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Sample records for deleterious side effects

  1. The effect of deleterious mutations on neutral molecular variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlesworth, B.; Morgan, M.T.; Charlesworth, D. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Selection against deleterious alleles maintained by mutation may cause a reduction in the amount of genetic variability at linked neutral sites. This is because a new neutral variant can remain in a large population for a long period of time only if it is maintained in gametes that are free of deleterious alleles, and hence are not destined for rapid elimination from the population by selection. Approximate formulas are derived for the reduction below classical neutral values resulting from such background selection against deleterious mutations, for the mean times of fixation and loss of new mutations, nucleotide site diversity, and number of segregating sites. These formulas apply to random-mating populations with no genetic recombination, and to populations reproducing exclusively asexually or by self-fertilization. For a given selection regime and mating system, the reduction is an exponential function of the total mutation rate to deleterious mutations for the section of the genome involved. Simulations show that the effect decreases rapidly with increasing recombination frequency or rate of outcrossing. The mean time to loss of new neutral mutations and the total number of segregating neutral sites are less sensitive to background selection than the other statistics, unless the population size is of the order of a hundred thousand or more. The stationary distribution of allele frequencies at the neutral sites is correspondingly skewed in favor of rare alleles, compared with the classical neutral result. Observed reductions in molecular variation in low recombination genomic regions of sufficiently large size, for instance in the centromere-proximal regions of Drosophila autosomes or in highly selfing plant populations, may be partly due to background selection against deleterious mutations. 58 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity

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    Richa Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  3. Side Effects (Management)

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    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  4. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jacket Fashion Show Contact Us Side Effects of Chemotherapy Each of the chemotherapy drugs available today works in a slightly different ... few rules of thumb when it comes to chemotherapy that should always be kept in mind. Ignore ...

  5. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  6. Relative effectiveness of mating success and sperm competition at eliminating deleterious mutations in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Sean C A Clark

    Full Text Available Condition-dependence theory predicts that sexual selection will facilitate adaptation by selecting against deleterious mutations that affect the expression of sexually selected traits indirectly via condition. Recent empirical studies have provided support for this prediction; however, their results do not elucidate the relative effects of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection on deleterious mutations. We used the Drosophila melanogaster model system to discern the relative contributions of pre- and postcopulatory processes to selection against deleterious mutations. To assess second-male ejaculate competition success (P2; measured as the proportion of offspring attributable to the experimental male and mating success, mutant and wild-type male D. melanogaster were given the opportunity to mate with females that were previously mated to a standard competitor male. This process was repeated for males subjected to a diet quality manipulation to test for effects of environmentally-manipulated condition on P2 and mating success. While none of the tested mutations affected P2, there was a clear effect of condition. Conversely, several of the mutations affected mating success, while condition showed no effect. Our results suggest that precopulatory selection may be more effective than postcopulatory selection at removing deleterious mutations. The opposite result obtained for our diet manipulation points to an interesting discrepancy between environmental and genetic manipulations of condition, which may be explained by the multidimensionality of condition. Establishing whether the various stages of sexual selection affect deleterious mutations differently, and to what extent, remains an important issue to resolve.

  7. Side effects of ergotamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyler, WJ

    1996-01-01

    Ergotamine has been used for many years in the treatment of migraine, although there is Little formal clinical evidence that it is significantly more efficacious than placebo. A number of side effects associated with ergotamine have been reported in the literature, including myocardial infarction, i

  8. Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A

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    Maja Peraica

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin with carcinogenic properties. Its presence was detected in various foodstuffs all over the world but with significantly higher frequency and concentrations in areas with endemic nephropathy (EN. Even though food is often contaminated with more than one mycotoxin, earlier studies focused on the occurrence and toxicology of only OTA. Only a limited number of surveys showed that OTA co-occurs in food with mycotoxins (citrinin-CIT, penicilic acid, fumonisin B1-FB1, aflatoxins-AF which exert nephrotoxic, carcinogenic or carcinogen-promoting activity. This review summarises the findings on OTA and its co-occurrence with the mentioned mycotoxins in food as well as experimental data on their combined toxicity. Most of the tested mycotoxin mixtures involving OTA produced additive or synergistic effects in experimental models suggesting that these combinations represent a significant health hazard. Special attention should be given to mixtures that include carcinogenic and cancer-promoting mycotoxins.

  9. Deleterious effects of nonthermal electrons in shock ignition concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaï, Ph.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Touati, M.; Ribeyre, X.; Gus'kov, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2014-03-01

    Shock ignition concept is a promising approach to inertial confinement fusion that may allow obtaining high fusion energy gains with the existing laser technology. However, the spike driving laser intensities in the range of 1-10 PW/cm2 produces the energetic electrons that may have a significant effect on the target performance. The hybrid numerical simulations including a radiation hydrodynamic code coupled to a rapid Fokker-Planck module are used to asses the role of hot electrons in the shock generation and the target preheat in the time scale of 100 ps and spatial scale of 100 μm. It is shown that depending on the electron energy distribution and the target density profile the hot electrons can either increase the shock amplitude or preheat the imploding shell. In particular, the exponential electron energy spectrum corresponding to the temperature of 30 keV in the present HiPER target design preheats the deuterium-tritium shell and jeopardizes its compression. Ways of improving the target performance are suggested.

  10. The Effect of an Extreme and Prolonged Population Bottleneck on Patterns of Deleterious Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Casper-Emil T; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Grarup, Niels;

    2016-01-01

    to a markedly more extreme distribution of allele frequencies than seen for any other human population, making the Inuit the perfect population for investigating the effect of a bottleneck on patterns of deleterious variation. When comparing proxies for genetic load that assume an additive effect of deleterious......The genetic consequences of population bottlenecks on patterns of deleterious genetic variation in human populations are of tremendous interest. Based on exome sequencing of 18 Greenlandic Inuit here we show that the Inuit have undergone a severe ~20,000 year long bottleneck. This has led...... alleles, the Inuit show, at most, a slight increase in load compared to European, East Asian, and African populations. Specifically, we observe

  11. Similarity of Deleterious Effects of Divorce on Chinese and American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao

    2001-01-01

    Reviews and contrasts the effects of divorce on Chinese children's adjustment to American children of divorce. Results indicate that the deleterious effects of divorce on children's academic and social functioning appear to be similar to that experienced by American children. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

  12. Potential Deleterious Effects of Vasopressin in Chronic Kidney Disease and Particularly Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Boertien, W. E.; Zietse, R.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is crucial for regulating free water clearance in normal physiology. However, it has also been hypothesized that vasopressin has deleterious effects on the kidney. Vasopressin is elevated in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. Suppression of

  13. Potential Deleterious Effects of Vasopressin in Chronic Kidney Disease and Particularly Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Boertien, W. E.; Zietse, R.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is crucial for regulating free water clearance in normal physiology. However, it has also been hypothesized that vasopressin has deleterious effects on the kidney. Vasopressin is elevated in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. Suppression of vasopre

  14. Separating multiple, short-term deleterious effects of saline solutions to the growth of cowpea seedlings

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    Reductions in plant growth due to salinity are of global importance in natural and agricultural landscapes. Short-term (48 h) solution culture experiments studied 404 treatments with seedlings of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) to examine the multiple deleterious effects of Ca, Mg...

  15. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects

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    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  16. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/17/2017; last reviewed 1/17/2017) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  17. Cellular and behavioral effects of stilbene resveratrol analogues: implications for reducing the deleterious effects of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, James A; Fisher, Derek R; Cheng, Vivian; Rimando, Agnes M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2008-11-26

    Research suggests that polyphenolic compounds contained in fruits and vegetables that are rich in color may have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present studies determined if stilbene (e.g., resveratrol) compounds would be efficacious in reversing the deleterious effects of aging in 19 month old Fischer 344 rats. Experiment I utilized resveratrol and six resveratrol analogues and examined their efficacies in preventing dopamine-induced decrements in calcium clearance following oxotremorine-induced depolarization in COS-7 cells transfected with M1 muscarinic receptors (MAChR) that we have shown previously to be sensitive to oxidative stressors. Experiment II utilized the most efficacious analogue (pterostilbene) from experiment I and fed aged rats a diet with a low (0.004%) or a high (0.016%) concentration of pterostilbene. Results indicated that pterostilbene was effective in reversing cognitive behavioral deficits, as well as dopamine release, and working memory was correlated with pterostilbene levels in the hippocampus.

  18. High-protein-low-carbohydrate diet: deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular effects depend on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedarida, Tatiana; Baron, Stephanie; Vessieres, Emilie; Vibert, Francoise; Ayer, Audrey; Marchiol-Fournigault, Carmen; Henrion, Daniel; Paul, Jean-Louis; Noble, Florence; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Cottart, Charles-Henry; Nivet-Antoine, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    High-protein-low-carbohydrate (HP-LC) diets have become widespread. Yet their deleterious consequences, especially on glucose metabolism and arteries, have already been underlined. Our previous study (2) has already shown glucose intolerance with major arterial dysfunction in very old mice subjected to an HP-LC diet. The hypothesis of this work was that this diet had an age-dependent deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular outcome. Two groups of mice, young and adult (3 and 6 mo old), were subjected for 12 wk to a standard or to an HP-LC diet. Glucose and lipid metabolism was studied. The cardiovascular system was explored from the functional stage with Doppler-echography to the molecular stage (arterial reactivity, mRNA, immunohistochemistry). Young mice did not exhibit any significant metabolic modification, whereas adult mice presented marked glucose intolerance associated with an increase in resistin and triglyceride levels. These metabolic disturbances were responsible for cardiovascular damages only in adult mice, with decreased aortic distensibility and left ventricle dysfunction. These seemed to be the consequence of arterial dysfunctions. Mesenteric arteries were the worst affected with a major oxidative stress, whereas aorta function seemed to be maintained with an appreciable role of cyclooxygenase-2 to preserve endothelial function. This study highlights for the first time the age-dependent deleterious effects of an HP-LC diet on metabolism, with glucose intolerance and lipid disorders and vascular (especially microvessels) and cardiac functions. This work shows that HP-LC lead to equivalent cardiovascular alterations, as observed in very old age, and underlines the danger of such diet.

  19. Methylphenidate and environmental enrichment ameliorate the deleterious effects of prenatal stress on attention functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubedat, Salman; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Cymerblit-Sabba, Adi; Ritter, Ami; Nachmani, Maayan; Avital, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Either pre- or post-natal environmental factors seem to play a key role in brain and behavioral development and to exert long-term effects. Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal stress (PS) leads to motor and learning deficits and elevated anxiety, while enriched environment (EE) shows protective effects. The dopaminergic system is also sensitive to environmental life circumstances and affects attention functioning, which serves as the preliminary gate to cognitive processes. However, the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the dopaminergic system and attentional functioning, in the context of these life experiences, remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of EE or PS on distinct types of attention, along with possible effects of MPH exposure. We found that PS impaired selective attention as well as partial sustained attention, while EE had beneficial effects. Both EE and MPH ameliorated the deleterious effects of PS on attention functioning. Considering the possible psychostimulant effect of MPH, we examined both anxiety-like behavior as well as motor learning. We found that PS had a clear anxiogenic effect, whereas EE had an anxiolytic effect. Nevertheless, the treatment with both MPH and/or EE recovered the deleterious effects of PS. In the motor-learning task, the PS group showed superior performance while MPH led to impaired motor learning. Performance decrements were prevented in both the PS + MPH and EE + MPH groups. This study provides evidence that peripubertal exposure to EE (by providing enhanced sensory, motor, and social opportunities) or MPH treatments might be an optional therapeutic intervention in preventing the PS long-term adverse consequences.

  20. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as Pedialyte ® ••Tea (without caffeine) ••Water ••Applesauce ••Bananas ••Crackers ••Cream of wheat or rice cereal ••Eggs •• ... has a series of 18 Chemotherapy Side Effects Sheets at: www.cancer.gov/chemo-side-effects

  1. Deleterious effects of recombination and possible nonrecombinatorial advantages of sex in a fungal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villavicencio, M; Debets, A J M; Slakhorst, M; Giraud, T; Schoustra, S E

    2013-09-01

    Why sexual reproduction is so prevalent in nature remains a major question in evolutionary biology. Most of the proposed advantages of sex rely on the benefits obtained from recombination. However, it is still unclear whether the conditions under which these recombinatorial benefits would be sufficient to maintain sex in the short term are met in nature. Our study addresses a largely overlooked hypothesis, proposing that sex could be maintained in the short term by advantages due to functions linked with sex, but not related to recombination. These advantages would be so essential that sex could not be lost in the short term. Here, we used the fungus Aspergillus nidulans to experimentally test predictions of this hypothesis. Specifically, we were interested in (i) the short-term deleterious effects of recombination, (ii) possible nonrecombinatorial advantages of sex particularly through the elimination of mutations and (iii) the outcrossing rate under choice conditions in a haploid fungus able to reproduce by both outcrossing and haploid selfing. Our results were consistent with our hypotheses: we found that (i) recombination can be strongly deleterious in the short term, (ii) sexual reproduction between individuals derived from the same clonal lineage provided nonrecombinatorial advantages, likely through a selection arena mechanism, and (iii) under choice conditions, outcrossing occurs in a homothallic species, although at low rates.

  2. Coping – Late Side Effects

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    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  3. Dominance effects of deleterious and beneficial mutations in a single gene of the RNA virus ϕ6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah B Joseph

    Full Text Available Most of our knowledge of dominance stems from studies of deleterious mutations. From these studies we know that most deleterious mutations are recessive, and that this recessivity arises from a hyperbolic relationship between protein function (i.e., protein concentration or activity and fitness. Here we investigate whether this knowledge can be used to make predictions about the dominance of beneficial and deleterious mutations in a single gene. We employed a model system--the bacteriophage φ6--that allowed us to generate a collection of mutations in haploid conditions so that it was not biased toward either dominant beneficial or recessive deleterious mutations. Screening for the ability to infect a bacterial host that does not permit infection by the wildtype φ6, we generated a collection of mutations in P3, a gene involved in attachment to the host and in phage particle assembly. The resulting collection contained mutations with both deleterious and beneficial effects on fitness. The deleterious mutations in our collection had additive effects on fitness and the beneficial mutations were recessive. Neither of these observations were predicted from previous studies of dominance. This pattern is not consistent with the hyperbolic (diminishing returns relationship between protein function and fitness that is characteristic of enzymatic genes, but could have resulted from a curve of increasing returns.

  4. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Constipation

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    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Constipation Take these steps: Eat high-fiber foods such as: ● ● Whole-grain breads and cereals ● ● Fruits and vegetables ● ● Nuts and seeds ...

  5. Deleterious effects of maternal ingestion of cocoa upon fetal ductus arteriosus in late pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo eZielinsky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa powder has twice more antioxidants than red wine and three times more than green tea. Ten prcent of its weight is made up of flavonoids. Cocoa has antioxidant and antiinflamatory effects by downregulating cyclooxigenase-2 receptors expression in the endothelium and enhancing nitric oxide bioavailability. There are evidences that while polyphenols ingestion have cardioprotective effects in the adult, it may have deleterious effect on the fetus if ingested by the mother on the third trimester of pregnancy, causing intrauterine fetal ductus arteriosus constriction.Polyphenols present in many foods and their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities have been shown to be as or more powerful than those of indomethacin. These effects are dependent on the inhibition of modulation of the arachidonic acid and the synthesis of prostaglandins, especially E-2, which is responsible for fetal ductus arteriosus patency. So, we hypothesized that this same mechanism is responsible for the harmful effect of polyphenol-rich foods, such as cocoa, upon the fetal ductus arteriosus after maternal intake of such substances in the third trimester of pregnancy, thereby rising the perspective of a note of caution for pregnant women diet.

  6. Is the deleterious effect of cryotherapy on proprioception mitigated by exercise?

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    Ribeiro, F; Moreira, S; Neto, J; Oliveira, J

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the acute effects of cryotherapy on knee position sense and to determine the time period necessary to normalize joint position sense when exercising after cryotherapy. 12 subjects visited the laboratory twice, once for cryotherapy followed by 30 min of exercise on a cycloergometer and once for cryotherapy followed by 30 min of rest. Sessions were randomly determined and separated by 48 h. Cryotherapy was applied in the form of ice bag, filled with 1 kg of crushed ice, for 20 min. Knee position sense was measured at baseline, after cryotherapy and every 5 min after cryotherapy removal until a total of 30 min. The main effect of cryotherapy was significant showing an increase in absolute (F7,154=43.76, pcryotherapy. The intervention after cryotherapy (rest vs. exercise) revealed a significant main effect only for absolute error (F7,154=4.05, pcryotherapy, the proprioceptive acuity reached the baseline values faster (10 min vs. 15 min). Our results indicated that the deleterious effect of cryotherapy on proprioception is mitigated by low intensity exercise, being the time necessary to normalize knee position sense reduced from 15 to 10 min.

  7. Deleterious Effects of Increased Intra-Abdominal Pressure on Kidney Function

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    Zaher Armaly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP occurs in many clinical settings, including sepsis, severe acute pancreatitis, acute decompensated heart failure, hepatorenal syndrome, resuscitation with large volume, mechanical ventilation with high intrathoracic pressure, major burns, and acidosis. Although increased IAP affects several vital organs, the kidney is very susceptible to the adverse effects of elevated IAP. Kidney dysfunction is among the earliest physiological consequences of increased IAP. In the last two decades, laparoscopic surgery is rapidly replacing the open approach in many areas of surgery. Although it is superior at many aspects, laparoscopic surgery involves elevation of IAP, due to abdominal insufflation with carbonic dioxide (pneumoperitoneum. The latter has been shown to cause several deleterious effects where the most recognized one is impairment of kidney function as expressed by oliguria and reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR and renal blood flow (RBF. Despite much research in this field, the systemic physiologic consequences of elevated IAP of various etiologies and the mechanisms underlying its adverse effects on kidney excretory function and renal hemodynamics are not fully understood. The current review summarizes the reported adverse renal effects of increased IAP in edematous clinical settings and during laparoscopic surgery. In addition, it provides new insights into potential mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and therapeutic approaches to encounter renal complications of elevated IAP.

  8. Female rats are more susceptible to the deleterious effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation on cognitive performance.

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    Hajali, Vahid; Sheibani, Vahid; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Shabani, Mohammad

    2012-03-17

    Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) may alter subsequent learning and memory capacity. There are differences in both the intensity and direction of responses of the male and female species to the same environmental stimuli and experimental conditions. In the present study, we examined the extent of the effects of PSD for 72h on spatial learning and memory, anxiety-like behavior, corticosterone levels, and the body weight in male as well as in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats. Multiple platform method was used for PSD induction. Spatial learning and memory and anxiety-like behavior were determined using Morris water maze (MWM) task and open field test, respectively. The data showed that PSD could not significantly affect subsequent spatial learning and short-term memory in male rats, while it significantly impaired the performance of the intact and OVX female rats. The PSD-intact and -OVX female rats showed more memory impairment than the PSD-male animals. Those impairments do not appear to be due to elevated stress level, since the plasma corticosterone did not significantly change following PSD induction. The open field data showed that PSD significantly reduced anxiety-like behavior in all experimental groups. In addition, PSD had a reducing effect on the mean body weight of female groups. Such results suggest that the female rats are more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of sleep loss on cognitive performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Deleterious effects of obesity upon the hormonal and molecular mechanisms controlling spermatogenesis and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lien M; Millar, Kate; Jones, Celine; Fatum, Muhammad; Coward, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Worldwide obesity rates have nearly doubled since 1980 and currently over 10% of the population is obese. In 2008, over 1.4 billion adults aged 20 years and older had a body mass index or BMI above a healthy weight and of these, over 200 million men and nearly 300 million women were obese. While obesity can have many ramifications upon adult life, one growing area of concern is that of reproductive capacity. Obesity affects male infertility by influencing the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, thus causing detrimental effects upon spermatogenesis and subsequent fertility. In particular, evidence indicates that excess adipose tissue can alter the relative ratio of testosterone and oestrogen. Additional effects involve the homeostatic disruption of insulin, sex-hormone-binding-globulin, leptin and inhibin B, leading to diminished testosterone production and impairment to spermatogenesis. Aberrant spermatogenesis arising from obesity is associated with downstream changes in key semen parameters, defective sperm capacitation and binding, and deleterious effects on sperm chromatin structure. More recent investigations into trans-generational epigenetic inheritance further suggest that molecular changes in sperm that arise from obesity-related impaired spermatogenesis, such as modified sperm RNA levels, DNA methylation, protamination and histone acetylation, can impact upon the development of offspring. Here, we summarise our current understanding of how obesity exerts influence over spermatogenesis and subsequent fertility status, and make recommendations for future investigative research.

  10. Side Effects of Side Effects Information in Drug Information Leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, H. Pander; Klaassen, R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study in which drug information leaflets given to patients were improved in two ways, first by adding a short introductory paragraph on the nature of side effects generally, and second by adjusting frequency descriptors to more accurately reflect pretesting of the drug. Explains that participants in the study were less likely to…

  11. Running away from side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, S; Hojman, P; Márquez-Rodas, I

    2015-01-01

    be an integrative complementary intervention to improve physiological, physical and psychological factors that affect survival and quality of life of these patients. For that reason, the main objective of this review is to provide a general overview of exercise benefits in breast cancer patients and recommendations......The number of breast cancer survivors increases every year, thanks to the development of new treatments and screening techniques. However, patients present with numerous side effects that may affect their quality of life. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce some of these side effects......, but in spite of this, few breast cancer patients know and follow the exercise recommendations needed to remain healthy. In this review, we describe the different breast cancer treatments and the related side effects and implications of exercise in relation to these. We propose that exercise could...

  12. Failure to replicate the deleterious effects of safety behaviors in exposure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Jennifer T; Dixon, Laura J; Lickel, James J; Nelson, Elizabeth A; Deacon, Brett J

    2011-05-01

    The current study attempted to replicate the finding obtained by Powers, Smits, and Telch (2004; Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 448-545) that both the availability and utilization of safety behaviors interfere with the efficacy of exposure therapy. An additional goal of the study was to evaluate which explanatory theories about the detrimental effects of safety behaviors best account for this phenomenon. Undergraduate students (N=58) with high claustrophobic fear were assigned to one of three treatment conditions: (a) exposure only, (b) exposure with safety behavior availability, and (c) exposure with safety behavior utilization. Participants in each condition improved substantially, and there were no significant between-group differences in fear reduction. Unexpectedly, exposure with safety behavior utilization led to significantly greater improvement in self-efficacy and claustrophobic cognitions than exposure only. The extent to which participants inferred danger from the presence of safety aids during treatment was associated with significantly less improvement on all outcome measures. The findings call into question the hypothesized deleterious effects of safety behaviors on the outcome of exposure therapy and highlight a possible mechanism through which the mere presence of safety cues during exposure trials might affect treatment outcomes depending on participants' perceptions of the dangerousness of exposure stimuli. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Multiple deleterious effects of experimentally aged sperm in a monogamous bird

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    White, J.; Wagner, R.H.; Helfenstein, F.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Mulard, Hervé; Naves, L.C.; Danchin, E.

    2008-01-01

    Sperm aging is known to be detrimental to reproductive performance. However, this apparently general phenomenon has seldom been studied in an evolutionary context. The negative impact of sperm aging on parental fitness should constitute a strong selective pressure for adaptations to avoid its effects. We studied the impact of sperm aging on black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), a monogamous seabird. Kittiwakes comprise a model system because (i) of evidence that females eject their mates' sperm to prevent fertilization by sperm that would be old and degraded by the time of fertilization and result in reduced reproductive performance and (ii) the lack of extra-pair fertilization in this species makes cryptic female choice an unlikely explanation of postcopulatory sperm ejection by females. We experimentally manipulated the age of the sperm fertilizing kittiwake eggs by fitting males with anti-insemination rings for variable periods of time preceding egg-laying. We found evidence that sperm aging negatively affected four sequential stages of reproduction: fertilization potential, rate of embryonic development, embryonic mortality, and chick condition at hatching. These results may be produced by a continuum of a single process of sperm aging that differentially affects various aspects of development, depending on the degree of damage incurred to the spermatozoa. The marked impact of sperm age on female fitness may thus drive postcopulatory sperm ejection by females. These results provide experimental evidence of deleterious effects of sperm aging on a nondomestic vertebrate, underlining its taxonomic generality and its potential to select for a wide array of adaptations. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  14. The deleterious effect of metabolic acidosis on nutritional status of hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Soleymanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main causes of protein-energy malnutrition in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD is metabolic acidosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metabolic acidosis on nutritional status in a group of MHD patients with adequately delivered dialysis treatment. Of 165 eligible anuric MHD outpatients with Kt/V ≥ 1 and no underlying inflammatory diseases, 47 subjects were enrolled. In order to evaluate the effect of different parameters on serum albumin, we measured the pre-dialysis serum albumin, blood pH, serum bicarbonate (HCO 3‾ , Kt/V, normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR and body mass index (BMI in these patients. The mean age of the study patients was 55 ± 13.8 years; there were 22 females and six diabetics. The average Kt/V was 1.22 ± 0.16, pH was 7.40 ± 0.15, serum HCO 3‾ was 23.18 ± 2.38 mEq/L, serum albumin was 4.03 ± 0.56 g/dL, nPCR was 1.00 ± 0.16 g/kg/day, post-dialysis body weight was 58.50 ± 11.50 kg and BMI was 23.47 ± 2.70 kg/m 2 . There was a statistically significant direct correlation between serum albumin and BMI (r = 0.415, P = 0.004, and between serum albumin and serum HCO 3 (r = 0.341, P = 0.019. On multiple regression analysis, the predictors of serum albumin were serum HCO3‾ and BMI (direct effect and nPCR (inverse effect. In 17 patients on MHD with serum HCO3‾ 22 mEq/L (P = 0.046. These data demonstrate that patients on MHD with metabolic acidosis had a lower serum albumin concentration despite adequate dialysis treatment. The inverse effect of nPCR on serum albumin concentration in acidotic MHD patients may be due to hypercatabolism in the setting of metabolic acidosis, leading to deleterious effects on the nutritional status of patients on MHD.

  15. Metabolic Side Effects of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cagdas Eker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an alkaline ion being used since 19th century. After its widespread use in psychiatric disorders, observed side effects caused skepticism about its therapeutic efficacy. Despite several disadvantages, lithium is one of the indispensible drugs used in affective disorders, especially in bipolar disorder. It became a necessity for physicians to recognize its side effects since lithium is still accepted as a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Adverse effects of chronic administration of lithium on several organ systems are widely known. In this article metabolic effects of lithium on thyroid and parathyroid glands, body mass index and kidneys will be discussed along with their mechanisms, clinical findings, possible risk factors and treatment. One of the most common side effect of lithium is hypothyroidism. It has the same clinical and biochemical properties as primary hypothyroidism and observed as subclinical hypothyroidism in the first place. Hypothyroidism, even its subclinical form, may be associated with non-response or inadequate response and is indicated as a risk factor for development of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Therefore, hypothyroidism should be screened no matter how severe it is and should be treated with thyroid hormone in the presence of clinical hypothyroidism. Weight gain due to lithium administration disturbs the compliance to treatment and negatively affects the course of the illness. Increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and stroke because of weight gain constitute other centers of problem. Indeed, it is of importance to determine the risk factors before treatment, to follow up the weight, to re-organize nutritional habits and to schedule exercises. Another frequent problematic side effect of lithium treatment is renal dysfunction which clinically present as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with the common symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. Nephrogenic diabetes

  16. Sex and deleterious mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Isabel; Campos, Paulo R A

    2008-05-01

    The evolutionary advantage of sexual reproduction has been considered as one of the most pressing questions in evolutionary biology. While a pluralistic view of the evolution of sex and recombination has been suggested by some, here we take a simpler view and try to quantify the conditions under which sex can evolve given a set of minimal assumptions. Since real populations are finite and also subject to recurrent deleterious mutations, this minimal model should apply generally to all populations. We show that the maximum advantage of recombination occurs for an intermediate value of the deleterious effect of mutations. Furthermore we show that the conditions under which the biggest advantage of sex is achieved are those that produce the fastest fitness decline in the corresponding asexual population and are therefore the conditions for which Muller's ratchet has the strongest effect. We also show that the selective advantage of a modifier of the recombination rate depends on its strength. The quantification of the range of selective effects that favors recombination then leads us to suggest that, if in stressful environments the effect of deleterious mutations is enhanced, a connection between sex and stress could be expected, as it is found in several species.

  17. Systematic Mapping of Protein Mutational Space by Prolonged Drift Reveals the Deleterious Effects of Seemingly Neutral Mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liat Rockah-Shmuel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Systematic mappings of the effects of protein mutations are becoming increasingly popular. Unexpectedly, these experiments often find that proteins are tolerant to most amino acid substitutions, including substitutions in positions that are highly conserved in nature. To obtain a more realistic distribution of the effects of protein mutations, we applied a laboratory drift comprising 17 rounds of random mutagenesis and selection of M.HaeIII, a DNA methyltransferase. During this drift, multiple mutations gradually accumulated. Deep sequencing of the drifted gene ensembles allowed determination of the relative effects of all possible single nucleotide mutations. Despite being averaged across many different genetic backgrounds, about 67% of all nonsynonymous, missense mutations were evidently deleterious, and an additional 16% were likely to be deleterious. In the early generations, the frequency of most deleterious mutations remained high. However, by the 17th generation, their frequency was consistently reduced, and those remaining were accepted alongside compensatory mutations. The tolerance to mutations measured in this laboratory drift correlated with sequence exchanges seen in M.HaeIII's natural orthologs. The biophysical constraints dictating purging in nature and in this laboratory drift also seemed to overlap. Our experiment therefore provides an improved method for measuring the effects of protein mutations that more closely replicates the natural evolutionary forces, and thereby a more realistic view of the mutational space of proteins.

  18. Systematic Mapping of Protein Mutational Space by Prolonged Drift Reveals the Deleterious Effects of Seemingly Neutral Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockah-Shmuel, Liat; Tóth-Petróczy, Ágnes; Tawfik, Dan S

    2015-08-01

    Systematic mappings of the effects of protein mutations are becoming increasingly popular. Unexpectedly, these experiments often find that proteins are tolerant to most amino acid substitutions, including substitutions in positions that are highly conserved in nature. To obtain a more realistic distribution of the effects of protein mutations, we applied a laboratory drift comprising 17 rounds of random mutagenesis and selection of M.HaeIII, a DNA methyltransferase. During this drift, multiple mutations gradually accumulated. Deep sequencing of the drifted gene ensembles allowed determination of the relative effects of all possible single nucleotide mutations. Despite being averaged across many different genetic backgrounds, about 67% of all nonsynonymous, missense mutations were evidently deleterious, and an additional 16% were likely to be deleterious. In the early generations, the frequency of most deleterious mutations remained high. However, by the 17th generation, their frequency was consistently reduced, and those remaining were accepted alongside compensatory mutations. The tolerance to mutations measured in this laboratory drift correlated with sequence exchanges seen in M.HaeIII's natural orthologs. The biophysical constraints dictating purging in nature and in this laboratory drift also seemed to overlap. Our experiment therefore provides an improved method for measuring the effects of protein mutations that more closely replicates the natural evolutionary forces, and thereby a more realistic view of the mutational space of proteins.

  19. Vitamin E prevents deleterious effects of di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate, a plasticizer used in PVC blood storage bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, C R; Gayathri, N S; Mithra, K; Nair, K V Neelakantan; Kurup, P A

    2004-09-01

    Vitamin E administration prevented DEHP induced deleterious effects like (i) degenerative changes in the brain and thyroid, (ii) decrease in the activity of neuronal membrane Na+ - K+ ATPase, (iii) decrease in the concentration of insulin, cortisol and TSH, and (iv) the increase in T3 and T4 in female Albino rats. The results suggest use of vitamin E to prevent harmful effects of repeated transfusion of DEHP containing blood as in thalassemia patient. The possibility of using vitamin E to prevent the harmful effects of repeated transfusion of DEHP containing blood, as in thalassemia patients, is discussed.

  20. Duration of sexual harassment and generalized harassment in the workplace over ten years: effects on deleterious drinking outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M

    2011-01-01

    Although harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a 10-year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2,265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gender, age, and race) predicted the shape of the trajectories and likelihood of class membership. As hypothesized, membership in the chronic harassment classes was linked to future problematic drinking, even after controlling for previous drinking.

  1. Oxidative Stress Is Related to the Deleterious Effects of Heme Oxygenase-1 in an In Vivo Neuroinflammatory Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Tronel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 induction is associated with beneficial or deleterious effects depending on the experimental conditions adopted and the neurodegenerative rodent models used. The present study aimed first to evaluate the effects of cerebral HO-1 induction in an in vivo rat model of neuroinflammation by intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (QA and secondly to explore the role played by reactive oxygen species (ROS and free iron (Fe2+ derived from heme catabolism promoted by HO-1. Chronic I.P. treatment with the HO-1 inductor and substrate hemin was responsible for a significant dose-related increase of cerebral HO-1 production. Brain tissue loss, microglial activation, and neuronal death were significantly higher in rats receiving QA plus hemin (H-QA versus QA and controls. Significant increase of ROS production in H-QA rat brain was inhibited by the specific HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP which supports the idea that ROS level augmentation in hemin-treated animals is a direct consequence of HO-1 induction. The cerebral tissue loss and ROS level in hemin-treated rats receiving the iron chelator deferoxamine were significantly decreased, demonstrating the involvement of Fe2+in brain ROS production. Therefore, the deleterious effects of HO-1 expression in this in vivo neuroinflammatory model were linked to a hyperproduction of ROS, itself promoted by free iron liberation.

  2. Deleterious effects on MDAMB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cell lineage submitted to Ho-166 radioactive seeds at very low activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, Patricia L.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Sarmento, Eduardo V. [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Cuperschmid, Ethel M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (CEMEMOR/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, BR (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Centro de Memoria da Medicina

    2011-07-01

    Herein, the deleterious effect of ionizing radiation provided by Ho-166 radioactive seeds at low activity were addressed, based on experimental in vitro assays at the MDA MB231 cell lineage, a breast adenocarcinoma, compared to PBMC - peripheral blood cells. The methodology involves of the MDBMB-231 and PBMC expansion in culture in suitable environment in 30mm well plates and T-25 flasks. Seeds were synthesized with Ho-165 incorporated and characterized previously. Activation was processed at IPR1 reactor at the peripheral table, at 8h exposition. Three groups of seeds were tested: 0,34 mCi, 0,12 mCi activity, and control group. Such seeds were placed on culture and held to a period of 05 half-lives of the radionuclide. The biological responses at these exposure were documented by inverse microscopic photographic in time. Also, MTT essay were performed. A fast response in producing deleterious effects at cancer cell was observed even if for the low activity seeds. Also, a biological response dependent to a radial distance of the seed was observed. At conclusion, viability clonogenic control of MDAMB231 is identified at the exposition to Ho-166 ceramic seeds, even if at low activity of 0,1 to 0,3mCi. (author)

  3. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties......The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...

  4. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... boiled, without the skin ••White rice ••White toast ••Bananas ••Canned fruit such as applesauce, peaches, and pears •• ... has a series of 18 Chemotherapy Side Effects Sheets at: www.cancer.gov/chemo-side-effects

  5. Tongue-placed tactile biofeedback suppresses the deleterious effects of muscle fatigue on joint position sense at the ankle

    CERN Document Server

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Chenu, Olivier; Demongeot, Jacques; Payan, Yohan

    2007-01-01

    Whereas the acuity of the position sense at the ankle can be disturbed by muscle fatigue, it recently also has been shown to be improved, under normal ankle neuromuscular state, through the use of an artificial tongue-placed tactile biofeedback. The underlying principle of this biofeedback consisted of supplying individuals with supplementary information about the position of their matching ankle position relative to their reference ankle position through electrotactile stimulation of the tongue. Within this context, the purpose of the present experiment was to investigate whether this biofeedback could mitigate the deleterious effect of muscle fatigue on joint position sense at the ankle. To address this objective, sixteen young healthy university students were asked to perform an active ankle-matching task in two conditions of No-fatigue and Fatigue of the ankle muscles and two conditions of No-biofeedback and Biofeedback. Measures of the overall accuracy and the variability of the positioning were determin...

  6. Silicon alleviates deleterious effects of high salinity on the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis; Davy, Anthony J

    2013-02-01

    The non-essential element silicon is known to improve plant fitness by alleviating the effects of biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly in crops. However, its possible role in the exceptional tolerance of halophytes to salinity has not been investigated. This study reports the effect of Si supply on the salinity tolerance of the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora; plants were treated with NaCl (0-680 mM), with or without silicon addition of 500 μM, in a glasshouse experiment. Plant responses were examined using growth analysis, combined with measurements of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. In addition, tissue concentrations of aluminium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and silicon were determined. Although high salinity decreased growth, this effect was alleviated by treatment with Si. Improved growth was associated with higher net photosynthetic rate (A), and greater water-use efficiency (WUE). Enhanced A at high salinity could be explained by beneficial effects of Si on the photochemical apparatus, and on chlorophyll concentrations. Ameliorative effects of Si were correlated with reduced sodium uptake, which was unrelated to a reduction in the transpiration rate, since Si-supplemented plants had higher stomatal conductances (G(s)). These plants also had higher tissue concentrations of essential nutrients, suggesting that Si had a positive effect on the mineral nutrient balance in salt-stressed plants. Si appears to play a significant role in salinity tolerance even in a halophyte, which has other, specific salt-tolerance mechanisms, through diverse protective effects on the photosynthetic apparatus, water-use efficiency and mineral nutrient balance.

  7. European side markers effect on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, A.; Theeuwes, J.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 new European legislation regarding side-markers for passenger cars became effective. Volvo requested the TNO-Human Factors Research Institute (HFRI) to investigate the possible safety benefit of this European side-markers configuration. A test panel at TNO- HFRI was used to determine the dif

  8. Knowledge about the Deleterious Effects of Smoking and Its Relationship to Smoking Cessation among Pregnant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Susan A.; Higgins, Linda W.; Lebow, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Examines adolescents' knowledge of the detrimental effects of smoking on pregnant women and fetuses and its relationship to efforts to quit smoking with a sample of pregnant adolescents (N=71). A three-group randomized intervention design -- Teen FreshStart, Teen Freshstart with buddy, and usual care control -- was used. Results show that…

  9. Application of super absorbent polymer and ascorbic acid to mitigate deleterious effects of cadmium in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Moghadam,Hamid Reza Tohidi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The growing use of chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides can cause potential contamination with heavy metals to soil and groundwater, posing environmental and health threats. Heavy metals can also affect crop yield. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to explore the role of ascorbic acid foliar application and soil-applied super absorbent to mitigate adverse effects of cadmium (Cd), in terms of biochemical parameters in wheat. The experiment was installed in a completel...

  10. The Mental and Psychological Deleterious Effect of Noise on the Operators of Telecommunication Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taheri

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, unwanted noise is present everywhere in the workplace and in the living environment and disturbs human peace and calm. In spite of the importance of the indirect impact of noise on human life, little is performed about this issue in our country. Therefore, the present study have been focused on the measurement of noise pollution that impose operators of the telecommunication company in addition to the evaluation of the psychological and mental effect of sound on the telecommunication operators.

  11. Gastrointestinal side effects associated with novel therapies in patients with multiple myeloma: consensus statement of the IMF Nurse Leadership Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa C; Bertolotti, Page; Curran, Kathleen; Jenkins, Bonnie

    2008-06-01

    The novel immunomodulatory drugs lenalidomide and thalidomide and the novel proteasome inhibitor bortezomib can cause gastrointestinal side effects, including constipation, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, which can have a deleterious effect on quality of life and interfere with optimal therapy. The International Myeloma Foundation's Nurse Leadership Board developed this consensus statement for the management of gastrointestinal side effects associated with novel therapies to be used by healthcare providers in any medical setting. It includes grading criteria and general recommendations for assessing and managing the side effects. Although constipation, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting are expected side effects associated with novel therapies for multiple myeloma, they are manageable with appropriate medical interventions.

  12. Liver X receptors interfere with the deleterious effect of diethylstilbestrol on testicular physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oumeddour, Abdelkader [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Laboratoire de Neuroendocrinologie Appliquée, Université Badji Mokhtar Annaba, BP12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Viennois, Emilie; Caira, Françoise; Decourbey, Clélia [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Maqdasy, Salwan [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Service d’endocrinologie, diabétologie et maladies métaboliques, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, F-63003 Clermont-Ferrand (France); and others

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Part of the neonatal effect of DES on testis needs the presence of Lxrα/β. • Some DES-induced pathways are blocked in Lxr-deficient mice. • Lxr-deficient mice analysis defines DES-target genes protected by Lxr. - Abstract: Liver X receptors LXRα (NR1H3) and LXRβ (NR1H2) are transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, activated by specific oxysterols, oxidized derivatives of cholesterol. These receptors are involved in the regulation of testis physiology. Lxr-deficient mice pointed to the physiological roles of these nuclear receptors in steroid synthesis, lipid homeostasis and germ cell apoptosis and proliferation. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen considered as an endocrine disruptor that affects the functions of the testis. Various lines of evidences have made a clear link between estrogens, their nuclear receptors ERα (NR3A1) and ERβ (NR3A2), and Lxrα/β. As LXR activity could also be regulated by the nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP, NR0A2) and DES could act through SHP, we wondered whether LXR could be targeted by estrogen-like endocrine disruptors such as DES. For that purpose, wild-type and Lxr-deficient mice were daily treated with 0.75 μg DES from days 1 to 5 after birth. The effects of DES were investigated at 10 or 45 days of age. We demonstrated that DES induced a decrease of the body mass at 10 days only in the Lxr-deficient mice suggesting a protective effect of Lxr. We defined three categories of DES-target genes in testis: those whose accumulation is independent of Lxr; those whose accumulation is enhanced by the lack of both Lxrα/β; those whose accumulation is repressed by the absence of Lxrα/β. Lipid accumulation is also modified by neonatal DES injection. Lxr-deficient mice present different lipid profiles, demonstrating that DES could have its effects in part due to Lxrα/β. Altogether, our study shows that both nuclear receptors Lxrα and Lxrβ are not only

  13. Poloxamer [corrected] 188 has a deleterious effect on dystrophic skeletal muscle function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Terry

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked, fatal muscle wasting disease for which there is currently no cure and limited palliative treatments. Poloxomer 188 (P188 is a tri-block copolymer that has been proposed as a potential treatment for cardiomyopathy in DMD patients. Despite the reported beneficial effects of P188 on dystrophic cardiac muscle function, the effects of P188 on dystrophic skeletal muscle function are relatively unknown. Mdx mice were injected intraperitoneally with 460 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg P188 dissolved in saline, or saline alone (control. The effect of single-dose and 2-week daily treatment was assessed using a muscle function test on the Tibialis Anterior (TA muscle in situ in anaesthetised mice. The test comprises a warm up, measurement of the force-frequency relationship and a series of eccentric contractions with a 10% stretch that have previously been shown to cause a drop in maximum force in mdx mice. After 2 weeks of P188 treatment at either 30 or 460 mg/kg/day the drop in maximum force produced following eccentric contractions was significantly greater than that seen in saline treated control mice (P = 0.0001. Two week P188 treatment at either dose did not significantly change the force-frequency relationship or maximum isometric specific force produced by the TA muscle. In conclusion P188 treatment increases susceptibility to contraction-induced injury following eccentric contractions in dystrophic skeletal muscle and hence its suitability as a potential therapeutic for DMD should be reconsidered.

  14. Deleterious effects of cypermethrin on semen characteristics and testes of dwarf goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Hussain, Ijaz; Khan, Ahrar; Najib-ur-Rehman

    2009-07-01

    This study was carried out on 30 male dwarf goats to determine the effects of cypermethrin (CY) on semen characteristics and at tissue level in testes. Animals were divided randomly into five equal groups and each group was dipped with 0%, 0.1%, 0.4%, 0.8% or 1.6% CY, on days 0 and 15. The semen was collected at day 0, then fortnightly till 75 days and evaluated for physical characteristics, sperm morphology and concentration. None of the parameters studied showed any statistical difference on days 0 and 15 of sample collection. From day 30, effect of CY on semen characteristics started to appear and was more pronounced from days 45 to 75. Significantly (P<0.01) decreased ejaculatory volume, motility percentage, mass activity, and concentration of spermatozoa were observed in treated groups as compared to control. With the treatment of CY, pH of semen became more alkaline. Semen color changed from creamy (control) to milky white to straw color in treated bucks. Percentage of abnormal spermatozoa (tailless, bent tails, coiled tailed) was much higher in treated animals than in control. Dead spermatozoa increased significantly (P<0.01) in the treatment groups from days 30 to 75 as compared to the control group. All these changes were dose dependent, being less with low CY dose and more even extensive with high CY dose. Slight to moderate improvement in the above parameters was observed at day 75 nearly in all treated groups. Grossly decreased weight of testis and cyanotic epididymides were observed in bucks treated with 1.6% CY. Histopathologically, degenerative changes and loss of spermatogonia, spermatocyte, Sertoli cells, spermatids, and spermatozoa in seminiferous tubules were also dose dependent. It was concluded that CY caused dose-dependent effects on all parameters studied. High doses of CY (0.8% and 1.6% solution) affected the parameters on semen characteristics, though this effect seems to be transient as improvement in these parameters was observed at day

  15. Deleterious effects of net clogging on the quantification of stream drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Copp, Adam J.; Sabol, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Drift studies are central to stream and river ecological research. However, a fundamental aspect of quantifying drift — how net clogging affects the accuracy of results — has been widely ignored. Utilizing approaches from plankton and suspended sediment studies in oceanography and hydrology, we examined the rate and dynamics of net clogging across a range of conditions. We found that nets clog nonlinearly over time and that suspended solid concentrations and net mesh size exerted a strong effect on clogging rates. Critically, net clogging introduced unpredictable biases in resultant data due to the inaccuracies in water volume estimates introduced by progressive clogging. This renders the widespread approach to linearly “correct” for clogging inadequate. Using a meta-analysis of 77 drift studies spanning 25 years, we demonstrate that the detrimental effects of net clogging are routinely unappreciated, even though the results of most of these studies were likely affected by clogging. We close by describing an approach for avoiding net clogging, which will increase the accuracy and reproducibility of results in future freshwater, lotic drift studies.

  16. Prevalence of habit of tobacco and its deleterious effects in general population of Jaipur District, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vela Desai

    2012-01-01

    Materials and methods: A total of 552 patients who visited Outpatient Department of Jaipur Dental College, Jaipur, were studied. Complete information regarding presence of smoking and other forms of tobacco was recorded in case history proforma and any of tobacco-related oral lesions among these patients were examined. Results: In age group of 0.05 in 12.84% subjects, oral cancer was reported in 33 patients (p-value = 0.001 whereas smoker′s palate in 25 patients and OSMF being the most common. Awareness level about ill effects of tobacco was 51.10 %. Conclusion: High incidence of tobacco usage in smokeless form is seen in Jaipur population especially in adolescents. There were no significant findings found between males and females. Of all lesion examined, OSMF was found to be more prevalent. Therefore, it is important to take immediate steps to curb the habit.

  17. Exposure to prenatal stress has deleterious effects on hippocampal function in a febrile seizure rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qulu, Lihle; Daniels, W M U; Mabandla, Musa V

    2015-10-22

    Prenatal stress has been shown to result in the development of a number of neurological disorders in the offspring. Most of these disorders are a result of an altered HPA axis resulting in higher than normal glucocorticoid levels in the affected neonate. This leaves the offspring prone to immune challenges. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of prenatal stress and febrile seizures on behavior and hippocampal function. Pregnant dams were exposed to restraint stress during the third trimester. Following birth, febrile seizures were induced in two week old pups using lipopolysaccharide and kainic acid. A week later, anxiety-like behavior and navigational ability was assessed. Trunk blood was used to measure basal corticosterone concentration and hippocampal tissue was collected and analyzed. Our results show that exposure to prenatal stress increased basal corticosterone concentration. Exposure to prenatal stress exacerbated anxiety-like behavior and impaired the rat's navigational ability. Exposure to prenatal stress resulted in reduced hippocampal mass that was exacerbated by febrile seizures. However, exposure to febrile seizures did not affect hippocampal mass in the absence of prenatal stress. This suggests that febrile seizures are exacerbated by exposure to early life stressors and this may lead to the development of neurological symptoms associated with a malfunctioning hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Deleterious effects of interruption followed by reintroduction of enzyme replacement therapy on a lysosomal storage disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ana Paula; Matte, Ursula; Pasqualim, Gabriela; Tavares, Angela Maria Vicente; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Martinelli, Barbara; Ribas, Graziela; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Giugliani, Roberto; Baldo, Guilherme

    2016-10-01

    Temporary interruption of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in patients with different lysosomal storage disorders may happen for different reasons (adverse reactions, issues with reimbursement, logistic difficulties, and so forth), and the impact of the interruption is still uncertain. In the present work, we studied the effects of the interruption of intravenous ERT (Laronidase, Genzyme) followed by its reintroduction in mice with the prototypical lysosomal storage disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type I, comparing to mice receiving continuous treatment, untreated mucopolysaccharidosis type I mice, and normal mice. In the animals which treatment was temporarily interrupted, we observed clear benefits of treatment in several organs (liver, lung, heart, kidney, and testis) after reintroduction, but a worsening in the thickness of the aortic wall was detected. Furthermore, these mice had just partial improvements in behavioral tests, suggesting some deterioration in the brain function. Despite worsening is some disease aspects, urinary glycosaminoglycans levels did not increase during interruption, which indicates that this biomarker commonly used to monitor treatment in patients should not be used alone to assess treatment efficacy. The deterioration observed was not caused by the development of serum antienzyme antibodies. All together our results suggest that temporary ERT interruption leads to deterioration of function in some organs and should be avoided whenever possible.

  19. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy minimizes the deleterious effect of nicotine in female rats with induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualberto, Erivan Clementino; Theodoro, Letícia Helena; Longo, Mariellén; Novaes, Vivian Cristina Noronha; Nagata, Maria José Hitomi; Ervolino, Edilson; Garcia, Valdir Gouveia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the use of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of experimentally induced periodontitis in female rats that were systemically treated with or without nicotine. Female rats (n = 180) were divided into two groups: vehicle administration (Veh) and nicotine administration (Nic). Mini-pumps containing either vehicle or nicotine were implanted in the rats 30 days before the induction of experimental periodontitis (EP). EP was induced by placing a cotton ligature around the left mandibular first molar. After 7 days, the ligature was removed, and the rats were randomly divided into three treatment subgroups: SRP (only SRP), DL (SRP plus diode laser), and aPDT (SRP plus aPDT). The aPDT consisted of phenothiazine photosensitizer deposition followed by diode laser irradiation. Ten rats from each subgroup were euthanized at 7, 15, and 30 days after treatment. Alveolar bone loss (ABL) in the furcation region was evaluated using histological, histometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. The rats that were treated with nicotine showed more ABL compared to those treated with vehicle. In both the Veh and Nic groups, SRP plus aPDT treatment resulted in reduced ABL, smaller numbers of both TRAP- and RANKL-positive cells, and higher numbers of PCNA-positive cells compared to SRP treatment alone. aPDT was an effective adjunctive therapy for the treatment of periodontitis in female rats regardless of whether they received nicotine.

  20. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera.

  1. Effect of Deleterious Phases on Corrosion Resistance of Duplex Stainless Steel (2205

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdulKadar M. Godil

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Duplex stainless steel is a Ferritic(BCC-Austenitic(FCC steel, covers the advantages of both Austenitic and Ferritic Stainless steels. They having good mechanical and corrosion resistance properties are widely used in many industries like chemical plants, refineries for critical equipments such as pressure vessels, heatexchangers, water heaters. Major problem occurs with duplex steels when they are worked or heated above about temperature of 280°C. Detrimental phases like Sigma, Chi, Laves and Alpha prime form when the Duplex steels are treated above this temperature and they retard the properties of Duplex stainless steels. They also cause embrittlement above temperature of 475°C called “475°C embrittlement”. During welding of duplex steels, Secondary austenite also forms, which is also one of the harmful phases in duplex steels. Among all of these phases, Sigma (σ is extremely harmful to the corrosion resistance of steel. Due to these limitations duplexgrades are not used above certain temperature ranges. In this experimental work a plate of duplex grade 2205 in hot worked condition was procured from TCR Advanced Engineering Pvt. Ltd., GIDC, Vadodara. Initially chemical composition of the plate was checked with emission spectrometer, tensile test and hardness tests werecarried out for comparing with the standard data. As there was no Sigma phase detected when tested with ASTM 930 in the received sample, Sigma phase was intentionally produced by giving heat treatment in the range of 700-850°C. Sigma phases were quantified with ASTM 930 practice A, by electrolytic etching with 40% NaOH. The effect of Sigma phase on corrosion resistance was measured by ASTM G48. The pitting corrosion resistance was evaluated in terms of average pit depth and overall corrosion rate.

  2. Deleterious effects of obesity on physical fitness in pre-pubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschia, Arianna; Giacomini, Stefano; Santarossa, Simone; Rugo, Miriam; Salvadego, Desy; Da Ponte, Alessandro; Driussi, Caterina; Mihaleje, Martina; Poser, Stefano; Lazzer, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children has increased dramatically during the past decades in Europe and understanding physical fitness and its components in children is critical to design and implement effective interventions. The objective of the present study was to analyse the association between physical fitness (aerobic, speed, agility, power, flexibility and balance) and body mass index (BMI) in pre-pubertal children. A total of 2411 healthy schoolchildren (7-11 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition were assessed by skinfold thickness. Physical fitness was measured by nine physical fitness tests: endurance running, 20 m running speed, agility, handgrip strength, standing long jump and squat jump, sit and reach, medicine ball forward throw and static balance. No relevant differences were observed between boys and girls regarding anthropometric characteristics, body composition and physical fitness. However, overweight and obese children showed significantly lower physical fitness levels in endurance running, speed and agility (mean: +18.8, +5.5 and +14.5% of time to complete tasks, respectively), lower limb power normalised to body mass (-23.3%) and balance tests (number of falls: +165.5%) than their normal weight counterparts. On the other hand, obesity did not affect handgrip, throwing and flexibility. In conclusion, increased BMI was associated with lower performance capabilities limiting proper motor skill development, which directly affects the ability of children to take on sports skills. Actions undertaken to promote children's wellness and fitness should be prioritised and introduced early in life with the aim of enhancing physical fitness as well as preventing overweight and obesity.

