records were not found for other countries. This report presents the first evidence of autochthonous circulation of the NDM-1 resistance gene harbored by an IncA/C plasmid isolated from a K. pneumoniae ST147 in Ecuador. Efforts should be implemented to monitor and characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of NDM in Ecuador and other countries of South America. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of introducing the line probe assay on time to treatment initiation of MDR-TB in Delhi, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singla

    Full Text Available SETTING: National Institute of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (erstwhile Lala Ram Sarup Institute in Delhi, India. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate before and after the introduction of the line Probe Assay (LPA a the overall time to MDR-TB diagnosis and treatment initiation; b the step-by-step time lapse at each stage of patient management; and c the lost to follow-up rates. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis was done using data on MDR-TB patients diagnosed during 2009-2012 under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme at the institute. RESULTS: Following the introduction of the LPA in 2011, the overall median time from identification of patients suspected for MDR-TB to the initiation of treatment was reduced from 157 days (IQR 127-200 to 38 days (IQR 30-79. This reduction was attributed mainly to a lower diagnosis time at the laboratory. Lost to follow-up rates were also significantly reduced after introduction of the LPA (12% versus 39% pre-PLA. CONCLUSION: Introduction of the LPA was associated with a major reduction in the delay between identification of patients suspected for MDR-TB and initiation of treatment, attributed mainly to a reduction in diagnostic time in the laboratory.

  9. Hydrolysis of cephalexin and meropenem by New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase: the substrate protonation mechanism is drug dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Chandan Kumar; Nair, Nisanth N.

    Emergence of antibiotic resistance due to New Delhi Metallo $\\beta$-lactamase (NDM-1) bacterial enzymes is of great concern due to their ability to hydrolyze wide range of antibiotics. Efforts are ongoing to obtain the atomistic details of the hydrolysis mechanism in order to develop novel drugs and inhibitors against NDM-1. Especially, it remains elusive how drug molecules of different family of antibiotics are hydrolyzed by NDM-1 in an efficient manner. Here we report the detailed molecular mechanism of NDM-1 catalyzed hydrolysis of cephalexin, a cephalosporin family drug, and meropenem, a carbapenem family drug. This study employs molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods at the density functional theory level, based on which reaction pathways and the associated free energies are obtained. We find that the mechanism and the free energy barrier for the ring-opening step are the same for both the drug molecules, while the subsequent protonation step differs. In particular, we observe that the mechanism of the protonation step depends on the R2 group of the drug molecule. Our simulations show that allylic carbon protonation occurs in the case of cephalexin drug molecule where Lys211 is the proton donor and the proton transfer occurs via a water chain formed (only) at the ring-opened intermediate structure. Based on the free energy profiles, the overall kinetics of the drug hydrolysis is discussed. Finally, we show that the proposed mechanisms and free energy profiles could explain various experimental observations.

  10. Refined models of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 with inhibitors: an QM/MM modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Cheng, Tian-Lu

    2016-10-01

    New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) has been identified as a potential target for the treatment of multi-drug resistance bacterial infections. We used molecular docking, normal MD, SIE, QM/MM MD simulations, QM/MM GBSA binding free energy, and QM/MM GBSA alanine-scanning mutagenesis techniques to investigate interactions of the NDM-1 with 11 inhibitors (Tigecycline, BAL30072, D-captopril, Penicillin G, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Cephalexin, Cefaclor, Nitrocefin, Meropenem, and Imipenem). From our normal MD and QM/MM simulations, the correlation coefficients between the predicted binding free energies and experimental values are .88 and .93, respectively. Then simulations, which combined QM/MM/GBSA and alanine-scanning mutagenesis techniques, were performed and our results show that two residues (Lys211 and His250) have the strongest impact on the binding affinities of the 11 NDM-1/inhibitors. Therefore, our approach theoretically suggests that the two residues (Lys211 and His250) are responsible for the selectivity of NDM-1 associated inhibitors.

  11. ASPIRE: An automated sample positioning and irradiation system for radiation biology experiments at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, Ashok; Barua, P.; Archunan, M.; Rani, Kusum; Subramanian, E.T.; Pujari, Geetanjali; Kaur, Harminder; Satyanarayanan, V.V.V.; Sarma, Asitikantha; Avasthi, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    An automated irradiation setup for biology samples has been built at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. It can automatically load and unload 20 biology samples in a run of experiment. It takes about 20 min [2% of the cell doubling time] to irradiate all the 20 samples. Cell doubling time is the time taken by the cells (kept in the medium) to grow double in numbers. The cells in the samples keep growing during entire of the experiment. The fluence irradiated to the samples is measured with two silicon surface barrier detectors. Tests show that the uniformity of fluence and dose of heavy ions reaches to 2% at the sample area in diameter of 40 mm. The accuracy of mean fluence at the center of the target area is within 1%. The irradiation setup can be used to the studies of radiation therapy, radiation dosimetry and molecular biology at the heavy ion accelerator. - Highlights: • Automated positioning and irradiation setup for biology samples at IUAC is built. • Loading and unloading of 20 biology samples can be automatically carried out. • Biologicals cells keep growing during entire experiment. • Fluence and dose of heavy ions are measured by two silicon barrier detectors. • Uniformity of fluence and dose of heavy ions at sample position reaches to 2%

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding caries risk assessment and management in Delhi - National Capital Region: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Goswami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluating a patients' risk is an essential primary step in the prevention of dental caries. Based on its results, different preventive strategies catering to patients' specific needs should be advised. Aim: To assess and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice among dentists who are either attached with an institute or running a private practice or both in Delhi-National Capital Region regarding caries risk assessment (CRA and management. Materials and Methods: Knowledge, attitude, and practices of dentists' regarding CRA and management were assessed through a 30-item questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software 21.5. Frequencies were used to assess the demographic information, knowledge, attitude, and risk assessment practices. Results: Dental professionals with institutional attachment were better aware of the importance of CRA and practised it more frequently as compared to the dentists who were solely attached with a private practice. This attitude could be due to lack of time and inclination to treat more number of patients in a working day. Pedodontists were more aware than other specialists. Conclusions: There is a need to update knowledge regarding CRA and incorporate preventive practices in daily work schedule among dentists of all specialties.

  13. Duty and destiny: psychometric properties and correlates of HIV-related stigma among youth NGO workers in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Devaki; Rimal, Rajiv N

    2012-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are increasingly providing critical health-related services to hard-to-reach populations. In India, stigma has been cited as a barrier to NGO participation in HIV-prevention activities with high-risk populations. Our study undertook to characterize and contextualize HIV-related stigma within HIV NGOs in Delhi, India. We investigated psychometric characteristics and correlates of HIV-related stigma in a sample of youth NGO practitioners (N=122) working on peer HIV prevention. Factor analyses revealed a "cultural inflection" of stigma in this population: assignment of blame on people living with HIV (PLWH) factored along with individual behaviors and care-taking (Dharma, or Duty), distinct from the perception of HIV as God's punishment, which was connected to ostracism from society (Karma, or Destiny). Exposure to HIV-related messages in newspapers was associated with 55.7% lower levels of Dharma-related stigma (p=0.07) and 58% lower levels of Karma-related stigma scores (p=0.01), respectively, while recall of HIV-related messages on the radio was associated with 57.3% lower Dharma-related (p=0.03) and 34.1% lower Karma-related stigma scores (p=0.06), respectively. The strongest correlate of lower HIV-related stigma was social proximity to PLWH (~76% reduction on both stigma factors, pstigma should consider the unique cultural properties and correlates of stigma among young NGO practitioners.

  14. A quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics study on the hydrolysis mechanism of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kongkai; Lu, Junyan; Liang, Zhongjie; Kong, Xiangqian; Ye, Fei; Jin, Lu; Geng, Heji; Chen, Yong; Zheng, Mingyue; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun-Qian; Luo, Cheng

    2013-03-01

    New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) has emerged as a major global threat to human health for its rapid rate of dissemination and ability to make pathogenic microbes resistant to almost all known β-lactam antibiotics. In addition, effective NDM-1 inhibitors have not been identified to date. In spite of the plethora of structural and kinetic data available, the accurate molecular characteristics of and details on the enzymatic reaction of NDM-1 hydrolyzing β-lactam antibiotics remain incompletely understood. In this study, a combined computational approach including molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations was performed to characterize the catalytic mechanism of meropenem catalyzed by NDM-1. The quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics results indicate that the ionized D124 is beneficial to the cleavage of the C-N bond within the β-lactam ring. Meanwhile, it is energetically favorable to form an intermediate if no water molecule coordinates to Zn2. Moreover, according to the molecular dynamics results, the conserved residue K211 plays a pivotal role in substrate binding and catalysis, which is quite consistent with previous mutagenesis data. Our study provides detailed insights into the catalytic mechanism of NDM-1 hydrolyzing meropenem β-lactam antibiotics and offers clues for the discovery of new antibiotics against NDM-1 positive strains in clinical studies.

  15. Klebsiella pneumoniae nueva Delhi metalo-betalactamasa en el Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo: Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Resurrección-Delgado

    Full Text Available La emergencia de enterobacterias productoras de carbapenemasas de tipo Nueva Delhi Metalo beta-lactamasas (NDM, representan, hoy en día, un verdadero problema de salud pública mundial. La presencia de este mecanismo de resistencia limita o anula las opciones terapéuticas para combatir a estas bacterias. En Latinoamérica, las cifras son cada vez más elevadas, pues se reportan en Guatemala, Colombia, Chile, Argentina, entre otros. Perú no ha descrito, hasta la fecha, la presencia de este patrón de resistencia; sin embargo, desde hace varios años se presume de su existencia. Se describen nueve casos de Klebsiella pneumoniae NDM, como agentes infecciosos o colonizantes, en pacientes críticamente enfermos, en su mayoría con patología neuroquirúrgica, del Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, en Lima - Perú. Los pacientes de la serie descrita a continuación, representan los primeros reportes de Klebsiella pneumoniae NDM en el Perú.

  16. Study of pandrug and heavy metal resistance among E. coli from anthropogenically influenced Delhi stretch of river Yamuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mudsser; Jan, Arif Tasleem; Kumar, Ashutosh; Siddiqui, Kehkashan; Mondal, Aftab Hossain; Haq, Qazi Mohd Rizwanul