  3. Lymphedema as a Cancer Treatment Side Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigating Cancer Care > Side Effects > Lymphedema Request Permissions Lymphedema Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 05/ ... years after cancer treatment has ended. Symptoms of lymphedema People with lymphedema in their arm or leg ...

  4. Possible Side-Effects from Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her at risk of contracting a potentially deadly disease. Adenovirus vaccine side-effects What are the risks from Adenovirus vaccine? A vaccine, like any medicine, could cause a serious reaction. But the risk ...

  5. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Memory Changes What is causing these changes? Your doctor will work to find out what is causing these problems. They may be caused by ...

  6. Side Effects - Memory or Concentration Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments, such as chemo, may cause difficulty thinking, concentrating, or other cognitive problems. Learn about steps people with cancer can take to manage these side effects. See a list of helpful questions for families to ask the doctor.

  7. Uncommon vancomycin: induced side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Jaime Luís Lopes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin has been used with increased frequency during the past 15 years and the most common toxicity with this drug is the "red man syndrome". Other adverse effects include neutropenia, fever, phlebitis, nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, thrombocytopenia, interstitial nephritis, lacrimation, linear IgA bullous dermatosis, necrotizing cutaneous vasculitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Only two cases of vancomycin-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and one case of pancytopenia have been reported in the medical literature. The treatment for both situations is based on cessation of the vancomycin therapy; in cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, antihistamine and/or steroid agents can be used. This article reports a case of pancytopenia and a case of erythema major associated with neutropenia.

  8. Hematological Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erdogan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics cause less frequently extrapyramidal system symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and hyperprolactinemia than typical antipsychotics. However hematological side effects such as leukopenia and neutropenia could occur during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. These side effects could lead to life threatening situations and the mortality rate due to drug related agranulocytosis is about 5-10%. There are several hypothesis describing the mechanisms underlying drug induced leukopenia and/or neutropenia such as direct toxic effects of these drugs upon the bone marrow or myeloid precursors, immunologic destruction of the granulocytes or supression of the granulopoiesis. Clozapine is the antipsychotic agent which has been most commonly associated with agranulocytosis. A nitrenium ion which is formed by the bioactivation of clozapine is thought to have an important role in the pathophysiogy of this adverse effect. Aside from clozapine, there are several case reports reporting an association between olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, aripiprazole and leukopenia. We did not find any study or case report presenting amisulpride or sulpride related hematological side effects in our literature search. Patients who had hematological side effects during their previous antipsychotic drug treatments and who had lower baseline blood leukocyte counts, have higher risk to develop leukopenia or neutropenia during their current antipsychotic treatment. Once leukopenia and neutropenia develops, drugs thought to be responsible for this side effect should be discontinued or dosages should be lowered. In some cases iniatition of lithium or G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy may be helpful in normalizing blood cell counts. Clinicans should avoid any combination of drugs known to cause hematological side effects. Besides during antipsychotic treatment, infection symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat or

  9. Imipramine protects against the deleterious effects of chronic corticosterone on depression-like behavior, hippocampal reelin expression, and neuronal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Erin Y; Fournier, Neil M; Lussier, April L; Romay-Tallon, Raquel; Caruncho, Hector J; Kalynchuk, Lisa E

    2015-07-03

    We have hypothesized that a downregulation of reelin and deficient maturation of adult-born hippocampal neurons are important factors in the pathogenesis of depression. This hypothesis is based on previous work showing that depression-like behavior in rats treated with protracted corticosterone develops in concert with decreased dendritic complexity in newborn hippocampal granule neurons and decreased reelin expression in the proliferative subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. In addition, heterozygous reeler mice with approximately 50% of normal brain levels of reelin are more vulnerable to the depressogenic effects of corticosterone than wild-type mice. The purpose of this experiment was to provide pharmacological validation for the link between reelin, neuronal maturation, and depression by examining whether the deleterious effects of corticosterone on these measures could be prevented by co-administration of the antidepressant imipramine. Rats received corticosterone injections, corticosterone injections plus either 10 or 15mg/kg imipramine injections, or vehicle injections for 21 consecutive days. They were then subjected to the forced swim test to assess depression-like behavior and sacrificed for immunohistochemical examination of immature neuron number and dendritic complexity and the presence of reelin+cells. We found that corticosterone increases depression-like behavior, decreases the number of reelin+cells in the subgranular zone, and decreases the number and complexity of immature neurons in the granule cell layer. All of these behavioral and cellular phenotypes were prevented by imipramine, providing further support for the idea that reelin is involved in the pathogenesis of depression.

  10. BCG and BCG/DNAhsp65 Vaccinations Promote Protective Effects without Deleterious Consequences for Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves Zorzella-Pezavento

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A prime-boost strategy conserving BCG is considered the most promising vaccine to control tuberculosis. A boost with a DNA vaccine containing the mycobacterial gene of a heat shock protein (pVAXhsp65 after BCG priming protected mice against experimental tuberculosis. However, anti-hsp65 immunity could worsen an autoimmune disease due to molecular mimicry. In this investigation, we evaluated the effect of a previous BCG or BCG/pVAXhsp65 immunization on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE development. Female Lewis rats were immunized with BCG or BCG followed by pVAXhsp65 boosters. The animals underwent EAE induction and were daily evaluated for weight loss and clinical score. They were euthanized during recovery phase to assess immune response and inflammatory infiltration at the central nervous system. Previous immunization did not aggravate or accelerate clinical score or weight loss. In addition, this procedure clearly decreased inflammation in the brain. BCG immunization modulated the host immune response by triggering a significant reduction in IL-10 and IFN-γ levels induced by myelin basic protein. These data indicated that vaccination protocols with BCG or BCG followed by boosters with pVAXhsp65 did not trigger a deleterious effect on EAE evolution.

  11. Tanshinol Attenuates the Deleterious Effects of Oxidative Stress on Osteoblastic Differentiation via Wnt/FoxO3a Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now increasing evidence which suggests a pivotal role for oxidative stress in the development and progression of osteoporosis. We confirm herein the protective effects of natural antioxidant Tanshinol against oxidative stress in osteoblastic differentiation and the underlying mechanism. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 leads to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, decrease in cell viability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a caspase-3-dependent manner, and inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation. Tanshinol reverses these deleterious consequence triggered by oxidative stress. Moreover, under the condition of oxidative stress, Tanshinol suppresses the activation of FoxO3a transcription factor and expressions of its target genes Gadd45a and catalase (CAT and simultaneously counteracts the inhibition of Wnt signalling and expressions of target genes Axin2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and Osteoprotegerin (OPG. The findings are further consolidated using FoxO3a siRNA interference and overexpression of Tcf4. The results illustrate that Tanshinol attenuates oxidative stress via down-regulation of FoxO3a signaling, and rescues the decrease of osteoblastic differentiation through upregulation of Wnt signal under oxidative stress. The present findings suggest that the beneficial effects of Tanshinol may be adopted as a novel therapeutic approach in recently recognized conditions of niche targeting osteoporosis.

  12. [Side Effects of Occupational Group Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flöge, B; Fay, D; Jöbges, M; Linden, M; Muschalla, B

    2016-12-01

    Background: Occupational therapy is an important co-therapy in psychiatric therapy. It is a common belief that no risks are associated with occupational therapy. Negative effects caused by group therapy, especially occupational therapy, have not been in the focus of research yet. In this study we want to illustrate possible types and intensities of group side effects through occupational therapy. Patients and Methods: Patients of an inpatient rehabilitation facility filled out the Adverse Treatment Reaction Group Checklist. The checklist contains 47 items divided in six dimensions: group size, content, group participants, group outcome and global. The self-rating used a 5-point likert scale (0 = not at all; 4 = very much, extremely stressful) and gives information about types and intensities of the side effects. Results: 88.9 % of 45 patients reported negative effects of occupational group therapy. 28.9 % of the patients rated the side effect as at least severe. Discussion: Occupational therapy is associated with side effects as every other group therapy. Possible side effects caused by group therapy should be considered while planning and implementing occupational therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm....... Alterations of orgasmic function are experienced by approximately 80% after RP. Erectile dysfunction seems to play an important role in waning orgasmic function. OAP is only experienced by a subset of the patients with reported rates varying between 3% and 19%. Sparing of the tips of the seminal vesicles has...... been shown to double the risk of OAP. PS occurs in 15-68% of RP patients. Nerve sparing and preservation of erectile function may help preserve penile length. With regard to all side effects, studies indicate that they are reduced over time. CONCLUSIONS: The sexually related side effects summarized...

  14. Deleterious effects of water-soluble fraction of petroleum, diesel and gasoline on marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Aquicultura, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, CEP 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos, E-mail: kleber08@gmail.com [Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, CEP 96210-030, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Gusmao, Emeline Pereira; Moreira, Caue Bonucci [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Aquicultura, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, CEP 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Romano, Luis Alberto; Sampaio, Luis Andre [Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, CEP 96210-030, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2010-04-01

    Accidental discharges and oil spills are frequent around the world. Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are considered one of the main pollutants of aquatic ecosystem. The importance of petroleum and refined fuels is notorious because today's society depends on them. Researches related to the toxic water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum and derivatives to aquatic biota are scarce. For this reason, deleterious effects of WSF of Brazilian petroleum, automotive diesel and unleaded gasoline to marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae were studied employing toxicity tests and histopathological examination. Each WSF was generated in a laboratory by mixing four parts of seawater with one part of pollutant by approximately 22 h. Larvae were exposed during 96 h to different concentrations of WSF of petroleum, diesel, and gasoline, plus a control. After 96 h of exposure to the different WSFs, three larvae were sampled for histopathological studies. The median lethal concentration after 96 h (LC50) of exposure for WSF of petroleum was equal to 70.68%, it was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the values for WSF of diesel and gasoline, which were 13.46% and 5.48%, respectively. The histological examination of pejerrey larvae exposed to WSF of petroleum, diesel and gasoline after 96 h revealed a variety of lesions in the larvae. The gills, pseudobranchs and esophagus presented epithelial hyperplasia, and the liver presented dilatation of hepatic sinusoids, hepatocitomegaly, bi-nucleated and nuclear degeneration of hepatocytes, such as pyknotic nuclei. The acute toxicity of diesel and gasoline is at least fivefold higher than Brazilian petroleum. However, all toxicants induced histopathological abnormalities in pejerrey larvae. The results are of importance since much attention has been paid to large visible surfaces of petroleum spills instead of potential toxic effects of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons, which are more available to marine biota.

  15. Overexpression of human and fly frataxins in Drosophila provokes deleterious effects at biochemical, physiological and developmental levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Navarro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Friedreich's ataxia (FA, the most frequent form of inherited ataxias in the Caucasian population, is caused by a reduced expression of frataxin, a highly conserved protein. Model organisms have contributed greatly in the efforts to decipher the function of frataxin; however, the precise function of this protein remains elusive. Overexpression studies are a useful approach to investigate the mechanistic actions of frataxin; however, the existing literature reports contradictory results. To further investigate the effect of frataxin overexpression, we analyzed the consequences of overexpressing human (FXN and fly (FH frataxins in Drosophila. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained transgenic flies that overexpressed human or fly frataxins in a general pattern and in different tissues using the UAS-GAL4 system. For both frataxins, we observed deleterious effects at the biochemical, histological and behavioral levels. Oxidative stress is a relevant factor in the frataxin overexpression phenotypes. Systemic frataxin overexpression reduces Drosophila viability and impairs the normal embryonic development of muscle and the peripheral nervous system. A reduction in the level of aconitase activity and a decrease in the level of NDUF3 were also observed in the transgenic flies that overexpressed frataxin. Frataxin overexpression in the nervous system reduces life span, impairs locomotor ability and causes brain degeneration. Frataxin aggregation and a misfolding of this protein have been shown not to be the mechanism that is responsible for the phenotypes that have been observed. Nevertheless, the expression of human frataxin rescues the aconitase activity in the fh knockdown mutant. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide in vivo evidence of a functional equivalence for human and fly frataxins and indicate that the control of frataxin expression is important for treatments that aim to increase frataxin levels.

  16. Overexpression of Human and Fly Frataxins in Drosophila Provokes Deleterious Effects at Biochemical, Physiological and Developmental Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Sirena; Botella, José A.; Schneuwly, Stephan; Martínez-Sebastián, María J.; Moltó, María D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Friedreich's ataxia (FA), the most frequent form of inherited ataxias in the Caucasian population, is caused by a reduced expression of frataxin, a highly conserved protein. Model organisms have contributed greatly in the efforts to decipher the function of frataxin; however, the precise function of this protein remains elusive. Overexpression studies are a useful approach to investigate the mechanistic actions of frataxin; however, the existing literature reports contradictory results. To further investigate the effect of frataxin overexpression, we analyzed the consequences of overexpressing human (FXN) and fly (FH) frataxins in Drosophila. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained transgenic flies that overexpressed human or fly frataxins in a general pattern and in different tissues using the UAS-GAL4 system. For both frataxins, we observed deleterious effects at the biochemical, histological and behavioral levels. Oxidative stress is a relevant factor in the frataxin overexpression phenotypes. Systemic frataxin overexpression reduces Drosophila viability and impairs the normal embryonic development of muscle and the peripheral nervous system. A reduction in the level of aconitase activity and a decrease in the level of NDUF3 were also observed in the transgenic flies that overexpressed frataxin. Frataxin overexpression in the nervous system reduces life span, impairs locomotor ability and causes brain degeneration. Frataxin aggregation and a misfolding of this protein have been shown not to be the mechanism that is responsible for the phenotypes that have been observed. Nevertheless, the expression of human frataxin rescues the aconitase activity in the fh knockdown mutant. Conclusion/Significance Our results provide in vivo evidence of a functional equivalence for human and fly frataxins and indicate that the control of frataxin expression is important for treatments that aim to increase frataxin levels. PMID:21779322

  17. Quality of the Exotic Parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Does Not Show Deleterious Effects after Inbreeding for 10 Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Maíra; De Bortoli, Sergio A.; Vacari, Alessandra M.; Laurentis, Valéria L.; Ramalho, Dagmara G.

    2016-01-01

    Although the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) has proven effective in controlling sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) for many years, concern has arisen over the quality of individuals produced at large scales. The parasitoid has been reared in laboratories in Brazil for more than 40 years, with no new introductions of new populations during that period. Since the quality of the parasitoids was not verified at the time of the species' introduction in Brazil, we do not know if there has been any reduction in quality so far. However, it is possible to determine whether the parasitoid could reduce in quality in future generations. Thus, the objective of this research was to assess the quality of these insects over 10 generations and look for evidence of any loss in quality. We used two populations: one from a biofactory that has been maintained in the laboratory for over 40 years, and an inbred laboratory population. Both were bred, and compared for 10 generations. We wanted to determine what happened to the quality of the parasitoid after 10 generations in an extreme inbreeding situation. To assure inbreeding, newly emerged females were forced to mate with a sibling. Individual females were then allowed to parasitize larvae of D. saccharalis. We performed evaluations for each generation until the tenth generation, and recorded the sex ratio, percentage emergence, number of offspring/females, and longevity of both males and females. Results of the measurements of biological characteristics demonstrated random significant differences between populations; best results were obtained intermittently for both the biofactory population and the inbred population. No significant differences across generations for the same population were observed. Thus, rearing of a C. flavipes population subjected to inbreeding for 10 generations was not sufficient to reveal any deleterious effects of inbreeding. PMID:27509087

  18. Update on side effects from common vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Benjamin J; Katial, Rohit K

    2004-11-01

    Vaccines have had a tremendous impact on public health by reducing morbidity and mortality from a variety of virulent pathogens. However, unintended side effects continue to pose a potential risk that may outweigh the vaccine's protective attributes. In this review, we discuss recent articles and controversies pertaining to vaccine-associated adverse events. Included in the discussion are influenza, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and rotavirus vaccines. The importance and contribution of vaccine constituents (such as thimerosal) to side effects is also reviewed.

  19. The Social Side Effects of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dominik

    About 23% of all adults in the US take acetaminophen during an average week (Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002) because acetaminophen is an effective physical painkiller and easily accessible over the counter. The physiological side effects of acetaminophen are well documented and generally mild when acetaminophen is consumed in the appropriate dosage. In contrast, the psychological and social side effects of acetaminophen are largely unknown. Recent functional neuroimaging research suggests that the experience of physical pain is fundamentally related to the experience of empathy for the pain of other people, indicating that pharmacologically reducing responsiveness to physical pain also reduces cognitive, affective, and behavioral responsiveness to the pain of others. I tested this hypothesis across three double-blind between-subjects drug intervention studies. Two experiments showed that acetaminophen had moderate effects on empathic affect, specifically personal distress and empathic concern, and a small effect on empathic cognition, specifically perceived pain, when facing physical and social pain of others. The same two experiments and a third experiment also showed that acetaminophen can increase the willingness to inflict pain on other people, i.e., actual aggressive behavior. This effect was especially pronounced among people low in dispositional empathic concern. Together, these findings suggest that the physical pain system is more involved in the regulation of social cognition, affect, and behavior than previously assumed and that the experience of physical pain and responsiveness to the pain of others share a common neurochemical basis. Furthermore, these findings suggest that acetaminophen has unappreciated but serious social side effects, and that these side effects may depend on psychological characteristics of the drug consumer. This idea is consistent with recent theory and research on the context-dependency of neurochemical

  20. Computational Analysis of Breast Cancer GWAS Loci Identifies the Putative Deleterious Effect of STXBP4 and ZNF404 Gene Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, Tariq Ahmad; Banaganapalli, Babajan; Vaidyanathan, Venkatesh; Talluri, Venkateswar R; Shaik, Noor A

    2017-04-19

    The genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled us in identifying different breast cancer (BC) susceptibility loci. However, majority of these are non-coding variants with no annotated biological function. We investigated such 78 noncoding genome wide associated SNPs of BC and further expanded the list to 2,162 variants with strong linkage-disequilibrium (LD, r(2) ≥0.8). Using multiple publically available algorithms such as CADD, GWAVA, and FATHAMM, we classified all these variants into deleterious, damaging, or benign categories. Out of total 2,241 variants, 23 (1.02%) variants were extreme deleterious (rank 1), 70 (3.12%) variants were deleterious (rank 2), and 1,937 (86.43%) variants were benign (rank 3). The results show 14% of lead or associated variants are under strong negative selection (GERP++ RS ≥2), and ∼22% are under balancing selection (Tajima's D score >2) in CEU population of 1KGP-the regions being positively selected (GERP++ RS <0) in mammalian evolution. The expression quantitative trait loci of highest deleteriously ranked genes were tested on relevant adipose and breast tissues, the results of which were extended for protein expression on breast tissues. From the concordance analysis of ranking system of GWAVA, CADD, and FATHMM, eQTL and protein expression, we identified the deleterious SNPs localized in STXBP4 and ZNF404 genes which might play a role in BC development by dysregulating its gene expression. This simple approach will be easier to implement and to prioritize large scale GWAS data for variety of diseases and link to the potentially unrecognized functional roles of genes. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-12, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Methylphenidate Abuse and Psychiatric Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, W. Alexander; Stockton, Gwendolyn G.

    2000-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant drug that has become the primary drug of choice in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Side effects are usually mild and are generally well tolerated by patients. Along with increases in prescribing frequency, the potential for abuse has increased. Intranasal abuse produces effects rapidly that are similar to the effects of cocaine in both onset and type. The clinical picture of stimulant abuse produces a wide ar...

  2. Evaluation of an immunosuppressant side effect instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsett, Rebecca P; Arheart, Kris; Stratta, Robert J; Alloway, Rita; Wicks, Mona N; Gaber, A Osama; Hathaway, Donna K

    2004-09-01

    Clinicians continue to be compelled to evaluate the impact of immunosuppressive medication side effects on the quality of life of transplant recipients. We Were asked to develop an instrument to measure side effects in immunosuppressed transplant recipients. To construct an instrument that measures the impact and severity of side effects of immunosuppressive medications used in transplantation and to assess the reliability and validity of the newly developed instrument called the Memphis Survey. The instrument was constructed by a panel of physicians, nurses, and pharmacists with experience in treating transplant recipients. A small group of kidney transplant recipients (n= 13) provided pilot data for refining and testing the instrument. A national sample of kidney, liver, and heart transplant recipients (n = 505) provided data that were used to further develop the instrument. Factor analysis was used to determine the psychological dimensions underlying the instrument and to guide the construction of scales from the survey items. The instrument scales were then computed from the dataset of 505 transplant recipients to quantify the impact of immunosuppressant side effects on the quality of life of transplant recipients. Analyses showed the final instrument scales to be valid and reliable. Exploratory analysis suggests the need for further testing of the instrument to determine gender differences.

  3. Hallucinatory Side Effects of ADHD Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trial and postmarketing surveillance data for drugs used in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed to determine the frequency of hallucinations and other psychotic side effects, in a study at the US Food and Drug Administration, and Department of Health and Human Services, Maryland.

  4. Harnessing Mechanistic Knowledge on Beneficial Versus Deleterious IFN-I Effects to Design Innovative Immunotherapies Targeting Cytokine Activity to Specific Cell Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Elena; Pollet, Emeline; Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Uzé, Gilles; Dalod, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFN-I) were identified over 50 years ago as cytokines critical for host defense against viral infections. IFN-I promote anti-viral defense through two main mechanisms. First, IFN-I directly reinforce or induce de novo in potentially all cells the expression of effector molecules of intrinsic anti-viral immunity. Second, IFN-I orchestrate innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. However, IFN-I responses can be deleterious for the host in a number of circumstances, including secondary bacterial or fungal infections, several autoimmune diseases, and, paradoxically, certain chronic viral infections. We will review the proposed nature of protective versus deleterious IFN-I responses in selected diseases. Emphasis will be put on the potentially deleterious functions of IFN-I in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and on the respective roles of IFN-I and IFN-III in promoting resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We will then discuss how the balance between beneficial versus deleterious IFN-I responses is modulated by several key parameters including (i) the subtypes and dose of IFN-I produced, (ii) the cell types affected by IFN-I, and (iii) the source and timing of IFN-I production. Finally, we will speculate how integration of this knowledge combined with advanced biochemical manipulation of the activity of the cytokines should allow designing innovative immunotherapeutic treatments in patients. Specifically, we will discuss how induction or blockade of specific IFN-I responses in targeted cell types could promote the beneficial functions of IFN-I and/or dampen their deleterious effects, in a manner adapted to each disease.

  5. Harnessing mechanistic knowledge on beneficial versus deleterious IFN-I effects to design innovative immunotherapies targeting cytokine activity to specific cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eDALOD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFN-I were identified over 50 years ago as cytokines critical for host defense against viral infections. IFN-I promote antiviral defense through two main mechanisms. First, IFN-I directly reinforce or induce de novo in potentially all cells the expression of effector molecules of intrinsic antiviral immunity. Second, IFN-I orchestrate innate and adaptive antiviral immunity. However, IFN-I responses can be deleterious for the host in a number of circumstances, including secondary bacterial or fungal infections, several autoimmune diseases, and, paradoxically, certain chronic viral infections. We will review the proposed nature of protective versus deleterious IFN-I responses in selected diseases. Emphasis will be put on the potentially deleterious functions of IFN-I in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection, and on the respective roles of IFN-I and IFN-III in promoting resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. We will then discuss how the balance between beneficial versus deleterious IFN-I responses is modulated by several key parameters including i the subtypes and dose of IFN-I produced, ii the cell types affected by IFN-I and iii the source and timing of IFN-I production. Finally we will speculate how integration of this knowledge combined with advanced biochemical manipulation of the activity of the cytokines should allow designing innovative immunotherapeutic treatments in patients. Specifically, we will discuss how induction or blockade of specific IFN-I responses in targeted cell types could promote the beneficial functions of IFN-I and/or dampen their deleterious effects, in a manner adapted to each disease.

  6. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens – focus on cotton dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor

  7. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens - focus on cotton dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola) is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor) that cause

  8. Opiates and elderly: Use and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L Chau

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Diane L Chau1, Vanessa Walker2, Latha Pai3, Lwin M Cho4University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USA 1Division Geriatric Medicine, 2Internal Medicine, 3Psychiatry, 4Geriatric Medicine, Sierra Nevada Healthcare System, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Reno, NV, USAAbstract: The evaluation of pain and the subsequent issue of pain control is a clinical challenge that all healthcare providers face. Pain in the elderly population is especially difficult given the myriad of physiological, pharmacological, and psychological aspects of caring for the geriatric patient. Opiates are the mainstay of pain treatment throughout all age groups but special attention must be paid to the efficacy and side effects of these powerful drugs when prescribing to a population with impaired metabolism, excretion and physical reserve. In a random chart review of 300 US veterans, 44% of those receiving an analgesic also received opioids. The increasing use of opiates for pain management by healthcare practitioners requires that those prescribing opioids be aware of the special considerations for treating the elderly. This article will address the precautions one must take when using opiates in the geriatric population, as well as the side effects and ways to minimize them.Keywords: opiates, pain, elderly, side effects

  9. Effects and Side Effects of Flemish School Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninckx, Maarten; Vanhoof, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increased importance of school inspection in recent years, the current knowledge base does not provide a clear view on the effects and side effects of being inspected. More evidence is needed in more diverse educational contexts. This article responds to this need with a quantitative study on the effects and side effects of school…

  10. [Side effects of third generation progestins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitruk-Ware, R

    1993-04-01

    A large number of publications on oral contraceptives (OC) can be found in the medical literature. These reports deal not only with mode of action or efficacy of OCs but also with side effects. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are not accepted nor acceptable from a population of young women free of disease who expect from their mode of contraception to be fully efficient and devoid from side effects. In most instances, side effects observed with OCs as well as their efficacy are related to the total dose of steroïds contained in the combination, to the balance between the estrogen and the progestin content and to the specific characteristics of the molecules. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality reported in OC users have been related firstly to the ethinylestradiol (EE) and as a first step, the estrogen dose has been reduced in the OCs synthesized in the 70s. Later on, cardiovascular risk has been correlated to lipid profile changes and progestins with androgenic properties have been made responsible for cardiovascular events reported in OC users. In order to minimize the incidence of ADRs and to induce beneficial changes in lipid patterns, new progestational molecules devoid of androgenic properties have been recently synthesized. Three compounds called "third generation" progestins, derived from levonorgestrel are presently available in Europe. These three gonane progestins demonstrate affinity for the androgenic receptor, but when administered together with EE do not oppose the estrogenic effect observed on protein markers such as the Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) or the High Density Lipoprotein (HDL).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The nocebo effect: patient expectations and medication side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Petrie, Keith J

    2013-09-01

    Expectation of treatment side effects is consistently linked with those symptoms being realised. Patient expectations, including those generated by the informed consent process, can have a large influence on the side effects that patients feel after starting a new medical treatment. Such symptoms may be the result of the nocebo effect, whereby the expectation of side effects leads to them being experienced. Side effects may also be due to the misattribution of pre-existing or unrelated symptoms to the new medication. Medical professionals' own negative beliefs about a treatment, especially generic drugs, may further enhance patients' expectations of adverse effects. The news media may also influence expectations, particularly when media attention is directed towards a health or medication scare. This field of research has ethical and clinical implications for both medical professionals and the news media with respect to the level and type of information about treatment side effects that is provided to patients or members of the public.

  12. Cardiologic side effects of psychotropic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Marano; Gianandrea Traversi; Enrico Romagnoli; Valeria Catalano; Marzia Lotrionte; Antonio Abbate; Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai; Marianna Mazza

    2011-01-01

    Psychotropic drugs can produce cardiovascular side effects associated with a degree of cardiotoxicity.The coexistence of a heart disease complicates the management of mental illness,can contribute to a reduced quality of life and a worse illness course.The co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders in cardiac patients might affect the clinical outcome and morbidity.Moreover,the complex underlying mechanism that links these two conditions remains unclear.This paper discusses the known cardiovascular complications of psychotropic drugs and analyzes the important implications of antidepressive treatment in patients with previous cardiac history.

  13. A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica

    2010-01-01

    The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research...... on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug-side effect pairs. For 199...... drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at http://sideeffects.embl.de....

  14. Esomeprazole induced galactorrhea: a novel side effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipaliya, Nirav; Solanke, Dattatray; Rathi, Chetan; Patel, Ruchir; Ingle, Meghraj; Sawant, Prabha

    2016-02-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most frequently prescribed medications across the globe. Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole, and it is currently the most widely prescribed PPI. The safety profile of esomeprazole is extremely favorable with only minor side effects, like headache and diarrhea, that are encountered in day to day practice. We report a case of a young female with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease who developed galactorrhea after starting esomeprazole therapy. Resolution of galactorrhea after stopping the drug and self-rechallenge by the patient herself with reappearance of galactorrhea confirmed the culprit to be esomeprazole only. We postulate that esomeprazole may have a mild inhibitory effect on CYP3A4, which leads to decreased metabolism of estrogen, thereby increasing serum estrogen levels. Estrogen causes stimulation and production of prolactin release, which results in development of galactorrhea. This is the first case of esomeprazole induced galactorrhea, to the best of our knowledge.

  15. Effect of knee joint angle on side-to-side strength ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Williams, Glenn N

    2014-10-01

    Isometric knee extensor and flexor strength are typically tested at different joint angles due to the differences in length-tension relationships of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles. The efficiency of strength testing can be improved if the same angle can be used to test both the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal angle for isometric knee strength testing by examining the effect of knee angle on side-to-side peak torque ratios. Eighteen active young people (9 males and 9 females) participated in this study. Knee extensor and knee flexor strength were tested on both sides at 30°, 60°, and 90° of knee flexion. The effect of knee flexion angle on side-to-side peak torque ratios, raw torque values, and side-to-side flexor-to-extensor torque ratios were assessed. Side-to-side knee extensor peak torque ratios and knee flexor-to-extensor torque ratios differed significantly by knee flexion angle (p = 0.024 and p = 0.011, respectively), but side-to-side knee flexor peak torque ratios did not differ significantly (p = 0.311). When considering both side-to-side peak torque ratios and flexor-to-extensor torque ratios, the values were more symmetrical (i.e., closer to 100%) only at 60° of knee flexion. Our results indicate that both the knee flexors and the knee extensors can be tested clinically at 60° of knee flexion. Our results also indicate that the hamstrings can be tested at any of the 3 angles if the examiner is interested in side-to-side ratios rather than raw torque values. These results may facilitate more efficient and flexible clinical knee strength testing.

  16. Narrating narcolepsy--centering a side effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The mass-vaccination with Pandemrix was the most important preventive measure in Sweden during the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic of 2009-2010, and covered 60% of the population. From 2010, an increased incidence of the neurological disease narcolepsy was reported, and an association with Pandemrix was affirmed for more than 200 children and young adults. The parental experience of this side effect provided a starting point for a collectively shaped critical narrative to be acted out in public, but also personalized narratives of continual learning about the disease and its consequences. This didactic functionality resulted in active meaning-making practices about how to handle the aftermath--using dark humor, cognitive tricks, and making themselves and their children's bodies both objects and subjects of knowledge. Using material from interviews with parents, this mixing of knowledge work and political work, and the potential for reflective consciousness, is discussed.

  17. Chemotherapy Side Effects: A Cause of Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can chemotherapy side effects increase the risk of heart disease? Answers from Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. Chemotherapy side effects may increase the risk of heart disease, including weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and ...

  18. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Fatigue (Feeling Weak and Very Tired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nurse about other exercises that can help. Stretching, yoga, or Tai Chi help some people. Questions to ... NCI has a series of 18 Chemotherapy Side Effects Sheets at: www.cancer.gov/chemo-side-effects

  19. Testing the ability of non-methylamine osmolytes present in kidney cells to counteract the deleterious effects of urea on structure, stability and function of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeza Khan

    Full Text Available Human kidney cells are under constant urea stress due to its urine concentrating mechanism. It is believed that the deleterious effect of urea is counteracted by methylamine osmolytes (glycine betaine and glycerophosphocholine present in kidney cells. A question arises: Do the stabilizing osmolytes, non-methylamines (myo-inositol, sorbitol and taurine present in the kidney cells also counteract the deleterious effects of urea? To answer this question, we have measured structure, thermodynamic stability (ΔG D (o and functional activity parameters (K m and k cat of different model proteins in the presence of various concentrations of urea and each non-methylamine osmolyte alone and in combination. We observed that (i for each protein myo-inositol provides perfect counteraction at 1∶2 ([myo-inositol]:[urea] ratio, (ii any concentration of sorbitol fails to refold urea denatured proteins if it is six times less than that of urea, and (iii taurine regulates perfect counteraction in a protein specific manner; 1.5∶2.0, 1.2∶2.0 and 1.0∶2.0 ([taurine]:[urea] ratios for RNase-A, lysozyme and α-lactalbumin, respectively.

  20. Testing the Ability of Non-Methylamine Osmolytes Present in Kidney Cells to Counteract the Deleterious Effects of Urea on Structure, Stability and Function of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sheeza; Bano, Zehra; Singh, Laishram R.; Hassan, Md. Imtaiyaz; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan

    2013-01-01

    Human kidney cells are under constant urea stress due to its urine concentrating mechanism. It is believed that the deleterious effect of urea is counteracted by methylamine osmolytes (glycine betaine and glycerophosphocholine) present in kidney cells. A question arises: Do the stabilizing osmolytes, non-methylamines (myo-inositol, sorbitol and taurine) present in the kidney cells also counteract the deleterious effects of urea? To answer this question, we have measured structure, thermodynamic stability (ΔGDo) and functional activity parameters (Km and kcat) of different model proteins in the presence of various concentrations of urea and each non-methylamine osmolyte alone and in combination. We observed that (i) for each protein myo-inositol provides perfect counteraction at 1∶2 ([myo-inositol]:[urea]) ratio, (ii) any concentration of sorbitol fails to refold urea denatured proteins if it is six times less than that of urea, and (iii) taurine regulates perfect counteraction in a protein specific manner; 1.5∶2.0, 1.2∶2.0 and 1.0∶2.0 ([taurine]:[urea]) ratios for RNase-A, lysozyme and α-lactalbumin, respectively. PMID:24039776

  1. EVALUATION OF PHYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF DELETERIOUS RHIZOBACTERIA ON THE ROOT GROWTH OF AXONOPUS AFFINIS (CHASE AND LENS ESCULENTA (MOENCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.J Pacheco-Hernández

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Las malezas ocasionan una gran pérdida en las tierras agrícolas y comúnmente, las medidas de manejo y contención de estas especies se dan con la aplicación de herbicidas, sin embargo; en años recientes se ha presentado un interés en establecer mecanismos de biocontrol seguros, con el empleo de bacterias inhibidoras del crecimiento conocidas como rizobacterias deletéreas (Deleterious rhizobacteria: DRBque se consideran generalmente como no parasíticas, y causan, de manera sutil, efectos deletéreos a través de la producción de metabolitos dañinos a las plantas. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar la producción de ácido cianhídrico de pseudomonas rizobacterianas de malezas de un cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. y evaluar el efecto fitotóxico de éstas sobre el crecimiento radical de plántulas de Axonopus affinis (Chase y Lens esculenta (Moench. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos con relación a la evidencia de que los aislados de pseudomonadas son rizobacterias cianogénicas y de su efecto fitotóxico medido sobre las especies vegetales bajo estudio; se sugieren a éstas como posibles agentes de biocontrol con pastos que sean considerados malezas; ya que en general se observó que inhiben su crecimiento radical; sin embargo, un enfoque particular lo tiene la rizobacteria Pseudomonas sp. A52, la cual presentó no solamente actividad como una DRB sino también como una rizobacteria promotora del crecimiento vegetal; lo que la hace más importante de analizar en cuanto a su potencial y espectro de acción; tanto para malezas monocotiledóneas como para dicotiledóneas, recomendable como un posible agente de biocontrol con actividad múltiple.

  2. Side effects of endobronchial laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierkesmann, R.; Huzly, A.

    1985-03-01

    Side effects that have occurred in over 250 endobronchial laser treatments are reported. The laser has been used in severe tracheal and in bronchial obstructions. In two cases significant bleeding had to be treated with tamponade. In one patient an emphysema of the mediastinum developed, in 2 further patients a small pneumothorax. Perforation of the airway was not detected and no special treatment was necessary. Three patients with life-threatening tracheal stenoses and one patient with severe stenosis of both the mainstem bronchi due to metastasis in the bifurcation lymph node had a large defect in the tracheal or bronchial wall with a deep necrosis five to twelve weeks after laser treatment; all these patients had extensive radiotherapy in addition. One patient died due to severe respiratory insufficiency, probably caused by smoke intoxication. After the laser treatment, rubber-like fibrin-rich plaques may develop, which can lead to life-threatening obstructions of the airway. It is recommended that laser bronchoscopy should be performed with the rigid bronchoscope. After treatment of tracheal lesion an endoscopic check must be performed within 24 hours. The combination of laser treatment and radiotherapy seems to involve a certain risk of large defects in the bronchial wall due to necrosis of the tumor.

  3. Hormone therapy/adjuvant chemotherapy induced deleterious effects on the bone mass of breast cancer patients and the intervention of physiotherapy: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonezzer, T; Pereira, C M A P; Filho, U P; Marx, A

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, breast cancer has witnessed some notable improvements regarding early diagnosis and new therapeutical strategies, mainly because of the utilization of new drugs and systemic treatment protocols, which have had a direct impact in the increase of these patients' global survival rate. At the same time, it is an ever-growing concern among oncology professionals to identify and minimize as much as possible the effects of long-term toxicity resulting from cancer therapies. Within this context, physiotherapy fits as a preventive and rehabilitating factor regarding functional and skeletal alterations, deriving not only from the direct action of breast cancer, but also from the treatment to which these patients are submitted. The aim of this study was to revise the scientific literature on possible adjuvant chemotherapy-induced secondary deleterious effects on the bone mass of patients diagnosed with breast cancer, and also to revise the literature on the intervention of physiotherapy in cases of secondary bone mass loss caused by adjuvant chemotherapy in patients suffering from breast cancer. The research was carried out by consulting the following medical websites: Medicus Medline Index, Lilacs, Sciello, PubMed (National Library of Medicine), Google Academic and Capes (a Brazilian website for scientific information). The selection gathers articles written in different languages, English in special, published from January 1998 to October 2008. 24 studies explicitly mention chemotherapy-induced direct and/or indirect effects upon bone mass. Different authors refer to bone mass loss as one possible secondary deleterious effect resulting from adjuvant chemotherapy applied in breast cancer treatment. Nonetheless, no scientific articles were found on the subject of physiotherapy intervention aimed at patients in this specific condition. The results achieved in this revision study point out the possible chemotherapy-induced late deleterious effects on patients

  4. Systematic identification of proteins that elicit drug side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Al Banchaabouchi, Mumna; Campillos, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Side effect similarities of drugs have recently been employed to predict new drug targets, and networks of side effects and targets have been used to better understand the mechanism of action of drugs. Here, we report a large-scale analysis to systematically predict and characterize proteins...... that cause drug side effects. We integrated phenotypic data obtained during clinical trials with known drug-target relations to identify overrepresented protein-side effect combinations. Using independent data, we confirm that most of these overrepresentations point to proteins which, when perturbed, cause...... side effects. Of 1428 side effects studied, 732 were predicted to be predominantly caused by individual proteins, at least 137 of them backed by existing pharmacological or phenotypic data. We prove this concept in vivo by confirming our prediction that activation of the serotonin 7 receptor (HTR7...

  5. Statin Side Effects: Weigh the Benefits and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... interact with statins and increase your risk of side effects include: Amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), a medication for irregular heart rhythms Gemfibrozil (Lopid), another variety of cholesterol drug ...

  6. [Adverse effects of the herd immunity or when childhood vaccination becomes deleterious for the epidemiology of infectious diseases in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Pierre-Olivier

    2011-03-01

    The irremediable ageing of the world population, the aged-related increasing in the prevalence of infectious diseases the fear of any influenza pandemic rife have recently led the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) et the International Association of Geriatric and Gerontology European Regions (IAGG-ER) of establishing vaccine recommendations dedicated to individuals aged of 60 years or above and promoting a life-course vaccination programme. This approach is mainly motivated by the herd immunity-associated effect on the epidemiology of infectious diseases observed within the adult and old adult population. This review (1) after a presentation of the concept and its demonstrated beneficial effects; (2) will detail that herd immunity acts with adverse effects on the epidemiology of the infectious diseases in the adult and aged individual population; (3) in order to demonstrate that maintaining a vaccine pressure in every age groups is imperative.

  7. Salt Potentiates Methylamine Counteraction System to Offset the Deleterious Effects of Urea on Protein Stability and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Laishram R.; Warepam, Marina; Ahmad, Faizan; Dar, Tanveer Ali

    2015-01-01

    Cellular methylamines are osmolytes (low molecular weight organic compounds) believed to offset the urea’s harmful effects on the stability and function of proteins in mammalian kidney and marine invertebrates. Although urea and methylamines are found at 2:1 molar ratio in tissues, their opposing effects on protein structure and function have been questioned on several grounds including failure to counteraction or partial counteraction. Here we investigated the possible involvement of cellular salt, NaCl, in urea-methylamine counteraction on protein stability and function. We found that NaCl mediates methylamine counteracting system from no or partial counteraction to complete counteraction of urea’s effect on protein stability and function. These conclusions were drawn from the systematic thermodynamic stability and functional activity measurements of lysozyme and RNase-A. Our results revealed that salts might be involved in protein interaction with charged osmolytes and hence in the urea-methylamine counteraction. PMID:25793733

  8. Salt potentiates methylamine counteraction system to offset the deleterious effects of urea on protein stability and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safikur Rahman

    Full Text Available Cellular methylamines are osmolytes (low molecular weight organic compounds believed to offset the urea's harmful effects on the stability and function of proteins in mammalian kidney and marine invertebrates. Although urea and methylamines are found at 2:1 molar ratio in tissues, their opposing effects on protein structure and function have been questioned on several grounds including failure to counteraction or partial counteraction. Here we investigated the possible involvement of cellular salt, NaCl, in urea-methylamine counteraction on protein stability and function. We found that NaCl mediates methylamine counteracting system from no or partial counteraction to complete counteraction of urea's effect on protein stability and function. These conclusions were drawn from the systematic thermodynamic stability and functional activity measurements of lysozyme and RNase-A. Our results revealed that salts might be involved in protein interaction with charged osmolytes and hence in the urea-methylamine counteraction.

  9. Deleterious Effects of Intra-arterial Administration of Particulate Steroids on Microvascular Perfusion in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laemmel, Elisabeth; Segal, Nicolas; Mirshahi, Massoud; Azzazene, Dalel; Le Marchand, Sylvie; Wybier, Marc; Vicaut, Eric; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To determine the in vivo effects of several particulate steroids on microvascular perfusion by using intravital microscopy in a mice model and to investigate the in vitro interactions between these particulate steroids and red blood cells (RBCs). Materials and Methods The study was conducted in agreement with the guidelines of the National Committee of Ethic Reflection on Animal Experimentation. By using intravital microscopy of mouse cremaster muscle, the in vivo effects of several particulate steroids on microvascular perfusion were assessed. Four to five mice were allocated to each of the following treatment groups: saline solution, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, a nonparticulate steroid, and the particulate steroids cortivazol, methylprednisolone, triamcinolone, and prednisolone. By using in vitro blood microcinematography and electron microscopy, the interactions between these steroids and human RBCs were studied. All results were analyzed by using nonparametric tests. Results With prednisolone, methylprednisolone, or triamcinolone, blood flow was rapidly and completely stopped in all the arterioles and venules (median RBC velocity in first-order arterioles, 5 minutes after administration was zero for these three groups) compared with a limited effect in mice treated with saline, dexamethasone, and cortivazol (20.3, 21.3, and 27.5 mm/sec, respectively; P steroids. Conclusion Several particulate steroids have an immediate and massive effect on microvascular perfusion because of formation of RBC aggregates associated with the transformation of RBCs into spiculated RBCs. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  10. The effectiveness of side marker lamps: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeuwes, J; Alferdinck, J W

    1997-03-01

    The present experiment investigated the effect of small amber lamps mounted near the front and rear on each side of a passenger car-so called side marker lamps-on visual detection and recognition of passenger cars in complex nighttime environments. It was determined whether cars equipped with side marker lamps are detected and recognized earlier and more accurately than cars without side marker lamps. Subjects were presented with slides of natural nighttime scenes in which a car, either with or without side marker lamps, viewed from its side, approaching from a side street, was either present or not. Subjects determined as fast as possible whether a car was present or not. Reaction time measures (speed and accuracy) indicated that both under clear and fog visibility conditions, a car equipped with side marker lamps was detected and recognized earlier and more accurately than a car without side marker lamps. The results indicate that side marker lamps increase both lateral conspicuity and recognizability suggesting that side marker lamps may be effective in reducing the number of nighttime angle collisions.

  11. The deleterious effects of the nuclear crisis in Japan; Os deleterios impactos da crise nuclear no Japao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Paulo, E-mail: pmarx@iq.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This work reports the severe nuclear incident occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011, due a earthquake followed by tsunami, where three of six existing reactors in Daiichi-Fukushima were damaged. The explosions with releasing of radioactive materials to environment have been discussed. It has shown the harmful effects of radiations to the exposed human being. Besides, the existence of the main impediment of the nuclear electric generation represented by production of non-disposable atomic waste has been discussed. (author)

  12. Are peripheral opioid antagonists the solution to opioid side effects?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bates, John J

    2012-02-03

    Opioid medication is the mainstay of therapy for severe acute and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the side effects of these medications can affect patient comfort and safety, thus limiting their proven therapeutic potential. Whereas the main analgesic effects of opioids are centrally mediated, many of the common side effects are mediated via peripheral receptors. Novel peripheral opioid antagonists have been recently introduced that can block the peripheral actions of opioids without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. We review the clinical and experimental evidence of their efficacy in ameliorating opioid side effects and consider what further information might be useful in defining their role. IMPLICATIONS: The major analgesic effects of opioid medication are mediated within the brain and spinal cord. Many of the side effects of opioids are caused by activation of receptors outside these areas. Recently developed peripherally restricted opioid antagonists have the ability to block many opioid side effects without affecting analgesia.

  13. Asiatic Acid Prevents the Deleterious Effects of Valproic Acid on Cognition and Hippocampal Cell Proliferation and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jariya Umka Welbat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA is commonly prescribed as an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. A recent study has demonstrated that VPA reduces histone deacetylase (HDAC activity, an action which is believed to contribute to the effects of VPA on neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation which may explain the cognitive impairments produced in rodents and patients. Asiatic acid is a triterpenoid derived from the medicinal plant Centella asiatica. Our previous study has shown that Asiatic acid improves working spatial memory and increases cell proliferation in the sub granular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In the present study we investigate the effects of Asiatic acid in preventing the memory and cellular effects of VPA. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were orally administered Asiatic acid (30 mg/kg/day for 28 days, while VPA-treated animals received injections of VPA (300 mg/kg twice a day from Day 15 to Day 28 for 14 days. Spatial memory was determined using the novel object location (NOL test and hippocampal cell proliferation and survival was quantified by immuostaining for Ki-67 and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, respectively. The results showed that VPA-treated animals were unable to discriminate between objects in familiar and novel locations. Moreover, VPA significantly reduced numbers of Ki-67 and BrdU positive cells. These results indicate that VPA treatment caused impairments of spatial working memory, cell proliferation and survival in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG. However, these abnormalities were restored to control levels by co-treatment with Asiatic acid. These data demonstrate that Asiatic acid could prevent the spatial memory and neurogenesis impairments caused by VPA.

  14. In Utero Exposure to Low Doses of Bisphenol A Lead to Long-term Deleterious Effects in the Vagina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schönfelder

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The origins of the “endocrine disrupter hypothesis” may be traced to reports on adolescent daughters born to women who had taken the highly potent synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, while pregnant, and who developed a rare form of vaginal cancer and adenocarcinoma. Bisphenol A (BPA is an estrogenic chemical that is highly employed in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products. Some observational studies have suggested that the amounts of BPA to which we are exposed could alter the reproductive organs of developing rodents. We examined the influence of BPA at low doses to address the questions of (a whether in utero exposure affects the vagina of the offspring and (b which mechanisms cause the toxic effects. Gravid Sprague-Dawley dams were administered either 0.1 (low dose or 50 mg/kg per day BPA, the no observed effect level, or 0.2 mg/kg per day 17αethinyl estradiol by gavage. Striking morphological changes were observed in the vagina of postpubertal offspring leading us to examine vaginal estrogen receptor (ER expression because BPA binds to the ERα, which is important for growth of the vaginal epithelium. We show that the full-length ERα is not expressed during estrus in the vagina of female offspring exposed to either dose of BPA when compared to the control group, whereas ERα expression does not differ from the control group during the diestrus stage. ERa downregulation seems to be responsible for the observed altered vaginal morphology.

  15. Effectiveness of porcine dermal collagen in giant hernia closure in patients with deleterious fascia constitution after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkgartner, Georg; Cerwenka, Herwig; Rappl, Thomas; Kniepeiss, Daniela; Kornprat, Peter; Iberer, Florian; Bacher, Heinz; Wagner, Mathias; Mischinger, Hans J; Wagner, Doris

    2015-02-01

    Incisional hernias (IHs) occur universally after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of porcine dermal collagen (PDC) as a closing aid in giant hernias after OLT in a prospective trial. If direct closure (DC) was not feasible due to the hernia size and abdominal wall constitution, a PDC mesh was implanted. All patients from the PDC and DC groups were followed prospectively for 24 months. IH recurrence rates served as the primary endpoint, and the development of infections and wound healing disorders served as the secondary endpoints. Recurrence rate was 21% (4/19) in DC patients and 12% (2/16) in PDC patients (P = 0.045). Implant site infections occurred in five of PDC and one of DC patients (P < 0.05). All of them were managed with antibiotics; two of the PDC patients required surgical drainage. Histological analysis of PDC mesh biopsies indicated good angiogenesis and integration of the PDC into the abdominal wall. PDC was effective in our study for incisional hernia repair, and our results compared favourably with those of patients in whom direct hernia closure was feasible.

  16. Nitrate causes deleterious effects on the behaviour and reproduction of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álonso, Alvaro; Camargo, Julio A

    2013-08-01

    Nitrate (NO3 (-)) is present in aquatic ecosystems as a natural component of the nitrogen cycle. However, in the last decades, several human activities are the causes of the rising amounts of organic matter and inorganic nitrogen nutrients in aquatic ecosystems, causing notable increase of nitrate above background natural levels. In spite of the toxicity of nitrate to aquatic animals, there are relatively few studies on the chronic toxicity of this compound to invertebrates. The aim of our study is to assess the effect of chronic (35 days) exposure to nitrate on the behaviour (velocity of movement) and reproduction (number of newborns) of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Four actual concentrations of nitrate were used (21.4, 44.9, 81.8 and 156.1 mg N-NO3 (-)/L). In each treatment, 12 animals were individually monitored for velocity (weekly) and newborn production (every 3-4 days). Velocity was recorded using quantitative video monitoring. Our results showed that nitrate did not cause mortality, but it reduced the velocity of movement (at 44.9, 81.8 and 156.1 mg N-NO3 (-)/L) and number of live newborns (in all tested concentrations). Reproductive impairment was caused at realistic nitrate concentrations which is relevant to the risk assessment of this compound. Our study contributes to the knowledge of the chronic effects of nitrate on the behaviour and reproduction of an aquatic snail.

  17. Obesogenic diets have deleterious effects on fat deposits irrespective of the nature of dietary carbohydrates in a Yucatan minipig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Melissa; Val-Laillet, David; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri

    2016-09-01

    The effects of digestible carbohydrates, fructose in particular, on the development of metabolic disturbances remain controversial. We explored the effects of prolonged consumption of high-fat diets differing in their carbohydrate source on fat deposits in the adult Yucatan minipig. Eighteen minipigs underwent computed tomographic imaging and blood sampling before and after 8 weeks of three isocaloric high-fat diets with different carbohydrate sources (20% by weight for starch in the control diet, glucose or fructose, n=6 per diet). Body adiposity, liver volume, and fat content were estimated from computed tomographic images (n=18). Liver volume and lipid content were also measured post mortem (n=12). We hypothesized that the quantity and the spatial distribution of fat deposits in the adipose tissue or in the liver would be altered by the nature of the carbohydrate present in the obesogenic diet. After 8 weeks of dietary exposure, body weight (from 26±4 to 58±3 kg), total body adiposity (from 38±1 to 47±1%; P<.0001), liver volume (from 1156±31 to 1486±66 mL; P<.0001), plasma insulin (from 10±1 to 14±2 mIU/L; P=.001), triacylglycerol (from 318±37 to 466±33 mg/L; P=.005), and free-fatty acids (from 196±60 to 396±59 μmol/L; P=.0001) increased irrespective of the carbohydrate type. Similarly, the carbohydrate type did not induce changes in the spatial repartition of the adipose tissue. Divergent results were obtained for fat deposits in the liver depending on the investigation method. In conclusion, obesogenic diets alter adipose tissue fat deposits and the metabolic profile independently of the nature of dietary carbohydrates.

  18. Cannabidiol provides long-lasting protection against the deleterious effects of inflammation in a viral model of multiple sclerosis: a role for A2A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecha, M; Feliú, A; Iñigo, P M; Mestre, L; Carrillo-Salinas, F J; Guaza, C

    2013-11-01

    Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) is a complex process that involves a multitude of molecules and effectors, and it requires the transmigration of blood leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the activation of resident immune cells. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic cannabinoid constituent of Cannabis sativa, has potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Yet, how this compound modifies the deleterious effects of inflammation in TMEV-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) remains unknown. Using this viral model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we demonstrate that CBD decreases the transmigration of blood leukocytes by downregulating the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5) and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β, as well as by attenuating the activation of microglia. Moreover, CBD administration at the time of viral infection exerts long-lasting effects, ameliorating motor deficits in the chronic phase of the disease in conjunction with reduced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Adenosine A2A receptors participate in some of the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD, as the A2A antagonist ZM241385 partially blocks the protective effects of CBD in the initial stages of inflammation. Together, our findings highlight the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD in this viral model of MS and demonstrate the significant therapeutic potential of this compound for the treatment of pathologies with an inflammatory component.