    2018-02-12

    Escalating burden of antibiotic resistance that has reached new heights present a grave concern to mankind. As the problem is no longer confined to clinics, we hereby report identification of a pandrug resistant Escherichia coli isolate from heavily polluted Delhi stretch of river Yamuna, India. E. coli MRC11 was found sensitive only to tobramycin against 21 antibiotics tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values >256μg/mL for amoxicillin, carbenicillin, aztreonam, ceftazidime and cefotaxime. Addition of certain heavy metals at higher concentrations were ineffective in increasing susceptibility of E. coli MRC11 to antibiotics. Withstanding sub-optimal concentration of cefotaxime (10μg/mL) and mercuric chloride (2μg/mL), and also resistance to their combinatorial use, indicates better adaptability in heavily polluted environment through clustering and expression of resistance genes. Interestingly, E. coli MRC11 harbours two different variants of blaTEM (blaTEM-116 and blaTEM-1 with and without extended-spectrum activity, respectively), in addition to mer operon (merB, merP and merT) genes. Studies employing conjugation, confirmed localization of blaTEM-116, merP and merT genes on the conjugative plasmid. Understanding potentialities of such isolates will help in determining risk factors attributing pandrug resistance and strengthening strategic development of new and effective antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. The Quest for Gender-Sensitive and Inclusive Transport Policies in Growing Asian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Thynell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In cities all over the world, growing numbers of women are working or studying further away from home than ever before. This article presents policies by the World Bank and recommendations by the United Nations to improve conditions for women’s mobility in cities. Although these stress different factors affecting women’s experiences of traffic and transport, they all agree about the importance of enabling women’s mobility. However, gender-sensitive policies have been largely unsuccessful. This article presents examples of conditions for women in New Delhi and other rapidly growing Asian cities that illustrate how gender norms operate. This study uses the perspectives of development research and gender studies to examine economic and political initiatives and the way women act and interact with transport in local contexts. It facilitates critical reflection upon existing transport policies and suggests ‘how’ women’s needs may be effectively addressed. More in-depth knowledge about women’s needs and the problems they face when travelling will be useful for designing of policies that address more than simply the harassments of women. More inclusive urban access would enhance conditions for women and enable them to make choices according to their needs. In this way, social science and policy will cross-pollinate one another.

  18. Utilizing Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Special Observations to Study Air Quality Over Megacities: A Case Study of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, G. B.; Neu, J. L.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Fu, D.; Payne, V.; Pfister, G.

    2016-12-01

    Since the beginning of 2013, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the NASA Aura spacecraft has been making special "transect" observations over 19 large cities across the globe. In all there are over 50 transect observations of each city, allowing for studying the chemistry of the troposphere during different seasons and differing atmospheric conditions. The cities that have been observed include, Beijing, Delhi and Mexico City. In addition, the TES group at JPL has been developing new data products using combined radiances from other satellite instruments. They have produced an ozone data product using a combination of TES and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) radiances. There has also been progress in creating an ozone product from combining OMI and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiances using the TES retrieval framework. This product offers the possibility of better spatial coverage than the TES or TES/OMI products. We have selected an observation from October 13, 2013 over Mexico City for doing a case study where high values of ozone were seen in the lower troposphere in retrievals from TES and TES/OMI. Other trace gases measured by TES, carbon monoxide, methanol, and formic acid were also enhanced over the city. TES was also able to capture downwind conditions where the trace gases were no longer enhanced except for formic acid and peroxyacetyl nitrate which showed elevated values. We will utilize trajectory analysis, the TES data as well as combined TES-OMI retrievals, the new combined AIRS-OMI retrievals of ozone to examine this case in more detail to understand possible broader scale effects of Mexico City pollution. Model results will be utilized to provide further context in understanding the atmospheric conditions being studied. We feel the TES special observations of megacities will provide an opportunity to study the effects of local sources versus broader regional sources on pollutions of these large cities.

  19. City marketing: online communication plan for the city of Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    Altrichter, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing City Marketing represents marketing efforts of cities in order to attract more visitors. Today, we are confronted everyday with marketing campaigns in all different communication media promoting countries, cities or events. Cities are competing for visitors on a global scale, forcing them to adapt successful marketing strategies for gaining and retaining costumers. Yet, City Marketing still remains an unknown chapter for a big part of the general public an...

  20. Evaluating awareness and practices pertaining to radioactive waste management among scrap dealers in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Nayani; Chandra, Tany; Agrawal, Prachi; Bansal, Harshit; Singh, Simranjeet; Anand, Tanu; Gupta, Mannan Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    With nuclear technology rapidly taking the spotlight in the last 50 years, radiation accidents seem to be a harsh reality of the modern world. The Mayapuri Radiation accident of 2010 was the worst radiation accident India has yet dealt with. Two years thereafter, we designed a study to assess the awareness and practices regarding radioactive waste among scrap dealers aiming to assess deficiencies in radiation disaster preparedness. A community based cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of 209 volunteers (from 108 scrap dealerships) including 108 shop-owners and 101 workers segregated as Group A consisting of 54 dealerships in Mayapuri and Group B of 54 dealerships from the rest of the city. Subjects were then interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Awareness about radioactive waste varied significantly with level of education (p = 0.024), Kuppuswamy's socio-economic scale (p = 0.005), age of the scrap dealer (p = 0.049) and his work experience (p = 0.045). The larger dealerships in Mayapuri were more aware about radioactive waste (p = 0.0004), the accident in 2010 (p = 0.0002), the symbol for radiation hazard (p = 0.016), as well as the emergency guidelines and the agencies to contact in the event of a radiation accident. Our findings seem to signify that while governmental and non-governmental agencies were successful in implementing prompt disaster response and awareness programs, the community continues to be inadequately prepared. These go on to suggest that though concerted awareness and training programs do benefit the affected community, economic and social development is the key to disaster prevention and mitigation.

  1. Evaluating awareness and practices pertaining to radioactive waste management among scrap dealers in Delhi, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayani Makkar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: With nuclear technology rapidly taking the spotlight in the last 50 years, radiation accidents seem to be a harsh reality of the modern world. The Mayapuri Radiation accident of 2010 was the worst radiation accident India has yet dealt with. Two years thereafter, we designed a study to assess the awareness and practices regarding radioactive waste among scrap dealers aiming to assess deficiencies in radiation disaster preparedness. METHODOLOGY: A community based cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of 209 volunteers (from 108 scrap dealerships including 108 shop-owners and 101 workers segregated as Group A consisting of 54 dealerships in Mayapuri and Group B of 54 dealerships from the rest of the city. Subjects were then interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Awareness about radioactive waste varied significantly with level of education (p = 0.024, Kuppuswamy's socio-economic scale (p = 0.005, age of the scrap dealer (p = 0.049 and his work experience (p = 0.045. The larger dealerships in Mayapuri were more aware about radioactive waste (p = 0.0004, the accident in 2010 (p = 0.0002, the symbol for radiation hazard (p = 0.016, as well as the emergency guidelines and the agencies to contact in the event of a radiation accident. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings seem to signify that while governmental and non-governmental agencies were successful in implementing prompt disaster response and awareness programs, the community continues to be inadequately prepared. These go on to suggest that though concerted awareness and training programs do benefit the affected community, economic and social development is the key to disaster prevention and mitigation.

  2. Microbial water quality of treated water and raw water sources in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial water quality is an essential aspect in the provision of potable water for domestic use. The provision of adequate amounts of safe water for domestic purposes has become difficult for most municipalities mandated to do so in Zimbabwe. Morton-Jaffray Treatment Plant supplies potable water to Harare City and ...

  3. Chemical and microbial properties in contaminated soils around a magnesite mine in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    D Yang; D-H Zeng; J Zhang; L-J Li; R. Mao

    2012-01-01

    We measured soil chemical and microbial properties at a depth of 0–20 cm among mine tailings, abandoned mined land, contaminated cropland, and uncontaminated cropland around a magnesite mine near Haicheng City, Liaoning Province, China. The objective was to clarify the impact of Mg on the soils. We found that soluble Mg2+ concentration and pH...

  4. When microbial conversations get physical

    OpenAIRE

    Reguera, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that microorganisms are social beings. Whereas communication via chemical signals (e.g. quorum sensing) has been the focus of most investigations, the use of physical signals for microbial cell-cell communication has received only limited attention. Here, I argue that physical modes of microbial communication could be widespread in nature. This is based on experimental evidence on the microbial emission and response to three physical signals: sound waves, electromagnetic...

  5. Microbial ecology of phototrophic biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Roeselers, G.

    2007-01-01

    Biofilms are layered structures of microbial cells and an extracellular matrix of polymeric substances, associated with surfaces and interfaces. Biofilms trap nutrients for growth of the enclosed microbial community and help prevent detachment of cells from surfaces in flowing systems. Phototrophic biofilms can best be defined as surface attached microbial communities mainly driven by light as the energy source with a photosynthesizing component clearly present. Eukaryotic algae and cyanobact...

  6. Learning Cities on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The modern Learning City concept emerged from the work of OECD on lifelong learning with streams of Learning Cities and Educating Cities having much in common but having little contact with each other. While the early development of Learning Cities in the West has not been sustained, the present situation is marked by the dynamic development of…

  7. Microbial Cell Dynamics Lab (MCDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microbial Cell Dynamics Laboratory at PNNL enables scientists to study the molecular details of microbes under relevant environmental conditions. The MCDL seeks...

  8. The Joint Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The new connections, which high speed train allows to activate among the metropolitan systems, seem to be able to give life to new urban macro-structures for which the transfer time, among the main poles of the railway segment, becomes comparable to an inside moving into the city and therefore considered as an inter-functional mobility. The tunnel effect generated by the high speed connection seems to be able to allow a new temporal and functional joint among the metropolitan systems consequently supporting the possibility, for the users, to move themselves among the different urban functions belonging to the different cities. The birth of these urban aggregations seems to drive towards new megalopolis, which we can define for the first time with the term: joint-city. For this new metropolitan settlement it seems to be very interesting to investigate the constitutive peculiarities, the systemic articulation, its relational structures, the evolutionary scenarios, and so on. The urban functions (activities can be considered as structures of relationships between people that allows to define "organizational links" inside the community; the urban functions are located in specific places inside urban container or in open spaces. The urban functions represent the urban engines and the functional system can be thought as the “soul of the city", abstract but essential to its survival. In the definition set out here the analysis is carried out for many interconnected urban functional system points (specifically those in Rome and Naples. The new high speed railway has to be considered not only as a new channel of mobility between cities, but as a real possibility of joint between the functional systems of the two centres. A final consideration can be carried out in relation to the possibility of implementing new measures of governance of urban transformations considering the new macro-city: the "Joint City".

  9. Microbial field pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  10. Microbial bebop: creating music from complex dynamics in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Peter; Gilbert, Jack

    2013-01-01

    In order for society to make effective policy decisions on complex and far-reaching subjects, such as appropriate responses to global climate change, scientists must effectively communicate complex results to the non-scientifically specialized public. However, there are few ways however to transform highly complicated scientific data into formats that are engaging to the general community. Taking inspiration from patterns observed in nature and from some of the principles of jazz bebop improvisation, we have generated Microbial Bebop, a method by which microbial environmental data are transformed into music. Microbial Bebop uses meter, pitch, duration, and harmony to highlight the relationships between multiple data types in complex biological datasets. We use a comprehensive microbial ecology, time course dataset collected at the L4 marine monitoring station in the Western English Channel as an example of microbial ecological data that can be transformed into music. Four compositions were generated (www.bio.anl.gov/MicrobialBebop.htm.) from L4 Station data using Microbial Bebop. Each composition, though deriving from the same dataset, is created to highlight different relationships between environmental conditions and microbial community structure. The approach presented here can be applied to a wide variety of complex biological datasets.