  19. Pelleted bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells are better protected from the deleterious effects of arthroscopic heat shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthaman eKalamegam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The impact of arthroscopic temperature on joint tissues is poorly understood and it is not known how mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs respond to the effects of heat generated by the device during the process of arthroscopy assisted experimental cell-based therapy. In the present study, we isolated and phenotypically characterized human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs from osteoarthritis (OA patients, and evaluated the effect of arthroscopic heat on cell viability in suspension and pellet cultures.Methods: Primary cultures of hBMMSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirates of OA patients and cultured using DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS and characterized for their stemness. hBMMSCs (1 x 106 cells cultured as single cell suspensions or cell pellets were exposed to an illuminated arthroscope for 10, 20 or 30 min. This was followed by analysis of cellular proliferation and heat shock related gene expression. Results: hBMMSCs were viable and exhibited population doubling, short spindle morphology, MSC related CD surface markers expression and tri-lineage differentiation into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation increased collagen production and alkaline phosphatase activity. Exposure of hBMMSCs to an illuminated arthroscope for 10, 20 or 30 min for 72 h decreased cell proliferation in cell suspensions (63.27% at 30 min and increased cell proliferation in cell pellets (62.86% at 10 min and 68.57% at 20 min. hBMMSCs exposed to 37C, 45C and 55C for 120 seconds demonstrated significant upregulation of BAX, P53, Cyclin A2, Cyclin E1, TNF-α, and HSP70 in cell suspensions compared to cell pellets. Conclusions: hBMMSC cell pellets are better protected from temperature alterations compared to cell suspensions. Transplantation of hBMMSCs as pellets rather than as cell suspensions to the cartilage defect site would therefore support their viability and may aid enhanced cartilage

  20. Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation KidsHealth > For Parents > Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation Print A A A What's in ... and can no longer do their jobs efficiently. Chemotherapy (or "chemo") and radiation , the two most common ...

  1. The relationship between rational drug design and drug side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Li, Zhi-xin; Qiu, Cheng-xiang; Wang, Dong; Cui, Qing-hua

    2012-05-01

    Previous analysis of systems pharmacology has revealed a tendency of rational drug design in the pharmaceutical industry. The targets of new drugs tend to be close with the corresponding disease genes in the biological networks. However, it remains unclear whether the rational drug design introduces disadvantages, i.e. side effects. Therefore, it is important to dissect the relationship between rational drug design and drug side effects. Based on a recently released drug side effect database, SIDER, here we analyzed the relationship between drug side effects and the rational drug design. We revealed that the incidence drug side effect is significantly associated with the network distance of drug targets and diseases genes. Drugs with the distances of three or four have the smallest incidence of side effects, whereas drugs with the distances of more than four or smaller than three show significantly greater incidence of side effects. Furthermore, protein drugs and small molecule drugs show significant differences. Drugs hitting membrane targets and drugs hitting cytoplasm targets also show differences. Failure drugs because of severe side effects show smaller network distances than approved drugs. These results suggest that researchers should be prudent on rationalizing the drug design. Too small distances between drug targets and diseases genes may not always be advantageous for rational design for drug discovery.

  2. Side effects of azathioprine in patients with Crohn's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Dirk de; Goullet, M.; Naber, A.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In clinical trials 0-15% of patients discontinued azathioprine due to side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of side effects leading to discontinuation of azathioprine and to determine predictive factors for discontinuation. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort analysis of c

  3. Side effects of vagus nerve stimulation during physical exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, D.M.; de Vos, Cecilia Cecilia Clementine; Vosman, I.; Driesse, M.J.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a treatment option in the case of refractory epilepsy. However, several side effects have been reported, including dyspnea, coughing and bradycardias [JCA 2010: 22;213-222]. Although some patients experience hardly any side effects from the stimulation

  4. Phthalate-Induced Liver Protection against Deleterious Effects of the Th1 Response: A Potentially Serious Health Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Mostafa Z; Shnyra, Alexander; Zoubine, Mikhail; Norkin, Maxim; Herndon, Betty; Quinn, Tim; Miranda, Roberto N; Cunningham, Michael L; Molteni, Agostino

    2007-01-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) induces pulmonary immunopathology mediated by classical Th1 type of acquired immunity with hepatic involvement in up to 80% of disseminated cases. Since PPAR agonists cause immune responses characterized by a decrease in the secretion of Th1 cytokines, we investigated the impact of activating these receptors on hepatic pathology associated with a well-characterized model of Th1-type pulmonary response. Male Fischer 344 rats were either maintained on a drug-free diet (groups I and II), or a diet containing diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP), a compound transformed in vivo to metabolites known to activate PPARs, for 21 days (groups III and IV). Subsequently, animals were primed with Mycobacterium bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) in a Complete Freund's Adjuvant. Fifteen days later, animals in groups II and IV were challenged with Sepharose 4B beads covalently coupled with PPD, while animals in groups I and III received blank Sepharose beads. Animals with Th1 response (group II) showed a marked structural disruption in the hepatic lobule. Remarkably, these alterations were conspicuously absent in animals which received DEHP (group IV), despite noticeable accumulation of T cells in the periportal triads. Immunostaining and confocal microscopy revealed hepatic accumulation of IFNgamma+ Th1 and IL-4+ Th2 cells in animals from groups II and IV, respectively. Our data suggest a PPARalpha-mediated suppression of the development of a Th1 immune response in the liver, resulting in hepatoprotective effect. However, potentially negative consequences of PPAR activation, such as decreased ability of the immune system to fight infection and interference with the efficacy of vaccines designed to evoke Th1 immune responses, remain to be investigated.

  5. The incidence of side effects after laser hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Sean W.

    2004-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of lasers for hair removal there is little data published on the incidence of side effects from this treatment. We aimed to generate data on a large number of patients receiving laser hair removal to obtain an accurate assessment of the incidence and type of side effects resulting from treatment. A multicentre prospective study of patients attending for laser hair removal was conducted to determine incidence of side effects in relation to skin type and laser(s) used. Laser hair removal is associated with a low incidence of side effects which are self-limiting in the majority of cases. Highest incidence of side effects was seen in darker skinned patients treated with the long pulsed ruby laser. Laser hair removal is inherently safe. For darker Fitzpatrick skin types the long pulsed Nd:YAG laser is preferred to the ruby laser.

  6. In vivo assessment of antiretroviral therapy-associated side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Milton Ramos-Sanchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with side effects, either from the drug itself or in conjunction with the effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here, we evaluated the side effects of the protease inhibitor (PI indinavir in hamsters consuming a normal or high-fat diet. Indinavir treatment increased the hamster death rate and resulted in an increase in triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose serum levels and a reduction in anti-oxLDL auto-antibodies. The treatment led to histopathological alterations of the kidney and the heart. These results suggest that hamsters are an interesting model for the study of the side effects of antiretroviral drugs, such as PIs.

  7. Reported Sildenafil Side Effects in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Leigh Siehr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sildenafil, a phosphodiestase type 5 inhibitor, was approved in 2005 for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH in adults, and is commonly used off-label for pediatric patients. Little is known, however, about sildenafil’s side effects in this population.Methods: Single institution, longitudinal survey-based study performed in an outpatient pediatric cardiology clinic. Pediatric patients on sildenafil (alone or in combination with other PH therapies completed questionnaires regarding frequency of vascular, gastrointestinal, neurologic and hematologic side effects. Results: Between January 2011 and May 2014, 66 pediatric patients with PH on sildenafil filled out 214 surveys, 32 patients (96 surveys on monotherapy, and 43 patients (118 surveys on sildenafil plus an endothelin receptor antagonist (bosentan or ambrisentan and/or a prostacyclin (epoprostenol or treprostinil. Overall, 30% of respondents identified at least one side effect. For all patients on sildenafil, incidence of side effects by system was 37% gastrointestinal, 35% vascular and 22% neurologic. For patients on sildenafil monotherapy, incidence of side effects by system was 24% gastrointestinal, 21% vascular and 18% neurologic compared to patients on combination therapy who reported an incidence of 48% gastrointestinal, 45% vascular and 25% neurologic.Conclusion: Incidence of vascular, gastrointestinal and neurologic side effect in pediatric patients on sildenafil therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension was 30%. Side effects were more common in patients on combination therapy with an endothelin receptor antagonist and/or prostacyclin than in patients on sildenafil monotherapy.

  8. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Allam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication; Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns.

  9. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus) Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ahmed A; Maodaa, Salah N; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha; Ajarem, Jamaan

    2016-01-01

    Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd) to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum) at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication); Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns.

  10. Elementary affine {\\lambda}-calculus with multithreading and side effects

    CERN Document Server

    Madet, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Linear logic provides a framework to control the complexity of higher-order functional programs. We present an extension of this framework to programs with multithreading and side effects focusing on the case of elementary time. Our main contributions are as follows. First, we provide a new combinatorial proof of termination in elementary time for the functional case. Second, we develop an extension of the approach to a call-by-value \\lambda-calculus with multithreading and side effects. Third, we introduce an elementary affine type system that guarantees the standard subject reduction and progress properties. Finally, we illustrate the programming of iterative functions with side effects in the presented formalism.

  11. Side Effects and Complications of Dental Materials on Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Atai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of dental materials has had a great impact on the modern dentistry. The materials ranging from polymers to metals have different applications in dentistry. Besides their important role in healing or improving the function of oral tissues, the materials may show side effects which may, in some cases, lead to severe lesions. In this review the side effects have been summarized considering a new classification for dental materials according to the duration of their applications as temporary or permanent materials. The side effects of the materials are then discussed based on clinical and cellular views.

  12. Liraglutide and DPP-4 inhibitors - side effects comparative clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofte, Luminiţa; Stratmann, Bernd; Quester, Wulf; Bojiţă, Marius Traian; Tschoepe, Diethelm

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the side effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in comparison to those of DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin and vildagliptin), in order to determine their safety, tolerability and therapeutic efficiency. The study was carried out in the "Heart and Diabetes Center NRW" and included overweight patients with type 2 diabetes whose therapeutic regimen was switched to liraglutide or DPP-4 inhibitors. A validated questionnaire method was used to monitor the side effects during the hospitalization period, then again at 3, and 6 months after the beginning of the therapy. The therapy with liraglutide was associated with more side effects than the one with DPP-4 inhibitors. In general, side effects were declining with time, thus only few patients stopped therapy. The incretin therapy turned out to be a safe and effective therapeutic option for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. The Unexpected Side-Effects of Dissonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Ehud; Gilboa, Avi; Amir, Dorit

    2007-01-01

    The effects of dissonant and consonant music on cognitive performance were examined. Situational dissonance and consonance were also tested and determined as the state where one's opinion is contrasted or matched with the majority's opinion, respectively. Subjects performed several cognitive tasks while listening to a melody arranged dissonantly,…

  14. The Unexpected Side-Effects of Dissonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Ehud; Gilboa, Avi; Amir, Dorit

    2007-01-01

    The effects of dissonant and consonant music on cognitive performance were examined. Situational dissonance and consonance were also tested and determined as the state where one's opinion is contrasted or matched with the majority's opinion, respectively. Subjects performed several cognitive tasks while listening to a melody arranged dissonantly,…

  15. Side effects of chemotherapy in musculoskeletal oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Romantini, Matteo; Angelini, Andrea; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    With recent advances in medical and orthopedic oncology, radiation therapy and single- or multiple-agent perioperative chemotherapy are currently applied as an essential part of the multidisciplinary treatment to improve disease-free and overall survival of patients with primary and metastatic bone and soft tissue tumors. However, these treatments have led to unwanted complications. A better understanding of the effects of various antineoplastic agents on bone, soft tissue, and organs may provide the basis for the more efficacious use of antiproliferative drugs when fracture healing or allograft incorporation is required. This knowledge may also provide a rationale for concurrent treatment with drugs that protect against or compensate for adverse effects in osseous repair resulting from chemotherapy.

  16. Membrane Transporters as Mediators of Cisplatin Effects and Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Ciarimboli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transporters are important mediators of specific cellular uptake and thus, not only for effects, but also for side effects, metabolism, and excretion of many drugs such as cisplatin. Cisplatin is a potent cytostatic drug, whose use is limited by its severe acute and chronic nephro-, oto-, and peripheral neurotoxicity. For this reason, other platinum derivatives, such as carboplatin and oxaliplatin, with less toxicity but still with antitumoral action have been developed. Several transporters, which are expressed on the cell membranes, have been associated with cisplatin transport across the plasma membrane and across the cell: the copper transporter 1 (Ctr1, the copper transporter 2 (Ctr2, the P-type copper-transporting ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B, the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2, and the multidrug extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1. Some of these transporters are also able to accept other platinum derivatives as substrate. Since membrane transporters display a specific tissue distribution, they can be important molecules that mediate the entry of platinum derivatives in target and also nontarget cells possibly mediating specific effects and side effects of the chemotherapeutic drug. This paper summarizes the literature on toxicities of cisplatin compared to that of carboplatin and oxaliplatin and the interaction of these platinum derivatives with membrane transporters.

  17. The SIDER database of drugs and side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl;

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted side effects of drugs are a burden on patients and a severe impediment in the development of new drugs. At the same time, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded during clinical trials are an important source of human phenotypic data. It is therefore essential to combine data on drugs......, targets and side effects into a more complete picture of the therapeutic mechanism of actions of drugs and the ways in which they cause adverse reactions. To this end, we have created the SIDER ('Side Effect Resource', http://sideeffects.embl.de) database of drugs and ADRs. The current release, SIDER 4......, contains data on 1430 drugs, 5880 ADRs and 140 064 drug-ADR pairs, which is an increase of 40% compared to the previous version. For more fine-grained analyses, we extracted the frequency with which side effects occur from the package inserts. This information is available for 39% of drug-ADR pairs, 19...

  18. Strength Training May Prevent Side Effect of Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162473.html Strength Training May Prevent Side Effect of Breast Cancer Surgery ... 9, 2016 FRIDAY, Dec. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Strength training might benefit breast cancer survivors who've undergone ...

  19. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men “I talked with my doctor before treatment. I told him I would like to have children one day. I’m ...

  20. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Mouth and Throat Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Mouth and Throat Changes “My mouth felt sore. I let my nurse know right away. He told me about medicine that can help. He also showed ...

  1. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you start treatment. Ask how chemotherapy could affect your ability to have children. ” Ask what ...

  2. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Skin and Nail Changes “I was glad to learn that most skin and nail problems go away after treatment. For now, my nurse told me about ...

  3. Many Women Mistaken on 'Side Effects' of Breast Cancer Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Many Women Mistaken on 'Side Effects' of Breast Cancer Drug Study shows that normal symptoms of menopause ... therapy, could be a useful approach in encouraging adherence," Sestak said. "This is particularly important for women ...

  4. Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptors counteracts the deleterious effect of ethanol on cell proliferation in the main neurogenic zones of the adult rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Bindila, Laura; Alen, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Rubio, Leticia; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Lutz, Beat; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure reduces endocannabinoid activity and disrupts adult neurogenesis in rodents, which results in structural and functional alterations. Cannabinoid receptor agonists promote adult neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation. We evaluated the protective effects of the selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA, the selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 and the fatty-acid amide-hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, which enhances endocannabinoid receptor activity, on NPC proliferation in rats with forced consumption of ethanol (10%) or sucrose liquid diets for 2 weeks. We performed immunohistochemical and stereological analyses of cells expressing the mitotic phosphorylation of histone-3 (phospho-H3+) and the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) in the main neurogenic zones of adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ) and hypothalamus. Animals were allowed ad libitum ethanol intake (7.3 ± 1.1 g/kg/day) after a controlled isocaloric pair-feeding period of sucrose and alcoholic diets. Alcohol intake reduced the number of BrdU+ cells in SGZ, SVZ, and hypothalamus. The treatments (URB597, ACEA, JWH133) exerted a differential increase in alcohol consumption over time, but JWH133 specifically counteracted the deleterious effect of ethanol on NPC proliferation in the SVZ and SGZ, and ACEA reversed this effect in the SGZ only. JWH133 also induced an increased number of BrdU+ cells expressing neuron-specific β3-tubulin in the SVZ and SGZ. These results indicated that the specific activation of CB2 receptors rescued alcohol-induced impaired NPC proliferation, which is a potential clinical interest for the risk of neural damage in alcohol dependence. PMID:26483633

  5. Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptors counteracts the deleterious effect of ethanol on cell proliferation in the main neurogenic zones of the adult rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eRivera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol exposure reduces endocannabinoid activity and disrupts adult neurogenesis in rodents, which results in structural and functional alterations. Cannabinoid receptor agonists promote adult neural progenitor cell (NPC proliferation. We evaluated the protective effects of the selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA, the selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 and the fatty-acid amide-hydrolase (FAAH inhibitor URB597, which enhances endocannabinoid receptor activity, on NPC proliferation in rats with forced consumption of ethanol (10% or sucrose liquid diets for two weeks. We performed immunohistochemical and stereological analyses of cells expressing the mitotic phosphorylation of histone-3 (phospho-H3+ and the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU+ in the main neurogenic zones of adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ, subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ and hypothalamus. Animals were allowed ad libitum ethanol intake (7.3±1.1 g/kg/day after a controlled isocaloric pair-feeding period of sucrose and alcoholic diets. Alcohol intake reduced the number of BrdU+ cells in SGZ, SVZ and hypothalamus. The treatments (URB597, ACEA, JWH133 exerted a differential increase in alcohol consumption over time, but JWH133 specifically counteracted the deleterious effect of ethanol on NPC proliferation in the SVZ and SGZ, and ACEA reversed this effect in the SGZ only. JWH133 also induced an increased number of BrdU+ cells expressing neuron-specific β3-tubulin in the SVZ and SGZ. These results indicated that the specific activation of CB2 receptors rescued alcohol-induced impaired NPC proliferation, which is a potential clinical interest for the risk of neural damage in alcohol dependence.

  6. Properties and modeling of GWAS when complex disease risk is due to non-complementing, deleterious mutations in genes of large effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Thornton

    Full Text Available Current genome-wide association studies (GWAS have high power to detect intermediate frequency SNPs making modest contributions to complex disease, but they are underpowered to detect rare alleles of large effect (RALE. This has led to speculation that the bulk of variation for most complex diseases is due to RALE. One concern with existing models of RALE is that they do not make explicit assumptions about the evolution of a phenotype and its molecular basis. Rather, much of the existing literature relies on arbitrary mapping of phenotypes onto genotypes obtained either from standard population-genetic simulation tools or from non-genetic models. We introduce a novel simulation of a 100-kilobase gene region, based on the standard definition of a gene, in which mutations are unconditionally deleterious, are continuously arising, have partially recessive and non-complementing effects on phenotype (analogous to what is widely observed for most Mendelian disorders, and are interspersed with neutral markers that can be genotyped. Genes evolving according to this model exhibit a characteristic GWAS signature consisting of an excess of marginally significant markers. Existing tests for an excess burden of rare alleles in cases have low power while a simple new statistic has high power to identify disease genes evolving under our model. The structure of linkage disequilibrium between causative mutations and significantly associated markers under our model differs fundamentally from that seen when rare causative markers are assumed to be neutral. Rather than tagging single haplotypes bearing a large number of rare causative alleles, we find that significant SNPs in a GWAS tend to tag single causative mutations of small effect relative to other mutations in the same gene. Our results emphasize the importance of evaluating the power to detect associations under models that are genetically and evolutionarily motivated.

  7. Parkinsonism as a side effect of infliximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Jakob Nørgaard; Eriksson, Bengt Oluf Mikael

    2016-05-05

    We present a case of a 64-year-old man with Crohn's disease who developed parkinsonism after starting treatment with infliximab (Remicade). The patient had a 30-year history of Crohn's disease with previous surgical procedures and treatment with methotrexate. Treatment was augmented with infliximab, and 3 days after the first dose of 400 mg, a resting tremor began in the left leg. Over 4 months, symptoms progressed and now involved the right leg as well as both hands. There was no clinical effect of infliximab treatment, and the treatment was withdrawn 4 months later. The patient then experienced gradual, but continual, improvement of the resting tremor after withdrawal of infliximab. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a patient developing parkinsonism after starting treatment with infliximab, with symptoms remitting on discontinuation.

  8. Soy and phytoestrogens: possible side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jargin, Sergei V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Phytoestrogens are present in certain edible plants being most abundant in soy; they are structurally and functionally analogous to the estrogens. Phytoestrogens have been applied for compensation of hormone deficiency in the menopause. At the same time, soy products are used in infant food and other foodstuffs. Furthermore, soy is applied as animal fodder, so that residual phytoestrogens and their active metabolites such as equol can remain in meat and influence the hormonal balance of the consumers. There have been only singular reports on modified gender-related behavior or feminization in humans in consequence of soy consumption. In animals, the intake of phytoestrogens was reported to impact fertility, sexual development and behavior. Feminizing effects in humans can be subtle and identifiable only statistically in large populations.

  9. Soy and phytoestrogens: possible side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are present in certain edible plants being most abundant in soy; they are structurally and functionally analogous to the estrogens. Phytoestrogens have been applied for compensation of hormone deficiency in the menopause. At the same time, soy products are used in infant food and other foodstuffs. Furthermore, soy is applied as animal fodder, so that residual phytoestrogens and their active metabolites such as equol can remain in meat and influence the hormonal balance of the consumers. There have been only singular reports on modified gender-related behavior or feminization in humans in consequence of soy consumption. In animals, the intake of phytoestrogens was reported to impact fertility, sexual development and behavior. Feminizing effects in humans can be subtle and identifiable only statistically in large populations.

  10. Sleeptalking! Sleepwalking! Side effects of montelukast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhuja, Samer; Gazizov, Natalya; Alexander, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old Caucasian female presented to the pulmonary clinic for a followup on her asthma. Due to the worsening of allergy-related symptoms, therapy with montelukast 10 mg daily was started and resulted in good relief of the patient's symptoms. In the nights following initiating therapy with montelukast, the patient's mother reported daily parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking and sleepwalking. Montelukast was discontinued, and that resulted in absence of the parasomnias. In a second attempt montelukast was reinstituted to control the patient's symptoms. Parasomnias were immediately reported after resuming therapy. Montelukast was then discontinued indefinitely. Our patient has never had any history of parasomnias, and since the discontinuation of montelukast, parasomnias were never reported again. Parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking or sleepwalking were not previously reported as adverse effects of montelukast. Alternative modalities to treat allergy-related symptoms in patients, who develop parasomnias while receiving montelukast, should be explored.

  11. Side Effects and Complications of Dental Materials on Oral Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Atai; M. Atai

    2007-01-01

    Development of dental materials has had a great impact on the modern dentistry. The materials ranging from polymers to metals have different applications in dentistry. Besides their important role in healing or improving the function of oral tissues, the materials may show side effects which may, in some cases, lead to severe lesions. In this review the side effects have been summarized considering a new classification for dental materials according to the duration of their applications as te...

  12. Sleeptalking! Sleepwalking! Side Effects of Montelukast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Alkhuja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old Caucasian female presented to the pulmonary clinic for a followup on her asthma. Due to the worsening of allergy-related symptoms, therapy with montelukast 10 mg daily was started and resulted in good relief of the patient’s symptoms. In the nights following initiating therapy with montelukast, the patient’s mother reported daily parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking and sleepwalking. Montelukast was discontinued, and that resulted in absence of the parasomnias. In a second attempt montelukast was reinstituted to control the patient’s symptoms. Parasomnias were immediately reported after resuming therapy. Montelukast was then discontinued indefinitely. Our patient has never had any history of parasomnias, and since the discontinuation of montelukast, parasomnias were never reported again. Parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking or sleepwalking were not previously reported as adverse effects of montelukast. Alternative modalities to treat allergy-related symptoms in patients, who develop parasomnias while receiving montelukast, should be explored.

  13. 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits the deleterious effects induced by high glucose on osteoblasts through undercarboxylated osteocalcin and insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-ying; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Liu, Yan-shan; Li, Feng; Wang, Yan-ying; Wang, Yong-yue; Gong, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with multiple skeletal disorders, and vitamin D may play a functional role in the preservation of glucose tolerance. However, the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and DM is not well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential molecular link between 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) regulation and glucose homeostasis. Rat primary osteoblasts were cultured in different conditioned medium: normal glucose, high glucose, high glucose and insulin, high glucose and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), high glucose and insulin and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). The activity of osteoblasts was measured by cell viability, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin assay. The potential mechanism of how 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) affect insulin sensitivity was investigated by the assay of insulin receptor (IR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) level. The combined treatment has the strongest effect of inhibiting the deleterious effects induced by high glucose on osteoblasts, and it promoted the %ucOC value to approximately 40%, which is much higher than that in high glucose without treatment. Levels of IR and VDR of osteoblasts in combined treatment culture increased significantly compared with that in high glucose without treatment. So maybe 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) promotes insulin sensitivity of osteoblasts by activating insulin signaling and simultaneously stimulating ucOC secretion, which in turn regulate insulin production and sensitivity. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) might be beneficial not only for diabetes, but also, for osteoporosis by promoting bone formation.

  14. Perceived side effects of oral contraceptives among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S; Goodwin, M S

    1980-11-22

    Knowledge and attitudes of adolescent females regarding the side effects of oral contraceptives were investigated. The data source was a large study of sexual and contraceptive attitudes and experience. The questionnaire responses of 486 single females attending 10 birth control and pregnancy counseling centers in Ontario, Canada were examined. The age range of the subjects was from 13-20; 71% were attending school and 69% were living at home. They were attending the centers in order to obtain contraceptives (55%), to renew OC prescriptions (20%), or to receive pregnancy counseling (25%). 29% of the subjects had used OCs before coming to the clinic, but 91% planned to use OC after their clinic visit. 8% were planning to use an IUD; 1% were planning to use a diaphragm; and less than 1% were planning to have their boyfriend use condoms. 85% of the subjects indicated that they had heard abut side effcts of OCs with weight gain as the best known side effect. Other side effects familiar to many included nausea, circulatory disorders, headaches, emotional changes, menstrual problems and cancer. About 1/2 of the subjects had learned about these side effects from the mass media or female friends, 25% from a school sex education class, 15% from their mothers, and 3% from a physician. Despite knowledge regarding side effects, most of the subjects had positive attitudes toward OCs with 59% believing that the advnatages outweighed any disadvantages.

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of the potential deleterious effects of ZnO nanomaterials (nanoneedles and nanoflowers) on blood components, including albumin, erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrello, Bruna; Paracatu, Luana Chiquetto; de Carvalho Bertozo, Luiza; Paino, Iêda Maria Martinez; Lisboa-Filho, Paulo Noronha; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias

    2016-07-01

    The application of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in biomaterials has increased significantly in the recent years. Here, we aimed to study the potential deleterious effects of ZnO on blood components, including human serum albumin (HSA), erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils. To test the influence of the morphology of the nanomaterials, ZnO nanoneedles (ZnO-nn) and nanoflowers (ZnO-nf) were synthesized. The zeta potential and mean size of ZnO-nf and ZnO-nn suspensions in phosphate-buffered saline were -10.73 mV and 3.81 nm and -5.27 mV and 18.26 nm, respectively. The incubation of ZnO with HSA did not cause its denaturation as verified by the absence of significant alterations in the intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence and in the circular dichroism spectrum of the protein. The capacity of HSA as a drug carrier was not affected as verified by employing site I and II fluorescent markers. Neither type of ZnO was able to provoke the activation of neutrophils, as verified by lucigenin- and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence and by the extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide. ZnO-nf, but not ZnO-nn, induced the haemolysis of erythrocytes. In conclusion, our results reinforce the concept that ZnO nanomaterials are relatively safe for usage in biomaterials. A potential exception is the capacity of ZnO-nf to promote the lysis of erythrocytes, a discovery that shows the importance of the morphology in the toxicity of nanoparticles.

  16. Fructose supplementation worsens the deleterious effects of short-term high-fat feeding on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Tussellino, Margherita; Carotenuto, Rosa; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the short-term effect of high-fat or high-fat-high-fructose feeding on hepatic lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function in adult sedentary rats. Adult male rats were fed a high-fat or high-fat-high-fructose diet for 2 weeks. Body and liver composition, hepatic steatosis, plasma lipid profile and hepatic insulin sensitivity, together with whole-body and hepatic de novo lipogenesis, were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial mass, functionality, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense were also measured. Rats fed the high-fat-high-fructose diet exhibited significantly higher plasma triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, insulin and indexes of hepatic insulin resistance compared with rats fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet. Hepatic triglycerides and ceramide, as well as the degree of steatosis and necrosis, were significantly higher, while liver p-Akt was significantly lower, in rats fed high-fat-high-fructose diet than in rats fed high-fat diet. A significant increase in non-protein respiratory quotient and hepatic fatty acid synthase and stearoyl CoA desaturase activity was found in rats fed the high-fat-high-fructose diet compared with those fed the high-fat diet. Significantly lower mitochondrial oxidative capacity but significantly higher oxidative stress was found in rats fed high-fat and high-fat-high-fructose diets compared with rats fed low-fat diet, while mitochondrial mass significantly increased only in rats fed high-fat-high-fructose diet. In conclusion, short-term consumption of a Western diet, rich in saturated fats and fructose, is more conducive to the development of liver steatosis and deleterious to glucose homeostasis than a high-fat diet. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  17. Developmental expression of Musashi-1 and Musashi-2 RNA-binding proteins during spermatogenesis: analysis of the deleterious effects of dysregulated expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Jessie M; Fraser, Barbara A; Sobinoff, Alexander P; Pye, Victoria J; Davidson, Tara-Lynne; Siddall, Nicole A; Koopman, Peter; Hime, Gary R; McLaughlin, Eileen A

    2014-05-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex developmental process whereby diploid spermatogenic stem cells become haploid and undergo a series of morphological changes to produce physically mature spermatozoa. Crucial to this process are a number of RNA-binding proteins, responsible for the posttranscriptional control of essential mRNAs and particularly pertinent to the two periods of inactive transcription that occur in spermatogenesis. One such group of RNA-binding proteins is the Musashi family, specifically Musashi-1 (MSI1) and Musashi-2 (MSI2), which act as key translational regulators in various stem cell populations and have been linked with the induction of tumorigenesis. In the present study, we examined the differential expression of mammalian MSI1 and MSI2 during germ cell development in the mouse testis. MSI1 was found to be predominately localized in mitotic gonocytes and spermatogonia, whereas MSI2 was detected in meiotic spermatocytes and differentiating spermatids. Extensive examination of the function of Musashi in spermatogenesis was achieved through the use of two transgenic mouse models with germ cell-specific overexpression of full-length isoforms of Msi1 or Msi2. These models demonstrated that aberrant expression of either Msi1 or Msi2 has deleterious effects on normal spermatogenesis, with Msi2 overexpression resulting in male sterility. Studies undertaken on human testicular seminoma tumors provide further insights into the relevance of MSI1 and MSI2 overexpression as diagnostic markers to human stem cell cancers. Overall this study provides further evidence for the unique functions that RNA-binding protein isoforms occupy within spermatogenesis, and introduces the potential manipulation of the Musashi family proteins to elucidate the mechanisms of posttranscriptional gene expression during germ cell development.

  18. Minimizing side effects of systemic corticosteroids in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids are potent drugs used in management of various inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. The antiinflammatory effects of corticosteroids cannot however be separated from their metabolic effects. Children are more vulnerable to their side effects, particularly the effects on growth, immunity and adrenal suppression. It is essential for the treating physician to be aware of the side effects and the measures to be taken to minimize them. A side effect that is unique to children is growth suppression, which is helped by alternate day treatment. Administration of small doses of prednisolone (10-15 mg/day or < 0.5 mg/kg/day single dose on alternate days, does not slow growth velocity significantly. The potency of dexamethasone and betamethasone in suppressing growth is nearly 18 times higher than that of prednisolone. There is some evidence that the administration of growth hormone can reverse these changes.

  19. Early and Late Side Effects Associated with Photo(chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günseli Öztürk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phototherapy (PUVA ve UVB is a widely used and effective treatment method for a variety of dermatological diseases. Adverse effects associated with phototherapy can be classified as acute and chronic side effects. Acute side effects are mostly related with UV doses and drug intolerance, and include itching, nausea, erythema, edema and phototoxic reactions that sometimes blister formation is seen. Acute side effects are usually moderate and transient. Chronic side effects of phototherapy are early aging of skin, pigmentary changes and increased risk of skin carcinogenesis. The major concern is development of skin cancer. This risk is especially related to long-term exposure and high cumulative doses of PUVA, increase in time and is persistent. Therefore, risk/advantage ratio of phototherapy should be carefully evaluated in each patient, and treatment protocols with minimal UV exposure should be chosen according to the phototherapy guides. Follow-up of the patients for long terms is important in prevention or in reduction of this risk by detecting and treating any premalignant or malignant lesion early. In this article, acute and chronic side effects of phototherapy are reviewed with recent literature findings.

  20. 'Side effects' of health promotion: an example from Austrian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugglberger, Lisa; Flaschberger, Edith; Teutsch, Friedrich

    2014-07-04

    While the existence of side effects of medical interventions is common knowledge and widely investigated, possible unintended effects of health promotion (HP) interventions are only sparsely discussed in the HP literature. Drawing on qualitative evaluation data generated within an on-going process evaluation of a regional health-promoting schools network in Austria, we demonstrate which desirable and undesirable effects HP practice can have for teachers. Thirteen group discussions with teachers (n = 63) and headteachers (n = 9) acting as health coordinators in the network schools were conducted between 2010 and 2013. These data were analysed using systems and thematic analyses. In our example, desirable side effects included health coordinators gaining new relationships, new skills and benefiting from improved infrastructure. The undesirable side effects centred on stress, work overload and frustration, due to the additional work brought about by HP practice, negative reactions by colleagues as well as by technicalities of the network. The undesirable side effects of HP predominated in our study, pointing to several implications like the need to accommodate the concept of HP in the teachers' core responsibilities; the participation of all staff members and students in a whole-school approach toward SHP, and the need for changes on an organizational level. Based on this study, we come to the conclusion that a systematic approach to investigating and analysing side effects of HP is currently lacking in HP research and suggest that theoretical examination and more empirical research is needed.

  1. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women.

  2. Amantadine in the treatment of neuroendocrine side effects of neuroleptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, N; Opler, L A; Kay, S R; Birmaher, B

    1987-04-01

    An open-label reversal drug study was undertaken on 10 neuroleptic-treated schizophrenic inpatients to assess the impact of amantadine hydrochloride on presumed prolactin-mediated neuroendocrine side effects. Measures were conducted across 7 weeks, including a 2-week neuroleptic baseline, a 3-week neuroleptic-plus-amantadine phase, and a 2-week return to the baseline regimen. Significant reduction with amantadine was observed on all six indices of neuroendocrine side effects: serum prolactin levels, body weight, gynecomastia/galactorrhea, breast tenderness, decreased libido, and amenorrhea. Improvement on these parameters was noted for as many as nine or all 10 patients, while in no cases was there worsening. In terms of motor and clinical effects, significant diminution of extrapyramidal and psycho-pathological symptoms was also achieved during this phase. The results suggested that amantadine may be beneficial for the treatment of neuro-endocrine side effects of antipsychotic medication owing to its ability to reverse neuroleptic-induced hyperprolactinemia.

  3. Analysis of Kirk effect of an innovated high side Side-Isolated N-LDMOS device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ciou Jhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ESOA of LDMOS device is very critical for power device performance. Kirk effect is the one of the major problem which leads to poor ESOA performance. The cause of the problem mainly due to the high beta value of parasitic NPN transistor in the p-body. In this study, we proposed a new 3D high side Side–Isolated N-Channel LDMOS which we have obtained not only benchmark Ron and breakdown performance, but also better ESOA without Kirk effect. We have compared the analysis of Kirk effect between the new device and the conventional N–LDMOS structure with LATID technique for the formation of the p–body of both device structures.

  4. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-09-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level, which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently, proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs.

  5. Side effects of clozapine and some other psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Robert J

    2008-05-01

    The recognition, management, and if possible prevention, of major cardiovascular, central nervous system, haematological, and metabolic adverse effects, including diabetes mellitus and weight gain, of antipsychotics and some other drugs used to treat mental illness is a topic of much debate. However, a wide range of other adverse effects, some of which may be life-threatening, may also be encountered. Side-effects reviewed here include: gastrointestinal-associated effects (constipation, hypersalivation, oropharyngeal lesions, nasal congestion, nausea, nocturnal enuresis, and urinary retention), metabolic effects (obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypertension), neuromuscular effects (extrapyramidal side effects, myoclonus, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and pleurothotonus), thermoregulatory effects, effects on the liver, pancreas, and kidney, sexual side effects, and effects on skin and bone. Metabolic factors affecting the incidence of adverse effects to clozapine especially are also discussed. The increasing use of atypical (second generation) antipsychotics and indeed of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has led to a greater appreciation of not only the benefits of these drugs, but also of the spectrum of toxicity that may occur in clinical practice. The adverse effects of antipsychotics are a major factor in promoting poor adherence to, and even discontinuation of, antipsychotic treatment on the one hand, and increasing the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease on the other. As such they merit recognition and either harm minimization strategies (use of the minimum effective dose, or use of lower doses of combinations of antipsychotics), or in extreme cases discontinuation of the offending drug(s).

  6. Misoprostol Induced Convulsion-A Rare Side Effect of Misoprostol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh; Reddy, Kalyani

    2017-01-01

    Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 has wider application in obstetrics gynaecology. It has been recommended in the prophylaxis and treatment of Post Partum Haemorrhage (PPH) by Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (FIGO), World Health Organisation (WHO) and American College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (ACOG). It is a very safe drug associated with transient side-effects like fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. In the present case report patient had an unusual side effect of hyperpyrexia and convulsion after use of misoprostol for prophylaxis against PPH.

  7. The side effects of the THPS (tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate) treatment in oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de A.; Lopes, Eduardo Gullo M.; Paiva, Eva M.de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Materiais e Controle de Corrosao; Penna, Monica de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Biotecnologia e Tratamentos Ambientais

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS has been using THPS biocide since 2000 to control sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and H{sub 2}S generation in FPSO's tanks, storage tanks, seawater injection systems, produced water systems and hydrostatic testings. The advantage of this product over other biocides is to be effective against sessile SRB and to have low environmental impact and low risk to operators' health. Since 2005 the use of THPS was also extended to oil pipelines and has being demonstrating high efficacy in controlling sessile SRB and sulfide formation, even in fluids with very low water cut (BSW < 1%). However, some deleterious effects were observed when THPS (formulated with 75% of active ingredient) was dosed continuously in the produced fluids, in high concentration and/or for long periods. This paper presents the results of THPS treatment in two PETROBRAS' oil pipelines and describes the side effects that were detected during the biocide injection. The actions taken to minimize these harmful effects, without losing the good biocide efficiency were also presented. (author)

  8. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON ARTIFICIAL ABORTION-INDUCED SIDE EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽颖

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroecupuncture (EA) of acupoints of Ren, Spleen and Stomach Meridians on artificial abortion-induced side effects was observed in 100 artificial abortion women. In comparison with 45 artificial abortion women in the control group (who had not accepted EA treatment), EA possessed significant effects in relieving abdominal pain, reducing vaginal bleeding duration, lowering infection rate and infertility rate after artificial abortion operation.

  9. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Diabetes (Last updated 11/17/2016; last reviewed 11/17/2016) Key Points Diabetes is a disease in which levels of blood glucose (also called blood sugar) are too high. Glucose comes from the ...

  10. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Osteoporosis (Last updated 11/17/2016; last reviewed 11/17/2016) Key Points Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become weak and easy to break. Osteoporosis increases the risk of fractures of ...

  11. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringqvist, Asa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte

    2014-01-01

    psychiatric side effects were retrospectively assessed using the SCL-90-R and questions based on Present State Examination (PSE). Subjects reporting suspected psychotic states were contacted for a personal PSE interview. Electronic records of psychiatric hospitalizations and diagnoses were cross-checked. Long...

  12. Tamoxifen treatment and gynecologic side effects : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, MJE; De Vries, EGE; Willemse, PHB; Ten Hoor, KA; Hollema, H; Van der Zee, AGJ

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on tamoxifen side effects on the female genital tract and psychosexual function in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Data Sources: We used the English-language literature in MEDLINE and reference lists from selected articles. Search terms included: "tamoxife

  13. The Semiosis of "Side Effects" in Genetic Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affifi, Ramsey

    2016-01-01

    Genetic interventions, which include transgenic engineering, gene editing, and other forms of genome modification aimed at altering the information "in" the genetic code, are rapidly increasing in power and scale. Biosemiotics offers unique tools for understanding the nature, risks, scope, and prospects of such technologies, though few in the community have turned their attention specifically in this direction. Bruni (2003, 2008) is an important exception. In this paper, I examine how we frame the concept of "side effects" that result from genetic interventions and how the concept stands up to current perspectives of the role of organism activity in development. I propose that once the role of living systems in constructing and modifying the informational value of their various developmental resources is taken into account, the concept of a "side effect" will need to be significantly revised. Far from merely a disturbance brought about in a senseless albeit complex system, a biosemiotic view would take "side effects" as at least sometimes the organism's active re-organization in order to accommodate or make use of novelty. This insight is nascent in the work of developmental plasticity and niche construction theory (West-Eberhard 2003; Odling-Smee et al. 2003), but it is brought into sharper focus by the explicitly interpretive perspective offered by biosemiotics. Understanding the "side effects" of genetic interventions depends in part on being able to articulate when and where unexpected consequences are a result of semiotic activity at various levels within the system. While a semiotic interpretation of "side effects" puts into question the naive attitude that would see all unintended side effects as indications of disturbance in system functionality, it certainly does not imply that such side effects are of no concern for the viability of the organisms in the system. As we shall see, the fact that such interventions do not respect the translation of information

  14. Side effects of sugammadex use in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Sarı

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is accepted that sugammadex show its effectsmore rapidly than the other neuromuscular block antagonistsin many studies, however especially in pediatriccases, it is seen that about its reliability and side effectsare limited in some studies. In our retrospective study,we aimed to present our experiences on sugammadexin terms of its side effects in the pediatric cases in ourhospital for a 1-year period.Methods: The patient files and intraoperative anesthesiarecords, postoperative 24th hour and after postoperative24th hour of the cases that underwent the application ofsugammadex under general anesthesia in pediatric surgeryoperating room in a 1-year period were analyzed.Results: Totally 46 patients received sugammadex; infants(28 days-23 months (n=24, children (2 years-11years (n=16 and adolescent (11-17 years (n=6. Noneof the patients showed hypersensitivity and statisticallysignificant side effects correlated to sugammadex.Conclusion: We think that sugammadex may open newdoors in pediatric patient group with its features. However,more documentation is needed about the safety inpediatric patient group, particularly in infants. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (3: 265-268Key words: Sugammadex, pediatric patient, side effect

  15. Supply-side and demand-side cost sharing in deregulated social health insurance: which is more effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter; Beck, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Microeconomic theory predicts that if patients are fully insured and providers are paid fee-for-service, utilization of medical services exceeds the efficient level ('moral hazard effect'). In Switzerland, both demand-side and supply-side cost sharing have been introduced to mitigate this problem. Analyzing a panel dataset of about 160,000 adults, we find both types of cost sharing to be effective in curtailing the use of medical services. However, when moral hazard mitigation is traded off against risk selection, the minimum-deductible, supply-side cost sharing option ranks first, followed by the medium-deductible demand-side alternative, making the supply-side option somewhat more effective.

  16. Efficient purging of deleterious mutations in plants with haploid selfing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szovenyi, Peter [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Shaw, Jon [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Yang, Xiaohan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Devos, Nicolas [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-05-30

    In diploid organisms, selfing reduces the efficiency of selection in removing deleterious mutations from a population. This need not be the case for all organisms. Some plants, for example, undergo an extreme form of selfing known as intragametophytic selfing, which immediately exposes all recessive deleterious mutations in a parental genome to selective purging. Here we ask how effectively deleterious mutations are removed from such plants. Specifically, we study the extent to which deleterious mutations accumulate in a predominantly selfing and a predominantly outcrossing pair of moss species, using genome-wide transcriptome data. We find that the selfing species purge significantly more non-synonymous mutations, as well as a greater proportion of radical amino acid changes which alter physicochemical properties of amino acids. Moreover, their purging of deleterious mutation is especially strong in conserved regions of protein-coding genes. Our observations show that selfing need not impede but can even accelerate the removal of deleterious mutations, and do so on a genome-wide scale.

  17. Cutaneous side-effects during therapy of melanoma by vemurafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ankudowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vemurafenib is a selective inhibitor of serine-threonine kinase BRAF used in the treatment of advanced melanoma with BRAF mutation. Effectiveness of this drug was confirmed in a large clinical trial, which led to the increase of its usage. During treatment with vemurafenib, particular attention should be paid to the numerous side effects, including those concerning the skin. Vemurafenib is highly toxic to the skin. Skin lesions occurring during the treatment of melanoma with this medicament can be divided into: early (observed 3 to 6 weeks after beginning treatment, late (observed 6 weeks after beginning treatment and hypersensitivity reactions to vemurafenib. Objective. Presentation of vemurafenib toxic effects on the skin and side effects that can be caused by this drug. Case report. We present a 58-year-old woman with metastatic melanoma who was treated with vemurafenib. During the course of therapy, numerous adverse reactions, including inflammatory tumors, emergence of a number of melanocytic naevi, skin horns, alopecia, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and palmar erythrodysesthesia were observed. She was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, an antibiotic, circulation-improving preparations and local moisturizing and keratolytic treatment. The patient remains under the care of oncologists and dermatologists. Conclusions. The new generation anti-cancer drugs bring hope for a cure or prolongation of life, but can also significantly reduce the quality of life by inducing both general and local adverse side effects. Oncological patients should also be taken care of by dermatologists.

  18. Efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato Side effects of methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pastura

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Revisar os principais efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato, em curto e longo prazos, no tratamento de crianças com Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção (TDAH. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão de literatura nos últimos doze anos através de pesquisa no Medline e Lilacs. RESULTADOS: Dentre os efeitos colaterais que surgem em curto prazo, prevalecem a redução de apetite, insônia, cefaléia e dor abdominal, sendo a maioria autolimitada, dose-dependente e de média intensidade. Dentre aqueles em longo prazo, são descritas alterações discretas de pressão arterial e freqüência cardíaca e uma possível discreta diminuição da estatura. O abuso e a dependência ao medicamento são observados muito raramente. CONCLUSÕES: O perfil de efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato é seguro, não parecendo justificar o seu uso constrito no Brasil, ante os benefícios robustos amplamente demonstrados na literatura.OBJECTIVE: To review main short-term and long-term side effects of methylphenidate in the treatment of Attention-Deficit Disorder in children. SOURCE OF DATA: a 12-year review in Medline and Lilacs. RESULTS: Among those side effects showed in the short-term, anorexia, insomnia, headache and abdominal pain are the most common ones, being the majority self-limited, dose-dependent and of medium intensity. Long-term side effects consist of mild blood pressure and heart rate increase and possible light growth suppression effect. Abuse and dependency are very rare. CONCLUSIONS: Methylphenidate side effects profile is safe and does not seem to justify its restricted use in Brazil, considering its solid benefits widely demonstrated in literature.

  19. Review about gabapentin misuse, interactions, contraindications and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    The current work is targeted to review the risks of gabapentin misuse, its potential interactions with other drugs, side effects and use contraindications. This review consists of a total of 99 biographical references (from the year 1983 to 2016). A publication search of PubMed was performed from January 1983 to December 2016. It included animal studies, clinical studies, case studies and reviews related to gabapentin misuse, potential interactions, side effects and use contraindications. The search terms were gabapentin, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic. In general, it seems that gabapentin has risks of being misused based on the increased level of prescriptions, related fatalities, recreational misuse and higher doses of self-administration. The main reasons for gabapentin misuse are as follows: getting high, alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms and potentiating methadone effects. Some of the main substances that interact with gabapentin are morphine, caffeine, losartan, ethacrynic acid, phenytoin, mefloquine and magnesium oxide. Some of the side effects caused by gabapentin are teratogenicity, hypoventilation, respiratory failure and myopathy. Finally, reports in general contraindicate the use of gabapentin in conditions such as myasthenia gravis and myoclonus. PMID:28223849

  20. Review about gabapentin misuse, interactions, contraindications and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    The current work is targeted to review the risks of gabapentin misuse, its potential interactions with other drugs, side effects and use contraindications. This review consists of a total of 99 biographical references (from the year 1983 to 2016). A publication search of PubMed was performed from January 1983 to December 2016. It included animal studies, clinical studies, case studies and reviews related to gabapentin misuse, potential interactions, side effects and use contraindications. The search terms were gabapentin, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic. In general, it seems that gabapentin has risks of being misused based on the increased level of prescriptions, related fatalities, recreational misuse and higher doses of self-administration. The main reasons for gabapentin misuse are as follows: getting high, alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms and potentiating methadone effects. Some of the main substances that interact with gabapentin are morphine, caffeine, losartan, ethacrynic acid, phenytoin, mefloquine and magnesium oxide. Some of the side effects caused by gabapentin are teratogenicity, hypoventilation, respiratory failure and myopathy. Finally, reports in general contraindicate the use of gabapentin in conditions such as myasthenia gravis and myoclonus.

  1. Drug target identification using side-effect similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Targets for drugs have so far been predicted on the basis of molecular or cellular features, for example, by exploiting similarity in chemical structure or in activity across cell lines. We used phenotypic side-effect similarities to infer whether two drugs share a target. Applied to 746 marketed...... drugs, a network of 1018 side effect-driven drug-drug relations became apparent, 261 of which are formed by chemically dissimilar drugs from different therapeutic indications. We experimentally tested 20 of these unexpected drug-drug relations and validated 13 implied drug-target relations by in vitro...... binding assays, of which 11 reveal inhibition constants equal to less than 10 micromolar. Nine of these were tested and confirmed in cell assays, documenting the feasibility of using phenotypic information to infer molecular interactions and hinting at new uses of marketed drugs....

  2. Suspected side effects to the quadrivalent human papilloma vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Theibel, Ann Cathrine; Pors, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The quadrivalent vaccine that protects against human papilloma virus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 (Q-HPV vaccine, Gardasil) was included into the Danish childhood vaccination programme in 2009. During the past years, a collection of symptoms primarily consistent with sympathetic nervous...... system dysfunction have been described as suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine. METHODS: We present a description of suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine in 53 patients referred to our Syncope Unit for tilt table test and evaluation of autonomic nervous system function. RESULTS: All...... consistency in the reported symptoms as well as between our findings and those described by others. Our findings neither confirm nor dismiss a causal link to the Q-HPV vaccine, but they suggest that further research is urgently warranted to clarify the pathophysiology behind the symptoms experienced...

  3. Suspected side effects to the quadrivalent human papilloma vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Theibel, Ann Cathrine; Pors, Kirsten;

    2015-01-01

    system dysfunction have been described as suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine. METHODS: We present a description of suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine in 53 patients referred to our Syncope Unit for tilt table test and evaluation of autonomic nervous system function. RESULTS: All......INTRODUCTION: The quadrivalent vaccine that protects against human papilloma virus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 (Q-HPV vaccine, Gardasil) was included into the Danish childhood vaccination programme in 2009. During the past years, a collection of symptoms primarily consistent with sympathetic nervous...... consistency in the reported symptoms as well as between our findings and those described by others. Our findings neither confirm nor dismiss a causal link to the Q-HPV vaccine, but they suggest that further research is urgently warranted to clarify the pathophysiology behind the symptoms experienced...

  4. Knowledge of reproductive system cancers, their treatments and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rot, Irena; Ogah, Imhokhai; Wassersug, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    We explored, via an online questionnaire, knowledge of breast and reproductive system cancers in patients and non-patients who access the internet for information on these diseases. We compared that knowledge to the attention the diseases have received in medical research and on the Internet. Data were collected from 690 respondents (37 % male, 63 % female) about their knowledge of prevalence, lethality, treatments and side effects of testicular, prostate, breast, uterine, cervical and ovarian cancers. Most males, but only half of the female participants, were patients themselves. Although participants showed better knowledge of cancers specific to their own sex, both sexes felt familiar with breast cancer and less aware of other cancers. Women were as aware as men of side effects of treatments for male reproductive cancers. Sex differences in awareness appear to reflect different attitudes towards illness, bias toward females as caregivers, and the disproportionate media attention given to breast cancer.

  5. [Rare side effects in management of hyperthyroidism. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohár, Gábor; Kovács, Mónika; Györkös, Andrea; Gasztonyi, Beáta

    2016-05-29

    The authors present the case history of a patient suffering from hyperthyroidism. The diagnostic procedures revealed the presence of propylthiouracyl induced vasculitis with renal involvement, that recovered completely after the withdrawal of propylthiouracyl and corticosteroid treatment. Thereafter, the patient was treated with thiamasol, that caused agranulocytosis with fever. After transient litium carbonate therapy a succesful thyreoidectomy was performed. Cumulative serious side effects of antithyroid drugs are rare. This case highlights some of the challenges and complications encountered in the management of hyperthyroidism.

  6. A Rare Side Effect of Metformin: Metformin-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic agent that is commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While metformin-associated metabolic acidosis is a widely recognized side effect of this drug, metformin-induced hepatotoxicity has been rarely reported in the literature. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old male in whom metformin-associated lactic acidosis and metformin-induced hepatotoxicity developed.

  7. Review about gabapentin misuse, interactions, contraindications and side effects

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Gabriel C.

    2017-01-01

    Gabriel C Quintero Florida State University – Republic of Panama, Clayton, Panama Abstract: The current work is targeted to review the risks of gabapentin misuse, its potential interactions with other drugs, side effects and use contraindications. This review consists of a total of 99 biographical references (from the year 1983 to 2016). A publication search of PubMed was performed from January 1983 to December 2016. It included animal studies, clinical studies, case studies and rev...

  8. Demographic side effects of selective hunting in ungulates and carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Jos M; Nilsen, Erlend B; Andreassen, Harry P

    2007-02-01

    Selective harvesting regimes are often implemented because age and sex classes contribute differently to population dynamics and hunters show preferences associated with body size and trophy value. We reviewed the literature on how such cropping regimes affect the demography of the remaining population (here termed demographic side effects). First, we examined the implications of removing a large proportion of a specific age or sex class. Such harvesting strategies often bias the population sex ratio toward females and reduce the mean age of males, which may consequently delay birth dates, reduce birth synchrony, delay body mass development, and alter offspring sex ratios. Second, we reviewed the side effects associated with the selective removal of relatively few specific individuals, often large trophy males. Such selective harvesting can destabilize social structures and the dominance hierarchy and may cause loss of social knowledge, sexually selected infanticide, habitat changes among reproductive females, and changes in offspring sex ratio. A common feature of many of the reported mechanisms is that they ultimately depress recruitment and in some extreme cases even cause total reproductive collapse. These effects could act additively and destabilize the dynamics of populations, thus having a stronger effect on population growth rate than first anticipated. Although more experimental than observational studies reported demographic side effects, we argue that this may reflect the quite subtle mechanisms involved, which are unlikely to be detected in observational studies without rigorous monitoring regimes. We call for more detailed studies of hunted populations with marked individuals that address how the expression of these effects varies across mating systems, habitats, and with population density. Theoretical models investigating how strongly these effects influence population growth rates are also required.

  9. Pandemic influenza vaccines and neuraminidase inhibitors: efficacy and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, D

    2011-01-01

    At the time of the outbreak of the pandemic of New Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic influenza vaccines became available via an accelerated registration procedure. In 2005 large stocks of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir were built up in the Netherlands and other western countries. There was considerable doubt about the efficacy of this medicine. Initially reported positive effects of the drug were largely based on unpublished research, which was sponsored by the manufacturer and was partially written by ghostwriters. There now have been reports of rare and serious side effects. The first reports on the severity of the pandemic in Australia and New Zealand indicated a mild course.

  10. Extrapyramidal side effects with low doses of amisulpride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Nikhiles; Singh, Om P; Sen, Subrata

    2014-04-01

    Amisulpride, the newly introduced antipsychotic in India, is claimed to be effective in both positive and negative symptom schizophrenia and related disorders, though it has little or no action on serotonergic receptors. Limbic selectivity and lower striatal dopaminergic receptor binding capacity causes very low incidence of EPS. But, in clinical practice, we are getting EPS with this drug even at lower doses. We have reported three cases of akathisia, acute dystonia, and drug-induced Parkinsonism with low doses of amisulpride. So, we should keep this side effect in mind when using amisulpride. In fact, more studies are required in our country to find out the incidence of EPS and other associated mechanism.

  11. Analysis of wave resonant effects in-between offshore vessels arranged side-by-side

    OpenAIRE

    Dinoi, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    La predicción de la interacción hidrodinámica entre dos cuerpos flotantes en la configuración side-by-side (lado-a-lado) se ha convertido en un importante y complicado problema en los últimos años. Esta situación es relevante cuando se trata de tomar decisiones sobre la viabilidad de una serie de operaciones offshore, principalmente relacionadas con el proceso de transferencia de carga líquida entre dos cascos. Esta tesis se profundiza en algunos aspectos hidrodinámico relevantes que surgen c...

  12. N-carbamylglutamate enhancement of ureagenesis leads to discovery of a novel deleterious mutation in a newly defined enhancer of the NAGS gene and to effective therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heibel, Sandra K; Ah Mew, Nicholas; Caldovic, Ljubica; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Yudkoff, Marc; Tuchman, Mendel

    2011-10-01

    N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) catalyzes the conversion of glutamate and acetyl-CoA to NAG, the essential allosteric activator of carbamyl phosphate synthetase I, the first urea cycle enzyme in mammals. A 17-year-old female with recurrent hyperammonemia attacks, the cause of which remained undiagnosed for 8 years in spite of multiple molecular and biochemical investigations, showed markedly enhanced ureagenesis (measured by isotope incorporation) in response to N-carbamylglutamate (NCG). This led to sequencing of the regulatory regions of the NAGS gene and identification of a deleterious single-base substitution in the upstream enhancer. The homozygous mutation (c.-3064C>A), affecting a highly conserved nucleotide within the hepatic nuclear factor 1 (HNF-1) binding site, was not found in single nucleotide polymorphism databases and in a screen of 1,086 alleles from a diverse population. Functional assays demonstrated that this mutation decreases transcription and binding of HNF-1 to the NAGS gene, while a consensus HNF-1 binding sequence enhances binding to HNF-1 and increases transcription. Oral daily NCG therapy restored ureagenesis in this patient, normalizing her biochemical markers, and allowing discontinuation of alternate pathway therapy and normalization of her diet with no recurrence of hyperammonemia. Inc.

  13. Side-effects of protein kinase inhibitors on ion channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Youn Kyoung Son; Hongzoo Park; Amy L Firth; Won Sun Park

    2013-12-01

    Protein kinases are one of the largest gene families and have regulatory roles in all aspects of eukaryotic cell function. Modulation of protein kinase activity is a desirable therapeutic approach for a number of human diseases associated with aberrant kinase activity, including cancers, arthritis and cardiovascular disorders. Several strategies have been used to develop specific and selective protein kinase modulators, primarily via inhibition of phosphorylation and down-regulation of kinase gene expression. These strategies are effective at regulating intracellular signalling pathways, but are unfortunately associated with several undesirable effects, particularly those that modulate ion channel function. In fact, the side-effects have precluded these inhibitors from being both useful experimental tools and therapeutically viable. This review focuses on the ion channel side-effects of several protein kinase inhibitors and specifically on those modulating K+, Na+ and Ca2+ ion channels. It is hoped that the information provided with a detailed summary in this review will assist the future development of novel specific and selective compounds targeting protein kinases both for experimental tools and for therapeutic approaches.

  14. Phytochemicals that counteract the cardiotoxic side effects of cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Piasek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Almost all clinically used antitumor drugs exhibit toxic side effects affecting heart function. Because of cardiotoxicity during anticancer chemotherapy, effective doses of cytostatics have to be limited, which may worsen antitumor efficacy. The cardiotoxicity induced by cytostatics of the anthracycline group in particular results, among others, from massive stimulation of ROS. It has therefore been suggested that some phytochemicals with high antioxidant potential, when administered together with antitumor agents, could decrease the toxic side effects of chemotherapy and reduce the risk of heart failure. This review summarizes findings of studies undertaken to identify edible plants or phytochemicals isolated from them displaying cardioprotective properties during chemotherapy. Such properties have been shown for such foods as grapes, garlic, tomato, spinach, and beetroot. A protective role on the heart is also displayed by melatonin (a hormone synthesized by the pineal gland, but also present in many edible plants, chalcones (precursors of all known flavonoids, some herbal dietary supplements, vitamins A, C, and E, selenium, and semisynthetic flavonoid 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER. Although to date only a limited number of investigations have been carried out, their results suggest that dietary intervention with antioxidants found in edible plants may be a safe and effective way of alleviating the toxicity of anticancer chemotherapy and preventing heart failure.

  15. A Survey of Caffeine Use and Associated Side Effects in a College Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Greene, Douglas; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed 270 college students concerning their caffeine consumption. Results suggest there is identifiable group using excessive amounts of caffeine. Identified several deleterious effects possibly related to caffeine use. Approximately 75 percent of caffeine users surveyed rarely sought information on caffeine content of products or avoided…

  16. Deleterious mutation accumulation in asexual Timema stick insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lee; Schwander, Tanja; Crespi, Bernard J

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is extremely widespread in spite of its presumed costs relative to asexual reproduction, indicating that it must provide significant advantages. One postulated benefit of sex and recombination is that they facilitate the purging of mildly deleterious mutations, which would accumulate in asexual lineages and contribute to their short evolutionary life span. To test this prediction, we estimated the accumulation rate of coding (nonsynonymous) mutations, which are expected to be deleterious, in parts of one mitochondrial (COI) and two nuclear (Actin and Hsp70) genes in six independently derived asexual lineages and related sexual species of Timema stick insects. We found signatures of increased coding mutation accumulation in all six asexual Timema and for each of the three analyzed genes, with 3.6- to 13.4-fold higher rates in the asexuals as compared with the sexuals. In addition, because coding mutations in the asexuals often resulted in considerable hydrophobicity changes at the concerned amino acid positions, coding mutations in the asexuals are likely associated with more strongly deleterious effects than in the sexuals. Our results demonstrate that deleterious mutation accumulation can differentially affect sexual and asexual lineages and support the idea that deleterious mutation accumulation plays an important role in limiting the long-term persistence of all-female lineages.

  17. [Treatment of endometriosis by aromatase inhibitors: efficacy and side effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, A-C; Legrand, E; Lefebvre-Lacoeuille, C; Hoppe, E; Catala, L; Sentilhes, L; Descamps, P

    2010-05-01

    The recent demonstration that aromatase is expressed at higher levels in endometriosis implants than in normal endometrium has led to pilot studies using inhibitor aromatasis in patients with endometriosis. We conducted a systematic review of the literature and studied the efficacy of aromatase inhibitors on endometriosis. There were seventeen studies (case reports/series) evaluating outcomes of aromatase inhibitors. Studies suggest that aromatase inhibitors alone or co-administered with progestins, oral contraceptives or gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist could reduce pain and endometriosis. There is only one randomized controlled trial comparing aromatase inhibitor+GnRH agonist and GnRH agonist and one study with eighty patients. Side-effects profiles of aromatase inhibitor regimens are favorable; it does not appear a significant bone loss. Aromatase inhibitors seem to have a promising effect on endometriosis but randomized controlled trials are needed to prove their effects and their safety.

  18. Antithyroid Drug Side Effects in the Population and in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methimazole (MMI) and Propylthiouracil (PTU) are both associated with birth defects, and may also rarely be associated with agranulocytosis and liver failure. The frequency of these side effects when antithyroid drugs (ATD) are used in the population in general or in pregnancy remains...... of agranulocytosis (1 in pregnancy) and 10 cases of liver failure (1 in pregnancy). This corresponded to 41/11 cases of agranulocytosis/liver failure per 5 million inhabitants during a 10-year period (agranulocytosis: 0.16% of ATD exposed (MMI: 0.11% vs. PTU: 0.27%, p=0.02); liver failure: 0.03% of ATD exposed (MMI......: 0.03% vs. PTU: 0.05%, p=0.4)). The majority (83%) developed the side effect within 3 months of ATD treatment, and 25% during hyperthyroidism relapse. The use of ATD in pregnancy was associated with birth defects in 3.4% of exposed children (44 cases/5 million inhabitants/10 years), and the frequency...

  19. Illegal use patterns, side effects, and analytical methods of ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eunyoung; Kwon, Nam Ji; Feng, Ling-Yi; Li, Jih-Heng; Chung, Heesun

    2016-11-01

    In Asian countries, such as China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, ketamine (KT) is one of the most prevalent illicit use drugs. KT is regulated by various drug-related laws in many countries, such as Korea, Taiwan, China, U.S.A, Netherlands, UK, Australia, Mexico, and Canada. This review research explored pharmacology and side effects of KT, the illicit use patterns of KT, the analytical methods of KT in biological samples, and the concentrations of KT from abusers and non-abusers. Many side effects of KT have been reported mental and physical problems. Although many studies conducted various analytical methods for KT, this research focused on the urine and hair analysis and compared some parameters of samples, instruments, columns, extraction methods, internal standards, LOD/LOQ levels, metabolites, NK/K ratio, cut off values, and m/z values. Our research also compared the concentrations of KT in biological samples from abusers and non-abusers. Many rapid and precise analytical methods for illegal KT use are needed to be developed and applied to real samples. To minimize and prevent harm from KT, the authorities and appropriate agencies require a careful assessment, evaluation, early identification, and surveillance of KT users in both clinical and social settings. In addition, there is a need to construct a stricter legislative management and provide preventive education to younger individuals because illegal KT use is relatively common among the young populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ocular side effect of tinidazole: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Kauser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular side effects in the form of punctate epithelial erosions with the use of tinidazole - a 5-nitroimidazole group of drugs is very rare. A 32-year-old male was prescribed tablet tinidazole for the treatment of amoebiasis but developed adverse effects in the form of blisters on both upper and lower lips with itching and burning sensation, itching and burning on penile and anal area associated with punctate epithelial erosions of cornea of both the eyes. All these are rare manifestations but punctate epithelial erosions of cornea has never been reported in the literature so far. Punctate epithelial erosions of cornea have not previously been reported and should be added to the list of complications of tinidazole. Hence, this case is being reported .

  1. Neonatal side effects of maternal labetalol treatment in severe preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heida, Karst Y; Zeeman, Gerda G; Van Veen, Teelkien R; Hulzebos, Christian V

    2012-07-01

    Labetalol is often used in severe preeclampsia (PE). Hypotension, bradycardia and hypoglycemia are feared neonatal side effects, but may also occur in (preterm) infants regardless of labetalol exposure. We analyzed the possible association between intrauterine labetalol exposure and such side effects. From 1 January 2003 through 31 March 2008, all infants from mothers suffering severe PE admitted to one tertiary care center were included. Severe PE was defined according to the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP) criteria. Infants exposed to labetalol in utero (labetalol infants) were compared with infants, who were not exposed to labetalol (controls). Neonatal records were reviewed for hypotension (RRheartrate<100/min) and hypoglycaemia (glucose<2.7 mmol/L) in the first 48 postnatal hours. Of 109 infants, 55 had been exposed to labetalol, whereas 54 were not (controls). Gestational age at delivery and birthweight were similar in both groups (31.8 vs. 32.8 weeks (p=0.06) and 1510 vs. 1639 grams (p=0.25), respectively for the labetalol vs. control group). Hypotension occurred significantly more in conjunction with labetalol exposure (16, (29.1%) vs. 4 (7.4%); p=0.003), irrespective of the route of administration. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was present in 9 (56%) of hypotensive labetalol infants compared to 1 (24%) infant in the hypotensive control group (NS). In a multivariate regression model, labetalol exposure, the need for intubation and PDA appeared independently associated with hypotension (P<0.001). Hypoglycemia occurred in 26 (47.3%) of labetalol infants and in 23 (42.6%) of control infants (p=0.62). Bradycardia occurred in 4 (7.3%) of labetalol infants and in 1 (1.9%) of control infants (p=0.18). Hypoglycemia was more common in premature infants (n=45 (48,9%) vs. n=4 (23.5%), p=0.05) in both labetalol and control infants. Hypotension is more common after maternal labetalol exposure, regardless of the dosage and route

  2. Endocrine side effects induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Barnabei, Agnese; Marchetti, Paolo; De Vecchis, Liana; Salvatori, Roberto; Torino, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, progress has been made in cancer immunotherapy by the development of drugs acting as modulators of immune checkpoint proteins, such as the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1), two co-inhibitory receptors that are expressed on T cells upon activation. These molecules play crucial roles in maintaining immune homeostasis by down-regulating T-cell signaling, thereby preventing unbridled T-cell proliferation while maintaining tolerance to self-antigens, such as tumor-associated antigens. CTLA4 blockade through systemic administration of the CTLA4-blocking antibody ipilimumab was shown to confer significant survival benefit and prolonged stable disease in patients affected by advanced cutaneous melanoma. Other immune checkpoint inhibitors are under clinical evaluation. However, immune checkpoint blockade can lead to the breaking of immune self-tolerance, thereby inducing a novel syndrome of autoimmune/autoinflammatory side effects, designated as "immune-related adverse events," mainly including rash, colitis, hepatitis, and endocrinopathies. We searched the medical literature using the words "hypophysitis," "hypopituitarism," "thyroid," "adrenal insufficiency," and "endocrine adverse events" in association with "immune checkpoint inhibitors," "ipilimumab," "tremelimumab," "PD-1," and "PD-1-L." The spectrum of endocrine disease experienced by patients treated with ipilimumab includes most commonly hypophysitis, more rarely thyroid disease or abnormalities in thyroid function tests, and occasionally primary adrenal insufficiency. Hypophysitis has emerged as a distinctive side effect of CTLA4-blocking antibodies, establishing a new form of autoimmune pituitary disease. This condition, if not promptly recognized, may be life-threatening (due to secondary hypoadrenalism). Hypopituitarism caused by these agents is rarely reversible, and prolonged or lifelong substitutive hormonal treatment is often required. The precise

  3. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  4. Psychiatric side effects of mefloquine: applications to forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Block, Jerald; Nevin, Remington Lee

    2013-01-01

    Mefloquine (previously marketed in the United States as Lariam®) is an antimalarial medication with potent psychotropic potential. Severe psychiatric side effects due to mefloquine intoxication are well documented, including anxiety, panic attacks, paranoia, persecutory delusions, dissociative psychosis, and anterograde amnesia. Exposure to the drug has been associated with acts of violence and suicide. In this article, we discuss the history of mefloquine use and describe plausible mechanisms of its psychotropic action. Mefloquine intoxication has not yet been successfully advanced in legal proceedings as a defense or as a mitigating factor, but it appears likely that it eventually will be. Considerations for the application of claims of mefloquine intoxication in forensic settings are discussed.

  5. Side-effects of improving CERN's spam filter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To further improve the fight against spam (unsolicited email), CERN implemented in June a mechanism that returns electronic mail messages to the sender if the originating server is wrongly configured. This "reverse DNS lookup" is an increasingly widespread technique to identify whether the sending e-mail server is legitimate and has a valid host name. This change has nearly doubled the spam rejection efficiency at CERN. However, it has a known side-effect. A small number of correspondents are sending legitimate electronic mail to CERN from mail servers that are incorrectly configured (in technical terms, they do not have a reverse DNS registration). These persons will have their messages returned to them with an error message, provided their sender address is valid. The typical error message that the correspondent receives in such cases is "Relaying denied. No reverse DNS configured for IP". If a correspondent complains to you that emails they are sending you at CERN are being returned with...

  6. An unexpected side-effect of a commonly used drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández González, Francisco; Miranda, Samayra; Santiago Casiano, Mónica; Nieves, José; Adorno, Edgardo; Fernández González, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 68 year-old-female patient with clinical features of drug-induced lupus erythematosus after five years of treatment with amiodarone. She presented generalized skin rash, arthralgia on upper and lower extremities, associated with difficulty to walk. Remarkable laboratory results revealed a positive antinuclear antibody test and a skin rash biopsy showing a superficial and deep perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytes, and eosinophils. Once the etiology of the patient's symptoms was identified, the culprit drug was removed and she had a complete remission of all signs and symptoms. Early diagnose should be recognized for prompt intervention and avoid further complications associated with this rare side-effect.

  7. Price Competition in Two-Sided Markets with Heterogeneous Consumers and Network Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    We model a two-sided market with heterogeneous customers and two heterogeneous network effects. In our model, customers on each market side care differently about both the number and the type of customers on the other side. Examples of two-sided markets are online platforms or daily newspapers. In t

  8. Minoxidil use in dermatology, side effects and recent patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alfredo; Cantisani, Carmen; Melis, Luca; Iorio, Alessandra; Scali, Elisabetta; Calvieri, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Minoxidil, a vasodilator medication known for its ability to slow or stop hair loss and promote hair regrowth, was first introduced, exclusively as an oral drug, to treat high blood pressure. It was however discovered to have the important side-effect of increasing growth or darkening of fine body hairs; this led to the development of a topical formulation as a 2% concentration solution for the treatment of female androgenic alopecia or 5% for treating male androgenic alopecia. Measurable changes disappear within months after discontinuation of treatment. The mechanism by which it promotes hair growth is not fully understood. Minoxidil is a potassium channel opener, causing hyperpolarization of cell membranes and it is also a vasodilator, it is speculated that, by widening blood vessels and opening potassium channels, it allows more oxygen, blood and nutrients to the follicle. This can also cause follicles in the telogen phase to shed, usually soon to be replaced by new, thicker hairs in a new anagen phase. It needs to be applied regularly, once or twice daily, for hair gained to be maintained, and side effects are common. The most common adverse reactions of the topical formulation are limited to irritant and allergic contact dermatitis on the scalp. There have been cases of allergic reactions to the nonactive ingredient propylene glycol, which is found in some topical solution especially if they are galenic. Increased hair loss which can occur during Minoxidil use, is due to the synchronization of the hair cycle that the treatment induces. In this review, we described its mechanism of action, use in dermatology and some patents related to alternative treatment of allergic reactions due to its use.

  9. Radiotherapy and "new" drugs-new side effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Maximilian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Targeted drugs have augmented the cancer treatment armamentarium. Based on the molecular specificity, it was initially believed that these drugs had significantly less side effects. However, currently it is accepted that all of these agents have their specific side effects. Based on the given multimodal approach, special emphasis has to be placed on putative interactions of conventional cytostatic drugs, targeted agents and other modalities. The interaction of targeted drugs with radiation harbours special risks, since the awareness for interactions and even synergistic toxicities is lacking. At present, only limited is data available regarding combinations of targeted drugs and radiotherapy. This review gives an overview on the current knowledge on such combined treatments. Materials and methods Using the following MESH headings and combinations of these terms pubmed database was searched: Radiotherapy AND cetuximab/trastuzumab/panitumumab/nimotuzumab, bevacizumab, sunitinib/sorafenib/lapatinib/gefitinib/erlotinib/sirolimus, thalidomide/lenalidomide as well as erythropoietin. For citation crosscheck the ISI web of science database was used employing the same search terms. Results Several classes of targeted substances may be distinguished: Small molecules including kinase inhibitors and specific inhibitors, antibodies, and anti-angiogenic agents. Combination of these agents with radiotherapy may lead to specific toxicities or negatively influence the efficacy of RT. Though there is only little information on the interaction of molecular targeted radiation and radiotherapy in clinical settings, several critical incidents are reported. Conclusions The addition of molecular targeted drugs to conventional radiotherapy outside of approved regimens or clinical trials warrants a careful consideration especially when used in conjunction in hypo-fractionated regimens. Clinical trials are urgently needed in order to

  10. Corticosteroid-related central nervous system side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Ciriaco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids have been used since the 50s as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs for the treatment of several pathologies such as asthma, allergy, rheumatoid arthritis, and dermatological disorders. Corticosteroids have three principal mechanisms of action: 1 inhibit the synthesis of inflammatory proteins blocking NF-kB, 2 induce the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins by IkB and MAPK phosphatase I, and 3 inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2. The efficacy of glucocorticoids in alleviating inflammatory disorders results from the pleiotropic effects of the glucocorticoid receptors on multiple signaling pathways. However, they have adverse effects: Growth retardation in children, immunosuppression, hypertension, hyperglycemia, inhibition of wound repair, osteoporosis, metabolic disturbances, glaucoma, and cataracts. Less is known about psychiatric or side effects on central nervous system, as catatonia, decreased concentration, agitation, insomnia, and abnormal behaviors, which are also often underestimated in clinical practice. The aim of this review is to highlight the correlation between the administration of corticosteroids and CNS adverse effects, giving a useful guide for prescribers including a more careful assessment of risk factors and encourage the use of safer doses of this class of drugs.

  11. Family Planning in a Sub-district near Kumasi, Ghana: Side Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family Planning in a Sub-district near Kumasi, Ghana: Side Effect Fears, Unintended Pregnancies and Misuse of a Medication as Emergency Contraception. ... having a fear of side effects for hormonal methods (particularly heart palpitations), ...

  12. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do When You Have Loose Stools (Diarrhea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice • White toast Fruits and other foods • Applesauce • Bananas • Canned fruit, such as peaches and pears • Gelatin ( ... series of 9 Radiation Therapy Side Effects Fact Sheets at: www. cancer. gov/ radiation- side- effects

  13. Workshop on an Assessment of Gas-Side Fouling in Fossil Fuel Exhaust Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marner, W. J. (Editor); Webb, R. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The state of the art of gas side fouling in fossil fuel exhaust environments was assessed. Heat recovery applications were emphasized. The deleterious effects of gas side fouling including increased energy consumption, increased material losses, and loss of production were identified.

  14. Side effects of normalising radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorten, R; Murray-Smith, R

    1996-05-01

    Normalisation of the basis function activations in a Radial Basis Function (RBF) network is a common way of achieving the partition of unity often desired for modelling applications. It results in the basis functions covering the whole of the input space to the same degree. However, normalisation of the basis functions can lead to other effects which are sometimes less desirable for modelling applications. This paper describes some side effects of normalisation which fundamentally alter properties of the basis functions, e.g. the shape is no longer uniform, maxima of basis functions can be shifted from their centres, and the basis functions are no longer guaranteed to decrease monotonically as distance from their centre increases--in many cases basis functions can 'reactivate', i.e. re-appear far from the basis function centre. This paper examines how these phenomena occur, discusses their relevance for non-linear function approximation and examines the effect of normalisation on the network condition number and weights.

  15. Drug side effect extraction from clinical narratives of psychiatry and psychology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A; Chute, Christopher G; Savova, Guergana K

    2011-12-01

    To extract physician-asserted drug side effects from electronic medical record clinical narratives. Pattern matching rules were manually developed through examining keywords and expression patterns of side effects to discover an individual side effect and causative drug relationship. A combination of machine learning (C4.5) using side effect keyword features and pattern matching rules was used to extract sentences that contain side effect and causative drug pairs, enabling the system to discover most side effect occurrences. Our system was implemented as a module within the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System. The system was tested in the domain of psychiatry and psychology. The rule-based system extracting side effects and causative drugs produced an F score of 0.80 (0.55 excluding allergy section). The hybrid system identifying side effect sentences had an F score of 0.75 (0.56 excluding allergy section) but covered more side effect and causative drug pairs than individual side effect extraction. The rule-based system was able to identify most side effects expressed by clear indication words. More sophisticated semantic processing is required to handle complex side effect descriptions in the narrative. We demonstrated that our system can be trained to identify sentences with complex side effect descriptions that can be submitted to a human expert for further abstraction. Our system was able to extract most physician-asserted drug side effects. It can be used in either an automated mode for side effect extraction or semi-automated mode to identify side effect sentences that can significantly simplify abstraction by a human expert.

  16. [Internal medicine and local anesthesia in dentistry. A review of possible side effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennis, J F

    1996-05-01

    When using local anaesthesia the dentist may be confronted with a variety of side effects, either caused by the anaesthetic solution itself or its additives, including vasoconstrictive drugs such as epinephrine. Early recognition and treatment of these side-effects are essential. Even more important is the possible prevention of such side-effects by a properly taken medical history before using local anaesthesia.

  17. Review of the side-effect profile of buspirone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R E; Marunycz, J D; Alderdice, M T; Napoliello, M J

    1986-03-31

    In 984 patients with generalized anxiety disorder who received buspirone in double-blind studies, the incidence of drowsiness (9 percent) did not differ significantly from that (10 percent) reported in 334 patients who received placebo. A probability value of p less than or equal to 0.10 was the criterion for significance. The incidence of drowsiness in buspirone-treated patients was significantly less than that in each of the groups receiving diazepam (32 percent), clorazepate (26 percent), lorazepam (58 percent), or alprazolam (43 percent). The side effects that did occur significantly more frequently in the buspirone group than in the placebo group were dizziness (9 percent versus 2 percent), headache (7 percent versus 2 percent), nervousness (4 percent versus 1 percent), light-headedness (4 percent versus less than 1 percent), diarrhea (3 percent versus less than 1 percent), paresthesia (2 percent versus less than 1 percent), excitation (2 percent versus less than 1 percent), and sweating/clamminess (1 percent versus 0 percent). The severities of these effects were predominantly rated as only mild or moderate. Fatigue occurred less frequently in buspirone-treated patients than in those receiving any of the benzodiazepines, and weakness occurred more frequently in diazepam-treated patients. Depression occurred less frequently in buspirone-treated patients than in those receiving clorazepate, diazepam, or lorazepam. Impotence occurred only in clorazepate- and lorazepam-treated patients. Decreased libido occurred more frequently in diazepam-treated patients, whereas increased libido was more frequent in clorazepate-treated patients. Nausea was reported more frequently in buspirone-treated patients than in those receiving clorazepate, diazepam, or alprazolam; diarrhea occurred more frequently in the buspirone group than in the diazepam group. The mean daily doses of the various treatments were buspirone, 20 mg; diazepam, 20 mg; clorazepate, 24 mg; lorazepam, 3 mg

  18. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  19. Side effects of phenobarbital in epilepsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling-Li; Zeng, Li-Nan; Li, You-Ping

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, phenobarbital, as an antiepileptic drug, has become less popular based on adverse events, especially cognitive and behavioural side effects. Despite the development of better tolerated new generation AEDs, phenobarbital is still widely used particularly in developing countries because of its low cost. The purpose of this review was to: (i) investigate whether phenobarbital can be safely used as an antiepileptic drug and (ii) determine the questions which need to be addressed in order to comprehensively and adequately evaluate the safety of phenobarbital for the treatment of epilepsy. The literature was searched using the Cochrane Central Register of randomised controlled trials (1800-2009), Medline (1966-2009), Embase (1966-2009) and three Chinese databases. Twenty studies were finally included in this systematic review. The determination of adverse effects of combined antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from different studies was complicated by numerous factors including study design, different descriptions of adverse events and a lack of standardised data collection. These factors may also have been responsible for the heterogeneity present in the meta-analysis. The data did not demonstrate any evidence of association between phenobarbital and a higher risk of adverse events. However, phenobarbital appeared to be associated with a higher rate of adverse drug reaction related withdrawal (ADR-related withdraw), compared to carbamazepine, valproic acid and phenytoin. This may have been due to a concern for possible adverse effects of phenobarbital. Phenobarbital was associated with a higher rate of drug withdrawal although there was no evidence to suggest that phenobarbital caused more adverse events compared to carbamazepine, valproic acid or phenytoin. However, in the case of pregnant women, it is important for clinicians to evaluate the benefits and risks of phenobarbital administration before making a final recommendation. Furthermore, unified scales for

  20. Crossings as a side effect of dependency lengths

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The syntactic structure of sentences exhibits a striking regularity: dependencies tend to not cross when drawn above the sentence. Here we investigate two competing hypotheses for the origins of non-crossing dependencies. The traditional hypothesis is that the low frequency of dependency crossings arises from an independent principle of syntax that reduces crossings practically to zero. An alternative to this view is the hypothesis that crossings are a side effect of dependency lengths. According to this view, sentences with shorter dependency lengths should tend to have fewer crossings. We recast the traditional view as a null hypothesis where one of the variables, i.e. the number of crossings, is mean independent of the other, i.e. the sum of dependency lengths. The alternative view is then a positive correlation between these two variables. In spite of the rough estimation of dependency crossings that this sum provides, we are able to reject the traditional view in the majority of languages considered. The...

  1. Central Diabetes Insipidus: A Previously Unreported Side Effect of Temozolomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Lisa; Wexler, Deborah; Miller, Karen K.; Klibanski, Anne; Makimura, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Context: Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent primarily used to treat tumors of the central nervous system. We describe 2 patients with apparent TMZ-induced central diabetes insipidus. Using our institution's Research Patient Database Registry, we identified 3 additional potential cases of TMZ-induced diabetes insipidus among a group of 1545 patients treated with TMZ. Case Presentations: A 53-year-old male with an oligoastrocytoma and a 38-year-old male with an oligodendroglioma each developed symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria approximately 2 months after the initiation of TMZ. Laboratory analyses demonstrated hypernatremia and urinary concentrating defects, consistent with the presence of diabetes insipidus, and the patients were successfully treated with desmopressin acetate. Desmopressin acetate was withdrawn after the discontinuation of TMZ, and diabetes insipidus did not recur. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary and hypothalamus was unremarkable apart from the absence of a posterior pituitary bright spot in both of the cases. Anterior pituitary function tests were normal in both cases. Using the Research Patient Database Registry database, we identified the 2 index cases and 3 additional potential cases of diabetes insipidus for an estimated prevalence of 0.3% (5 cases of diabetes insipidus per 1545 patients prescribed TMZ). Conclusions: Central diabetes insipidus is a rare but reversible side effect of treatment with TMZ. PMID:23928668

  2. [Vascular calcifications, the hidden side effects of vitamin K antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Youssef; Vengadessane, Subashini; Bodeau, Sandra; Gras, Valérie; Bricca, Giampiero; Kamel, Saïd; Liabeuf, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKA, such as fluindione, acenocoumarol or warfarin) remain currently the goal standard medicines for oral prevention or treatment of thromboembolic disorders. They inhibit the cycle of the vitamin K and its participation in the enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of many proteins. The VKA prevent the activation of the vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors limiting thus the initiation of the coagulation cascade. But other proteins are vitamin K-dependent and also remain inactive in the presence of VKA. This is the case of matrix Gla-protein (MGP), a protein that plays a major inhibitory role in the development of vascular calcifications. Several experimental and epidemiological results suggest that the use of the VKA could promote the development of vascular calcifications increasing thus the cardiovascular risk. This risk seems to be higher in patients with chronic kidney disease or mellitus diabetes who are more likely to develop vascular calcifications, and may be due to a decrease of the MGP activity. This review aims at summarizing the data currently available making vascular calcifications the probably underestimated side effects of VKA.

  3. Central diabetes insipidus: a previously unreported side effect of temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faje, Alexander T; Nachtigall, Lisa; Wexler, Deborah; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Makimura, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent primarily used to treat tumors of the central nervous system. We describe 2 patients with apparent TMZ-induced central diabetes insipidus. Using our institution's Research Patient Database Registry, we identified 3 additional potential cases of TMZ-induced diabetes insipidus among a group of 1545 patients treated with TMZ. A 53-year-old male with an oligoastrocytoma and a 38-year-old male with an oligodendroglioma each developed symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria approximately 2 months after the initiation of TMZ. Laboratory analyses demonstrated hypernatremia and urinary concentrating defects, consistent with the presence of diabetes insipidus, and the patients were successfully treated with desmopressin acetate. Desmopressin acetate was withdrawn after the discontinuation of TMZ, and diabetes insipidus did not recur. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary and hypothalamus was unremarkable apart from the absence of a posterior pituitary bright spot in both of the cases. Anterior pituitary function tests were normal in both cases. Using the Research Patient Database Registry database, we identified the 2 index cases and 3 additional potential cases of diabetes insipidus for an estimated prevalence of 0.3% (5 cases of diabetes insipidus per 1545 patients prescribed TMZ). Central diabetes insipidus is a rare but reversible side effect of treatment with TMZ.

  4. Side Effect Perceptions and Their Impact on Treatment Decisions in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Erika A; Pachur, Thorsten; Colditz, Graham A

    2017-04-01

    Side effects prompt some patients to forego otherwise-beneficial therapies. This study explored which characteristics make side effects particularly aversive. We used a psychometric approach, originating from research on risk perception, to identify the factors (or components) underlying side effect perceptions. Women ( N = 149) aged 40 to 74 years were recruited from a patient registry to complete an online experiment. Participants were presented with hypothetical scenarios in which an effective and necessary medication conferred a small risk of a single side effect (e.g., nausea, dizziness). They rated a broad range of side effects on several characteristics (e.g., embarrassing, treatable). In addition, we collected 4 measures of aversiveness for each side effect: choosing to take the medication, willingness to pay to avoid the side effect (WTP), negative affective attitude associated with the side effect, and how each side effect ranks among others in terms of undesirability. A principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify the components underlying side effect perceptions. Then, for each aversiveness measure separately, regression analyses were used to determine which components predicted differences in aversiveness among the side effects. The PCA revealed 4 components underlying side effect perceptions: affective challenge (e.g., frightening), social challenge (e.g., disfiguring), physical challenge (e.g., painful), and familiarity (e.g., common). Side effects perceived as affectively and physically challenging elicited the highest levels of aversiveness across all 4 measures. Understanding what side effect characteristics are most aversive may inform interventions to improve medical decisions and facilitate the translation of novel biomedical therapies into clinical practice.

  5. The effect of irradiating adaxial or abaxial side on photosynthesis of rose leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Paradiso, R.; Marcelis, L. F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In many cropping systems most of the light irradiates the adaxial side of leaves. However, in cropping systems with intra canopy lighting a reasonable fraction of light may irradiate even the abaxial side of the leaves. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiating the abaxial leaf side compared to irradiating the adaxial side, in rose plants grown in glasshouse with the bending technique. The instantaneous effects on the optical properties and the light respons...

  6. Side effects of aesthetic therapy by lasers and IPL source: a dark side of the correct management of the patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarbski, George V.

    2004-09-01

    A medical practice by laser or IPL device means professional experience, reputation, strong economical investment, while a patient needs results for the bill he pays. In front of a publicity of non-invasive solutions for a broad base of clinical applications, the everyday practice offers embarrassing side effects about which it is better to prepare the users. Inefficiency, hypo-hyper-pigmentations, scars show that we need to have clear instructions and experienced studies, before emphasizing good results.

  7. Monounsaturated fatty acids prevent the deleterious effects of palmitate and high glucose on human pancreatic beta-cell turnover and function

    OpenAIRE

    Maedler, Kathrin; Oberholzer, José; Bucher, Pascal Alain Robert; Spinas, Giatgen A.; Donath, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity contribute to the impaired beta-cell function observed in type 2 diabetes. Here we examine the effect of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids at different glucose concentrations on human beta-cell turnover and secretory function. Exposure of cultured human islets to saturated fatty acid and/or to an elevated glucose concentration for 4 days increased beta-cell DNA fragmentation and decreased beta-cell proliferation. In contrast, the monounsaturated palmitol...

  8. The Deleterious Effects of Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress on Palmitoylation, Membrane Lipid Rafts and Lipid-Based Cellular Signalling: New Drug Targets in Neuroimmune Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gerwyn; Walder, Ken; Puri, Basant K; Berk, Michael; Maes, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) is causatively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, schizophrenia and depression. Many of the consequences stemming from O&NS, including damage to proteins, lipids and DNA, are well known, whereas the effects of O&NS on lipoprotein-based cellular signalling involving palmitoylation and plasma membrane lipid rafts are less well documented. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss the mechanisms involved in lipid-based signalling, including palmitoylation, membrane/lipid raft (MLR) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) functions, the effects of O&NS processes on these processes and their role in the abovementioned diseases. S-palmitoylation is a post-translational modification, which regulates protein trafficking and association with the plasma membrane, protein subcellular location and functions. Palmitoylation and MRLs play a key role in neuronal functions, including glutamatergic neurotransmission, and immune-inflammatory responses. Palmitoylation, MLRs and n-3 PUFAs are vulnerable to the corruptive effects of O&NS. Chronic O&NS inhibits palmitoylation and causes profound changes in lipid membrane composition, e.g. n-3 PUFA depletion, increased membrane permeability and reduced fluidity, which together lead to disorders in intracellular signal transduction, receptor dysfunction and increased neurotoxicity. Disruption of lipid-based signalling is a source of the neuroimmune disorders involved in the pathophysiology of the abovementioned diseases. n-3 PUFA supplementation is a rational therapeutic approach targeting disruptions in lipid-based signalling.

  9. Use of a serum-free epidermal culture model to show deleterious effects of epidermal growth factor on morphogenesis and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C S; Lavker, R M; Rodeck, U; Risse, B; Jensen, P J

    1995-01-01

    The presence of serum has limited the utility of many culture models for the study of cytokine effects because its complexity and variability can confound the interpretation of data. In the present study, a serum-free skin co-culture model was used to investigate the effect of exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) on epidermal proliferation and differentiation. Human keratinocytes cultured on collagen rafts at the air-liquid interface produced a well-differentiated epithelium that resembled normal epidermis. Keratin filaments, membrane-coating granules, and keratohyalin granules were all observed. Epidermal differentiation markers keratin K1/K10, involucrin, and transglutaminase were localized in most of the suprabasal layers, whereas profilaggrin/filaggrin was confined to the granular layers and stratum corneum. In the continual presence of 10-20 ng/mL EGF, the epidermis was less organized, thinner, and less proliferative. EGF also depressed several indicators of differentiation: The number of keratohyalin granules and membrane-coating granules was greatly decreased; antigen expression of profilaggrin/filaggrin appeared diminished by immunocytochemical staining; frequent nuclear retention was noted in the relatively thickened stratum corneum-like layers. As detected by immunohistochemical staining, the expression of EGF receptor in the epidermis was reduced by exogenous EGF. These data illustrate that EGF cannot be considered a simple mitogen. Our findings also underscore the importance of using sophisticated culture models to assess complex cytokine effects that may be dependent on the architecture of a differentiating epidermis.

  10. Brain tissue oxidative damage as a possible mechanism for the deleterious effect of a chronic high dose of estradiol on learning and memory in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimeh Khodabandehloo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to antioxidative effects, estrogens also exert pro-oxidative actions. The effect of chronic administration of a high dose of estradiol valerate on Morris water maze tasks and brain tissues oxidative damage was investigated. The Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups were treated with estradiol valerate (4 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Escape latency and traveled path in the Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups were significantly higher than in the Sham and OVX groups (p≪0.01 and p≪0.001. In the probe trial, the animals of the Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups spent lower time in Q1 compared to Sham and OVX groups (p≪0.05 and p≪0.001. In Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups, the brain tissue total thiol concentration was significantly lower, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations were higher than in the Sham and OVX groups (p≪0.05 and p≪0.001. It is concluded that administration of high exogenous levels of estradiol impairs performance and enhances oxidative stress.

  11. The Social Patterning of Tobacco Use Among Women in Jordan: The Protective Effect of Education on Cigarette Smoking and the Deleterious Effect of Wealth on Cigarette and Waterpipe Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Abdulrahim, Sawsan; Daouk, Aref

    2016-04-01

    The presence of social inequalities in tobacco-use has been fully recognized in the international literature. Even though cigarette and waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) are prevalent in the Arab region, the literature has not addressed the social determinants of the impending tobacco epidemic. This study examined the socioeconomic patterning of cigarette and WTS among Jordanian women. We analyzed pooled data from four waves of the Jordan Demographic and Health Surveys: 2002 (N = 5851); 2007 (N = 10 654); 2009 (N = 9879), and 2012 (N = 11 113). We specified logistic regression models to test the association between education and household wealth and the two outcome measures, cigarette and WTS, adjusting for other covariates. For each outcome, we ran time-unadjusted and time-adjusted logistic models. Cigarette smoking prevalence among Jordanian women remained almost constant (around 10%) between 2002 and 2012. WTS prevalence steadily increased from 4.1% in 2002 to 10.2% in 2012. Increasing education predicted lower odds of cigarette smoking, whereas increasing household wealth weakly predicted higher odds. As to WTS, increasing household wealth strongly predicted higher odds of use. Among Jordanian women, increasing education is protective against cigarette smoking. Household wealth, on the other hand, exerts a deleterious effect on both forms of tobacco consumption, particularly WTS. This pattern shows that Jordan has not fully undergone the socioeconomic crossover in tobacco prevalence which characterizes high-income countries. Future control policies should aim to decrease prevalence but also preempt increasing social inequalities in tobacco use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Heat or Cold: Which One Exerts Greater Deleterious Effects on Health in a Basin Climate City? Impact of Ambient Temperature on Mortality in Chengdu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Yin, Fei; Deng, Ying; Volinn, Ernest; Chen, Fei; Ji, Kui; Zeng, Jing; Zhao, Xing; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-12-10

    Background: Although studies from many countries have estimated the impact of ambient temperature on mortality, few have compared the relative impacts of heat and cold on health, especially in basin climate cities. We aimed to quantify the impact of ambient temperature on mortality, and to compare the contributions of heat and cold in a large basin climate city, i.e., Chengdu (Sichuan Province, China); Methods: We estimated the temperature-mortality association with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) with a maximum lag-time of 21 days while controlling for long time trends and day of week. We calculated the mortality risk attributable to heat and cold, which were defined as temperatures above and below an "optimum temperature" that corresponded to the point of minimum mortality. In addition, we explored effects of individual characteristics; Results: The analysis provides estimates of the overall mortality burden attributable to temperature, and then computes the components attributable to heat and cold. Overall, the total fraction of deaths caused by both heat and cold was 10.93% (95%CI: 7.99%-13.65%). Taken separately, cold was responsible for most of the burden (estimate 9.96%, 95%CI: 6.90%-12.81%), while the fraction attributable to heat was relatively small (estimate 0.97%, 95%CI: 0.46%-2.35%). The attributable risk (AR) of respiratory diseases was higher (19.69%, 95%CI: 14.45%-24.24%) than that of cardiovascular diseases (11.40%, 95%CI: 6.29%-16.01%); Conclusions: In Chengdu, temperature was responsible for a substantial fraction of deaths, with cold responsible for a higher proportion of deaths than heat. Respiratory diseases exert a larger effect on death than other diseases especially on cold days. There is potential to reduce respiratory-associated mortality especially among the aged population in basin climate cities when the temperature deviates beneath the optimum. The result may help to comprehensively assess the impact of ambient temperature

  13. Phytoremediation Potential of Maná-Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal for the Deleterious Effects of Methylmercury on the Reproductive System of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Frenedoso da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury, organic form of mercury, can increase the number of abnormal sperm and decrease sperm concentration and testosterone levels possibly due to the damage caused by reactive species to germ and Leydig cells. Maná-cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal is a native fruit from Amazon rich in iron, zinc, niacin, pectin, and citric acid, used in foods, beverages, and medicinal purposes, since it has been useful for treatment of various diseases caused by oxidative stress or nutritional deficiency. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of this fruit on damages caused by exposure to MeHg on sperm quantity and quality and the histological aspect of the testis and epididymis. Wistar male rats (n=20 were randomly allocated into four groups: Control group (received distilled water, MeHg group (140 μg/Kg, Solanum group (1% of fruit Maná-cubiu on chow, and Solanum plus MeHg group (same treatment as MeHg and Solanum group. The organs were weighted, histopathology; sperm morphology and counts were obtained. The results showed reduction in body weight gain, testis weights, reduced sperm production, and increased histopathological abnormalities in the MeHg-treated group. However, treatment with Solanum plus MeHg revealed a protective effect of this fruit on damages caused by MeHg.

  14. Black Tea Increases Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improves Flow Mediated Dilatation Counteracting Deleterious Effects from a Fat Load in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Grassi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Endothelial dysfunction predicts cardiovascular events. Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs maintain and repair the endothelium regulating its function. Tea flavonoids reduce cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effects of black tea on the number of CACs and on flow-mediated dilation (FMD before and after an oral fat in hypertensives; (2 Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over study, 19 patients were assigned to black tea (150 mg polyphenols or a placebo twice a day for eight days. Measurements were obtained in a fasted state and after consuming whipping cream, and FMD was measured at baseline and after consumption of the products; (3 Results: Compared with the placebo, black tea ingestion increased functionally active CACs (36 ± 22 vs. 56 ± 21 cells per high-power field; p = 0.006 and FMD (5.0% ± 0.3% vs. 6.6% ± 0.3%, p < 0.0001. Tea further increased FMD 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after consumption, with maximal response 2 h after intake (p < 0.0001. Fat challenge decreased FMD, while tea consumption counteracted FMD impairment (p < 0.0001; (4 Conclusions: We demonstrated the vascular protective properties of black tea by increasing the number of CACs and preventing endothelial dysfunction induced by acute oral fat load in hypertensive patients. Considering that tea is the most consumed beverage after water, our findings are of clinical relevance and interest.

  15. Phytoremediation potential of Maná-Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) for the deleterious effects of methylmercury on the reproductive system of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenedoso da Silva, Raquel; Missassi, Gabriela; dos Santos Borges, Cibele; Silva de Paula, Eloísa; Hornos Carneiro, Maria Fernanda; Grotto, Denise; Barbosa Junior, Fernando; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury, organic form of mercury, can increase the number of abnormal sperm and decrease sperm concentration and testosterone levels possibly due to the damage caused by reactive species to germ and Leydig cells. Maná-cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) is a native fruit from Amazon rich in iron, zinc, niacin, pectin, and citric acid, used in foods, beverages, and medicinal purposes, since it has been useful for treatment of various diseases caused by oxidative stress or nutritional deficiency. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of this fruit on damages caused by exposure to MeHg on sperm quantity and quality and the histological aspect of the testis and epididymis. Wistar male rats (n = 20) were randomly allocated into four groups: Control group (received distilled water), MeHg group (140 μg/Kg), Solanum group (1% of fruit Maná-cubiu on chow), and Solanum plus MeHg group (same treatment as MeHg and Solanum group). The organs were weighted, histopathology; sperm morphology and counts were obtained. The results showed reduction in body weight gain, testis weights, reduced sperm production, and increased histopathological abnormalities in the MeHg-treated group. However, treatment with Solanum plus MeHg revealed a protective effect of this fruit on damages caused by MeHg.

  16. Uncommon side effect of MMF in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balal, M; Demir, E; Paydas, Saime; Sertdemir, Y; Erken, U

    2005-01-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a potent immunosuppressive agent used in renal transplantation. Gastrointestinal and hematological side effects are commonly observed, but hepatotoxicity has not been reported. In this study, we assessed MMF-related hepatotoxicity in renal transplant recipients. A total of 124 renal transplantation recipients (RTRs) were evaluated for elevated liver enzymes associated with MMF, and 79 patients were enrolled to the study. Patients used MMF 2 g/day. The patients who had progressive increase in liver enzymes after renal transplantation and their AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, bilirubin levels, hepatitis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), abdominal ultrasonography, duration of hepatotoxicity, and decreased dosage or withdrawal of MMF were recorded. Also, we evaluated their liver enzymes while the patients were on the waiting list. Of the 79 patients, 11 patients (13.9%) had a progressive increase in liver enzymes. The median (min-max) age of the patients with MMF-hepatotoxicity was 29 (19-54) and 72.7% of them were male. None of the patients had hepatitis B or C, CMV infection, or other possible causes for elevated liver enzymes and their abdominal ultrasonography were normal. High liver enzyme levels regressed after the withdrawal (n=6) or reduce dosage (n=5) of MMF. The median time of the increase in liver enzymes was 28 (4-70) days and after 50% reduction or withdrawal of MMF, returned to normal values in 16 (4-210) days. The median levels of ALT in waiting list (I), before (II), and after (III) reduction dosage or withdrawal of MMF were 22.0 (3-22), 222.0 (51-508), and 33.0 (21-64) U/L, respectively (p I-II=0.004,p I-II=0.013, andp II-III=0.005). There were no differences for ALP, GGT, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin levels. Also, the correlation between recovery time of ALT and persistence time of ALT elevation before adjustment of MMF was significant (r=0.739, p=0.009). Consequently, after renal transplantation, hepatotoxicity can occur due to a

  17. The deleterious effect of cholesterol and protection by quercetin on mitochondrial bioenergetics of pancreatic β-cells, glycemic control and inflammation: In vitro and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Carrasco-Pozo

    2016-10-01

    mechanism for the protection of quercetin against cytokine mediated cholesterol-induced glycemic control impairment. In summary, our data highlight cellular, molecular and bioenergetic mechanisms underlying quercetin's protective effects on β-cells in vitro and in vivo, and provide a scientifically tested foundation upon which quercetin can be developed as a nutraceutical to preserve β-cell function.

  18. Computational drug repositioning based on side-effects mined from social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Nugent

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug repositioning methods attempt to identify novel therapeutic indications for marketed drugs. Strategies include the use of side-effects to assign new disease indications, based on the premise that both therapeutic effects and side-effects are measurable physiological changes resulting from drug intervention. Drugs with similar side-effects might share a common mechanism of action linking side-effects with disease treatment, or may serve as a treatment by “rescuing” a disease phenotype on the basis of their side-effects; therefore it may be possible to infer new indications based on the similarity of side-effect profiles. While existing methods leverage side-effect data from clinical studies and drug labels, evidence suggests this information is often incomplete due to under-reporting. Here, we describe a novel computational method that uses side-effect data mined from social media to generate a sparse undirected graphical model using inverse covariance estimation with ℓ1-norm regularization. Results show that known indications are well recovered while current trial indications can also be identified, suggesting that sparse graphical models generated using side-effect data mined from social media may be useful for computational drug repositioning.

  19. Therapeutic effects and side effects in patients with major depression treated with sulpiride once a day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, T; Asakura, M; Tsuneizumi, T; Satoh, Y; Shinozuka, T; Hasegawa, K

    1994-05-01

    The effects of once a day dose of sulpiride efficacy and safety was evaluated in patients with major depressive disorder. The patients received sulpiride once a day in the morning or in the evening. There were no significant differences between two groups in the mean measures of efficacy. Side effects were rare and all of a mild degree. The most common side effects were sedation, constipation, and dryness of mouth. Out of regard for the administrative and psychological advantage of the once a day dosage this form should be preferred in the treatment of major depression.

  20. The clinical studies on the cased of side effect of CF Herbal Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kye-Sung Kang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to examine the patterns and to prevent the side effects of CF Herbal Acupuncture treatment Methods : We observed 10 patients who complained the side effects of Herbal acupuncture CF and 2 healthy men for the sake of examine the cause from the August 17 to 24, 2001. Results 1. All of the patients complained severe pain, redish, and edema on the side of injections 2. We were able to witness decrease in pain, redish, and edema, after 2days of injection. After 4days, we were unable to any side effects. 3. According to the clinical studies, we came to determine that the CF herbal abstract which caused the side effects were manufactured between 4 to 13 days, August 4. We assume these side effects were caused by minute quantity of toxin remaining in the screw pressor mixed with the CF herbal abstract.

  1. Yoga-Based Rehabilitation Program in Reducing Physical and Emotional Side Effects in Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Alopecia; Anxiety; Breast Carcinoma; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Colorectal Carcinoma; Depression; Fatigue; Lung Carcinoma; Nausea and Vomiting; Pain; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Sleep Disorder; Weight Change

  2. Side-gate modulation effects on high-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiaolong; Ye, Weiguang; Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Han, Tianyi; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Wang, Ning, E-mail: phwang@ust.hk [Department of Physics and the William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-12-15

    High-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors with double side-gates of graphene have been experimentally realized. The double side-gates can effectively modulate the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbon capacitors. By applying anti-symmetric side-gate voltages, we observed significant upward shifting and flattening of the V-shaped capacitance curve near the charge neutrality point. Symmetric side-gate voltages, however, only resulted in tilted upward shifting along the opposite direction of applied gate voltages. These modulation effects followed the behavior of graphene nanoribbons predicted theoretically for metallic side-gate modulation. The negative quantum capacitance phenomenon predicted by numerical simulations for graphene nanoribbons modulated by graphene side-gates was not observed, possibly due to the weakened interactions between the graphene nanoribbon and side-gate electrodes caused by the Ga{sup +} beam etching process.