  11. Earth's City Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  12. Universities scale like cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  13. Network cities and externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Boix Domènech

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of «agglomeration economies» explains the existence of advantages derived from the concentration of population and activity. However, it does not explain the existence of spatially dynamic external economies. Network economies generated in networks of cities correspond to this last type, since they are generated from the interaction between urban units, linked by a network relationship. The objective of this research is to advance in the study of the relationship between the networks of cities and the generation of external economies. The research is divided in four parts: first we expose the link between networks of cities and external economies. The second part outlines a model for the combined measuring of the concentration and network economies. The third part explains the results of applying the model to a case of study: the network of cities of Catalonia. The results suggest that there is a causal relationship between the organization of the urban units forming networks of cities and the generation of external economies that affect growth and economic development. Finally, conclusions and policy implications are drawn up.

  14. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  15. Hamilton : the electric city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.

    2006-01-01

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs

  16. The Meat City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the emergence of the Copenhagen slaughterhouse, called the Meat City, during the late nineteenth century. This slaughterhouse was a product of a number of heterogeneous components: industrialization and new infrastructures were important, but hygiene and the significance...... of Danish bacon exports also played a key role. In the Meat City, this created a distinction between rising production and consumption on the one hand, and the isolation and closure of the slaughtering facility on the other. This friction mirrored an ambivalent attitude towards meat in the urban space: one...... where consumers demanded more meat than ever before, while animals were being removed from the public eye. These contradictions, it is argued, illustrate and underline the change of the city towards a ‘post-domestic’ culture. The article employs a variety of sources, but primarily the Copenhagen...

  17. Mobilities, Futures & the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene; Kesselring, Sven

    2016-01-01

    significant attention to these shifts in societies’ discursive patterns and structures. For making up powerful and strong visions and policies for sustainable cities, ‘collaborative storytelling’ plays a key role. The theoretical outset for the research project ‘Mobilities, Futures & the City’, which grounds......The future of cities and regions will be strongly shaped by the mobilities of people, goods, modes of transport, waste and information. In many ways, the ‘why and ‘for what’ often get lost in discourses on planning and designing mobilities. The predominant planning paradigm still conceptualizes...... the future of cities and mobilities as a matter of rather more efficient technologies than of social cohesion, integration and connectivity. Sustainable mobility needs the mobilities of ideas and concepts and the reflexivity of policies. Communicative planning theory and the ‘argumentative turn’ have given...

  18. Mapping the gendered city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almahmood, Mohammed Abdulrahman M; Scharnhorst, Eric; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2017-01-01

    Walking is a mode of perceiving the city which also contributes to health and social benefits. This paper studies the influence of the socio-cultural aspects on the practice of walking and the meaning of walkscapes in Riyadh, one of the most auto-dependent and gender-segregated cities on the Arab....... The results of mapping where the respondents walk show a city consisting of gender-specific walkscapes. Indoor environments, such as shopping malls, function as ‘urban shelters’ for women, so they use such spaces for walking. On the other hand, young men mainly walk in urban streets, which provide greater...... opportunities for gender interaction. However, streets are socially conceived as men’s walkscapes, which limits women’s presence, especially at certain times of the day. This paper reveals how walking experience, tempo-rhythm, sense of place and range of walkscapes are not only determined by ‘universal’ spatial...

  19. Ultrafine particles in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Meat City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    where consumers demanded more meat than ever before, while animals were being removed from the public eye. These contradictions, it is argued, illustrate and underline the change of the city towards a ‘post-domestic’ culture. The article employs a variety of sources, but primarily the Copenhagen......This article investigates the emergence of the Copenhagen slaughterhouse, called the Meat City, during the late nineteenth century. This slaughterhouse was a product of a number of heterogeneous components: industrialization and new infrastructures were important, but hygiene and the significance...... of Danish bacon exports also played a key role. In the Meat City, this created a distinction between rising production and consumption on the one hand, and the isolation and closure of the slaughtering facility on the other. This friction mirrored an ambivalent attitude towards meat in the urban space: one...

  1. [Microbial sources of pigments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañizares-Villanueva, R O; Ríos-Leal, E; Olvera Ramírez, R; Ponce Noyola, T; Márquez Rocha, F

    1998-01-01

    Pigments from natural sources has been obtained since long time ago, and their interest has increased due to the toxicity problems caused by those of synthetic origin. In this way the pigments from microbial sources are a good alternative. Some of more important natural pigments, are the carotenoids, flavonoids (anthocyanins) and some tetrapirroles (chloropyls, phycobilliproteins). Another group less important are the betalains and quinones. The carotenoids are molecules formed by isoprenoids units and the most important used as colorant are the alpha and beta carotene which are precursors of vitamin A, and some xantophylls as astaxanthin. The pigment more used in the industry is the beta-carotene which is obtained from some microalgae and cyanobacteria. The astaxanthin another important carotenoid is a red pigment of great commercial value, and it is used in the pharmaceutical feed and acuaculture industries. This pigments is mainly obtained from Phaffia rhodozyma and Haematococcus pluvialis and other organisms. The phycobilliproteins obtained from cyanobacteria and some group of algae, have recently been increased on the food industries. In the last years it has been used as fluorescent marker in biochemical assays. Our research group have carried out studies about the factors that improve the production of these pigments obtained from different microbial species as well as the methods for their extraction and application.