  3. Side-effects of fluticasone in asthmatic children : no effects after dose reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, MJ; van der Veer, E; Postma, DS; Arends, LR; de Vries, TW; Brand, PLP; Duiverman, EJ

    2004-01-01

    To assess long-term effects and side-effects of fluticasone propionate (FP), a 2-yr study was performed, comparing a step-down dose approach (1,000 mug.day(-1), with reductions every 2 months to 500, 200 and 100 mug.day(-1) for the remainder of the study) versus a constant dose (200 mug.day(-1)). In

  4. Norms Inform Mental State Ascriptions: A Rational Explanation for the Side-Effect Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttich, Kevin; Lombrozo, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind, the capacity to understand and ascribe mental states, has traditionally been conceptualized as analogous to a scientific theory. However, recent work in philosophy and psychology has documented a "side-effect effect" suggesting that moral evaluations influence mental state ascriptions, and in particular whether a behavior is…

  5. Impact of brand or generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Martin, Leslie R; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg; Petrie, Keith J

    2016-02-01

    Branding medication with a known pharmaceutical company name or product name bestows on the drug an added assurance of authenticity and effectiveness compared to a generic preparation. This study examined the impact of brand name and generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects. 87 undergraduate students with frequent headaches took part in the study. Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, each participant took tablets labeled either as brand name "Nurofen" or "Generic Ibuprofen" to treat each of 4 headaches. In reality, half of the tablets were placebos, and half were active ibuprofen (400 mg). Participants recorded their headache pain on a verbal descriptor and visual analogue scale prior to taking the tablets, and again 1 hour afterward. Medication side effects were also reported. Pain reduction following the use of brand name labeled tablets was similar in active ibuprofen or a placebo. However, if the tablets had a generic label, placebo tablets were significantly less effective compared to active ibuprofen. Fewer side effects were attributed to placebo tablets with brand name labeling compared to the same placebo tablets with a generic label. Branding of a tablet appears to have conferred a treatment benefit in the absence of an active ingredient, while generic labeled tablets were substantially less effective if they contained no active ingredient. Branding is also associated with reduced attribution of side effects to placebo tablets. Future interventions to improve perceptions of generics may have utility in improving treatment outcomes from generic drugs. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Metabolic disturbances, side effect profile and effectiveness of clozapine in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Data on effect of clozapine on metabolic syndrome in adolescent patients with psychosis are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with psychotic disorders prior to clozapine and while receiving clozapine. Secondary aims were to study the effectiveness and side effect profile of clozapine. Materials and Methods: Thirteen child and adolescent patients were evaluated at baseline, 3 months, and a follow-up beyond 6 months. Assessments were made for metabolic profile, effectiveness by positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS, and side effects. Results: Prior to starting of clozapine, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 23%. After 3 months on clozapine, 38.5% (5/13 patients fulfilled criteria of metabolic syndrome and further on follow-up beyond 6 months (with last observation carried forward 46.2% (6/13 had developed metabolic syndrome. There was a significant reduction in PANSS scores at 3 months and follow-up more so in those who developed metabolic syndrome at 3 months. Among the other side effects, hypersalivation was the most common side effect (100% followed by sedation (69%. Conclusion: Half the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents on clozapine can be attributed to other factors prior to starting of clozapine, and another half can be attributed to clozapine. Clozapine is effective in an adolescent population.

  7. Influence of Electro-Acupuncture on the Side Effects of Fluoxetine on Depression Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lan-ying; LU Qian; WANG Ling-ling; WANG Xin-zhong

    2009-01-01

    The authors set up two groups, the treatment group and the control group, to observe the influence of electro-acupuncture on the side effects produced by fluoxetine in the treatment of depression. The result showed that electro-acupuncture had a certain action in reducing the side effects of fluoxetine and it is more effective along with the prolonging of the administration duration.

  8. Reirradiation on recurrent cervical cancer case: Treatment response and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, M. F.; Supriana, N.; Nuranna, L.; Prihartono, J.

    2017-08-01

    Management of recurrent cervical cancer by reirradiation after radiation treatment remains controversial. In Indonesia, there is currently no data about reirradiation tumor response and side effects. This study aims to assess the tumor response to and side effects of reirradiation, the effect of time interval between first radiation treatment and cancer recurrence on the tumor response and side effects, and the effect of tumor size on tumor response. A cohort retrospective study with no comparison was done with the Radiotherapy Department at Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. Participants were recurrent cervical cancer patients undergoing reirradiation. Data was collected from patients’ medical records and follow-up phone calls. Twenty-two patients participated in this study. Nine patients (40.9%) had complete responses, 10 patients (45.5%) had partial responses, 1 patient (4.5%) had a stable response, and 2 patients (9.1%) had tumor progressions. In general, 15 patients (68.2%) had no to light side effects (grade 0-2 RTOG) and 7 patients (31.8%) had severe side effects (grade 3-4 RTOG). Four patients (18.1%) had severe gastrointestinal acute side effects, 6 patients (27.3%) had severe gastrointestinal late side effects, 2 patients (9.1%) had severe urogenital side effects, and there were no patients had severe urogenital late side effects. There was no significant difference in tumor response between patients with time interval between first radiation treatment and recurrence of 4 cm. Reirradiation can be considered as a modality in recurrent cervical cancer management since good tumor response was achieved and the majority of patients had no to light side effects (grade 0-2 RTOG). This study found no correlation between tumor response, side effects, and time gap between first radiation treatment and recurrence of 4 cm.

  9. Slipping during side-step cutting: anticipatory effects and familiarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza Castelo; Silva, Priscila Brito; Lund, Morten Enemark; Farina, Dario; Kersting, Uwe Gustav

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify whether the expectation of perturbations while performing side-step cutting manoeuvres influences lower limb EMG activity, heel kinematics and ground reaction forces. Eighteen healthy men performed two sets of 90° side-step cutting manoeuvres. In the first set, 10 unperturbed trials (Base) were performed while stepping over a moveable force platform. In the second set, subjects were informed about the random possibility of perturbations to balance throughout 32 trials, of which eight were perturbed (Pert, 10cm translation triggered at initial contact), and the others were "catch" trials (Catch). Center of mass velocity (CoMVEL), heel acceleration (HAC), ground reaction forces (GRF) and surface electromyography (EMG) from lower limb and trunk muscles were recorded for each trial. Surface EMG was analyzed prior to initial contact (PRE), during load acceptance (LA) and propulsion (PRP) periods of the stance phase. In addition, hamstrings-quadriceps co-contraction ratios (CCR) were calculated for these time-windows. The results showed no changes in CoMVEL, HAC, peak GRF and surface EMG PRE among conditions. However, during LA, there were increases in tibialis anterior EMG (30-50%) concomitant to reduced EMG for quadriceps muscles, gluteus and rectus abdominis for Catch and Pert conditions (15-40%). In addition, quadriceps EMG was still reduced during PRP (pmodulation of muscle activity towards anticipating potential instability in the lower limb joints and assure safety to complete the task.

  10. Pharmacogenomic and clinical data link non-pharmacokinetic metabolic dysregulation to drug side effect pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Daniel C.; Filipp, F. V.; Bordbar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug side effects cause a significant clinical and economic burden. However, mechanisms of drug action underlying side effect pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we integrate pharmacogenomic and clinical data with a human metabolic network and find that non-pharmacokinetic metabolic pathways...... dysregulated by drugs are linked to the development of side effects. We show such dysregulated metabolic pathways contain genes with sequence variants affecting side effect incidence, play established roles in pathophysiology, have significantly altered activity in corresponding diseases, are susceptible...... to metabolic inhibitors and are effective targets for therapeutic nutrient supplementation. Our results indicate that metabolic dysregulation represents a common mechanism underlying side effect pathogenesis that is distinct from the role of metabolism in drug clearance. We suggest that elucidating...

  11. Current Status of the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Cervantes, Paige E.

    2013-01-01

    The Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS) is currently the best established and most researched measure of drug side effects in the intellectual disability (ID) literature. Initial research was conducted on its psychometric properties such as reliability and validity. More recent research studies have used the measure to determine the…

  12. Comparison of the Efficacy and Side Effects of Chlorhexidine Mouthrinses with (Hexidine and without (Epimax Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mogharehabed

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although Epimax mouthwash did not show any side effects, it was less suitable and caused more dental stain. Ethanol-free Hexidine mouthwash seems to be more proper for gingivitis, but its side effects are required to be taken into consideration.

  13. Nursing-led management of side effects of radiation: evidence-based recommendations for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirier P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Patricia PoirierUniversity of Maine School of Nursing, Orono, ME, USAAbstract: It has been estimated that 50%–60% of patients diagnosed with cancer will receive radiation therapy at some point in their treatment. Although radiation therapy can play a significant role in the cure or control of cancer, and the palliation of symptoms, it also has side effects. Side effects of radiation therapy can interfere with patient quality of life and daily functioning. Severe side effects can lead to delays in treatment, potentially affecting the outcome of treatment. All patients receiving radiation therapy are at risk of fatigue and skin reactions in the area of the body being treated. Other side effects of radiation therapy are specific to the part of the body being treated. Radiation therapy to the head and neck area may cause oral mucositis, dryness, and nutritional deficiencies. Radiation therapy to the chest or lung area may lead to difficulty in swallowing and eating. Radiation therapy to the pelvis frequently causes diarrhea. There are many nursing interventions available to manage the side effects of treatment based on best available evidence and expert opinion. Nurses in all settings are essential in helping patients manage the side effects of treatment and maintain their quality of life. The purpose of this review is to provide nurses with evidence-based recommendations and suggestions for managing common acute side effects of radiation therapy.Keywords: evidence-based practice, radiation therapy, side effects, nursing management

  14. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain:patient report vs. systematic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Torsten; Christrup, Lona Louring; Højsted, Jette;

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatme...

  15. Incidence of ocular side effects of topical beta blockers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van L.M.; Keizer, de R.J.W.; Polak, B.C.P.; Elzenaar, P.R.; Haeringen, van N.J.; Kijlstra, A.

    2000-01-01

    Background - Several ocular side effects including uveitis, have been reported following topical β blocker treatment for glaucoma and ocular hypertension. The incidence of these side effects was investigated in the Netherlands. Methods - A prospective observational design was used whereby monthly qu

  16. The study of CD side to side error in line/space pattern caused by post-exposure bake effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Guo, Eric; Ge, Haiming; Lu, Max; Wu, Yijun; Tian, Mingjing; Yan, Shichuan; Wang, Ran

    2016-10-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, as the design rule has decreased, the ITRS roadmap requires crucial tighter critical dimension (CD) control. CD uniformity is one of the necessary parameters to assure good performance and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit (IC) [1] [2], and towards the advanced technology nodes, it is a challenge to control CD uniformity well. The study of corresponding CD Uniformity by tuning Post-Exposure bake (PEB) and develop process has some significant progress[3], but CD side to side error happening to some line/space pattern are still found in practical application, and the error has approached to over the uniformity tolerance. After details analysis, even though use several developer types, the CD side to side error has not been found significant relationship to the developing. In addition, it is impossible to correct the CD side to side error by electron beam correction as such error does not appear in all Line/Space pattern masks. In this paper the root cause of CD side to side error is analyzed and the PEB module process are optimized as a main factor for improvement of CD side to side error.

  17. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Jonsson, T; Højsted, J

    2015-01-01

    , the mean number of symptoms reported by the patient group (12.3) was significantly higher than those reported by the controls (6.8) (P side effects caused by analgesics, and out of those 61.3% were reported as acceptable and 38.......7% as unacceptable side effects. In the QSSE-33, the mean number of symptoms reported by the patient group was 13.6. Out of the total number of symptoms, 46.3% were reported to be side effects caused by analgesics, and out of those 56.4% were reported as acceptable and 43.6% as unacceptable side effects. CONCLUSIONS......: This new and shorter screening tool QSSE-33 may substitute the original QSSE-41 and in clinical use, contribute substantially to a more comprehensive and detailed understanding of symptoms/side effects and may consequently lead to improved therapies....

  18. Effects of side walls on facade flame entrainment and flame height from opening in compartment fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu L.H.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of the side wall effects on facade flames ejected from the opening (such as a window of an under-ventilated room fire. Experiments are carried out in a reduced-scale experimental setup, consisting of a cubic fire compartment having an opening with a vertical facade wall and two side walls normal to the façade wall. By changing the distance of the two side walls, the facade flame heights for different opening conditions (width, height are recorded by a CCD camera. It is found that as the distance of the two side walls decreases the behavior the flame height can be distinguished into two regimes characterized by the dimensionless excess heat release rate, $skew5dot{Q}_{ex}^{ast}$ See Formula in PDF , outside the opening: (a for the “wall fire” (skew5dot{Q}_{ex}^{ast }$See Formula in PDF ≤ 1.3 , the flame height is shown to change little with decrease of side wall distance as the dominant entrainment is from the front direction (normal to the facade wall independent of the side wall distances; (b for the “axis-symmetrical fire” (\\skew5dot{Q}_{ex}^{ast}$ > 1.3, the flame height increases significantly with a decrease in side wall distance as both the entrainment from the two side directions (parallel to the facade wall and that from the front direction (normal to the facade wall together apply. A global physically based non-dimensional factor K is then brought forward based on the side wall constraint effect on the facade flame entrainment to characterize the side wall effect on the flame height, by accounting for the dimensionless excess heat release rate, the characteristic length scales of the opening as well as the side wall separation distance. The experimental data for different opening dimensions and side wall distances collapse by using this global non-dimensional factor.

  19. Electronic properties of amino acid side chains: quantum mechanics calculation of substituent effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Donard S

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic properties of amino acid side chains such as inductive and field effects have not been characterized in any detail. Quantum mechanics (QM calculations and fundamental equations that account for substituent effects may provide insight into these important properties. PM3 analysis of electron distribution and polarizability was used to derive quantitative scales that describe steric factors, inductive effects, resonance effects, and field effects of amino acid side chains. Results These studies revealed that: (1 different semiempirical QM methods yield similar results for the electronic effects of side chain groups, (2 polarizability, which reflects molecular deformability, represents steric factors in electronic terms, and (3 inductive effects contribute to the propensity of an amino acid for α-helices. Conclusion The data provide initial characterization of the substituent effects of amino acid side chains and suggest that these properties affect electron density along the peptide backbone.

  20. Effects of Alkylthio and Alkoxy Side Chains in Polymer Donor Materials for Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chaohua; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2016-02-01

    Side chains play a considerable role not only in improving the solubility of polymers for solution-processed device fabrication, but also in affecting the molecular packing, electron affinity and thus the device performance. In particular, electron-donating side chains show unique properties when employed to tune the electronic character of conjugated polymers in many cases. Therefore, rational electron-donating side chain engineering can improve the photovoltaic properties of the resulting polymer donors to some extent. Here, a survey of some representative examples which use electron-donating alkylthio and alkoxy side chains in conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cell applications will be presented. It is envisioned that an analysis of the effect of such electron-donating side chains in polymer donors would contribute to a better understanding of this kind of side chain behavior in solution-processed conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cells.

  1. Prices and network effects in two-sided markets: the Belgian newspaper industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Cayseele, P.; Vanormelingen, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the two-sided nature of the newspaper industry. We explicitly take into account cross network effects that exist between advertisers and newspaper readers. On one side, advertisers' demand for publicity space depends on the number of newspaper readers and their

  2. Prices and network effects in two-sided markets: the Belgian newspaper industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Cayseele, P.; Vanormelingen, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the two-sided nature of the newspaper industry. We explicitly take into account cross network effects that exist between advertisers and newspaper readers. On one side, advertisers' demand for publicity space depends on the number of newspaper readers and their characteristic

  3. The effect of irradiating adaxial or abaxial side on photosynthesis of rose leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paradiso, R.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In many cropping systems most of the light irradiates the adaxial side of leaves. However, in cropping systems with intra canopy lighting a reasonable fraction of light may irradiate even the abaxial side of the leaves. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiating the

  4. The effect of irradiating adaxial or abaxial side on photosynthesis of rose leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paradiso, R.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In many cropping systems most of the light irradiates the adaxial side of leaves. However, in cropping systems with intra canopy lighting a reasonable fraction of light may irradiate even the abaxial side of the leaves. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiating the

  5. Predicting drug side-effect profiles: a chemical fragment-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Edouard; Stoven, Véronique; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro

    2011-05-18

    Drug side-effects, or adverse drug reactions, have become a major public health concern. It is one of the main causes of failure in the process of drug development, and of drug withdrawal once they have reached the market. Therefore, in silico prediction of potential side-effects early in the drug discovery process, before reaching the clinical stages, is of great interest to improve this long and expensive process and to provide new efficient and safe therapies for patients. In the present work, we propose a new method to predict potential side-effects of drug candidate molecules based on their chemical structures, applicable on large molecular databanks. A unique feature of the proposed method is its ability to extract correlated sets of chemical substructures (or chemical fragments) and side-effects. This is made possible using sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA). In the results, we show the usefulness of the proposed method by predicting 1385 side-effects in the SIDER database from the chemical structures of 888 approved drugs. These predictions are performed with simultaneous extraction of correlated ensembles formed by a set of chemical substructures shared by drugs that are likely to have a set of side-effects. We also conduct a comprehensive side-effect prediction for many uncharacterized drug molecules stored in DrugBank, and were able to confirm interesting predictions using independent source of information. The proposed method is expected to be useful in various stages of the drug development process.

  6. Psychopharmacology of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects and Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmirzaei, Javad; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad A; Hamzei, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children which manifests with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Several drugs are used in treatment of ADHD. Stimulants, atomoxetine, anti-depressants, and bupropion are common medications used in the treatment of ADHD. Stimulants are widely used as the first line treatment in children with ADHD. Their mechanism of action is the release of dopamine and norepinephrine in central nervous system. Methylphenidate is the most common stimulant used for the treatment of ADHD. Methylphenidate significantly reduces ADHD symptoms in children both at home and school and improves their social skills. Methylphenidate is safe in healthy children and has shown to have no cardiac side effects in these patients. Other medications include: Atomoxetine, Amphetamines, Clonidine, Melatonin, and anti-depressants. Effects, side effects, and mechanism of action these drugs have been discussed in this paper.

  7. Medication side effects among people with epilepsy taking phenobarbital in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elafros, Melissa A; Bui, Esther; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2014-11-01

    Phenobarbital remains one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs worldwide, yet there are limited data regarding side effects associated with its use in routine clinical care settings in low-income countries. Available data suggests that phenobarbital is as effective as other first-line drugs for treating tonic-clonic seizures, but side effect reports differ widely between high and low-income settings. A better understanding of phenobarbital side effect profile and severity in low-income settings is warranted given its role in efforts to decrease the epilepsy treatment gap. We used the Liverpool adverse events profile (LEAP) to assess side effects in consecutive patients with epilepsy on phenobarbital seeking care in rural Zambia. Data regarding age, gender, medication dose, and medication adherence were also collected. T-tests and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess predictors of LEAP score and medication adherence. Thirty-five patients receiving a mean dose of 2.1mg/kg/day (SD: 2.78 mg/kg/day) of phenobarbital were assessed. All participants reported at least one side effect in the previous four weeks with a median of 6 symptoms (IQR: 4-8) and a mean side effects score of 28/76 (SD: 5.38). Over half reported sleepiness and dizziness. Memory problems and depression were also common (both 46%). Total LAEP score was not associated with age (p=0.88), gender (p=0.17), or phenobarbital dose (p=0.13). Medication adherence was not associated with side effects total score (p=0.56). Rural Zambian adults taking phenobarbital at doses recommended by the World Health Organization report a significant number of side effects. The most common side effects reported were similar to those reported in high-income countries. The significant burden of phenobarbital-associated side effects in this African cohort is in contrast to data from non-randomized clinical trials in China that reported phenobarbital to be well-tolerated with few side effects. Additional

  8. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Lipodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lipodystrophy can be upsetting and affect a person’s self-esteem. Because of lipodystrophy, a person may decide to ... Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents/Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Agents From the Department ...

  9. Lymphadenitis as a Rare Side Effect of H1N1 Vaccine in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Gundogdu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 5-year-old boy who had the complaint of swelling and pain on the right vaccine shot and right axillary areas. The right axillary area was diagnosed as reactive lymphadenitis, which we believe is a rare local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. The key message to take away from this case is that the patient had lymphadenitis as a local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. Lymphadenitis should be reported as a possible local side effect of the swine flu vaccine.

  10. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain: patient report vs. systematic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Torsten; Christrup, Lona Louring; Højsted, J

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatment....... We aimed to investigate the symptoms reported by chronic non-cancer pain patients after open-ended questioning vs. a systematic assessment using a list of symptoms, and to assess whether the patients could distinguish between the symptoms and the side effects induced by analgesics....

  11. Factors associated with the perception of side-effects relating to the use of contraceptive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Erasmus

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited research has been done in South Africa regarding the incidence of side-effects and perceptions of these among users of contraceptives. Numerous knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP surveys have been conducted by the Human Sciences Research Council (Erasmus 1981a; Erasmus 1981b; Erasmus 1982 ; Groenewald 1978 ; Lótter, Van Tonder 1976; Mostert, Malherbe 1974; Mostert 1974; Strydom 1981; Van der Merwe 1982 and in some of these studies questions concerning side-effects were included to determine reasons for discontinuation of specific contraceptive methods. The literature concerning research on side-effects related to contraceptive use usually pertains either to clinical studies

  12. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke Todokoro; Hirotaka Itakura; Takashi Ibe; Shoji Kishi

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of a...

  13. Effect of Overlaid Material on Optical Transmission of Side-Polished Fiber Made by Wheel Side Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Chen; Chun-He Bai

    2008-01-01

    The performance of optical power transmission through a side-polished fiber on which materials of different refractive indices were overlaid is investigated. The experiments show that the transmitted optical power through the side-polished fiber varies with the refractive index of the overlaid material. The result of our experiments fits well the theoretical calculation.Side-polished fiber manufactured by wheel polishing method can be used not only to control optical power transmission through the fiber core but also as a refractive index sensor.

  14. Backreaction effects on the matter side of Einstein's field equations

    CERN Document Server

    Floerchinger, Stefan; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have derived a novel and compact expression for how perturbations in the matter fields of the cosmological fluid can lead to deviations from the standard Friedmann equations. Remarkably, the dissipative damping of velocity perturbations by bulk and shear viscosity in the dark sector can modify the expansion history of the universe on arbitrarily large scales. In universes in which this effect is sufficiently sizeable, it could account for the acceleration of the cosmological expansion. But even if dark matter should be less viscous and if the effect would be correspondingly smaller, it may have observable consequences in the era of precision cosmology. Here, we review the origin of this backreaction effect and possibilities to constrain it further.

  15. Liraglutide and DPP-4 inhibitors – side effects comparative clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIMOFTE, LUMINIŢA; STRATMANN, BERND; QUESTER, WULF; BOJIŢĂ, MARIUS TRAIAN; TSCHOEPE, DIETHELM

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the side effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in comparison to those of DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin and vildagliptin), in order to determine their safety, tolerability and therapeutic efficiency. The study was carried out in the “Heart and Diabetes Center NRW” and included overweight patients with type 2 diabetes whose therapeutic regimen was switched to liraglutide or DPP-4 inhibitors. A validated questionnaire method was used to monitor the side effects during the hospitalization period, then again at 3, and 6 months after the beginning of the therapy. The therapy with liraglutide was associated with more side effects than the one with DPP-4 inhibitors. In general, side effects were declining with time, thus only few patients stopped therapy. The incretin therapy turned out to be a safe and effective therapeutic option for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26527929

  16. Performance outcomes and unwanted side effects associated with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are increasingly popular among athletes and others. Advertising for these products typically features images conjuring great muscle power and endurance; however, the scientific literature provides sparse evidence for an ergogenic role of energy drinks. Although the composition of energy drinks varies, most contain caffeine; carbohydrates, amino acids, herbs, and vitamins are other typical ingredients. This report analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on prolonged submaximal (endurance) exercise as well as on short-term strength and power (neuromuscular performance). It also analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on the fluid and electrolyte deficit during prolonged exercise. In several studies, energy drinks have been found to improve endurance performance, although the effects could be attributable to the caffeine and/or carbohydrate content. In contrast, fewer studies find an ergogenic effect of energy drinks on muscle strength and power. The existing data suggest that the caffeine dose given in studies of energy drinks is insufficient to enhance neuromuscular performance. Finally, it is unclear if energy drinks are the optimal vehicle to deliver caffeine when high doses are needed to improve neuromuscular performance.

  17. Side effects of pain and analgesia in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirkof, Paulin

    2017-03-22

    This review highlights selected effects of untreated pain and of widely used analgesics such as opioids, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and antipyretics, to illustrate the relevance of carefully planned, appropriate and controlled analgesia for greater reproducibility in animal experiments involving laboratory rodents.

  18. Severe akathisia as a side effect of metoclopramide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. van Gool (Arthur); J.K. Doorduijn (Jeanette); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCase description A case of severe metoclopramide-induced akathisia in a breast cancer patient being treated with chemotherapy is presented, eventually culminating in hospital admission. In retrospect, this adverse effect was not recognized for several weeks because the prescription had n

  19. Alcoholics Anonymous: A Wonderful Medication with Some Possible Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machell, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Describes Alcoholics Anonymous as an effective self-help treatment modality for many alcoholics. Notes that organization would seem to initially necessitate "tolerated unhealthiness" psychologically to help consolidate sobriety, suggesting abstinence first, psychological healthiness second regimen. Suggests that psychotherapists learn to…

  20. NEW APPLICATIONS OF ADAPTOGENS TO REDUCE RADIATION SIDE EFFECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, S N; Antipina, U D; Arzhakova, L I; Protodyakonov, S V

    2015-01-01

    One of the live medical issues today is to find medication to prevent adverse effects of ionizing radiation on the immune and hematopoietic systems. In Yakutia where in most of its regions the overall environmental situation is getting worse due to the development of natural deposits including radioactive deposits, this problem remains vital. The purpose of this work is to study radioprotective properties of adaptogens in the case of the hematopoietic system under irradiation. The studies were conducted on certain groups of hybrid mice. We used the methods of radiation exposure by a radiological apparatus RUM-25 on hybrid mice followed by studying the cellularity of bone marrow, spleen and thymus. The functional activity of all compartments of early hematopoiesis (bone marrow hematopoiesis) was identified by the exogenous colony forming method. The study found that the extracts of reindeer and moose antlers have a stimulating effect on the functional activity of the hematopoietic precursors in response to radiation. The study medication stimulates regeneration processes in the thymus and bone marrow after irradiation. Further, the adaptogens stimulatory effect on CFU functional activity was identified. The most pronounced effect has the extracts of reindeer antlers "Epsorin".

  1. Accumulation of Deleterious Mutations Near Sexually Antagonistic Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Connallon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutation generates a steady supply of genetic variation that, while occasionally useful for adaptation, is more often deleterious for fitness. Recent research has emphasized that the fitness effects of mutations often differ between the sexes, leading to important evolutionary consequences for the maintenance of genetic variation and long-term population viability. Some forms of sex-specific selection—i.e., stronger purifying selection in males than females—can help purge a population’s load of female-harming mutations and promote population growth. Other scenarios—e.g., sexually antagonistic selection, in which mutations that harm females are beneficial for males—inflate genetic loads and potentially dampen population viability. Evolutionary processes of sexual antagonism and purifying selection are likely to impact the evolutionary dynamics of different loci within a genome, yet theory has mostly ignored the potential for interactions between such loci to jointly shape the evolutionary genetic basis of female and male fitness variation. Here, we show that sexually antagonistic selection at a locus tends to elevate the frequencies of deleterious alleles at tightly linked loci that evolve under purifying selection. Moreover, haplotypes that segregate for different sexually antagonistic alleles accumulate different types of deleterious mutations. Haplotypes that carry female-benefit sexually antagonistic alleles preferentially accumulate mutations that are primarily male harming, whereas male-benefit haplotypes accumulate mutations that are primarily female harming. The theory predicts that sexually antagonistic selection should shape the genomic organization of genetic variation that differentially impacts female and male fitness, and contribute to sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fitness variation.

  2. Effects of SNS Activation on SSRI-Induced Sexual Side Effects Differ by SSRI

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrold, Tierney K.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2009-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with significant sexual side effects. By definition, all SSRIs increase overall serotonin (5HT) by binding to serotonin autoreceptors (5HTI A); however, each SSRI has a unique portfolio of secondary binding properties to other neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine (NE). As 5HTI A receptors mediate NE neurotransmission, SSRIs that are highly selective for 5HTI A are more likely to reduce NE efficiency; however, in SSRIs that are...

  3. Ayurveda for chemo-radiotherapy induced side effects in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metri, Kashinath; Bhargav, Hemant; Chowdhury, Praerna; Koka, Prasad S

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy drugs and radiotherapy are highly toxic and both damage adjacent healthy cells. Side effects may be acute (occurring within few weeks after therapy), intermediate or late (occurring months or years after the therapy). Some important side effects of chemotherapy are: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mucositis, alopecia, constipation etc; whereas radiation therapy though administered locally, can produce systemic side effects such as fatigue, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, alteration in the taste, sleep disturbance, headache, anemia, dry skin, constipation etc. Late complications of these therapies also include pharyngitis, esophagitis, laryngitis, persistent dysphagia, fatigue, hepatotoxicity, infertility and cognitive deficits. These arrays of side effects have a devastating effect on the quality of life of cancer survivors. Due to the inadequacy of most of the radio-protectors and chemo-protectors in controlling the side effects of conventional cancer therapy the complementary and alternative medicines have attracted the view of researchers and medical practitioners more recently. This review aims at providing a comprehensive management protocol of above mentioned chemo-radiotherapy induced side effects based on Ayurveda, which is an ancient system of traditional medicine practiced in Indian peninsula since 5000 BC. When the major side effects of chemo-radiotherapy are looked through an ayurvedic perspective, it appears that they are the manifestations of aggravated pitta dosha, especially under the group of disorders called Raktapitta (haemorrhage) or Raktadushti (vascular inflammation). Based on comprehensive review of ancient vedic literature and modern scientific evidences, ayurveda based interventions are put forth. This manuscript should help clinicians and people suffering from cancer to combat serious chemo-radiotherapy related side effects through simple but effective home-based ayurveda remedies. The remedies described are commonly available and

  4. Being green on sulphur: Targets, measures and side-effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    deep-sea trades. Even though the amounts of SOx produced by ships are substantially lower than CO2, SOx emissions are highly undesirable as they cause acid rain and undesirable health effects in humans and animals. To mitigate these adverse environmental effects, the international shipping community...... has taken substantial policy measures. With the introduction of new limits for the content of sulphur in marine fuels in Northern European and North American sea areas, short-sea companies operating in these areas will face substantial additional cost. As of 1/1/2015, international regulations...... stipulate, among other things, a 0.1%limit in the sulphur content of marine fuels, or equivalent measures limiting the percent of SOx emissions to the same amount. As low-sulphur fuel is substantially more expensive than HFO, there is little or no room within these companies current margins to absorb...

  5. The psychological side effects of acebutolol and atenolol.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M. J.; Jones, D.M.; Dart, A M; Henderson, A H

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the psychological effects of acebutolol and atenolol in sixteen patients with essential hypertension. The drugs were administered in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind manner, in single daily doses of 100 mg atenolol, 400 mg acebutolol or placebo for periods of 6 weeks, each drug period being separated by a placebo period. At each 2 weekly clinic visit, a questionnaire designed for assessment of state anxiety and state arousal was administered for self-completion....

  6. Metabolic side effects and pharmacogenetics of second-generation antipsychotics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Angela M; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly being used to treat children for a range of mental health conditions, for example, anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. SGA treatment is associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and elevated blood pressure, in some, but not all children. This review provides an overview of the potential role of pharmacogenomics in predisposing a child to unhealthy weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects with SGA treatment. Specifically, the review includes a synopsis of the evidence for cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children, illustrating the extent and depth of the problem; summarizes the potential long-term consequences of developing cardiometabolic risk during childhood and highlights genetic variants that may be useful in predicting cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children.

  7. Oesophagus side effects related to the treatment of oesophageal cancer or radiotherapy of other thoracic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebahr, Sonja; Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Nestle, Ursula; Brunner, Thomas B

    2016-08-01

    The oesophagus as a serial organ located in the central chest is frequent subject to "incidental" dose application in radiotherapy for several thoracic malignancies including oesophageal cancer itself. Especially due to the radiosensitive mucosa severe radiotherapy induced sequelae can occur, acute oesophagitis and strictures as late toxicity being the most frequent side-effects. In this review we focus on oesophageal side effects derived from treatment of gastrointestinal cancer and secondly provide an overview on oesophageal toxicity from conventional and stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy to the thoracic area in general. Available data on pathogenesis, frequency, onset, and severity of oesophageal side effects are summarized. Whereas for conventional radiotherapy the associations of applied doses to certain volumes of the oesophagus are well described, the tolerance dose to the mediastinal structures for hypofractionated therapy is unknown. The review provides available attempts to predict the risk of oesophageal side effects from dosimetric parameters of SBRT.

  8. Incidence of neuropsychiatric side effects of efavirenz in HIV-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... be at a higher risk of developing neuropsychiatric side effects. A South African study ... Five public-sector primary healthcare clinics in the. Eastern Cape ... efavirenz use as well as the subsequent management of the patient.

  9. Vaccine demand driven by vaccine side effects: dynamic implications for SIR diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero

    2010-05-21

    For infections for which the perceived risk of serious disease is steadily low, the perceived risk of suffering some vaccine side effects might become the driving force of the vaccine demand. We investigate the dynamics of SIR infections in homogeneously mixing populations where the vaccine uptake is a decreasing function of the current (or past) incidence, or prevalence, of vaccine side effects. We define an appropriate model where vaccine side-effects are modelled as functions of the age since vaccination. It happens that the vaccine uptake follows its own dynamics independent of epidemiological variables. We show the conditions under which the vaccine uptake lands on a globally stable equilibrium, or steadily oscillates, and the implications of such behaviour for the dynamics of epidemiological variables. We finally report some unexpected scenarios caused by trends in vaccine side effects.

  10. Impact of duration of therapy on side effect profile of anti- HCV protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... Keywords: Interferon, Ribavirin, Side effects, Duration of therapy, Outcomes of therapy ... problems, anemia and pulmonary fibrosis [6]. ..... Saeed A. Impact of cigarette smoking on response to.

  11. [Side effects analyses in consideration of renal function for S-1-administered patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Mina; Kimura, Michio; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Yasuda, Tadashi

    2011-06-01

    Although many analyses of S-1 side effects are reported, there are no reports where the analyses of side effects were performed in consideration of renal function, which is an important index of medication dose. Therefore, we investigated side effects in consideration of renal function. The subjects were 163 patients administered S-1 at the Department of Surgery of Ogaki Municipal Hospital, between October 2008 and December 2009. The frequency and severity of side effects were high and serious in the groupwhose creatinine clearance was low. A significant difference was observed among 3 groups with regard to thrombocytopenia and dehydration. In conclusion, we think that pharmacists must take renal function into consideration when administering medication, to keepclose medicinal guidance, and to actively observe progress.

  12. The acute side effects of bright light therapy: a placebo-controlled investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeny Botanov

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of numerous clinical and non-clinical applications of bright light therapy (LT in recent decades, the prevalence and severity of LT side effects have not yet been fully explicated. A few adverse LT effects-headache, eye strain, irritability, and nausea-have been consistently reported among depressed individuals and other psychiatric cohorts, but there exists little published evidence regarding LT side effects in non-clinical populations, who often undergo LT treatment of considerably briefer duration. Accordingly, in the present study we examined, in a randomized sample of healthy young adults, the acute side effects of exposure to a single 30-minute session of bright white light (10,000 lux versus dim red light (< 500 lux. Across a broad range of potential side effects, repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed no significant group-by-time (Pre, Post interactions. In other words, bright light exposure was not associated with a significantly higher incidence of any reported side effect than was the placebo control condition. Nevertheless, small but statistically significant increases in both eye strain and blurred vision were observed among both the LT and control groups. Overall, these results suggest that the relatively common occurrence of adverse side effects observed in the extant LT literature may not fully extend to non-clinical populations, especially for healthy young adults undergoing LT for a brief duration.

  13. Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0374 TITLE: Autism and Obesity : Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zohreh...SUBTITLE Autism and Obesity : Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...on the BMI data into obese , overweight, healthy and underweight categories. [3] Using a rigorous literature search dbSNP search, we collected data on

  14. 二甲双胍减轻糖基化终末产物对成骨细胞功能损害的观察%Metformin ameliorating the deleterious effects of advanced glycation end products on osteoblastic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄东户; 汤旭磊; 成建国; 韩婕; 刘丽娟; 傅松波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of metformin on proliferation, differentiation and mineralization in the advanced glycation end products(AGEs)-induced rat cranium osteoblasts. Methods Rat cranium osteoblasts were isolated and cultured. The proliferation of osteoblasts was assayed by MTT method, the activity of alkaline phosphatase(ALP) was measured by biochemical method, the number of mineralized nodules was assessed by Alizarin red S staining, and the calcium deposition in the mineralized nodules was detected by hydrochloric acid decalcification method. Results With 500 fig/ml AGEs, the cellular proliferation, ALP activity, number of mineralized nodules, and calcium deposition were reduced significantly. Metformine (100-500 μmol/L) increased the cellular proliferation and ALP activity, and promoted the formation of mineralized nodules and calcium deposition in both control and AGEs groups. Conclusion AGEs inhibit the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of the primary osteoblasts. Metformine strengthens the osteogenesis of osteoblasts and relieves the deleterious effect of AGEs on osteoblasts.%目的 观察二甲双胍对晚期糖基化终末产物(AGEs)诱导的大鼠颅骨成骨细胞增殖、分化、矿化的影响.方法 分离培养大鼠颅骨成骨细胞,四氮唑蓝(MTT)比色分析法测定细胞增殖,生化法测定碱性磷酸酶(ALP)活性、茜素红S钙染法检测矿化结节形成,盐酸脱钙法检测矿化结节中钙含量.结果 500μg/ml AGEs抑制成骨细胞增殖、ALP活性、钙化结节形成、钙沉积;给予二甲双胍(100~500 μmol/L)可不同程度上提高成骨细胞数量和ALP活性,促进矿化结节形成及钙沉积,减轻AGEs对成骨细胞增殖、ALP活性、钙化结节形成及钙沉积的抑制.结论 AGEs对原代成骨细胞增殖、分化与矿化产生抑制作用,二甲双胍提高成骨细胞的成骨能力,减轻AGEs对成骨细胞功能的损害.

  15. Body-drug assemblages: theorizing the experience of side effects in the context of HIV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marilou; Holmes, Dave

    2016-10-01

    Each of the antiretroviral drugs that are currently used to stop the progression of HIV infection causes its own specific side effects. Despite the expansion, multiplication, and simplification of treatment options over the past decade, side effects continue to affect people living with HIV. Yet, we see a clear disconnect between the way side effects are normalized, routinized, and framed in clinical practice and the way they are experienced by people living with HIV. This paper builds on the premise that new approaches are needed to understand side effects in a manner that is more reflective of the subjective accounts of people living with HIV. Drawing on the work of Deleuze and Guattari, it offers an original application of the theory of 'assemblage'. This theory offers a new way of theorizing side effects, and ultimately the relationship between the body and antiretroviral drugs (as technologies). Combining theory with examples derived from empirical data, we examine the multiple ways in which the body connects not only to the drugs but also to people, things, and systems. Our objective is to illustrate how this theory dares us to think differently about side effects and allows us to originally (re)think the experience of taking antiretroviral drugs. © 2016 The Authors. Nursing Philosophy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Severe side effects of health migration: stress and anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo, L M; Bazzari, M; Caprino, D

    2012-12-01

    A great deal of immigrants of very sick children treated in our country are unable to elaborate an effective coping strategy and a methodology of resilience. Their culture and communication difficulties do not allow them to build a strong self help system. Herein, we report five stories of mothers and children who were cared for in our Children's Hospital. Anger; this is quite a common emotion among many immigrant parents of sick children with high risk diseases who have been treated in our hospital for long periods of time. They live together in community housing with families from other countries, and of different religions and habits. Anger affects their personal and social well-being. Self-blame is a common expression of their condition, and they are unable to make helpful self sacrifices. They feel anger as a result of what has happened to them, and they do not have the abilities they need to activate a good defence mechanism. Resilience is completely unknown to them. In most cases, their relatives do not intend to help them. These mothers are far from their families and habits, they are alone with their child, they suffer but their relatives push them to go back home and to renounce to the hope of cure given by the physicians. They experience a loss in their self-monitoring ability to build a coping strategy and resilience. In these cases their display of anger is often exaggerated. The anger of the immigrants is an additional problem for physicians and other caregivers working in hospitals which treat immigrant children.

  17. Side effects of oxysterols: cytotoxicity, oxidation, inflammation, and phospholipidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vejux

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxysterols are 27-carbon atom molecules resulting from autoxidation or enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol. They are present in numerous foodstuffs and have been demonstrated to be present at increased levels in the plasma of patients with cardiovascular diseases and in atherosclerotic lesions. Thus, their role in lipid disorders is widely suspected, and they might also be involved in important degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, and age-related macular degeneration. Since atherosclerosis is associated with the presence of apoptotic cells and with oxidative and inflammatory processes, the ability of some oxysterols, especially 7-ketocholesterol and 7β-hydroxycholesterol, to trigger cell death, activate inflammation, and modulate lipid homeostasis is being extensively studied, especially in vitro. Thus, since there are a number of essential considerations regarding the physiological/pathophysiological functions and activities of the different oxysterols, it is important to determine their biological activities and identify their signaling pathways, when they are used either alone or as mixtures. Oxysterols may have cytotoxic, oxidative, and/or inflammatory effects, or none whatsoever. Moreover, a substantial accumulation of polar lipids in cytoplasmic multilamellar structures has been observed with cytotoxic oxysterols, suggesting that cytotoxic oxysterols are potent inducers of phospholipidosis. This basic knowledge about oxysterols contributes to a better understanding of the associated pathologies and may lead to new treatments and new drugs. Since oxysterols have a number of biological activities, and as oxysterol-induced cell death is assumed to take part in degenerative pathologies, the present review will focus on the cytotoxic activities of these compounds, the corresponding cell death signaling pathways, and associated events (oxidation, inflammation, and phospholipidosis.

  18. Effects of SNS activation on SSRI-induced sexual side effects differ by SSRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrold, Tierney K; Meston, Cindy M

    2009-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with significant sexual side effects. By definition, all SSRIs increase overall serotonin (5HT) by binding to serotonin autoreceptors (5HT(IA)); however, each SSRI has a unique portfolio of secondary binding properties to other neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine (NE). As 5HT(IA) receptors mediate NE neurotransmission, SSRIs that are highly selective for 5HT(IA) are more likely to reduce NE efficiency; however, in SSRIs that are less selective for 5HT(IA), this could be counteracted by secondary binding to NE. Norepinephrine is the major neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which has been shown to mediate genital arousal in women; thus, it is possible that increasing SNS activity in women taking SSRIs that are highly selective for 5HT(IA) may counteract sexual side effects in those women. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a reanalysis of Meston (2004)'s 8-week, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study of the effects of ephedrine (50 mg taken 1 h prior to sexual activity) on self-reported sexual functioning of women taking paroxetine (N = 5), sertraline (N = 7), or fluoxetine (N = 7). As predicted, women taking SSRIs, which are highly selective for 5HT(IA) (sertraline, paroxetine), showed improvement in sexual arousal and orgasm. By contrast, women taking SSRIs, which are less selective for 5HT(IA) relative to NE (fluoxetine), showed no change or decrease in sexual functioning. These findings have implications for treating certain SSRI-induced sexual side effects.

  19. Cognitive effects of radiation emitted by cellular phones: the influence of exposure side and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Roy; Eliyahu, Ilan; Hareuveny, Ronen; Margaliot, Menachem; Meiran, Nachshon

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the time dependence effects of exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted by standard GSM cellular phones on the cognitive functions of humans. A total of 48 healthy right-handed male subjects performed a spatial working memory task (that required either a left-hand or a right-hand response) while being exposed to one of two GSM phones placed at both sides of the head. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Each group was exposed to one of three exposure conditions: left-side of the head, right-side, or sham-exposure. The experiment consisted of 12 blocks of trials. Response times (RTs) and accuracy of the responses were recorded. It was found that the average RT of the right-hand responses under left-side exposure condition was significantly longer than those of the right-side and sham-exposure groups averaged together during the first two time blocks. These results confirmed the existence of an effect of exposure on RT, as well as the fact that exposure duration (together with the responding hand and the side of exposure) may play an important role in producing detectable RFR effects on performance. Differences in these parameters might be the reason for the failure of certain studies to detect or replicate RFR effects. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The Effects of popcorn time on Netflix in a two–sided market

    OpenAIRE

    Ghini, Matteo Blomberg

    2016-01-01

    My thesis discusses the effects on legal streaming agents of entry of free, but illegal, substitutes, in a two–sided video streaming market. Legal streaming agents rely on support from two very different, but inevitably linked, groups: studios and consumers, while their free counterparts rely on support only from consumers. As a result, the pricing decisions for legal streaming agents are far more complex than those of firms operating in regular single–sided markets and of firms ...

  1. Predicting Drugs Side Effects Based on Chemical-Chemical Interactions and Protein-Chemical Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A drug side effect is an undesirable effect which occurs in addition to the intended therapeutic effect of the drug. The unexpected side effects that many patients suffer from are the major causes of large-scale drug withdrawal. To address the problem, it is highly demanded by pharmaceutical industries to develop computational methods for predicting the side effects of drugs. In this study, a novel computational method was developed to predict the side effects of drug compounds by hybridizing the chemical-chemical and protein-chemical interactions. Compared to most of the previous works, our method can rank the potential side effects for any query drug according to their predicted level of risk. A training dataset and test datasets were constructed from the benchmark dataset that contains 835 drug compounds to evaluate the method. By a jackknife test on the training dataset, the 1st order prediction accuracy was 86.30%, while it was 89.16% on the test dataset. It is expected that the new method may become a useful tool for drug design, and that the findings obtained by hybridizing various interactions in a network system may provide useful insights for conducting in-depth pharmacological research as well, particularly at the level of systems biomedicine.

  2. Quantitative prediction of drug side effects based on drug-related features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanqing; Zhang, Wen

    2017-09-01

    Unexpected side effects of drugs are great concern in the drug development, and the identification of side effects is an important task. Recently, machine learning methods are proposed to predict the presence or absence of interested side effects for drugs, but it is difficult to make the accurate prediction for all of them. In this paper, we transform side effect profiles of drugs as their quantitative scores, by summing up their side effects with weights. The quantitative scores may measure the dangers of drugs, and thus help to compare the risk of different drugs. Here, we attempt to predict quantitative scores of drugs, namely the quantitative prediction. Specifically, we explore a variety of drug-related features and evaluate their discriminative powers for the quantitative prediction. Then, we consider several feature combination strategies (direct combination, average scoring ensemble combination) to integrate three informative features: chemical substructures, targets, and treatment indications. Finally, the average scoring ensemble model which produces the better performances is used as the final quantitative prediction model. Since weights for side effects are empirical values, we randomly generate different weights in the simulation experiments. The experimental results show that the quantitative method is robust to different weights, and produces satisfying results. Although other state-of-the-art methods cannot make the quantitative prediction directly, the prediction results can be transformed as the quantitative scores. By indirect comparison, the proposed method produces much better results than benchmark methods in the quantitative prediction. In conclusion, the proposed method is promising for the quantitative prediction of side effects, which may work cooperatively with existing state-of-the-art methods to reveal dangers of drugs.

  3. Predicting drug side-effect profiles: a chemical fragment-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoven Véronique

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug side-effects, or adverse drug reactions, have become a major public health concern. It is one of the main causes of failure in the process of drug development, and of drug withdrawal once they have reached the market. Therefore, in silico prediction of potential side-effects early in the drug discovery process, before reaching the clinical stages, is of great interest to improve this long and expensive process and to provide new efficient and safe therapies for patients. Results In the present work, we propose a new method to predict potential side-effects of drug candidate molecules based on their chemical structures, applicable on large molecular databanks. A unique feature of the proposed method is its ability to extract correlated sets of chemical substructures (or chemical fragments and side-effects. This is made possible using sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA. In the results, we show the usefulness of the proposed method by predicting 1385 side-effects in the SIDER database from the chemical structures of 888 approved drugs. These predictions are performed with simultaneous extraction of correlated ensembles formed by a set of chemical substructures shared by drugs that are likely to have a set of side-effects. We also conduct a comprehensive side-effect prediction for many uncharacterized drug molecules stored in DrugBank, and were able to confirm interesting predictions using independent source of information. Conclusions The proposed method is expected to be useful in various stages of the drug development process.

  4. Is AL-438 likely to have fewer side effects than the glucocorticoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggrell, Sheila

    2003-07-01

    The glucocorticoids are effective anti-inflammatory agents but their use may be limited by systemic side effects. AL-438 and prednisolone inhibit binding to glucocorticoid and mineralcorticoid receptors with similar potency. In rat models of acute and chronic inflammation, AL-438 was effective but less potent than prednisolone. In fasted overnight rats, prednisolone was hyperglycaemic but AL-438 was not. Prednisolone also inhibited bone formation in rats, whereas AL-438 did not. The differing profile of AL-438 relative to prednisolone may be due to altered interactions between the receptor and selected co-activators. AL-438 may have lesser side effects than prednisolone.

  5. Effect of levomepromazine on EEG and on clinical side effects after lumbar myelography with metrizamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standnes, B.; Oftedal, S.I.; Weber, H. (Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo (Norway))

    1982-01-01

    In patients with lumbago-sciatica levomepromazine is a potent supplement to analgesics in pain treatment. The hypothesis that neuroleptics increase the risk of epileptic seizures after metrizamide myelography was not comfirmed in a series of 77 patients, 26 with and 51 without levomepromazine medication, before and after lumbar metrizamide myelography. No differences existed between the groups with regard to the appearance of EEG abnormalities such as slow waves or spikes. Mild side effects were more frequent in the levomepromazine group, except nausea and vomiting. Lumbar metrizamide epidurography in 30 patients did not cause any abnormal EEG.

  6. Endocrine side-effects of anti-cancer drugs: thyroid effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illouz, Frédéric; Braun, Doreen; Briet, Claire; Schweizer, Ulrich; Rodien, Patrice

    2014-09-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are currently used by most oncologists. Among their side effects, thyroid dysfunctions are nowadays clearly observed. Whereas changes in thyroid function tests have been originally described with sunitinib, we now know that many TKIs can induce hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. In this study, the various molecules implicated in thyroid dysfunctions are analysed and the latest data on physiopathological mechanisms are approached in order to propose a strategy of thyroid monitoring of patients on TKI therapy. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  7. Mobile Phone Based System Opportunities to Home-based Managing of Chemotherapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Applying mobile base systems in cancer care especially in chemotherapy management have remarkable growing in recent decades. Because chemotherapy side effects have significant influences on patient’s lives, therefore it is necessary to take ways to control them. This research has studied some experiences of using mobile phone based systems to home-based monitor of chemotherapy side effects in cancer. Methods: In this literature review study, search was conducted with keywords like cancer, chemotherapy, mobile phone, information technology, side effects and self managing, in Science Direct, Google Scholar and Pub Med databases since 2005. Results: Today, because of the growing trend of the cancer, we need methods and innovations such as information technology to manage and control it. Mobile phone based systems are the solutions that help to provide quick access to monitor chemotherapy side effects for cancer patients at home. Investigated studies demonstrate that using of mobile phones in chemotherapy management have positive results and led to patients and clinicians satisfactions. Conclusion: This study shows that the mobile phone system for home-based monitoring chemotherapy side effects works well. In result, knowledge of cancer self-management and the rate of patient’s effective participation in care process improved. PMID:27482134

  8. Side-effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, M; Böddeker, I R; Decker, T; Buch, M; Vogel, M; Labek, G; Maier, M; Loew, M; Maier-Boerries, O; Fischer, J; Betthäuser, A; Rehack, H C; Kanovsky, W; Müller, I; Gerdesmeyer, L; Rompe, J D

    2002-05-01

    Apart from a few observational reports, there are no studies on the side-effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of insertion tendopathies. Within the framework of a randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blind, multicentre study to test the effectiveness of ESWT in the case of lateral epicondylitis (LE), side-effects were systematically recorded. A total of 272 patients from 15 centres was allocated at random to active ESWT (3 x 2000 pulses, energy flux density ED(+) 0.04 to 0.22 mJ/mm(2) under local anaesthesia) or placebo ESWT. In all, 399 ESWT and 402 placebo treatments were analysed. More side-effects were documented in the ESWT group (OR = 4.3, CI = [2.9; 6.3]) than in the placebo group. Most frequently, transitory reddening of the skin (21.1%), pain (4.8%) and small haematomas (3.0%) were found. Migraine was registered in four and syncopes in three instances after ESWT. ESWT for LE with an energy flux density of ED(+) 0.04 to 0.22 mJ/mm(2) is a treatment method which has very few side-effects. The possibility of migraine being triggered by ESWT and the risk of a syncope should be taken into account in the future. No physical shock wave parameters could be definitely identified as the cause of the side-effects observed.

  9. Side-effects of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: clinical evolution and predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guehl, D; Cuny, E; Benazzouz, A; Rougier, A; Tison, F; Machado, S; Grabot, D; Gross, C; Bioulac, B; Burbaud, P

    2006-09-01

    Chronic bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an alternative treatment for disabling forms of Parkinson's disease when on-off fluctuations and levodopa-induced dyskinesias compromise patients' quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of side-effects during the first year of follow-up and search for clinical predictive factors accounting for their occurrence. We compared the frequency of side-effects at 3 and 12 months after surgery in a cohort of 44 patients. The off-medication scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II, III, axial symptoms, disease duration and age at surgery were retained for correlation analysis. Dysarthria/hypophonia, weight gain and postural instability were the most frequent chronic side-effects. Whereas dysarthria/hypophonia remained stable over time, weight gain and postural instability increased during the first year post-op. High axial and UPDRS II scores at surgery were predictive of dysarthria/hypophonia. Age and axial score at surgery were positively correlated with postural instability. Despite the occurrence of side-effects, the benefit/side-effects ratio of STN stimulation was largely positive during the first year of follow-up. Age, intensity of axial symptoms and UDPRS II off-medication score before surgery are predictive factors of dysarthria/hypophonia and postural instability after surgery.

  10. Side effects induced by the acute levodopa challenge in Parkinson’s Disease and atypical parkinsonisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostile, Giovanni; Dibilio, Valeria; Sciacca, Giorgia; Contrafatto, Donatella; Cicero, Calogero Edoardo; Raciti, Loredana; Luca, Antonina; Zappia, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Acute levodopa challenge may be performed to predict levodopa chronic responsiveness. The aim of the study was to investigate frequency of side effects during the acute levodopa challenge in PD and atypical parkinsonisms. Methods We enrolled 34 de novo PD patients and 29 patients affected by atypical parkinsonisms (Multiple System Atrophy, MSA, n = 10; Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, PSP, n = 12 and Corticobasal Degeneration, CBD, n = 7) who underwent an acute levodopa challenge. Side effects occurring during test were recorded. Results Side effects were more frequent among atypical parkinsonisms as unique group when compared to PD patients (64.3% versus 23.5%; p-value 0.002) with an adjusted OR of 4.36 (95%CI 1.40–13.5). Each atypical parkinsonisms showed almost double occurrence of side effects (MSA 90%, PSP 41.7% and CBD 57%). Conclusions Side effects during acute levodopa challenge may be frequent in atypical parkinsonisms. This information could be useful in order to better prepare the patient for the test. Furthermore, it could represent a useful cue in differential diagnosis with PD. PMID:28207803

  11. Does contraceptive treatment in wildlife result in side effects? A review of quantitative and anecdotal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Meeghan E; Cameron, Elissa Z

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of contraceptive treatments has been extensively tested, and several formulations are effective at reducing fertility in a range of species. However, these formulations should minimally impact the behavior of individuals and populations before a contraceptive is used for population manipulation, but these effects have received less attention. Potential side effects have been identified theoretically and we reviewed published studies that have investigated side effects on behavior and physiology of individuals or population-level effects, which provided mixed results. Physiological side effects were most prevalent. Most studies reported a lack of secondary effects, but were usually based on qualitative data or anecdotes. A meta-analysis on quantitative studies of side effects showed that secondary effects consistently occur across all categories and all contraceptive types. This contrasts with the qualitative studies, suggesting that anecdotal reports are insufficient to investigate secondary impacts of contraceptive treatment. We conclude that more research is needed to address fundamental questions about secondary effects of contraceptive treatment and experiments are fundamental to conclusions. In addition, researchers are missing a vital opportunity to use contraceptives as an experimental tool to test the influence of reproduction, sex and fertility on the behavior of wildlife species.

  12. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jaial [Dept. of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

  13. EFFECTS OF SMALL-SIDED GAMES ON PHYSICAL CONDITIONING AND PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Katis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine, first, the movement actions performed during two different small-sided games and, second, their effects on a series of field endurance and technical tests. Thirty-four young soccer players (age: 13 ± 0.9 yrs; body mass: 62.3 ± 15.1 kg; height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m participated in the study. Small-sided games included three-a-side (3 versus 3 players and six-a-side (6 versus 6 players games consisting of 10 bouts of 4 min duration with 3 min active recovery between bouts. Soccer player performance was evaluated using five field tests: a 30m sprint, b throw-in for distance, c Illinois Agility Test, d dribbling the ball and e horizontal jump before, in the middle and after the implementation of both game situations. Heart rate was monitored during the entire testing session. Each game was also filmed to measure soccer movements within the game. The ANOVA analysis indicated that the three-a- side games displayed significantly higher heart rate values compared with the six-a-side games (p < 0.05. The number of short passes, kicks, tackles, dribbles and scoring goals were significantly higher during the three-a-side compared with the six-a-side game condition (p < 0. 05 while players performed more long passes and headed the ball more often during the six-a-side (p < 0.05. After the three-a-side games, there was a significant decline in sprint and agility performance (p < 0.05, while after both game conditions significant alterations in the throw-in and the horizontal jump performance were observed (p < 0.05. The results of the present study indicated that three-a-side games provide higher stimulus for physical conditioning and technical improvement than six-a-side games and their use for training young soccer players is recommended

  14. Managing patients with side effects and adverse events to immunoglobulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Gholamreza; Abolhassani, Hassan; Asgardoon, Mohammad Hossein; Shaghaghi, Shiva; Negahdari, Babak; Mohammadi, Javad; Rezaei, Nima; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin therapy has not only served as a lifesaving approach for the prevention and treatment of infections in primary and secondary immunodeficiency diseases, but has also been used as an immunomodulatory agent for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders and to provide passive immunity for some infectious diseases. Most of the adverse effects associated with immunoglobulin therapy are mild, transient and self-limiting. However, serious side effects also occur. Therefore, to minimize the adverse events of immunoglobulin therapy, specialist review of patient clinical status and immunoglobulin products, in addition to selection of appropriate treatment strategy for the management of patients with associated side effects and adverse events, are crucial.

  15. Histopathological study into side-effect toxicity of some drugs used in treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Shazly, M O; Afify, M M; el-Dieb, M K

    1989-03-01

    The effect of cis-chlorodiamine platinum (cisplatin) on different tissues of rat was studied. Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity were clearly observed both clinically and histologically. The minimising action of penicillamine as a chelating agent and/or lasix as a diuretic on the toxic side-effect of cisplatin was also studied. Both agents succeeded in reducing the toxic side-effect of cisplatin to some extent but failed to reduce mortality among the experimental animals. The study has also manifested liver and heart to be additional organs susceptible to damage, following cisplatin treatment.

  16. Study of the intravaginal insert (IVI): acceptability, side effects, and post-coital spermicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M; Asch, R H

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe their experience with a group of 49 sexually active, already protected women in order to evaluate the acceptability, side effects and post-coital spermicidal activity of a new vaginal contraceptive. The intravaginal insert (IVI) consists of a polyester resin plug (sponge) containing a 5% solution of nonoxynol-9 bound in a cold formation process, and having a cotton loop attached to the lower end. The results of this study indicate that this new vaginal contraceptive is free of major side effects, is well accepted by users, and has strong spermicidal and mechanical activity. Future clinical testing in order to try its anti-conceptive effectiveness is warranted.

  17. Side effects can enhance treatment response through expectancy effects: an experimental analgesic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Chantal; Kirsch, Irving; Zion, Sean R; Lee, Yvonne C; Jensen, Karin B; Sadler, Pamela; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Edwards, Robert R

    2017-02-04

    In randomized controlled trials, medication side effects may lead to beliefs that one is receiving the active intervention and enhance active treatment responses, thereby increasing drug-placebo differences. We tested these hypotheses with an experimental double-blind randomized controlled trial of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with and without the addition of atropine to induce side effects. One hundred healthy volunteers were told they would be randomized to either combined analgesics that might produce dry mouth or inert placebos. In reality, they were randomized double blind, double-dummy to 1 of the 4 conditions: (1) 100 mg diclofenac + 1.2 mg atropine, (2) placebo + 1.2 mg atropine, (3) 100 mg diclofenac + placebo, or (4) placebo + placebo, and tested with heat-induced pain. Groups did not differ significantly in demographics, temperature producing moderate pain, state anxiety, or depression. Analgesia was observed in all groups; there was a significant interaction between diclofenac and atropine, without main effects. Diclofenac alone was not better than double-placebo. The addition of atropine increased pain relief more than 3-fold among participants given diclofenac (d = 0.77), but did not enhance the response to placebo (d = 0.09). A chain of mediation analysis demonstrated that the addition of atropine increased dry mouth symptoms, which increased beliefs that one had received the active medication, which, in turn, increased analgesia. In addition to this indirect effect of atropine on analgesia (via dry mouth and beliefs), analyses suggest that among those who received diclofenac, atropine directly increased analgesia. This possible synergistic effect between diclofenac and atropine might warrant future research.

  18. Age-related differences in renal side-effects of radiation and chemotherapy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.T.M. Jongejan (Mieke)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe improved life-expectancy of cancer patient has brought to light late sequelae of oncology therapy. This is especially true for pediatric patients. Renal damage is one of the adverse side-effects of anti-tumor therapy that may occur. Studies conceming damaging effects of radiotherapy

  19. Cardiovascular Side Effects of Atomoxetine and Its Interactions with Inhibitors of the Cytochrome P450 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence. Classically, stimulants have been used in the treatment of this condition. Atomoxetine (Strattera; Eli Lilly and Company is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, one of the first medications in the nonstimulant class of medications that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine is a phenoxypropylamine derivative and is structurally related to the antidepressant fluoxetine. The common side effects reported with the use of atomoxetine include mainly GI disturbances. Cardiovascular side effects are less commonly reported. The increase in the noradrenergic tone may explain some of the side effects noted with the use of this medication. Here, we present a case of a patient who presented with syncope, orthostatic hypotension, and tachycardia and discuss the various clinical implications based on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug.

  20. Metabolic and Endocrine Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Tahiroglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available omorbid psychiatric disorders, frequent hospitalization, multiple outpatient treatment, prior history of hypertension, obesity and lipid dysregulation are associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in children. Side effects of antipsychotic drugs and their management have recently become a major subject of research due to enhanced antipsychotic drug usage in child and adolescents. Prevention strategies are usually preferred to secondary or tertiary strategies in the management of metabolic syndrome associated with antipsychotic drugs. Clinicians should present multidisciplinary approach to endocrine and metabolic side effects due to antipsychotic use in pediatric patient groups and avoid multiple drug use in such patients. In this paper, we briefly reviewed metabolic side effects of second generation antipsychotic drugs in child and adolescent population, possible mechanisms of susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and pharmacological and non pharmacological treatment approach to prevention of weight gain.

  1. The effects of side-artifacts on the elastic modulus of trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Un, Kerem; Bevill, Grant; Keaveny, Tony M

    2006-01-01

    Determining accurate density-mechanical property relationships for trabecular bone is critical for correct characterization of this important structure-function relation. When testing any excised specimen of trabecular bone, an unavoidable experimental artifact originates from the sides of the specimen where peripheral trabeculae lose their vertical load-bearing capacity due to interruption of connectivity, a phenomenon denoted here as the 'side-artifact'. We sought in this study to quantify the magnitude of such side-artifact errors in modulus measurement and to do so as a function of the trabecular architecture and specimen size. Using parametric computational analysis of high-resolution micro-CT-based finite-element models of cores of elderly human vertebral trabecular bone, a specimen-specific correction factor for the side-artifact was quantified as the ratio of the side-artifact-free apparent modulus (Etrue) to the apparent modulus that would be measured in a typical experiment (Emeasured). We found that the width over which the peripheral trabeculae were mostly unloaded was between 0.19 and 0.58 mm. The side-artifact led to an underestimation error in Etrue of over 50% in some specimens, having a mean (+/-SD) of 27+/-11%. There was a trend for the correction factor to linearly increase as volume fraction decreased (p=0.001) and as mean trabecular separation increased (perror increased substantially as specimen size decreased. Two methods used for correcting for the side-artifact were both successful in bringing Emeasured into statistical agreement with Etrue. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of almost all literature data on trabecular bone mechanical properties since they indicate that such properties need to be adjusted to eliminate the substantial effects of side-artifacts in order to provide more accurate estimates of in situ behavior.

  2. Side-group size effects on interfaces and glass formation in supported polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenjie; Song, Jake; Hsu, David D.; Keten, Sinan

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies on glass-forming polymers near interfaces have emphasized the importance of molecular features such as chain stiffness, side-groups, molecular packing, and associated changes in fragility as key factors that govern the magnitude of Tg changes with respect to the bulk in polymer thin films. However, how such molecular features are coupled with substrate and free surface effects on Tg in thin films remains to be fully understood. Here, we employ a chemically specific coarse-grained polymer model for methacrylates to investigate the role of side-group volume on glass formation in bulk polymers and supported thin films. Our results show that bulkier side-groups lead to higher bulk Tg and fragility and are associated with a pronounced free surface effect on overall Tg depression. By probing local Tg within the films, however, we find that the polymers with bulkier side-groups experience a reduced confinement-induced increase in local Tg near a strongly interacting substrate. Further analyses indicate that this is due to the packing frustration of chains near the substrate interface, which lowers the attractive interactions with the substrate and thus lessens the surface-induced reduction in segmental mobility. Our results reveal that the size of the polymer side-group may be a design element that controls the confinement effects induced by the free surface and substrates in supported polymer thin films. Our analyses provide new insights into the factors governing polymer dynamics in bulk and confined environments.

  3. Extending Software Transactional Memory in Clojure with Side-Effects and Transaction Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kejser; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2016-01-01

    do however not support execution of code with side-effects and provide no methods for synchronising threads. Additional concurrency mechanisms on top of STM are needed for these use cases, increasing the complexity of the code. We present multiple constructs allowing functions with side-effects...... to be executed as part of a transaction. These constructs are made accessible through a uniform interface, making them interchangeable. We present constructs providing explicit control of transactions. Through these constructs transactions can synchronise threads based on the current program state, abort...

  4. A study on the side effects of adoption of risk informed regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Pyeong; Lee, Kyeong Jin; Cheong, Wun Gwan; Song, Jong Sun; Na, Man Gyun; Paek, Won Phil; Yeom, Yu Seon; Hwang, Jeong Rae; Oh, Su Jin [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The objective of this project is to analyze the side effects of adoption of Risk Informed Regulation. To do so, critical issues of RIR are derived, and develop reasonable strategy to adopt RIR system. The final research goal of this project is to develop a reasonable strategy to adopt RIR system. The scope of this project is to survey the trends of RIR system of advanced nations, and study the side effects, i.e, safety aspects, economical aspects, safety regulation system aspects, and public acceptance aspects of adopting the RIR system. Also, several possible problems which can be made by adopting RIR system are analyzed.

  5. Management of side effects of BCR/ABL-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm therapies. Focus on anagrelide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antelo, María Luisa; de Las Heras, Natalia; Gonzalez Porras, Jose Ramón; Kerguelen, Ana; Raya, Jose María

    2015-12-01

    Although hydroxyurea is considered the first-line cytoreductive therapy in high-risk patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia, approximately 20-25% of patients develop resistance or intolerance and they need an alternative therapy. Anagrelide is the treatment of choice in patients with essential thrombocythemia intolerant or with resistance to hydroxyurea. Anagrelide is usually well tolerated. Although there is concern about the increased risk of cardiac side effects, in most cases these are mild, and easily manageable. In this paper, the available evidence about the management of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, with a special focus on the side effects of drug therapies is reviewed.

  6. Sneaky side effects and ineffectiveness of an immunotherapy with ipilimumab in a case of metastatic melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecké, Nathalie; Zimmer, Anna; Friesenhahn-Ochs, Bettina; Müller, Cornelia S. L.; Vogt, Thomas; Pföhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ipilimumab is an anti-CTLA-4 antibody that is approved for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma. Side-effects are mostly immune-mediated and in many cases the lack of specific symptoms leads to delayed diagnosis and treatment of adverse events. We present the case of a female patient who experienced an uncommon combination of adverse reactions while undergoing therapy with ipilimumab and where the absence of specificity of the symptoms led to late diagnosis and treatment of side effects. Autoimmune disease was neither associated with tumor response nor with prolonged survival. PMID:27574531

  7. [Side effects of chemotherapy in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and concomitant diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, O D

    2003-01-01

    As many as 395 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis concurrent with other illnesses were examined. It has been ascertained that in 57.8 percent of cases there occurs a side effect in the wake of the antituberculous drug administration. The following were recognized as ill effects of the drugs employed--allergic reactions, candidiasis, disbacteriosis, toxic reactions,--in 25.44%, 3.07%, 7.02%, and 64.47% of cases respectively. Revealed in the above series was a marked side effect on the digestive organs, neurotoxic reactions, toxic effect on the cardiovascular system in 28.08%, 15.35%, 10.53% of cases respectively. The most frequently seen side effect was due to rifampicin (23.25%), streptomycin (18.42%), isoniazid (17.08%). The least number of complications was with taking etambutol--3.94%. In 43.42% of cases, the identified side effect necessitates withdrawal of the drug, in 56.58% of cases, the management of the concomitant medical problems, a change in routes of administration of medicines, and combined employment of antihistaminic drugs and hyposensitizing methodological approaches to the management of the condition permitted carrying on with the therapy instituted.

  8. Usage and Perceived Side Effects of Personal Protective Measures against Mosquitoes among Current Users in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Charu; Kumar, Rajesh; Meena, G S; Singh, M M; Sahoo, Jyotiranjan; Ingle, G K

    2014-01-01

    Background. Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The use of personal protective measures (PPM) like mats, bednets, screening, repellents, liquid vaporizers, mosquito coils, and so forth has been advocated as an effective tool in control of mosquito-borne diseases, but data about the safety profile of personal protective measures is still scarce. Objective. To study the usage and side effects of personal protective measures against mosquitoes among current users in Delhi. Materials and Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study among 350 adult individuals selected by systematic sampling method. Data was collected using pretested semistructured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square/Fisher's Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P value Personal protective measures were used by 219 (62.5%) subjects. Liquid vaporizer was the most preferred method (41.4%). Most common perceived side effect of personal protective measures was headache (7.7%). Other perceived side effects were cough (3.2%), sore throat (2.7%), allergy (1.3%), and eye irritation (0.9%) predominantly among coil users. Conclusion. There is a need to have a close watch for side effects of personal protective measures among users. Further research is also needed to develop safe and effective personal protective measures against mosquitoes.

  9. Real World Data Driven Evolution of Volvo Cars' Side Impact Protection Systems and their Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Lindman, Magdalena; Svanberg, Bo; Carlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the outcome of the continuous improved occupant protection over the last two decades for front seat near side occupants in side impacts based on a real world driven working process. The effectiveness of four generations of improved side impact protection are calculated based on data from Volvo's statistical accident database of Volvo Cars in Sweden. Generation I includes vehicles with a new structural and interior concept (SIPS). Generation II includes vehicles with structural improvements and a new chest airbag (SIPSbag). Generation III includes vehicles with further improved SIPS and SIPSbag as well as the new concept with a head protecting Inflatable Curtain (IC). Generation IV includes the most recent vehicles with further improvements of all the systems plus advanced sensors and seat belt pretensioner activation. Compared to baseline vehicles, vehicles of generation I reduce MAIS2+ injuries by 54%, generation II by 61% and generation III by 72%. For generation IV effectiveness figures cannot be calculated because of the lack of MAIS2+ injuries. A continuous improved performance is also seen when studying the AIS2+ pelvis, abdomen, chest and head injuries separately. By using the same real world driven working process, future improvements and possibly new passive as well as active safety systems, will be developed with the aim of further improved protection to near side occupants in side impacts.

  10. Dark Side of Clarity: Its Effect on Knowledge Production and Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Wolfberg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Law enforcement decision-makers rely on intelligence analysts to produce intelligence products that are clear. Yet, intelligence analysts live in a world characterised by ambiguity and information overload. This paper examines the intellectual journey that leads to clarity of thought, and the effect of the dark side of clarity on producing knowledge for decision-making. The paper asked, how does the dark side of clarity manifest itself to analyst and decision-maker? The result is counterintuitive; while the bright side of clarity is expected, and demanded because of its benefit to decision-making, the dark side of clarity co-exists in the shadows of certainty and makes it difficult to think critically. Neither analyst nor decision-maker is likely aware of this negative effect. To make this dark side of clarity visible, recommendations are made that begin with raising analyst awareness by augmenting existing training. Then, decision-maker awareness can be approached through training and facilitated coaching.

  11. Effects of alkyl side chains on properties of aliphatic amino acids probed using quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Aravindhan; Wang, Feng; Brunger, Michael; Prince, Kevin

    2011-09-01

    Effects of alkyl side chains (R-) on the electronic structural properties of aliphatic amino acids are investigated using quantum mechanical approaches. The carbon (C 1s) binding energy spectra of the aliphatic amino acids are derived from the C 1s spectrum of glycine (the parent spectrum) by the addition of spectral peaks, depending on the alkyl side chains, appearing in the lower energy region IP aliphatic amino acids owing to perturbations depending on the size and structure of the alkyl chains. The pattern of the N 1s and O 1s spectra in glycine is retained in the spectra of the other amino acids with small shifts to lower energy, again depending on the alkyl side chain. The Hirshfeld charge analyses confirm the observations. The alkyl effects on the valence binding energy spectra of the amino acids are concentrated in the middle valence energy region of 12-16 eV, and hence this energy region of 12-16 eV is considered as the `fingerprint' of the alkyl side chains. Selected valence orbitals, either inside or outside of the alkyl fingerprint region, are presented using both density distributions and orbital momentum distributions, in order to understand the chemical bonding of the amino acids. It is also observed that the HOMO-LUMO energy gaps of the aliphatic amino acids are reduced with the growth of the alkyl side chain.

  12. Exploring the Process of Conveying Information about Side Effects: A Qualitative Study among Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Kairuz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored how a sample of Australian pharmacists would convey information about the side effects of a medicine, if they were to counsel a patient. A qualitative method was selected and written responses to a case-based scenario were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The grounded theory approach elicited a fluid and dynamic model for side effect counselling. The study identified strategies for counselling, such as encouraging adherence through emphasising the benefits of the medication, referral to the prescriber, and providing empathy and reassurance to ease anxiety and address concerns. Pharmacists acknowledged the potential for risk, although only a minority used numerical descriptors. The final themes or outcomes were that pharmacists aim to allay fears, minimise harm and promote medication use when counselling about side effects. Professional empathy, the acknowledgment of patient concerns, and the importance of providing tailored information to promote medication adherence, emerged as features of the quality use of medicines. This study contributes to existing literature by identifying the role of allaying patients’ fears when conveying side effect information. It also describes a process to convey tailored information. Implications for practice include the importance of effective use of communication strategies to encourage adherence, as the appropriate use of medication can lead to positive health outcomes.

  13. Supplementation with Vitamin B6 Reduces Side Effects in Cambodian Women Using Oral Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivorn Var

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects. Aim: In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo. Results: The intervention participants (n = 577 reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434. Conclusion: Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption.

  14. Relationships among morphine metabolism, pain and side effects during long-term treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gertrud; Christrup, Lona Louring; Sjøgren, Per

    2003-01-01

    The two metabolites of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), have been studied intensively in animals and humans during the past 30 years in order to elucidate their precise action and possible contribution to the desired effects and side effects seen after...... found evidence for a contributory effect of M6G to the overall effects observed after morphine administration. Several studies have demonstrated that administration of M6G is accompanied by fewer and a milder degree of opioid-like side effects than observed after morphine administration, but most...... that M6G may be a more potent analgesic than morphine. Results from human studies regarding the analgesic effect of M6G are not unanimous. The potency ratio between systemic M6G and morphine in humans has not been settled, but is probably lower than previously assumed. Hitherto, only a few studies have...

  15. PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G FAGHIHI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients.
    Methods: A clinical trial was performed in AI-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan for six months in 2000. 80 patients with mild to moderate facial acne were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 (controls received topical solution of tretinoin 0.05 percent nightly and group 2 (cases received daily oral 100mg of Vit. E in addition. All patients were followed at 1, 4 and 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Children under 12 years old, pregnant or lactating women were excluded.
    Results: At the end of one week, no cutaneous side effects were observed in 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 15 percent (6 of group 2 (P > 0.05. At the end of 4 weeks, 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 60 percent (24 of group 2 were without any cutaneous complications, while at the end of 6 weeks, 35 percent (14 of group 1 in comparison to 75 percent (30 of group 2 were free of any cutaneous side effects (P < 0.05. The most common side effect in both groups was exfoliation.
    Discussion: Daily oral 100 mg of Vit. E has been effective in preventing cutaneous complications of topical tretinoin in acne management, but there is a delay of one week in its onset of action. Meanwhile, Vitamine E is a safe modality with no undesirable effects in acne patients.

  16. Antipsychotic Medication in Children and Adolescents : A Descriptive Review of the Effects on Prolactin Level and Associated Side Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. Method: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapin

  17. Antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents: a descriptive review of the effects on prolactin level and associated side effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Boot, A.M.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. METHOD: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapin

  18. Antipsychotic Medication in Children and Adolescents : A Descriptive Review of the Effects on Prolactin Level and Associated Side Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. Method: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapin

  19. Antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents: a descriptive review of the effects on prolactin level and associated side effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Boot, A.M.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. METHOD: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapin

  20. Treatment side effects and follow-up of malignant melanoma; Therapienebenwirkungen und Nachsorge bei malignem Melanom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, T. [Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Zentralinstitut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Loquai, C. [Universitaetsmedizin der Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Hautklinik und Poliklinik, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-01-30

    Side effects in the therapy of malignant melanoma are primarily of importance for radiologists in advanced tumor stages. The available treatment options and their respective side effect profiles have undergone a profound change in recent years after the introduction of modern oncological therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) with an increasing focus on individual tumor biology and differ significantly from those of classical chemotherapy. The immunotherapeutic agents, in particular ipilimumab, take on a special position because of their specific immune-mediated mechanisms of action and the associated side effects, so-called immune-related adverse events (irAE). The majority of the treatment effects are manifested on the skin (> 50 %) and are generally not detectable by diagnostic radiology. Only a comparatively small proportion of treatment side effects is detectable with diagnostic imaging (15-20 %) but as in the example of therapy-induced colitis with ipilimumab, may be rapidly fatal. In addition to colitis (10-20 %) further therapy side effects apparent in diagnostic imaging are hypophysitis (1.8-17 %), thyroiditis (0.8 %), myositis (1.7 %), fasciitis and sarcoid-like lymph node alterations (6.8 %). To detect radiologically detectable side effects early on and to delineate them especially from tumor progression and (opportunistic) infections, detailed knowledge of the therapeutic methods for melanoma, the mechanisms of action and in particular the sometimes very specific side effects is imperative for radiologists. (orig.) [German] Nebenwirkungen der Therapie des malignen Melanoms sind fuer den Radiologen primaer in fortgeschrittenen Tumorstadien von Bedeutung. Die zur Verfuegung stehenden Therapieoptionen und ihre jeweiligen Nebenwirkungsprofile haben sich in den letzten Jahren nach Einfuehrung moderner onkologischer Therapieoptionen, die sich zunehmend an der individuellen Tumorbiologie orientieren (zielgerichtete Therapie, Immuntherapie), einem

  1. Of ants and men the unexpected side effects of complexity in society

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G

    2014-01-01

    Why do things go wrong? Why, despite all the planning and care in the world, do things go from bad to worse? This book argues that it is because we are like the ants. Just as ants create an anthill without being aware of it, unintended side effects of human activity create all manner of social trends and crises. The book traces the way these trends emerge and the role they play in some of the major issues of our time. One of the greatest challenges today is the complexity of our social and economic systems. Every action has side effects that people often ignore or fail to see. The book examines the ways in which limitations in our thinking and behaviour lead to unintended side effects. It looks at the role played by complex networks of interactions. Finally, it looks at the way side effects of new technologies, especially computers and communication, have created an Information Revolution, the full repercussions of which are yet to be seen. In our race to create new technologies and sustain indefinite economi...

  2. Pharmacy customers' knowledge of side effects of purchased medicines in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, Veronika J.; Taxis, Katja; Dreser, Anahi

    2009-01-01

    To analyse pharmacy customers' knowledge and information sources about side effects of medicines they purchased and factors associated with this knowledge. Cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews with customers of 52 randomly selected community pharmacies in Morelos state, Mexico. Cust

  3. Spontaneous Recovery of Previously Extinguished Behavior as an Alternative Explanation for Extinction-Related Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Raymond J.; Mays, Nicole M.

    2007-01-01

    Extinction is accepted as a viable intervention for behaviors that are hypothesized to be maintained by contingent attentional reinforcement. However, it is frequently acknowledged that extinction has potential numerous side effects, including the generation of aggressive behavior. This explanation does not provide a behavioral conceptualization…

  4. Patient satisfaction and side effects in primary care: An observational study comparing homeopathy and conventional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurneysen André

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is part of a nationwide evaluation of complementary medicine in Switzerland (Programme Evaluation of Complementary Medicine PEK and was funded by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The main objective of this study is to investigate patient satisfaction and perception of side effects in homeopathy compared with conventional care in a primary care setting. Methods We examined data from two cross-sectional studies conducted in 2002–2003. The first study was a physician questionnaire assessing structural characteristics of practices. The second study was conducted on four given days during a 12-month period in 2002/2003 using a physician and patient questionnaire at consultation and a patient questionnaire mailed to the patient one month later (including Europep questionnaire. The participating physicians were all trained and licensed in conventional medicine. An additional qualification was required for medical doctors providing homeopathy (membership in the Swiss association of homeopathic physicians SVHA. Results A total of 6778 adult patients received the questionnaire and 3126 responded (46.1%. Statistically significant differences were found with respect to health status (higher percentage of chronic and severe conditions in the homeopathic group, perception of side effects (higher percentage of reported side effects in the conventional group and patient satisfaction (higher percentage of satisfied patients in the homeopathic group. Conclusion Overall patient satisfaction was significantly higher in homeopathic than in conventional care. Homeopathic treatments were perceived as a low-risk therapy with two to three times fewer side effects than conventional care

  5. Acceptance and side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: evaluation of a new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, F W; Heesen, W F; Smit, A J; May, J F; Lie, K I; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1996-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring is probably becoming a clinically useful procedure for the evaluation of hypertensive patients. Previous reports have shown that the devices are safe and serious side effects are rare. Discomfort and inconveniences associated with its use are more frequent. In this study, patient acceptance of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was compared with acceptance of other diagnostic procedures and their side effects were assessed. Patients were asked to fill in a form and 129 of 166 patients responded. The acceptance was measured with a visual analogue scale which ranged from 'very annoying' on the left to 'not annoying at all' on the right. All forms were collected anonymously. Mean distance (cm) of the visual likert scale was 8.6 to 9.4 for the diagnostic procedures frequently used in routine patient care. Ambulatory BP measurement (ABPM) scored 6.1 cm. Reported side effects (in 27% of patients) were: plan (9%), skin irritation (8%), noisy device (8%), inconvenience with work (3%), haematoma (2%) and other (4%). Reports from the patients on sleep quality were: 23% normal, 61% minor disturbance, 14% had sleep, and 2% did not sleep at all. It can be concluded that ambulatory BP monitoring was the diagnostic procedure with the lowest patient acceptance. Side effects of this new technology were reported by 27% of patients. However, risks are relatively minor. Sleep disturbances were very frequent and was a serious problem for 16% of patients.

  6. Local therapeutic efficacy with reduced systemic side effects by rapamycin-loaded subcapsular microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, Lucas L; van Vuuren, Stefan H; Kazazi-Hyseni, Filis; Ramazani, Farshad; Nguyen, Tri Q; Veldhuis, Gert J; Maarseveen, Erik M; Zandstra, Jurjen; Zuidema, Johan; Duque, Luisa F; Steendam, Rob; Popa, Eliane R; Kok, Robbert Jan; Goldschmeding, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Kidney injury triggers fibrosis, the final common pathway of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The increase of CKD prevalence worldwide urgently calls for new therapies. Available systemic treatment such as rapamycin are associated with serious side effects. To study the potential of local antifibrotic

  7. The incidence, management, and evolution of rapamycin-related side effects in kidney transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J.C.; Boucher, A.; Dandavino, R.; Collette, S.; Senecal, L.; Hebert, M.J.; Girardin, C.; Cardinal, H.

    2014-01-01

    Conversion from a calcineurin-inhibitor-based immunosuppression to a rapamycin-based immunosuppression may preserve kidney graft function. The side effects of rapamycin can limit its usefulness, but their management and evolution are rarely reported in clinical trials. We performed a retrospective c

  8. Are sexual side effects of prolactin-raising antipsychotics reducible to serum prolactin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, Henderikus; van den Bosch, Rob; Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Sytema, Sjoerd; van Os, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which sexual side effects (SSE) are associated with prolactin-raising antipsychotics, and to what degree such SSE are reducible to serum prolactin levels. Method: A large sample (n = 264) of patients treated for 6 weeks with protactin-raising and prolactin-sparing

  9. Chemotherapy-Related Side Effects in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Indonesia: Parental Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitaresmi, M.N.; Mostert, S.; Purwanto, I.; Gundy, C.; Sutaryo, N.N.; Veerman, A.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Noncompliance with prescribed medication has been associated with increased chance of relapse and poor outcome. Side effects may be an important cause of noncompliance. Fifty-one parents of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a tertiary care hospital in Indonesia were interviewed about the

  10. Chemotherapy-Related Side Effects in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Indonesia: Parental Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitaresmi, M.N.; Mostert, S.; Purwanto, I.; Gundy, C.; Sutaryo, N.N.; Veerman, A.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Noncompliance with prescribed medication has been associated with increased chance of relapse and poor outcome. Side effects may be an important cause of noncompliance. Fifty-one parents of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a tertiary care hospital in Indonesia were interviewed about the

  11. Are sexual side effects of prolactin-raising antipsychotics reducible to serum prolactin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, Henderikus; van den Bosch, Rob; Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Sytema, Sjoerd; van Os, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which sexual side effects (SSE) are associated with prolactin-raising antipsychotics, and to what degree such SSE are reducible to serum prolactin levels. Method: A large sample (n = 264) of patients treated for 6 weeks with protactin-raising and prolactin-sparing

  12. Exacerbation of Bloody Diarrhea as a Side Effect of Mesalamine Treatment of Active Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Shimodate

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesalamine has been used as the first-line therapy for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC because of its efficacy and fewer side effects. However, earlier study showed that mesalamine occasionally causes diarrhea. We are presenting a patient with active UC in whom bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever occurred and the symptoms were aggravated after administration of mesalamine. In order to clarify the reason of symptoms aggravation, drug lymphocyte stimulation test and rechallenge trial with mesalamine were performed. The results indicated the possibility that aggravation was related to allergic reaction and was dose-dependent. Furthermore, we examined colonoscopic views but there was no remarkable change in before and after rechallenge trial. Based on the above result, the patient was diagnosed with mesalamine intolerance. In order to differentiate whether the exacerbation of bloody diarrhea is due to the side effects of the mesalamine or a true relapse of UC, taking careful history before and after increasing mesalamine dosage as well as being aware of side effects of mesalamine are required. Clinicians should be aware of diarrhea as a side effect of mesalamine particularly after onset of mesalamine formulation, change in mesalamine formulation, or change in mesalamine dose.

  13. Benzodiazepine Behavioral Side Effects: Review and Implications for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachnik, John E.; Hanzel, Thomas E.; Sevenich, Robert; Harder, Stuart R.

    2002-01-01

    A literature review found behavioral side effects occurred for 13% of 446 individuals with mental retardation who were prescribed benzodiazepine for either behavioral or psychiatric conditions (n=138, 17.4%), epilepsy (n=20, 15.4%), or other medical conditions such as myoclonus or cerebral palsy (n=100, 2%). Implications of nonrecognition are…

  14. Movement disorders in patients with schizophrenia and in their siblings: symptoms, side effects and mechanical measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on several aspects of movement disorders in patients with schizophrenia and in their unaffected siblings. The main hypothesis is that movement disorders are not just side effects of antipsychotic medication but may also be symptoms of the illness itself and are related to the (ge

  15. Benzodiazepine Behavioral Side Effects: Review and Implications for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachnik, John E.; Hanzel, Thomas E.; Sevenich, Robert; Harder, Stuart R.

    2002-01-01

    A literature review found behavioral side effects occurred for 13% of 446 individuals with mental retardation who were prescribed benzodiazepine for either behavioral or psychiatric conditions (n=138, 17.4%), epilepsy (n=20, 15.4%), or other medical conditions such as myoclonus or cerebral palsy (n=100, 2%). Implications of nonrecognition are…

  16. Ipsilateral coordination at preferred rate: effects of age, body side and task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Impe, Annouchka; Coxon, James P; Goble, Daniel J; Wenderoth, Nici; Swinnen, Stephan Patrick

    2009-10-01

    Functional imaging studies have shown that elderly individuals activate widespread additional brain networks, compared to young subjects, when performing motor tasks. However, the parameters that effect this unique neural activation, including the spatial distribution of this activation across hemispheres, are still largely unknown. Here, we examined the effect of task complexity and body side on activation differences between older and younger adults while performing cyclical flexion-extension movements of the ipsilateral hand and foot. In particular, easy (isodirectional) and more difficult (non-isodirectional) coordination patterns were performed with either the left or right body side at a self-selected, comfortable rate. Even in the absence of imposed pacing the older group activated a larger brain network, suggestive of increased attentional deployment for monitoring the spatial relationships between the simultaneously moving segments and enhanced sensory processing and integration. Evidence of age-dependent underactivation was also found in contralateral M1, SMA and bilateral putamen, possibly reflecting a functional decline of the basal ganglia-mesial cortex pathway in the older group. An ANOVA model revealed significant main effects of task complexity and body side. However the interaction of these factors with age did not reach significance. Consequently, we conclude that under self-paced conditions, task complexity and body side did not have a modulatory effect on age-related brain activation.

  17. Tremor side effects of salbutamol, quantified by a laser pointer technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nizet, T.; Broeders, M.E.A.C.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study tremor side effects of salbutamol an easily applicable, quick and low-priced method is needed. A new method using a commercially available, pen-shaped laser pointer was developed. Aim of the study was to determine sensitivity, reproducibility, reference values and the agreement w

  18. Prevalence, side effects and awareness about energy drinks among the female university students in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value

  19. Pharmacy customers' knowledge of side effects of purchased medicines in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, Veronika J.; Taxis, Katja; Dreser, Anahi

    To analyse pharmacy customers' knowledge and information sources about side effects of medicines they purchased and factors associated with this knowledge. Cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews with customers of 52 randomly selected community pharmacies in Morelos state, Mexico.

  20. An investigation into the predictive value of cascade impactor results for side effects of inhaled salbutamol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weda, M; Zanen, P; de Boer, A H; Barends, D M; Frijlink, H W

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the Multistage Liquid Impinger (MSLI) and the Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI) with respect to their power to predict differences in side effects of salbutamol delivered by a dry powder inhaler. Three preparations with the same nominal dose and the same inhaler de

  1. Pattern of statin use changes following media coverage of its side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Liisberg, Kasper Bering; Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle

    2017-01-01

    and whether the user is new (incident) or long term (prevalent). AIM: The aim of this study is to explore whether a Danish newspaper article featuring the side effects of statins affects statin discontinuation in incident versus prevalent users, with the reason for prescription also taken into account...

  2. Clinical management of clozapine patients in relation to efficacy and side-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, D; Holzbach, R; Perro, C; Hippius, H

    1992-05-01

    Medical charts of 480 schizophrenic in-patients (581 treatments) were analysed to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of clozapine. Clozapine treatment lasted for mean 49 (s.d. 38) days. Of the sample, 11.0% showed worsening or no change, 31.5% slight improvement, 53.0% marked improvement and 4.5% almost total reduction of symptoms. At least one major side-effect occurred in 68.0% of patients. A combination of clozapine with classical neuroleptics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines or lithium is tolerated by most patients, but increases the incidence of some side-effects. Clozapine treatment had to be discontinued because of severe side-effects in 8.6% of patients. In 81 schizophrenic out-patients, clozapine significantly reduced the days of in-patient treatment and number of hospital readmissions. Two patients developed leucopenia but had no complications after clozapine withdrawal. This study indicates a satisfactory benefit/risk ratio and compliance in most of the patients.

  3. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  4. Sexual side effects in patients using long-acting depot antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Marte; De Boer, M.K.; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexual dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia may be related to the disease itself, as well as to psychosocial factors, physical health and the use of psychotropic medications. Sexual side effects have a considerable impact on quality of life and are a major factor in non-adherence t

  5. The role of hypothalamic pathways in the metabolic side effects of Olanzapine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girault, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as Olanzapine (Ola) induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these undesired side effects are currently unknown. In this thesis, we showed that both acute and chronic administration of Ola

  6. Effect of side transmission of power ultrasonic on structure of AZ81 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海波; 翟启杰; 戚飞鹏; 龚永勇

    2004-01-01

    In order to promote the application of power ultrasonic in metallurgic industry, ultrasonic vibration is introduced from the side of AZ81 ingot by adopting the automatic-attracting amplitude transformer horn which has independently been designed and produced, and the effect of the side transmission of ultrasonic on the solidification structure of metal is investigated. The results show that under this experimental condition, power ultrasonic can greatly improve the solidification structure of AZ81 magnesium alloy. Compared with the traditional modification methods in which inoculants are added into melt, power ultrasonic has a better performance. The present research gives us a new way for the application of ultrasonic refinement technique.

  7. Multivariate Analysis of Side Effects of Drug Molecules Based on Knowledge of Protein Bindings and ProteinProtein Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Funatsu, Kimito

    2014-12-01

    Here, we examined the relationships between 969 side effects associated with 658 drugs and their 1368 human protein targets using our hybrid approaches. Firstly, L-shaped PLS (LPLS) was used to construct a multivariate model of side effects and protein bindings of drug molecules. LPLS is an extension of standard PLS regression, where, in addition to the response matrix Y and the regressor matrix X, an extra data matrix Z is constructed that summarizes the background information of X. X and Y are matrices comprising drugs-target proteins, and drugs-side effects, respectively. The Z matrix is the proteinprotein interaction data. From the loading plot of Y, we could identify two remarkable side effects (urinary incontinence and increased salivation) From the corresponding loading plot of X, the responsible protein targets causing each side effect could be estimated (sodium channels and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors). The loading plot of the Z matrix indicated that the GABA receptors interact with each other and they heavily influence the side effect of increased salivation. Secondly, Bayesian classifier methods were separately applied to the cases of the two side effects. That is, the Bayesian classifier method was used to classify drug molecules as binding or not binding to the responsible protein targets associated with each side effect. Using atom-coloring techniques, it was possible to estimate which fragments on the drug molecule might cause the specific side effects. This information is valuable for drug design to avoid specific side effects.

  8. Effect of Flow Rate of Side-Type Orifice Intake on Withdrawn Water Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Side-type orifice intake is a type of selective withdrawal facility used in managing reservoirs to mitigate the negative effects of low-temperature water. Based on the temperature data of a thermal stratified reservoir in China, an experiment was conducted in flume to study the influence of intake flow rate on withdrawn water temperature with different temperature distributions. Results indicated that withdrawn water temperature changed with different flow rates. The temperature change was determined by the water temperature gradients above and below the intake, whereas the change trend of temperature depended on the difference between the water temperature gradient above and below the intake. We likewise proposed a new equation with which the withdrawn water temperature of a thermal stratified reservoir using a side-type orifice could be calculated. These findings could be directly applied to the design and operation of side-type orifice intake in thermal stratified reservoirs.

  9. Effect of flow rate of side-type orifice intake on withdrawn water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueping; Li, Guangning; Han, Yunpeng

    2014-01-01

    Side-type orifice intake is a type of selective withdrawal facility used in managing reservoirs to mitigate the negative effects of low-temperature water. Based on the temperature data of a thermal stratified reservoir in China, an experiment was conducted in flume to study the influence of intake flow rate on withdrawn water temperature with different temperature distributions. Results indicated that withdrawn water temperature changed with different flow rates. The temperature change was determined by the water temperature gradients above and below the intake, whereas the change trend of temperature depended on the difference between the water temperature gradient above and below the intake. We likewise proposed a new equation with which the withdrawn water temperature of a thermal stratified reservoir using a side-type orifice could be calculated. These findings could be directly applied to the design and operation of side-type orifice intake in thermal stratified reservoirs.

  10. A nicotina atua como fator deletério na reparação da parede abdominal The nicotine has a deleterious effect on the healing of abdominal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo da Cunha Medeiros

    2003-01-01

    subcutaneously near the abdominal sutured lesion. In the tenth postoperative day 1ml of serous liquid was harvested from the silicone tube and a pO2 dosage was done. The rats were killed with overdose of anesthetic. A 2cm width transversal segment of abdominal wall was submited to tensile strength test by a tensiometer. A biopsy of the sutured area including muscle, aporeurosis and peritoneum was processed for histopatologic analysis by a digitalised system. The data were processed by the ANOVA and Newman-Keuls tests, considering significant the differences when p<0,05. RESULTS: In the group A the pO2 on the tissue serous liquid reached 17,75± 3,4 mmHg and in the group B (control the pO2 = 40,75± 6,4 mmHg (p<0,01. The tensile strength reached 728,5± 161,75gf in the group A and 1241,6± 232gf in the control one (p<0,01.The mean density of the histopatologic elements was 105± 17,1 in group A and 146,2± 8,8 in group B (p<0,01. CONCLUSION: after evaluation of tissue pO2 , tensiometry and histopatology, the data permited to conclude that the nicotine has a deleterious effect on the healing the abdominal wall of rats.

  11. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic activities, and side effects of some pyrazole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domiati, Souraya; El-Mallah, Ahmed; Ghoneim, Asser; Bekhit, Adnan; El Razik, Heba Abd

    2016-08-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are associated with several side effects, such as gastrointestinal mucosal damage, renal toxicity, and cardiovascular side effects. Aiming to find a novel analgesic/anti-inflammatory drug with minimal side effects, the present study was designed to screen and evaluate some newly synthesized pyrazole derivatives. Anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton-pellet-induced granuloma, COX-1/COX-2 selectivity using thin layer chromatography, and analgesic using hot plate and tail flick tests as well as ulcerogenic and renal side effects of the ten compounds were assessed. The results of the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema showed that the carboxyphenylhydrazone derivative (N9) was more potent than the chlorophenyl counterpart (N8) with a relative activity compared to celecoxib of 1.08 and -0.13, respectively, after 1 h. Even though this is true, N9 caused significant increase in the ulcer index, creatinine, and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels. The cotton granuloma test showed that the carboxyphenylhydrazone derivative (N7) was also more potent than its chlorophenyl counterpart (N6) with a relative activity compared to celecoxib of 1.13 and 0.86, respectively. Moreover, adding an acetyl not only increased the anti-inflammatory activity from a relative activity compared to celecoxib of 0.57-1.17 for the compounds X4 and N5, respectively, in the granuloma test, but also increased the selectivity toward COX-2 from 0.197 to 47.979. As a conclusion, from the ten compounds analyzed, N5 and N7 showed promising results as anti-inflammatory/analgesic agents with low ulcerogenicity and nephrotoxicity and thus should be further analyzed to determine the ED50 and other side effects.

  12. [Study of IUD side-effects indicated in hysteroscopic and pathologic examinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, E Q

    1991-02-01

    The IUD is the most extensively used method of contraception among Chinese women. 7-15% of IUD users stopped using the method because of side effects such as irregular menstrual bleeding, spotting, and cramps. This study of the causes of IUD side effects examined 80 women who had had an IUD for over 6 months and experienced side effects for over 3 months and 40 women requesting IUD removal for nonmedical reasons were chosen as the controls. The conditions of the IUDs and their positions inside the uterine cavity were observed. Endometrial tissue structure was also taken. The differences in age, parity, occupation, number of previous IUD insertions, previous experience of abortion, and duration of use of the current IUD between the case and the control groups were not statistically significant. 49% of cases had irregular menstruation 6 months prior to IUD insertion compared with 2.5% among the controls. 38% of cases had size and position of IUD that were incompatible with the shape of the uterine cavity while 10% of the controls had the same situation. Pathological changes of endometria were observed in 52 cases and 8 controls. It is concluded that women with a history of anemia, heart condition, irregular menstruation, and abdominal surgery as well as those with uterine polyps or cysts are more likely to experience side effects. Screening for these contraindications should be conducted before IUD insertion. Patients who experienced IUD side effects persistently after treatment might have a dislocated IUD or an IUD incompatible with the uterine cavity. Pathological changes of endometria might be associated with the mechanic compression of an IUD or because of the operator's skill of insertion. Stereoscopic examinations also discovered cases with gynecological problems that were unrelated to the presence of an IUD.

  13. [Current prevention and treatment strategies for osteoporosis. Fracture-oriented, effective, low side effects and inexpensive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, R; Bartl, C

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis is still an underdiagnosed and insufficiently therapied widespread disease in Germany. Of the estimated 7 million osteoporosis patients only 1.5 million receive a guideline conform diagnosis and even less receive appropriate treatment. Some 90 % of patients are provided with analgesics but only 10 % receive an effective therapy, although efficacious, well-tested and affordable medications are available. In addition, approximately one half of the patients terminate treatment after only 1 year although according to the results of recent studies the duration of therapy should be at least 3-5 years. In view of the increasing average life expectancy, a consistent management for prevention of fractures associated with osteoporosis is always most important for society, even if only for reasons of costs. Achievement of this target depends on four circumstances: clarification of the origin of osteoporosis and fractures (bone consciousness), prophylaxis of bone loss and fractures (primary prevention), consistent guideline conform diagnostics and therapy (secondary and tertiary prevention) and cooperation of all disciplines in medicine (bone is everybody's business). This article describes the current state of diagnostics (bone density measurement with dual X-ray absorptiometry, FRAX®), prophylaxis of fractures (screening program) and therapy (use of economic and effective medications with low side effects). Novel medications are already undergoing clinical testing and a "healing" of bone reduction with restoration of the normal bone structure is to be expected.

  14. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-09-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF-TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF-TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability.

  15. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-01-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)–TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. PMID:26327690

  16. Evidences of possible side effects of neuroleptic drugs:A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prashant Tiwari; Rajnikant Panik; Arin Bhattacharya; Dheeraj Ahirwar; Anish Chandy

    2012-01-01

    The premise that chronic neuroleptic treatment may induce decline in some schizophrenic patients has received considerable attention. This effect, typically called super sensitivity psychosis, has been accredited to neuroleptic induced changes in mesolimbic or mesocortical dopaminergic receptors. Both typical and atypical antipsychotics generations of medication tend to block receptors in the brain's dopamine pathways which offers a number of harmful and undesired (adverse) effects including lowered life expectancy, extrapyramidal effects on motor control including akathisia (an inability to sit still), trembling, and muscle weakness weight gain, decrease in brain volume, enlarged breasts e.g. gynecomastia in men and milk discharge in men and women (galactorrhea due to hyperprolactinaemia), lowered white blood cell count (agranulocytosis), involuntary repetitive body movements (tardive dyskinesia), diabetes, and sexual dysfunction. In evaluating the risk of neuroleptic medication, the occurrence of its common side effects and uneasiness connected with these side effects should be determined. However, research has not established that neuroleptics cause the projected effect, and considerations of mechanism have not been alienated from those of causation. The focus of research in this area should be the concern or repudiation of a causal relationship between chronic neuroleptic use and psychotic relapse, even though at hand article would eradicate to researchers to find out a compiled revision on probable side effects of neuroleptic drugs.

  17. Side effects of pharmacotherapy on bone with long-acting gonadorelin agonist triptorelin for paraphilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeveen, John; Van der Veer, Eveline

    2008-03-01

    There have been limited research studies concerning the use of libido inhibitors for the treatment of patients with a paraphilia. Observational studies suggest that agents that lower testosterone are an effective treatment for paraphilia. We report a case of hormonal treatment of paraphilia that was associated with side effects. A 35-year-old man with a paraphilia was treated with long-acting gonadorelin. The desired result was reduced preoccupation with sexuality, but there were various side effects including a serious amount of bone loss. We believe that more attention should be given to the adverse effects of long-term treatment with triptorelin. In our view the drug regime needs to be revised.

  18. Side effects of antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Velimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic hepatitis C currently represents a global health problem, which is expected to be reduced by pegylated-interferon and ribavirin therapy. Material and Methods. We examined 88 patients with chronic hepatitis C, divided into three groups according to their comorbidity: the patients without comorbidity were in group I, group II included the patients on dialysis, and group III included the patients with hemophilia. Results. A significant difference was found in the percentage of achieved sustained virological response between the patients on dialysis and other patients, p<0.05. Having analyzed the therapy adverse effects, we observed a significantly higher decrease of erythrocytes count, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in dialysis patients compared to others (p<0.01. The patients on hemodialysis predominantly had anemia and leukopenia, while thrombocytopenia was equally present in all groups. The dominant clinical side effect was flu-like syndrome, present in more than a half of patients. Discussion. The therapy positive effect is usually accompanied with adverse effects. The lowest therapeutic response was recorded in group II, due to the virus genotype 1. A significant decrease in hematological parameters was determined in all patients. The most common clinical adverse effect was flu-like syndrome, later manifestations included: weight loss, alopecia, insomnia and irritability. Side effects like psychosis, thyroid gland dysfunction or psoriasis were not recorded. Conclusion. A significant decrease in the value of all these hematological parameters was found in all groups of patients. Clinical side effects were present in 60% of patients. Side effects did not lead to discontinuation of therapy, but only to modification of drug doses.

  19. Coping with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life from the perspective of cancer patients: A qualitative empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte Pallesen; Nielsen, Lene Lyngø

    Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how patients cope with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life. Background Patients receiving cancer treatment experience acute side effects and need individualized information and guidance in order to manage treatment......-related adverse events in everyday life. However development in cancer treatment and the societal demands for efficiency may limit the possibility for individualized support. Methods Nine patients were interviewed from March to July 2009 to explore the patients’ experience of coping with side effects in daily...... their identity but the side effects can control the daily life. Patients do not always possess the knowledge of how to handle the side effects and adaptation to the institutional efficiency can lead to lack of confidence and feelings of responsibility and guilt concerning coping with these side effects...

  20. [The effects of captopril and metoprolol on blood pressure and side effects in patients with mild to moderate hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornerup, H J; Korsager, S

    1989-04-03

    A material of 76 patients from general practice treated with diuretics for mild to moderate hypertension were randomized to supplementary treatment with captopril (39 patients) and metoprolol (37 patients), respectively, on account of diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mmHg. Satisfactory regulation of the blood pressure (diastolic blood pressure less than or equal to 90 mmHg) and acceptable wellbeing was obtained in 29 patients in the captopril group and in 23 patients in the metoprolol group. Six patients in the captopril group were excluded on account of absence of effect on the blood pressure and four dropped out on account of side effects. In the metoprolol group, nine patients were excluded on account of absence of effect on the blood pressure and five on account of side effects. This difference was not significant. In the captopril group, 14 side effects were registered in eight patients while 23 side effects were observed in 15 patients in the metoprolol group. This difference was not statistically significant, p greater than 0.05 (risk for type 2 error = 60%). It is concluded that captopril + a diuretic is just as effective a form of treatment of slight to moderate hypertension as metoprolol + a diuretic and that treatment with captopril + a diuretic is associated with so few side effects that it may be considered as an alternative first choice of treatment in cases of slight to moderate hypertension.

  1. Effects of the pelvic compression belt on gluteus medius, quadratus lumborum, and lumbar multifidus activities during side-lying hip abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Suhn-Yeop; Oh, Duck-Won

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effect of the pelvic compression belt on the electromyographic (EMG) activities of gluteus medius (GM), quadratus lumborum (QL), and lumbar multifidus (LM) during side-lying hip abduction. Thirty-one volunteers (15 men and 16 women) with no history of pathology volunteered for this study. Subjects were instructed to perform hip abduction in side-lying position with and without applying the pelvic compression belt. The pelvic compression belt was adjusted just below the anterior superior iliac spines with the stabilizing pressure using elastic compression bands. Surface EMG data were collected from the GM, QL, and LM of the dominant limb. Significantly decreased EMG activity in the QL (without the pelvic compression belt, 60.19±23.66% maximal voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]; with the pelvic compression belt, 51.44±23.00% MVIC) and significantly increased EMG activity in the GM (without the pelvic compression belt, 26.71±12.88% MVIC; with the pelvic compression belt, 35.02±18.28% MVIC) and in the LM (without the pelvic compression belt, 30.28±14.60% MVIC; with the pelvic compression belt, 37.47±18.94% MVIC) were found when the pelvic compression belt was applied (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences of the EMG activity between male and female subjects. The findings suggest that the pelvic compression belt may be helpful to prevent unwanted substitution movement during side-lying hip abduction, through increasing the GM and LM and decreasing the QL.