  2. Microbial bioconversion of pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovleva, L.A.; Aliyeva, R.M.; Naumova, R.P.; Gvozdyak, P.I. (Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow (USSR))

    1992-01-01

    Microorganisms totally detoxicate xenobiotics of various chemical structures, which are serious and, in some cases, very hazardous pollutants. At present, the efforts of a number of researchers promoted the establishment in this country of a collection of microorganisms able to degrade volatile toxic pollutants--toluene, isomeric xylenes, styrene, alpha-methylstyrene, crotonaldehyde; widely distributed xenobiotics chlorobenzoic acids; isomeric aryldicarboxylic acids; and ecologically hazardous pollutants such as aromatic nitrocompounds. The active strains-destructors are mainly representatives of the genera Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus. Research into their physiological characteristics, key enzymes, pathways of xenobiotics degradation, genetic mechanisms determining the degradation of these foreign compounds, and behaviour of the strains in a real environment made it possible to develop the theoretical principles of using these microbial cultures to purify real industrial wastes and remediate polluted areas of soil and water. Improvement of the methods of immobilizing the active xenobiotics-degrading strains on cheap and efficient carriers made it possible to significantly intensify the cleanup process of industrial wastes and eliminate a number of problems during the development of the biotechnologies for industrial waste cleanup. Successfully operated at present are the biotechnologies of the local cleanup of waste waters of terephthalate production, microbial purification of industrial waste waters in nylon-66 production from hexamethylenediamine, purification of coke production wastes from phenols, waste waters of polyisocyanate production from aromatic amines, local purification of waste waters in synthetic rubber production from alpha-methylstyrene, acetaldehyde production wastes from crotonaldehyde and mercury. 97 references.

  3. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2011-01-01

    possible for modern European cities to contribute to greenhouse gas emission reduction by 15% through up to date technology and integrated waste management systems for material and energy recovery. Going from being part of the problem to providing solutions; however, is not an easy endeavour. It requires....... It is shown that the cities have the potential to significantly contribute to a more sustainable development through increased material recycling and energy recovery. Waste prevention may increase this potential. For example, instead of constituting 3% of the total greenhouse gas emission problem, it seems...

  4. Visions of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    Visions of the City is a dramatic account of utopian urbanism in the twentieth century. It explores radical demands for new spaces and ways of living, and considers their effects on planning, architecture and struggles to shape urban landscapes. Such visions, it shows, have played a crucial role...... to transform urban space and everyday life. He addresses in particular Constant's vision of New Babylon, finding within his proposals for future spaces produced through nomadic life, creativity and play a still powerful challenge to imagine cities otherwise. The book not only recovers vital moments from past...

  5. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  6. City of open works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riesto, Svava; Søberg, Martin; Braae, Ellen Marie

    2012-01-01

    Cities change – and so do the tasks and agendas of landscapes architects. New types of urban schemes are increasingly arising. On the one hand, new sorts of commissions have emerged in recent years – on the other hand, traditional commissions have been interpreted in radically new ways. These con......Cities change – and so do the tasks and agendas of landscapes architects. New types of urban schemes are increasingly arising. On the one hand, new sorts of commissions have emerged in recent years – on the other hand, traditional commissions have been interpreted in radically new ways...

  7. Microbial ecology of phototrophic biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeselers, G.

    2007-01-01

    Biofilms are layered structures of microbial cells and an extracellular matrix of polymeric substances, associated with surfaces and interfaces. Biofilms trap nutrients for growth of the enclosed microbial community and help prevent detachment of cells from surfaces in flowing systems. Phototrophic

  8. Advances in microbial steroid biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, S B; Garai, S

    1997-04-01

    Microbial biotransformations of various steroids are reviewed. Developmental studies on hydroxylation, carbon-carbon bond cleavage, enzymatic catalysis in nonaqueous solvents, use of cyclodextrin medium, cell immobilization, and new microbial reactions are highlighted. Various steroid substrates, their metabolites and the microorganisms used for the transformations are compiled covering the literature for the period 1992-1995.

  9. Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-1-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mahmoud A F; Elgaml, Abdelaziz; El-Mowafy, Mohammed

    2017-06-01

    Despite expansion of the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) worldwide, the incident of outbreaks regarding Egypt is still uncommon. In this survey, we denounce the emanation of multidrug-resistant NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Egypt. We have reclaimed 46 unrepeatable carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates at El-demerdash hospital, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. All the isolates showed a decreased sensitivity to imipenem and meropenem via the disc diffusion method. Among the isolates, 10 were proven as NDM-1 producers by utilizing the phenotypic methods (modified Hodge test and EDTA synergistic test) and specific PCR detection of NDM-1 encoding gene, bla NDM-1 . The isolates hosting the bla NDM-1 showed an elevated resistance to several classes of β-lactam and non β-lactam antibiotics. All bla NDM-1 -harboring isolates have showed positivity for one or more other plasmid-mediated bla genes; in addition, the isolates carried class 1 integron. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR results revealed that majority of the isolates, including the NDM-1 producers, are unrelated to each other. This highlights the danger of horizontal transfer of plasmids encoding for such carbapenemases, including NDM-1, between the isolates of K. pneumoniae. In summary, this study has confirmed the incidence of bla NDM-1 together with other bla genes among the K. pneumoniae isolates in Egypt. Control and prevention of infection can be achieved through early detection of resistance genes among bacterial isolates; through limiting the dispersal of these organisms.