  2. Brief Exposure to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Side-Effect Symptoms in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, R Eric; Goodfellow, Linda

    2016-01-01

    No study has tested the effectiveness of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions to reduce persistent nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to determine if CBT could reduce nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients with HIV on ART. Men ages 40 to 56 years on ART (n = 18) at a suburban HIV clinic were randomly assigned to a control group or the CBT intervention. Usual adherence education and side-effect management were provided to both groups. Symptoms, health perception, medication adherence, and side-effect-reducing medication use were measured at four time points over 3 months. Participants in the intervention group rated usual fatigue and worst fatigue at 60 days, and nausea duration at 90 days significantly lower than controls (p HIV undergoing ART.

  3. Association between addressing antiseizure drug side effects and patient-reported medication adherence in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura LMVR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lidia M V R Moura,1 Thiago S Carneiro,1 Andrew J Cole,1 John Hsu,2,3 Barbara G Vickrey,4 Daniel B Hoch1 1Department of Neurology, 2Mongan Institute for Health Policy, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 4Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background and aim: Adherence to treatment is a critical component of epilepsy management. This study examines whether addressing antiepileptic drug (AED side effects at every visit is associated with increased patient-reported medication adherence.Patients and methods: This study identified 243 adults with epilepsy who were seen at two academic outpatient neurology settings and had at least two visits over a 3-year period. Demographic and clinical characteristics were abstracted. Evidence that AED side effects were addressed was measured through 1 phone interview (patient-reported and 2 medical records abstraction (physician-documented. Medication adherence was assessed using the validated Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4. Complete adherence was determined as answering “no” to all questions.Results: Sixty-two (25% patients completed the interviews. Participants and nonparticipants were comparable with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics; however, a smaller proportion of participants had a history of drug-resistant epilepsy than nonparticipants (17.7% vs 30.9%, P=0.04. Among the participants, evidence that AED side effects were addressed was present in 48 (77% medical records and reported by 51 (82% patients. Twenty-eight (45% patients reported complete medication adherence. The most common reason for incomplete adherence was missed medication due to forgetfulness (n=31, 91%. There was no association between addressing AED side effects (neither physician-documented nor patient-reported and complete medication adherence (P=0.22 and 0.20.Discussion and

  4. Side effects in melanoma patients receiving adjuvant interferon alfa-2b therapy: a nurse's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Krista M; Vona, Karen; Madden, Kathleen; McGettigan, Suzanne; Braun, Ilana M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the toxicity profile of adjuvant interferon (IFN) alfa-2b in melanoma patients from a nursing perspective and to summarize practical information to guide the effective management of common IFN toxicities to improve patient comfort. This is a narrative summary of both research and review articles identified by searching PubMed, National Cancer Institute, and American Cancer Society websites. It also assesses recognized guidelines on the management of adjuvant IFN toxicity relevant to nurses who are caring for patients receiving adjuvant IFN therapy. Adjuvant high-dose IFN alfa-2b (HDI) as compared with observation significantly prolongs relapse-free survival in patients with melanoma at high risk for recurrence after surgical resection; however, treatment compliance and patient quality of life can be compromised by its toxicity profile. HDI toxicities affect a number of organ systems and the majority of patients will experience some side effects. Common toxicities such as flu-like symptoms, fatigue, anorexia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and laboratory abnormalities are discussed, along with both pharmacological and nonpharmacological management strategies. The considerable side effects of HDI can be managed using established strategies. Oncology nurses play a significant role in the management of patients with melanoma receiving adjuvant HDI, and their prompt recognition of side effects, together with an understanding of effective pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions, will improve patient comfort; this has the potential to positively influence treatment adherence and completion of the recommended treatment course.

  5. Usage and Perceived Side Effects of Personal Protective Measures against Mosquitoes among Current Users in Delhi

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    Charu Kohli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The use of personal protective measures (PPM like mats, bednets, screening, repellents, liquid vaporizers, mosquito coils, and so forth has been advocated as an effective tool in control of mosquito-borne diseases, but data about the safety profile of personal protective measures is still scarce. Objective. To study the usage and side effects of personal protective measures against mosquitoes among current users in Delhi. Materials and Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study among 350 adult individuals selected by systematic sampling method. Data was collected using pretested semistructured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square/Fisher’s Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results. Out of 350 families selected, 210 belonged to rural area and 140 to urban area. Personal protective measures were used by 219 (62.5% subjects. Liquid vaporizer was the most preferred method (41.4%. Most common perceived side effect of personal protective measures was headache (7.7%. Other perceived side effects were cough (3.2%, sore throat (2.7%, allergy (1.3%, and eye irritation (0.9% predominantly among coil users. Conclusion. There is a need to have a close watch for side effects of personal protective measures among users. Further research is also needed to develop safe and effective personal protective measures against mosquitoes.

  6. Memory for medication side effects in younger and older adults: The role of subjective and objective importance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friedman, Michael C; McGillivray, Shannon; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    .... In the present experiments, we investigated the degrees to which younger and healthy older adults remembered medication side effects that were subjectively or objectively important to remember...

  7. A psychosocial perspective of medication side effects, experiences, coping approaches and implications for adherence in hypertension management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kretchy, Irene A; Owusu-Daaku, Frances T; Danquah, Samuel A; Asampong, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether psychosocial variables influenced patients' perception and experience of side effects of their medicines, how they coped with these experiences and the impact on medication...

  8. The effect of probiotics supplementation on Helicobacter pylori eradication rates and side effects during eradication therapy: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yini Dang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses reported that probiotics improve the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori eradication during antibiotic therapy, while results regarding a possible reduction of side effects remained inconclusive. Moreover, the effectiveness of different strains of probiotics has not been studied so far. It is further conceivable that probiotics will produce additional effects only if antibiotics are relatively ineffective. METHODS: This meta-analysis includes eligible randomized controlled trials examining effects of probiotics supplementation on eradication rates (ER and side effects, published up to May 2014. Sub-group analysis was performed to compare different probiotic strains and antibiotic therapies with different effectiveness in controls (ER 80%. Publication bias was assessed with funnel plots and Harbord's test. The quality of the trials was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 4459 patients met the inclusion criteria in case of eradication rates of which 20 assessed total side effects in addition. Overall, the pooled eradication rate in probiotics supplementation groups was significantly higher than in controls (ITT analysis: RR 1.122, 95% CI 1.086-1.159, PP analysis: RR 1.114, 95% CI 1.070-1.159. Sub group-analysis could, however, confirm this finding only for four individual strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei DN-114001, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Bifidobacterium infantis 2036 and for relatively ineffective antibiotic therapies. There was a significant difference between groups in the overall incidence of side effects (RR 0.735, 95% CI 0.598-0.902. This result was, however, only confirmed for non-blinded trials. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled data suggest that supplementation with specific strains of probiotics compared with eradication therapy may be considered an option for increasing eradication rates, particularly when antibiotic

  9. Prevalence, side effects and awareness about energy drinks among the female university students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value Sattam bin Abdulaziz have reported to consume energy drinks regularly with several adverse effects. The government of Saudi Arabia should take serious initiatives towards organizing effective awareness programs specifically in universities and colleges to control the consumption of energy drinks and educate on the adverse effects.

  10. Fear appeals and treatment side-effects: an effective combination for HIV prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, S; Batrouney, C; Murphy, D

    2007-01-01

    Recent rises in the incidence of HIV infections among gay men in Australia have produced widespread discussion about appropriate health promotion responses. This has sometimes included calls for a return to fear-based campaigns, exemplified by the Grim Reaper advertisements in HIV. This paper discusses results from four focus groups that tested mock campaign material based on an appeal to fear. Five different poster images were tested among groups distinguished by age and HIV serostatus. Three posters used side-effects from treatments as the fear trigger and two used death from AIDS. A number of themes arose in response to the material including 'othering', shame and scepticism about HIV treatments. The meanings of these themes are explored in the light of current health-promotion theory. This data demonstrates that fear is an ineffective tool for HIV health promotion. It further demonstrates that feelings of shame and stigma are likely to be exacerbated in gay men, leading to poorer health outcomes in various ways.

  11. Purging deleterious mutations under self fertilization: paradoxical recovery in fitness with increasing mutation rate in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi T Morran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accumulation of deleterious mutations can drastically reduce population mean fitness. Self-fertilization is thought to be an effective means of purging deleterious mutations. However, widespread linkage disequilibrium generated and maintained by self-fertilization is predicted to reduce the efficacy of purging when mutations are present at multiple loci. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the ability of self-fertilizing populations to purge deleterious mutations at multiple loci by exposing obligately self-fertilizing populations of Caenorhabditis elegans to a range of elevated mutation rates and found that mutations accumulated, as evidenced by a reduction in mean fitness, in each population. Therefore, purging in obligate selfing populations is overwhelmed by an increase in mutation rate. Surprisingly, we also found that obligate and predominantly self-fertilizing populations exposed to very high mutation rates exhibited consistently greater fitness than those subject to lesser increases in mutation rate, which contradicts the assumption that increases in mutation rate are negatively correlated with fitness. The high levels of genetic linkage inherent in self-fertilization could drive this fitness increase. CONCLUSIONS: Compensatory mutations can be more frequent under high mutation rates and may alleviate a portion of the fitness lost due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations through epistatic interactions with deleterious mutations. The prolonged maintenance of tightly linked compensatory and deleterious mutations facilitated by self-fertilization may be responsible for the fitness increase as linkage disequilibrium between the compensatory and deleterious mutations preserves their epistatic interaction.

  12. Side Effects of Transfusion of G6PD Deficient Blood in Neonates and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Nabavizadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common metabolic disease of red blood cells. It affects about 35 millions people in the entire world. Its incidence in IRAN is estimated to be 10-14.9%. Transfusion of G6PD deficient blood produces many untoward side effects in recipients. Despite the high incidence of the disease and such risks, blood donors are not screened routinely for this enzyme deficiency. This study performed on effects of G6PD deficient blood in patients admitted in Pediatric & Neonatal ward of Yasouj Emam Sajjad Hospital for detection of proposed side effects. Materials & Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 261 bags of blood during transfusion and the samples were checked for G6PD. Also patients receiving G6PD deficient blood were checked for hemoglobin, serum bilirubin and hemoglobinuria. Factors that tend to hemolysis in G6PD deficient patient were mentioned.Results: 37 (14.7% of samples were G6PD deficient. 81% of donors had at least a risk factor that tend to hemolysis in G6PD deficient state. Side effects of transfusion of G6PD deficient blood included: non significant elevation of hemoglobin (55.9%, hemoglobinuria (35.3% and increase in serum bilirubin (8.8%. Conclusion: It is recommended that in areas where G6PD deficiency is endemic, donors’ blood must be screened before transfusion.

  13. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todokoro, Daisuke; Itakura, Hirotaka; Ibe, Takashi; Kishi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of afatinib therapy. A 75-year-old Japanese male ex-smoker with EGFR-mutated NSCLC underwent afatinib therapy for multiple metastases. At 2 weeks, bilateral conjunctivitis developed. Topical medication and a 1-week afatinib washout period resulted in the improvement of the conjunctivitis. However, 3 days after the resumption of afatinib, the patient developed unilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis in his right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement indicated a decimal visual acuity of 0.2, while the slit-lamp findings were characterized by granulomatous inflammation, keratic precipitates, Koeppe nodules and posterior synechiae. There was no evidence suggesting other intraocular inflammatory disease or metastatic tumor. The left eye was intact. The use of topical medication including steroids and a washout of afatinib resulted in a gradual subsiding of the anterior uveitis. After resolution of the anterior uveitis, oral afatinib was resumed. BCVA of the right eye finally recovered to a decimal acuity of 1.0. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility that side effects associated with afatinib could cause granulomatous anterior uveitis.

  14. Image-guided preoperative prediction of pyramidal tract side effect in deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, C.; Zhao, Y.; Sauleau, P.; Malrain, C.; Jannin, P.; Haegelen, C.

    2016-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the medial globus pallidus is a surgical procedure for treating patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Its therapeutic effect may be limited by the presence of pyramidal tract side effect (PTSE). PTSE is a contraction time-locked to the stimulation when the current spreading reaches the motor fibers of the pyramidal tract within the internal capsule. The lack of side-effect predictive model leads the neurologist to secure an optimal electrode placement by iterating clinical testing on an awake patient during the surgical procedure. The objective of the study was to propose a preoperative predictive model of PTSE. A machine learning based method called PyMAN (for Pyramidal tract side effect Model based on Artificial Neural network) that accounted for the current of the stimulation, the 3D electrode coordinates and the angle of the trajectory, was designed to predict the occurrence of PTSE. Ten patients implanted in the medial globus pallidus have been tested by a clinician to create a labeled dataset of the stimulation parameters that trigger PTSE. The kappa index value between the data predicted by PyMAN and the labeled data was .78. Further evaluation studies are desirable to confirm whether PyMAN could be a reliable tool for assisting the surgeon to prevent PTSE during the preoperative planning.

  15. Animal models for predicting the efficacy and side effects of antipsychotic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H. Gobira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of antipsychotic drugs represents an important approach for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, their efficacy is limited to certain symptoms of this disorder, and they induce serious side effects. As a result, there is a strong demand for the development of new drugs, which depends on reliable animal models for pharmacological characterization. The present review discusses the face, construct, and predictive validity of classical animal models for studying the efficacy and side effects of compounds for the treatment of schizophrenia. These models are based on the properties of antipsychotics to impair the conditioned avoidance response and reverse certain behavioral changes induced by psychotomimetic drugs, such as stereotypies, hyperlocomotion, and deficit in prepulse inhibition of the startle response. Other tests, which are not specific to schizophrenia, may predict drug effects on negative and cognitive symptoms, such as deficits in social interaction and memory impairment. Regarding motor side effects, the catalepsy test predicts the liability of a drug to induce Parkinson-like syndrome, whereas vacuous chewing movements predict the liability to induce dyskinesia after chronic treatment. Despite certain limitations, these models may contribute to the development of more safe and efficacious antipsychotic drugs.

  16. Extending Software Transactional Memory in Clojure with Side-Effects and Transaction Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kejser; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2016-01-01

    do however not support execution of code with side-effects and provide no methods for synchronising threads. Additional concurrency mechanisms on top of STM are needed for these use cases, increasing the complexity of the code. We present multiple constructs allowing functions with side......-effects to be executed as part of a transaction. These constructs are made accessible through a uniform interface, making them interchangeable. We present constructs providing explicit control of transactions. Through these constructs transactions can synchronise threads based on the current program state, abort...... additional capabilities to Clojure's STM implementation without violating its ACI properties. Through a usability evaluation with a small sample size we show that using these constructs reduces both the number of lines of code and the development time compared to Clojure 1.8. Last we demonstrate through...

  17. Liposomal Formulation of Bevasizuamb for Intravitreal Administration: Increased Half-Life, Decreased Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Zarei Ghanavati

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Intravitreal injection is the common method for treatment of the posterior segment eye diseases. The advantage of intravitreal injection is achieving the desired concentration of drug inside the eye and reduction of drug side effects. Unfortunately, repeated intravitreal injections can cause several ocular complications including; vitreous hemorrhage, endophthalmitis, retinal detachment and cataract. For this reason, it seems the usage of sustained release drug delivery systems is helpful. Bevacizumab (Avastin®, antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF monoclonal antibody, is used for the treatment of different ocular diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration, neovascular glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusions, etc. For reduction of drug side effects and improvement of drug half-life after intravitreal administration, we suggest preparation of liposomal bevacizumab as novel drug delivery system and comparison of this new formulation with conventional formulation in the market.

  18. The side effect profile of buspirone in comparison to active controls and placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R E; Casten, G P; Alms, D R; Benes, C O; Marunycz, J D

    1982-12-01

    Animal studies and the original study comparing buspirone with diazepam and placebo indicated that sedative-hypnotic side effects and impairment in psychomotor function would be less with buspirone than with diazepam. This was borne out by the present double-blind study in which almost 700 patients received buspirone. Mean daily doses were buspirone, 20 mg; diazepam, 20 mg; and clorazepate, 24 mg. Sedation, lethargy, and depression were significantly less with buspirone than with diazepam or clorazepate and were comparable to placebo. There was no indication that other types of side effects would differ significantly from those seen with the benzodiazepines. Nervousness, headache, and dizziness were experienced more frequently with buspirone than with placebo.

  19. The metrizamide study in neuroradiologic diagnosis: The clinical utility and side effects of the metrizamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kounn Sik; Choo, In Wook; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    The retrospective analysis on the clinical utility and side effects of the metrizamide myelography and metrizamide CT cisternography were made in 292 patients. Metrizamide CT proved valuable in the diagnosis of intraspinal neoplasms with total block in myelography, demonstrating the upper margin of the neoplasms in a large number (75%) of the cases with neoplasm. Metrizamide study also clearly showed the nature and extent of the congenital anomalies such as spinal dysraphism, the exact site of leakage in CSF rhinorrhoea, the extent of the syringomyelia, and arachnoid cyst. Metrizamide CT was also helpful in the diagnosis of spinal stenosis, spinal trauma and infectious disease of the spine. The most common side effects were transient minor meningeal irritations (headache, nausea, vomiting and dizziness) which persisted no more than 48 hours in most of the patients. Five patients developed major complications such as grand mal seizure, toxic psychosis or aspetic meningitis.

  20. Priapism in Antipsychotic Drug Use: A Rare but Important Side Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igne Sinkeviciute

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Priapism is a rare but important side effect of antipsychotic drugs which may evolve into a urological emergency. Most antipsychotic drugs are alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, which is thought to be the principal mechanism involved in antipsychotic-induced priapism. Other aetiologies exist, however. A case is presented with multiple episodes of priapism during the use of several different antipsychotic drugs. The case is representative of many patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, as there were hyperprolactinemia, and illicit drug use, which are known causes of priapism. Moreover, the patient used combinations of antipsychotic drugs. The case thus illustrates the etiological complexity which could delay a diagnosis of antipsychotic-induced priapism, and the problem of establishing a link between priapism and one particular ingredient of a drug combination. The case presents how a treatment regimen was finally established balancing antipsychotic efficacy to acceptable side effects and offers guidance to physicians regarding how antipsychotic-induced priapism may be resolved.

  1. An Uncommon Side Effect of Bupropion: A Case of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Tak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP is a rare inflammatory dermatosis characterized by multiple nonfollicular pustules that occur on erythematous skin. Despite its similarity to pustular psoriasis and association with fever and leukocytosis, AGEP typically heals quickly. Etiologically, drugs and viruses have been suspected in most cases. Here, we present a case of AGEP, in a woman, that developed 1 day after starting bupropion for smoking cessation, as a rare side effect of the treatment.

  2. Two-Sided Network Effects: A Theory of Information Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey G. Parker; Van Alstyne, Marshall W.

    2005-01-01

    How can firms profitably give away free products? This paper provides a novel answer and articulates trade-offs in a space of information product design. We introduce a formal model of two-sided network externalities based in textbook economics---a mix of Katz and Shapiro network effects, price discrimination, and product differentiation. Externality-based complements, however, exploit a different mechanism than either tying or lock-in even as they help to explain many recent strategies such ...

  3. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  4. Exacerbation of Bloody Diarrhea as a Side Effect of Mesalamine Treatment of Active Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi Shimodate; Kunihiro Takanashi; Eriko Waga; Tomoki Fujita; Shinichi Katsuki; Masafumi Nomura

    2011-01-01

    Mesalamine has been used as the first-line therapy for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) because of its efficacy and fewer side effects. However, earlier study showed that mesalamine occasionally causes diarrhea. We are presenting a patient with active UC in whom bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever occurred and the symptoms were aggravated after administration of mesalamine. In order to clarify the reason of symptoms aggravation, drug lymphocyte stimulation test and...

  5. Specific side effects of long-term imipramine management of panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavissakalian, Matig; Perel, James; Guo, Shenyang

    2002-04-01

    In a recent study, the authors suggested that tachycardia, dry mouth, and sweating continued to burden patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia who have shown marked and stable response to 6 months of imipramine treatment at the fixed, weight-adjusted dose of 2.25 mg/kg/day. Although sexual dysfunction and weight gain were not a significant burden in that study, they are important problems in long-term treatment with antidepressant drugs. In the present study, in the context of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1-year discontinuation and maintenance study of 53 patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia who respond to imipramine, the authors examine the extent and the specificity of these five side effects of imipramine maintenance using data at pretreatment, at the end of 24 weeks of open imipramine treatment (or month 0 of randomization), and at months 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 of randomized treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling and repeated measures of analyses of variance in subsamples of completers confirmed that dry mouth, sweating, and increased heart rate constitute a significant and specific enduring burden of imipramine maintenance treatment. The data also revealed that weight gain is a significant and specific side effect of 1-year imipramine maintenance treatment; however, the likelihood of reporting sexual dysfunction decreased over time, with no difference between the placebo and imipramine maintenance conditions. The results are discussed in the context of previous studies of imipramine side effects in the management of depression and the available literature of sexual and weight side effects of antidepressant medications in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  6. Side-effects of cidofovir in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekema, Ferdinand I; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2008-08-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a chronic and difficult to treat disease of the larynx. In 1998, the first article was published that described the use of the antiviral substance cidofovir to treat this disease. Although the results are promising, there remains some concern about the potential carcinogenicity of cidofovir. There is a demand for a qualitative review of the side-effects of this medicine. In this review, the side-effects of cidofovir are investigated. Special attention was given to the potential carcinogenicity of cidofovir. For this review a search is performed in PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles in which the use of intralesional cidofovir for patients with RRP is described. Eventually, 31 articles could be included for this review. In these articles a total of 188 patients with RRP were described who underwent therapy with intralesional cidofovir. Five of these patients have developed dysplasia of the larynx during the treatment with cidofovir. This is a percentage of 2.7. This percentage is concurrent with the incidence of spontaneous malignant degeneration of RRP (2-3%). Based on this review, it can be concluded that the use of intralesional cidofovir does not increase the risk of laryngeal dysplasia. Apart from the articles that describe the intralesional administration of cidofovir, some articles have been published in which the use of intravenous cidofovir is described as a therapy for RRP. Therefore, a summary is given on the side-effects of intralesional cidofovir as well as a summary on the reported side-effects of the intravenous administration of cidofovir. Based on the outcomes of this review, recommendations are given for a safe use of cidofovir for treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in the future.

  7. Consumption of Energy Drinks Among Lebanese Youth: A Pilot Study on the Prevalence and Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar,; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab ,Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background: The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. Objectives: This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. Patients and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged...

  8. Minimizing quality deteriorations of refrigerated foodstuffs as a side effect of defrosting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization scheme for traditional refrigeration systems with hysteresis controllers and scheduled defrosts. It aims at minimizing the side effect of defrost cycles on the storage quality of refrigerated foodstuffs in supermarkets. By utilizing the thermal mass of air...... and products inside a display cabinet, this optimization scheme forces the compressor to work harder and cool down more prior to the scheduled defrosts, thus guaranteeing the product temperature after defrost cycles still to be within a controlled safe level....

  9. Side effects of the hepatitis C treatment at the ABC application center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Thamy Jay; Lara, Paulo Henrique Schmidt; Morimoto, Tauy Pereira; Higasiaraguti, Mauricio; Perejão, Andréia Maruzo; Ayub, Munir Akar

    2012-01-01

    To review and compare side effects of hepatitis C treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin at the CRIE of the Hospital Mário Covas (Santo André), São Paulo, Brazil, from February 23 to May 5, 2011. Cross-sectional study through questionnaire, with a non-probability sample comprised of 340 patients that had received at least one dose of the medication. Side effects presented were fatigue (82.9%), arthralgia and/or myalgia (76.8%), weight loss (71.8%), headache (67.6%), listlessness (65.9%), depression and/or irritability (64.4%), itching (60.6%), fever (59.1%), alopecia (51.5%), dry cough (34.1%), nausea (11.7%), inappetence (11.7%), and dizziness (7.9%). Up to 19 symptoms were reported during treatment. Only four patients (1.2%) did not present side effects. When comparing the types of interferon, it was observed that alpha-2b caused an average of 8.01 symptoms per patient, while alpha-2a was responsible for an average of 7.50 symptoms. Patients using interferon alpha-2b showed more fever, weight loss, headache, arthralgia and/or myalgia, fatigue, listlessness, depression and/or irritability, and dry cough than patients using alpha-2a, who had more alopecia and itching. The study shows a high morbidity related to the treatment, as only 1.2% of the patients showed no side effects. In the sample, the pegylated interferon alpha-2b was responsible for higher prevalence of fever and weight loss when compared to alpha-2a, and this was a statistically significant relation (p < 0.05).

  10. An Uncommon Side Effect of Bupropion: A Case of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Tak; Cengiz Koçak; Gülben Sarıcı; Nazlı Dizen Namdar; Mehtap Kıdır

    2015-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare inflammatory dermatosis characterized by multiple nonfollicular pustules that occur on erythematous skin. Despite its similarity to pustular psoriasis and association with fever and leukocytosis, AGEP typically heals quickly. Etiologically, drugs and viruses have been suspected in most cases. Here, we present a case of AGEP, in a woman, that developed 1 day after starting bupropion for smoking cessation, as a rare side effect of the ...

  11. Minimizing quality deteriorations of refrigerated foodstuffs as a side effect of defrosting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization scheme for traditional refrigeration systems with hysteresis controllers and scheduled defrosts. It aims at minimizing the side effect of defrost cycles on the storage quality of refrigerated foodstuffs in supermarkets. By utilizing the thermal mass of air...... and products inside a display cabinet, this optimization scheme forces the compressor to work harder and cool down more prior to the scheduled defrosts, thus guaranteeing the product temperature after defrost cycles still to be within a controlled safe level....

  12. Effect of Flow Rate of Side-Type Orifice Intake on Withdrawn Water Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Xueping Gao; Guangning Li; Yunpeng Han

    2014-01-01

    Side-type orifice intake is a type of selective withdrawal facility used in managing reservoirs to mitigate the negative effects of low-temperature water. Based on the temperature data of a thermal stratified reservoir in China, an experiment was conducted in flume to study the influence of intake flow rate on withdrawn water temperature with different temperature distributions. Results indicated that withdrawn water temperature changed with different flow rates. The temperature change was de...

  13. Consumption of Energy Drinks Among Lebanese Youth: A Pilot Study on the Prevalence and Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar,; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background: The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. Objectives: This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. Patients and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged...

  14. FRONTAL PLANE KNEE MOMENTS IN GOLF: EFFECT OF TARGET SIDE FOOT POSITION AT ADDRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott K. Lynn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Golf has the potential to keep people active well into their later years. Injuries to the target side knee have been reported in golfers, yet no mechanisms for these injuries have been proposed. The loads on the knee during the golf swing may be insufficient to cause acute injury, yet they may be a factor in the progression of overuse/degenerative conditions; therefore, research developing swing modifications that may alter loading of the knee is warranted. It has been suggested that the proper golf set-up position has the target-side foot externally rotated but no reasoning for this modification has been provided. Frontal plane knee moments have been implicated in many knee pathologies. Therefore, this study used a 3-dimensional link segment model to quantify the frontal plane knee moments during the golf swing in a straight (STR and externally rotated (EXT target-side foot position. Subjects were 7 collegiate golfers and knee moments were compared between conditions using repeated measures T-tests. The golf swing knee moment magnitudes were also descriptively compared to those reported for two athletic maneuvers (drop jump landing, side-step cutting and activities of daily living (gait, stair ascent. The EXT condition decreased the peak knee adduction moment as compared to the STR condition; however, foot position had no effect on the peak knee abduction moment. Also, the magnitude of the knee adduction moments during the two activities of daily living were 9-33% smaller than those experienced during the two different golfing conditions. The drop jump landing and golf swing knee moments were of similar magnitude (STR= - 5%, EXT= + 8%; however, the moments associated with side- step cutting were 50-71% larger than those on the target side knee during the golf swing. The loading of the target side knee during the golf swing may be a factor in the development and progression of knee pathologies and further research should examine ways of

  15. Chitosan Oligosaccharide Reduces Propofol Requirements and Propofol-Related Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiwen; Yang, Xige; Song, Xuesong; Ma, Haichun; Zhang, Ping

    2016-12-21

    Propofol is one of the main sedatives but its negative side effects limit its clinical application. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), a kind of natural product with anti-pain and anti-inflammatory activities, may be a potential adjuvant to propofol use. A total of 94 patients receiving surgeries were evenly and randomly assigned to two groups: 10 mg/kg COS oral administration and/or placebo oral administration before being injected with propofol. The target-controlled infusion of propofol was adjusted to maintain the values of the bispectral index at 50. All patients' pain was evaluated on a four-point scale and side effects were investigated. To explore the molecular mechanism for the functions of COS in propofol use, a mouse pain model was established. The activities of Nav1.7 were analyzed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells. The results showed that the patients receiving COS pretreatment were likely to require less propofol than the patients pretreated with placebo for maintaining an anesthetic situation (p propofol-pretreated group. The side effects were also more reduced in a COS-treated group than in a placebo-pretreated group. COS reduced the activity of Nav1.7 and its inhibitory function was lost when Nav1.7 was silenced (p > 0.05). COS improved propofol performance by affecting Nav1.7 activity. Thus, COS is a potential adjuvant to propofol use in surgical anesthesia.

  16. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura: A rare side effect in a patient treated with Imiquimod for lentigo maligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Whatling

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Topical Imiquimod is increasingly used in the treatment of lentigo maligna (LM for patients not suitable or willing for surgery. It acts as an immune response modifier and is recommended for use with caution in patients with autoimmune disorders. A review of the literature did not reveal any reported cases of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP with the use of Imiquimod so far. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman with a history of Addison's and Graves' disease who had been diagnosed with lentigo maligna on the right nasal ala. Within two days of commencing of topical Imiquimod treatment, she was admitted to the hospital with extensive cutaneous and mucosal bruising and treated as acute Idiopathic Throbocytopenic Purpura. Deranged platelets were reversed promptly with treatment and Imiquimod discontinued. We demonstrate that Idiopathic Throbocytopenic Purpura is a potential life-threatening side effect of Imiquimod treatment and patients who have autoimmune disorders are at increased risk of developing this side effect. We recommend that Imiquimod is contraindicated in patients with autoimmune disease. Here we describe the clinical presentation and review the relevant literature on Imiquimod treatment for lentigo maligna and its potential side effects.

  17. A qualitative study of women who experience side effects from human papillomavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Tina; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2016-12-01

    In Denmark, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is offered to girls and women to prevent cervical cancer. Unfortunately, reporting of possible side effects from vaccination has increased in recent years. Therefore, the present study examine women's experiences of side effects from the HPV vaccine. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with eight HPV-vaccinated Danish women, aged 25-44 years, who experienced side effects from the vaccine. The data were analysed using a narrative methodology. The main reasons for being vaccinated against HPV are fear of cancer and trust in general practitioners (GPs). The women reported feeling stigmatised by GPs and doctors and they felt that these professionals did not acknowledge their symptoms, often assuming that they were due to psychological distress. The lack of acceptance from family and friends had led the women to distance themselves from others and lead a more socially isolated life. The women believed that a diagnosis could validate their symptoms and help others accept their condition. The women felt exceedingly physically and mentally confined in their everyday life, which led them to live a more restricted and solitary life. Since other people tended not to acknowledge their symptoms, the women's illness behaviour was poorly accepted. The women generally distrusted Danish healthcare as they had experienced stigmatisation from physicians and did not trust the evidence for the safety of the vaccine. none TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.

  18. Population pharmacokinetics of melphalan and glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in relation to side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, A; Sezer, O; Heider, U; Meineke, I; Muhlke, S; Niere, W; Overbeck, T; Hohloch, K; Trümper, L; Brockmöller, J; Kaiser, R

    2008-05-01

    Melphalan is associated with severe side effects such as mucositis, diarrhea, and myelosuppression. We investigated how much the individual severity of these side effects is predicted by pharmacokinetics. In addition, we studied glutathione S-transferase GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms in relation to adverse events. A high interindividual pharmacokinetic variability was observed in 84 patients. There was a linear correlation between creatinine and melphalan clearance (P=0.0004). Patients treated with a dose > or = 70 mg/m(2) had a 23-fold increased risk to develop mucositis (P<0.001) and a 12-fold increased risk to develop diarrhea (P<0.001) compared with lower doses. The GSTP1 codon 105 polymorphism may be relevant for development of mucositis and the GSTT1 deletion may predict diarrhea, but these findings require confirmation. Melphalan-induced side effects were significantly dependent only on dose. Therapeutic drug monitoring or genotyping for GST does not appear to be very helpful in optimizing therapy with melphalan.

  19. A Rare Side Effect due to TNF-Alpha Blocking Agent: Acute Pleuropericarditis with Adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism is an important treatment strategy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, vasculitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Adalimumab is one of the well-known tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents. There are several side effects reported in patients with adalimumab therapy. Cardiac side effects of adalimumab are rare. Only a few cardiac side effects were reported. A 61-year-old man treated with adalimumab for the last 6 months due to psoriatic arthritis presented with typically acute pleuropericarditis. Chest X-ray and echocardiography demonstrated marked pericardial effusion. Patient was successfully evaluated for the etiology of acute pleuro-pericarditis. Every etiology was excluded except the usage of adalimumab. Adalimumab was discontinued, and patient was treated with 1200 mg of ibuprofen daily. Control chest X-ray and echocardiography after three weeks demonstrated complete resolution of both pleural and pericardial effusions. This case clearly demonstrated the acute onset of pericarditis with adalimumab usage. Acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion should be kept in mind in patients with adalimumab treatment.

  20. Validation of the Glasgow Antipsychotic Side-Effect Scale (GASS in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nystazaki Maria

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the linguistic adaptation and psychometric validation into the Greek language of the GASS scale for the assessment of side effects in patients treated with second generation antipsychotic medication. The GASS scale takes 5 minutes to complete (21 items for men and women and contains self-explanatory questions in everyday plain English while providing a structured systematic method of reviewing antipsychotic side effects. The translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was performed according to international standards. Internal consistency using the Cronbach ? coefficient and test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to assess the reliability of the instrument. Patient’s sample consisted of 80 participants with a mean age of 42.6 years. Internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficient were adequate (Cronbach ? = 0.79 and ICC = 0.96. The test-retest percent agreement for the aforementioned categories was 95.9. Agreement was satisfactory according to Kappa coefficient which was equal to 0.78 (p<0.001.The Greek validation of the GASS scale shows appropriate feasibility, reliability, and discriminative performance as a patient-reported outcome to be used for the assessment of the impact of side effects on patients with schizophrenia.

  1. Effects of surgical side and site on mood and behavior outcome in children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth N Andresen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with epilepsy have a high rate of mood and behavior problems yet few studies consider the emotional and behavioral impact of surgery. No study to date has been sufficiently powered to investigate effects of both side (left/right and site (temporal/frontal of surgery. One hundred patients (aged 6-16 and their families completed measures of depression, anxiety and behavioral function as part of neuropsychological evaluations before and after surgery for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Among children who had left-sided surgeries (frontal=16; temporal=38, there were significant interactions between time (pre to postoperative neuropsychological assessment and resection site (frontal/temporal on Anhedonia, Social Anxiety, and Withdrawn/Depressed scales. Patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE endorsed greater presurgical anhedonia and social anxiety than patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, with scores normalizing following surgery. While scores on the Withdrawn/Depressed scale were similar between groups before surgery, the FLE group showed greater symptom improvement after surgery. In children who underwent right-sided surgeries (FLE=20; TLE=26 main effects of time (patients in both groups improved and resection site (caregivers of FLE patients endorsed greater symptoms than those with TLE were observed primarily on behavior scales. Individual data revealed that a greater proportion of children with left FLE demonstrated clinically significant improvements in Anhedonia, Social Anxiety, and Aggressive Behavior than children with TLE. This is the first study to demonstrate differential effects of both side and site of surgery in children with epilepsy at group and individual levels. Results suggest that children with FLE have greater emotional and behavioral dysfunction before surgery, but show marked improvement after surgery. Overall, most children had good emotional and behavioral outcomes, with most scores remaining stable or improving.

  2. Effects and side effects of antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia : Pros and cons of available self-rating scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, H.A.; Knegtering, H.; van den Bosch, R.J.; Wiersma, D.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: To support clinical practice as well as clinical research, self-rating scales have been developed to evaluate the effects and side effects of antipsychotic treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the psychometric properties and other characteristics of frequently used self-ratin

  3. The effect of a multidimensional exercise programme on symptoms and side-effects in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina; Adamsen, Lis; Møller, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 6-week intervention with structured physical activity, relaxation, body-awareness techniques and massage on the symptoms/side-effects of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The study was prospective and exploratory, and 54 patients...

  4. Effects and side effects of antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia : Pros and cons of available self-rating scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, H.A.; Knegtering, H.; van den Bosch, R.J.; Wiersma, D.

    Introduction: To support clinical practice as well as clinical research, self-rating scales have been developed to evaluate the effects and side effects of antipsychotic treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the psychometric properties and other characteristics of frequently used

  5. Effect of Side Wind on the Directional Stability and Aerodynamics of a Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Anwar U

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Directional stability characteristics explain the capabilities of a hybrid buoyant aircraft’s performance against the side wind, which induces flow separation that is chaotic in nature and may lead to oscillations of the aerodynamic surfaces. A numerical study is carried out to estimate the effect of side wind. The boundary conditions for the computational domain are set to velocity inlet and pressure outlet. Due to the incompressible flow at the cruise velocity, the density is taken to be constant. For these steady state simulations, the time is discretized in first order implicit and the SIMPLE scheme is employed for pressure velocity coupling alongwith k-ω SST model. Based on the results obtained so far, it is concluded that voluminous hybrid lifting fuselage is the major cause of directional.

  6. Effects of alloying side B on Ti-based AB2 hydrogen storage alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家淳; 于荣海; 刘庆

    2004-01-01

    Ti-based AB2-type hydrogen storage alloys are a group of promising materials, which will probably replace the prevalent rare earth-based AB5-type alloys and be adopted as the main cathode materials of nickelmetal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries in the near future. Alloying in side B is a major way to improve the performance of Ti-based AB2-type alloys. Based on recent studies, the effects of alloying elements in side B upon the performance of Ti-based AB2 -type hydrogen storage alloys are systematically reviewed here. These performances are divided into two categories, namely PCI characteristics, including hydrogen storage capacity (HSC), plateau pressure (PP), pressure hysteresis (PH) and pressure plateau sloping (PPS) , and electrochemical properties, including discharge capacity (DC), activation property (AP), cycling stability (CS) and high-rate dischargeability (HRD). Furthermore, the existing problems in these investigations and some suggestions for future research are proposed.

  7. The evaluation-mediation hypothesis: does the specification of potential side effects influence the perceived risk of medication?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, T. [Universitaet Potsdam, Institut fur Psychologie, Abteilung Sozialpsychologi, Potsdam (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: starting from the assumptions of support theory, this project analyzed the extent to which the specification of potential side effects influences the perceived risk associated, with a particular medication. Respondents were presented with an instruction leaflet for a medication which indicated (a) the overall probability that a side effect will occur or (b) the probability of occurrence of several specific side effects. Support theory predicts that the cognitive availability of potential side effects and therefore the perceived risk increases as a function of the specificity with which the side effects are presented. In contrast the evaluation-mediation hypothesis predicts that a more detailed presentation of potential side effects enhances the perceived quality of the information leaflet and thereby leads to a reduction of perceived risk. Support for the evaluation-mediation hypothesis was found in a series of studies which included the editing hypothesis and the elaboration likelihood model as additional explanations: the more detailed the information about potential side effects, the lower the estimated risk of suffering a side effect on taking the medication. As predicted, the influence of presentation specificity on perceived risk was mediated almost exclusively by the perceived quality of the information leaflet. A current series of studies seeks to support the evaluation-mediation hypothesis in a completely different domain, the perceived risk of environmental pollution by motor vehicles. (author)

  8. Long-term oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome : a controlled study on dental side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, M. H. J.; Finnema, K. J.; Hoekema, A.; Wijkstra, P. J.; de Bont, L. G. M.; Stegenga, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess possible dental side effects associated with long-term use of an adjustable oral appliance compared with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to study the relationship between these possible side effects and t

  9. Long-term oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome : a controlled study on dental side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, M. H. J.; Finnema, K. J.; Hoekema, A.; Wijkstra, P. J.; de Bont, L. G. M.; Stegenga, B.

    This study aimed to assess possible dental side effects associated with long-term use of an adjustable oral appliance compared with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to study the relationship between these possible side effects and

  10. The effect of a multidimensional exercise programme on symptoms and side-effects in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina; Adamsen, Lis; Møller, Tom

    2006-01-01

    these scores in questionnaires. Twelve possible symptoms/side-effects were registered daily: lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, paraesthesia, constipation, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, treatment-related fatigue, muscle pain, arthralgia and other pain. During the intervention a decrease....../side-effects than patients with no evidence of disease (n=28) (P=0.027). The results indicate that a six weeks multidimensional exercise intervention undertaken by cancer patients with or without residual disease while undergoing chemotherapy can lead to a reduction in treatment-related symptoms....

  11. Refractive and relativistic effects on ITER low field side reflectometer design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Rhodes, T L; Peebles, W A; Harvey, R W; Budny, R V

    2010-10-01

    The ITER low field side reflectometer faces some unique design challenges, among which are included the effect of relativistic electron temperatures and refraction of probing waves. This paper utilizes GENRAY, a 3D ray tracing code, to investigate these effects. Using a simulated ITER operating scenario, characteristics of the reflected millimeter waves after return to the launch plane are quantified as a function of a range of design parameters, including antenna height, antenna diameter, and antenna radial position. Results for edge/SOL measurement with both O- and X-mode polarizations using proposed antennas are reported.

  12. Thyroid side effects prophylaxis in front of nuclear power plant accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopiantz, Mikaël; Elhanbali, Ouifak; Demore, Béatrice; Cuny, Thomas; Demarquet, Léa; Ndiaye, Cumba; Barbe, Françoise; Brunaud, Laurent; Weryha, Georges; Klein, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The better knowledge of the mechanisms of nuclear incidents and lessons learned from accidents in the recent past to improve the effectiveness of measures taken following a nuclear accident exposure to fallout of radioactive iodine isotopes. Thus, immediate, passive measures, such as containment, and stopping consumption of contaminated products are paramount. The earliest possible administration of stable iodine as potassium iodide (KI) reduces significantly (up to 90% if taken at the same time of the accident) thyroid radioactive contamination. These tablets should be given in priority to children and pregnant women. The side effects are minor. KI is not recommended for persons aged over 60 years, or for adults suffering from cardiovascular disorders.

  13. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pozzebon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM. Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine.

  14. Side-Pinch Effect of a Magnetically Driven Shock Tube with Parallel Plate Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Mondrup, K.

    1969-01-01

    To study the possible effect of the side pinch on the steady-state current and the steady-state shock speed of a magnetically driven shock tube, a semiempirical model is formulated. The time history of the current, the radial and the translational motion of the current-carrying region are expressed...... show that the current-carrying region oscillates radially, but the current and the translational velocity of the current-carrying region approach the quasi-steady state rapidly. The deviation of the current from its “steady-state” value (when the pinch effect is absent) in no case amounts to more than...

  15. Local therapeutic efficacy with reduced systemic side effects by rapamycin-loaded subcapsular microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, Lucas L; van Vuuren, Stefan H; Kazazi-Hyseni, Filis; Ramazani, Farshad; Nguyen, Tri Q; Veldhuis, Gert J; Maarseveen, Erik M; Zandstra, Jurjen; Zuidema, Johan; Duque, Luisa F; Steendam, Rob; Popa, Eliane R; Kok, Robbert Jan; Goldschmeding, Roel

    2015-02-01

    Kidney injury triggers fibrosis, the final common pathway of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The increase of CKD prevalence worldwide urgently calls for new therapies. Available systemic treatment such as rapamycin are associated with serious side effects. To study the potential of local antifibrotic therapy, we administered rapamycin-loaded microspheres under the kidney capsule of ureter-obstructed rats and assessed the local antifibrotic effects and systemic side effects of rapamycin. After 7 days, microsphere depots were easily identifiable under the kidney capsule. Both systemic and local rapamycin treatment reduced intrarenal mTOR activity, myofibroblast accumulation, expression of fibrotic genes, and T-lymphocyte infiltration. Upon local treatment, inhibition of mTOR activity and reduction of myofibroblast accumulation were limited to the immediate vicinity of the subcapsular pocket, while reduction of T-cell infiltration was widespread. In contrast to systemically administered rapamycin, local treatment did not induce off target effects such as weight loss. Thus subcapsular delivery of rapamycin-loaded microspheres successfully inhibited local fibrotic response in UUO with less systemic effects. Therapeutic effect of released rapamycin was most prominent in close vicinity to the implanted microspheres.

  16. From Eye Drops to ICU, a Case Report of Three Side Effects of Ophthalmic Timolol Maleate in the Same Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asim Rana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Timolol Maleate (also called Timolol is a nonselective beta-adrenergic blocker and a class II antiarrhythmic drug, which is used to treat intraocular hypertension. It has been reported to cause systemic side effects especially in elderly patients with other comorbidities. These side effects are due to systemic absorption of the drug and it is known that Timolol is measurable in the serum following ophthalmic use. Chances of life threatening side effects increase if these are coprescribed with other cardiodepressant drugs like calcium channel or systemic beta blockers. We report a case where an elderly patient was admitted with three side effects of Timolol and his condition required ICU admission with mechanical ventilation and temporary transvenous pacing. The case emphasizes the need of raising awareness among physicians of such medications about the potential side effects and drug interactions. A close liaison among patient’s physicians is suggested.

  17. Side effects of Deferasirox Iron Chelation in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major or Intermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khabori, Murtadha; Bhandari, Sunil; Al-Huneini, Mohammed; Al-Farsi, Khalil; Panjwani, Vinodh; Daar, Shahina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Chelating agents remain the mainstay in reducing the iron burden and extending patient survival in homozygous beta-thalassemia but adverse and toxic effects may increase with the institution and long term use of this essential therapy. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of deferasirox (DFX) side effects in patients with thalassemia major or intermedia. Methods A retrospective study of 72 patients (mean age: 20.3±0.9 yrs; 36 male, 36 female) with thalassemia major or intermedia treated at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, was performed to assess the incidence of side effects related to deferasirox over a mean of 16.7 month follow-up period. Results Six patients experienced rashes and 6 had gastro-intestinal upset. DFX was discontinued in 18 patients for the following reasons: persistent progressive rise(s) in serum creatinine (7 patients; 40% mean serum creatinine rise from baseline), feeling unwell (2), severe diarrhea (1), pregnancy (1), death unrelated to chelator (2) and rise in serum transaminases (2). Three patients were reverted to desferoxamine and deferiprone combination therapy as DFX was no longer biochemically effective after 18 months of therapy. There was no correlation between baseline serum ferritin and serum creatinine or a rise in serum creatinine. Cardiac MRI T2* did not change with DFX therapy. However, there was an improvement in liver MRI T2* (p=0.013). Conclusion Renal side effects related to deferasirox appear to be higher than those reported in published clinical trials. Further larger studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:23599881

  18. Side effects of Deferasirox Iron Chelation in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major or Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtadha Al-Khabori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Chelating agents remain the mainstay in reducing the iron burden and extending patient survival in homozygous beta-thalassemia but adverse and toxic effects may increase with the institution and long term use of this essential therapy. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of deferasirox (DFX side effects in patients with thalassemia major or intermedia.Methods: A retrospective study of 72 patients (mean age: 20.3±0.9 yrs; 36 male, 36 female with thalassemia major or intermedia treated at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, was performed to assess the incidence of side effects related to deferasirox over a mean of 16.7 month follow-up period.Results: Six patients experienced rashes and 6 had gastro-intestinal upset. DFX was discontinued in 18 patients for the following reasons: persistent progressive rise(s in serum creatinine (7 patients; 40% mean serum creatinine rise from baseline, feeling unwell (2, severe diarrhea (1, pregnancy (1, death unrelated to chelator (2 and rise in serum transaminases (2. Three patients were reverted to desferoxamine and deferiprone combination therapy as DFX was no longer biochemically effective after 18 months of therapy. There was no correlation between baseline serum ferritin and serum creatinine or a rise in serum creatinine. Cardiac MRI T2* did not change with DFX therapy. However, there was an improvement in liver MRI T2* (p=0.013.Conclusion: Renal side effects related to deferasirox appear to be higher than those reported in published clinical trials. Further larger studies are required to confirm these findings.

  19. Side effects and discontinuation of oral contraceptive use in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, B; Kane, T T; Arruda, J M; Covington, D L; Morris, L

    1986-07-01

    Oral contraceptives have many advantages, but sometimes also have side effects which can cause users to switch appropriately or inappropriately to less effective methods or abandon contraception. In Brazil, 2/3 of married women of childbearing age were using contraception in 1981, and 1/2 of these were using orals. Contraceptive behavior following reported side effects in users of oral contraceptives in Southern Brazil is examined in this study, in relation to diverse factors. Among 2904 currently-married women, aged 15-44, almost 75% reported that they had used the pill at some time, and of these, 45.6% were still doing so. Data on perceived side effects were gathered for all women. There was no independent medical evaluation of the effects, so the data did not necessarily represent actual prevalence of pill related problems. Women who reported problems with the pill were less likely to be current users (25%) than women who did not (65%). However, overall contraceptive prevalence was about the same in both groups (66.2% and 67.0% respectively), indicating that women who stop using oral contraceptives usually switch to another method. However, they are more likely to be using traditional methods than women in the general population, especially if they want more children. Termination of pill use varies little according to the type of problem reported. Women with problems who sought medical attention were more likely to stop using the pill, and 82.4% of women advised to stop by their physician did so, but the major factor affecting discontinuation was the reported experience of a problem. The most frequently reported problems were headaches (38.1%), nausea (34.1%), nervousness (27.9%), and vertigo (18.3%). Physician intervention should help to avoid women's abandoning oral contraceptives unnecessarily.

  20. General equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option under the Clean Development Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Govinda R; Shrestha, Ram M

    2006-09-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is considered a key instrument to encourage developing countries' participation in the mitigation of global climate change. Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the energy supply and demand side activities are the main options to be implemented under the CDM. This paper analyses the general equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option-the substitution of thermal power with hydropower--in Thailand under the CDM. A static multi-sector general equilibrium model has been developed for the purpose of this study. The key finding of the study is that the substitution of electricity generation from thermal power plants with that from hydropower plants would increase economic welfare in Thailand. The supply side option would, however, adversely affect the gross domestic product (GDP) and the trade balance. The percentage changes in economic welfare, GDP and trade balance increase with the level of substitution and the price of certified emission reduction (CER) units.

  1. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular range-of-motion exercises, stretching exercises, strengthening with a Theraband in all directions and post-exercise proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. All cases were evaluated with visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, and the shoulder disability questionnaire, at baseline and 7 and 12 weeks after baseline. [Results] Marked improvement was noted in all patients in both right and left sides after treatment, and at 7 and 12 weeks of follow-up compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between the right and left shoulder groups, in all outcome measures. [Conclusion] The combination of physical therapy, exercise, and manual techniques is effective in treating frozen shoulder. The location of the lesion in the right or left shoulder does not, in itself, affect the prognosis or treatment outcome.

  2. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular range-of-motion exercises, stretching exercises, strengthening with a Theraband in all directions and post-exercise proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. All cases were evaluated with visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, and the shoulder disability questionnaire, at baseline and 7 and 12 weeks after baseline. [Results] Marked improvement was noted in all patients in both right and left sides after treatment, and at 7 and 12 weeks of follow-up compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between the right and left shoulder groups, in all outcome measures. [Conclusion] The combination of physical therapy, exercise, and manual techniques is effective in treating frozen shoulder. The location of the lesion in the right or left shoulder does not, in itself, affect the prognosis or treatment outcome. PMID:26957759

  3. Cold Side-Effect Effect: Affect Does Not Mediate the Influence of Moral Considerations in Intentionality Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Rodrigo; Viciana, Hugo; Gomila, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that people consider harmful side effects of an action more intentional than helpful side effects. This phenomenon is known as the side-effect effect (SEE), which refers to the influence of moral considerations in judgments of intentionality and other non-moral concepts. There is an ongoing debate about how to explain this asymmetric pattern of judgment and the psychological factors involved in it. It has been posited that affective reactions to agents that bring about harmful side-effects could bias intentionality attributions in these cases, explaining the asymmetric pattern of intentionality judgments that we observe in the SEE. We call this the affective bias hypothesis (ABH). Evidence for the ABH is mixed, with some findings suggesting a role for affective processes, while others suggesting that affective processes play no role in the SEE. A possible explanation for these apparently contradictory results points to affective processes involved in the SEE being confined to anger. In a series of empirical studies, we systematically measured and manipulated participants’ anger in order to test this possibility. Our findings suggest that anger play no role in intentionality judgments in SEE cases, while providing support for a non-emotional motivation to blame as a factor underlying the SEE. PMID:28293211

  4. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Todokoro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of afatinib therapy. A 75-year-old Japanese male ex-smoker with EGFR-mutated NSCLC underwent afatinib therapy for multiple metastases. At 2 weeks, bilateral conjunctivitis developed. Topical medication and a 1-week afatinib washout period resulted in the improvement of the conjunctivitis. However, 3 days after the resumption of afatinib, the patient developed unilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis in his right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA measurement indicated a decimal visual acuity of 0.2, while the slit-lamp findings were characterized by granulomatous inflammation, keratic precipitates, Koeppe nodules and posterior synechiae. There was no evidence suggesting other intraocular inflammatory disease or metastatic tumor. The left eye was intact. The use of topical medication including steroids and a washout of afatinib resulted in a gradual subsiding of the anterior uveitis. After resolution of the anterior uveitis, oral afatinib was resumed. BCVA of the right eye finally recovered to a decimal acuity of 1.0. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility that side effects associated with afatinib could cause granulomatous anterior uveitis.

  5. Relation between therapeutic response and side effects induced by methylphenidate as observed by parents and teachers of children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Venkataramana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The desired (therapeutic and undesired (side effects of methylphenidate might have underlying correlations. The aim of this study was to explore the strength and the possible sources of these correlations. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven children with ADHD (6-12 years were administered placebo and methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg in a divided b.i.d. dose, each for a one-week period, in a double-blind, crossover trial. Therapeutic response was assessed using the Conners' Global Index for parents (CGI-Parents and teachers (CGI-Teachers, while side effects were assessed using the Barkley Side Effects Rating Scale (SERS. Results The side effect profile as assessed by the SERS was similar to that of previous studies with insomnia, decreased appetite, and headaches showing significant treatment effects (p Conclusion The greater "mood/anxiety" side effects on methylphenidate and placebo, the less the parents observe improvement of their children while treated with methylphenidate. This suggests that the correlations between "mood/anxiety" side effects and poor response to treatment may be driven by observer effects rather than biological commonalities between therapeutic and side effects of methylphenidate.

  6. Comparing Efficacy and Side Effects of Memantine vs. Risperidone in the Treatment of Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikvarz, Nikvarz; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Alimadadi, Abbas; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy and side effects of memantine, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor of glutamate, with risperidone given the fact that glutamate has been noted for its possible effects in the pathogenesis of autism. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, has been approved by FDA for the management of irritability associated with autism. Methods: 30 children, aged 4-17 years, entered an 8-week, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either risperidone or memantine. Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scales were used to assess behavioral symptoms of the patients. Results: Both risperidone and memantine reduced the scores of 4 subscales of ABC as well as the 10-item and the total score of CARS significantly. However, differences between the 2 drugs in the scores of each evaluating scale were not found to be significant. Relatively, larger number of patients on risperidone showed "very much improvement" when assessed by CGI-I scale when compared with those on memantine. Discussion and conclusion: The present study suggests that memantine may have beneficial effects in the treatment of many core symptoms of autism. Therefore, memantine may be considered as a potential medication in the treatment of those autistic children who do not respond or cannot tolerate side effects of risperidone.

  7. Short-Term Side Effects after Radioiodine Treatment in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. I-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC could induce adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to report and analyze symptoms after I-131 treatment within the hospitalization and present relevant medical intervention. Methods. I-131 doses ranging from 3.7 to 9.25 GBq (100–250 mCi were administrated for thyroid remnant ablation or treating DTC metastases. 117 patients with DTC for I-131 therapy were monitored through the video and intercommunicating with standardized questionnaire at different time points after I-131 oral administration. Adverse effects were recorded and relevant clinical factors were analyzed. Results. Among all the 117 patients, 55 cases complained of neck’s pain or swelling and 79 cases presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. Pain or swelling of salivary gland occurred in 15 patients, headache and vertigo in 10, insomnia in 9, vocal cord paralysis in 6, fatigue or general malaise in 6, and foreign body sensation in 5. Body numbness and urinary symptoms were observed in only 1 case, respectively. Those side effects were related with sex, pre-I-131 treatment TSH levels, frequency of I-131 therapy, and lymph node metastases. Conclusions. Short-term side effects after I-131 therapy for DTC patients varied individually; severe symptoms were not uncommon but generally did not need emergent medical intervention.

  8. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with CDDP and 5FU for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The initial evaluation and side effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Yousuke; Suzuki, Haruhiko; Shigehara, Takeo; Omura, Ken; Shimada, Fumiyuki; Hatano, Kazuo; Sekiya, Yuichi; Togawa, Takashi [Chiba Cancer Center Hospital (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with CDDP and 5FU was given to 18 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma during January 1994-October 1996. One and 17 were in Stages III-IV respectively. None had distant metastasis. The median duration of follow-up of all patients was 23.5 months (6-45). Objective response (CR+PR) of the primary lesion and the regional nodes was 18/18 (100%), whereas CR was 2/18 (11%). CR+PR and CR at the primary lesion were 18/18 (100%) and 5/18 (28%) respectively. Two patients died of disease at T site. One patient was alive with disease. The remaining 15 (83%) patients were relapse free alive. There were 2 relapses, 1 at T+M, and 1 at T+N sites. Side effects, especially myelosuppression and mucositis, were severe. Leukopenia and mucositis in grade 3-4 were 78% and 89% respectively. In conclusion, this regimen has been effective in short term follow-up. However, because of severe side effects, further modifications are required. Long term follow-up are required to define final effectiveness of this regimen. (author)

  9. Needlestick injuries among female veterinarians: frequency, syringe contents and side-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J R; Bowman, M E

    1997-11-01

    In a mixed-mode survey of all 1970-80 female graduates of all US veterinary colleges, information was obtained regarding several health, personal and occupational factors including data on occupational needlestick events. Among the 2,532 survey respondents, 1,620 reported one or more needlesticks after graduation from veterinary college (64.0% of all respondents). A total of 2,663 stick events were reported, although the descriptions of each puncture event varied in quality/completeness, probably due in large part to their retrospective nature. Substances most often injected include vaccines, antibiotics, anaesthetics and animal blood. Of the 438 sticks resulting in at least one side-effect (16.4% of all sticks), 337 were classified as mild and localized at the site of injection (12.4% of all sticks, approximately 77% of sticks producing a side-effect), with 18 characterized as severe and systemic (0.7% of all sticks, approximately 4% of sticks producing a side-effect). One accidental self-injection of a prostaglandin compound resulted in a spontaneous abortion, heightening awareness that occupational needlesticks may also represent a serious human reproductive health hazard. The estimated overall needlestick injury rate for this group of health care professionals was 9.3 sticks per 100 person-years (PYs) of practice, comparable to reported rates among health care workers such as nurses, laboratory technicians and hospital housekeeping staff. Accounting for underreporting of the stick events, the actual injury rate is likely to be at least 20 sticks per 100 PYs. When stick rates were estimated by clinical practice type (small animal, large animal and mixed practice), all-small-animal and mixed-practice veterinarians demonstrated the highest rates, with all-large-animal practitioners demonstrating a rate lower by about 40%.

  10. Side effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on the hymenopterous parasitic wasp Trichogramma chilonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichot, Marcel; Curty, Christine; Benguettat-Magliano, Olivia; Gallet, Armel; Wajnberg, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Most of the detrimental effects of using conventional insecticides to control crop pests are now well identified and are nowadays major arguments for replacing such compounds by the use of biological control agents. In this respect, the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitic wasp species are both effective against lepidopterous pests and can actually be used concomitantly. In this work, we studied the potential side effects of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki on Trichogramma chilonis females. We first evidenced an acute toxicity of B. thuringiensis on T. chilonis. Then, after ingestion of B. thuringiensis at sublethal doses, we focused on life history traits of T. chilonis such as longevity, reproductive success and the time spent on host eggs patches. The reproductive success of T. chilonis was not modified by B. thuringiensis while a significant effect was observed on longevity and the time spent on host eggs patches. The physiological and ecological meanings of the results obtained are discussed.

  11. A review of nicotinamide: treatment of skin diseases and potential side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Heidi M

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is the amide form of vitamin B3. It is a precursor of essential coenzymes for numerous reactions in the body including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is converted into nicotinamide in the body. The use of topical nicotinamide in the treatment of acne vulgaris; melasma; atopic dermatitis; rosacea; and oral nicotinamide in preventing nonmelanoma skin cancer is discussed. The possible side effects and consequences of excessive nicotinamide exposure are reviewed, including suggestions nicotinamide might have a role in the development of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and liver damage.

  12. Effects of Laser-Induced Heating on the Photoinduced Birefringence in Azobenzene-Side-Chain Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 明海; 章江英; 王沛; 郎建英; 鲁拥华; 刘剑; 张其锦

    2003-01-01

    The photoinduced birefringence was observed in the polymer poly[2-(4-(4-cyanophenyl) diazenyl phenyloxy) ethoxyl methacrylatel with a cw 532nm laser. The azobenzene polymer character has been studied under the conditions of various illuminating time and light intensities. By analysing the processes of reorientation, the effect of laser-induced heating has been introduced to the buildup of photoinduced birefringence in azobenzene-side-chain copolymer. The curves for the buildup of birefringence were fitted with a modified function, i.e., biexponential curves and Gaussian curves. The relationship among all the parameters has also been presented. With the modified fitting function, we obtain a better fitting result.

  13. Side effects of oral antibiotics in small children with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Karin Riisager; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Frequent antibiotic treatment is common in the care of patients with cystic fibrosis. The aim of the study was to explore digestion related side effects of oral antibiotics in small children with CF. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out. All parents of children from 0 to 6...... years followed at the CF centre in Aarhus were invited to participate. Areas of interest were diarrhoea, stomach pain, nausea, small appetite, and oral fungal infection. Results: Parents of 31 children aged 0 to 6 years participated in the study. 71% of the parents reported their child to have diarrhoea...

  14. Matrix changes and side effects induced by electrokinetic treatment of porous and particulate materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Gry

    of porous stone materials to hinder decay. However, in addition to the removal of target ions in these systems, matrix changes may occur during the electrochemical treatment. For a broader implementation of the electrokinetic methods it is important to understand changes in the matrix composition...... for different types of materials. The overall aim of this PhD-project is to evaluate matrix changes and side effects induced by electrokinetic treatment of porous and particulate materials.During electro-remediation protons are produced at the anode and hydroxyl ions are produced at the cathode. The consequent...

  15. Unusual Side Effects of Interferon Beta-1a in Patient with Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakoli, Maryam; Pour Manshadi, Seyed Mohammad Yousof Mostafavi; Naderi, Nafiseh; Dehghan, Abolfazl; Azizi, Sanaz

    2012-01-01

    This is a descriptive case report of a 30-year-old man with massive epistaxis, echymosis on arms, abnormal CBC and increased plasma urea and creatinine level (i.e. above normal range). Probably, these are as side effects of interferon beta-1a injection. This is the first report according to our literature search (Pub Med, Google scholar, ISI web of knowledge, ProQuest, MD consult, Science Direct, and SCOPUS) about interferon beta-1a related abnormal kidney function tests hereafter. Abnormal k...

  16. Multinational study exploring patients' perceptions of side-effects induced by chemo-radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Iversen, Trine Zeeberg; Okera, Meena;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to prospectively assess the incidence, severity and patients' perceptions of side-effects induced by radiotherapy and concomitant weekly cisplatin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multinational survey included patients with a diagnosis of gynaecological or head and neck cancer...... scheduled to receive radiotherapy and concomitant weekly cisplatin. Patients completed a questionnaire prior to anti-cancer treatment and after 3weeks of treatment. Baseline frequency and severity of symptoms were compared to frequency and severity after 3weeks of treatment, and patients were asked to rank...

  17. Deleterious Mutation Accumulation in Asexual Timema Stick Insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, Lee; Schwander, Tanja; Crespi, Bernard J.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is extremely widespread in spite of its presumed costs relative to asexual reproduction, indicating that it must provide significant advantages. One postulated benefit of sex and recombination is that they facilitate the purging of mildly deleterious mutations, which would accumu

  18. The side effect profile of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for rheumatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Raskina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the side effect profile of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in patients with rheumatic diseases (RD. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 373 patients (301 women and 72 men with RD, the mean age of whom was 58.9±1.3 years; the duration of the disease was 6.1±0.7 years. This study was cross-sectional and randomized, by applying a questionnaire for the estimation of the NSAID side effect profile, developed at the Research Institute of Rheumatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Results and discussion. NSAIDs are an effective agent for the symptomatic treatment of pain and inflammation in most RDs. More than 50% of the patients with RD reported unpleasant sensations in the digestive system. Dyspepsia was present in the absolute majority of RD patients (77.7% of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis; 100% of those with ankylosing spondylitis; 47.8% of those with osteoarthosis who had taken for more than a year

  19. The side effect profile of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for rheumatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Raskina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the side effect profile of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in patients with rheumatic diseases (RD. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 373 patients (301 women and 72 men with RD, the mean age of whom was 58.9±1.3 years; the duration of the disease was 6.1±0.7 years. This study was cross-sectional and randomized, by applying a questionnaire for the estimation of the NSAID side effect profile, developed at the Research Institute of Rheumatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Results and discussion. NSAIDs are an effective agent for the symptomatic treatment of pain and inflammation in most RDs. More than 50% of the patients with RD reported unpleasant sensations in the digestive system. Dyspepsia was present in the absolute majority of RD patients (77.7% of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis; 100% of those with ankylosing spondylitis; 47.8% of those with osteoarthosis who had taken for more than a year

  20. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information.

  1. Vagus nerve stimulation for refractory epilepsy:long term efficacy and side-effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    許志輝; 蓝明權; 黄家星; 祈理治; 潘偉生

    2004-01-01

    Background In general vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can serve as an adjunctive treatment for patients with refractory partial -onset seizures. And we evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of VNS in a group of Chinese patients with refratory epilepsy.Methods Of 127 patients with refractory epilepsy, 13 patients who were not eligible for surgical intervention were implanted with the Cyberonics VNS system. Seizure frequency, physical examination and side effects profile were recorded at follow-up visits for a minimum of 18 months.Results Mean duration of treatment was 47.4 months, and the longest follow-up period was 71 months. Mean baseline seizure frequency was 26.6 seizures per month. The mean percentage reductions in convulsions were 33.2%, 47.1% and 40.0% at 6, 12 and 18 months, respectively. One patient became seizure free, and six (46%) had 50% or more reduction in seizure frequency. Response was poor (<20% reduction) in five patients (39%). Side effects were uncommon.Conclusions The effectiveness of VNS was sustained and was well tolerated but benefited only a sub-group of patients with intractable convulsions.

  2. TESTING SIDE-EFFECTS OF COMMON PESTICIDES ON A. SWIRSKII UNDER GREENHOUSE CIRCUMSTANCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenaert, J; Vissers, M; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    If a grower uses predatory mites, and should use chemical compounds, he needs to be very careful in his choice of products. The selected products have to be efficient against the target pest and at the same time compatible with the present beneficial's. Useful tools for such product selection under greenhouse circumstances are side effects lists. These lists are freely available on the websites of producing companies of biological control agents. But not all products (e.g. newly developed ones) have been tested for side effects. Moreover the information already available in these tables is not based on field tests. For this reason, we have developed a protocol for quick screening of side effects of chemical plant protection products under field conditions. For these experiments we have chosen the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii as test organism, because this is an often used phytoseiid mite, which is very sensitive to pesticides. Hibiscus rosa sinensis is the standard reference plant in our side effects trials because the chosen predatory mite has shown very good control of pests on this plant species. The experimental design consists of eight test objects in 4 replications. Test object 1 is a positive reference (water spray) and test object 2 a negative reference (deltamethrin spray, a product with long residual activity against beneficial organisms). The plot size is 0,68 m2 and each plot contains 32 Hibiscus plants. The greenhouse temperature is set at 20±2°C. The test strategy has the following sequence: introduction of an overdose of Amblyseius swirskii mites 14 days before spraying the pesticides > precount of predatory mites 4 days before application (4DBA) > spray application (A) for the 6 test products and for the 2 references > counting's after application (1, 2, 4, 8 en 12 weeks after application = 1 till 12WAA). The counting's of the number of predatory mites are performed on 20 Hibiscus leaves/plot under a binocular. Because of the absence of any

  3. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, I L G; Araújo, M C S; Farias, J G; Rossato, L V; Elsenbach, L I; Dalmora, S L; Flores, N M P; Durigon, M; Cruz, I B M; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43) undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed.

  4. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. G. Farias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43 undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4 were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed.

  5. Sympathomimetic Activity of a Hoodia gordonii Product: A Possible Mechanism of Cardiovascular Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Roza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoodia gordonii, a popular appetite suppressant, is widely used as an ingredient in many food supplements despite the fact that supporting scientific evidence is scarce. Recently alarming side effects of H. gordonii products (increased blood pressure and elevated pulse rate have been reported. The aim of our study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism of these symptoms. A H. gordonii-containing product was tested for sympathomimetic activity. Isolated organ experiments on rat uterine rings revealed smooth muscle relaxant effect with a substantial component mediated through β-adrenergic receptors. Chromatographic comparison of the analyzed product and authentic plant material confirmed that the herbal product contained Hoodia spp. extract, and its cardiovascular effects may be linked to the compounds of the plant.

  6. Coping with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life from the perspective of cancer patients: A qualitative empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte Pallesen; Nielsen, Lene Lyngø

    Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how patients cope with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life. Background Patients receiving cancer treatment experience acute side effects and need individualized information and guidance in order to manage treatment......-related adverse events in everyday life. However development in cancer treatment and the societal demands for efficiency may limit the possibility for individualized support. Methods Nine patients were interviewed from March to July 2009 to explore the patients’ experience of coping with side effects in daily...

  7. [Dermal and systemic side effects of fluocortin butylester. Comparative skin tearing experiments with active principles from commercial preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, J F; Gliwitzki, B; Josefiuk, P; Weishaupt, W

    1977-01-01

    Different concentrations of butyl 6alpha-fluoro-11beta-hydroxy-16alpha-methyl-3,20-dioxo-1,4-pregnadien-21-oate (fluocortin butylester FCB, Vaspit) and of clobetasone-17-butyrate, clobetasole-17-propionate and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate have been administered topically in order to investigate dermal and systemic side effects. It could be shown that FCB exhibits by far the least side effects. A specially devised apparatus covering the site of substance application, guaranteed an exclusive dermal absorption. Side effects, therefore, cannot be ascribed to oral ingestion of the drugs.

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Energy Drink Consumption and Side Effects in a Cohort of Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casuccio, Alessandra; Bonanno, Valentina; Catalano, Rosanna; Cracchiolo, Manuela; Giugno, Sara; Sciuto, Valentina; Immordino, Palmira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning energy drink consumption and the prevalence of side effects among medical students. Twenty-two percent of respondents were regular users, particularly men (p energy drinks. Forty-five percent of medical students declared side effects after energy drink consumption, such as palpitations (35%), insomnia (21%), and irritability (20%). The study confirms a large use of energy drinks among students and the occurrence of side effects. The use of energy drinks may influence the ingestion of large amounts of alcohol.

  9. Structure-based discovery of opioid analgesics with reduced side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglik, Aashish; Lin, Henry; Aryal, Dipendra K; McCorvy, John D; Dengler, Daniela; Corder, Gregory; Levit, Anat; Kling, Ralf C; Bernat, Viachaslau; Hübner, Harald; Huang, Xi-Ping; Sassano, Maria F; Giguère, Patrick M; Löber, Stefan; Da Duan; Scherrer, Grégory; Kobilka, Brian K; Gmeiner, Peter; Roth, Bryan L; Shoichet, Brian K

    2016-09-08

    Morphine is an alkaloid from the opium poppy used to treat pain. The potentially lethal side effects of morphine and related opioids-which include fatal respiratory depression-are thought to be mediated by μ-opioid-receptor (μOR) signalling through the β-arrestin pathway or by actions at other receptors. Conversely, G-protein μOR signalling is thought to confer analgesia. Here we computationally dock over 3 million molecules against the μOR structure and identify new scaffolds unrelated to known opioids. Structure-based optimization yields PZM21-a potent Gi activator with exceptional selectivity for μOR and minimal β-arrestin-2 recruitment. Unlike morphine, PZM21 is more efficacious for the affective component of analgesia versus the reflexive component and is devoid of both respiratory depression and morphine-like reinforcing activity in mice at equi-analgesic doses. PZM21 thus serves as both a probe to disentangle μOR signalling and a therapeutic lead that is devoid of many of the side effects of current opioids.

  10. [Efficacy and side effects following immunization with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z G; Zhou, W Z; Shi, J

    1997-02-01

    Efficacy and side effects following the immunization with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine (Vi) were assessed. The diluted solution (DS) of Vi was used as placebo. A total number of 777 children and adults were observed for side effect response. Mild and moderate fever appeared 16.93% and 0.05% in Vi group, 15.01% and 0.03% in DS group, respectively (statistically significant). Two cases with mild local reaction were observed in Vi group. A total number of 81,506 vaccinees were investigated on the efficacy of Vi vaccine, using positive blood culture of Salmonolla typhi as a diagnostic criterion. The protective rate and index of vaccine were 71.35% and 3.49% respectively. If 2 cases of positive Widal's test were included in, the protective rate would come up to 78.17% with a protective index 4.85. Clinical data showed that fever seen in the cases in Vi group was much lower than that of DS group. The systematic and local reaction of Vi vaccine were mild. The vaccine is safe and has high protective rate. It can also decrease the degree of fever with only one single dose as primary immunization. We believe Vi vaccine may serve as a vaccine of new generation to be promoted.

  11. Stem cells as anticancer drug carrier to reduce the chemotherapy side effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hamideh; Al-Arag, Siham; Middendorp, Elodie; Gergley, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frederic

    2017-02-01

    Chemotherapy used for cancer treatment, due to the lack of specificity of drugs, is associated to various damaging side effects that have severe impact on patients' quality of life. Over the past 30 years, increasing efforts have been placed on optimizing chemotherapy dosing with the main goal of increasing antitumor efficacy while reducing drug-associated toxicity. A novel research shows that stem cells may act as a reservoir for the anticancer agent, which will subsequently release some of the drug's metabolites, or even the drug in its original form, in vicinity of the cancer cells. These cells may play a dual role in controlling drug toxicity depending on their capacity to uptake and release the chemotherapeutic drug. In our study, we show that Dental Pulp Stem Cells DPSCs are able to rapidly uptake Paclitaxel PTX, and to release it in the culture medium in a time-dependent manner. This resulting conditioned culture medium is to be transferred to breast cancer cells, the MCF-7. By applying Confocal Raman Microscopy, the anticancer drug uptake by the MCF-7 was measured. Surprisingly, the cancer cells -without any direct contact with PTX- showed a drug uptake. This proves that the stem cells carried and delivered the anticancer drug without its modification. It could be a revolution in chemotherapy to avoid the drug's side effects and increase its efficacy.

  12. Blood pressure control with selective vagal nerve stimulation and minimal side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Cota, Oscar; Espinosa, Nayeli; Boeser, Fabian; Herrera, Taliana C.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Zentner, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Hypertension is the largest threat to patient health and a burden to health care systems. Despite various options, 30% of patients do not respond sufficiently to medical treatment. Mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch relay blood pressure (BP) levels through vagal nerve (VN) fibers to the brainstem and trigger the baroreflex, lowering the BP. Selective electrical stimulation of these nerve fibers reduced BP in rats. However, there is no technique described to localize and stimulate these fibers inside the VN without inadvertent stimulation of non-baroreceptive fibers causing side effects like bradycardia and bradypnea. Approach. We present a novel method for selective VN stimulation to reduce BP without the aforementioned side effects. Baroreceptor compound activity of rat VN (n = 5) was localized using a multichannel cuff electrode, true tripolar recording and a coherent averaging algorithm triggered by BP or electrocardiogram. Main results. Tripolar stimulation over electrodes near the barofibers reduced the BP without triggering significant bradycardia and bradypnea. The BP drop was adjusted to 60% of the initial value by varying the stimulation pulse width and duration, and lasted up to five times longer than the stimulation. Significance. The presented method is robust to impedance changes, independent of the electrode's relative position, does not compromise the nerve and can run on implantable, ultra-low power signal processors.

  13. Nutritional intervention using nutrition care process in a malnourished patient with chemotherapy side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Ok; Lee, Jung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    In this case study, the process of nutritional diagnosis and intervention conducted at a hospital on a malnourished patient who underwent treatment for a chronic illness (chemotherapy for cancer treatment) was recorded. The patient received his first round of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, and then a second round after the cancer metastasized to the liver. The patient was malnourished and had experienced weight loss (17% loss in the most recent 3 months) due to side effects of chemotherapy including stomatitis, nausea, and vomiting. Nutritional diagnosis and intervention via the nutrition care process were implemented through two screening rounds, and the quantity of oral intake increased from 28% to 62% of the recommended daily intake. The patient required continuous monitoring and outpatient care after hospital discharge. It is speculated that if a more active patient education and dietary regimen with respect to chemotherapy side effects had been offered after the patient's first chemotherapy cycle, it might have been possible to treat ingestion problems due to stomatitis during the second cycle of chemotherapy and prevent the weight loss. Henceforth, patients receiving chemotherapy should be educated about nutrition management methods and monitored continuously to prevent malnutrition.

  14. Cholestatic hepatitis as a possible new side-effect of oxycodone: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Vincent

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oxycodone is a widely-used semisynthetic opioid analgesic that has been used for over eighty years. Oxycodone is known to cause side effects such as nausea, pruritus, dizziness, constipation and somnolence. As far as we are aware cholestatic hepatitis as a result of oxycodone use has not been reported so far in the world literature. Case presentation A 34-year-old male presented with cholestatic jaundice and severe pruritus after receiving oxycodone for analgesia post-T11 vertebrectomy. Extensive laboratory investigations and imaging studies did not reveal any other obvious cause for his jaundice and a liver biopsy confirmed canalicular cholestatis suggestive of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The patient's symptoms and transaminases normalised on withdrawal of oxycodone confirming that oxycodone was the probable cause of the patient's hepatotoxicity. Conclusion We conclude that cholestatic hepatitis is possibly a rare side effect of oxycodone use. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of this potentially serious picture of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  15. Structural contributions of antipsychotic drugs to their therapeutic profiles and metabolic side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Somayeh; Fernandez-Enright, Francesca; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2012-02-01

    Antipsychotic drugs have various neuropharmacological properties as a result of their structural diversity. Despite their therapeutic benefits, most of the prescribed atypical antipsychotics can induce severe side effects, including weight gain, type II diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. Among the developed atypical antipsychotic agents, tetracyclic dibenzodiazepine and thienobenzodiazepine compounds, particularly clozapine and olanzapine, are associated with the greatest weight gain and metabolic disturbances. However, the unique chemical structure of these compounds causes the low risk of side effects reported for typical antipsychotics (e.g. extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia). This report reviews the recent discovery of the potential role of the chemical structure of antipsychotics in their therapeutic properties and metabolic disturbances. By developing structure-activity relationship studies for atypical antipsychotics, we will improve our understanding of the structural modifications of these chemical classes that lead to reduced weight gain, which will be an invaluable step toward the discovery of the next generation of atypical antipsychotics. In this review, we suggest that a novel dibenzodiazepine or thienobenzodiazepine antipsychotic drug with lower affinity for H(1) receptors may significantly advance schizophrenia therapy.

  16. Self-Limited Kleptomania Symptoms as a Side Effect of Duloxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. T. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Impulse control disorders (ICDs have been described as a side effect of dopamine agonists, frequently used in neurodegenerative conditions affecting the nigrostriatal pathway. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (e.g., duloxetine have dose-dependent differential affinity for monoaminergic transporters, inhibiting the dopamine transporter at higher doses, thus increasing availability of synaptic dopamine, with the potential for similar impulse control side effects. Case Presentation. A 19-year-old Asian-American female with a history of depression developed new-onset stealing behaviors after an increase in her dose of duloxetine from 60 mg to 90 mg; she described these actions as “compulsive” and irresistible, later experiencing either relief or guilt, features compatible with an ICD. Her symptoms eventually subsided with continued use of 90 mg of duloxetine. Discussion. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first report of a patient developing new-onset ICD behaviors after being placed on a higher dose of duloxetine, which can inhibit the dopamine transporter and cause difficulty with impulse control. The self-resolving nature of the symptoms may result from compensatory upregulation of dopamine transporters, increasing reuptake of dopamine. Asian populations may be at a higher risk due to the frequent occurrence of CYP2D6 polymorphisms, which decrease the conversion of duloxetine to its inactive metabolites.

  17. Effects of side-stream ratio on sludge reduction and microbial structures of anaerobic side-stream reactor coupled membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Zhou, Zhen; Niu, Tianhao; An, Ying; Shen, Xuelian; Pan, Wei; Chen, Zhihui; Liu, Jin

    2017-06-01

    An anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor (AO-MBR) and three anaerobic side-stream reactor (ASSR) coupled MBRs (ASSR-MBR) were operated to investigate effects of side-stream ratio (SR) on sludge reduction and microbial community structure of ASSR-MBRs. The ASSR-MBR achieved efficient COD and ammonium nitrogen removal. SR increased from 0.2 to 1.0 favored nitrogen removal, and increased sludge reduction from 6.0% to 49.7%. The total released COD in the ASSR increased with the rising SR and was inversely proportional to sludge yield of ASSR-MBR. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that phyla Chloroflexi and Armatimonadetes surviving in anaerobic conditions were enriched in the ASSR, while Nitrospirae was dominant in the MBR. Comparison at the genus level revealed that higher SR favored the growth of slow growers, while lower SR enriched hydrolytic and predatory bacteria. The results suggested that SR has a profound effect on nitrogen removal, sludge reduction and microbial community structure in the ASSR-MBR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Side-Walls on Flapping-Wing Power-Generation: an Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Karakas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of constrained flow is investigated experimentally for a flapping foil power-generator. The flow structures around and in the near wake of a flat plate placed between two side walls are captured via PIV technique with simultaneous direct force measurements in uniform flow at Re = 10 000. The rectangular flat plate oscillates with periodic non-sinusoidal pitching and plunging motions about its 0.44 chord position with stroke reversal times (TR of 0.1 (rapid reversal to 0.5 (sinusoidal reversal, phase angles of  = 90° and 110°, plunge amplitude of 1.05 chords and pitch amplitude of 73° at a constant reduced frequency of k = 0.8. The non-dimensional distances between the side walls and the oscillating flat plate are dw = 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0. Airfoil rotation speed dictates the strength, evolution and timing of shedding of leading and trailing edge vortices; as the stroke reversal time is decreased, earlier shedding of stronger vortices are observed. Increasing the phase angle between the pitching and plunging motions decreases the power generation efficiency for all cases. The highest power extraction coefficient is acquired for the non-sinusoidal case of TR = 0.4 in free flow. Optimum choice of side-wall distance improves power generation of flapping foils compared to free flow performance, up to 6.52% increase in efficiency is observed for the non-sinusoidal case TR = 0.4 with dw = 0.5, with remarkable enhancements for the sinusoidal case; 27.85% increase is observed with dw = 0.5 and 43.50% increase with dw = 1.0 where both cases outperform the highest power generation efficiency of the finite flat plate with non-sinusoidal flapping motion.

  19. Effect of side chain length on intrahelical interactions between carboxylate- and guanidinium-containing amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsiou-Ting; Yang, Po-An; Wang, Wei-Ren; Hsu, Hao-Chun; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Ting, Yu-Te; Weng, Ming-Huei; Kuo, Li-Hung; Cheng, Richard P

    2014-08-01

    The charge-containing hydrophilic functionalities of encoded charged amino acids are linked to the backbone via different numbers of hydrophobic methylenes, despite the apparent electrostatic nature of protein ion pairing interactions. To investigate the effect of side chain length of guanidinium- and carboxylate-containing residues on ion pairing interactions, α-helical peptides containing Zbb-Xaa (i, i + 3), (i, i + 4) and (i, i + 5) (Zbb = carboxylate-containing residues Aad, Glu, Asp in decreasing length; Xaa = guanidinium residues Agh, Arg, Agb, Agp in decreasing length) sequence patterns were studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD). The helicity of Aad- and Glu-containing peptides was similar and mostly pH independent, whereas the helicity of Asp-containing peptides was mostly pH dependent. Furthermore, the Arg-containing peptides consistently exhibited higher helicity compared to the corresponding Agp-, Agb-, and Agh-containing peptides. Side chain conformational analysis by molecular mechanics calculations showed that the Zbb-Xaa (i, i + 3) and (i, i + 4) interactions mainly involved the χ 1 dihedral combinations (g+, g+) and (g-, g+), respectively. These low energy conformations were also observed in intrahelical Asp-Arg and Glu-Arg salt bridges of natural proteins. Accordingly, Asp and Glu provides variation in helix characteristics associated with Arg, but Aad does not provide features beyond those already delivered by Glu. Importantly, nature may have chosen the side chain length of Arg to support helical conformations through inherent high helix propensity coupled with stabilizing intrahelical ion pairing interactions with the carboxylate-containing residues.

  20. Epigenetic side-effects of common pharmaceuticals: a potential new field in medicine and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csoka, Antonei B; Szyf, Moshe

    2009-11-01

    The term "Epigenetics" refers to DNA and chromatin modifications that persist from one cell division to the next, despite a lack of change in the underlying DNA sequence. The "epigenome" refers to the overall epigenetic state of a cell, and serves as an interface between the environment and the genome. The epigenome is dynamic and responsive to environmental signals not only during development, but also throughout life; and it is becoming increasingly apparent that chemicals can cause changes in gene expression that persist long after exposure has ceased. Here we present the hypothesis that commonly-used pharmaceutical drugs can cause such persistent epigenetic changes. Drugs may alter epigenetic homeostasis by direct or indirect mechanisms. Direct effects may be caused by drugs which affect chromatin architecture or DNA methylation. For example the antihypertensive hydralazine inhibits DNA methylation. An example of an indirectly acting drug is isotretinoin, which has transcription factor activity. A two-tier mechanism is postulated for indirect effects in which acute exposure to a drug influences signaling pathways that may lead to an alteration of transcription factor activity at gene promoters. This stimulation results in the altered expression of receptors, signaling molecules, and other proteins necessary to alter genetic regulatory circuits. With more chronic exposure, cells adapt by an unknown hypothetical process that results in more permanent modifications to DNA methylation and chromatin structure, leading to enduring alteration of a given epigenetic network. Therefore, any epigenetic side-effect caused by a drug may persist after the drug is discontinued. It is further proposed that some iatrogenic diseases such as tardive dyskinesia and drug-induced SLE are epigenetic in nature. If this hypothesis is correct the consequences for modern medicine are profound, since it would imply that our current understanding of pharmacology is an oversimplification

  1. Effects of atmospheric pressure fluctuations on hill-side coal fires and surface anomalies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Zeyang; Zhu Hongqing; Xu Jiyuan; Qin Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents numerical studies on the effects of atmospheric pressure fluctuations on hill-side coal fires and their surface anomalies. Based on the single-particle reaction–diffusion model, a formula to estimate oxygen consumption rate at high temperature controlled by oxygen transport is proposed. Daily fluctuant atmospheric pressure was imposed on boundaries, including the abandoned gallery and cracks. Simulated results show that the effects of atmospheric pressure fluctuations on coal fires and surface anomalies depend on two factors: the fluctuant amplitude and the pressure difference between inlet(s) and outlet(s) of the air ventilation system. If the pressure difference is close to the fluctuant amplitude, atmospheric pressure fluctuations greatly enhance gas flow motion and tempera-tures of the combustion zone and outtake(s). If the pressure difference is much larger than the fluctuant amplitude, atmospheric pressure fluctuations exert no impact on underground coal fires and surface anomalies.

  2. Adult growth hormone deficiency – benefits, side effects, and risks of growth hormone replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lim Reed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of growth hormone (GH in adults results in a syndrome characterized by decreased muscle mass and exercise capacity, increased visceral fat, impaired quality of life, unfavorable alterations in lipid profile and markers of cardiovascular risk, decrease in bone mass and integrity and increased mortality. When dosed appropriately, GH replacement therapy (GHRT is well tolerated, with a low incidence of side effects, and improves most of the alterations observed in GH deficiency (GHD; beneficial effects on mortality, cardiovascular events and fracture rates, however, remain to be conclusively demonstrated. The potential of GH to act as a mitogen has resulted in concern over the possibility of increased de novo tumors or recurrence of pre-existing malignancies in individuals treated with GH. Though studies of adults who received GHRT in childhood have produced conflicting reports in this regard, long term surveillance of adult GHRT has not demonstrated increased cancer risk or mortality.

  3. Side effect profile of Jadelle implant in Nigerian women during the first 12 months of usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel C. Inyang-Etoh

    2016-05-01

    Results: There was no request for discontinuation of the method and no accidental pregnancy occurred during the period of the study. There was significant disruption of the menstrual pattern of clients over time with 31.1% developing irregular uterine bleeding from 6months of usage, whereas 16.6% of clients became amenorrheic from the 12month of usage. (p= 0.000 Changes in blood pressure and body weight of clients were not significant during the 12month period of the survey. Non menstrual side effects of Jadelle implants, which included headache, breast tenderness, dizziness among clients were noted at 6months of usage but became less prevalent by the 12month of usage. Conclusions: Jadelle implant proved to be highly effective, safe and acceptable to Nigerian clients during the study period, even though the implant had significant impact on their menstrual pattern. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1461-1465

  4. Can melatonin prevent or improve metabolic side effects during antipsychotic treatments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porfirio MC

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria-Cristina Porfirio,1 Juliana Paula Gomes de Almeida,2 Maddalena Stornelli,1 Silvia Giovinazzo,1 Diane Purper-Ouakil,3 Gabriele Masi4 1Unit of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, “Tor Vergata” University of Rome, Italy; 2Unit of Child Neurology, Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericordia Hospital São Paulo, Brazil; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Saint Eloi Hospital, Montpellier, France; 4IRCCS Stella Maris, Scientific Institute of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy Abstract: In the last two decades, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs were more frequently used than typical antipsychotics for treating both psychotic and nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in both children and adolescents, because of their lower risk of adverse neurological effects, that is, extrapyramidal symptoms. Recent studies have pointed out their effect on weight gain and increased visceral adiposity as they induce metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving SGAs often need to be treated with other substances to counteract metabolic side effects. In this paper, we point out the possible protective effect of add-on melatonin treatment in preventing, mitigating, or even reversing SGAs metabolic effects, improving quality of life and providing safer long-term treatments in pediatric patients. Melatonin is an endogenous indolamine secreted during darkness by the pineal gland; it plays a key role in regulating the circadian rhythm, generated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN of the hypothalamus, and has many other biological functions, including chronobiotic, antioxidant and neuroprotective properties, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging effects, and diminishing oxidative injury and fat distribution. It has been hypothesized that SGAs cause adverse metabolic effects that may be restored by nightly administration of melatonin because of its influence on autonomic and hormonal outputs. Interestingly, atypical anti-psychotics (AAPs can cause

  5. Long Lasting Impairment of Taste and Smell as Side Effect of Lithium Carbonate in a Cluster Headache Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Coo, Ilse F; Haan, Joost

    2016-07-01

    Preventive treatment with lithium carbonate is a therapeutic option for chronic cluster headache. Lithium can lead to a broad spectrum of severe side effects, many of which are generally unknown. One week after starting treatment with lithium, a 55-year-old man with chronic cluster headache noticed a strange and unpleasant taste of various foods and a diminished smell. After 4 weeks, he decided to stop the therapy because of these complaints, but 9 months later both taste and smell still had not returned to normal. We present the first description of long-lasting dysgeusia and hyposmia as a side effect of lithium therapy in cluster headache. Dysgeusia has only rarely been reported as a side effect of lithium in other conditions and hyposmia has not previously been reported. Physicians should be aware of this rare, but severe, side effect when prescribing lithium. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  6. Side effects of glyceryl trinitrate ointment for primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahnama P.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patch forms of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN, also known as nitroglyceril, have proved useful in the management of dysmenorrhea. Increased intrauterine pressure due to exaggerated myometrial contractions is an important factor in the pathogenesis of dysmenorrhea. In a recent study, it was found that GTN caused a significant reduction in the contraction frequency of human myometrial strips. The object of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of GTN ointment in treating primary dysmenorrhea.Methods: In this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, we enrolled 112 unmarried subjects with the complaint of moderate to severe primary dysmenorrhea. They were between 18-30 years of age with normal BMI (19-27 and all had normal results upon examination by pelvic ultrasound. None of these patients had a history anemia, previous pelvic surgery or cardiovascular diseases. Randomly divided in two groups using odd and even numbers, 56 of the subjects received 5 mg 1% GTN ointment and another 56 received a placebo. Before starting the treatment, severity of pain was recorded using a visual scale method. Ointment A (GTN 1% or ointment B (placebo was applied to special papers which were in turn applied to the skin of the abdomen below the umbilicus, and left there for the entire treatment period of four hours. The severity of pain and side effects of the treatment were recorded at intervals of 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 4 h after application the treatment. After four hours, the treatment was removed and the skin checked for erythema. Results: There was no difference in severity of pain 15 min after treatment, but pain was less severe in the GTN group from the 30-min interval through the 4-h interval, with the least pain felt at the 2-h interval. This decrease in pain lasted through the 4-h interval. Side effects, which were more common in the GTN group than the placebo group (P<0.05, included headache (48.3% vs. 19.5%, respectively, dizziness

  7. Side effects of extinction: prevalence of bursting and aggression during the treatment of self-injurious behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Lerman, D C; Iwata, B A; Wallace, M D

    1999-01-01

    Findings from basic and applied research suggest that treatment with operant extinction may produce adverse side effects; two of these commonly noted are an increase in the frequency of the target response (extinction burst) and an increase in aggression (extinction-induced aggression). Although extinction is often used to treat problem behavior in clinical settings, few applied studies have examined the prevalence of these side effects or their possible attenuation with other operant procedu...

  8. Patient perceptions of glucocorticoid side effects: a cross-sectional survey of users in an online health community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rikesh; Humphreys, Jennifer; McBeth, John; Dixon, William G

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify the side effects most important to glucocorticoid (GC) users through a survey of a UK online health community (Healthunlocked.com). Design Online cross-sectional survey. Setting Participants were recruited through Healthunlocked.com, an online social network for health. Participants Adults who were currently taking GCs, or had taken GCs in the past month. Method Responders scored the importance of listed side effects from 1 to 10, with 10 being of high importance to them. For each side effect, histograms were plotted, and the median rating and IQR were determined. Side effects were ranked by median ranking (largest to smallest) and then IQR (smallest to largest). The scores were categorised as low (scores 1–3), medium (scores 4–7) and high (scores 8–10) importance. Results 604 responders completed the survey. Histograms of side effect scores showed a skew towards high importance for weight gain, a U-shaped distribution for cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, eye disease and infections, and a skew towards low importance for acne. When ranked, the side effect of most importance to responders was weight gain (median score=9, IQR 6–10) followed by insomnia and moon face with equal median score (8) and IQR (5–10). Three serious side effects, CVD, diabetes and infections, were ranked of lower importance overall but had wide ranging scores (median score=8, IQR 1–10). Conclusions The three most highly rated side effects were not clinically serious but remained important to patients, perhaps reflecting their impact on quality of life and high prevalence. This should be taken into consideration when discussing treatment options and planning future GC safety studies. PMID:28373256

  9. Side-Effects of Glyphosate to the Parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecca, C S; Bueno, A F; Pasini, A; Silva, D M; Andrade, K; Filho, D M Z

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side-effects of glyphosate to the parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) when parasitoids were exposed to this chemical at the pupal (inside host eggs) and adult stages. Bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions according to the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) standard methods for testing side-effects of pesticides to egg parasitoids. Different glyphosate-based pesticides (Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, Roundup WG®, and Zapp Qi®) were tested at the same acid equivalent concentration. Treatments were classified following the IOBC toxicity categories as (1) harmless, (2) slightly harmful, (3) moderately harmful, and (4) harmful. When tested against T. remus adults, Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, and Roundup WG® reduced parasitism 2 days after parasitoid emergence, being classified as slightly harmful. Differently, when tested against T. remus pupae, all tested glyphosate-based products did not differ in their lethal effect and therefore did not reduce T. remus adult emergence or parasitism capacity, being classified as harmless. However, differences on sublethal toxicity were found. Parasitism of individuals emerging from parasitized eggs sprayed at the pupal stage of T. remus with Zapp Qi® was lower compared to control, but parasitism was still higher than 66%, and therefore, Zapp Qi® was still classified as harmless. In conclusion, all tested glyphosate-based products can be used in agriculture without negative impact to T. remus as none was classified as harmful or moderately harmful to this parasitoid when exposure occurred at the pupal or adult stages.

  10. Side effects of hydroxyurea in patients with Thalassemia major and thalassemia intermedia and sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, A; Keikhaei, B; Ghodsi, R

    2014-01-01

    Sickle hemoglobin is the most common abnormal hemoglobin in the United States. Hemoglobin S arises as a result of a single amino acid substitution (glutamic acid to valin at position 6 of the β-globine chain). The presence of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) plays a relatively protective role since a significant amount of HbF interferes with HbS polymerization, the pathogenesis mechanism of the vaso-occlusive symptoms that are the major contributor of the morbidity and mortality of this condition Thalassemia major and thalassemia intermedia have no specific molecular correlate but encompass a wide spectrum of clinical and laboratory abnormalities. Hydroxyurea (HU), an s-phase-specific and non-DNA-hypomethylating chemotherapeutic agents is capable of inducing HbF synthesis. This study was done on 56 patients, 28 patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and 28 patients with intermediate or major β-thalassemia. Start dose of HU was 10 mg/kg per day and increased by 5 mg/kg per day every 4-6 weeks until toxicity or according to clinical response. The side effects were dermatologic in 39.28%, neurologic 23.2%, gastrointestinal 17.5% and hematologic 10.71% of patients. the statistical analysis didn't show significant relationship between variables such as history of blood transfusion, duration of HU treatment, age of start HU, age of diagnosis, dose of HU and ethnic with occurrence of HU adverse effects. The HU therapy in our patients tolerated well and side effects were minor to moderate, benign and transient.

  11. Aspirin therapy in venous malformation: a retrospective cohort study of benefits, side effects, and patient experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jennifer T; Koerper, Marion A; Hess, Christopher P; Dowd, Christopher F; Hoffman, William Y; Dickman, Meghan; Frieden, Ilona J

    2014-01-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are often painful and may enlarge over time. Chronic coagulopathy is common in VMs and may contribute to phleboliths and potentially to disease progression. Few studies have examined the effects of anticoagulation on VMs and to our knowledge none have examined the use of aspirin therapy. A survey was administered to patients and parents of patients with VMs who attended the University of California at San Francisco Vascular Anomalies Center over a 4-year period (2008-2012) to whom aspirin had been recommended. They were surveyed regarding whether they were taking aspirin and, if yes, whether aspirin had resulted in any appreciable benefit. Sixty-five letters were sent to potential subjects: 38 participated and 27 declined to participate or could not be contacted. Twenty-eight of the 38 had begun aspirin and 22 reported current use. Seventeen reported some benefit, including less aching (n = 2), less shooting pain (n = 15), less fullness and swelling (n = 13), and shrinking of the VM (n = 1). Discontinuation of aspirin was associated with worsening VM symptoms in five of six patients. Side effects were reported in 6 of 28 patients, including five episodes of minor bleeding or excessive bruising and one of nausea and vomiting. This study suggests that aspirin may be a beneficial treatment for VM, with a reduction in pain and soft tissue swelling and an acceptable side-effect profile, but the retrospective nature of the study and the small size of the cohort limited our conclusions. Larger prospective studies of aspirin for VM using clinical and laboratory outcome measures are needed to confirm these observations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Prevalence of deleterious ATM germline mutations in gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Sheng; Tao, Hou-Quan; He, Xu-Jun; Long, Ming; Yu, Sheng; Xia, Ying-Jie; Wei, Zhang; Xiong, Zikai; Jones, Sian; He, Yiping; Yan, Hai; Wang, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    Besides CDH1, few hereditary gastric cancer predisposition genes have been previously reported. In this study, we discovered two germline ATM mutations (p.Y1203fs and p.N1223S) in a Chinese family with a history of gastric cancer by screening 83 cancer susceptibility genes. Using a published exome sequencing dataset, we found deleterious germline mutations of ATM in 2.7% of 335 gastric cancer patients of different ethnic origins. The frequency of deleterious ATM mutations in gastric cancer patients is significantly higher than that in general population (p=0.0000435), suggesting an association of ATM mutations with gastric cancer predisposition. We also observed biallelic inactivation of ATM in tumors of two gastric cancer patients. Further evaluation of ATM mutations in hereditary gastric cancer will facilitate genetic testing and risk assessment.

  13. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Side Effect Impacted on Quality of Life, and Depressive Symptomatology: A Mixed-Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P; Simoni, Jane M; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien; Zhao, Hongxin

    2013-06-29

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is known for its side effects. In this paper, we describe ART side effects as experienced by Chinese HIV+ individuals. This study presents two stages of a research project, combining qualitative in-depth interviews (29 HIV+ participants) with quantitative statistical data analysis (N = 120). All data was collected between July 2005 to March 2008 at Beijing's Ditan Hospital. Consent was obtained from each participant for the qualitative interview and again for the quantitative survey. During in-depth interviews, Chinese HIV+ patients reported experiencing digestive discomfort, skin rashes, numbness, memory loss, nightmares, and dizziness, which not only brought them physical discomfort, but also interrupted different dimensions of their social lives. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that those who reported more severe side effects also experienced greater depressive mood after controlling for other clinical and psychosocial factors. ART side effects are one of the primary reasons causing HIV+ individuals to delay or stop taking life-saving medication; therefore, clinical interventions are critically needed to assist HIV+ individuals in managing ART side effects. ART side effects reinforced existing negative attitudes toward ART and lead to lower ART adherence. Future research should focus on developing culturally sensitive interventions to enhance HIV+ self-management, to alleviate physical and psychological burden from ART and HIV.

  14. Antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents: a descriptive review of the effects on prolactin level and associated side effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Roke, Y.; van Harten, P. N.; Boot, A M; Buitelaar, J K

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. METHOD: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine, ziprasidone, and quetiapine. Twenty-nine studies were selected after a literature search in the English Medline/Embase/Psychinfo/EBM databases (1965 to August, 2008). RESULTS: All antipsychotics...

  15. Changes in behavior as side effects in methylphenidate treatment: review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad-Bindl DS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Doris Susanne Konrad-Bindl,1 Ursula Gresser,1 Barbara Maria Richartz2 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Munich, Munich, 2Clinic der Jägerwinkel, Bad Wiessee, Germany Background: Our review of the scientific literature focused on an analysis of studies describing instances of methylphenidate treatment leading (or not to behavioral changes in the pediatric, adolescent, and adult populations.Materials and methods: We conducted a literature search in PubMed, Medline, and Google using the keywords “methylphenidate”, “behavioral changes”, “adverse effects”, and “side effects”. A total of 44 studies were identified as reporting on the effects and adverse effects of methylphenidate administration, and were included in the analysis.Results: Five studies specifically set out to study, record, and discuss changes in behavior. Eight studies did not set out to study behavioral effects, but record and discuss them. A total of 28 studies recorded behavioral effects, but failed to discuss these further. Three studies did not include behavioral effects.Conclusion: This review records what data have been published in respect of changes in behavior in association with the use of methylphenidate. While there is some evidence to suggest that methylphenidate causes changes in behavior, the majority of the studies reviewed paid little or no attention to this issue. Based on the available data, it is impossible to determine the point at which such behavioral effects occur. The frequency of occurrence of behavioral effects is also impossible to determine with certainty. Based on the available data, it is not possible to rule out whether behavioral effects may persist or not persist once treatment is discontinued. In conclusion, despite countless publications and extensive administration, especially to children, we have insufficient data to judge the long-term effects and risks of methylphenidate taking. Keywords: methylphenidate, changes

  16. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players’ External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Corvino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers small-sided handball games (each repeated twice. The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE. Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p 5.2 m·s-1 highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70 and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73 and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51 speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69 with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities, the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m, a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p < 0.05; large ES. The rating of perceived exertion was significantly higher during the drill with the 32×16m court compared with the 24

  17. Use of primary cultures of Kenyon cells from bumblebee brains to assess pesticide side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Daniel E; Velarde, Rodrigo A; Fahrbach, Susan E; Mommaerts, Veerle; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Bumblebees are important pollinators in natural and agricultural ecosystems. The latter results in the frequent exposure of bumblebees to pesticides. We report here on a new bioassay that uses primary cultures of neurons derived from adult bumblebee workers to evaluate possible side-effects of the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid. Mushroom bodies (MBs) from the brains of bumblebee workers were dissected and dissociated to produce cultures of Kenyon cells (KCs). Cultured KCs typically extend branched, dendrite-like processes called neurites, with substantial growth evident 24-48 h after culture initiation. Exposure of cultured KCs obtained from newly eclosed adult workers to 2.5 parts per billion (ppb) imidacloprid, an environmentally relevant concentration of pesticide, did not have a detectable effect on neurite outgrowth. By contrast, in cultures prepared from newly eclosed adult bumblebees, inhibitory effects of imidacloprid were evident when the medium contained 25 ppb imidacloprid, and no growth was observed at 2,500 ppb. The KCs of older workers (13-day-old nurses and foragers) appeared to be more sensitive to imidacloprid than newly eclosed adults, as strong effects on KCs obtained from older nurses and foragers were also evident at 2.5 ppb imidacloprid. In conclusion, primary cultures using KCs of bumblebee worker brains offer a tool to assess sublethal effects of neurotoxic pesticides in vitro. Such studies also have the potential to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms of plasticity in the adult bumblebee brain.

  18. Slip effects on a generalized Burgers’ fluid flow between two side walls with fractional derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research for the 3D flow of a generalized Burgers’ fluid between two side walls generated by an exponential accelerating plate and a constant pressure gradient, where the no-slip assumption between the exponential accelerating plate and the Burgers’ fluid is no longer valid. The governing equations of the generalized Burgers’ fluid flow are established by using the fractional calculus approach. Exact analytic solutions for the 3D flow are established by employing the Laplace transform and the finite Fourier sine transform. Furthermore, some 3D and 2D figures for the fluid velocity and shear stress are plotted to analyze and discuss the effects of various parameters.

  19. Modeling and Simulating of Single Side Short Stator Linear Induction Motor with the End Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzehbahmani, Hamed

    2011-09-01

    Linear induction motors are under development for a variety of demanding applications including high speed ground transportation and specific industrial applications. These applications require machines that can produce large forces, operate at high speeds, and can be controlled precisely to meet performance requirements. The design and implementation of these systems require fast and accurate techniques for performing system simulation and control system design. In this paper, a mathematical model for a single side short stator linear induction motor with a consideration of the end effects is presented; and to study the dynamic performance of this linear motor, MATLAB/SIMULINK based simulations are carried out, and finally, the experimental results are compared to simulation results.

  20. Increased demand-side flexibility: market effects and impacts on variable renewable energy integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Grytli Tveten

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of increased demand-side flexibility (DSF on integration and market value of variable renewable energy sources (VRE. Using assumed potentials, system-optimal within-day shifts in demand are investigated for the Northern European power markets in 2030, applying a comprehensive partial equilibrium model with high temporal and spatial resolution. Increased DSF is found to cause only a minor (less than 3% reduction in consumers’ cost of electricity. VRE revenues are found to increase (up to 5% and 2% for wind and solar power, respectively, and total VRE curtailment decreases by up to 7.2 TWh. Increased DSF causes only limited reductions in GHG emissions. The emission reduction is, however, sensitive to underlying assumptions. We conclude that increased DSF is a promising measure for improving VRE integration. However, low consumers’ savings imply that policies stimulating DFS will be needed to fully use the potential benefits of DSF for VRE integration