  10. On-road emissions of CO, CO2and NOXfrom four wheeler and emission estimates for Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiprakash; Habib, Gazala; Kumar, Anil; Sharma, Akash; Haider, Minza

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the emission factor of gaseous pollutants (CO, CO 2 , and NO X ) from on-road tailpipe measurement of 14 passenger cars of different types of fuel and vintage. The trolley equipped with stainless steel duct, vane probe velocity meter, flue gas analyzer, Nondispersive infra red (NDIR) CO 2 analyzer, temperature, and relative humidity (RH) sensors was connected to the vehicle using a towing system. Lower CO and higher NO X emissions were observed from new diesel cars (post 2010) compared to old cars (post 2005), which implied that new technological advancement in diesel fueled passenger cars to reduce CO emission is a successful venture, however, the use of turbo charger in diesel cars to achieve high temperature combustion might have resulted in increased NO X emissions. Based on the measured emission factors (g/kg), and fuel consumption (kg), the average and 95% confidence interval (CI) bound estimates of CO, CO 2 , and NO X from four wheeler (4W) in Delhi for the year 2012 were 15.7 (1.4-37.1) , 6234 (386-12,252) , and 30.4 (0.0-103) Gg/year, respectively. The contribution of diesel, gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) to total CO, CO 2 and NO X emissions were 7:84:9, 50:48:2 and 58:41:1 respectively. The present work indicated that the age and the maintenance of vehicle both are important factors in emission assessment therefore, more systematic repetitive measurements covering wide range of vehicles of different age groups, engine capacity, and maintenance level is needed for refining the emission factors with CI. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Maintenance of Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Betasatellite by Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus—Analysis by Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae are economically important phytopathogens that are transmitted plant-to-plant by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Most Old World (OW begomoviruses are monopartite and many of these interact with symptoms and host range determining betasatellites. Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV is one of only a few OW begomoviruses with a bipartite genome (components known as DNA A and DNA B. Four genes [AV2, coat protein (CP, transcriptional-activator protein (TrAP, and AC4] of ToLCNDV were mutated and the effects of the mutations on infectivity, symptoms and the ability to maintain Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB were investigated. Infectivity and virus/betasatellite DNA titer were assessed by Southern blot hybridization, PCR, and quantitative PCR. The results showed TrAP of ToLCNDV to be essential for maintenance of CLCuMuB and AV2 to be important only in the presence of the DNA B. AC4 was found to be important for the maintenance of CLCuMuB in the presence of, but indispensable in the absence of, the DNA B. Rather than being required for maintenance, the CP was shown to possibly interfere with maintenance of the betasatellite. The findings show that the interaction between a bipartite begomovirus and a betasatellite is more complex than just trans-replication. Clearly, multiple levels of interactions are present and such associations can cause additional significant losses to crops although the interaction may not be stable.

  12. Sleep Pattern of Adolescents in a School in Delhi, India: Impact on their Mood and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ruchi; Suri, Jagdish C; Sharma, Renuka; Suri, Tejas; Adhikari, Tulsi

    2018-03-16

    To examine the sleep pattern and observe differences in sleep routines, phase preferences, mood, attendance, and academic performance among different adolescent age students. Secondly, to observe the age at which sleep phase transition and changes in sleep requirement become evident. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 501 students (aged 11-15 y) of a school in Delhi, India. Students were evaluated for their sleep patterns, sleep duration, habits of napping, quality of sleep, sleepiness, depression, phase preferences by self-reported school sleep habits survey questionnaire along with school performance and attendance. Significant differences were found in sleep pattern of students aged 11-12 y and 13-15 y. Bedtime shifted to a later time with increasing age but early morning schools kept the wake time same, leading to a decline in total sleep duration of older adolescents. Older adolescents had higher depression but poor attendance and academic performance. Prevalence of sleep deprivation increased with age, from 83.7% to 87.1% in 11-12 y to 90.5% to 92.5% in 13-15 y. The study clearly identifies 12-13 y as age of transition of sleep pattern among adolescents. Though significant differences were found in the academic performance, mood and attendance among preteens and teens but no direct association was seen between academic performances and sleep pattern. A complex multifactorial association between sleep patterns, attendance, mood and academic performance which may change over days, months, or years should be explored further in a longitudinal follow up study.

  13. Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites.

  14. Antibiotic prescribing practice for acute, uncomplicated respiratory tract infections in primary care settings in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwani, Anita; Holloway, Kathleen

    2014-07-01

    To obtain information on prescribing rates and choice of antibiotics for acute, uncomplicated respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in the community. Antibiotic use in acute, uncomplicated RTIs consisting of common cold/sore throat/cough for not more than five days was surveyed in the community (December 2007-November 2008) using patient exit interviews at public and private facilities from four localities in New Delhi. Data were collected from 10 public sector facilities and 20 private clinics over one year. The percentage of acute, uncomplicated RTIs patients receiving antibiotics in general and using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification and the Defined Daily Dose (ATS/DDD) were analysed. At public and private facilities, 45% (746/1646) and 57% (259/457) of acute, uncomplicated RTI patients were prescribed at least one antibiotic, respectively. The main antibiotic class calculated as percentage of total antibiotics DDDs/1000 prescribed to acute, uncomplicated RTI patients at private clinics was cephalosporins, J01DA (39%), followed by fluoroquinolones, J01MA (24%), penicillins, J01C (19%) and macrolides, J01FA (15%). Newer members from each class were prescribed; older antibiotics such as co-trimoxazole or tetracyclines were rarely prescribed. At public facilities, the main class of antibiotic prescribed was penicillins (31%), followed by macrolides (25%), fluoroquinolones (20%) and cephalosporins (10%). Study clearly shows overuse and inappropriate choice of antibiotics for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated RTIs which are mainly due to virus and do not require antibiotic treatment. Results of the study warrant interventional strategies to promote rational use of antibiotics to decrease the overgrowing threat of antibiotic resistance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pradhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs. 

  16. Phenotypic and Genetic Heterogeneity in Vibrio cholerae O139 Isolated from Cholera Cases in Delhi, India during 2001-2006

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    Raikamal Ghosh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 has declined in cholera endemic countries. However, sporadic cholera caused by V. cholerae O139 with notable genetic changes is still reported from many regions. In the present study, 42 V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from 2001 to 2006 in Delhi, India, were retrospectively analyzed to understand their phenotype and molecular characteristics. The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. Though the integrative conjugative element was detected in all the O139 isolates, the 2004-2006 isolates remained susceptible to co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Cholera toxin genotype 1 was present in the majority of the O139 isolates while few had type 3 or a novel type 4. In the cholera toxin encoding gene (ctx restriction fragment length polymorphism, the majority of the isolates harbored three copies of CTX element, of which one was truncated. In this study, the ctx was detected for the first time in the small chromosome of V. cholerae O139 and one isolate harbored 5 copies of CTX element, of which 3 were truncated. The ribotype BII pattern was found in most of the O139 isolates. Three V. cholerae O139 isolated in 2001 had a new ribotype BVIII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed clonal variation in 2001 isolates compared to the 2004-2006 isolates. Molecular changes in V. cholerae O139 have to be closely monitored as this information may help in understanding the changing genetic features of this pathogen in relation to the epidemiology of cholera.

  17. Intrathecal administration of colistin for meningitis due to New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1(NDM-1)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

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    Inamasu, Joji; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Oheda, Motoki; Nakae, Shunsuke; Hirose, Yuichi; Yoshida, Shunji

    2016-03-01

    Infection by bacteria carrying New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) is becoming a global health problem. We report a case of meningitis caused by NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, for which intrathecal administration of colistin was curative. A previously healthy 38-year-old Japanese man, who lived in Hyderabad, India, suddenly collapsed and was brought to a local hospital. He was diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage and underwent emergency surgery which included partial skull removal. Approximately 1 month after surgery, he was repatriated to Japan and was admitted to our institution with information that he had been treated for multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter infection with colistin. A week after admission, he developed aspiration pneumonia due to NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae, which was successfully treated by intravenous (IV) administration of colistin. Subsequently, he underwent a surgical procedure to repair his skull defect. He developed high-grade fever and altered mental status on postoperative day 2. NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae was identified in the cerebrospinal fluid, establishing the diagnosis of meningitis. Although IV colistin was only partially effective, intrathecal colistin (10 mg daily by lumbar puncture for 14 days) successfully eradicated the meningitis. Because of economic globalization, NDM-1-producing bacteria may be brought to Japan by those who are repatriated after sustaining critical illnesses and being treated in foreign countries. This report may provide useful information on the treatment of central nervous system infection by NDM-1-producing bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating Potential Methane Emission from Municipal Solid Waste and a Site Suitability Analysis of Existing Landfills in Delhi, India

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    Chander Kumar Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of rapidly growing municipal solid waste (MSW is one of the major challenges in developing countries. The current study also estimates the suitability of a site through a geographical information system using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA for landfill sites in National Capital Territory (NCT. The results of the suitability index indicate that only 58.7 km2 of the land is suitable for the construction of landfill sites, while 194.27 km2 of the total area is moderately suitable. The existing three landfill sites that are currently functional and used by government organizations as landfills are found to be moderately suitable. A large fraction of MSW is disposed in landfills, which emit one third of the total anthropogenic methane (CH4 and are considered an important contributor of Green House Gases (GHGs to the atmosphere. Thus, there is a need for the proper estimation of GHG emission from landfills, specifically CH4, which contributes 20% of the GHGs that contribute to global warming. The current study aims to estimate the CH4 emission from landfills in the NCT, Delhi, India using GHG inventory guidelines from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. The CH4 emission from landfills has doubled from 31.06 Gg/yr to 65.16 Gg/yr from 1999 and 2000 to 2015. The generation of CH4 from MSW is strongly correlated (R2 = 0.58 with the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP, which is an indicator of wellbeing.

  19. Genetic signatures coupled with lineage shift characterise endemic evolution of Dengue virus serotype 2 during 2015 outbreak in Delhi, India.

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    Choudhary, Manish Chandra; Gupta, Ekta; Sharma, Shvetank; Hasnain, Nadeem; Agarwala, Pragya

    2017-07-01

    In 2015, New Delhi witnessed a massive outbreak of Dengue virus (DENV) resulting in high morbidity and mortality. We report the molecular characterisation of the dominant circulating DENV strain to understand its evolution and dispersal. DENV infections were diagnosed by detection of IgM/NS1 antigen, and serotyping was performed by C-PrM PCR. Envelope gene was amplified, and variation(s) in envelope gene were analysed. Phylogenetic tree construction, time-based phylogeny and origin of DENV were analysed. Site-specific selection pressure of envelope gene variants was analysed. Confirmed DENV infection was observed in 11.34% (32 of 282) cases, while PCR positivity for C-PrM region was observed in 54.16% (13 of 24) of NS1 antigen-positive cases. All samples belonged to serotype 2 and cosmopolitan genotype. Phylogenetic analysis using envelope gene revealed segregation of cosmopolitan genotype strains into specific lineages. The Indian strains clustered separately forming a distinct monophyletic lineage (lineage III) with a signature amino acid substitution viz., I162V and R288K. Selection pressure analysis revealed that 215D, 288R and 304K were positively selected sites. The rate of nucleotide substitution was 6.93 × 10 -4 substitutions site-1 year-1 with time to most common ancestor was around 10 years with JX475906 (Hyderabad strain) and JN030345 (Singapore strain) as its most probable ancestor. We observed evolution of a distinct lineage of DENV-2 strains on the Indian subcontinent with possible changes in endemic circulating dengue strains that might give rise to more pathogenic strains. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pradhan .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs.