WorldWideScience

Sample records for deleterious health consequences

  1. Are Nitrogen Fertilizers Deleterious to Soil Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay- Singh

    2018-04-01

    farmer, maintains or improves soil health rather than being deleterious.

  2. In vitro assessment of reproductive toxicity of cigarette smoke and deleterious consequences of maternal exposure to its constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Chin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is known to be a serious health risk factor and considered reproductively toxic. In the current study, we investigated whether constituents of cigarette smoke, pyrazine, 2-ethylpyridine, and 3-ethylpyridine, adversely affect reproductive functioning such as oocyte maturation and sperm capacitation. Our findings indicated that three smoke components were involved in retardation of oocyte maturation in a dose-dependent manner and the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL was determined to be 10-10M. However, individual smoke components administrated at the LOAEL did not attenuate oocyte maturation, demonstrating that all three toxicants were equally required for the observed growth impairment. When exposed to all three components at 10-10M during in vitro capacitation, murine sperm lost forward progression and were unable to show adequate hyperactivation, which is indicative of the incompletion of the capacitation process. Only sperm administrated with 3-ethylpyridine alone showed significant reduction in capacitation status, suggesting the chemical is the one responsible for disrupting sperm capacitation. Taken together, this is the first report that documents the effect of cigarette smoke components on oocyte maturation and sperm capacitation. The present findings demonstrate the adverse effects of smoke constituents of mammalian reproduction and the differences in sensitivity to smoke components between male and female gametes. Since both processes take place in the female reproductive system, our data provide new insights into deleterious consequences of maternal exposure to cigarette smoke.

  3. Chernobyl the health consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waight, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses initially on selected aspects of the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, and then goes on to discuss some of the pitfalls involved in trying to assess the health detriment in isolation and without regard for the context in which it occurs. The accident on 26 April 1986 was unique. Two explosions, followed by a graphite fire in the destroyed reactor, not only dispersed radionuclides high into the atmosphere, but the fire was instrumental in ensuring the continued dispersion for about ten days. This prolonged discharge into the atmosphere combined with changes in wind direction ensured that radionuclides were widely distributed over Europe and were even detected throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The actual ground deposition was very variable, depending on may factors such as coincident rainfall during the passage of the plume, wind speed and direction, and the topography of the terrain. The mosaic distribution of the ground deposition became much more variable with distance from the site, and is responsible for the wide range of individual doses that characterises this accident. The paper details the health effects of the accident on those immediately involved, and also the delayed health effects, including increased incidence of thyroid cancer, among the populations of surrounding areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. It also discusses the widespread psychosocial detriment which resulted from the accident. Finally, the paper evaluated the efficacy of decontamination measures which were adopted in the affected areas in the years following the accident

  4. Chernobyl the health consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waight, P J

    1996-10-01

    This paper focuses initially on selected aspects of the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, and then goes on to discuss some of the pitfalls involved in trying to assess the health detriment in isolation and without regard for the context in which it occurs. The accident on 26 April 1986 was unique. Two explosions, followed by a graphite fire in the destroyed reactor, not only dispersed radionuclides high into the atmosphere, but the fire was instrumental in ensuring the continued dispersion for about ten days. This prolonged discharge into the atmosphere combined with changes in wind direction ensured that radionuclides were widely distributed over Europe and were even detected throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The actual ground deposition was very variable, depending on may factors such as coincident rainfall during the passage of the plume, wind speed and direction, and the topography of the terrain. The mosaic distribution of the ground deposition became much more variable with distance from the site, and is responsible for the wide range of individual doses that characterises this accident. The paper details the health effects of the accident on those immediately involved, and also the delayed health effects, including increased incidence of thyroid cancer, among the populations of surrounding areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. It also discusses the widespread psychosocial detriment which resulted from the accident. Finally, the paper evaluated the efficacy of decontamination measures which were adopted in the affected areas in the years following the accident.

  5. BCG and BCG/DNAhsp65 Vaccinations Promote Protective Effects without Deleterious Consequences for Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves Zorzella-Pezavento

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A prime-boost strategy conserving BCG is considered the most promising vaccine to control tuberculosis. A boost with a DNA vaccine containing the mycobacterial gene of a heat shock protein (pVAXhsp65 after BCG priming protected mice against experimental tuberculosis. However, anti-hsp65 immunity could worsen an autoimmune disease due to molecular mimicry. In this investigation, we evaluated the effect of a previous BCG or BCG/pVAXhsp65 immunization on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE development. Female Lewis rats were immunized with BCG or BCG followed by pVAXhsp65 boosters. The animals underwent EAE induction and were daily evaluated for weight loss and clinical score. They were euthanized during recovery phase to assess immune response and inflammatory infiltration at the central nervous system. Previous immunization did not aggravate or accelerate clinical score or weight loss. In addition, this procedure clearly decreased inflammation in the brain. BCG immunization modulated the host immune response by triggering a significant reduction in IL-10 and IFN-γ levels induced by myelin basic protein. These data indicated that vaccination protocols with BCG or BCG followed by boosters with pVAXhsp65 did not trigger a deleterious effect on EAE evolution.

  6. [Health consequences of smoking electronic cigarettes are poorly described].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer; Lange, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Despite increasing popularity, health consequences of vaping (smoking electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) are poorly described. Few studies suggest that vaping has less deleterious effects on lung function than smoking conventional cigarettes. One large study found that e-cigarettes were as efficient as nicotine patches in smoking cessation. The long-term consequences of vaping are however unknown and while some experts are open towards e-cigarettes as a safer way of satisfying nicotine addiction, others worry that vaping in addition to presenting a health hazard may lead to an increased number of smokers of conventional cigarettes.

  7. Studying health consequences of microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.; Campi, Rita; Frydenberg, Morten

    2003-01-01

    may thus have a health effect beyond the parity effect. A possible design for studying this is to compare health effects for women with or without multiple partners but with the same parity. We compared total and cause specific mortality in these two groups in order to estimate their comparability......Abstract. A pregnancy requires a reasonably good health and may have positive as well as negative health consequences for the woman. Part of these health effects may depend on the immune response to the exchange of fetal cells (microchimerism). The number of biological fathers to a woman’s children...... unlikely that these large differences are entirely related to microchimerism. The study shows that caution is needed when studying health effects of procreation with multiple partners....

  8. Health consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, Roland

    2011-10-01

    The author first outlines that no exposure of mankind to environmental risks has been as exhaustively and continuously studied as that resulting from ionizing radiations. Apart from lethal effects, he describes non lethal cell lesions which are induced in tissues: mutations and modifications of gene expressions, either directly under the effect of radiation, or by water hydrolysis, or indirectly through a biochemical response to these initial events. Then, the author evokes the controversy about Chernobyl: according to scientists, there is no relationship between the health degradation (human morbidity and mortality) and fallouts whereas activist groups state that there is. The author then evokes that the WHO and the IAEA were accused to lie about the issue of victims and health consequences. He outlines that UNSCEAR reports are a reference for radio-biologists, and that the 2011 report confirmed the conclusions of the 2006 report. He comments some published data, notably those on the acute irradiation syndrome (ARS), on carcinogenic effects (essentially thyroid cancers for children, as there is no clear nor admitted relationship for other forms of cancer), on other pathologies. Finally, the author briefly discusses the issue of crisis management, the information about Fukushima, and the issue of Chernobyl fallouts in France

  9. Evaluation of the deleterious health effects of consumption of repeatedly heated vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekhadevi Perumalla Venkata

    Full Text Available Consumption of repeatedly heated cooking oil (RHCO has been a regular practice without knowing the harmful effects of use. The present study is based on the hypothesis that, heating of edible oils to their boiling points results in the formation of free radicals that cause oxidative stress and induce damage at the cellular and molecular levels. Peroxide value of heated oil, histopathological alterations, antioxidant enzyme levels and blood biochemistry were determined in Wistar rats treated with the RHCO. RHCO revealed higher peroxide value in comparison to oil that has been unheated or singly heated. Histopathological observation depicted significant damage in jejunum, colon and liver of animals that received oil heated repeatedly for 3 times. The altered antioxidant status reflects an adaptive response to oxidative stress. Alteration in the levels of these enzymes might be due to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS through auto oxidation or enzyme catalyzed oxidation of electrophilic components within RHCO. Analysis of blood samples revealed elevated levels of glucose, creatinine and cholesterol with declined levels of protein and albumin in repeatedly heated cooking oil group. Hematological parameters did not reveal any statistically significant difference between treated and control groups. Results of the present study confirm that the thermal oxidation of cooking oil generates free radicals and dietary consumption of such oil results in detrimental health effects. Keywords: Repeatedly heated cooking oil, Peroxide value, Oxidative stress, Hematological parameters

  10. Health consequences and health systems response to the Pacific U.S. Nuclear Weapons Testing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox, Neal A; Riklon, Sheldon; Alik, Wilfred; Hixon, Allen L

    2007-03-01

    Between 1946 and 1958, the United States detonated 67 thermonuclear devices in the Pacific as part of their U.S. Nuclear Weapons Testing Program (USNWTP). The aggregate explosive power was equal to 7,200 Hiroshima atomic bombs. Recent documents released by the U.S. government suggest that the deleterious effects of the nuclear testing were greater and extended farther than previously known. The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government and affected communities have sought refress through diplomatic routes with the U.S. government, however, existing medical programs and financial reparations have not adequately addressed many of the health consequences of the USNWTP. Since radiation-induced cancers may have a long latency, a healthcare infrastructure is needed to address both cancer and related health issues. This article reviews the health consequences of the Pacific USNWTP and the current health systems ability to respond.

  11. [Climate changes, floods, and health consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelozzi, Paola; de' Donato, Francesca

    2014-02-01

    In the European Region, floods are the most common natural disaster, causing extensive damage and disruption. In Italy, it has been estimated that over 68% of municipalities are at high hydrogeological risk and with the recent intense rainfall events local populations have been facing severe disruptions. The health consequences of floods are wide ranging and are dependent upon the vulnerability of the environment and the local population. Health effects can be a direct or indirect consequence of flooding. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, heart attacks, injuries and hypothermia. The indirect effects include, injuries and infections, water-borne infectious disease, mental health problems, respiratory disease and allergies in both the medium and long term after a flood. Future efforts should be addressed to integrate health preparedness and prevention measures into emergency flood plans and hydrological warning systems.

  12. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-01-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  13. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  14. Health consequences of child labour in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of being injured or becoming ill. Intensity of injury or illness is significantly higher in construction and manufacturing sectors than in other sectors. Health disadvantages for different age groups are not essentially parallel. Conclusions: The results obtained in this paper strengthen the need for stronger enforcement of laws that regulate child labour, especially given its adverse consequences on health. Although the paper focuses on Bangladesh, much of the evidence presented has implications that are relevant to policymakers in other developing countries.

  15. Health, social and economic consequences of hypersomnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    with hypersomnia had significantly higher rates of health-related contact, medication use and socioeconomic cost. Furthermore, they had slightly lower employment rates, and those in employment had a lower income level than control subjects. The annual mean excess health-related cost including social transfers...... was 3,498 for patients with hypersomnia and 3,851 for their partners. The social and health-related consequences could be identified up to 11 years before the first diagnosis among both the patients and their partners and became more pronounced as the disease advanced. The health effects were......, including frequencies of primary and sector contacts and procedures, medication, labour supply and social transfer payments were extracted from the national databases. A total of 2,855 national patients was compared to 11,382 controls. About 70 % of patients and controls were married or cohabiting. Patients...

  16. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramoutar, S.

    1996-01-01

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  17. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace.

  18. Smoker-free workplace policies: developing a model of public health consequences of workplace policies barring employment to smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, B; Siegel, M

    2009-02-01

    A marked shift in tobacco-related workplace health promotion intervention involves the adoption of policies barring employment to smokers. We discuss the potential public health consequences of these policies on those affected-smokers, their families, the surrounding community and society at large. We find a lack of published evidence evaluating the effectiveness and consequences of these policies. By developing a model of policy effects, we outline possible unintended consequences. With such large gaps in the evidence base and the potential for deleterious consequences, we argue for increased discussion about the use of smoker-free employment policies as a public health intervention and for increased engagement of employers by the public health community in worksite health promotion.

  19. The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range

  20. Health consequences of ionizing radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalci, D.; Dorter, G.; Guclu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing use of ionizing radiations all over the world induces an ever increasing interest of the professionals as well as of the whole society in health protection and the risk due to these practices. Shortly after its discovery, it was recognized that ionizing radiation can have adverse health effects and knowledge of its detrimental effects has accumulated. The fact that ionizing radiation produces biological damage has been known for many years. The biological effects of ionizing radiation for radiation protection considerations are grouped into two categories: The deterministic and the stochastic ones. Deterministic radiation effects can be clinically diagnosed in the exposed individual and occur when above a certain 'threshold' an appropriately high dose is absorbed in the tissues and organs to cause the death of a large number of cells and consequently to impair tissue or organ functions early after exposure. A clinically observable biological effect (Acute Radiation Syndromes, ARS) that occurs days to months after an acute radiation dose. ARS is a complex of acute injury manifestations that occur after a sufficiently large portion of a person's body is exposed to a high dose of ionizing radiation. Such irradiation initially injures all organs to some extent, but the timing and extent of the injury manifestations depend upon the type, rate, and dose of radiation received. Stochastic radiation effects are the chronic effects of radiation result from relatively low exposure levels delivered over long periods of time. These are sort of effects that might result from occupational exposure, or to the background exposure levels (includes radioactive pollution). Such late effects might be the development of malignant (cancerous) disease and of the hereditary consequences. These effects may be observed many years after the radiation exposure. There is a latent period between the initial radiation exposure and the development of the biological effect. In this

  1. DOES RURAL-TO-URBAN MIGRATION PLACE ADOLESCENTS AT RISK OF DELETERIOUS SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH OUTCOMES? EVIDENCE FROM HAITI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckert, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the links between migration and sexual and reproductive health among rural-to-urban migrant youth in Haiti. It evaluates behavioural, knowledge and attitudinal components from the perspective of three competing explanations for migrants' behaviours: adaptation, disruption and selection. Discrete-time event history analysis is employed to compare these hypotheses using Haiti Demographic and Health Survey data (N=1215 adolescent girls, N=829 adolescent boys). Multi-level models are used to compare changes in knowledge and attitudes in individuals using data from the Haiti Youth Transitions Study (N=223). The findings reveal that disruption is the most plausible explanation for the timing of migration and first sex among girls. However, contrary to the assumption that migrant youth risk experiencing first sex earlier, girls are less likely to experience first sex near the time they migrate, and rural-to-urban migrant boys may experience first sex at later ages. The high aspirations of migrant youth provide a likely explanation for these findings. Furthermore, male migrants accumulate less protective knowledge, which is consistent with the disruption hypothesis, and migrants endorse premarital sex similarly to non-migrants. Sexual and reproductive health curricula should be adapted to the unique needs of migrant youth, and youth should be targeted before they migrate.

  2. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A; Labunska, I; Blokov, I; Santillo, D; Johnston, P; Stringer, R; Sadownichik, T [eds.; Antipkin, Yu G [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L P [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D A [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  3. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T.; Arabskaya, L.P.; Bazyka, D.A.

    2006-04-01

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations

  4. Organizational justice and health: Contextual determinants and psychobiological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis entitled "Organizational Justice and Health: Contextual Determinants and Psychobiological Consequences" aimed to investigate associations between organizational justice and employee health and biological functioning. Organizational justice is an occupational

  5. Health consequences of the Russian weather

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otrachshenko, V.; Popova, Olga; Solomin, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 132, February (2017), s. 290-306 ISSN 0921-8009 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : health * mortality * temperature Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics , Econometrics Impact factor: 2.965, year: 2016

  6. Health, social and economic consequences of dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frahm-Falkenberg, S.; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dementia causes morbidity, disability and mortality, and as the population ages the societal burden will grow. The direct health costs and indirect costs of lost productivity and social welfare of dementia were estimated compared with matched controls in a national register......, gender, geographical area and civil status. Direct health costs included primary and secondary sector contacts, medical procedures and medication. Indirect costs included the effect on labor supply. All cost data were extracted from national databases. The entire cohort was followed for the entire period...... – before and after diagnosis. Results: In all, 78 715 patients were identified and compared with 312 813 matched controls. Patients' partners were also identified and matched with a control group. Patients had lower income and higher mortality and morbidity rates and greater use of medication. Social...

  7. Consequences of urban pollution on Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedeji, A. [Lagos state Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA), (Nigeria)

    2000-07-01

    In most urban areas, the major air pollutants as earlier highlighted are CO, PbO. SO{sub 2}. NO{sub x}. Hydrocarbons, particulate matters and even excess CO{sub 2}. Some of these have direct effects on health while some are of indirect effects. Other common gaseous emissions from industries are toxic waste fumes and dust/ fluff from spinning, weaving and other processes. In most cases when not properly taken care of may lead to human and plant lives being endangered. For instance it is an established fact that prolonged inhalation of fluff can also lead to Prysinosis with attendant symptoms of chest tightening and pain. In advanced stage, the situation could lead to tuberculosis. Similarly, heavy air pollution leads to acute and chronic harmful effects such as chronic bronchitis, asthma. dermatitis allergy and hypersensitivity. The processing houses produce substantial quantity of volatile chemicals. which pollute the air and could result in health impairment in human beings. It is sad to note that most African Countries including Nigeria still use leaded gasoline. The air quality degradation by these pollutants causes or aggravates most of the respiratory and air-borne diseases like asthma. tuberculosis etc which are rampant in a typical urban city like Lagos. The chart below buttresses this fact. (author)

  8. The Mental Health Consequences of Mass Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Galea, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Mass shooting episodes have increased over recent decades and received substantial media coverage. Despite the potentially widespread and increasing mental health impact of mass shootings, no efforts to our knowledge have been made to review the empirical literature on this topic. We identified 49 peer-reviewed articles, comprised of 27 independent samples in the aftermath of 15 mass shooting incidents. Based on our review, we concluded that mass shootings are associated with a variety of adverse psychological outcomes in survivors and members of affected communities. Less is known about the psychological effects of mass shootings on indirectly exposed populations; however, there is evidence that such events lead to at least short-term increases in fears and declines in perceived safety. A variety of risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes have been identified, including demographic and pre-incident characteristics (e.g., female gender and pre-incident psychological symptoms), event exposure (e.g., greater proximity to the attack and acquaintance with the deceased), and fewer psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation difficulties and lower social support). Further research that draws on pre-incident and longitudinal data will yield important insights into the processes that exacerbate or sustain post-incident psychological symptoms over time and provide important information for crisis preparedness and post-incident mental health interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Workgroup report: base stations and wireless networks-radiofrequency (RF) exposures and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Peter A; van Deventer, T Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H

    2007-03-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the air waves--wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephone (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephone systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephone and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health.

  10. Workgroup Report: Base Stations and Wireless Networks—Radiofrequency (RF) Exposures and Health Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Peter A.; van Deventer, T. Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the airwaves—wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephony (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephonic systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephony and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health. PMID:17431492

  11. Health, Social and Economic Consequences of Polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    socioeconomic costs than controls. They had very marginally lower employment rates, and those who were employed generally had lower incomes. The sum of direct net healthcare costs after the injury (general practitioner services, hospital services and medication) and indirect costs (loss of labor market income...... with a diagnosis of polyneuropathy and their partners were identified and compared with randomly chosen controls matched for age, gender, geographic area and civil status. Direct costs included frequencies of primary and secondary sector contacts and procedures, and medication. Indirect costs included the effect...... Danish Patient Registry. In addition, partners of patients in the case group were matched with partners in the corresponding control group. Almost half of the patients in the patient group had a partner. Patients had significantly higher rates of health-related contacts, medication use and greater...

  12. Child sexual abuse and possible health consequences among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health concern especially in developed countries and where legal measures take unprecedented time. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of different forms of CSA, and the perceived health consequences among secondary school students in ...

  13. Climate Change in the US: Potential Consequences for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. National Assessment identified five major areas of consequences of climate change in the United States: temperature-related illnesses and deaths, health effects related to extreme weather events, air pollution-related health effects, water- and food-borne diseases, and insect-, tick-, and rodent-borne diseases. The U.S. National Assessment final conclusions about these potential health effects will be described. In addition, a summary of some of the new tools for studying human health aspects of climate change as well as environment-health linkages through remotely sensed data and observations will be provided.

  14. Organizing workplace health literacy to reduce musculoskeletal pain and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Konring; Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen

    2015-01-01

    of the workplace as an arena for improving health literacy has developed emphasizing the organizational responsibility in facilitating and supporting that employees obtain basic knowledge and information needed to understand and take action on individual and occupational health concerns. The literature about...... workplace health literacy is very limited but points at the importance of educating employees to be able to access, appraise and apply health information and of organizing the infrastructure and communication in the organization. This study suggests a concrete operationalization of health literacy...... and effect of workplace health initiatives might be due to the fact that pain and the consequences of pain are affected by various individual, interpersonal and organizational factors in a complex interaction. Recent health literacy models pursue an integrated approach to understanding health behavior...

  15. Dynamical tendencies of health consequences caused by competitive risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, A.A.; Pronina, I.A.; Kudriavtsev, G.I.

    2000-01-01

    The paper deals with the generalized probabilistic approach for analyzing health consequences caused by various exposure factors. Formally basing on the competitive risk theory, it is introduced a general risk model for analysis the influence of environmental risk factors to human health. The usefulness of the model approach is in the opportunity of taking into account: time delay of impact and consequence manifestation; easy comparisons of exposure factors with different nature and various consequences (morbidity and mortality, carcinogenic and genetic); social and environmental components in overall mortality. Preliminary examples of comparative risk analysis are demonstrated on the Russian demography and environmental data with the attempt of characterizing the dynamical tendencies and evolution of introduced risk index. The prospects of the probabilistic approach and the results obtaining on this basis are discussed. (author)

  16. Incidence Probability of Delayed Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghani, A.H.; El-Naggar, A.M.; El-Kadi, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    During the first international Conference on the long -term consequences of the Chernobyl disaster in 1995 at Kiev, and also during the 1996 International Conference at Vienna, Summing up the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the data regarding the delayed health consequences were mainly related to thyroid cancer, hereditary disorders, general morbidity, mortality and psychological disturbances. Contrary to expectations, the incidences of Leukemia and Soft Tissue tumors were similar to the spontaneous incident. The expected delayed effects, however, among the accident survivors, the liquidators and populations resident in contaminated areas would show higher incidence probability to Leukemia. These population groups have been continuously exposed to low level radiation both externally and internally. Application of the new ICRP concept of radiation-induced Detriment, and the Nominal Probability Coefficient for Cancer and hereditary effects for both workers and populations are used as the rationale to calculate the incidence probability of occurrence of delayed health effects of the Chernobyl accidents

  17. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled open-quotes Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysisclose quotes, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled open-quotes Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,close quotes was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model

  18. [Violence and health. Symptoms, consequences and treatment of victimized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Ute; Wagels, Lisa; Ellendt, Sinika; Scheller, Maryse; Evler, Aynur; Bergs, René; Clemens, Benjamin; Pütz, Annette; Kohn, Nils; Schneider, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Violence has many faces and often results in a variety of consequences. Some studies indicated different types of violence and health consequences in men and women. However, it is still unclear whether this is reflected in clinical context, for example in a patient sample of a German university hospital. The primary goal of the present study was to analyze associations of violence with health, gender and social, economic, job-related, psychological and physical consequences. In addition, the effects of psychological treatment were examined. One line of research refers to the survey of more than 5000 patients of the university hospital Aachen, evaluating violence experience and several health complaints anonymously. Another line of research deals with detailed interviews with victims of violence and their experienced consequences. A final data source stems from the evaluation of psychological counseling of patients with prior experience of violence. Changes in subjectively perceived depressive symptoms and acceptance of the treatment are evaluated. Experience of violence increases the risk for several health problems, especially the experience of multiple types of violence. The interviews showed that more than 60% of the victims had a clinical diagnosis--independent of sex. The risk for a clinical diagnosis increased with multiple violence experiences during childhood. Patients with a clinical diagnosis indicated more subjective consequences of violence, and consequences of violence were more pronounced in patients that experienced multiple types of violence. The good acceptance as well as the effects on symptomatology and other relevant therapeutic variables provides a first indication for a successful treatment of victims of violence in a clinical context.

  19. Implementation of School Health Promotion: Consequences for Professional Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, N. M. W. M.; de Vries, N. K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This case study aimed to examine the factors influencing the implementation of health promotion (HP) policies and programs in secondary schools and the consequences for professional assistance. Design/methodology/approach: Group interviews were held in two schools that represented the best and worst case of implementation of a health…

  20. Short- and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medic, Goran; Wille, Micheline; Hemels, Michiel Eh

    2017-01-01

    Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectively referred to as sleep disruptions. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption, ranging from lifestyle and environmental factors to sleep disorders and other medical conditions. Sleep disruptions have substantial adverse short- and long-term health consequences. A literature search was conducted to provide a nonsystematic review of these health consequences (this review was designed to be nonsystematic to better focus on the topics of interest due to the myriad parameters affected by sleep). Sleep disruption is associated with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, metabolic effects, changes in circadian rhythms, and proinflammatory responses. In otherwise healthy adults, short-term consequences of sleep disruption include increased stress responsivity, somatic pain, reduced quality of life, emotional distress and mood disorders, and cognitive, memory, and performance deficits. For adolescents, psychosocial health, school performance, and risk-taking behaviors are impacted by sleep disruption. Behavioral problems and cognitive functioning are associated with sleep disruption in children. Long-term consequences of sleep disruption in otherwise healthy individuals include hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, weight-related issues, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and colorectal cancer. All-cause mortality is also increased in men with sleep disturbances. For those with underlying medical conditions, sleep disruption may diminish the health-related quality of life of children and adolescents and may worsen the severity of common gastrointestinal disorders. As a result of the potential consequences of sleep disruption, health care

  1. Descriptive epidemiology and health consequences of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J

    2005-09-01

    Obesity is now the most common disorder of childhood in the developed world, and its prevalence is still increasing. A large body of high-quality and consistent evidence shows that it is best defined using the body mass index (BMI) percentile relative to national BMI reference data. This definition diagnoses excessive fatness adequately, and denotes increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Future research may provide improved obesity definitions for epidemiological use, so that the obesity epidemic can be monitored more effectively. Paediatric obesity causes ill health in both childhood and adulthood, though further research is required on the economic consequences, on some of the co-morbidities in childhood (notably psychological morbidity), and in adulthood where the amount of empirical evidence on long-term effects is limited. The combination of high prevalence with adverse consequences has created a public health crisis.

  2. Mental health consequences of violence against women and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Veena A; Chandra, Prabha S; Vaddiparti, Krishna

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies on mental health consequences of violence against women and girls were reviewed in a range of situations. Although several studies continued to show cross-sectional associations between child sexual abuse (CSA) and mental health outcomes, a few prospective studies showed a robust association between CSA and depression. Studies on the impact of dating violence are still at a nascent stage and focus on antecedents of violence rather than its consequences. Women at higher risk, such as adolescents, migrants, the homeless, and women in the perinatal period have been studied and specific vulnerabilities identified. Women reporting bidirectional violence had higher rates of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cumulative violence, severity of violence, and recent violence are associated with higher morbidity. Studies among women in conflict zones have emphasized the role of different forms of sexual and physical violence on mental health. Newer emerging areas that need more research include mental health consequences of women in conflict zones and among same sex relationships. There are also few studies on the violence experience of both older women and adolescents. The need to better delineate the psychopathology of complex manifestations of PTSD is underscored.

  3. Heat or Cold: Which One Exerts Greater Deleterious Effects on Health in a Basin Climate City? Impact of Ambient Temperature on Mortality in Chengdu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Yin, Fei; Deng, Ying; Volinn, Ernest; Chen, Fei; Ji, Kui; Zeng, Jing; Zhao, Xing; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-12-10

    temperature in basin cities, and further facilitate an appropriate estimate of the health consequences of various climate-change scenarios.

  4. Heat or Cold: Which One Exerts Greater Deleterious Effects on Health in a Basin Climate City? Impact of Ambient Temperature on Mortality in Chengdu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Cui

    2016-12-01

    impact of ambient temperature in basin cities, and further facilitate an appropriate estimate of the health consequences of various climate-change scenarios.

  5. Deleterious mutation accumulation in organelle genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, M; Blanchard, J L

    1998-01-01

    It is well established on theoretical grounds that the accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations in nonrecombining genomes is a major extinction risk in obligately asexual populations. Sexual populations can also incur mutational deterioration in genomic regions that experience little or no recombination, i.e., autosomal regions near centromeres, Y chromosomes, and organelle genomes. Our results suggest, for a wide array of genes (transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, and proteins) in a diverse collection of species (animals, plants, and fungi), an almost universal increase in the fixation probabilities of mildly deleterious mutations arising in mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes relative to those arising in the recombining nuclear genome. This enhanced width of the selective sieve in organelle genomes does not appear to be a consequence of relaxed selection, but can be explained by the decline in the efficiency of selection that results from the reduction of effective population size induced by uniparental inheritance. Because of the very low mutation rates of organelle genomes (on the order of 10(-4) per genome per year), the reduction in fitness resulting from mutation accumulation in such genomes is a very long-term process, not likely to imperil many species on time scales of less than a million years, but perhaps playing some role in phylogenetic lineage sorting on time scales of 10 to 100 million years.

  6. Short- and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medic G

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Goran Medic,1,2 Micheline Wille,1 Michiel EH Hemels1 1Market Access, Horizon Pharma B.V., Utrecht, 2Unit of Pharmacoepidemiology & Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Abstract: Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectively referred to as sleep disruptions. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption, ranging from lifestyle and environmental factors to sleep disorders and other medical conditions. Sleep disruptions have substantial adverse short- and long-term health consequences. A literature search was conducted to provide a nonsystematic review of these health consequences (this review was designed to be nonsystematic to better focus on the topics of interest due to the myriad parameters affected by sleep. Sleep disruption is associated with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, metabolic effects, changes in circadian rhythms, and proinflammatory responses. In otherwise healthy adults, short-term consequences of sleep disruption include increased stress responsivity, somatic pain, reduced quality of life, emotional distress and mood disorders, and cognitive, memory, and performance deficits. For adolescents, psychosocial health, school performance, and risk-taking behaviors are impacted by sleep disruption. Behavioral problems and cognitive functioning are associated with sleep disruption in children. Long-term consequences of sleep disruption in otherwise healthy individuals include hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, weight-related issues, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and colorectal cancer. All-cause mortality is also increased in men with sleep disturbances. For those with

  7. VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AND ITS HEALTH CONSEQUENCES – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The world is currently facing an unrecognized and untreated pandemic of Vitamin D Deficiency (VDD1. VDD is a significant public health problem in both developed and developing countries, including India2. It is highly prevalent across all age groups. Vitamin D (VD is a prehormone that humans obtain from foods and dietary supplements and by endogenous skin synthesis from7-dehydrocholesterol with sunlight exposure3. The present article reviews the etiology of VDD, physiological functions, sources, health consequences and prevalence of VDD in different regions of India.

  8. VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AND ITS HEALTH CONSEQUENCES – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Jyoti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The world is currently facing an unrecognized and untreated pandemic of Vitamin D Deficiency (VDD1. VDD is a significant public health problem in both developed and developing countries, including India2. It is highly prevalent across all age groups. Vitamin D (VD is a prehormone that humans obtain from foods and dietary supplements and by endogenous skin synthesis from7-dehydrocholesterol with sunlight exposure3. The present article reviews the etiology of VDD, physiological functions, sources, health consequences and prevalence of VDD in different regions of India.

  9. The Health Consequences of Obesity in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; Medlow, Sharon; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-03-01

    Young adults are gaining weight faster than any age group. This weight gain and the appearance of obesity-related comorbidities often commence in adolescence. Psychosocial distress and mental health issues are common and debilitating, and treatment approaches are likely to be similar to those for adolescents. At the same time, young adults may have physical morbidities which will continue and worsen throughout adulthood, such as hypertension, diabetes and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Health consequences of obesity are challenging to manage in young adults as their symptoms may be minimal, they are less likely to engage with healthcare due to other life priorities and their neurocognitive developmental stage makes therapy adherence difficult. Clinicians who manage young adults with obesity need to be aware of these age-specific challenges, as well as the sexual and reproductive health concerns that are present in this age group.

  10. Teen motherhood and long-term health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Payal H; Sen, Bisakha

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the association of teen motherhood and long-term physical and mental health outcomes. The physical and mental health components (PCS and MCS) of the SF-12 Healthy Survey in the NLSY79 health module were used to assess long-term health outcomes of women who experienced teenage motherhood. Various familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics were indentified and controlled for that may have predicted teen motherhood and long-term health outcomes. The two comparison groups for teen mothers were women who experienced teen-pregnancy only and women who were engaged in unprotected sexual activity as a teenage but did not experience pregnancy. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression was used for analysis. The average PCS and MCS for teen mothers was 49.91 and 50.89, respectively. Teen mothers exhibited poorer physical health later in life compared to all women as well as the comparison groups. When controlling for age, teen mothers had significantly lower PCS and MCS scores compared to all other women. Furthermore, when controlling for familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics, teen mothers exhibited significantly lower PCS and MCS scores. When comparing teen mothers to the two comparison groups, PCS was not statistically different although MCS was significantly lower in the teen-pregnancy group. Teen motherhood does lead to poorer physical health outcomes later in life. On the other hand, poorer mental health outcomes in later life may be attributed to the unmeasured factors leading to a teen pregnancy and not teen motherhood itself. Additional research needs to be conducted on the long-term consequences of teen motherhood.

  11. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.; Abrahmson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a revision of NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects models for low-LET radiations based on recent reports from UNSCEAR, ICRP and NAS/NRC (BEIR V). The second addendum presented changes needed to incorporate alpha-emitting radionuclides into the accident exposure source term. As in the earlier version of this report, models are provided for early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating the risks of seven types of cancer in adults - leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ''other''. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Five classes of genetic diseases -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocations, and multifactorial diseases are also considered. Data are provided that should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk

  12. The Consequences of IMF Conditionality for Government Expenditure on Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Moosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Monetary Fund (IMF was established in 1944 to supervise the international monetary system that collapsed in 1971. Since then, the Fund has reinvented itself as some sort of a “development agency,” providing loans with strings attached. Any country that wishes to obtain loans must follow the IMF-prescribed policies that reflect the neoliberal ideas of the Washington Consensus. As these policies are typically contractionary and involve austerity, the IMF has been accused of pursuing policies that exhibit a negative impact on health expenditure, with dire consequences for the population. Although the empirical evidence on this issue is mixed, it is well known that the IMF operations are more likely to exert a negative effect than a positive effect on government spending on health.

  13. Reducing the health consequences of opioid addiction in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Sarah; Eiserman, Julie; Beletsky, Leo; Stancliff, Sharon; Bruce, R Douglas

    2013-07-01

    Addiction to prescription opioids is prevalent in primary care settings. Increasing prescription opioid use is largely responsible for a parallel increase in overdose nationally. Many patients most at risk for addiction and overdose come into regular contact with primary care providers. Lack of routine addiction screening results in missed treatment opportunities in this setting. We reviewed the literature on screening and brief interventions for addictive disorders in primary care settings, focusing on opioid addiction. Screening and brief interventions can improve health outcomes for chronic illnesses including diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. Similarly, through the use of screening and brief interventions, patients with addiction can achieve improved health outcome. A spectrum of low-threshold care options can reduce the negative health consequences among individuals with opioid addiction. Screening in primary care coupled with short interventions, including motivational interviewing, syringe distribution, naloxone prescription for overdose prevention, and buprenorphine treatment are effective ways to manage addiction and its associated risks and improve health outcomes for individuals with opioid addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Unrecorded consumption, quality of alcohol and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Kanteres, Fotis; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2010-07-01

    This contribution aims to examine systematically the evidence on the impact of the quality of unrecorded alcohol products on health consequences. Systematic computer assisted review of the literature. There are a number of pathways related to alcohol quality that may lead to acute or chronic health problems. The following constituents and contaminants of alcoholic beverages were identified as likely contributors to these problems: (i) toxic metals (e.g. lead) from contaminated water sources or unsuitable distillation equipment; (ii) volatile constituents, such as acetaldehyde or higher alcohols, which may be produced in significant amounts due to faults in production technology or microbiological spoilage; (iii) ethyl carbamate (urethane), a carcinogenic contaminant with major occurrence in certain fruit and sugarcane spirits; (iv) biologically active flavour compounds (e.g. coumarin in cosmetics used as non-beverage alcohol); (v) toxic compounds used to denature alcohol (e.g. methanol or diethyl phthalate). In addition, the often higher ethanol content may have detrimental health effects. These pathways should not be assumed as present for all subcategories of unrecorded alcohol, but are more relevant to certain types and geographic regions. A health impact of unrecorded alcohol over and above the effect of ethanol cannot be excluded. More research is urgently needed, especially with respect to liver disease and alcohol poisoning as endpoints. A feasible approach for new research on the effects of unrecorded alcohol could be based on a representative sample from low socioeconomic regions with high prevalence of unrecorded consumption.

  15. Health effects estimation code development for accident consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, O.; Homma, T.

    1992-01-01

    As part of a computer code system for nuclear reactor accident consequence analysis, two computer codes have been developed for estimating health effects expected to occur following an accident. Health effects models used in the codes are based on the models of NUREG/CR-4214 and are revised for the Japanese population on the basis of the data from the reassessment of the radiation dosimetry and information derived from epidemiological studies on atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The health effects models include early and continuing effects, late somatic effects and genetic effects. The values of some model parameters are revised for early mortality. The models are modified for predicting late somatic effects such as leukemia and various kinds of cancers. The models for genetic effects are the same as those of NUREG. In order to test the performance of one of these codes, it is applied to the U.S. and Japanese populations. This paper provides descriptions of health effects models used in the two codes and gives comparisons of the mortality risks from each type of cancer for the two populations. (author)

  16. Health consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecklund, Göran; Axelsson, John

    2016-11-01

    This review summarises the literature on shift work and its relation to insufficient sleep, chronic diseases, and accidents. It is based on 38 meta-analyses and 24 systematic reviews, with additional narrative reviews and articles used for outlining possible mechanisms by which shift work may cause accidents and adverse health. Evidence shows that the effect of shift work on sleep mainly concerns acute sleep loss in connection with night shifts and early morning shifts. A link also exists between shift work and accidents, type 2 diabetes (relative risk range 1.09-1.40), weight gain, coronary heart disease (relative risk 1.23), stroke (relative risk 1.05), and cancer (relative risk range 1.01-1.32), although the original studies showed mixed results. The relations of shift work to cardiometabolic diseases and accidents mimic those with insufficient sleep. Laboratory studies indicate that cardiometabolic stress and cognitive impairments are increased by shift work, as well as by sleep loss. Given that the health and safety consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep are very similar, they are likely to share common mechanisms. However, additional research is needed to determine whether insufficient sleep is a causal pathway for the adverse health effects associated with shift work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. The mental health consequences of student "Holocaust memorial journeys".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva; Walter, Garry; Ross, Sharon; Bloch, Yuval

    2013-08-01

    Our aim was to study the mental health consequences of Israeli adolescents' 8-day "Holocaust memorial journey" to Poland. A survey to ascertain the experience of Israeli child and adolescent psychiatrists and residents in the specialty was conducted. Participants were asked about referrals regarding the memorial journey, and to compare these cases with referrals for other potentially traumatic events, including school "sleep-out" trips. Fifty child and adolescent psychiatrists and residents participated. According to their collective experience, the adolescents' memorial journey triggered a variety of mental health problems, including psychosis, but only one case of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Judging by the number of referrals, there was a higher rate of mental health problems following the memorial journey than after the annual sleep-out school trip. Although it may seldom lead to PTSD, the Holocaust memorial journey can be a major stressor for some participating teenagers. Evaluating "high risk" adolescents prior to their planned exposure to likely stressors and conducting large, prospective studies that examine the impact of pre-planned stressors on the lives of adolescents are warranted. Providing support to all adolescents before, during and after exposure to anticipated stressors is important.

  18. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu; Ashizawa, Kiyoto

    1997-01-01

    An International Conference entitled 'One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident' was held at the Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996. The aim of conference was to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It was concluded that a highly significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among those persons in the affected areas who were children in 1986 is the only clear evidence to data of a public health impact of radiation exposure as a result of the Chernobyl accident and both temporal and geographical distributions clearly indicate a relationship of the increase in incidence to radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident. To clarify the relationship between thyroid cancer and radioactive fallout more clearly, a long term prospective study (case-control/cohort) should be conducted in the highly risk groups and the analysis of accurate estimation of exposure dose to external and/or internal radiation is needed. (author)

  19. Diagnostic Error in Correctional Mental Health: Prevalence, Causes, and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael S; Hynes, Katie; Hatcher, Simon; Colman, Ian

    2016-04-01

    While they have important implications for inmates and resourcing of correctional institutions, diagnostic errors are rarely discussed in correctional mental health research. This review seeks to estimate the prevalence of diagnostic errors in prisons and jails and explores potential causes and consequences. Diagnostic errors are defined as discrepancies in an inmate's diagnostic status depending on who is responsible for conducting the assessment and/or the methods used. It is estimated that at least 10% to 15% of all inmates may be incorrectly classified in terms of the presence or absence of a mental illness. Inmate characteristics, relationships with staff, and cognitive errors stemming from the use of heuristics when faced with time constraints are discussed as possible sources of error. A policy example of screening for mental illness at intake to prison is used to illustrate when the risk of diagnostic error might be increased and to explore strategies to mitigate this risk. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Exogenous Antioxidants—Double-Edged Swords in Cellular Redox State: Health Beneficial Effects at Physiologic Doses versus Deleterious Effects at High Doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaouad Bouayed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The balance between oxidation and antioxidation is believed to be critical in maintaining healthy biological systems. Under physiological conditions, the human antioxidative defense system including e.g., superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione (GSH and others, allows the elimination of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS including, among others superoxide anions (O2.-, hydroxyl radicals (OH., alkoxyl radicals (RO. and peroxyradicals (ROO.. However, our endogenous antioxidant defense systems are incomplete without exogenous originating reducing compounds such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenols, playing an essential role in many antioxidant mechanisms in living organisms. Therefore, there is continuous demand for exogenous antioxidants in order to prevent oxidative stress, representing a disequilibrium redox state in favor of oxidation. However, high doses of isolated compounds may be toxic, owing to prooxidative effects at high concentrations or their potential to react with beneficial concentrations of ROS normally present at physiological conditions that are required for optimal cellular functioning. This review aims to examine the double-edged effects of dietary originating antioxidants with a focus on the most abundant compounds, especially polyphenols, vitamin C, vitamin E and carotenoids. Different approaches to enrich our body with exogenous antioxidants such as via synthetic antioxidants, diets rich in fruits and vegetables and taking supplements will be reviewed and experimental and epidemiological evidences discussed, highlighting that antioxidants at physiological doses are generally safe, exhibiting interesting health beneficial effects.

  1. Devastating consequences of sex trafficking on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Fr James

    2017-11-01

    Sex trafficking has devastating consequences on the physical and mental well-being of millions of women around the world. These trafficking victims often come in contact with medical personnel, and these encounters with suitably prepared staff can be a step toward healing of the victims. The Catholic Church, especially through Pope Francis, is making strenuous efforts to curb the spread of sex trafficking. Same-sex feelings and behavior may arise post-trafficking in individuals, although this does not appear to be mentioned thus far in the literature. Here, we are most likely dealing with a type of "pseudo-lesbianism" post-trauma. The trafficking survivor can be helped to understand some of the likely roots of her feelings such as anti-male sentiments following abuse. She needs to be patiently, and expertly, accompanied to process the trauma she has experienced, and learn how to meet her genuine needs for female affection and affirmation in healthy, chaste, and non-erotic ways. Around the world, millions of female victims of human trafficking are forced into sex "work," often resulting in serious physical and mental-health problems. Healthcare staff should be alert to spot victims of sex trafficking and be ready to assist them. The Catholic Church, especially through Pope Francis, has been vocal in denouncing this form of modern slavery. Some female victims of sex trafficking may experience same-sex feelings afterward. Healing for such young women involves helping them to process their traumatic experiences, as well as patiently accompanying them as they seek to develop healthy, chaste friendships with other females and males.

  2. Radiation health consequences for astronauts: mechanisms, monitoring and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyfakh, E.

    During space flights crews are exposed chronically to uneven irradiation of enhanced bioefficiency following with significant elevation for chromosomal aberrations as minimum. To protect in space rationally monitoring and preventing of health radiogenic individual primary consequences for astronauts are of high importance. Majority of Chernobyl-touched population has some common etiologic radiogenic mechanisms and radioloads with astronauts ones during long-term missions and former is able to be used well as the close ground-level model. Primary radiogenic deviations. Two radiogenic pathologies as lipoperoxic ( LP ) stress with coupled deficits for essential bioantioxidants ( BAO ) were typical for chronic low-dose Chernobyl-touched contingents. When BAO expenditure had led to their subnormal levels, radiogenic free radical chain -b ranched LP processes occurred in vivo hyperbolically. Catabolites and their free radicals of the abnormal LP cascade are known to be toxic, mutagenic / carcinogenic and teratogenic factors as such, as they are for retinol and tocopherol deficiencies. Both coupled pathogenic factors interrelated synergistically. Simultaneous dysbalances for LP and / or BAO systems were evaluated as the cause and markers for metabolic disregulations. Human LP stress was proved to be the most radiosensible known marker to mo nitor least invasively of blood microsamples in a ground lab via the developed PC Program. But for capsule conditions the best approach is assumed to be LP monitoring via skin ultraweak green-blue chemiluminescence ( CL ) caused by recombination of peroxyl radicals. CL from surfaces of organs was embedded first ( E. Neyfakh, 1964 - 71 ) to reflect their internal LP velocities in vivo and it is the non-invasive on-line simple method of the highest sensitivity, supplying with data transmissible to the ground directly. Related deviations. a) Radiogenic hypermutagenesis: LP catabolites and their free radicals are responsible for direct DNA

  3. Health Consequences to Immigrant Family Caregivers in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwal, Juhee Varacharya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study revisited the “double jeopardy” hypothesis in terms of the health ofimmigrant family caregivers. It also investigated the effect of “reciprocity”(feeling of giving back something on the health of family caregivers. TheGeneral Social Survey 2002 Cycle 16 data were analyzed using χ2-test andLogistic regressions. About 16% of immigrants and 13.6% of non-immigrantssaid that their health was negatively affected as a result of caregiving.Immigrant family caregivers were three times more likely than non-immigrantsto report a health consequence. Reciprocity played a big role in this outcome.Given the fact that an increasing number of culturally diverse immigrants enterCanada every year and that the immigrant population is aging, more caregiverswill be in demand. Policy makers need to find ways to keep immigrantcaregivers healthy so that quality care can be given to immigrant older adultsand also for maintaining an overall healthy Canada.RésuméCette étude réexamine l'hypothèse de «non bis in idem» dans le contexte de lasanté des aidantes et aidants membres de familles immigrantes. Elle étudie aussil'effet de «réciprocité» (le sentiment de rendre quelque chose sur la santé desaidantes et aidants membres de la famille. Les données de l'Enquête socialegénérale 2002, cycle 16 ont été analysées à l'aide du test du χ² et de régressionslogistiques. À peu près 16% des immigrants et 13.6% des non-immigrantes ontreporté que leur santé avait été négativement affectée par leur dispensation desoins. Les aidantes et aidants membres de familles immigrantes avaient troisfois plus de chance de reporter une conséquence sur leur santé que ceux desfamilles non-immigrantes. La réciprocité jouait un rôle important dans cerésultat. Quand on considère qu'un nombre croissant d'immigrants issus decultures diverses entre au Canada chaque année et que la populationimmigrante vieillit, il est clair que plus en plus

  4. Consequences of urban pollution on health; Consequences de la pollution urbaine sur la sante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedeji, A. [Agence pour la Protection de l' Environnement de l' Etat de Lagos, Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency - Lasepa (Nigeria)

    2002-11-01

    This article treats of the urbanization process in Africa and of the direct impact of urban pollution on people's health. After a description of the spectacular growth of urban populations in Africa since 1970, the author focusses on the experience of Nigeria and on the city of Lagos: urbanization causes, demographic growth, origins of urban pollution (road traffic, uncontrolled wastes tipping, sanitary conditions) and different types of pollution (atmospheric, hydric, domestic wastes, noise, heat..). The second part of the article deals with the impact of this urban pollution on the public health in conditions of overpopulation: domestic environment, diseases linked with water quality, diseases transmission, accidents, occupational diseases. This analysis stresses on the lack of urban management and development policies in Nigeria, and on the lack of a representative, liable and competent public authority. (J.S.)

  5. Health systems as defences against the consequences of poverty: equity in health as social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, F M

    1983-01-01

    The main development problems in the Third World are known to be gross socioeconomic inequality, widespread poor health status accompanied by high fertility and infant mortality rates, low life expectancy, mass illiteracy and mass poverty. In most of these countries governments invest a great deal of scarce resources toward the consequences of poverty rather than it causes. The paucity of resources for such social services is exacerbated by continuously increasing demands and needs which have to be satisfied. Unmet needs tend to cause apathy in the population. For purposes of controlling poverty and its consequences, these must be clearly formulated and relevant policies, a commitment to implement such policies, adequate administrative capacity and reasonably adequate resources. In the case of the health services system, the same requirements apply. Above all, the health system has to be directed toward the greatest needs of the population. This must involve policy makers, implementors and the consumer community. This paper argues that health systems cannot be an effective weapon against the consequences of poverty unless the above kinds of policy exist and are implemented.

  6. Experiments on the role of deleterious mutations as stepping stones in adaptive evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covert, Arthur W.; Lenski, Richard E.; Wilke, Claus O.; Ofria, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Many evolutionary studies assume that deleterious mutations necessarily impede adaptive evolution. However, a later mutation that is conditionally beneficial may interact with a deleterious predecessor before it is eliminated, thereby providing access to adaptations that might otherwise be inaccessible. It is unknown whether such sign-epistatic recoveries are inconsequential events or an important factor in evolution, owing to the difficulty of monitoring the effects and fates of all mutations during experiments with biological organisms. Here, we used digital organisms to compare the extent of adaptive evolution in populations when deleterious mutations were disallowed with control populations in which such mutations were allowed. Significantly higher fitness levels were achieved over the long term in the control populations because some of the deleterious mutations served as stepping stones across otherwise impassable fitness valleys. As a consequence, initially deleterious mutations facilitated the evolution of complex, beneficial functions. We also examined the effects of disallowing neutral mutations, of varying the mutation rate, and of sexual recombination. Populations evolving without neutral mutations were able to leverage deleterious and compensatory mutation pairs to overcome, at least partially, the absence of neutral mutations. Substantially raising or lowering the mutation rate reduced or eliminated the long-term benefit of deleterious mutations, but introducing recombination did not. Our work demonstrates that deleterious mutations can play an important role in adaptive evolution under at least some conditions. PMID:23918358

  7. The representation of health care services in Mexican television: potential consequences for health subjectivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Rojas Rajs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the representation of health services in Mexican television, considering that television plays an important role in the production and reproduction of the social meanings of health. A descriptive study analyzed the contents of 672 hours of continuous television (media flows broadcast in Mexico in 2011, examining advertising, television shows and newscasts. The analysis of all these messages shows that the representation of private care services predominates. When public care services are mentioned, the communication is mainly regarding the Seguro Popular de Salud [Popular Health Insurance, for those with low incomes], while the social security model of care is underrepresented. We therefore conclude that television favors the two first models of health care. This kind of representation could hold potential consequences for health subjectivities.

  8. Source reliability in auditory health persuasion : Its antecedents and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah P.; Dijkstra, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Persuasive health messages can be presented through an auditory channel, thereby enhancing the salience of the source, making it fundamentally different from written or pictorial information. We focused on the determinants of perceived source reliability in auditory health persuasion by

  9. Nuclear catastrophe in Japan. Health consequences resulting from Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulitz, Henrik; Eisenberg, Winfrid; Thiel, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, a nuclear catastrophe occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Japan in the wake of an earthquake and due to serious safety deficiencies. This resulted in a massive and prolonged release of radioactive fission and decay products. Approximately 20% of the radioactive substances released into the atmosphere have led to the contamination of the landmass of Japan with 17,000 becquerels per square meter of cesium-137 and a comparable quantity of cesium-134. The initial health consequences of the nuclear catastrophe are already now, after only two years, scientifically verifiable. Similar to the case of Chernobyl, a decline in the birth rate was documented nine months after the nuclear catastrophe. Throughout Japan, the total drop in number of births in December 2011 was 4362, with the Fukushima Prefecture registering a decline of 209 births. Japan also experienced a rise in infant mortality, with 75 more children dying in their first year of life than expected statistically. In the Fukushima Prefecture alone, some 55,592 children were diagnosed with thyroid gland nodules or cysts. In contrast to cysts and nodules found in adults, these findings in children must be classified as precancerous. There were also the first documented cases in Fukushima of thyroid cancer in children. The present document undertakes three assessments of the expected incidence of cancer resulting from external exposure to radiation. These are based on publications in scientific journals on soil contamination in 47 prefectures in Japan, the average total soil contamination, and, in the third case, on local dose rate measurements in the fall of 2012. Taking into consideration the shielding effect of buildings, the medical organization IPPNW has calculated the collective lifetime doses for individuals at 94,749 manSv, 206,516 manSv, and 118,171 manSv, respectively. In accordance with the risk factors set by the European Committee on Radiation Risk (ECRR) for death

  10. Mental Health of Elementary Schoolteachers in Southern Brazil: Working Conditions and Health Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz

    2015-01-01

    The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01) and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01). Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers.

  11. Mental Health of Elementary Schoolteachers in Southern Brazil: Working Conditions and Health Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01 and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01. Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers.

  12. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…

  13. Antecedents and Consequences of Consumer's Response to Health Information Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    2013-01-01

    This study develops and empirically tests a model for understanding food consumers' health information seeking behaviour. Data were collected from 504 food consumers using a nationally representative consumer panel. The obtained Lisrel results suggest that consumers' product-specific health...... information seeking is positively affected by general food involvement and by usability of product-specific health information. Moreover, product-specific health information seeking and product-specific health information complexity are both positively related to post-purchase health-related dissonance....... This link between information complexity and post-purchase dissonance has implications for marketers of food products since our results suggest that consumers might avoid purchasing the same food item again if post-purchase dissonance is experienced....

  14. Mortality, health, social and economic consequences of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Pedersen, Stephen Wørlich

    2013-01-01

    included labour supply and social transfer payments, and were based on income data derived from Coherent Social Statistics. Patients with a diagnosis of ALS had poor survival. The average (95 % CI) 5-year survival rate was 0.278 (0.358-0.298) compared with 0.865 (0.858-0.872) among controls. Patients...... to compensate for the social consequences to patients by increasing their net income after ALS diagnosis....

  15. Childhood health: trends and consequences over the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Liam; Smith, James P

    2012-01-01

    This article first documents evidence on the changing prevalence of childhood physical and mental health problems, focusing on the development of childhood health conditions in the United States. Authors Liam Delaney and James Smith present evidence on the changing prevalence of childhood chronic conditions over time using recalled data as well as contemporaneous accounts of these childhood health problems. The raw data from both sources show sharp increases in the prevalence of most childhood physical health problems (such as asthma, allergies, respiratory problems, and migraines) over time. However, inferring trends is difficult because such data are also consistent with improved detection of childhood disease, and many of the causes of childhood disease have not worsened over time. Conclusions about rapidly rising rates of childhood physical health problems over time are premature at best, especially concerning the magnitude of trends. Documenting real changes in the prevalence of specific diseases is a high-priority research topic. In contrast, the evidence is much stronger that childhood mental health problems are becoming worse. The authors next present new evidence on the effects of early childhood physical and mental problems on health and economic status in adulthood. They find that both childhood physical and mental health problems contribute significantly to poorer adult health. However, they also find that childhood mental health problems have much larger impacts than do childhood physical health problems on four critical areas of socioeconomic status as an adult: education, weeks worked per year, individual earnings, and family income. Finally, the authors examine evidence regarding the efficacy of early mental health treatment for children in terms of promoting good health later on. Existing studies suggest that a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and medication appears to be effective in the treatment of both anxiety and depression in

  16. Women and health consequences of natural disasters: Challenge or opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Tourani PhD, Sogand; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Disasters do not affect people equally; the impact of disasters on the lives of women is different from other groups of a community. Women's fundamental rights to health and safety are violated after disasters. The authors of this study aimed to explore various factors of women's health with reference to previous natural disasters in Iran. A qualitative approach using in-depth unstructured interviews and field observations was employed to explore women's health factors in the affected regions. A total of 22 participants affected by disasters, as well as key informants, were interviewed applying the purposeful sampling method. Data were collected in 2014 in three provinces, including East Azerbaijan, Bushehr, and Mazandaran. A content analysis using the Graneheim approach was performed for analyzing the transcribed interviews. Two themes and four categories were extracted from the data. The themes that emerged included psycho-physical effects and women's health status. Physical and psycho-emotional effects and reproductive and environmental health effects were the four emergent categories. The findings implied that managing women's health challenges may result in reducing the distressing effects of disaster. These findings support identification and application of the mechanisms by which women's well-being in physical, mental, reproductive, and environmental aspects can be protected after disasters.

  17. Practical consequences of the assessment of different energy health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Public authorities must make decisions about energy, and the risks of alternative strategies need to be calculated including health and environmental costs. Information from various sources must be organized into a logical framework for comparing impacts. This must include the widest practicable range of health and environmental damage - public health impact of pollution, role of accidents, disease and hazardous materials in the workplace, and odds for catastrophes. It must put each part of the energy cycle into perspective - giving particular attention to uncertainties in knowledge - to convey what is known, what is uncertain, and the importance of each factor in the overall picture. This paper gives examples of the use of health-impact assessment by decision-makers: (1) comparative risk assessment of the health effects of coal and nuclear fuel cycles used in nuclear power plant siting and licensing hearings, and (2) health risks of acid deposition and other air-transported pollutants, carried out as part of an assessment for the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment. (author)

  18. Rethinking the health consequences of social class and social mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandan, Dragos

    2018-03-01

    The task of studying the impact of social class on physical and mental health involves, among other things, the use of a conceptual toolbox that defines what social class is, establishes how to measure it, and sets criteria that help distinguish it from closely related concepts. One field that has recently witnessed a wealth of theoretical and conceptual research on social class is psychology, but geographers' and sociologists' attitude of diffidence toward this "positivistic" discipline has prevented them from taking advantage of this body of scholarship. This paper aims to highlight some of the most important developments in the psychological study of social class and social mobility that speak to the long-standing concerns of health geographers and sociologists with how social position, perceptions, social comparisons, and class-based identities impact health and well-being. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preconceptional and maternal obesity: epidemiology and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Lucilla; Caleyachetty, Rishi; Cnattingius, Sven; Corvalán, Camila; Uauy, Ricardo; Herring, Sharron; Gillman, Matthew W

    2016-12-01

    Obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in prevelance worldwide. Obesity reduces fertility and increases time taken to conceive, and obesity-related comorbidities (such as type 2 diabetes and chronic hypertension) heighten the risk of adverse outcomes for mother and child if the woman becomes pregnant. Pregnant women who are obese are more likely to have early pregnancy loss, and have increased risk of congenital fetal malformations, delivery of large for gestational age infants, shoulder dystocia, spontaneous and medically indicated premature birth, and stillbirth. Late pregnancy complications include gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia, both of which are associated with long-term morbidities post partum. Women with obesity can also experience difficulties during labour and delivery, and are more at risk of post-partum haemorrhage. Long-term health risks are associated with weight retention after delivery, and inherent complications for the next pregnancy. The wellbeing of the next generation is also compromised. All these health issues could be avoided by prevention of obesity among women of reproductive age, which should be viewed as a global public health priority. For women who are already obese, renewed efforts should be made towards improved management during pregnancy, especially of blood glucose, and increased attention to post-partum weight management. Effective interventions, tailored to ethnicity and culture, are needed at each of these stages to improve the health of women and their children in the context of the global obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Asian migration to Australia: food and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2002-01-01

    Australia's food and health patterns are inextricably and increasingly linked with Asia. Indigenous Australians arrived in the continent via Asia and have linguistic connections with people who settled in south India; there was interaction and food trade between both South-East Asia and China and northern indigenous Australians over thousands of years. After European settlement in 1788, there have been several and increasing (apart from the period of the infamous White Australian Policy following the Colonial period and Independence, with Federation, in 1901) waves of Asian migration, notably during the gold rush (Chinese), the building of the overland Telegraph (Afghans), the Colombo Plan and Asian student education in Australia from the 1950s onwards (South-Eeast Asians), and with refugees (Vietnamese and mainland Chinese), and business (late twentieth century) and progressive family reunion. Each wave has injected additional food cultural elements and caused a measure of health change for migrants and host citizens. Of principal advantage to Australia has been the progressive diversification of the food supply and associated health protection. This has increased food security and sustainability. The process of Australian eating patterns becoming Asianized is evident through market garden development (and the introduction of new foods), fresh food markets and groceries, restaurants and the development of household cooking skills (often taught by student boarders). Most of the diversification has been with grain (rice), legumes (soy), greens, root vegetables, and various 'exotic fruits'. Food acculturation with migration is generally bi-directional. Thus, for Asians in Australia, there has been a decrease in energy expenditure (and a lower plane of energy throughput), an increase in food energy density (through increased fat and sugary drink intakes), and a decrease in certain health protective foods (lentils, soy, greens) and beverages (tea). This sets the stage

  1. Human Health Consequences of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Kruse, H.; Grave, K.

    2009-01-01

    industry in many regions of the world and the widespread, intensive, and often unregulated use of antimicrobial agents in this area of animal production, efforts are needed to prevent development and spread of antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture to reduce the risk to human health....... in aquaculture, several are classified by the World Health Organisation as critically important for use in humans. Occurrence of resistance to these antimicrobial agents in human pathogens severely limits the therapeutic options in human infections. Considering the rapid growth and importance of aquaculture...... gene transfer and reach human pathogens, or drug-resistant pathogens from the aquatic environment may reach humans directly. Horizontal gene transfer may occur in the aquaculture environment, in the food chain, or in the human intestinal tract. Among the antimicrobial agents commonly used...

  2. Firms' Response and Unintended Health Consequences of Industrial Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Hansman; Jonas Hjort; Gianmarco León

    2015-01-01

    Regulations that constrain firms' externalities in one dimension can distort incentives and worsen externalities in other dimensions. In Peru's industrial fishing sector, the world's largest, fishing boats catch anchovy that plants along the coast convert into fishmeal. Matching administrative daily data on plant production, ground-level air quality data, hospital admissions records, and survey data on individual health outcomes, we first show that fishmeal production worsens adult and child ...

  3. Firm's response and unintended health consequences of industrial regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Hansman; Jonas Hjort; Gianmarco León

    2015-01-01

    Regulations that constrain firms' externalities in one dimension can distort incentives and worsen externalities in other dimensions. In Peru's industrial fishing sector, the world's largest, fishing boats catch anchovy that plants along the coast convert into fishmeal. Matching administrative, daily data on plant production, ground-level air quality data, hospital admissions records, and survey data on individual health outcomes, we first show that fishmeal production negatively affects adul...

  4. Mental health consequences of abortion and refused abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watter, W W

    1980-02-01

    There is no scientific evidence to support the hypothesis put forth by Dr. Philip Ney in a recent article published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry that induced abortion is associated with an increase in child abuse. There are, however, numerous studies which support the contention that mandatory motherhood adversely affects the mental health of both the mother and the offspring. Studies conducted in Sweden, Scotland, and Czechoslovakia revealed that women who were refused abortions frequently experienced serious psychosocial difficulties for long periods of time following abortion refusal. Case controlled follow-up studies, conducted in Sweden and Czechoslovakia, of offspring born to women who were refused abortions demonstrated that a higher proportion of the unwanted children required psychiatric services, engaged in criminal behavior, and did less well in school than the controlled children. These studies have implications for the current Canadian law which permits a woman to obtain an abortion if pregnancy continuation will endanger her health. In view of the above statistical evidence, and the fact that mortality and morbidity are known to be lower for abortion than for childbirth, any person who denies a woman the right to have an abortion is increasing the risk that the health of the woman will be endangered. By law, therefore, all abortion requests should be honored.

  5. Repealing Federal Health Reform: Economic and Employment Consequences for States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Leighton; Steinmetz, Erika; Brantley, Erin; Bruen, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Issue: The incoming Trump administration and Republicans in Congress are seeking to repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA), likely beginning with the law’s insurance premium tax credits and expansion of Medicaid eligibility. Research shows that the loss of these two provisions would lead to a doubling of the number of uninsured, higher uncompensated care costs for providers, and higher taxes for low-income Americans. Goal: To determine the state-by-state effect of repeal on employment and economic activity. Methods: A multistate economic forecasting model (PI+ from Regional Economic Models, Inc.) was used to quantify for each state the effects of the federal spending cuts. Findings and Conclusions: Repeal results in a $140 billion loss in federal funding for health care in 2019, leading to the loss of 2.6 million jobs (mostly in the private sector) that year across all states. A third of lost jobs are in health care, with the majority in other industries. If replacement policies are not in place, there will be a cumulative $1.5 trillion loss in gross state products and a $2.6 trillion reduction in business output from 2019 to 2023. States and health care providers will be particularly hard hit by the funding cuts.

  6. The Health Consequences Of Child Labour In Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumesh Weerakoon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There are various cases and impacts of child labour and it has been a universal problem and remains as one of polemical challenge faced by the world. The problem of child labour not only causes to damage their physical and mental health but also their education right freedom development of childhood etc. Both developing countries and developed countries are faced to the phenomenon of child labour. 28 of Working children have faced injuries or fallen ill at least once in a year due to work in Sri Lanka. The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of child labours on their health. 200 primary data were collected in Peta Sri Lanka using simple random sampling method. Binary Logistic regression was employed to identify the health effects of child labour. According to the study child labors have faced some illnesses or injuries due to employment. Hours of working carrying of heavy loads operate heavy machines and equipment place of work and expose to things were highly correlated with physical harm of child labors. Carrying heavy load operate heavy machines and equipment and working place highly affected to physical harm of child labor. Many of them are employed on the street as street vendors construction sites factory and hotel and restaurant. Injuries and physical harms are highly related to the working place. Therefor the study recommends to empower the families provide the better formal education and vocational training to overcome this issue.

  7. Competition rules and health care players: principles and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciari, Diego; Callens, Stefaan

    2012-01-01

    Competition rules maximise consumer welfare by promoting efficient use of scarce resource and thus high output, low prices, high quality, varied services, innovation, production and distribution. European courts consider doctors and hospital staff as undertakings (any entity that performs economic activities), so that if they enter into agreements then they have to comply with competition rules. This paper's objective is to determine whether competition law, which applies to undertakings, can in fact be applied to different healthcare-sector players and whether specific rules are needed regarding competition between healthcare undertakings. Data were selected from relevant European and national case law, European institution legal documents (such as regulations, guidelines and communications) and healthcare competition law literature, and then examined. The paper finds that competition rules are applicable to healthcare players considering the consequences if competition rules are applied to the healthcare market. For market processes to result in the appropriate cost, quality and output, competition law must be proactive. In other words, quality must be fully factored into the competitive mix, allowing consumers to weigh healthcare price and non-price characteristics. Countries have different healthcare system and competition rules (although similar), competition rule impact is different for each country. Some healthcare systems are more regulated and there will be less opportunity for healthcare players to compete. Efficiently applying competition law to healthcare players means that several challenges need facing, such as healthcare quality complexity and court scepticism. This article points out the challenges when competition law is applied to the healthcare sector and how these challenges are faced in certain countries such as The Netherlands.

  8. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szostak-Wegierek D

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dorota Szostak-WegierekDepartment of Human Nutrition, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk. Keywords: maternal

  9. Neonatal Nurses Experience Unintended Consequences and Risks to Patient Safety With Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudding, Katherine M; Gephart, Sheila M; Carrington, Jane M

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we examine the unintended consequences of nurses' use of electronic health records. We define these as unforeseen events, change in workflow, or an unanticipated result of implementation and use of electronic health records. Unintended consequences experienced by nurses while using electronic health records have been well researched. However, few studies have focused on neonatal nurses, and it is unclear to what extent unintended consequences threaten patient safety. A new instrument called the Carrington-Gephart Unintended Consequences of Electronic Health Record Questionnaire has been validated, and secondary analysis using the tool explored the phenomena among neonatal nurses (N = 40). The purposes of this study were to describe unintended consequences of use of electronic health records for neonatal nurses and to explore relationships between the phenomena and characteristics of the nurse and the electronic health record. The most frequent unintended consequences of electronic health record use were due to interruptions, followed by a heavier workload due to the electronic health record, changes to the workflow, and altered communication patterns. Neonatal nurses used workarounds most often with motivation to better assist patients. Teamwork was moderately related to higher unintended consequences including patient safety risks (r = 0.427, P = .007), system design (r = 0.419, P = .009), and technology barriers (r = 0.431, P = .007). Communication about patients was reduced when patient safety risks were high (r = -0.437, P = .003). By determining the frequency with which neonatal nurses experience unintended consequences of electronic health record use, future research can be targeted to improve electronic health record design through customization, integration, and refinement to support patient safety and better outcomes.

  10. Preeclampsia: long-term consequences for vascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral LM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lorena M Amaral, Mark W Cunningham Jr, Denise C Cornelius, Babbette LaMarca Department of Pharmacology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA Abstract: Preeclampsia (PE is a pregnancy-specific syndrome and one of the leading causes of preterm birth, neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. This disease is characterized by new onset hypertension usually in the third trimester of pregnancy and is sometimes associated with proteinuria, although proteinuria is not a requirement for the diagnosis of PE. In developing countries, women have a higher risk of death due to PE than more affluent countries and one of the most frequent causes of death is high blood pressure and stroke. Although PE only affects approximately 2%–8% of pregnancies worldwide it is associated with severe complications such as eclampsia, hemorrhagic stroke, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP syndrome, renal failure and pulmonary edema. Importantly, there is no “cure” for the disease except for early delivery of the baby and placenta, leaving PE a health care risk for babies born from PE moms. In addition, PE is linked to the development of cardiovascular disease and stroke in women after reproductive age, leaving PE a risk factor for long-term health in women. This review will highlight factors implicated in the pathophysiology of PE that may contribute to long-term effects in women with preeclamptic pregnancies. Keywords: preeclampsia, endothelial dysfunction, AT1-AA, CD4+ T helper cells

  11. Migration, mental health and costs consequences in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miclutia, Ioana; Junjan, Veronica; Popescu, Codruta Alina; Tigan, Stefan

    2007-03-01

    Legal and illegal circulatory migration from Romania reached huge proportions after 2000, following the lifting of the visa requirements for EU Shengen countries. So far, the impact of migration on health has received scarce attention from Romanian authorities. To describe the socio-demographic and clinical profile of the migrants who have developed mental illness, estimate their services use in terms of hospitalization and to analyze the cost impact on the Romanian health system and on the migrants' co-payments, to discuss the possible relationships between migration and mental health. A semi-structured interview, designed by the authors, has been administered to 50 migrants admitted to the Second Psychiatric Clinic Cluj-Napoca, Romania, to investigate the following areas: immigration status, working conditions, income, housing, insurance and social bonds. The clinical symptomatology of these patients was assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The average cost of hospitalization per day per patient, the total costs of hospitalization and the migrants' co-payment through personal contribution to the insurance system were estimated. Most of the patients were young, single, with no previous experience abroad and with few social ties in the host country, with unqualified and insecure jobs. In this group, 45 out of 50 had schizophrenia spectrum disorders diagnoses. The hospitalization length of these patients was slightly shorter than the hospitalization of non-migrant patients with the same diagnosis. Individuals from rural areas had longer hospitalisation than those coming from urban areas. Those who left the country illegally and those who worked illegally had shorter hospitalisations. The average costs of hospitalization per day per patient were Euro 15.56; and the total costs were Euro 14,054.92. In order to cover the costs of hospitalization in the native country due to an illness with the onset abroad, a patient should work and contribute 4

  12. Health and economic consequences of septic induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konje, J C; Obisesan, K A; Ladipo, O A

    1992-03-01

    Over a period of 7 years, 230 cases of illegally induced abortions complicated by sepsis were treated at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. The number of terminations complicated by sepsis doubled from 25.4 (between 1981 and 1985) to 51.0 (between 1986 and 1987) cases per year. Peritonitis was the commonest associated complication while maternal mortality was 8.3%. The average cost of treatment was US$223.11, while the average monthly earnings was US$45.00. Legalization of abortion would have resulted in a saving of US$50,022.28. Provision of legal abortion would reduce the incidence of sepsis after termination while reproductive health education and information dissemination and provision of easily accessible family planning services would greatly reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies.

  13. The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul

    2012-07-14

    We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of social and health consequence framing on heavy drinking intentions among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, John H; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg

    2015-02-01

    Many interventions targeting college student drinking have focused on negative health effects of drinking heavily; however, some research suggests that social factors may have a stronger influence on the drinking behaviour of young people. Moreover, few studies have examined message framing effects in the context of alcohol consumption. This study investigated the effects of social and health consequence framing on college students' intentions to engage in heavy drinking. This study used a 2 × 2 experimental design with an appended control condition. One hundred and twenty-four college students (74 women; M(age) = 18.9) participated in this study for course credit. Participants read vignettes that were ostensibly written by a recent graduate from the university, who described an episode of drinking in which he or she experienced either social or health consequences. These consequences were framed as either a gain (i.e., positive consequences of not drinking heavily) or a loss (i.e., negative consequences of drinking heavily). After reading the vignette, participants completed a measure of heavy drinking intentions. Regression analyses revealed that social consequences were associated with lower heavy drinking intentions when framed as a loss and that health consequences were associated with lower heavy drinking intentions when framed as a gain. These effects were stronger among those who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of previous drinking. Results suggest that interventions that focus on the negative health effects of heavy drinking may be improved by instead emphasizing the negative social consequences of drinking heavily and the positive health consequences of avoiding this behaviour. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Previous studies have shown that gain frames are more effective than loss frames when highlighting the health consequences of health risk behaviours, such as heavy drinking. The heavy drinking behaviour of young

  15. Identification of Abuse and Health Consequences for Military and Civilian Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Jacquelyn

    1999-01-01

    ...% of the screened women reported lifetime emotional abuse. Analyses of the cases and controls are currently underway to explore the health consequences of partner abuse and preferences for partner abuse screening...

  16. Identification of Abuse and Health Consequences for Military and Civilian Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of intimate partner violence and health consequences in civilian and active duty military women in the same geographic area using telephone survey and a case...

  17. Responding to the public health consequences of the Ukraine crisis: an opportunity for global health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    Peace and stability in Eastern Europe is now at a crossroads with the rapidly deteriorating foreign policy crisis continuing to unfold in the Ukraine. However, largely overlooked in the context of other foreign policy and diplomatic priorities are the serious public health consequences for the region following the annexation of Crimea and the subsequent decision to ban opioid substitution therapy in the disputed territory. On 1 May 2014, the Republic of Crimea officially announced it would end access to opioid substitution therapy, an essential harm reduction tool recognized by international organizations and virtually all other European countries. The policy development marks a critical reversal in the region's fight against its growing HIV epidemic and also threatens years of public health gains aimed at providing evidence-based and integrated treatment approaches to combat drug dependence and HIV. Beyond these risks, the Ukrainian conflict could also negatively impact control of other infectious diseases that are converging with HIV and injection drug use, such as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and hepatitis C virus. The continuing conflict is also likely to have a significant negative impact on Ukraine's fragile public health system leading to even worse population health outcomes than currently experienced by the country. In response to this crisis, the application of global health diplomacy principles represents a possible route of advocacy to ensure that HIV prevention, humane treatment of substance using populations, and improving public health outcomes in the region are pursued among concerned international stakeholders. In order to be effective, global health diplomacy efforts must be coordinated and advocated in all forms of diplomatic engagement, including at the core, multistakeholder and informal levels and through existing channels such as the different human rights bodies of the United Nations as well as amongst other actors. Hence, the Ukraine

  18. Internet-based mental health services in Norway and Sweden: characteristics and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders Johan W; Svensson, Tommy

    2013-03-01

    Internet-based mental health services increase rapidly. However, national surveys are incomplete and the consequences for such services are poorly discussed. This study describes characteristics of 60 Internet-based mental health services in Norway and Sweden and discusses their social consequences. More than half of the services were offered by voluntary organisations and targeted towards young people. Professionals answered service users' questions in 60% of the services. Eight major themes were identified. These characteristics may indicate a shift in the delivery of mental health services in both countries, and imply changes in the understanding of mental health.

  19. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation

  20. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Susser, Ezra; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Hamilton, Ava; Bitfoi, Adina; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella C W M; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess, Viviane

    2014-10-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past-year injuries serious enough to seek medical attention were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and reported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defiant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR=1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2-1.9), teacher report (OR=1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.7), or parent and teacher report combined (OR=1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.1). Children who self-reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR=1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.4). Low-caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR=1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.9). Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent-child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externalizing problems may reduce the burden of injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring causes and consequences of sex workers' psychological health: Implications for health care policy. A study conducted in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picos, Andrés Palacios; González, Ruth Pinedo; de la Iglesia Gutiérrez, Myriam

    2018-03-22

    The aim of the researchers is to explore the causes and consequences of the psychological health of sex workers as well as provide an intervention model for the prevention of mental disorders in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO) levels. The study sample consisted of 146 sex workers from Spain. Loneliness and maltreatment have a negative influence on psychological health, while self-esteem has a protector role over psychological health. Psychological health has a positive impact on perceived quality of life and other health domains. On the contrary, psychological health has a negative impact on drug use and symptoms of anxiety. Data are discussed.

  2. Adolescent Gaming and Gambling in Relation to Negative Social Consequences and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the thesis were to study relationships between the effects of online gaming and gambling and negative social consequences and ill health among adolescents and to determine whether gaming and gambling activities occur together. The papers in this thesis used epidemiological methods to obtain self-report information from Swedish adolescents aged 13–18 years. Time spent in online gaming was associated with negative social consequences, and this relationship was explained by online ga...

  3. Characteristics of violence against children in the family and its consequences on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevković Ljiljana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability, dependence and helplessness which characterize life situation of a child, carry a risk of its victimization by different forms of violence. Violence against children, an appearance as old as human civilization, leaves multiple, deep and lasting consequences on physical and mental health, development and future life of victimized child. The aim of this paper is to point out basic characteristics of victim, violent parent and way of execution, with particular emphasis on health consequences, through brief overview of previous empirical knowledge about children victimization with domestic violence. In the introductory part of the paper a definition of violence against children and its forms is given. In the second part, on the basis of the analysis of research findings, its basic characteristics, with the emphasis on health consequences, are reviewed. In the final part of the paper author’s concluding considerations about this sensitive problem are given. .

  4. Causes, consequences, and policy responses to the migration of health workers: key findings from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Roberts, Margaret; Runnels, Vivien; Rajan, S Irudaya; Sood, Atul; Nair, Sreelekha; Thomas, Philomina; Packer, Corinne; MacKenzie, Adrian; Tomblin Murphy, Gail; Labonté, Ronald; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2017-04-05

    This study sought to better understand the drivers of skilled health professional migration, its consequences, and the various strategies countries have employed to mitigate its negative impacts. The study was conducted in four countries-Jamaica, India, the Philippines, and South Africa-that have historically been "sources" of health workers migrating to other countries. The aim of this paper is to present the findings from the Indian portion of the study. Data were collected using surveys of Indian generalist and specialist physicians, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, dieticians, and other allied health therapists. We also conducted structured interviews with key stakeholders representing government ministries, professional associations, regional health authorities, health care facilities, and educational institutions. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression models. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Shortages of health workers are evident in certain parts of India and in certain specialty areas, but the degree and nature of such shortages are difficult to determine due to the lack of evidence and health information. The relationship of such shortages to international migration is not clear. Policy responses to health worker migration are also similarly embedded in wider processes aimed at health workforce management, but overall, there is no clear policy agenda to manage health worker migration. Decision-makers in India present conflicting options about the need or desirability of curtailing migration. Consequences of health work migration on the Indian health care system are not easily discernable from other compounding factors. Research suggests that shortages of skilled health workers in India must be examined in relation to domestic policies on training, recruitment, and retention rather than viewed as a direct consequence of the international migration of health workers.

  5. Characteristics of racism and the health consequences experienced by black nursing faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ora V

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the health consequences of racism experienced by Black nursing professors. A cohort of nine Black nursing professors at various academic ranks responded to a series of questions on racism, coping and intervention strategies to reduce the harmful health consequences. Findings identified behavioral characteristics of racism, resiliency factors of coping, and suggested workshops to minimize the effects of racism within the nursing profession. Implications include workshops on critical self reflection and rules of engagement. A question raised for future research "how to create a racially/ethnic inclusive and psychosocial healthy academic work environment"?

  6. [Environmental medicine in public health service--a social responsibility and its consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriene, B

    2001-02-01

    The special committee for "Environmental Medicine" established by the Federal Association of Doctors in the German Public Health Service presents its paper entitled "Environmental Medicine in the Public Health Service--A Social Responsibility and its Consequences: Propositions with regard to the situation, aims, strategies, and opportunities for action". The paper includes core ideas and responsibilities in the public health service. It aims at providing a number of guidelines for implementing "Environment and Health" ("Umwelt und Gesundheit"), an action programme by the Federal Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Health, as well as "Health 21" ("Gesundheit 21"), the framework concept "Health for all" for the WHO's European Region. The paper also aims at initiating and facilitating steps for joint action by the Public Health Service. These theses were passed on to Mrs. Andrea Fischer, the Federal Minister of Health, during a meeting with the Board of the Association. In Germany, environment-related public health protection is well established in the Public Health Departments and state institutes/departments within the scope of public health provision and disease prevention. Typical responsibilities include environmental hygiene and environment-related medical services which have increased in importance. The range of responsibilities and its current political importance are a result of environment-related public health risks, the social situation of the population, also with regard to health issues, and the scope of responsibilities and competencies by doctors and staff in the public health departments. With the people's demands for health, quality of life and life expectancy, this need for action increases. In this paper, judicial, professional, and personal consequence are presented which arise as public health authorities assume these responsibilities.

  7. The effect of an extreme and prolonged population bottleneck on patterns of deleterious variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Casper-Emil Tingskov; Lohmueller, Kirk E.; Grarup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The genetic consequences of population bottlenecks on patterns of deleterious genetic variation in human populations are of tremendous interest. Based on exome sequencing of 18 Greenlandic Inuit we show that the Inuit have undergone a severe ∼20,000-year-long bottleneck. This has led to a markedly...... more extreme distribution of allele frequencies than seen for any other human population tested to date, making the Inuit the perfect population for investigating the effect of a bottleneck on patterns of deleterious variation. When comparing proxies for genetic load that assume an additive effect...... of deleterious alleles, the Inuit show, at most, a slight increase in load compared to European, East Asian, and African populations. Specifically, we observe

  8. Parasites and deleterious mutations: interactions influencing the evolutionary maintenance of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, A W; Jokela, J; Michalakis, Y

    2010-05-01

    The restrictive assumptions associated with purely genetic and purely ecological mechanisms suggest that neither of the two forces, in isolation, can offer a general explanation for the evolutionary maintenance of sex. Consequently, attention has turned to pluralistic models (i.e. models that apply both ecological and genetic mechanisms). Existing research has shown that combining mutation accumulation and parasitism allows restrictive assumptions about genetic and parasite parameter values to be relaxed while still predicting the maintenance of sex. However, several empirical studies have shown that deleterious mutations and parasitism can reduce fitness to a greater extent than would be expected if the two acted independently. We show how interactions between these genetic and ecological forces can completely reverse predictions about the evolution of reproductive modes. Moreover, we demonstrate that synergistic interactions between infection and deleterious mutations can render sex evolutionarily stable even when there is antagonistic epistasis among deleterious mutations, thereby widening the conditions for the evolutionary maintenance of sex.

  9. Antibiotic resistance--consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Björn; Greko, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics.

  10. Health and safety consequences of medical isotope processing at the Hanford Site 325 building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, D. L.

    1997-11-19

    Potential activities associated with medical isotope processing at the Hanford Site 325 Building laboratory and hot cell facilities are evaluated to assess the health and safety consequences if these activities are to be implemented as part of a combined tritium and medical isotope production mission for the Fast Flux Text Facility (FFTF). The types of activities included in this analysis are unloading irradiated isotope production assemblies at the 325 Building, recovery and dissolution of the target materials, separation of the product isotopes as required, and preparation of the isotopes for shipment to commercial distributors who supply isotopes to the medical conunuriity. Possible consequences to members of the public and to workers from both radiological and non-radiological hazards are considered in this evaluation. Section 2 of this docinnent describes the assumptions and methods used for the health and safety consequences analysis, section 3 presents the results of the analysis, and section 4 summarizes the results and conclusions from the analysis.

  11. Anticipating and addressing the unintended consequences of health IT and policy: a report from the AMIA 2009 Health Policy Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomrosen, Meryl; Starren, Justin; Lorenzi, Nancy M; Ash, Joan S; Patel, Vimla L; Shortliffe, Edward H

    2011-01-01

    Federal legislation (Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act) has provided funds to support an unprecedented increase in health information technology (HIT) adoption for healthcare provider organizations and professionals throughout the U.S. While recognizing the promise that widespread HIT adoption and meaningful use can bring to efforts to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare, the American Medical Informatics Association devoted its 2009 Annual Health Policy Meeting to consideration of unanticipated consequences that could result with the increased implementation of HIT. Conference participants focused on possible unintended and unanticipated, as well as undesirable, consequences of HIT implementation. They employed an input-output model to guide discussion on occurrence of these consequences in four domains: technical, human/cognitive, organizational, and fiscal/policy and regulation. The authors outline the conference's recommendations: (1) an enhanced research agenda to guide study into the causes, manifestations, and mitigation of unintended consequences resulting from HIT implementations; (2) creation of a framework to promote sharing of HIT implementation experiences and the development of best practices that minimize unintended consequences; and (3) recognition of the key role of the Federal Government in providing leadership and oversight in analyzing the effects of HIT-related implementations and policies.

  12. The risk ogf high-risk jobs : psychological health consequences in forensic physicians and ambulance workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, E. van der

    2003-01-01

    The risk of high-risk jobs: Psychological health consequences in forensic doctors and ambulance workers This thesis has shown that forensic physicians and ambulance personnel frequently suffer from psychological complaints as a result of dramatic events and sources of chronic work stress. A

  13. Risk factors for fatigue in shipping, the consequences for seafarers’ health and options for preventive intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Zhao, Zhiwei; Pekcan, Claire

    2017-01-01

    fatigue. A literature study was conducted aimed at collecting publications that address risk factors for fatigue, short-term and long-term consequences for health and safety, and options for fatigue mitigation at sea. Due to the limited number of publications that deal with seafarers, experiences from...

  14. Proceeding of the 2-nd International Conference 'Long-term Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Disaster'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Sushkevitch, G.N.

    1998-01-01

    On the second International conference 'Long-term health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster' in 1-6 June 1998 Kiev (Ukraine) the following problems were discussed: 1.Epidemiological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 2.Clinical and biological effects of ionizing radiation; 3.Social and psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster; 4.Rehabilitation of the Chernobyl disaster survivors

  15. The consequences of nuclear waste disposal facilities on public health and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivasi, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report, from the French parliament office for the evaluation of scientifical and technological choices, makes a status of the effluents and waste stocks from different types of nuclear facilities and analyzes the consequences of these effluents and wastes on the public health and on the environment. Finally, it examines the necessary scientifical, technical and legal improvements. (J.S.)

  16. The health-related, social, and economic consequences of parkinsonism: a controlled national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2011-01-01

    on income data derived from the Coherent Social Statistics. Patients with PD and AP had significantly higher rates of health-related contact and medication use and a higher socioeconomic cost. Furthermore, they had very low employment rates, and those in employment had a lower income level than employed...... sample. Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1997-2007), 13,400 PD and 647 AP patients were identified and compared with, respectively, 53,600 and 2,588 control cases randomly selected with respect to age, gender, civil status, and geographic location. Direct costs including....../$1,165), respectively. The employment- and health-related consequences could be identified up to 8 years before the first diagnosis and increased with disease advancement. PD and AP have major socioeconomic consequences for patients and society. The health effects are present for up to more than 8 years before...

  17. Effect of Television on Obesity and Excess of Weight and Consequences of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosiek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic nature of obesity in industrialized countries is a serious health and social concern. The number of obese people has significantly increased in the past 20 years. In Poland excess weight and obesity are a serious epidemiological concern. In terms of the number of overweight people, Poland is a leader in Europe. Therefore, indicating many serious health concerns that are the natural consequences of this phenomenon has become important from the point of view of public health. This work identifies numerous diseases which are a direct consequence of obesity due to bad eating habits and lack of physical exercise among Poles. It discusses the negative effect of television and food commercials contributing to an increase in obesity, not only among adults but also among children. This is an overview forming grounds for further studies into ways of preventing the development of diseases due to obesity, both in Poland and in the world.

  18. Demonstration uncertainty/sensitivity analysis using the health and economic consequence model CRAC2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, D.J.; Iman, R.L.; Johnson, J.D.; Helton, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes a demonstration uncertainty/sensitivity analysis performed on the reactor accident consequence model CRAC2. The study was performed with uncertainty/sensitivity analysis techniques compiled as part of the MELCOR program. The principal objectives of the study were: 1) to demonstrate the use of the uncertainty/sensitivity analysis techniques on a health and economic consequence model, 2) to test the computer models which implement the techniques, 3) to identify possible difficulties in performing such an analysis, and 4) to explore alternative means of analyzing, displaying, and describing the results. Demonstration of the applicability of the techniques was the motivation for performing this study; thus, the results should not be taken as a definitive uncertainty analysis of health and economic consequences. Nevertheless, significant insights on health and economic consequence analysis can be drawn from the results of this type of study. Latin hypercube sampling (LHS), a modified Monte Carlo technique, was used in this study. LHS generates a multivariate input structure in which all the variables of interest are varied simultaneously and desired correlations between variables are preserved. LHS has been shown to produce estimates of output distribution functions that are comparable with results of larger random samples

  19. A Survey of the Literature on Unintended Consequences Associated with Health Information Technology: 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J.; Novak, L. L.; Reynolds, T. L.; Gettinger, A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective To summarize recent research on unintended consequences associated with implementation and use of health information technology (health IT). Included in the review are original empirical investigations published in English between 2014 and 2015 that reported unintended effects introduced by adoption of digital interventions. Our analysis focuses on the trends of this steam of research, areas in which unintended consequences have continued to be reported, and common themes that emerge from the findings of these studies. Method Most of the papers reviewed were retrieved by searching three literature databases: MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL. Two rounds of searches were performed: the first round used more restrictive search terms specific to unintended consequences; the second round lifted the restrictions to include more generic health IT evaluation studies. Each paper was independently screened by at least two authors; differences were resolved through consensus development. Results The literature search identified 1,538 papers that were potentially relevant; 34 were deemed meeting our inclusion criteria after screening. Studies described in these 34 papers took place in a wide variety of care areas from emergency departments to ophthalmology clinics. Some papers reflected several previously unreported unintended consequences, such as staff attrition and patients’ withholding of information due to privacy and security concerns. A majority of these studies (71%) were quantitative investigations based on analysis of objectively recorded data. Several of them employed longitudinal or time series designs to distinguish between unintended consequences that had only transient impact, versus those that had persisting impact. Most of these unintended consequences resulted in adverse outcomes, even though instances of beneficial impact were also noted. While care areas covered were heterogeneous, over half of the studies were conducted at academic medical

  20. Health consequences of youth unemployment--review from a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, A

    1994-03-01

    Current research is classified into different theoretical approaches, mainly economic deprivation theories, stress-related theories, gender theories and different psychological and sociological theories. The correlations between unemployment and ill-health are explained as a result of both selection and exposure. The societal consequences of youth unemployment have been studied in aggregate studies. The familial consequences is a neglected area, but there is evidence of increased illness as well as battering of wives and children. Almost all research has been focused on the individual and mainly on the psychological consequences. Consistent relationships are found between unemployment and minor psychological disorders. Few studies have included somatic health but the results indicate increased physiological illness, especially among unemployed girls. Increased health care consumption has been documented. There are evidence that unemployment is a risk indicator for both increasing alcohol consumption, particularly in young men. Unemployment is also associated with increased tobacco consumption, increased use of illicit drugs as well as deteriorated health behaviour. The mortality rate is significantly higher among unemployed young men and women, especially in suicides and accidents. Social consequences include increased risk of alienation, lack of financial resources, criminality and future exclusion from the labour market. As mediating factors social support, high employment rate, negative attitudes towards work and high possibility of control have been documented to have a protective effect on health. Research should now be directed towards more qualitative methods, based on theoretical models, in order to search for deeper mechanisms, mediating factors and explanatory theories of the unevenly distributed health in society, in which unemployment has been proved to be one important factor.

  1. Consequences to health of the Chernobyl accident; Helbredsmaessige konsekvenser af reaktorulykken i Tjernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewerin, I. [Royal Dental College, Dept. of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 has been and still is the subject of great interest. Journalistic reports often contain exaggerations and undocumented statements and much uncertainty about the true consequences of the accident prevails in the population. This article reviews the current literature with the focus on reports from official commissions and documentation in the form of controlled studies. The fatal deterministic consequences comprise about 30 victims. The most important outcome is a marked increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in the most heavily contaminated area. Furthermore, pronounced psychosocial problems are dominant in the population of the contaminated area. Other significant and documented health consequences are not seen. (au)

  2. Statistical challenges in modelling the health consequences of social mobility: the need for diagonal reference models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Jeroen; Daenekindt, Stijn; de Koster, Willem

    2017-12-01

    Various studies on the health consequences of socio-economic position address social mobility. They aim to uncover whether health outcomes are affected by: (1) social mobility, besides, (2) social origin, and (3) social destination. Conventional methods do not, however, estimate these three effects separately, which may produce invalid conclusions. We highlight that diagonal reference models (DRMs) overcome this problem, which we illustrate by focusing on overweight/obesity (OWOB). Using conventional methods (logistic-regression analyses with dummy variables) and DRMs, we examine the effects of intergenerational educational mobility on OWOB (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 ) using survey data representative of the Dutch population aged 18-45 (1569 males, 1771 females). Conventional methods suggest that mobility effects on OWOB are present. Analyses with DRMs, however, indicate that no such effects exist. Conventional analyses of the health consequences of social mobility may produce invalid results. We, therefore, recommend the use of DRMs. DRMs also validly estimate the health consequences of other types of social mobility (e.g. intra- and intergenerational occupational and income mobility) and status inconsistency (e.g. in educational or occupational attainment between partners).

  3. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis on nuclear reactor accidents (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Tomoyuki [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Yonehara, Hidenori [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [eds.

    2000-12-01

    This report is a revision of JAERI-M 91-005, 'Health Effects Models for Off-Site Radiological Consequence Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Accidents'. This revision provides a review of two revisions of NUREG/CR-4214 reports by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which is the basis of the JAERI health effects models and other several recent reports that may impact the health effects models by international organizations. The major changes to the first version of the JAERI health effects models and the recommended parameters in this report are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report also provides suggestions about future revisions of computational aspects on health effects models. (author)

  4. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis on nuclear reactor accidents (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Toshimitsu

    2000-12-01

    This report is a revision of JAERI-M 91-005, 'Health Effects Models for Off-Site Radiological Consequence Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Accidents'. This revision provides a review of two revisions of NUREG/CR-4214 reports by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which is the basis of the JAERI health effects models and other several recent reports that may impact the health effects models by international organizations. The major changes to the first version of the JAERI health effects models and the recommended parameters in this report are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report also provides suggestions about future revisions of computational aspects on health effects models. (author)

  5. The ineffectiveness and unintended consequences of the public health war on obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Salas, Ximena

    2015-02-03

    The public health war on obesity has had little impact on obesity prevalence and has resulted in unintended consequences. Its ineffectiveness has been attributed to: 1) heavy focus on individual-based approaches and lack of scaled-up socio-environmental policies and programs, 2) modest effects of interventions in reducing and preventing obesity at the population level, and 3) inappropriate focus on weight rather than health. An unintended consequence of these policies and programs is excessive weight preoccupation among the population, which can lead to stigma, body dissatisfaction, dieting, disordered eating, and even death from effects of extreme dieting, anorexia, and obesity surgery complications, or from suicide that results from weight-based bullying. Future public health approaches should: a) avoid simplistic obesity messages that focus solely on individuals' responsibility for weight and health, b) focus on health outcomes rather than weight control, and c) address the complexity of obesity and target both individual-level and system-level determinants of health.

  6. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on early health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  7. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertain assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the expert panel on late health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  8. Direct and indirect economic and health consequences of COPD in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Hilberg, Ole; Tønnesen, Philip

    2014-01-01

    and higher socioeconomic costs. The employment and the income rates of employed patients with COPD were significantly lower compared with controls. The annual net costs, including social transfers were €8572 for patients with COPD. These consequences were present up to 11 years before first-time diagnosis...... national databases. PARTICIPANTS: 131 811 patients with COPD were identified and compared with 131 811 randomly selected controls matched for age, gender, educational level, residence and marital status. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Direct and indirect economic and health consequences of COPD...... in Denmark in the time period 1998-2010. RESULTS: Patients with COPD had a poor survival. The average (95% CI) 12-year survival rate was 0.364 (0.364 to 0.368) compared with 0.686 among controls (0.682 to 0.690). COPD was associated with significantly higher rates of health-related contacts, medication use...

  9. Consequences of activation policy targeting young adults with health-related problems in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultqvist, Sara; Nørup, Iben

    2017-01-01

    The Scandinavian countries have a long history of active labor market policy and over the years, activation has been used as a method to combat unemployment amongst those with no problems besides unemployment. However, activation policy is now permeating social policies providing economic...... protection for young adults who cannot work for health reasons . A strong emphasis on paid work as the main source to social participation has legitimized work-promoting activation that targets socially vulnerable groups such as young adults with comprehensive health problems. In this paper we discuss...... the consequences of this activation policy in Denmark and Sweden, and argue that the strong emphasis on work has counterproductive consequences when directed towards individuals whose problems are medical rather than related to their position on the labour market....

  10. Violent childhood experiences - Consequences on mental health and approaches to intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Hermenau, Katharin

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop in a healthy manner, a child requires a secure environment and a steady bond with a close caregiver (Johnson, Browne, & Hamilton-Giachritsis, 2006). However, experiences of violence may interfere with this process of healthy development. The present thesis examined the consequences of exposure to family, institutional and organized violence on the mental health of children in Sub-Saharan Africa, living either in institutional care or being associated with armed forces. Sub...

  11. Improving Evaluation to Address the Unintended Consequences of Health Information Technology:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammenwerth, E.; Hyppönen, H.; de Keizer, N.; Nykänen, P.; Rigby, M.; Scott, P.; Talmon, J.; Georgiou, A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives With growing use of IT by healthcare professionals and patients, the opportunity for any unintended effects of technology to disrupt care health processes and outcomes is intensified. The objectives of this position paper by the IMIA Working Group (WG) on Technology Assessment and Quality Development are to highlight how our ongoing initiatives to enhance evaluation are also addressing the unintended consequences of health IT. Methods Review of WG initiatives Results We argue that an evidence-based approach underpinned by rigorous evaluation is fundamental to the safe and effective use of IT, and for detecting and addressing its unintended consequences in a timely manner. We provide an overview of our ongoing initiatives to strengthen study design, execution and reporting by using evaluation frameworks and guidelines which can enable better characterization and monitoring of unintended consequences, including the Good Evaluation Practice Guideline in Health Informatics (GEP-HI) and the Statement on Reporting of Evaluation Studies in Health Informatics (STARE-HI). Indicators to benchmark the adoption and impact of IT can similarly be used to monitor unintended effects on healthcare structures, processes and outcome. We have also developed EvalDB, a web-based database of evaluation studies to promulgate evidence about unintended effects and are developing the content for courses to improve training in health IT evaluation. Conclusion Evaluation is an essential ingredient for the effective use of IT to improve healthcare quality and patient safety. WG resources and skills development initiatives can facilitate a proactive and evidence-based approach to detecting and addressing the unintended effects of health IT. PMID:27830232

  12. Timing of introduction of complementary food: short- and long-term health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyrembel, Hildegard

    2012-01-01

    Complementary food is needed when breast milk (or infant formula) alone is no longer sufficient for both nutritional and developmental reasons. The timing of its introduction, therefore, is an individual decision, although 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding can be recommended for most healthy term infants. The new foods are intended to 'complement' ongoing breastfeeding with those dietary items whose intake has become marginal or insufficient. Both breastfeeding and complementary feeding can have direct or later consequences on health. The evaluation of consequences of both early and late introduction of complementary food can neither disregard the effect of breastfeeding compared to formula feeding nor the composition or quality of the complementary food. Possible short-term health effects concern growth velocity and infections, and possible long-term effects may relate to atopic diseases, type 1 and 2 diabetes, obesity and neuromuscular development. On the basis of the currently available evidence, it is impossible to exactly determine the age when risks related to the start of complementary feeding are lowest or highest for most of these effects, with the possible exception of infections and early growth velocity. The present knowledge on undesirable health effects, however, is mainly based on observational studies, and although some mechanisms have been proposed, further prospective studies have to clarify these unsolved issues. Even less evidence on the consequences of the timing of complementary food introduction is available for formula-fed infants. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The Trump Administration's assault on health and social programs: potential consequences for older Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Berlinger, Nancy

    2018-04-10

    Health and social welfare policy proposals put forth by the Trump administration and Republican-controlled Congress could have huge impacts on low-income groups. This paper focuses on older Hispanics, with an emphasis on the Mexican-origin population who form the largest Hispanic subgroup. A demographic portrait is presented that indicates that Mexican-origin individuals have less wealth and lower incomes than do non-Hispanic Whites. Given rising health care costs, lower use of nursing homes, and greater propensity to live with grown children, prevailing economic disadvantage has serious consequences for this population. More restrictive immigration policies aimed at limiting family reunification could have intergenerational caregiving consequences. In addition, because of labor-force disadvantages, low-income Mexican-origin adults are less likely to have private insurance compared to non-Hispanic Whites as they approach retirement. Consequently, Mexican-origin older adults tend to rely on Medicaid when eligible; in contrast, late-life migrants-who do not qualify for federally funded benefits for at least five years-and unauthorized migrants-who are excluded from federally funded benefits-have extremely limited access to safety net provisions. The potential effects of proposed cutbacks in health care financing on older Hispanics are discussed.

  14. The cost of being a man: social and health consequences of Igbo masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odimegwu, Clifford; Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Adedini, Sunday

    2013-01-01

    In the bid to explain reproductive health outcomes in most developing countries, men have often been seen as the cause of the problem. However, no systematic attempt has been made to examine men's perception of their own social and health needs, including how ideologies of masculinity impact men's social and physical health. This study examines the Igbo context and shows how men understand and interpret masculinity and the consequences of this for social and health behaviours. Data from adolescent and adult Igbo men aged 15-75 were collected using both quantitative survey interviews (n = 1372) and qualitative techniques such as focus-group discussion (n = 20), in-depth interviews (n = 10) and key informant interviews (n = 10) in selected areas of south-eastern Nigeria. We collected data on gender role ideologies and sexuality issues and practices. Our analysis shows that there are social and health costs associated with adherence to masculine ideologies and a strong association between masculine ideologies and men's health, risk-taking and health-seeking behaviours in the study population. We conclude that all sexual and reproductive health programmes should include services that address the specific needs of men and those negative aspects of masculinity that tend to expose men to adverse health outcomes.

  15. Product differentiation among health maintenance organizations: causes and consequences of offering open-ended products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, D R; Christianson, J B

    1994-01-01

    Open-ended products that allow an HMO enrollee to use providers who are not affiliated with the HMO have become an important component of the Clinton administration's health reform proposal, because these products maintain consumer freedom of choice of any provider. However, little is known about the consequences of offering an open-ended product from an organizational standpoint. This paper uses a theory of "spatial competition" to examine the decisions of health maintenance organizations to offer an open-ended product and the effect of offering an open-ended product on their enrollment.

  16. Long-term socioeconomic consequences and health care costs of childhood and adolescent-onset epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Christensen, Jakob; Ibsen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    . Income was lower from employment, which in part was compensated by social security, sick pay, disability pension and unemployment benefit, sick pay (public-funded), disability pension, and other public transfers. Predicted health care costs 30 years after epilepsy onset were significantly higher among......Objective: To estimate long-term socioeconomic consequences and health care costs of epilepsy with onset in childhood and adolescence. Methods: A historical prospective cohort study of Danish individuals with epilepsy, age up to 20 years at time of diagnosis between January 1981 and December 2012....... Information about marital status, parenthood, educational level, employment status, income, use of the health care system, and cost of medicine was obtained from nationwide administrative and health registers. Results: We identified 12,756 and 28,319 people with diagnosed with epilepsy, ages 0–5 and 6...

  17. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Thi Minh An

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives: To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design: GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc. and knowledge on health risks. Results: General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS was good (90% and 83%, respectively. However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer appeared to be lower (51.5%. Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6 and SHS (OR 1.7 than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively. Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively. Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions: It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to

  18. Clustering of health-related behaviors and their determinants: Possible consequences for school health interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiefferink, C.H.; Peters, L.; Hoekstra, F.; Ten Dam, G.; Buijs, G.J.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Characterizing school health promotion is its category-by-category approach, in which each separate health-related behavior is addressed independently. Such an approach creates a risk that extra-curricular activities become overloaded, and that teaching staff are distracted by continuous

  19. An overview of systematic reviews on the public health consequences of social isolation and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh-Hunt, N; Bagguley, D; Bash, K; Turner, V; Turnbull, S; Valtorta, N; Caan, W

    2017-11-01

    Social isolation and loneliness have been associated with ill health and are common in the developed world. A clear understanding of their implications for morbidity and mortality is needed to gauge the extent of the associated public health challenge and the potential benefit of intervention. A systematic review of systematic reviews (systematic overview) was undertaken to determine the wider consequences of social isolation and loneliness, identify any differences between the two, determine differences from findings of non-systematic reviews and to clarify the direction of causality. Eight databases were searched from 1950 to 2016 for English language reviews covering social isolation and loneliness but not solely social support. Suitability for inclusion was determined by two or more reviewers, the methodological quality of included systematic reviews assessed using the a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews (AMSTAR) checklist and the quality of evidence within these reviews using the grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluations (GRADE) approach. Non-systematic reviews were sought for a comparison of findings but not included in the primary narrative synthesis. Forty systematic reviews of mainly observational studies were identified, largely from the developed world. Meta-analyses have identified a significant association between social isolation and loneliness with increased all-cause mortality and social isolation with cardiovascular disease. Narrative systematic reviews suggest associations with poorer mental health outcomes, with less strong evidence for behavioural and other physical health outcomes. No reviews were identified for wider socio-economic or developmental outcomes. This systematic overview highlights that there is consistent evidence linking social isolation and loneliness to worse cardiovascular and mental health outcomes. The role of social isolation and loneliness in other conditions and their socio

  20. The mental health consequences of nonmedical prescription drug use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Dean, David; Lipari, Rachel; Dowd, William N; Aldridge, Arnie P; Novak, Scott P

    2015-03-01

    Nonmedical prescription drug use is estimated to be the second most abused category of drugs after marijuana among adolescents. Prescription drugs can be highly addictive and prolonged use can produce neurological changes and physiological dependence and could result in adverse mental health outcomes. This topic is largely unexplored, as current knowledge of possible mechanisms of the linkage between adverse mental health consequences and prescription drug misuse is limited. This study explores the relationship between nonmedical use of prescription drugs and depression outcomes among adolescents. Given their complex and confounded relationship, our purpose is to better understand the extent to which nonmedical use of prescription drugs is an antecedent of depressive episodes. Using data from the 2008-2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the study employs a propensity score matching methodology to ascertain whether nonmedical use of prescription drugs is linked to major depressive episodes among adolescents. The results document a positive relationship between nonmedical prescription drug use and major depressive episodes among adolescents. Specifically, the results indicate that adolescents who used prescription drugs non-medically are 33% to 35% more likely to experience major depressive episodes compared to their non-abusing counterparts. This provides additional evidence about the potential public health consequences of misuse of prescription drugs on adverse mental health outcomes. Given the significant increased risk of major depressive episode among adolescents who use prescription drugs nonmedically, it seems that the prevention of nonmedical prescription drug use warrants the utilization of both educational and public health resources. An important area for future research is to understand how any policy initiatives in this area must strike a balance between the need to minimize the misuse of prescription drugs and the need to ensure access for

  1. The health system consequences of agency nursing and moonlighting in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia C. Rispel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide, there is an increased reliance on casual staff in the health sector. Recent policy attention in South Africa has focused on the interrelated challenges of agency nursing and moonlighting in the health sector. Objective: This paper examines the potential health system consequences of agency nursing and moonlighting among South African nurses. Methods: During 2010, a cluster random sample of 80 hospitals was selected in four South African provinces. On the survey day, all nurses providing clinical care completed a self-administered questionnaire after giving informed consent. The questionnaire obtained information on socio-demographics, involvement in agency nursing and moonlighting, and self-reported indicators of potential health system consequences of agency nursing and moonlighting. A weighted analysis was done using STATA® 13. Results: In the survey, 40.7% of nurses reported moonlighting or working for an agency in the preceding year. Of all participants, 51.5% reported feeling too tired to work, 11.5% paid less attention to nursing work on duty, and 10.9% took sick leave when not actually sick in the preceding year. Among the moonlighters, 11.9% had taken vacation leave to do agency work or moonlighting, and 9.8% reported conflicting schedules between their primary and secondary jobs. In the bivariate analysis, moonlighting nurses were significantly more likely than non-moonlighters to take sick leave when not sick (p=0.011 and to pay less attention to nursing work on duty (p=0.035. However, in a multiple logistic regression analysis, the differences between moonlighters and non-moonlighters did not remain statistically significant after adjusting for other socio-demographic variables. Conclusion: Although moonlighting did not emerge as a statistically significant predictor, the reported health system consequences are serious. A combination of strong nursing leadership, effective management, and consultation with and

  2. Using Social Media to Explore the Consequences of Domestic Violence on Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Xue, Jia; Zhao, Nan; Wang, Xuefei; Jiao, Dongdong; Zhu, Tingshao

    2018-02-01

    A great deal of research has focused on the negative consequences of domestic violence (DV) on mental health. However, current studies cannot provide direct and reliable evidence on the impacts of DV on mental health in a short term as it is not feasible to measure mental health shortly before and after an unpredictable event like DV. This study aims to explore the short-term outcomes of DV on individuals' mental health. We collected a sample of 232 victims (77% female) and 232 nonvictims (gender and location matched with 232 victims) on Sina Weibo. In both the victim and nonvictim groups, we measured their mental health status during the 4 weeks before the first DV incident and during the 4 weeks after the DV incident. We used our proposed Online Ecological Recognition (OER) system, which is based on several predictive models to identify individuals' mental health statuses. Mental health statuses were measured based on individuals' Weibo profiles and messages, which included "Depression," "Suicide Probability," and "Satisfaction With Life." The results showed that mental health in the victim group was impacted by DV while individuals in the nonvictim group were not. Furthermore, the victim group demonstrated an increase in depression symptoms, higher suicide risks, and decreased life satisfaction after their DV experience. In addition, the effect of DV on individuals' mental health could appear in the conditions of child abuse, intimate partner violence, and exposure to DV. These findings inform that DV significantly impacts individuals' mental health over the short term, as in 4 weeks. Our proposed new data collection and analyses approach, OER, has implications for employing "big data" from social networks to identify individuals' mental health.

  3. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: Unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyes, K.M.; Susser, E.S.; Pilowsky, D.J.; Hamilton, A.; Bitfoi, A.; Goelitz, D.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess, V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Methods. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in

  4. Social support and physical health: understanding the health consequences of relationships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uchino, Bert N

    2004-01-01

    .... It surveys and assesses the research that shows not only that supportive relationships protect us from a multitude of mental health problems but also that the absence of supportive relationships...

  5. The consequences of health service privatisation for equality and equity in health care in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M

    1988-01-01

    The trend towards the privatisation of health services in South Africa reflects a growing use of private sources of finance and the growing proportion of privately owned fee-for-service providers and facilities. Fee-for-service methods of reimbursement aggravate the geographical maldistribution of personnel and facilities, and the competition for scarce personnel resources aggravates the difference in the quality of the public and private services. Thus the growth in demand for these types of providers may be expected to increase inequality of access in these two respects. The potential expansion of medical scheme coverage is shown to be limited to well under 50% of the population, leaving the majority of the population without access to private sector health care. Even for members of the medical schemes, benefits are linked to income, thus clashing with the principle of equal care for equal need. The public funds needed to overcome financial obstacles to access to private providers could be more efficiently deployed by financing publicly owned and controlled health services directly. Taxation also offers the most equitable method of financing health services. Finally, attention is drawn to the dilemma resulting from the strengthening of the private health sector; while in the short term this can offer better care to more people on a racially non-discriminatory basis, in the long term, health care for the population as a whole may become more unequal and for those dependent on the public sector it may even deteriorate.

  6. Consequences of severe obstetric complications on women's health in Morocco: please, listen to me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assarag, Bouchra; Dujardin, Bruno; Essolbi, Amina; Cherkaoui, Imad; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    In Morocco, medical care for women with severe obstetric complications (near-miss cases) ends at discharge from the hospital. Little information exists regarding what happens after returning home. The aim of the study was to assess the physical and mental health consequences of near-miss events on Moroccan women 8 months after childbirth. A prospective cohort study of 76 near-miss women was conducted in three hospitals. For every case, we recruited at least two women from the same hospital who had uncomplicated deliveries (n = 169). We used a mixed-methods approach. For the quantitative part, we analysed sociodemographic characteristics collected via a questionnaire and medical complications extracted from the medical records during a medical consultation at 8 months post-partum. Forty in-depth interviews were also conducted with 20 near-miss cases and 20 women with uncomplicated deliveries. The near-miss women were poorer and less educated than those who had uncomplicated deliveries. The proportion of physical consequences (serious illness) was higher among near-miss cases (22%) than uncomplicated deliveries (6%, P = 0.001). The risk of depression was significantly higher among near-miss cases with perinatal death (OR = 7.16; [95% CI: 2.85-17.98]) than among those who had an uncomplicated delivery. Interviews revealed that the economic burden of near-miss care contributed to social problems among the women and their households. A near-miss event has consequences that go beyond the first days after delivery. Developing new mechanisms for maternal and newborn health follow-up is essential and should address the mother's physical and mental health problems and involve husbands and family members. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Comparing the implementation consequences of the immunisation and emergency department health targets in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbensel, Tim; Chalmers, Linda; Willing, Esther

    2016-09-19

    Purpose Over the last decade there has been considerable debate about the merits of targets as a policy instrument. The purpose of this paper is to examine the implementation of two health targets that were cornerstones of New Zealand health policy between 2009 and 2012: immunisation rates for two-year-olds, and time to treatment, discharge or admission in hospital emergency departments. Design/methodology/approach For each policy target, the authors selected four case-study districts and conducted two waves of key-informant interviews (113 in total) with clinical and management staff involved in target implementation. Findings Despite almost identical levels of target achievement, the research reveals quite different mixes of positive and negative implementation consequences. The authors argue that the differences in implementation consequences are due to the characteristics of the performance measure; and the dynamics of the intra-organisational and inter-organisational implementation context. Research limitations/implications The research is based on interviews with clinical and management staff involved in target implementation, and this approach does not address the issue of effort substitution. Practical implications While literature on health targets pays attention to the attributes of target measures, the paper suggests that policymakers considering the use of targets pay more attention to broader implementation contexts, including the possible impact of, and effects on related services, organisations and staff. Originality/value The research focuses specifically on implementation consequences, as distinct from target success and/or changes in clinical and health outcomes. The paper also adopts a comparative approach to the study of target implementation.

  8. Lessons from the domestic Ebola response: Improving health care system resilience to high consequence infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Diane; Kirk Sell, Tara; Schoch-Spana, Monica; Shearer, Matthew P; Chandler, Hannah; Thomas, Erin; Rose, Dale A; Carbone, Eric G; Toner, Eric

    2018-05-01

    The domestic response to the West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic from 2014-2016 provides a unique opportunity to distill lessons learned about health sector planning and operations from those individuals directly involved. This research project aimed to identify and integrate these lessons into an actionable checklist that can improve health sector resilience to future high-consequence infectious disease (HCID) events. Interviews (N = 73) were completed with individuals involved in the domestic EVD response in 4 cities (Atlanta, Dallas, New York, and Omaha), and included individuals who worked in academia, emergency management, government, health care, law, media, and public health during the response. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively. Two focus groups were then conducted to expand on themes identified in the interviews. Using these themes, an evidence-informed checklist was developed and vetted for completeness and feasibility by an expert advisory group. Salient themes identified included health care facility issues-specifically identifying assessment and treatment hospitals, isolation and treatment unit layout, waste management, community relations, patient identification, patient isolation, limitations on treatment, laboratories, and research considerations-and health care workforce issues-specifically psychosocial impact, unit staffing, staff training, and proper personal protective equipment. The experiences of those involved in the domestic Ebola response provide critical lessons that can help strengthen resilience of health care systems and improve future responses to HCID events. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The consequences of sickness presenteeism on health and wellbeing over time: A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skagen, K.; Collins, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: The association between sickness presenteeism, defined as going to work despite illness, and different health outcomes is increasingly being recognized as a significant and relevant area of research. However, the long term effects on future employee health are less well understood...... the consequences of workplace sickness presenteeism, had a baseline and at least one follow-up point, and included at least one specific measure of sickness presenteeism. Of the 453 papers identified, 12 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Findings: We adopted a thematic approach...... in terms of physical and mental health. This is because the longitudinal studies included in this review adopt a wide variety of approaches including the definition of sickness presenteeism, recall periods, measures used and different statistical approaches which is problematic if this research area...

  10. Adverse Health Consequences of Performance-Enhancing Drugs: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Harrison G.; Wood, Ruth I.; Rogol, Alan; Nyberg, Fred; Bowers, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, media attention has focused almost entirely on PED use by elite athletes to illicitly gain a competitive advantage in sports, and not on the health risks of PEDs. There is a widespread misperception that PED use is safe or that adverse effects are manageable. In reality, the vast majority of PED users are not athletes but rather nonathlete weightlifters, and the adverse health effects of PED use are greatly underappreciated. This scientific statement synthesizes available information on the medical consequences of PED use, identifies gaps in knowledge, and aims to focus the attention of the medical community and policymakers on PED use as an important public health problem. PED users frequently consume highly supraphysiologic doses of PEDs, combine them with other PEDs and/or other classical drugs of abuse, and display additional associated risk factors. PED use has been linked to an increased risk of death and a wide variety of cardiovascular, psychiatric, metabolic, endocrine, neurologic, infectious, hepatic, renal, and musculoskeletal disorders. Because randomized trials cannot ethically duplicate the large doses of PEDs and the many factors associated with PED use, we need observational studies to collect valid outcome data on the health risks associated with PEDs. In addition, we need studies regarding the prevalence of PED use, the mechanisms by which PEDs exert their adverse health effects, and the interactive effects of PEDs with sports injuries and other high-risk behaviors. We also need randomized trials to assess therapeutic interventions for treating the adverse effects of PEDs, such as the anabolic-androgen steroid withdrawal syndrome. Finally, we need to raise public awareness of the serious health consequences of PEDs. PMID:24423981

  11. Unintended adverse consequences of introducing electronic health records in residential aged care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Zhang, Yiting; Gong, Yang; Zhang, Jiajie

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the unintended adverse consequences of introducing electronic health records (EHR) in residential aged care homes (RACHs) and to examine the causes of these unintended adverse consequences. A qualitative interview study was conducted in nine RACHs belonging to three organisations in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, Australia. A longitudinal investigation after the implementation of the aged care EHR systems was conducted at two data points: January 2009 to December 2009 and December 2010 to February 2011. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 110 care staff members identified through convenience sampling, representing all levels of care staff who worked in these facilities. Data analysis was guided by DeLone and McLean Information Systems Success Model, in reference with the previous studies of unintended consequences for the introduction of computerised provider order entry systems in hospitals. Eight categories of unintended adverse consequences emerged from 266 data items mentioned by the interviewees. In descending order of the number and percentage of staff mentioning them, they are: inability/difficulty in data entry and information retrieval, end user resistance to using the system, increased complexity of information management, end user concerns about access, increased documentation burden, the reduction of communication, lack of space to place enough computers in the work place and increasing difficulties in delivering care services. The unintended consequences were caused by the initial conditions, the nature of the EHR system and the way the system was implemented and used by nursing staff members. Although the benefits of the EHR systems were obvious, as found by our previous study, introducing EHR systems in RACH can also cause adverse consequences of EHR avoidance, difficulty in access, increased complexity in information management, increased documentation

  12. [Health-related consequences of obstructive sleep apnea: daytime sleepiness, accident risk and legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, M; Kotterba, S

    2012-04-01

    Daytime sleepiness for any reason leads to impairment of daytime performance and an increased accident rate. The consequences are an increase of illness- and accident-related costs for the health system. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the major reasons for increased daytime sleepiness, especially in professional drivers. The accident frequency in OSA can be significantly reduced by adequate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Up till now there are no uniform legal regulations about the handling of OSAS patients or patients with daytime sleepiness due to other diseases as far as driving ability is concerned.

  13. Male Hypogonadism and Osteoporosis: The Effects, Clinical Consequences, and Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency in Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdek, Devon

    2017-01-01

    It is well recognized that bone loss accelerates in hypogonadal states, with female menopause being the classic example of sex hormones affecting the regulation of bone metabolism. Underrepresented is our knowledge of the clinical and metabolic consequences of overt male hypogonadism, as well as the more subtle age-related decline in testosterone on bone quality. While menopause and estrogen deficiency are well-known risk factors for osteoporosis in women, the effects of age-related testosterone decline in men on bone health are less well known. Much of our knowledge comes from observational studies and retrospective analysis on small groups of men with variable causes of primary or secondary hypogonadism and mild to overt testosterone deficiencies. This review aims to present the current knowledge of the consequences of adult male hypogonadism on bone metabolism. The direct and indirect effects of testosterone on bone cells will be explored as well as the important differences in male osteoporosis and assessment as compared to that in females. The clinical consequence of both primary and secondary hypogonadism, as well as testosterone decline in older males, on bone density and fracture risk in men will be summarized. Finally, the therapeutic options and their efficacy in male osteoporosis and hypogonadism will be discussed. PMID:28408926

  14. Male Hypogonadism and Osteoporosis: The Effects, Clinical Consequences, and Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency in Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Golds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that bone loss accelerates in hypogonadal states, with female menopause being the classic example of sex hormones affecting the regulation of bone metabolism. Underrepresented is our knowledge of the clinical and metabolic consequences of overt male hypogonadism, as well as the more subtle age-related decline in testosterone on bone quality. While menopause and estrogen deficiency are well-known risk factors for osteoporosis in women, the effects of age-related testosterone decline in men on bone health are less well known. Much of our knowledge comes from observational studies and retrospective analysis on small groups of men with variable causes of primary or secondary hypogonadism and mild to overt testosterone deficiencies. This review aims to present the current knowledge of the consequences of adult male hypogonadism on bone metabolism. The direct and indirect effects of testosterone on bone cells will be explored as well as the important differences in male osteoporosis and assessment as compared to that in females. The clinical consequence of both primary and secondary hypogonadism, as well as testosterone decline in older males, on bone density and fracture risk in men will be summarized. Finally, the therapeutic options and their efficacy in male osteoporosis and hypogonadism will be discussed.

  15. Multiple shocks, coping and welfare consequences: natural disasters and health shocks in the Indian Sundarbans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Sumit; Mazumdar, Papiya Guha; Kanjilal, Barun; Singh, Prashant Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Based on a household survey in Indian Sundarbans hit by tropical cyclone Aila in May 2009, this study tests for evidence and argues that health and climatic shocks are essentially linked forming a continuum and with exposure to a marginal one, coping mechanisms and welfare outcomes triggered in the response is significantly affected. The data for this study is based on a cross-sectional household survey carried out during June 2010. The survey was aimed to assess the impact of cyclone Aila on households and consequent coping mechanisms in three of the worst-affected blocks (a sub-district administrative unit), viz. Hingalganj, Gosaba and Patharpratima. The survey covered 809 individuals from 179 households, cross cutting age and gender. A separate module on health-seeking behaviour serves as the information source of health shocks defined as illness episodes (ambulatory or hospitalized) experienced by household members. Finding reveals that over half of the households (54%) consider that Aila has dealt a high, damaging impact on their household assets. Result further shows deterioration of health status in the period following the incidence of Aila. Finding suggests having suffered multiple shocks increases the number of adverse welfare outcomes by 55%. Whereas, suffering either from the climatic shock (33%) or the health shock (25%) alone increases such risks by a much lesser extent. The multiple-shock households face a significantly higher degree of difficulty to finance expenses arising out of health shocks, as opposed to their counterparts facing only the health shock. Further, these households are more likely to finance the expenses through informal loans and credit from acquaintances or moneylenders. This paper presented empirical evidence on how natural and health shocks mutually reinforce their resultant impact, making coping increasingly difficult and present significant risks of welfare loss, having short as well as long-run development manifestations.

  16. The consequences of sickness presenteeism on health and wellbeing over time: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Kristian; Collins, Alison M

    2016-07-01

    The association between sickness presenteeism, defined as going to work despite illness, and different health outcomes is increasingly being recognized as a significant and relevant area of research. However, the long term effects on future employee health are less well understood, and to date there has been no review of the empirical evidence. The aim of this systematic review was to present a summary of the sickness presenteeism evidence so far in relation to health and wellbeing over time. Eight databases were searched for longitudinal studies that investigated the consequences of workplace sickness presenteeism, had a baseline and at least one follow-up point, and included at least one specific measure of sickness presenteeism. Of the 453 papers identified, 12 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. We adopted a thematic approach to the analysis because of the heterogeneous nature of the sickness presenteeism research. The majority of studies found that sickness presenteeism at baseline is a risk factor for future sickness absence and decreased self-rated health. However, our findings highlight that a consensus has not yet been reached in terms of physical and mental health. This is because the longitudinal studies included in this review adopt a wide variety of approaches including the definition of sickness presenteeism, recall periods, measures used and different statistical approaches which is problematic if this research area is to advance. Future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. INTERRELATIONSHIP S BETWEEN HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT QUALITY AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: WHAT CONSEQUENCES FOR ECONOMIC CONVERGENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassane Drabo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the link between health indicators, environmental variables and economic development, and th e consequences of this relationship on economic convergence for a large sample of rich and poor countries. While in economic literature income and environment are seen to have an inverted-U shaped relationship (Environment Kuznets Curve hypothesis, it is also well established that an improvement in environmental quality is positively related to health. Our study focuses on the implications of this relationship for economic convergence. In the early stage of economic development, the gain from income growth could be cancelled or mitigated by environmental degradation through populations' health (and other channels and create a vicious circle in economic activity unlike in developed countries. This in turn could slow down economic convergence. To empirically assess these issues, we proceeded to an econometric analysis through three equations: a growth equation, a health equation and an environment equation. We found that health is a channel through which environment impacts economic growth. When we take into account the effect of environment quality on economic growth, the speed of convergence tends to increase slightly. This shows that environmental quality could be considered as a constraint for economic convergence.

  18. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  19. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan; Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta

    2014-01-01

    The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  20. Assessing Intimate Partner Abuse: Associated Factors and Health Consequences among Jordanian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Reema R; Daibes, Mayada A; Haidar, Waheda H; Al-Nawafleh, Ahmad H; Constantino, Rose E

    2018-04-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we assessed levels and types of psychological and physical intimate partner abuse (IPA), and the association of IPA with socio-demographic factors and health consequences. The Abusive Behavior Inventory was completed by 471 Jordanian women. IPA was higher among older women who were: of older age, of younger age at marriage, married to unemployed spouses, living in urban residence, and of lower educational level. IPA was associated with most of the health problems except dental injuries and burns. We recommend educational programs that raise women's awareness to their rights to education, free choices in marital age, and policies that mitigate IPA in Jordan and similar patriarchal societies.

  1. Evidence of Coal-Fly-Ash Toxic Chemical Geoengineering in the Troposphere: Consequences for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marvin Herndon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The widespread, intentional and increasingly frequent chemical emplacement in the troposphere has gone unidentified and unremarked in the scientific literature for years. The author presents evidence that toxic coal combustion fly ash is the most likely aerosolized particulate sprayed by tanker-jets for geoengineering, weather-modification and climate-modification purposes and describes some of the multifold consequences on public health. Two methods are employed: (1 Comparison of 8 elements analyzed in rainwater, leached from aerosolized particulates, with corresponding elements leached into water from coal fly ash in published laboratory experiments, and (2 Comparison of 14 elements analyzed in dust collected outdoors on a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA filter with corresponding elements analyzed in un-leached coal fly ash material. The results show: (1 the assemblage of elements in rainwater and in the corresponding experimental leachate are essentially identical. At a 99% confidence interval, they have identical means (T-test and identical variances (F-test; and (2 the assemblage of elements in the HEPA dust and in the corresponding average un-leached coal fly ash are likewise essentially identical. The consequences on public health are profound, including exposure to a variety of toxic heavy metals, radioactive elements, and neurologically-implicated chemically mobile aluminum released by body moisture in situ after inhalation or through transdermal induction.

  2. Evidence of Coal-Fly-Ash Toxic Chemical Geoengineering in the Troposphere: Consequences for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2015-08-11

    The widespread, intentional and increasingly frequent chemical emplacement in the troposphere has gone unidentified and unremarked in the scientific literature for years. The author presents evidence that toxic coal combustion fly ash is the most likely aerosolized particulate sprayed by tanker-jets for geoengineering, weather-modification and climate-modification purposes and describes some of the multifold consequences on public health. Two methods are employed: (1) Comparison of 8 elements analyzed in rainwater, leached from aerosolized particulates, with corresponding elements leached into water from coal fly ash in published laboratory experiments, and (2) Comparison of 14 elements analyzed in dust collected outdoors on a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter with corresponding elements analyzed in un-leached coal fly ash material. The results show: (1) the assemblage of elements in rainwater and in the corresponding experimental leachate are essentially identical. At a 99% confidence interval, they have identical means (T-test) and identical variances (F-test); and (2) the assemblage of elements in the HEPA dust and in the corresponding average un-leached coal fly ash are likewise essentially identical. The consequences on public health are profound, including exposure to a variety of toxic heavy metals, radioactive elements, and neurologically-implicated chemically mobile aluminum released by body moisture in situ after inhalation or through transdermal induction.

  3. Health consequences of road accidents: insights from local health authority registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoncello, C; Furlan, P; Baldovin, T; Marcolongo, A; Casale, P; Cocchio, S; Buja, A; Baldo, V

    2013-01-01

    Road accidents are a major public health problem that affect all age groups but their impact is most striking among the young. The aim of this study is to quantify the burden of road traffic injuries, their mortality and direct in-patient economic costs and to identify the age classes at highest risk for severe road traffic injuries, through analysis of data collected by information systems of an Italian Local Health Authority. The study was conducted in a Local Health Authority of Veneto Region. Injured people were selected from Emergency Department (2006-2010). Data were linked to the Hospital Information System for hospital admissions and to the Mortality Registry to check 30-day mortality. The direct costs associated to hospitalizations were estimated through Diagnosis Related Group reimbursement rates. Multivariate analysis was performed using hospitalization and mortality as the dependent variables and gender, age, day of week when accident occurred as the independent variables. Traffic injury, hospitalization and mortality incidence rates were calculated by gender and age per 100,000 residents per year. The road traffic injuries were 9,192, decreasing from 2,112 in 2006 to 1,980 in 2010. Among injured persons 55.3% were male (68.1% among 15-19 age class); 41.7% young people aged 15-34 years (43.9% among male, 39.0% among female). Total hospitalisation rate was 5.9%. Overall mortality rate was 0.3% (0.9% among aged 65 or older). The cost of hospital admission was euro 2,742,505 (hospitalization mean cost euro 5,097). Risk of hospitalization and death was higher in male, in elderly and during week end. Young people aged 15-19 had the highest incidence of visits (2,258.4 per 100,000) and high hospitalisation weekend and mortality rates (respectively 101.5 and 8.5). Analysis at local level, using current data sources, permits to estimate the burden of injuries caused by road-traffic, to describe the characteristics of injured persons and finally to estimate

  4. Inheritance of deleterious mutations at both BRCA1 and BRCA2 in an international sample of 32,295 women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Friebel, Tara M.; Mitra, Nandita; Wan, Fei; Chen, Stephanie; Andrulis, Irene L.; Apostolou, Paraskevi; Arnold, Norbert; Arun, Banu K.; Barrowdale, Daniel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Raanan; Berthet, Pascaline; Borg, Ake; Buys, Saundra S.; Caldes, Trinidad; Carter, Jonathan; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Couch, Fergus J.; Cybulski, Cezary; Daly, Mary B.; de la Hoya, Miguel; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Durda, Katarzyna; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D. Gareth; Foretova, Lenka; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Ganz, Patricia A.; Garber, Judy; Glendon, Gord; Godwin, Andrew K.; Greene, Mark H.; Gronwald, Jacek; Hahnen, Eric; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Ligtenberg, Jakobus; Oosterwijk, Jan; van der Hout, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers have inherited a single (heterozygous) mutation. Transheterozygotes (TH) who have inherited deleterious mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 are rare, and the consequences of transheterozygosity are poorly understood. Methods: From 32,295 female BRCA1/2

  5. Inheritance of deleterious mutations at both BRCA1 and BRCA2 in an international sample of 32,295 women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Rebbeck (Timothy); M.O.W. Friebel (Mark ); N. Mitra (Nandita); Wan, F. (Fei); Chen, S. (Stephanie); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); P. Apostolou (Paraskevi); N. Arnold (Norbert); B.K. Arun (Banu); D. Barrowdale (Daniel); J. Benítez (Javier); R. Berger (Raanan); P. Berthet (Pascaline); Å. Borg (Åke); Buys, S.S. (Saundra S.); T. Caldes (Trinidad); J. Carter (Jonathan); Chiquette, J. (Jocelyne); K.B.M. Claes (Kathleen B.M.); Couch, F.J. (Fergus J.); C. Cybulski (Cezary); M.B. Daly (Mary); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); O. Díez (Orland); S.M. Domchek (Susan); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); Durda, K. (Katarzyna); S.D. Ellis (Steve); Evans, D.G. (D.Gareth); L. Foretova (Lenka); E. Friedman (Eitan); D. Frost (Debra); P.A. Ganz (Patricia); J. Garber (Judy); G. Glendon (Gord); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); M.H. Greene (Mark); J. Gronwald (Jacek); E. Hahnen (Eric); Hallberg, E. (Emily); U. Hamann (Ute); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); C. Isaacs (Claudine); A. Jakubowska (Anna); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); Jaworska-Bieniek, K. (Katarzyna); E.M. John (Esther); B.Y. Karlan (Beth); B. Kaufman (Bella); A. Kwong (Ava); Y. Laitman (Yael); C. Lasset (Christine); C. Lazaro (Conxi); K.J. Lester (Kathryn); N. Loman (Niklas); J. Lubinski (Jan); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); G. Mitchell (Gillian); M. Montagna (Marco); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); D. Niederacher (Dieter); R. Nussbaum (Robert); K. Offit (Kenneth); E. Olah; O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); S.K. Park (Sue K.); Piedmonte, M. (Marion); P. Radice (Paolo); Rappaport-Fuerhauser, C. (Christine); M.A. Rookus (Matti); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); J. Simard (Jacques); C.F. Singer (Christian); Soucy, P. (Penny); M.C. Southey (Melissa); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); G. Sukiennicki (Grzegorz); C. Szabo (Csilla); Tancredi, M. (Mariella); P.J. Teixeira; S.-H. Teo (Soo-Hwang); M.B. Terry (Mary Beth); M. Thomassen (Mads); L. Tihomirova (Laima); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); A.E. Toland (Amanda); A. Toloczko-Grabarek (Aleksandra); N. Tung (Nadine); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); Villano, D. (Danylo); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); J. Zidan (Jamal); Zorn, K.K. (Kristin K.); L. McGuffog (Lesley); D.F. Easton (Douglas); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis C.); S.J. Ramus (Susan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Most BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers have inherited a single (heterozygous) mutation. Transheterozygotes (TH) who have inherited deleterious mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 are rare, and the consequences of transheterozygosity are poorly understood. Methods: From 32,295

  6. Inheritance of deleterious mutations at both BRCA1 and BRCA2 in an international sample of 32,295 women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebbeck, Timothy R; Friebel, Tara M; Mitra, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers have inherited a single (heterozygous) mutation. Transheterozygotes (TH) who have inherited deleterious mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 are rare, and the consequences of transheterozygosity are poorly understood. METHODS: From 32,295 female BRCA...

  7. Consequences and Possible Predictors of Health-damaging Behaviors and Mental Health Problems in Pregnancy - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, F; Petermann, F

    2016-11-01

    In recent decades, the understanding of the short and longer term effects of health-damaging behaviors and mental health problems in pregnant women and the underlying mechanisms of these behaviors and illnesses has significantly increased. In contrast, little is known about the factors affecting individual pregnant women which contribute to health-damaging behaviors and mental illness. The aim of this paper was therefore to summarize the current state of research into the consequences of nicotine and alcohol consumption, malnutrition, excessive weight gain or obesity, and impaired mental health (depression and anxiety) during pregnancy. In addition, the characteristics of pregnant women which increase their risk of developing such behaviors or mental disorders are described. A better knowledge of these risks should make it easier for clinicians to identify cases at risk early on and put measures of support in place. A review of the literature has shown that certain characteristics of pregnant women (e.g. her relationship with her partner, a previous history of mental illness prior to pregnancy) are associated with various health-damaging behaviors as well as with impaired mental health. Affected women often show an accumulated psychosocial stress which was already present prior to the pregnancy and which may persist even after the birth of the child.

  8. Changes in experiences with discrimination across pregnancy and postpartum: age differences and consequences for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Lewis, Tené T; Reid, Allecia E; Lewis, Jessica B; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to contribute to growing research and theory suggesting the importance of examining patterns of change over time and critical life periods to fully understand the effects of discrimination on health, with a focus on the period of pregnancy and postpartum and mental health outcomes. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine changes across pregnancy and postpartum in everyday discrimination and the resulting consequences for mental health among predominantly Black and Latina, socioeconomically disadvantaged young women who were receiving prenatal care in New York City. Patterns of change in experiences with discrimination varied according to age. Among the youngest participants, discrimination increased from the second to third trimesters and then decreased to lower than the baseline level by 1 year postpartum; among the oldest participants, discrimination decreased from the second trimester to 6 months postpartum and then returned to the baseline level by 1 year postpartum. Within-subjects changes in discrimination over time predicted changes in depressive and anxiety symptoms at subsequent points. Discrimination more strongly predicted anxiety symptoms among participants reporting food insecurity. Our results support a life course approach to understanding the impact of experiences with discrimination on health and when to intervene.

  9. High-intensity interval exercise and cerebrovascular health: curiosity, cause, and consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D; Brassard, Patrice; Bailey, Damian M

    2015-06-01

    Exercise is a uniquely effective and pluripotent medicine against several noncommunicable diseases of westernised lifestyles, including protection against neurodegenerative disorders. High-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is emerging as an effective alternative to current health-related exercise guidelines. Compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise training, HIT confers equivalent if not indeed superior metabolic, cardiac, and systemic vascular adaptation. Consequently, HIT is being promoted as a more time-efficient and practical approach to optimize health thereby reducing the burden of disease associated with physical inactivity. However, no studies to date have examined the impact of HIT on the cerebrovasculature and corresponding implications for cognitive function. This review critiques the implications of HIT for cerebrovascular function, with a focus on the mechanisms and translational impact for patient health and well-being. It also introduces similarly novel interventions currently under investigation as alternative means of accelerating exercise-induced cerebrovascular adaptation. We highlight a need for studies of the mechanisms and thereby also the optimal dose-response strategies to guide exercise prescription, and for studies to explore alternative approaches to optimize exercise outcomes in brain-related health and disease prevention. From a clinical perspective, interventions that selectively target the aging brain have the potential to prevent stroke and associated neurovascular diseases.

  10. Military youth and the deployment cycle: emotional health consequences and recommendations for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Wolff, Jennifer; Lemmon, Keith M; Bodzy, Mary; Swenson, Rebecca R; Spirito, Anthony

    2011-08-01

    The United States military force includes over 2.2 million volunteer service members. Three out of five service members who are deployed or are preparing for deployment have spouses and/or children. Stressors associated with the deployment cycle can lead to depression, anxiety, and behavior problems in children, as well as psychological distress in the military spouse. Further, the emotional and behavioral health of family members can affect the psychological functioning of the military service member during the deployment and reintegration periods. Despite widespread acknowledgment of the need for emotional and behavioral health services for youth from military families, many professionals in a position to serve them struggle with how to best respond and select appropriate interventions. The purpose of this paper is to provide an empirically based and theoretically informed review to guide service provision and the development of evidence based treatments for military youth in particular. This review includes an overview of stressors associated with the deployment cycle, emotional and behavioral health consequences of deployment on youth and their caretaking parent, and existing preventative and treatment services for youth from military families. It concludes with treatment recommendations for older children and adolescents experiencing emotional and behavioral health symptoms associated with the deployment cycle.

  11. [Consequences of the judicialization of health policies: the cost of medicines for mucopolysaccharidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D

    2012-03-01

    This study analyzes expenditures backed by court rulings to ensure the public provision of medicines for treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), a rare disease that requires high-cost drugs not covered by the Brazilian government's policy for pharmaceutical care and which have disputed clinical efficacy. The methodology included a review of files from 196 court rulings ordering the Brazilian Ministry of Health to provide the medicines, in addition to Ministry of Health administrative records. According to the analysis, the "judicialization" of the health system subjected the Brazilian government to a monopoly in the distribution of medicines and consequently the loss of its capacity to manage drug purchases. The study also indicates that the imposition of immediate, individualized purchases prevents obtaining economies of scale with planned procurement of larger amounts of the medication, besides causing logistic difficulties in controlling the amounts consumed and stored. In conclusion, litigation results from the lack of a clear policy in the health system for rare diseases in general, thereby leading to excessive expenditures for MPS treatment.

  12. Uncontrolled Draining of Rainwater and Health Consequences in Yaoundé – Cameroon Uncontrolled Draining of Rainwater and Health Consequences in Yaoundé – Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojuku Tiafack

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Like many sub Saharan African cities, Yaoundé is experiencing a faster growth of its population and urban perimeter. The urban population has grown from 812 000 inhabitants in 1987 to 2 100 000 inhabitants in 2006. However, this population growth has not been monitored by the city planners and decision makers. Accordingly, the city is lacking basic urban facilities. such as a good sewage system to evacuate urban waste water. Objective: This paper aims at addressing health consequences resulting from inadequate management of rainwater in Yaoundé. Material and methods: From the data gathered by us in the framework of the PERSAN programme focused on urban health, a cross sectional study has been carried out in 2002 and 2006 across the city. Based on socio-environmental and medical surveys, the study covered neighborhoods and 3 034 households in Yaoundé. Results: It comes out that that the present urban draining network is outdated and ineffective. This has led to increasing fl oods in several sectors of the city, with health hazards. It has been noted that many diarrheal diseases in Yaoundé are related to the poor sanitation resulting from urban waste coupled with standing waters. Conclusion: We are of the opinion that to solve this problem, there is urgent need to set up a new town-planning mechanism which takes into account the city’s demographic and space dynamics. Contexto: Como muchas ciudades africanas secundarias del Sahara, Yaoundé está experimentando un crecimiento rápido de su población y perímetro urbano. La población urbana ha crecido de 812 000 habitantes en 1987 a 2 100 000 habitantes en 2006. Sin embargo, este crecimiento de la población no ha sido supervisado por los planificadores de la ciudad y los que toman decisión. Por consiguiente, la ciudad está careciendo de instalaciones urbanas básicas tales como un buen sistema de las aguas residuales para evacuar las aguas negras urbanas. Objetivo: Este papel

  13. How does individual smoking behaviour among hospital staff influence their knowledge of the health consequences of smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willaing, Ingrid; Jørgensen, Torben; Iversen, Lars

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: This study examined associations between individual smoking habits among hospital staff and their knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and passive smoking. The a priori hypothesis was a higher level of knowledge among non-smokers compared with smokers. METHODS: A survey...... and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main outcome measures were knowledge of the health consequences of smoking, passive smoking and other lifestyle factors. RESULTS: A total of 445 of 487 employees (91%) from all professional groups returned the questionnaire. Compared with ex- and never...... smokers, smokers systematically underestimate the health consequences of smoking and passive smoking independent of profession, department, sex, and age. There is no consistent association between knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and profession and department. There are significant inverse...

  14. Transcriptomics, NF-κB Pathway, and Their Potential Spaceflight-Related Health Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; Krieger, Stephanie; Ramesh, Govindarajan T; Neelam, Srujana; Wu, Honglu

    2017-05-31

    In space, living organisms are exposed to multiple stress factors including microgravity and space radiation. For humans, these harmful environmental factors have been known to cause negative health impacts such as bone loss and immune dysfunction. Understanding the mechanisms by which spaceflight impacts human health at the molecular level is critical not only for accurately assessing the risks associated with spaceflight, but also for developing effective countermeasures. Over the years, a number of studies have been conducted under real or simulated space conditions. RNA and protein levels in cellular and animal models have been targeted in order to identify pathways affected by spaceflight. Of the many pathways responsive to the space environment, the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) network appears to commonly be affected across many different cell types under the true or simulated spaceflight conditions. NF-κB is of particular interest, as it is associated with many of the spaceflight-related health consequences. This review intends to summarize the transcriptomics studies that identified NF-κB as a responsive pathway to ground-based simulated microgravity or the true spaceflight condition. These studies were carried out using either human cell or animal models. In addition, the review summarizes the studies that focused specifically on NF-κB pathway in specific cell types or organ tissues as related to the known spaceflight-related health risks including immune dysfunction, bone loss, muscle atrophy, central nerve system (CNS) dysfunction, and risks associated with space radiation. Whether the NF-κB pathway is activated or inhibited in space is dependent on the cell type, but the potential health impact appeared to be always negative. It is argued that more studies on NF-κB should be conducted to fully understand this particular pathway for the benefit of crew health in space.

  15. Transcriptomics, NF-κB Pathway, and Their Potential Spaceflight-Related Health Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In space, living organisms are exposed to multiple stress factors including microgravity and space radiation. For humans, these harmful environmental factors have been known to cause negative health impacts such as bone loss and immune dysfunction. Understanding the mechanisms by which spaceflight impacts human health at the molecular level is critical not only for accurately assessing the risks associated with spaceflight, but also for developing effective countermeasures. Over the years, a number of studies have been conducted under real or simulated space conditions. RNA and protein levels in cellular and animal models have been targeted in order to identify pathways affected by spaceflight. Of the many pathways responsive to the space environment, the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB network appears to commonly be affected across many different cell types under the true or simulated spaceflight conditions. NF-κB is of particular interest, as it is associated with many of the spaceflight-related health consequences. This review intends to summarize the transcriptomics studies that identified NF-κB as a responsive pathway to ground-based simulated microgravity or the true spaceflight condition. These studies were carried out using either human cell or animal models. In addition, the review summarizes the studies that focused specifically on NF-κB pathway in specific cell types or organ tissues as related to the known spaceflight-related health risks including immune dysfunction, bone loss, muscle atrophy, central nerve system (CNS dysfunction, and risks associated with space radiation. Whether the NF-κB pathway is activated or inhibited in space is dependent on the cell type, but the potential health impact appeared to be always negative. It is argued that more studies on NF-κB should be conducted to fully understand this particular pathway for the benefit of crew health in space.

  16. The effects of collateral consequences of criminal involvement on employment, use of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, and health

    OpenAIRE

    Sheely, Amanda; Kneipp, Shawn M.

    2015-01-01

    Criminal convictions are often associated with collateral consequences that limit access to the forms of employment and social services on which disadvantaged women most frequently rely – regardless of the severity of the offense. These consequences may play an important role in perpetuating health disparities by socioeconomic status and gender. We examined the extent to which research studies to date have assessed whether a criminal conviction might influence women’s health by limiting acces...

  17. [Health economic consequences of the choice of follicle stimulating hormone alternatives in IVF treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Peter Bo; Højgaard, Astrid; Quartarolo, Jens Piero

    2007-04-02

    There is a choice between two types of hormones for stimulation of the follicles in IVF treatment - recombinant FSH and the urine-derived menotrophin. A literature review by NICE (2004) in the United Kingdom documented that the two types of hormones were equally effective and safe, which is why it was recommended to use the cheaper urine-derived hormone. Based on the EISG study (European and Israeli Study Group), the aim was to analyse the health economic consequences of the choice between the two types of hormone in IVF treatment in Denmark. In a prospective cost-effectiveness analysis (health care sector perspective), menotrophin and recombinant FSH (Gonal-F) were compared. Differences in costs were compared with differences in effects of the two alternatives. The total costs for the average patient are lower when using menotrophin compared with recombinant FSH. Furthermore, the cost per clinical pregnancy was lower with menotrophin compared with recombinant FSH hormone. Menotrophin is therefore less expensive both for the patient as well as for the health care sector. The use of menotrophin instead of recombinant FSH can result in savings of up to DKK 16 million on the drug budget--savings that could finance 1,400 additional IVF cycles. The analysis shows that urine-derived menotrophin is a cost-effective alternative to recombinant FSH with a potential for considerable savings for patients as well as the public drug budget.

  18. Health consequences of shift-work: the case of iranian hospital security personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Roghayeh; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Faghih, Mohammad Amin; Mohammadi, Heidar; Kamalinia, Mojtaba; Mohraz, Majid Habibi; Arassi, Maziyar; Veyseh, Peyman Piran; Aghaei, Hamed; Hosseini, Seyed Younes

    2015-01-01

    Shift-work, which is an ergonomics issue in workplaces, can negatively affect workers. The security personnel of medical centers in Iran have multiple responsibilities and consequently are exposed to such unwanted situations as observing patients, disputing with patient's attendants, unwanted shift schedules, and being away from family for long periods. This study assessed health problems of Iranian hospital security personnel (shift-worker personnel) using the Survey of Shift-workers (SOS) questionnaire (Persian version). This cross-sectional study was conducted in seven medical centers (4 hospitals and 3 clinics). A total of 416 workers were surveyed: shift-workers (exposed group) (n=209) and non-shift-workers (unexposed group) (n=207). The prevalence of adverse health effects was higher in shift-workers than day-workers. The level of education and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) in shift-workers were significantly higher compared with day-workers. The prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders, cardiovascular and psychological problems were also significantly higher in shift-workers compared with day-workers. Overall, the prevalence of health problems among the security personnel of medical centers was high. Hence, it is recommended that personnel be put under periodic monitoring and receive medical counseling and treatment if there is any disorder.

  19. Karoshi--death from overwork: occupational health consequences of Japanese production management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, K; Johnson, J V

    1997-01-01

    There is considerable international interest in Japanese production management (JPM), known in the West as "lean production." Advocates of this new form of management argue that it improves both economic productivity and health. In Japan, however, the relationship between JPM and sudden death due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease has been an important topic of debate since the 1970s. Japanese have named these types of deaths karoshi, which means "death from overwork." In North America and Western Europe a number of studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between high job strain (high production demands and low levels of control and social support) and cardiovascular disease. This article reviews the elements of JPM and examines their potential health consequences. The authors present an overview of karoshi, discuss its possible connections to specific ideological and organizational characteristics of JPM, and suggest the job strain mechanism as a possible pathway between karoshi and JPM. They conclude by discussing the need for comparative research that examines the health effects of work organization and management methods cross-culturally.

  20. Out-of-pocket cost of drug abuse consequences: results from Iranian National Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Hefazi, Mitra; Radgoodarzi, Reza; Motevalian, Abbas; Sharifi, Vandad; Hajebi, Ahmad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin

    2017-05-01

    Drug abuse has significant cost to the individual, the family and the society. This study aimed to assess out of-pocket costs of consequences of drug use disorder. Data were drawn from the Iranian Mental Health Survey (IranMHS) through face-to-face interviews with 7841 respondents aged 15-64 years. We used a bottom-up cost-ofillness method for economic analysis. Out-of-pocket costs for treatment of mental and drug problems, treatment of medical illnesses, as well as costs of crimes were assessed. The average of total annual expense was US$ 2120.6 for those with drug use disorder, which was 23.5% of annual income of an average Iranian family in the year 2011. The average of total out-of-pocket cost was US$ 674.6 for those with other mental disorder and US$ 421.9 for those with no mental disorder. Catastrophic payment was reported in 47.6% of the patients with drug use disorder and 14.4% of those with other mental disorder. Thus, considerable amount of family resources are spent on the consequences of drug use.

  1. The impact of maternal obesity on inflammatory processes and consequences for later offspring health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, S A; Vickers, M H; Reynolds, C M

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic, affecting both developed and developing countries. The related metabolic consequences that arise from being overweight or obese are a paramount global health concern, and represent a significant burden on healthcare systems. Furthermore, being overweight or obese during pregnancy increases the risk of offspring developing obesity and other related metabolic complications in later life, which can therefore perpetuate a transgenerational cycle of obesity. Obesity is associated with a chronic state of low-grade metabolic inflammation. However, the role of maternal obesity-mediated alterations in inflammatory processes as a mechanism underpinning developmental programming in offspring is less understood. Further, the use of anti-inflammatory agents as an intervention strategy to ameliorate or reverse the impact of adverse developmental programming in the setting of maternal obesity has not been well studied. This review will discuss the impact of maternal obesity on key inflammatory pathways, impact on pregnancy and offspring outcomes, potential mechanisms and avenues for intervention.

  2. Introductory remarks by the Chairman. [Session 1: Environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    Many scientists as well as representatives from UN organizations and governments of affected regions participated in the work of the Chernobyl Forum. Several meetings of the Forum were necessary to initiate the work and monitor the progress of the expert groups. Two expert groups formulated comprehensive reports - one on environmental issues, organized by the IAEA, and one on health issues, organized by the WHO. Experts from throughout the world were invited to contribute to these evaluations. The representatives of governments and the staff of international organizations then reviewed the results of these groups to be sure that the reviews were complete and the evaluations reasonable, so that they could serve as the basis for consensus agreements and effective recommendations for further dealing with the consequences of the accident

  3. Consequences of captivity: health effects of far East imprisonment in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, D; Welch, E; Beeching, N J; Gill, G V

    2009-02-01

    Though medical consequences of war attract attention, the health consequences of the prisoner-of-war (POW) experience are poorly researched and appreciated. The imprisonment of Allied military personnel by the Japanese during the World War II provides an especially dramatic POW scenario in terms of deprivation, malnutrition and exposure to tropical diseases. Though predominantly British, these POWs also included troops from Australia, Holland and North America. Imprisonment took place in various locations in Southeast Asia and the Far East for a 3.5-year period between 1942 and 1945. Nutritional deficiency syndromes, dysentery, malaria, tropical ulcers and cholera were major health problems; and supplies of drugs and medical equipment were scarce. There have been limited mortality studies on ex-Far East prisoners (FEPOWs) since repatriation, but these suggest an early (up to 10 years post-release) excess mortality due to tuberculosis, suicides and cirrhosis (probably related to hepatitis B exposure during imprisonment). In terms of morbidity, the commonest has been a psychiatric syndrome which would now be recognized as post-traumatic stress disorder--present in at least one-third of FEPOWs and frequently presenting decades later. Peptic ulceration, osteoarthritis and hearing impairment also appear to occur more frequently. In addition, certain tropical diseases have persisted in these survivors--notably infections with the nematode worm Strongyloides stercoralis. Studies 30 years or more after release have shown overall infection rates of 15%. Chronic strongyloidiasis of this type frequently causes a linear urticarial 'larva currens' rash, but can potentially lead to fatal hyperinfection if immunity is suppressed. Finally, about 5% of FEPOW survivors have chronic nutritional neuropathic syndromes--usually optic atrophy or sensory peripheral neuropathy (often painful). The World War II FEPOW experience was a unique, though often tragic, accidental experiment into

  4. Demonstration uncertainty/sensitivity analysis using the health and economic consequence model CRAC2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, D.J.; Iman, R.L.; Johnson, J.D.; Helton, J.C.

    1984-12-01

    The techniques for performing uncertainty/sensitivity analyses compiled as part of the MELCOR program appear to be well suited for use with a health and economic consequence model. Two replicate samples of size 50 gave essentially identical results, indicating that for this case, a Latin hypercube sample of size 50 seems adequate to represent the distribution of results. Though the intent of this study was a demonstration of uncertainty/sensitivity analysis techniques, a number of insights relevant to health and economic consequence modeling can be gleaned: uncertainties in early deaths are significantly greater than uncertainties in latent cancer deaths; though the magnitude of the source term is the largest source of variation in estimated distributions of early deaths, a number of additional parameters are also important; even with the release fractions for a full SST1, one quarter of the CRAC2 runs gave no early deaths; and comparison of the estimates of mean early deaths for a full SST1 release in this study with those of recent point estimates for similar conditions indicates that the recent estimates may be significant overestimations of early deaths. Estimates of latent cancer deaths, however, are roughly comparable. An analysis of the type described here can provide insights in a number of areas. First, the variability in the results gives an indication of the potential uncertainty associated with the calculations. Second, the sensitivity of the results to assumptions about the input variables can be determined. Research efforts can then be concentrated on reducing the uncertainty in the variables which are the largest contributors to uncertainty in results

  5. Malaria overdiagnosis and subsequent overconsumption of antimalarial drugs in Angola: Consequences and effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manguin, Sylvie; Foumane, Vincent; Besnard, Patrick; Fortes, Filomeno; Carnevale, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    Microscopic blood smear examinations done in health centers of Angola demonstrated a large overdiagnosis of malaria cases with an average rate of errors as high as 85%. Overall 83% of patients who received Coartem ® had an inappropriate treatment. Overestimated malaria diagnosis was noticed even when specific symptoms were part of the clinical observation, antimalarial treatments being subsequently given. Then, malaria overdiagnosis has three main consequences, (i) the lack of data reliability is of great concern, impeding epidemiological records and evaluation of the actual influence of operations as scheduled by the National Malaria Control Programme; (ii) the large misuse of antimalarial drug can increase the selective pressure for resistant strain and can make a false consideration of drug resistant P. falciparum crisis; and (iii) the need of strengthening national health centers in term of human, with training in microscopy, and equipment resources to improve malaria diagnosis with a large scale use of rapid diagnostic tests associated with thick blood smears, backed up by a "quality control" developed by the national health authorities. Monitoring of malaria cases was done in three Angolan health centers of Alto Liro (Lobito town) and neighbor villages of Cambambi and Asseque (Benguéla Province) to evaluate the real burden of malaria. Carriers of Plasmodium among patients of newly-borne to 14 years old, with or without fever, were analyzed and compared to presumptive malaria cases diagnosed in these health centers. Presumptive malaria cases were diagnosed six times more than the positive thick blood smears done on the same children. In Alto Liro health center, the percentage of diagnosis error reached 98%, while in Cambambi and Asseque it was of 79% and 78% respectively. The percentage of confirmed malaria cases was significantly higher during the dry (20.2%) than the rainy (13.2%) season. These observations in three peripheral health centers confirmed what

  6. Changing patterns of adolescent sexual behavior: consequences for health and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H L

    1992-07-01

    Sexuality is a fundamental quality of human life, important for health, happiness, individual development, and indeed for the preservation of the human race. During the dynamic period of adolescence in which the passage from childhood to maturity takes place, sexuality takes on new dimensions; feelings become more intense, relationships become more complex, and the consequences of sexual behavior are radically altered. This not only affects the behavior of young people but also of those who interact with them, their families and peers, and those who work in the health, education, youth, social welfare, and other sectors. In the contemporary world the conditions of life for many young people have also changed, and with it patterns of sexual behavior. In general, earlier puberty, later marriage, a decline in the family leading to less control and more autonomy, and intense exposure to sexual stimuli via the mass media and travel across cultural boundaries have made pre-marital adolescent sexual activity more common. This has added to traditional problems of early marriage, newer problems of early pregnancy, childbirth, and induced abortion outside of marriage, sexually transmitted diseases, and human immunodeficiency syndrome infection leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. But the work of the World Health Organization (WHO), along with many others in the field, strongly suggests that given appropriate information and services, trust and equity between the sexes, young people will behave responsibly and well. In this paper some of the findings from methods developed by WHO for research, training, advocacy, and evaluation, and findings in relation to patterns and determinants of sexual and reproductive health and development will be described, and future directions suggested.

  7. Mediation of adoption and use: a key strategy for mitigating unintended consequences of health IT implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Laurie L; Anders, Shilo; Gadd, Cynthia S; Lorenzi, Nancy M

    2012-01-01

    Without careful attention to the work of users, implementation of health IT can produce new risks and inefficiencies in care. This paper uses the technology use mediation framework to examine the work of a group of nurses who serve as mediators of the adoption and use of a barcode medication administration (BCMA) system in an inpatient setting. The study uses ethnographic methods to explore the mediators' work. Data included field notes from observations, documents, and email communications. This variety of sources enabled triangulation of findings between activities observed, discussed in meetings, and reported in emails. Mediation work integrated the BCMA tool with nursing practice, anticipating and solving implementation problems. Three themes of mediation work include: resolving challenges related to coordination, integrating the physical aspects of BCMA into everyday practice, and advocacy work. Previous work suggests the following factors impact mediation effectiveness: proximity to the context of use, understanding of users' practices and norms, credibility with users, and knowledge of the technology and users' technical abilities. We describe three additional factors observed in this case: 'influence on system developers,' 'influence on institutional authorities,' and 'understanding the network of organizational relationships that shape the users' work.' Institutionally supported clinicians who facilitate adoption and use of health IT systems can improve the safety and effectiveness of implementation through the management of unintended consequences. Additional research on technology use mediation can advance the science of implementation by providing decision-makers with theoretically durable, empirically grounded evidence for designing implementations.

  8. Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzunov, V.; Omelyanetz, N.; Strapko, N.; Ledoschuck, B.; Krasnikova, L.; Kartushin, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

  9. Long-term socioeconomic consequences and health care costs of childhood and adolescent-onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennum, Poul; Christensen, Jakob; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2016-07-01

    To estimate long-term socioeconomic consequences and health care costs of epilepsy with onset in childhood and adolescence. A historical prospective cohort study of Danish individuals with epilepsy, age up to 20 years at time of diagnosis between January 1981 and December 2012. Information about marital status, parenthood, educational level, employment status, income, use of the health care system, and cost of medicine was obtained from nationwide administrative and health registers. We identified 12,756 and 28,319 people with diagnosed with epilepsy, ages 0-5 and 6-20 years at onset, respectively. Using follow-up data for a maximum of 30 years, 1,394 of those ages 0-5 years at onset were compared with 2,897 controls persons without epilepsy, and 10,195 of those ages 6-20 years at onset were compared with 20,678 controls without epilepsy. Compared with people without the epilepsy, those with epilepsy tended to have a lower level of education, to be less likely to be married, to be more likely to live alone, and to have higher divorce and unemployment rates, lower employment rates, and people with epilepsy were more likely to receive disability pension and social security. Income was lower from employment, which in part was compensated by social security, sick pay, disability pension and unemployment benefit, sick pay (public-funded), disability pension, and other public transfers. Predicted health care costs 30 years after epilepsy onset were significantly higher among persons with epilepsy onset at 0-5 and 6-20 years, including costs for outpatient and inpatient services (hospital services), emergency room use, primary health care sector (general practice), and use of medication. The long-term negative effects on all aspects of health care and social domains, including marital status, parental socioeconomic status, educational level, employment status, and use of welfare benefits compared with controls without epilepsy calls for increased awareness on

  10. The Effect of an Extreme and Prolonged Population Bottleneck on Patterns of Deleterious Variation: Insights from the Greenlandic Inuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Casper-Emil T; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Grarup, Niels; Bjerregaard, Peter; Hansen, Torben; Siegismund, Hans R; Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2017-02-01

    The genetic consequences of population bottlenecks on patterns of deleterious genetic variation in human populations are of tremendous interest. Based on exome sequencing of 18 Greenlandic Inuit we show that the Inuit have undergone a severe ∼20,000-year-long bottleneck. This has led to a markedly more extreme distribution of allele frequencies than seen for any other human population tested to date, making the Inuit the perfect population for investigating the effect of a bottleneck on patterns of deleterious variation. When comparing proxies for genetic load that assume an additive effect of deleterious alleles, the Inuit show, at most, a slight increase in load compared to European, East Asian, and African populations. Specifically, we observe Inuit. In contrast, proxies for genetic load under a recessive model suggest that the Inuit have a significantly higher load (20% increase or more) compared to other less bottlenecked human populations. Forward simulations under realistic models of demography support our empirical findings, showing up to a 6% increase in the genetic load for the Inuit population across all models of dominance. Further, the Inuit population carries fewer deleterious variants than other human populations, but those that are present tend to be at higher frequency than in other populations. Overall, our results show how recent demographic history has affected patterns of deleterious variants in human populations. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Adult mental health consequences of peer bullying and maltreatment in childhood: two cohorts in two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-06-01

    The adult mental health consequences of childhood maltreatment are well documented. Maltreatment by peers (ie, bullying) has also been shown to have long-term adverse effects. We aimed to determine whether these effects are just due to being exposed to both maltreatment and bullying or whether bullying has a unique effect. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the UK (ALSPAC) and the Great Smoky Mountains Study in the USA (GSMS) longitudinal studies. In ALSPAC, maltreatment was assessed as physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, or severe maladaptive parenting (or both) between ages 8 weeks and 8·6 years, as reported by the mother in questionnaires, and being bullied was assessed with child reports at 8, 10, and 13 years using the previously validated Bullying and Friendship Interview Schedule. In GSMS, both maltreatment and bullying were repeatedly assessed with annual parent and child interviews between ages 9 and 16 years. To identify the association between maltreatment, being bullied, and mental health problems, binary logistic regression analyses were run. The primary outcome variable was overall mental health problem (any anxiety, depression, or self-harm or suicidality). 4026 children from the ALSPAC cohort and 1420 children from the GSMS cohort provided information about bullying victimisation, maltreatment, and overall mental health problems. The ALSPAC study started in 1991 and the GSMS cohort enrolled participants from 1993. Compared with children who were not maltreated or bullied, children who were only maltreated were at increased risk for depression in young adulthood in models adjusted for sex and family hardships according to the GSMS cohort (odds ratio [OR] 4·1, 95% CI 1·5-11·7). According to the ALSPAC cohort, those who were only being maltreated were not at increased risk for any mental health problem compared with children who were not maltreated or bullied. By contrast, those who were both maltreated and

  12. The meaning and mental health consequences of long-term immigration detention for people seeking asylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Guy J; Kaplan, Ida; Sampson, Robyn C; Tucci, Maria Montagna

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine the experience of extended periods of immigration detention from the perspective of previously detained asylum seekers and to identify the consequences of these experiences for life after release. The study sample comprised seventeen adult refugees (sixteen male and one female; average age 42 years), who had been held in immigration detention funded by the Australian government for on average three years and two months. They were interviewed on average three years and eight months following their release and had been granted permanent visa status or such status was imminent. The study employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to explore detention and post-detention experiences, and mental health some years after release. The qualitative component consisted of semi-structured interviews exploring psychological well-being, daily life, significant events, relationships, and ways of coping throughout these periods. This was supplemented with standardised quantitative measures of current mental health and quality of life. All participants were struggling to rebuild their lives in the years following release from immigration detention, and for the majority the difficulties experienced were pervasive. Participants suffered an ongoing sense of insecurity and injustice, difficulties with relationships, profound changes to view of self and poor mental health. Depression and demoralisation, concentration and memory disturbances, and persistent anxiety were very commonly reported. Standardised measures found high rates of depression, anxiety, PTSD and low quality of life scores. The results strongly suggest that the psychological and interpersonal difficulties participants were suffering at the time of interview were the legacy of their adverse experiences while detained. The current study assists in identifying the characteristics of prolonged immigration detention producing long-term psychological harm

  13. Determinants and health consequences of domestic violence among women in reproductive age at zagazig district, egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Howaida H; Abd El-Rahman, Seham I

    2008-01-01

    Violence against women is a global phenomenon that cuts across all social and economic classes, it has recently drawn attention in the medical field as a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. The present study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence, to identify socio-demographic and behavioral risk factors and to investigate the relationship between the women's psychological health status and violence exposure. This is a comparative cross-sectional study using a multistage random sampling technique. The sample comprised 500 women aged 18-50y. Data was collected via a structured interview questionnaire including the socio-demographic characteristics of the women and their husbands, some of the husbands' habits, attitude and history of chronic illnesses. Also, the questionnaire assesses different forms of domestic violence, women's reaction to it and its consequences on psychological well-being of women. A depression anxiety scale was used to assess the women's psychological status. The study revealed that the overall prevalence of domestic violence among the studied group was (62.2%); the commonest form (74.0%) was psychological abuse, followed by social (26.8%) one, then the physical (22.4%) and lastly sexual abuse (19.6%). On studying the socio-demographic variables, a significantly higher percentage of younger ( pound 30 years) non-educated, low income and those having any property ownership were more exposed to violence. Also exposure to abuse was more prevalent among women whose husbands were young, non-educated, skilled workers, drug abuser, with positive history of family troubles and chronic illness. The majority of women reported that they react to violence by crying loudly or screaming, while a minority may seek medical care or call the police. Regarding the psychological effect of violence exposure, the most common effects were anxiety (69.2%) and depression (52.2%), with a highly statistically significant

  14. Environmental stresses can alleviate the average deleterious effect of mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leibler Stanislas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fundamental questions in evolutionary genetics, including the possible advantage of sexual reproduction, depend critically on the effects of deleterious mutations on fitness. Limited existing experimental evidence suggests that, on average, such effects tend to be aggravated under environmental stresses, consistent with the perception that stress diminishes the organism's ability to tolerate deleterious mutations. Here, we ask whether there are also stresses with the opposite influence, under which the organism becomes more tolerant to mutations. Results We developed a technique, based on bioluminescence, which allows accurate automated measurements of bacterial growth rates at very low cell densities. Using this system, we measured growth rates of Escherichia coli mutants under a diverse set of environmental stresses. In contrast to the perception that stress always reduces the organism's ability to tolerate mutations, our measurements identified stresses that do the opposite – that is, despite decreasing wild-type growth, they alleviate, on average, the effect of deleterious mutations. Conclusions Our results show a qualitative difference between various environmental stresses ranging from alleviation to aggravation of the average effect of mutations. We further show how the existence of stresses that are biased towards alleviation of the effects of mutations may imply the existence of average epistatic interactions between mutations. The results thus offer a connection between the two main factors controlling the effects of deleterious mutations: environmental conditions and epistatic interactions.

  15. Intentions to Prevent Weight Gain in Older and Younger Adults; The Importance of Perceived Health and Appearance Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Beeken

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigates whether health and appearance consequences predict intentions to prevent weight gain and whether these relationships differ in younger versus older adults and in men versus women. Methods: UK adults aged 18-26 years (younger adults; n = 584 or >45 years (older adults; n = 107 participated in an online survey. Logistic regression assessed associations between intentions to avoid gaining weight and age, gender as well as perceived negative consequences of weight gain for health and appearance. Co-variates were ethnicity, education, weight perception and perceived weight gain vulnerability. Interactions between age, gender and perceived health and appearance consequences of weight gain were also tested. Results: Perceived negative appearance consequences of weight gain predicted weight gain prevention intentions (OR = 9.3, p 0.01. Conclusion: Concerns about feeling unattractive predict intentions to prevent weight gain. However, health consequences of weight gain are only important motivators for older adults. Future research should identify ways to shift the focus of young people from appearance concerns towards the health benefits of maintaining a healthy weight.

  16. Intentions to Prevent Weight Gain in Older and Younger Adults; The Importance of Perceived Health and Appearance Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeken, Rebecca J; Mahdi, Sundus; Johnson, Fiona; Meisel, Susanne F

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates whether health and appearance consequences predict intentions to prevent weight gain and whether these relationships differ in younger versus older adults and in men versus women. UK adults aged 18-26 years (younger adults; n = 584) or >45 years (older adults; n = 107) participated in an online survey. Logistic regression assessed associations between intentions to avoid gaining weight and age, gender as well as perceived negative consequences of weight gain for health and appearance. Co-variates were ethnicity, education, weight perception and perceived weight gain vulnerability. Interactions between age, gender and perceived health and appearance consequences of weight gain were also tested. Perceived negative appearance consequences of weight gain predicted weight gain prevention intentions (OR = 9.3, p 0.01). Concerns about feeling unattractive predict intentions to prevent weight gain. However, health consequences of weight gain are only important motivators for older adults. Future research should identify ways to shift the focus of young people from appearance concerns towards the health benefits of maintaining a healthy weight. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  17. The application of the health effects models to the severe accident consequence analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ling; Yeung, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Health Effect Model (HEM) is an important model used in the analysis of severe accidents consequence of the Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The accuracy of HEM affects the reliability of the assessment for the accidents consequences, and furthermore, the effectiveness of the emergency countermeasures taken for the health protection of the public around the NPPs. Based on the NUREG/CR4214 series reports, the paper sets appropriate parameters for HEM by studying both early and late HEMs used for domestic NPP accident consequence analysis. In the study, the Guangdong Daya Bay NPP is chosen as an example study to calculate the health risk of the Hong Kong population caused by Daya Bay NPP

  18. Heatwave Early Warning Systems and Adaptation Advice to Reduce Human Health Consequences of Heatwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Forsberg

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With climate change, there has been an increase in the frequency, intensity and duration of heatwave events. In response to the devastating mortality and morbidity of recent heatwave events, many countries have introduced heatwave early warning systems (HEWS. HEWS are designed to reduce the avoidable human health consequences of heatwaves through timely notification of prevention measures to vulnerable populations. Objective: To identify the key characteristics of HEWS in European countries to help inform modification of current, and development of, new systems and plans. Methods: We searched the internet to identify HEWS policy or government documents for 33 European countries and requested information from relevant organizations. We translated the HEWS documents and extracted details on the trigger indicators, thresholds for action, notification strategies, message intermediaries, communication and dissemination strategies, prevention strategies recommended and specified target audiences. Findings and Conclusions: Twelve European countries have HEWS. Although there are many similarities among the HEWS, there also are differences in key characteristics that could inform improvements in heatwave early warning plans.

  19. Cycling in São Paulo, Brazil (1997–2012: Correlates, time trends and health consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Hérick Sá

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS. At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people. Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women. We found rates of bicycle use rising over time among the richest quartile but total cycling rates dropped from 1997 to 2012 due to decreasing rates among the poor. Harms from air pollution would negate benefits from physical activity through cycling only at 1997 air pollution levels and at very high cycling levels (≥9 h of cycling per day. Exposure-based road injury risk decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 0.76 to 0.56 cyclist deaths per 1000 person-hours travelled. Policies to reduce spatial segregation, measures to tackle air pollution, improvements in dedicated cycling infrastructure, and integrating the bicycle with the public transport system in neighborhoods of all income levels could make cycling safer and prevent more individuals from abandoning the cycling mode in São Paulo.

  20. Long-term health consequences of premature or early menopause and considerations for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubion, Stephanie S.; Kuhle, Carol L.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Rocca, Walter A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To review the current evidence concerning the long-term harmful effects of premature or early menopause, and to discuss some of the clinical implications. Material and methods Narrative review of the literature. Results Women undergoing premature or early menopause, either following bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy or because of primary ovarian insufficiency, experience the early loss of estrogen and other ovarian hormones. The long-term consequences of premature or early menopause include adverse effects on cognition, mood, cardiovascular, bone, and sexual health, as well as an increased risk of early mortality. The use of hormone therapy has been shown to lessen some, although not all of these risks. Therefore, multiple medical societies recommend providing hormone therapy at least until the natural age of menopause. It is important to individualize hormone therapy for women with early estrogen deficiency, and higher dosages may be needed to approximate physiological concentrations found in premenopausal women. It is also important to address the psychological impact of early menopause and to review the options for fertility and the potential need for contraception, if the ovaries are intact. Conclusions Women who undergo premature or early menopause should receive individualized hormone therapy and counseling. PMID:25845383

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Adolescents Adjudicated for Sexual Offenses: Mental Health Consequences and Sexual Offending Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Hugo B; Alexander, Apryl A; Fix, Rebecca L; Burkhart, Barry R

    2018-02-01

    Most studies on the mental health consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) focus predominantly on CSA survivors who do not commit sexual offenses. The current study examined the effects of CSA on 498 male adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses who represent the small portion of CSA survivors who engage in sexual offenses. The prevalence of internalizing symptoms, parental attachment difficulties, specific sexual offending behaviors, and risk for sexually offending were compared among participants with and without a history of CSA. Results indicated that participants with a history of CSA were more likely to be diagnosed with major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder than those who did not report a history of CSA. A history of CSA was also positively correlated with risk for sexually offending and with specific offense patterns and consensual sexual behaviors. No significant differences emerged on parental attachment difficulties. These results highlight that adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses with a history of CSA present with differences in sexual and psychological functioning as well as markedly different offending patterns when compared with those without a CSA history. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  2. Human parasites in the Roman World: health consequences of conquering an empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2017-01-01

    The archaeological evidence for parasites in the Roman era is presented in order to demonstrate the species present at that time, and highlight the health consequences for people living under Roman rule. Despite their large multi-seat public latrines with washing facilities, sewer systems, sanitation legislation, fountains and piped drinking water from aqueducts, we see the widespread presence of whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and Entamoeba histolytica that causes dysentery. This would suggest that the public sanitation measures were insufficient to protect the population from parasites spread by fecal contamination. Ectoparasites such as fleas, head lice, body lice, pubic lice and bed bugs were also present, and delousing combs have been found. The evidence fails to demonstrate that the Roman culture of regular bathing in the public baths reduced the prevalence of these parasites. Fish tapeworm was noted to be widely present, and was more common than in Bronze and Iron Age Europe. It is possible that the Roman enthusiasm for fermented, uncooked fish sauce (garum) may have facilitated the spread of this helminth. Roman medical practitioners such as Galen were aware of intestinal worms, explaining their existence and planning treatment using the humoural theory of the period.

  3. Traumatic physical health consequences of intimate partner violence against women: what is the role of community-level factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antai Diddy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV against women is a serious public health issue with recognizable direct health consequences. This study assessed the association between IPV and traumatic physical health consequences on women in Nigeria, given that communities exert significant influence on the individuals that are embedded within them, with the nature of influence varying between communities. Methods Cross-sectional nationally-representative data of women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was used in this study. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between IPV and several forms of physical health consequences. Results Bruises were the most common form of traumatic physical health consequences. In the adjusted models, the likelihood of sustaining bruises (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.05 - 3.46, wounds (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.31 - 4.95, and severe burns (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.63 - 6.28 was significantly higher for women exposed to IPV compared to those not exposed to IPV. However, after adjusting for individual- and community-level factors, women with husbands/partners with controlling behavior, those with primary or no education, and those resident in communities with high tolerance for wife beating had a higher likelihood of experiencing IPV, whilst mean community-level education and women 24 years or younger were at lower likelihood of experiencing IPV. Conclusions Evidence from this study shows that exposure to IPV is associated with increased likelihood of traumatic physical consequences for women in Nigeria. Education and justification of wife beating were significant community-level factors associated with traumatic physical consequences, suggesting the importance of increasing women's levels of education and changing community norms that justify controlling behavior and IPV.

  4. High-protein-low-carbohydrate diet: deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular effects depend on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedarida, Tatiana; Baron, Stephanie; Vessieres, Emilie; Vibert, Francoise; Ayer, Audrey; Marchiol-Fournigault, Carmen; Henrion, Daniel; Paul, Jean-Louis; Noble, Florence; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Cottart, Charles-Henry; Nivet-Antoine, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    High-protein-low-carbohydrate (HP-LC) diets have become widespread. Yet their deleterious consequences, especially on glucose metabolism and arteries, have already been underlined. Our previous study (2) has already shown glucose intolerance with major arterial dysfunction in very old mice subjected to an HP-LC diet. The hypothesis of this work was that this diet had an age-dependent deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular outcome. Two groups of mice, young and adult (3 and 6 mo old), were subjected for 12 wk to a standard or to an HP-LC diet. Glucose and lipid metabolism was studied. The cardiovascular system was explored from the functional stage with Doppler-echography to the molecular stage (arterial reactivity, mRNA, immunohistochemistry). Young mice did not exhibit any significant metabolic modification, whereas adult mice presented marked glucose intolerance associated with an increase in resistin and triglyceride levels. These metabolic disturbances were responsible for cardiovascular damages only in adult mice, with decreased aortic distensibility and left ventricle dysfunction. These seemed to be the consequence of arterial dysfunctions. Mesenteric arteries were the worst affected with a major oxidative stress, whereas aorta function seemed to be maintained with an appreciable role of cyclooxygenase-2 to preserve endothelial function. This study highlights for the first time the age-dependent deleterious effects of an HP-LC diet on metabolism, with glucose intolerance and lipid disorders and vascular (especially microvessels) and cardiac functions. This work shows that HP-LC lead to equivalent cardiovascular alterations, as observed in very old age, and underlines the danger of such diet. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: Unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren☆,☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Susser, Ezra; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Hamilton, Ava; Bitfoi, Adina; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Methods Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past year injuries serious enough to seek medical atten tion were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and re ported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Results. Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR = 1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2 1.9), teacher report (OR = 1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1 1.7), or parent- and teacher-report combined (OR = 1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1 2.1). Children who self reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR = 1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1 2.4). Low caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR = 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.9). Conclusion Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externaliz ing problems may reduce the burden of injury. PMID:25073079

  6. Evaluation of postpone Ch NPP accident consequences. Health state of children born in families of cleaners taking part in the Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koretskaya, L.S.; Kornesku, A.V.; Koretskaya, L.I.; Moldovanu, M.; Samotyya, E.E.; Etsko, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the results of the medical investigation during 1996-2008 years of the health of the about 200 children (107 girls, 115 boys 5-17 years old), which parents took part in liquidation of C NPP accident have been performed. Clinical, immunological disturbance and increased chromosome mutagenesis intensity in somatic cells of the investigated children gave reason to classify them among those with the increased risk of probability of the pathology with genetic component. This may be considerate as a well founded conclusion for elaboration of separated registry of the children born in families of liquidators. The immunological disturbance of children probably reflects the disturbance of the differential processes and maturity of cells of thymus and can be the consequences of the factors influence related with the clinic pathologies. The results permitted to select the group for feature cytogenesis and clinic investigations (authors)

  7. Deleterious acute and chronic effects of bradycardic right ventricular apex pacing : consequences for arrhythmic outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, Thom R G; Dunnink, A; van Everdingen, W M; Beekman, H D M; van der Nagel, R.; Kok, B.; Bierhuizen, M F A; Cramer, M J; Meine, M; Vos, M A

    In the chronic complete atrioventricular (AV) block dog (CAVB) model, both bradycardia and altered ventricular activation due to the uncontrolled idioventricular rhythm contribute to ventricular remodeling and the enhanced susceptibility to Torsade de Pointes (TdP) arrhythmias. We investigated the

  8. Extreme temperatures increase the deleterious consequences of inbreeding under laboratory and semi-natural conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Barker, J. Stuart F.; Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie

    2008-01-01

    when compared with non-inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster under different temperature conditions. Egg-to-adult viability, developmental time and sex ratio of emerging adults are studied under low, intermediate and high temperatures under laboratory as well as semi-natural conditions. The results...... show inbreeding depression for egg-to-adult viability. The level of inbreeding depression is highly dependent on test temperature and is observed only at low and high temperatures. Inbreeding did not affect the developmental time or the sex ratio of emerging adults. However, temperature affected...... the sex ratio with more females relative to males emerging at low temperatures, suggesting that selection against males in pre-adult life stages is stronger at low temperatures. The coefficient of variation (CV) of egg-to-adult viability within and among lines is higher for inbred flies and generally...

  9. Brief Report: Labelling Effects on the Perceived Deleterious Consequences of Pop Music Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, A.C.; Hargreaves, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Several correlational studies have supported the claim of conservative protestors that there exists a positive relationship between listening to pop music and adolescent problem behaviours. However, research on the so-called 'prestige effects' has shown that experimental participants' responses to music can be mediated by manipulations of prior…

  10. Prevalence of deleterious ATM germline mutations in gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Sheng; Tao, Hou-Quan; He, Xu-Jun; Long, Ming; Yu, Sheng; Xia, Ying-Jie; Wei, Zhang; Xiong, Zikai; Jones, Sian; He, Yiping; Yan, Hai; Wang, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    Besides CDH1, few hereditary gastric cancer predisposition genes have been previously reported. In this study, we discovered two germline ATM mutations (p.Y1203fs and p.N1223S) in a Chinese family with a history of gastric cancer by screening 83 cancer susceptibility genes. Using a published exome sequencing dataset, we found deleterious germline mutations of ATM in 2.7% of 335 gastric cancer patients of different ethnic origins. The frequency of deleterious ATM mutations in gastric cancer patients is significantly higher than that in general population (p=0.0000435), suggesting an association of ATM mutations with gastric cancer predisposition. We also observed biallelic inactivation of ATM in tumors of two gastric cancer patients. Further evaluation of ATM mutations in hereditary gastric cancer will facilitate genetic testing and risk assessment.

  11. The effects of mental health symptoms and marijuana expectancies on marijuana use and consequences among at-risk adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A.; Hunter, Sarah B.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Based on expectancy theory, adolescents at risk for mental health symptoms, such as those involved in the juvenile court system, may use marijuana due to the belief that use will attenuate anxiety and depressive symptoms. In a diverse sample of youth involved in the Santa Barbara Teen Court system (N = 193), we examined the association between mental health symptoms and marijuana expectancies on marijuana use and consequences. In general, stronger positive expectancies and weaker negative exp...

  12. Health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe in general and in Norway in particular. Literature review and ecological study.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Health costs of Chernobyl disaster are still not clear.Main goal of this paper therefore is to investigate health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe (outside the former Soviet Union) as a whole and in Norway in particular as one of the second high contaminated areas after those in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. To do that literature review and ecological study with the Incidence rate ratios analysis are conducted. As a result hypothesis about increased...

  13. Economic consequences of ill-health for households in northern rural India Health systems and services in low and middle income settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Quintussi (Marta); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); P. Panda (Pradeep); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: As compared to other countries in South East Asia, India's health care system is characterized by very high out of pocket payments, and consequently low financial protection and access to care. This paper describes the relative importance of ill-health compared to other

  14. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  15. Consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodard, K.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to: Provide a realistic assessment of consequences; Account for plant and site-specific characteristics; Adjust accident release characteristics to account for results of plant-containment analysis; Produce conditional risk curves for each of five health effects; and Estimate uncertainties

  16. Relationship between Deleterious Variation, Genomic Autozygosity, and Disease Risk: Insights from The 1000 Genomes Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Trevor J; Szpiech, Zachary A

    2018-04-05

    Genomic regions of autozygosity (ROAs) represent segments of individual genomes that are homozygous for haplotypes inherited identical-by-descent (IBD) from a common ancestor. ROAs are nonuniformly distributed across the genome, and increased ROA levels are a reported risk factor for numerous complex diseases. Previously, we hypothesized that long ROAs are enriched for deleterious homozygotes as a result of young haplotypes with recent deleterious mutations-relatively untouched by purifying selection-being paired IBD as a consequence of recent parental relatedness, a pattern supported by ROA and whole-exome sequence data on 27 individuals. Here, we significantly bolster support for our hypothesis and expand upon our original analyses using ROA and whole-genome sequence data on 2,436 individuals from The 1000 Genomes Project. Considering CADD deleteriousness scores, we reaffirm our previous observation that long ROAs are enriched for damaging homozygotes worldwide. We show that strongly damaging homozygotes experience greater enrichment than weaker damaging homozygotes, while overall enrichment varies appreciably among populations. Mendelian disease genes and those encoding FDA-approved drug targets have significantly increased rates of gain in damaging homozygotes with increasing ROA coverage relative to all other genes. In genes implicated in eight complex phenotypes for which ROA levels have been identified as a risk factor, rates of gain in damaging homozygotes vary across phenotypes and populations but frequently differ significantly from non-disease genes. These findings highlight the potential confounding effects of population background in the assessment of associations between ROA levels and complex disease risk, which might underlie reported inconsistencies in ROA-phenotype associations. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A parametric study of MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2 (MACCS2) Input Values for the Predicted Health Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, So Ra; Min, Byung Il; Park, Ki Hyun; Yang, Byung Mo; Suh, Kyung Suk

    2016-01-01

    The MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2, MACCS2, has been the most widely used through the world among the off-site consequence analysis codes. MACCS2 code is used to estimate the radionuclide concentrations, radiological doses, health effects, and economic consequences that could result from the hypothetical nuclear accidents. Most of the MACCS model parameter values are defined by the user and those input parameters can make a significant impact on the output. A limited parametric study was performed to identify the relative importance of the values of each input parameters in determining the predicted early and latent health effects in MACCS2. These results would not be applicable to every case of the nuclear accidents, because only the limited calculation was performed with Kori-specific data. The endpoints of the assessment were early- and latent cancer-risk in the exposed population, therefore it might produce the different results with the parametric studies for other endpoints, such as contamination level, absorbed dose, and economic cost. Accident consequence assessment is important for decision making to minimize the health effect from radiation exposure, accordingly the sufficient parametric studies are required for the various endpoints and input parameters in further research

  18. Impact of HIV-1 infection on the feto-maternal crosstalk and consequences for pregnancy outcome and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altfeld, Marcus; Bunders, Madeleine J

    2016-11-01

    Adaptation of the maternal immune system to establish maternal/fetal equilibrium is required for a successful pregnancy. Viral infections, including HIV-1 infection, can alter this maternal/fetal equilibrium, with significant consequences for pregnancy outcome, including miscarriages, impaired fetal growth, and premature delivery. Furthermore, maternal HIV-1 infection has been shown to have a long-term impact on the developing fetal immune system also when the infant is not infected with the virus. In this review, we discuss the consequences of maternal HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral therapy on pregnancy outcome and the health of the uninfected HIV-1-exposed infant.

  19. Determinants of participation in a web-based health risk assessment and consequences for health promotion programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, Maurice A. J.; Laan, Eva L.; Robroek, Suzan J. W.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Peek, Niels; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A.; van Kalken, Coen K.; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The health risk assessment (HRA) is a type of health promotion program frequently offered at the workplace. Insight into the underlying determinants of participation is needed to evaluate and implement these interventions. To analyze whether individual characteristics including demographics, health

  20. Sick regimes and sick people: a multilevel investigation of the population health consequences of perceived national corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Margot I; Kunst, Anton E; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Stronks, Karien

    2013-10-01

    There is a paucity of empirical work on the potential population health impact of living under a regime marred by corruption. African countries differ in the extent of national corruption, and we explore whether perceived national corruption is associated with population health across all rungs of society. World Health Survey data were analysed on 72 524 adults from 20 African countries. The main outcome was self-reported poor general health. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between poor health and perceived corruption, while jointly accounting for individual- and country-level human development factors. In this research, we use Transparency International's corruption perception index (CPI), which measures 'both administrative and political corruption' on a 0-10 scale. A higher score pertains to a higher rate of perceived corruption within society. We also examined effect modification by gender, age and socio-economic status. Higher national corruption perception was consistently associated with an increase in poor health prevalence, also after multivariable adjustments, with odds ratio (OR) of 1.62 (95% CI: 1.01-2.60). Stratified analyses by age and gender suggested this same pattern in all subgroups. Positive associations between poor health and perceived corruption were evident in all socio-economic groups, with the association being somewhat more positive among less educated people (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.01-2.58) than among more educated people (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.83-2.37). This study is a cautious first step in empirically testing the general health consequences of corruption. Our results suggest that higher perceived national corruption is associated with general health of both men and women within all socio-economic groups across the lifespan. Further research is needed using more countries to assess the magnitude of the health consequences of corruption. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Violence and its injury consequences in American movies: a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, D L; Peek-Asa, C; Webb, T; Fisher, K; Cook, B; Browne, N; Kraus, J

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the seriousness and frequency of violence and the degree of associated injury depicted in the 100 top-grossing American films of 1994. Each scene in each film was examined for the presentation of violent actions on persons and coded by a systematic context-sensitive analytic scheme. Specific degrees of violence and indices of injury severity were abstracted. Only actually depicted, not implied, actions were coded, although both explicit and implied consequences were examined. The median number of violent actions per film was 16 (range, 0-110). Intentional violence outnumbered unintentional violence by a factor of 10. Almost 90% of violent actions showed no consequences to the recipient's body, although more than 80% of the violent actions were executed with lethal or moderate force. Fewer than 1% of violent actions were accompanied by injuries that were then medically attended. Violent force in American films of 1994 was overwhelmingly intentional and in 4 of 5 cases was executed at levels likely to cause significant bodily injury. Not only action films but movies of all genres contained scenes in which the intensity of the action was not matched by correspondingly severe injury consequences. Many American films, regardless of genre, tend to minimize the consequences of violence to human beings.

  2. Promoting survival: A grounded theory study of consequences of modern health practices in Ouramanat region of Iranian Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpur, Ahmad; Rezaei, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Rasoul

    2010-05-14

    The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the way people using modern health care perceive its consequences in Ouraman-e-Takht region of Iranian Kurdistan. Ouraman-e-Takht is a rural, highly mountainous and dry region located in the southwest Kurdistan province of Iran. Recently, modern health practices have been introduced to the region. The purpose of this study was to investigate, from the Ouramains' point of view, the impact that modern health services and practices have had on the Ouraman traditional way of life. Interview data from respondents were analyzed by using grounded theory. Promoting survival was the core category that explained the impact that modern health practices have had on the Ouraman region. The people of Ouraman interpreted modern health practices as increasing their quality of life and promoting their survival. Results are organized around this core category in a paradigm model consisting of conditions, interactions, and consequences. This model can be used to understand the impact of change from the introduction of modern health on a traditional society.

  3. Promoting survival: A grounded theory study of consequences of modern health practices in Ouramanat region of Iranian Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpur, Ahmad; Rezaei, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Rasoul

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the way people using modern health care perceive its consequences in Ouraman-e-Takht region of Iranian Kurdistan. Ouraman-e-Takht is a rural, highly mountainous and dry region located in the southwest Kurdistan province of Iran. Recently, modern health practices have been introduced to the region. The purpose of this study was to investigate, from the Ouramains' point of view, the impact that modern health services and practices have had on the Ouraman traditional way of life. Interview data from respondents were analyzed by using grounded theory. Promoting survival was the core category that explained the impact that modern health practices have had on the Ouraman region. The people of Ouraman interpreted modern health practices as increasing their quality of life and promoting their survival. Results are organized around this core category in a paradigm model consisting of conditions, interactions, and consequences. This model can be used to understand the impact of change from the introduction of modern health on a traditional society. PMID:20640020

  4. Nuclear catastrophe in Japan. Health consequences resulting from Fukushima; Atomkatastrophe in Japan. Gesundheitliche Folgen von Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulitz, Henrik; Eisenberg, Winfrid; Thiel, Reinhold

    2013-03-06

    On 11 March 2011, a nuclear catastrophe occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Japan in the wake of an earthquake and due to serious safety deficiencies. This resulted in a massive and prolonged release of radioactive fission and decay products. Approximately 20% of the radioactive substances released into the atmosphere have led to the contamination of the landmass of Japan with 17,000 becquerels per square meter of cesium-137 and a comparable quantity of cesium-134. The initial health consequences of the nuclear catastrophe are already now, after only two years, scientifically verifiable. Similar to the case of Chernobyl, a decline in the birth rate was documented nine months after the nuclear catastrophe. Throughout Japan, the total drop in number of births in December 2011 was 4362, with the Fukushima Prefecture registering a decline of 209 births. Japan also experienced a rise in infant mortality, with 75 more children dying in their first year of life than expected statistically. In the Fukushima Prefecture alone, some 55,592 children were diagnosed with thyroid gland nodules or cysts. In contrast to cysts and nodules found in adults, these findings in children must be classified as precancerous. There were also the first documented cases in Fukushima of thyroid cancer in children. The present document undertakes three assessments of the expected incidence of cancer resulting from external exposure to radiation. These are based on publications in scientific journals on soil contamination in 47 prefectures in Japan, the average total soil contamination, and, in the third case, on local dose rate measurements in the fall of 2012. Taking into consideration the shielding effect of buildings, the medical organization IPPNW has calculated the collective lifetime doses for individuals at 94,749 manSv, 206,516 manSv, and 118,171 manSv, respectively. In accordance with the risk factors set by the European Committee on Radiation Risk (ECRR) for death

  5. Evolutionary invasion and escape in the presence of deleterious mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Loverdo

    Full Text Available Replicators such as parasites invading a new host species, species invading a new ecological niche, or cancer cells invading a new tissue often must mutate to adapt to a new environment. It is often argued that a higher mutation rate will favor evolutionary invasion and escape from extinction. However, most mutations are deleterious, and even lethal. We study the probability that the lineage will survive and invade successfully as a function of the mutation rate when both the initial strain and an adaptive mutant strain are threatened by lethal mutations. We show that mutations are beneficial, i.e. a non-zero mutation rate increases survival compared to the limit of no mutations, if in the no-mutation limit the survival probability of the initial strain is smaller than the average survival probability of the strains which are one mutation away. The mutation rate that maximizes survival depends on the characteristics of both the initial strain and the adaptive mutant, but if one strain is closer to the threshold governing survival then its properties will have greater influence. These conclusions are robust for more realistic or mechanistic depictions of the fitness landscapes such as a more detailed viral life history, or non-lethal deleterious mutations.

  6. Health consequences of Chernobyl. 25 years after the reactor catastrophy; Gesundheitliche Folgen von Tschernobyl. 25 Jahre nach der Reaktorkatastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflugbeil, Sebastian; Schmitz-Feuerhake, Inge [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany); Paulitz, Henrik; Claussen, Angelika [Internationale Aerzte fuer die Verhuetung des Atomkrieges, Aerzte in sozialer Verantwortung e.V. (IPPNW), Berlin (Germany). Deutsche Sektion

    2011-04-15

    The report is an evaluation of studies indicating health effects as a consequence of the reactor catastrophe in Chernobyl. The most exposed population include the cleaning personnel (liquidators), the population evacuated from the 30 km zone, the populations in highly contaminated regions in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, the European population in lass contaminated regions. The following issues are discussed: the liquidators, infant mortality, genetic and teratogenic damages, thyroid carcinoma and other thyroid diseases, carcinogenic diseases and leukemia, other diseases following the Chernobyl catastrophe.

  7. Intimate Partner Violence Among Women of Reproductive Age in Nigeria: Magnitude, Nature and Consequences For Reproductive Health

    OpenAIRE

    Okenwa, Leah

    2010-01-01

    Background: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) against women is now recognised as a problem of global magnitude, owing to its detrimental consequences on the health, social and economic welfare of women and their children. This scenario has prompted increased research to understand its risk factors and data has indicated contextual variation in this regard, warranting an assessment in each unique setting. A major constraint, however, on the detection and potential management of IPV lies...

  8. RISKIND: A computer program for calculating radiological consequences and health risks from transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y.C. [Square Y Consultants, Orchard Park, NY (US); Chen, S.Y.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US)

    1995-11-01

    This report presents the technical details of RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. RISKIND is a user-friendly, interactive program that can be run on an IBM or equivalent personal computer under the Windows{trademark} environment. Several models are included in RISKIND that have been tailored to calculate the exposure to individuals under various incident-free and accident conditions. The incident-free models assess exposures from both gamma and neutron radiation and can account for different cask designs. The accident models include accidental release, atmospheric transport, and the environmental pathways of radionuclides from spent fuels; these models also assess health risks to individuals and the collective population. The models are supported by databases that are specific to spent nuclear fuels and include a radionuclide inventory and dose conversion factors. In addition, the flexibility of the models allows them to be used for assessing any accidental release involving radioactive materials. The RISKIND code allows for user-specified accident scenarios as well as receptor locations under various exposure conditions, thereby facilitating the estimation of radiological consequences and health risks for individuals. Median (50% probability) and typical worst-case (less than 5% probability of being exceeded) doses and health consequences from potential accidental releases can be calculated by constructing a cumulative dose/probability distribution curve for a complete matrix of site joint-wind-frequency data. These consequence results, together with the estimated probability of the entire spectrum of potential accidents, form a comprehensive, probabilistic risk assessment of a spent nuclear fuel transportation accident.

  9. RISKIND: A computer program for calculating radiological consequences and health risks from transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.C.; Chen, S.Y.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents the technical details of RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. RISKIND is a user-friendly, interactive program that can be run on an IBM or equivalent personal computer under the Windows trademark environment. Several models are included in RISKIND that have been tailored to calculate the exposure to individuals under various incident-free and accident conditions. The incident-free models assess exposures from both gamma and neutron radiation and can account for different cask designs. The accident models include accidental release, atmospheric transport, and the environmental pathways of radionuclides from spent fuels; these models also assess health risks to individuals and the collective population. The models are supported by databases that are specific to spent nuclear fuels and include a radionuclide inventory and dose conversion factors. In addition, the flexibility of the models allows them to be used for assessing any accidental release involving radioactive materials. The RISKIND code allows for user-specified accident scenarios as well as receptor locations under various exposure conditions, thereby facilitating the estimation of radiological consequences and health risks for individuals. Median (50% probability) and typical worst-case (less than 5% probability of being exceeded) doses and health consequences from potential accidental releases can be calculated by constructing a cumulative dose/probability distribution curve for a complete matrix of site joint-wind-frequency data. These consequence results, together with the estimated probability of the entire spectrum of potential accidents, form a comprehensive, probabilistic risk assessment of a spent nuclear fuel transportation accident

  10. Choice of organic foods is related to perceived consequences for human health and to environmentally friendly behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Maria K; Arvola, Anne; Hursti, Ulla Kaisa Koivisto; Aberg, Lars; Sjödén, Per-Olow

    2003-04-01

    We designed a questionnaire concerned with attitudes and behaviour towards organic foods, environmentally friendly behaviour (EFB), and perceived consequences of organic food choice in terms of human health, the environment and animal welfare. It was mailed in 1998 to a random nation-wide sample of 2000 Swedish citizens, ages 18-65 years, and 1154 (58%) responded. Self-reported purchase of organic foods was most strongly related to perceived benefit for human health. Performance of EFBs such as refraining from car driving was also a good predictor of purchase frequency. The results indicate that egoistic motives are better predictors of the purchase of organic foods than are altruistic motives.

  11. Perceived consequences, changeability and personal control of coronary heart disease are associated with health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Sigurlásdóttir, Kolbrún; Ólafsson, Kjartan; Svavarsdóttir, Margrét Hrönn

    2017-11-01

    To explore changes in illness perception and health-related quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease following percutaneous coronary intervention from the time when patients were discharged from hospital and five months later and to investigate association between illness perception and physical and mental health-related quality of life at five-month follow-up. Illness perception is known to influence patients' motivation to engage in preventive behaviour. Prospective and comparative with two measurement points: at discharge from hospital (time 1) and five months later (time 2). Two self-administered questionnaires were used as follows: the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised measured illness perception and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) measured physical and mental health-related quality of life. The sample consisted of patients with coronary heart disease admitted to University Hospital between November 2011-April 2012. A total of 69 questionnaires were returned for both measurement times. Most responders were male (71%), mean age was 68·9 (SD 10·3) years. Health-related quality of life increased over time, and illness perception changed; five months after discharge, participants were more aware that the disease was chronic and could worsen suddenly, and they perceived that the disease had less of a consequence on their lives compared to when they were staying in the hospital. Associations between increased personal control, changeability of the disease, perceptions of less of a consequence of the disease on daily life and increased health-related quality of life were demonstrated at time 2. Perceptions of personal control, changeability and consequences of the disease should be assessed and discussed with cardiac patients, as these illness perceptions are related to physical and mental health-related quality of life. Increased understanding of consequences of the disease, personal control and perceived changeability of the illness

  12. [Organization of the drug supply chain in state health services: potential consequences of the public-private mix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, Sergio; Martínez-Ojeda, Rosa Haydeé; López-Arellano, Oliva; Jarillo-Soto, Edgar; Castro-Albarrán, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    To assess the consequences of private outsourcing on the overall supply and filling of prescriptions in state health services. The research was conducted using quantitative and qualitative techniques in 13 states. The information was collected through interviews and direct observation. The interviews were carried on staff of state health services related to the drug supply chain and users of health services. The quantitative approach examined the percentage of stocked full recipes in a sample of users. States that have opted for the fully outsourced model, and properly monitored this choice, have increased the supply of drugs to their users and guaranteed the supply in the care units in charge. Other states with the outsourced model have multiple problems: direct purchase of drugs not included in the basic drugs catalogue, failure of suppliers and shortage of supplies in the laboratories that provide the company. The main disadvantages identified in all models were: the subordination of the medical criteria to administrative criteria, insufficient planning based on local care needs, heterogeneous procedures, insufficient knowledge of regulations and lack of normativity. The results indicate that the incorporation of private providers in the drug supply chain may not be the solution to bring down the shortage faced by health services, especially at the hospital level. The shift to outsourcing models has developed without incorporating evaluation mechanisms and the consequences that this transition can have on state health systems must be investigated more deeply.

  13. Male Hypogonadism and Osteoporosis: The Effects, Clinical Consequences, and Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency in Bone Health

    OpenAIRE

    Golds, Gary; Houdek, Devon; Arnason, Terra

    2017-01-01

    It is well recognized that bone loss accelerates in hypogonadal states, with female menopause being the classic example of sex hormones affecting the regulation of bone metabolism. Underrepresented is our knowledge of the clinical and metabolic consequences of overt male hypogonadism, as well as the more subtle age-related decline in testosterone on bone quality. While menopause and estrogen deficiency are well-known risk factors for osteoporosis in women, the effects of age-related testoster...

  14. A Selective Sweep on a Deleterious Mutation in CPT1A in Arctic Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemente, Florian J.; Cardona, Alexia; Inchley, Charlotte E.

    2014-01-01

    Arctic populations live in an environment characterized by extreme cold and the absence of plant foods for much of the year and are likely to have undergone genetic adaptations to these environmental conditions in the time they have been living there. Genome-wide selection scans based on genotype......, using whole-genome high-coverage sequence data, we identified the most likely causative variant as a nonsynonymous G>A transition (rs80356779; c.1436C>T [p.Pro479Leu] on the reverse strand) in CPT1A, a key regulator of mitochondrial long-chain fatty-acid oxidation. Remarkably, the derived allele...... this variant to high frequency in circum-Arctic populations within the last 6–23 ka despite associated deleterious consequences, possibly as a result of the selective advantage it originally provided to either a high-fat diet or a cold environment....

  15. Level of health of cleaners taking part in the Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margine, L.; Vicol, C.

    2009-01-01

    During the period of 1986-1988 about 3,000 Moldova citizens took part in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences elimination. In this article the level of morbidity, disability and mortality among Chernobyl accident consequences liquidation participants is analyzed. As a result of analysis of medical documentation and statistical data was revealed that the sickness rate among disaster fighters 2,3 times higher than general sickness rate of the population in Moldova. Disability in this category is at average of 73 per cent as opposed to the overall index for the population of Moldova - 4,4%, this means it is 17 times higher. Mortality among the participants of the accident at Chernobyl NPP is 6 times higher of general data. The participants of the breakdown elimination of Chernobyl accident consequences are equal in their right with the participants and invalids of war and with the disabled workers. Medical and social security of this group is regulated by the legislation of the Republic of Moldova

  16. The consequences of seniors seeking health information using the internet and other sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medlock, Stephanie; Eslami, Saeid; Askari, Marjan; Sent, Danielle; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2013-01-01

    The internet is viewed as an important channel for patient empowerment, enabling patients to feel more knowledgeable and take action to improve their own health. Internet use among seniors in the Netherlands is increasing, but it is not known if they also use it for health information, nor if

  17. Daylight and health: A review of the evidence and consequences for the built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.J. Aarts; Joost van Hoof; M.B.C. Aries

    2015-01-01

    Daylight has been associated with multiple health advantages. Some of these claims are associations, hypotheses or beliefs. This review presents an overview of a scientific literature search on the proven effects of daylight exposure on human health. Studies were identified with a search strategy

  18. Childhood Health Consequences of Maternal Obesity during Pregnancy: A Narrative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S.M.S. Santos (Susana); L. Duijts (Liesbeth); J.F. Felix (Janine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Obesity is a major public health problem among women of reproductive age. In a narrative review, we examined the influence of maternal obesity during pregnancy on fetal outcomes and childhood adiposity, cardio-metabolic, respiratory and cognitive-related health outcomes. We

  19. Urban forest influences on exposure to UV radiation and potential consequences for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon M. Heisler

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores the literature on ultraviolet (UV) irradiance in urban ecosystems with respect to the likely effects on human health. The focus was the question of whether the health effects of UV radiation should be included in the planning of landscape elements such as trees and shading structures, especially for high use pedestrian areas and school play...

  20. Determinants of participation in a web-based health risk assessment and consequences for health promotion programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.J. Niessen (Maurice); E.L. Laan (Eva); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); M.L.E. Essink-Bot (Marie-Louise); N. Peek (Niels); R.A. Kraaijenhagen (Roderik); C.K. van Kalken (Coen); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The health risk assessment (HRA) is a type of health promotion program frequently offered at the workplace. Insight into the underlying determinants of participation is needed to evaluate and implement these interventions. Objective: To analyze whether individual

  1. Joint USNRC/EC consequence uncertainty study: The ingestion pathway, dosimetry and health effects expert judgment elicitations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, F.; Goossens, L.; Abbott, M.

    1996-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the European Commission (EC) have conducted a formal expert judgment elicitation jointly to systematically collect the quantitative information needed to perform consequence uncertainty analyses on a broad set of commercial nuclear power plants. Information from three sets of joint US/European expert panels was collected and processed. Information from the three sets of panels was collected in the following areas: in the phenomenological areas of atmospheric dispersion and deposition, in the areas of ingestion pathways and external dosimetry, and in the areas of health effects and internal dosimetry. This exercise has demonstrated that the uncertainty for particular issues as measured by the ratio of the 95th percentile to the 5th percentile can be extremely large (orders of magnitude), or rather small (factor of two). This information has already been used by many of the experts that were involved in this process in areas other than the consequence uncertainty field. The benefit to the field of radiological consequences is just beginning as the results of this study are published and made available to the consequence community

  2. Excessive computer game playing among Norwegian adults: self-reported consequences of playing and association with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, H G; Bakken, I J; Johansson, A; Götestam, K G; Øren, Anita

    2009-12-01

    Computer games are the most advanced form of gaming. For most people, the playing is an uncomplicated leisure activity; however, for a minority the gaming becomes excessive and is associated with negative consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate computer game-playing behaviour in the general adult Norwegian population, and to explore mental health problems and self-reported consequences of playing. The survey includes 3,405 adults 16 to 74 years old (Norway 2007, response rate 35.3%). Overall, 65.5% of the respondents reported having ever played computer games (16-29 years, 93.9%; 30-39 years, 85.0%; 40-59 years, 56.2%; 60-74 years, 25.7%). Among 2,170 players, 89.8% reported playing less than 1 hr. as a daily average over the last month, 5.0% played 1-2 hr. daily, 3.1% played 2-4 hr. daily, and 2.2% reported playing > 4 hr. daily. The strongest risk factor for playing > 4 hr. daily was being an online player, followed by male gender, and single marital status. Reported negative consequences of computer game playing increased strongly with average daily playing time. Furthermore, prevalence of self-reported sleeping problems, depression, suicide ideations, anxiety, obsessions/ compulsions, and alcohol/substance abuse increased with increasing playing time. This study showed that adult populations should also be included in research on computer game-playing behaviour and its consequences.

  3. Authentic leadership, social support and their role in workplace bullying and its mental health consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show how authentic leadership is related to social support and exposure to workplace bullying and how these variables are related to mental health. For our sample of 820 office workers employed in different Polish organizations and sectors, social support from supervisors moderated the relationship between authentic leadership and workplace bullying. Social support from co-workers moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health and authentic leadership moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health. PMID:26323771

  4. Authentic leadership, social support and their role in workplace bullying and its mental health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show how authentic leadership is related to social support and exposure to workplace bullying and how these variables are related to mental health. For our sample of 820 office workers employed in different Polish organizations and sectors, social support from supervisors moderated the relationship between authentic leadership and workplace bullying. Social support from co-workers moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health and authentic leadership moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health.

  5. Relation between Angle Class II malocclusion and deleterious oral habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral habits may interfere on the growth and development of the stomatognathic system and orofacial myofunctional conditions, producing changes in the position of teeth in their dental arches. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of deleterious oral habits in individuals with malocclusion and see if there is a predominance of Class II malocclusion in these individuals. METHODS: The records of 140 patients treated at the Clinic of Preventive Orthodontics FORP-USP who had already completed treatment were randomly selected and analyzed. Their ages ranged from 6 to 10 years and 11 months. Associations were made between the presence or absence of deleterious oral habits, type and number of habits found in each individual and the type of malocclusion according to Angle classification. The statistical analysis used was the Chi-square test with a significance level of 5%. History of deleterious oral habits was found in 67.1% of individuals. RESULTS: The Class I malocclusion was most frequent (82.9%, followed by Class II malocclusion (12.1% and Class III (5%. CONCLUSION: There was a predominance of Class II malocclusion in individuals with a history of deleterious oral habits.INTRODUÇÃO: hábitos bucais podem interferir no crescimento e desenvolvimento do sistema estomatognático e nas condições miofuncionais bucofaciais, acarretando alterações no posicionamento dos dentes nas respectivas arcadas dentárias. OBJETIVO: o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi verificar a presença de hábitos bucais deletérios em indivíduos portadores de má oclusão e observar se existe predominância de má oclusão Classe II de Angle nesses indivíduos. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas, aleatoriamente, e analisadas 140 fichas de pacientes atendidos na Clínica de Ortodontia Preventiva da FORP-USP, que já haviam recebido alta no tratamento. A faixa etária variou dos 6 anos a 10 anos e 11 meses. Foram realizadas associações entre

  6. Violence against Elderly Migrants and Its Consequences on Their Health: Experience from Monterrey, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Arun Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyse how the violence and abuse against elderly migrants in Monterrey, Mexico affects their health. For this research, 257 elderly Mexican migrants were surveyed in the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey during 2012 through 2013. The study found that the majority of elderly people migrate to urban areas in search of a better economic opportunity. Once in the city, they are absorbed into the informal economic sectors. Results indicate that most of these elderly people suffer physical, sexual and psychological violence, as well as neglect and financial abuse from their employer, relatives, clients and pedestrians, which has an adverse effect on their health. Elderly migrants reported numerous health problems, where many of them were suffering from different types of injuries, stress and depression, among others. This paper concluded that violence suffered by elderly migrants has a significant impact on their health.

  7. "More than skin deep": stress neurobiology and mental health consequences of racial discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Maximus; Sarnyai, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups across the world face a complex set of adverse social and psychological challenges linked to their minority status, often involving racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is increasingly recognized as an important contributing factor to health disparities among non-dominant ethnic minorities. A growing body of literature has recognized these health disparities and has investigated the relationship between racial discrimination and poor health outcomes. Chronically elevated cortisol levels and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis appear to mediate effects of racial discrimination on allostatic load and disease. Racial discrimination seems to converge on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and may impair the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hence showing substantial similarities to chronic social stress. This review provides a summary of recent literature on hormonal and neural effects of racial discrimination and a synthesis of potential neurobiological pathways by which discrimination affects mental health.

  8. Trace elements as contaminants and nutrients: consequences in ecosystems and human health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prasad, M. N. V. (Majeti Narasimha Vara)

    2008-01-01

    ... for Biomonitoring: Corrections by Use of Electrochemical Ligand Parameters and BCF-Defined Element Clusters 4. Discussion 5. Conclusion References 1 1 6 6 8 10 11 11 14 14 15 18 19 2 Health Implications of T...

  9. The Health Consequences of the Diversion of Resources to War and Preparation for War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sidel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Armed conflict damages health in many ways. These include death and disability directly caused by war, destruction of the societal infrastructure that supports health and safety, forced migration of people both within their own country and as refugees to other countries, promotion of violence as a method to settle conflicts and disputes, and the long-term adverse effects on social relationships. This special issue of Social Medicine examines the impact of war on human health from a geographically diverse set of countries and from diverse perspectives. Dr. Andrea Angulo Menasse, a researcher from Mexico City’s Autonomous University, documents the very personal story of how the violence of the Spanish Civil War affected one family. In her case study the trauma suffered by Spanish Republicans is traced through three generations and crosses the Atlantic Ocean as the family moves is exiled in Mexico. Dr. Sachin Ghimire from the Centre of Social Medicine and Community Health of the Jawaharlal Nehru University reports on his fieldwork in Rolpa, Nepal, the district from which the Nepal Civil War (also called the People’s War originated in 1996. Based on 80 interviews, he documents the difficulties faced by health care workers as they negotiated the sometimes deadly task of remaining in communities where control alternated between Nepalese Special Forces and the Maoist rebels. Finally, Colombian researcher, Carlos Iván Pacheco Sánchez, from the University of Rosario in Bogota, brings an epidemiologist’s tools to examine the impact of the ongoing armed conflict in the border Department of Nariño. His discussion is informed by the current debate over health care in Colombia where a recent Constitutional Court decision has found that the current health care system violates the right to health. These three papers amply demonstrate the depth, breadth and relevance of contemporary social medicine.

  10. Authentic leadership, social support and their role in workplace bullying and its mental health consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show how authentic leadership is related to social support and exposure to workplace bullying and how these variables are related to mental health. For our sample of 820 office workers employed in different Polish organizations and sectors, social support from supervisors moderated the relationship between authentic leadership and workplace bullying. Social support from co-workers moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health and authenti...

  11. The consequences of English language testing for international health professionals and students: An Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Michele; Thiessen, Jodi; Buchan, James; Daly, John

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the perceptions about the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) and its impact on migration and practice of migrant health professionals in Australia. Thematic analysis of interviews with 14 health industry participants and 35 migrated health professionals in Australia. Language testing is a barrier to health professional registration for migrant health workers in Australia. While two English language tests are recognised by the registration authorities in Australia, it is the International English Language Testing System that is most commonly used. This paper reports that study participants had underlying negative perceptions of the International English Language Testing System which they report, affect their move to Australia. These negative perceptions are caused by: frustration due to changes to processes for migration and registration; challenges regarding the structure of IELTS including timing of when test results expire, scoring requirements, cost, and suitability; and the resulting feelings of inadequacy caused by the test itself. This study has shown that some respondents have experienced difficulties in relation to the International English Language Testing System as part of their migration process. It was found that there is very little research into the effectiveness of the IELTS as it is currently administered for overseas health care professionals. Several recommendations are provided including areas for further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing exposure and health consequences of chemicals in drinking water: current state of knowledge and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Cristina M; Kogevinas, Manolis; Cordier, Sylvaine; Templeton, Michael R; Vermeulen, Roel; Nuckols, John R; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Levallois, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Safe drinking water is essential for well-being. Although microbiological contamination remains the largest cause of water-related morbidity and mortality globally, chemicals in water supplies may also cause disease, and evidence of the human health consequences is limited or lacking for many of them. We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge, identify gaps in understanding, and provide recommendations for epidemiological research relating to chemicals occurring in drinking water. Assessing exposure and the health consequences of chemicals in drinking water is challenging. Exposures are typically at low concentrations, measurements in water are frequently insufficient, chemicals are present in mixtures, exposure periods are usually long, multiple exposure routes may be involved, and valid biomarkers reflecting the relevant exposure period are scarce. In addition, the magnitude of the relative risks tends to be small. Research should include well-designed epidemiological studies covering regions with contrasting contaminant levels and sufficient sample size; comprehensive evaluation of contaminant occurrence in combination with bioassays integrating the effect of complex mixtures; sufficient numbers of measurements in water to evaluate geographical and temporal variability; detailed information on personal habits resulting in exposure (e.g., ingestion, showering, swimming, diet); collection of biological samples to measure relevant biomarkers; and advanced statistical models to estimate exposure and relative risks, considering methods to address measurement error. Last, the incorporation of molecular markers of early biological effects and genetic susceptibility is essential to understand the mechanisms of action. There is a particular knowledge gap and need to evaluate human exposure and the risks of a wide range of emerging contaminants. Villanueva CM, Kogevinas M, Cordier S, Templeton MR, Vermeulen R, Nuckols JR, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Levallois P. 2014. Assessing

  13. Evaluating the unintended health consequences of poverty alleviation strategies: or what is the relevance of Mohammed Yunus to public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohindra, K S; Haddad, Slim

    2008-01-01

    Public health researchers are increasingly shifting their attention away from merely documenting those factors that determine health--a solid evidence base on health determinants now exists--to improving our understanding of how various interventions influence population health. This paper argues for greater investigations of the potential unintended health benefits associated with participation in a poverty alleviation strategy (PAS) in low-income countries. We focus on microcredit, a PAS that has been spreading across the developing world. Microcredit aims to address the "credit gap" between the poor and the better off by offering an alternative for the poor to acquire loans: small groups are formed and loans are allocated to members based on group solidarity instead of formal collateral. We argue that microcredit corresponds with activities that will help build up health capital (e.g., greater access to resources) and describe the main pathways from microcredit participation to health. We advocate that microcredit and other potential pro-health PAS be included among the range of interventions considered by public health researchers in improving the health of the poor.

  14. Cars, corporations, and commodities: Consequences for the social determinants of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldred Rachel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Social epidemiologists have drawn attention to health inequalities as avoidable and inequitable, encouraging thinking beyond proximal risk factors to the causes of the causes. However, key debates remain unresolved including the contribution of material and psychosocial pathways to health inequalities. Tools to operationalise social factors have not developed in tandem with conceptual frameworks, and research has often remained focused on the disadvantaged rather than on forces shaping population health across the distribution. Using the example of transport, we argue that closer attention to social processes (capital accumulation and motorisation and social forms (commodity, corporation, and car offers a way forward. Corporations tied to the car, primarily oil and vehicle manufacturers, are central to the world economy. Key drivers in establishing this hegemony are the threat of violence from motor vehicles and the creation of distance through the restructuring of place. Transport matters for epidemiology because the growth of mass car ownership is environmentally unsustainable and affects population health through a myriad of pathways. Starting from social forms and processes, rather than their embodiment as individual health outcomes and inequalities, makes visible connections between road traffic injuries, obesity, climate change, underdevelopment of oil producing countries, and the huge opportunity cost of the car economy. Methodological implications include a movement-based understanding of how place affects health and a process-orientated integration of material and psychosocial explanations that, while materially based, contests assumptions of automatic benefits from economic growth. Finally, we identify car and oil corporations as anti-health forces and suggest collaboration with them creates conflicts of interest.

  15. Anticipating and addressing the unintended consequences of health IT and policy: a report from the AMIA 2009 Health Policy Meeting

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomrosen, Meryl; Starren, Justin; Lorenzi, Nancy M; Ash, Joan S; Patel, Vimla L; Shortliffe, Edward H

    2010-01-01

    Federal legislation (Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act) has provided funds to support an unprecedented increase in health information technology (HIT) adoption for healthcare provider organizations and professionals throughout the U.S. While recognizing the promise that widespread HIT adoption and meaningful use can bring to efforts to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare, the American Medical Informatics Association devoted its 2...

  16. Radiological health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Improved health effects models have been developed for assessing the early effects, late somatic effects and genetic effects that might result from low-LET radiation exposures to populations following a major accident in a nuclear power plant. All the models have been developed in such a way that the dynamics of population risks can be analyzed. Estimates of life years lost and the duration of illnesses were generated and a framework recommended for summarizing health impacts. Uncertainty is addressed by providing models for upper, central and lower estimates of most effects. The models are believed to be a significant improvement over the models used in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Reactor Safety Study, and they can easily be modified to reflect advances in scientific understanding of the health effects of ionizing radiation

  17. A review of the consequences of global climate change on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Ara Jahan, Shamin

    2014-01-01

    The impact of climate change has been significant enough to endanger human health both directly and indirectly via heat stress, degraded air quality, rising sea levels, food and water security, extreme weather events (e.g., floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcano eruptions, tsunamis, hurricanes, etc.), vulnerable shelter, and population migration. The deterioration of environmental conditions may facilitate the transmission of diarrhea, vector-borne and infectious diseases, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, malnutrition, etc. Indirect effects of climate change such as mental health problems due to stress, loss of homes, economic instability, and forced migration are also unignorably important. Children, the elderly, and communities living in poverty are among the most vulnerable of the harmful effects due to climate change. In this article, we have reviewed the scientific evidence for the human health impact of climate change and analyzed the various diseases in association with changes in the atmospheric environment and climate conditions.

  18. Intimate partner violence in older women in Spain: prevalence, health consequences, and service utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Isabel; Martín-Baena, David; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Talavera, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence (IPV) in older women and to analyze its effect on women's health and Healthcare Services utilization. Women aged 55 years and over (1,676) randomly sampled from Primary Healthcare Services around Spain were included. Lifetime IPV prevalence, types, and duration were calculated. Descriptive and multivariate procedures using logistic and multiple lineal regression models were used. Of the women studied, 29.4% experienced IPV with an average duration of 21 years. Regardless of the type of IPV experienced, abused women showed significantly poorer health and higher healthcare services utilization compared to women who had never been abused. The high prevalence detected long standing duration, negative health impact, and high healthcare services utilization, calling attention to a need for increased efforts aimed at addressing IPV in older women.

  19. Premium inflation in the Irish private health insurance market: drivers and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, B

    2013-12-01

    Nearly half of the Irish population is covered by private health insurance. In recent years, premium inflation has been significantly ahead of overall inflation and has been accelerating. This has contributing to a drop in the numbers insured since the peak in 2008. The fall in the numbers with private health insurance also has implications for the public health system. Factors behind this premium inflation include rising charges for beds in public hospitals, increasing volume of treatments and increasing quality of service and cover. While some progress has been made by insurers on reducing fees paid to consultants and private hospitals, unless the quantity or quality of care are addressed then premium inflation is unlikely to abate.

  20. Home visits during pregnancy: consequences on pregnancy outcome, use of health services, and women's situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel, B; Bréart, G

    1995-08-01

    This review of eight randomized controlled trials assessed two different types of home visits during pregnancy: (1) those offering social support to high-risk women; and (2) those providing medical care to women with complications. In both categories, pregnancy outcome was not improved when women received home visits. The summary odds ratio for preterm delivery (better integration of hospital and home services might allow a more rational use of health services for women with complications. In addition, we need to define more precisely the content of home visits providing social support. For this, further research is required on how emotional support, health education, and advice influence the health of women and infants and mother-child interactions.

  1. Prevalence of exposure of heavy metals and their impact on health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Kanwal; Fatima, Fiza; Waheed, Iqra; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Even in the current era of growing technology, the concentration of heavy metals present in drinking water is still not within the recommended limits as set by the regulatory authorities in different countries of the world. Drinking water contaminated with heavy metals namely; arsenic, cadmium, nickel, mercury, chromium, zinc, and lead is becoming a major health concern for public and health care professionals. Occupational exposure to heavy metals is known to occur by the utilization of these metals in various industrial processes and/or contents including color pigments and alloys. However, the predominant source resulting in measurable human exposure to heavy metals is the consumption of contaminated drinking water and the resulting health issues may include cardiovascular disorders, neuronal damage, renal injuries, and risk of cancer and diabetes. The general mechanism involved in heavy metal-induced toxicity is recognized to be the production of reactive oxygen species resulting oxidative damage and health related adverse effects. Thus utilization of heavy metal-contaminated water is resulting in high morbidity and mortality rates all over the world. Thereby, feeling the need to raise the concerns about contribution of different heavy metals in various health related issues, this article has discussed the global contamination of drinking water with heavy metals to assess the health hazards associated with consumption of heavy metal-contaminated water. A relationship between exposure limits and ultimate responses produced as well as the major organs affected have been reviewed. Acute and chronic poisoning symptoms and mechanisms responsible for such toxicities have also been discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prevalence of Deleterious Oral Habits and Oral Mucosal Lesions among Fishermen Population of Mahe, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzil, Ksa; Mathews, J; Sai, A G; Kiran, M; Kevin, S; Sunith, S

    2016-09-01

    Fishing is an occupation associated with uneven diet, strain, drunkenness, tobacco use, and deleterious habits. The physical state of laborers on a large scale will also be influenced by conditions at their work site. Oral mucosal lesions can occur as a result of infections, local shock or infuriation, systemic diseases, and uncontrolled usage of tobacco, betel quid, and alcohol. The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of deleterious oral habits and oral mucosal lesions among fishermen population of Mahe, South India. The study population consists of 362 fishermen aged between 15 and 54. The questionnaire consisted of questions on personal data, and information related to the subjects' oral habits were collected by the interview. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Assessment Form was designed for the assessment of oral mucosal lesions. Among the 362 fishermen, 266 (73.48%) were males and 96 (26.52%) were females. The overall prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, and gutka chewing was found to be 24.3, 48.85, and 32.4% respectively. Smokeless tobacco (32.4%) was the most prevalent habit followed by smoking tobacco (24.3%). The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 14.9%. There is a statistically significant association between age groups and habits considered. Findings of the present study suggest that oral health condition of the fisherfolk community was relatively poor, with high habit prevalence and oral mucosal lesions. This epi-demiological study has provided baseline data to plan further research in this area. Low socioeconomic status, strenuous working hours, inadequate diet and nutrition intake, stress, and use of tobacco and alcohol act as contributing factors for ill health and oral diseases. It is a challenging population to the clinician to identify and treat them.

  3. Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... determine how a community is designed. Consequences of Obesity More Immediate Health Risks Obesity during childhood can ...

  4. The Social Patterning of Work-Related Insecurity and Its Health Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Marshall, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the association between work-related insecurity and health, with a focus on how this relationship is moderated by social location (gender, age and race). Drawing on longitudinal data from a Canadian labour market survey (1999-2004) the findings show that certain groups have a higher prevalence of exposure to certain types of…

  5. Economic and health consequences of COPD patients and their spouses in Denmark-1998-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Hilberg, Ole; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    patients had significantly higher rates of health-related contacts, medication use and higher socioeconomic costs compared to controls. The employment and income rates of employed spouses of COPD patients were significantly lower compared to controls. CONCLUSION: This study provides unique data...

  6. Consequences of ongoing civil conflict in Somalia: evidence for public health responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha-Sapir, Debarati; Ratnayake, Ruwan

    2009-08-01

    Debarati Guha-Sapir and Ruwan Ratnayake use field data to demonstrate the severe vulnerability faced by much of the Somalian population due to ongoing conflict, and call for concerted public health interventions and access to food aid especially in southern Somalia.

  7. Access to health services in six Colombian cities: limitations and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Vargas J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the characteristics of access to the General System of Social Security in health (SGSS, from the perspective of doctors, nurses, administrators and users. Methodology: based on the grounded theory we present a study in six cities in Colombia: Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Bogota, Leticia, Medellín and Pasto, for which interviews were conducted in-depth with health professionals involved in service delivery and focus groups with service users. Results: The findings indicate that insurance has become an end in itself, and being affiliated to SGSSS does not guarantee effective access to services. The dominance of the market, the financial profitability of insurers, imposed cost-containment mechanisms over the right to health. There are limitations from the rules, benefit plans that create geographical, economic and cultural barriers from the various actors involved in the chain of decisions. Additionally, display individual and institutional ethical shortcomings, clientelism and corruption in the management of resources, coupled with poverty and geographical dispersion of communities, mean that further limiting access to health services.

  8. Diabetes Treatment as "Homework": Consequences for Household Knowledge and Health Practices in Rural Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Bygbjerg, Ib C.; Meyrowitsch, Dan W.; Whyte, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health professionals assign diabetes patients "homework" in that they give them instructions on how to manage diabetes, recognizing that most diabetes care takes place in the home setting. We studied how homework is practiced and whether knowledge and behavioral practices related to diabetes self-management diffuse from…

  9. Health services for asylum seekers and refugees in Europe: consequences for policymaking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devillé, W.; Goosen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Reception and integration of asylum seekers and refugees are high on the political agenda in most European countries. Reception conditions, including the provision of health care, differ considerably between countries. The European Commission tries to harmonise the reception standards in the

  10. Practical consequences – ethical values as the basis for a system of public health management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Sytnik-Czetwertyński

    2016-10-01

    UKW w Bydgoszczy, Poland   Abstract The place of the first and last meeting between the citizen and the system is the hospital. The organisation of its management is basically a condition of human life, later of health and finally, of a dignified death. We could say that the system of managing public health is a basis for the dignity of the nation, a basis for humanity. The hospital is a place of mutual learning between system and citizen, of studying its possibilities. The relationship between individual and public health is virtually unbreakable. We could claim that for the newborn infant, the hospital is the place where statehood first manifests itself. It is a preliminary element, the riser on the steps to the system, an  introduction  to life . But later, this same system observes the young citizen in his development. The system requires healthy individuals, identifying with it and its division into specific roles. It therefore educates, then indicates the places within its organism which need filling, so that its main functions are maintained. In order to minimise the risks of any potential error, the system defines the possibilities of the citizen. To this end, the means of evaluation in the hospital, later clinic and school, are those most employed.   Key words: public health, ethical dilemme, mind-body problem

  11. Consequences of Runaway and Thrownaway Experiences for Sexual Minority Health during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Thrane, Lisa; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2017-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are more likely to run away from home or experience homelessness, leaving them at increased risk of victimization and negative health outcomes. In this study, the authors use a developmental perspective that considers both vulnerable beginnings in families and the risky trajectories that follow to explore the connections…

  12. The health consequences of maquiladora work: women on the US-Mexican border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, S; Silberg, M J

    1993-01-01

    As more US companies take jobs to Mexico, complaints are growing that the assembly plants (maquiladoras) exert adverse effects on workers' health. This study assessed the health of female electronic and garment maquiladora workers, comparing them with women employed in services and non-wage earners. A survey was administered to 480 women living in Tijuana in 1990. The sample was stratified by occupation and length of employment. Functional impediments, nervousness, depression, and sense of control were used as outcome variables, controlling for other confounders. Despite working longer hours, receiving lower wages, and having less decision latitude and education, maquiladora workers were not worse off than service workers. Maquiladora workers reported similar incidences of depression and lack of control over life. Electronics workers, especially, had lower incidences of nervousness and functional impediments, after controlling for other confounders. Also, maquiladora work did not add an extra health burden compared with non-wage earners. The adverse effects of maquiladoras previously reported may have been exaggerated. Subjective factors, including negative attitudes toward economic adversity and work dissatisfaction, were stronger predictors of health than were objective indicators.

  13. High-intensity interval exercise and cerebrovascular health: curiosity, cause, and consequence

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D; Brassard, Patrice; Bailey, Damian M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is a uniquely effective and pluripotent medicine against several noncommunicable diseases of westernised lifestyles, including protection against neurodegenerative disorders. High-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is emerging as an effective alternative to current health-related exercise guidelines. Compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise training, HIT confers equivalent if not indeed superior metabolic, cardiac, and systemic vascular adaptation. Con...

  14. Consequences of Physical Health and Mental Illness Risks for Academic Achievement in Grades K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Sean; Joe, Emanique; Rowley, Larry L.

    2009-01-01

    Educational research, practice, and institutions regularly highlight the significance of factors outside of schooling that affect children's engagement and participation in classroom learning. The health of children and families is one such issue with implications for the quality of children's school experiences, treatment in school, and academic…

  15. Transcriptome profiling of liver of non-genetic low birth weight and long term health consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Bedate, Alberto; López-Cardona, Angela P; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Calle, Alexandra; López-Vidriero, Irene; Pintado, Belén; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is believed that the main factors of low prenatal growth in mammals are genetic and environmental. We used isogenic mice maintained in standard conditions to analyze how natural non-genetic microsomia (low birth weight) is produced in inbred mice and its long term effect on health. To

  16. Consequences of Stroke in Community-Dwelling Elderly: The Health and Retirement Study 1998-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divani, Afshin A.; Majidi, Shahram; Barrett, Anna M.; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Luft, Andreas R.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Stroke survivors are at risk of developing co-morbidities that further reduce their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of developing a secondary health problem after stroke. Methods We performed a case-control analysis using six biennial interview waves (1998 to 2008) of the Health and Retirement Study. We compared 631 non-institutionalized individuals who had suffered a single stroke to 631 controls matched for age, gender and interview-wave. We studied sleep problems, urinary incontinence (UI), motor impairment, falls and memory deficits among the two groups. Results Stroke survivors frequently developed new or worsened motor impairment (33%), sleep problems (up to 33%), falls (30%), UI (19%), and memory deficits (9%). As compared with controls, the risk of developing a secondary health problem was highest for memory deficits (OR: 2.45, 95%CI: 1.34-4.46), followed by UI (OR: 1.86, 95%CI: 1.31-2.66), motor impairment (OR: 1.61, 95%CI: 1.16-2.24), falls (OR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.12-2.0) and sleep disturbances (OR: 1.49, 95%CI: 1.09-2.03). In contrast, stroke survivors were not more likely to injure themselves during a fall (OR: 1.14, 95%CI: 0.72-1.79). After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, social status, psychiatric symptoms and pain, the risks of falling or developing sleep problems were not different from the control subjects. Conclusions The risk of developing a secondary health problem that can impact daily life is markedly increased after stroke. A better understanding of frequencies and risks for secondary health problems after stroke are necessary for designing better preventive and rehabilitation strategies. PMID:21597018

  17. Understanding the mental health consequences of family separation for refugees: Implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alexander; Hess, Julia Meredith; Bybee, Deborah; Goodkind, Jessica R

    2018-01-01

    Consistent evidence documents the negative impacts of family separation on refugee mental health and concerns for the welfare of distant family members and desire to reunite with family members as priorities for refugees postmigration. Less is known about refugees' emic perspectives on their experiences of family separation. Using mixed methods data from a community-based mental health intervention study, we found that family separation was a major source of distress for refugees and that it was experienced in a range of ways: as fear for family still in harm's way, as a feeling of helplessness, as cultural disruption, as the greatest source of distress since resettlement, and contributing to mixed emotions around resettlement. In addition to these qualitative findings, we used quantitative data to test the relative contribution of family separation to refugees' depression/anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and psychological quality of life. Separation from a family member was significantly related to all 3 measures of mental health, and it explained significant additional variance in all 3 measures even after accounting for participants' overall level of trauma exposure. Relative to 26 other types of trauma exposure, family separation was 1 of only 2 traumatic experiences that explained additional variance in all 3 measures of mental health. Given the current global refugee crisis and the need for policies to address this large and growing issue, this research highlights the importance of considering the ways in which family separation impacts refugee mental health and policies and practices that could help ameliorate this ongoing stressor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Conscientious objection and refusal to provide reproductive healthcare: a White Paper examining prevalence, health consequences, and policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavkin, Wendy; Leitman, Liddy; Polin, Kate

    2013-12-01

    Global Doctors for Choice-a transnational network of physician advocates for reproductive health and rights-began exploring the phenomenon of conscience-based refusal of reproductive healthcare as a result of increasing reports of harms worldwide. The present White Paper examines the prevalence and impact of such refusal and reviews policy efforts to balance individual conscience, autonomy in reproductive decision making, safeguards for health, and professional medical integrity. The White Paper draws on medical, public health, legal, ethical, and social science literature published between 1998 and 2013 in English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish. Estimates of prevalence are difficult to obtain, as there is no consensus about criteria for refuser status and no standardized definition of the practice, and the studies have sampling and other methodologic limitations. The White Paper reviews these data and offers logical frameworks to represent the possible health and health system consequences of conscience-based refusal to provide abortion; assisted reproductive technologies; contraception; treatment in cases of maternal health risk and inevitable pregnancy loss; and prenatal diagnosis. It concludes by categorizing legal, regulatory, and other policy responses to the practice. Empirical evidence is essential for varied political actors as they respond with policies or regulations to the competing concerns at stake. Further research and training in diverse geopolitical settings are required. With dual commitments toward their own conscience and their obligations to patients' health and rights, providers and professional medical/public health societies must lead attempts to respond to conscience-based refusal and to safeguard reproductive health, medical integrity, and women's lives. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs.

  20. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs

  1. Reflections on the mental health consequences of nuclear power plant disasters and implications for epidemiologic research in Northeast Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromet, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Disasters involving radiation exposure are particularly pernicious and have long-lasting psychological consequences. This paper reviews evidence regarding the specific consequences after the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear power plant accidents and shows the important association of risk perceptions with poor subjective health and emotional distress. The two groups used to illustrate the findings about the mental health aftermath are mothers of young children and clean-up workers. The importance of unbiased epidemiologic data for designing appropriate and needed mental health services and of integrating these services within a general medical framework are also discussed. Specific recommendations for enhancing the quality and hence utility of epidemiologic research are provided, which include consensus building with the affected community and full partnership in all steps in the design and execution of the research; if a random sample is the intended target, allowing unselected residents to participate if they wish; providing incentives to participation, including giving results of blood tests, thyroid tests, and physical examinations in a timely manner and training interview staff in motivational interviewing techniques; communicating the professional, scientific nature of the research and the consenting process, as well as the partnership with the community; and directly sharing the findings together with local partners to the respondents and interviewers prior to publishing the results elsewhere and allowing a time and place for feedback from the community. Given that mental health may be the largest public health problem unleashed by Fukushima, as was the case after Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, and knowing that poor mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, it is important that comprehensive health monitoring involve clinically sensitive measures of emotional well-being, particularly with regard to depression

  2. Study design, objectives, hypotheses, main findings, health consequences for the population exposed, rationale of future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trnovec, T.; Kocan, A. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Bencko, V. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Langer, P. [Institute of Experimental Endocrinology SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Berg, M. van den [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands); Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Hustak, M. [Air Force Military Hospital, Kosics (Slovakia)

    2004-09-15

    In Slovakia, the Chemko Chemical Company, based in Strazske, in the Michalovce district, produced PCBs between 1959 and 1984, in the amount of more than 21,000 tons of commercial mixtures (Delor 103, 104, 105, 106, Delotherm DK and DH, Hydelor 137). PCBs were used for similar industrial purposes as in the west. Improper disposal from the Chemko plant via release of effluent directly into the Laborec River resulted in long-term contamination of sediment. As a result eastern Slovakia, the Michalovce district in particular, is recognized as one of the areas all over the world most heavily polluted with PCBs. Historical studies show that blood and adipose PCB levels were higher in Czechoslovakia than elsewhere in the 1970's and 1980's. Current data indicate that persons who eat locally raised food - pork, beef, poultry, eggs - in this district have elevated serum concentrations of PCBs. Environmental exposure to organochlorines in the Michalovce district indicate association with higher rates of certain cancers, but an inverse association with risk of breast cancer. An increased prevalence of thyroid disorders in the polluted area was also reported. This ''experimental setting in nature'' has attracted international scientific teams and two projects in the area are ongoing: Evaluating Human Health Risk from Low-dose and Long-term PCB Exposure, 5{sup th} FP Project QLK4-2000-00488, 2001- 2004; PCBRISK (http://www.pcbrisk.sk/) and Early Childhood Development and PCB Exposures in Slovakia, NCI/NIH, R01-CA96525 University of California, Davis, USA. This paper is serving as an introduction to papers of a session reporting on various health outcomes associated with PCB exposure. The objectives of the PCBRISK project were targeted at an evaluation of the human health risks of low-dose and long-term exposure to a group of persistent organochlorine pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites, organochlorine

  3. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Orihiko; Homma, Toshimitsu; Matsuzuru, Hideo; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi

    1991-02-01

    A first version of models has been developed for predicting the number of occurrences of health effects induced by radiation exposure in nuclear reactor accidents. The models are based on the health effects models developed originally by Harvard University (NUREG/CR-4214). These models are revised on the basis of the new information on risk estimates by the reassessment of the radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The models deal with the following effects: (1) early effects models for bone marrow, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, thyroid, skin and reproductive organs, using the Weibull function, (2) late somatic effects models including leukemia and cancers of breast, lungs, thyroid, gastrointestinal tract and so forth, on the basis of the information derived from epidemiological studies on the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, (3) models for late and developmental effects due to exposure in utero. (author)

  4. Improving health profile of blood donors as a consequence of transfusion safety efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Tran, Trung Nam; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transfusion safety rests heavily on the health of blood donors. Although they are perceived as being healthier than average, little is known about their long-term disease patterns and to which extent the blood banks' continuous efforts to optimize donor selection has resulted...... in improvements. Mortality and cancer incidence among blood donors in Sweden and Denmark was investigated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: All computerized blood bank databases were compiled into one database, which was linked to national population and health data registers. With a retrospective cohort study design, 1......,110,329 blood donors were followed for up to 35 years from first computer-registered blood donation to death, emigration, or December 31, 2002. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios expressed relative risk of death and cancer comparing blood donors to the general population. RESULTS: Blood donors had...

  5. ORGANIZATIONAL AND PERSONALITY FACTORS OF STRESS IN ACCOUNTING AND CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS ON HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Stager

    2017-01-01

    Stress in accounting is popular in the area of research for many researchers in the fields of Psychology, Organizational Behavior, Health and Medicine. A significant part of empirical research has been focused on the analysis of the relationships between different individual and organizational stress factors on the job, including the effects of stress on the job. In the paper, we are showing an overview of the key concepts in the field of stress in accounting, covering organizational and pers...

  6. Consequences of Job Insecurity on the Psychological and Physical Health of Greek Civil Servants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Nella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the short term consequences of job insecurity associated with a newly introduced mobility framework in Greece. In specific, the study examined the impact of job insecurity on anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic and musculoskeletal symptoms, two months after the announcement of the mobility framework. In addition the study also examined the “spill over” effects of job insecurity on employees not directly affected by the mobility framework. Personal interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted for 36 university administrative employees awaiting repositioning, 36 coworkers not at risk, and 28 administrative employees of a local hospital not at risk. Compared to both control groups the employees in the anticipation phase of labor mobility had significantly worse scores for perceived stress, anxiety, depression, positive affect, negative affect, social support, marital discord, common somatic symptoms, and frequency of musculoskeletal pain. This study highlights the immediate detrimental effects of job insecurity on the physical, psychological, and social functioning of employees. There is a need for the development of front line interventions to prevent these effects from developing into chronic conditions with considerable cost for the individual and society in general.

  7. Estimation of health in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning-up participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebeshko, V.G.; Kovalenko, A.N.; Chomazjuk, I.N.

    1997-01-01

    Over 11 years period of health observation of Chernobyl Accident's victims permits to make some conclusions. Quantitative changes of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells, changes in ultrastructural organization of hemopoietic cells, disturbance of proliferative activity of hemopoietic and stromal progenitor cells in clean-up workers testify to alterations of functional properties of hemopoiesis. There are high level of T- helpers, early appearance regenerated T-cells, which simultaneously express surface antigens of helpers and supressors, synchronization of proliferative cycle of immunocompetentive cells in these patients. Oppressing of antioxidant protection, stable changes of hormonal maintenance of adaptation and reproduction processes, disturbance of feedback mechanism between effector glands and hypophysis, significant rise of polyamines were determined. Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of health disruptions at victims. Neural and psychological diseases, suicidal cases, trauma, death in automobile accidents are rank second and third in structure of morbidity. In structure of chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases dominated chronic obstructive bronchitis. The adrenergic tonus of vegetative nervous system was seen. The peculiarity of rehabilitation measures is complexness and continuity in-patients, out-patients service and providing facilities in health resorts. (author)

  8. What Factors Influence Employee Service Recovery Performance and What Are the Consequences in Health Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiri, Halil; Tanova, Cem

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the extent to which the service recovery performance of frontline employees in private health care institutions is influenced by employee perceptions of manager attitudes toward service quality, workplace support, and manager fairness and organizational commitment. We also examined the relationship of service recovery performance to employee job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Partial least square path modeling of data from 178 frontline employees in private health care institutions in North Cyprus was utilized. Although empowerment and role clarity were positively related to service recovery performance, perceived managerial attitudes toward hospital customer service, teamwork, and customer service-oriented training as indicators of workplace support were not related to frontline employees' service recovery performance. Organizational justice was related to affective commitment, which in turn was related to service recovery performance. Although service recovery performance was not related to employee turnover intentions, it was related to job satisfaction. Managerial implications of these study findings are presented in the light of the cognitive evaluation theory. Health services differ from other service organizations in the way that intrinsic and extrinsic rewards influence the service recovery efforts of frontline employees. To ensure high quality services, managers should focus on intrinsic rewards, empower and give more autonomy to staff.

  9. Alcohol, drugs, caffeine, tobacco, and environmental contaminant exposure: reproductive health consequences and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeu, J C; Hughes, Claude L; Agarwal, Sanjay; Foster, Warren G

    2010-08-01

    Reproductive function and fertility are thought to be compromised by behaviors such as cigarette smoking, substance abuse, and alcohol consumption; however, the strength of these associations are uncertain. Furthermore, the reproductive system is thought to be under attack from exposure to environmental contaminants, particularly those chemicals shown to affect endocrine homeostasis. The relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and adverse effects on human reproductive health are frequently debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have spread into the lay press drawing increased public and regulatory attention. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to critically evaluate the literature concerning the relationship between lifestyle exposures and adverse effects on fertility as well as examining the evidence for a role of environmental contaminants in the purported decline of semen quality and the pathophysiology of subfertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and endometriosis. The authors conclude that whereas cigarette smoking is strongly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, high-level exposures to other lifestyle factors are only weakly linked with negative fertility impacts. Finally, there is no compelling evidence that environmental contaminants, at concentrations representative of the levels measured in contemporary biomonitoring studies, have any effect, positive or negative, on reproductive health in the general population. Further research using prospective study designs with robust sample sizes are needed to evaluate testable hypotheses that address the relationship between exposure and adverse reproductive health effects.

  10. The Trauma of Sexual Harassment and its Mental Health Consequences Among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Mamoona; Sultana, Safia; Imtiaz, Iqra

    2015-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of sexual harassment in nurses and to observe its correlation with negative mental health (depression, anxiety and stress). Further to examine the role of sexual harassment as a predictor of negative mental health in nurses and to explore the differences in the experience of sexual harassment, depression, anxiety and stress between junior and senior nurses. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Public Sector Hospitals in Lahore, from December 2011 to March 2012. Asample of 200 nurses with age range 23 to 46 years was obtained. Assessment tools used in the study were Sexual Harassment Experience Questionnaire (SHEQ) by Kamal, and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) by Lovibond and Lovibond. Mean age of the nurses was 29.80 ±7.10 years. Among these 63% were married and 37% unmarried. The mean working experience of nurses was 13.7 ±3. 52 years and their mean monthly income was 27820 ±13687.32 rupees. Their working hours ranged from 8 to 16 hours (M = 8.32, SD = 2.12). The mean prevalence of sexual harassment was 71.66 ±19.01. A significant positive correlation of sexual harassment with depression, anxiety, stress and combined effect of them (DASS) was found. Multiple regression analysis showed sexual harassment as significant predictor of depression (β= 0.47, p Sexual harassment was found to be a predictor of negative mental health in the form of depression, anxiety and stress in nurses of public hospitals.

  11. Notes on policies of research productivity in Brazil: Consequences for academic life, workplace ethics and workers´ health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madel Therezinha Luz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a sequence of papers that are fruit of sociological research carried out over the course of a decade on the search for care and health practices and their possible relationship to the labor regimes in contemporary capitalism as well asreflections on the social consequences of educational and scientific and technological policies at the higher education and particularly at the post-graduate level in Brazil. Our reflections have evolved from an initial perception that there is a growing search for ways to care for one’s health in our society to the realization that for a large part of the population, work, which has become merely a job (difficult and precarious has undergone considerable loss of meaning as far as the very act of working is concerned. Furthermore, we perceive the suffering generated by the loss of collective values and meanings around work and being a worker that belonged to a past moment in culture and social life, as well as the loss of the importance and prestige of human labor within the contemporary productive structure, linked to the technological transformations that are currently underway, generating malaise and collective illness. Keywords: public health, productivity, workplace health, work ethics, sociology of health.

  12. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part 1, Introduction, integration, and summary: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Abrahmson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilbert, E.S. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report is a revision of NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects models for low-LET radiations based on recent reports from UNSCEAR, ICRP and NAS/NRC (BEIR V). The second addendum presented changes needed to incorporate alpha-emitting radionuclides into the accident exposure source term. As in the earlier version of this report, models are provided for early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating the risks of seven types of cancer in adults - leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ``other``. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Five classes of genetic diseases -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocations, and multifactorial diseases are also considered. Data are provided that should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk.

  13. Methylphenidate and environmental enrichment ameliorate the deleterious effects of prenatal stress on attention functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubedat, Salman; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Cymerblit-Sabba, Adi; Ritter, Ami; Nachmani, Maayan; Avital, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Either pre- or post-natal environmental factors seem to play a key role in brain and behavioral development and to exert long-term effects. Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal stress (PS) leads to motor and learning deficits and elevated anxiety, while enriched environment (EE) shows protective effects. The dopaminergic system is also sensitive to environmental life circumstances and affects attention functioning, which serves as the preliminary gate to cognitive processes. However, the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the dopaminergic system and attentional functioning, in the context of these life experiences, remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of EE or PS on distinct types of attention, along with possible effects of MPH exposure. We found that PS impaired selective attention as well as partial sustained attention, while EE had beneficial effects. Both EE and MPH ameliorated the deleterious effects of PS on attention functioning. Considering the possible psychostimulant effect of MPH, we examined both anxiety-like behavior as well as motor learning. We found that PS had a clear anxiogenic effect, whereas EE had an anxiolytic effect. Nevertheless, the treatment with both MPH and/or EE recovered the deleterious effects of PS. In the motor-learning task, the PS group showed superior performance while MPH led to impaired motor learning. Performance decrements were prevented in both the PS + MPH and EE + MPH groups. This study provides evidence that peripubertal exposure to EE (by providing enhanced sensory, motor, and social opportunities) or MPH treatments might be an optional therapeutic intervention in preventing the PS long-term adverse consequences.

  14. RISKIND: A computer program for calculating radiological consequences and health risks from transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.C.; Chen, S.Y.; LePoire, D.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report presents the technical details of RISIUND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. RISKIND is a user-friendly, semiinteractive program that can be run on an IBM or equivalent personal computer. The program language is FORTRAN-77. Several models are included in RISKIND that have been tailored to calculate the exposure to individuals under various incident-free and accident conditions. The incidentfree models assess exposures from both gamma and neutron radiation and can account for different cask designs. The accident models include accidental release, atmospheric transport, and the environmental pathways of radionuclides from spent fuels; these models also assess health risks to individuals and the collective population. The models are supported by databases that are specific to spent nuclear fuels and include a radionudide inventory and dose conversion factors

  15. RISKIND: A computer program for calculating radiological consequences and health risks from transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y.C. [Square Y, Orchard Park, NY (United States); Chen, S.Y.; LePoire, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Rothman, R. [USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-02-01

    This report presents the technical details of RISIUND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. RISKIND is a user-friendly, semiinteractive program that can be run on an IBM or equivalent personal computer. The program language is FORTRAN-77. Several models are included in RISKIND that have been tailored to calculate the exposure to individuals under various incident-free and accident conditions. The incidentfree models assess exposures from both gamma and neutron radiation and can account for different cask designs. The accident models include accidental release, atmospheric transport, and the environmental pathways of radionuclides from spent fuels; these models also assess health risks to individuals and the collective population. The models are supported by databases that are specific to spent nuclear fuels and include a radionudide inventory and dose conversion factors.

  16. Maturation of the Infant Respiratory Microbiota, Environmental Drivers, and Health Consequences. A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Astrid A T M; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; van Houten, Marlies A; Chu, Mei Ling J N; Biesbroek, Giske; Kool, Jolanda; Pernet, Paula; de Groot, Pieter-Kees C M; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Keijser, Bart J F; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-12-15

    Perinatal and postnatal influences are presumed important drivers of the early-life respiratory microbiota composition. We hypothesized that the respiratory microbiota composition and development in infancy is affecting microbiota stability and thereby resistance against respiratory tract infections (RTIs) over time. To investigate common environmental drivers, including birth mode, feeding type, antibiotic exposure, and crowding conditions, in relation to respiratory tract microbiota maturation and stability, and consecutive risk of RTIs over the first year of life. In a prospectively followed cohort of 112 infants, we characterized the nasopharyngeal microbiota longitudinally from birth on (11 consecutive sample moments and the maximum three RTI samples per subject; in total, n = 1,121 samples) by 16S-rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Using a microbiota-based machine-learning algorithm, we found that children experiencing a higher number of RTIs in the first year of life already demonstrate an aberrant microbial developmental trajectory from the first month of life on as compared with the reference group (0-2 RTIs/yr). The altered microbiota maturation process coincided with decreased microbial community stability, prolonged reduction of Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum, enrichment of Moraxella very early in life, followed by later enrichment of Neisseria and Prevotella spp. Independent drivers of these aberrant developmental trajectories of respiratory microbiota members were mode of delivery, infant feeding, crowding, and recent antibiotic use. Our results suggest that environmental drivers impact microbiota development and, consequently, resistance against development of RTIs. This supports the idea that microbiota form the mediator between early-life environmental risk factors for and susceptibility to RTIs over the first year of life.

  17. Determinants of participation in a web-based health risk assessment and consequences for health promotion programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Maurice A J; Laan, Eva L; Robroek, Suzan J W; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Peek, Niels; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Van Kalken, Coen K; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-08-09

    The health risk assessment (HRA) is a type of health promotion program frequently offered at the workplace. Insight into the underlying determinants of participation is needed to evaluate and implement these interventions. To analyze whether individual characteristics including demographics, health behavior, self-rated health, and work-related factors are associated with participation and nonparticipation in a Web-based HRA. Determinants of participation and nonparticipation were investigated in a cross-sectional study among individuals employed at five Dutch organizations. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of participation and nonparticipation in the HRA after controlling for organization and all other variables. Of the 8431 employees who were invited, 31.9% (2686/8431) enrolled in the HRA. The online questionnaire was completed by 27.2% (1564/5745) of the nonparticipants. Determinants of participation were some periods of stress at home or work in the preceding year (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.08-2.42), a decreasing number of weekdays on which at least 30 minutes were spent on moderate to vigorous physical activity (OR(dayPA)0.84, 95% CI 0.79-0.90), and increasing alcohol consumption. Determinants of nonparticipation were less-than-positive self-rated health (poor/very poor vs very good, OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.08-0.81) and tobacco use (at least weekly vs none, OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0.90). This study showed that with regard to isolated health behaviors (insufficient physical activity, excess alcohol consumption, and stress), those who could benefit most from the HRA were more likely to participate. However, tobacco users and those who rated their overall health as less than positive were less likely to participate. A strong communication strategy, with recruitment messages that take reasons for nonparticipation into account, could prove to be an essential tool for organizations trying to reach employees who are less likely to participate.

  18. 30 years life with Chernobyl, 5 years life with Fukushima. Health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima; 30 Jahre Leben mit Tschernobyl, 5 Jahre Leben mit Fukushima. Gesundheitliche Folgen der Atomkatastrophen von Tschernobyl und Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claussen, Angelika; Rosen, Alex

    2016-02-15

    The IPPNW report on health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima covers the following issues: Part.: 30 years life with Chernobyl: Summarized consequences of Chernobyl, the accident progression, basic data of the catastrophe, estimation of health hazards as a consequence of the severe accident of Chernobyl, health consequences for the liquidators, health consequences for the contaminated population, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. Part B: 5 years life with Fukushima: The start of the nuclear catastrophe, emissions and contamination, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on human health, thyroid surveys in the prefecture Fukushima, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on the ecosystem, outlook.

  19. Determinants and consequences of health worker motivation in hospitals in Jordan and Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Lynne Miller; Bennett, Sara; Kanfer, Ruth; Stubblebine, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Health worker motivation reflects the interactions between workers and their work environment. Because of the interactive nature of motivation, local organizational and broader sector policies have the potential to affect motivation of health workers, either positively or negatively, and as such to influence health system performance. Yet little is known about the key determinants and outcomes of motivation in developing and transition countries. This exploratory research, unique in its broader study of a whole range of motivational determinants and outcomes, was conducted in two hospitals in Jordan and two in Georgia. Three complementary approaches to data collection were used: (1) a contextual analysis; (2) a qualitative 360-degree assessment; and (3) a quantitative in-depth analysis focused on the individual determinants and outcomes of the worker's motivational process. A wide range of psychometric scales was used to assess personality differences, perceived contextual factors and motivational outcomes (feelings, thoughts and behaviors) on close to 500 employees in each country. Although Jordan and Georgia have very different cultural and socio-economic environments, the results from these two countries exhibited many similarities among key determinants: self-efficacy, pride, management openness, job properties, and values had significant effects on motivational outcomes in both countries. Where results were divergent, differences between the two countries highlight the importance of local culture on motivational issues, and the need to tailor motivational interventions to the specific issues related to particular professional or other groupings in the workforce. While workers themselves state that financial reward is critical for their work satisfaction, the data suggest a number of non-financial interventions that may be more effective means to improve worker motivation. This research highlights the complexity of worker motivation, and the need for a more

  20. The health-related, social, and economic consequences of parkinsonism: a controlled national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul Jørgen; Assenholt, Maria Elizabeth Anna; Korbo, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonism (AP) cause a significant socioeconomic burden, but there is insufficient information about the total disease burden at a national level. Thus, the goal of this study was to estimate the excess direct and indirect costs of PD and AP in a national...... on income data derived from the Coherent Social Statistics. Patients with PD and AP had significantly higher rates of health-related contact and medication use and a higher socioeconomic cost. Furthermore, they had very low employment rates, and those in employment had a lower income level than employed...

  1. Causes, Consequences and Public Health Implications of Low B-Vitamin Status in Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Porter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential protective roles of folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins (vitamins B12, B6 and riboflavin in diseases of ageing are of increasing research interest. The most common cause of folate and riboflavin deficiencies in older people is low dietary intake, whereas low B12 status is primarily associated with food-bound malabsorption, while sub-optimal vitamin B6 status is attributed to increased requirements in ageing. Observational evidence links low status of folate and the related B-vitamins (and/or elevated concentrations of homocysteine with a higher risk of degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD, cognitive dysfunction and osteoporosis. Deficient or low status of these B-vitamins alone or in combination with genetic polymorphisms, including the common MTHFR 677 C → T polymorphism, could contribute to greater disease risk in ageing by causing perturbations in one carbon metabolism. Moreover, interventions with the relevant B-vitamins to optimise status may have beneficial effects in preventing degenerative diseases. The precise mechanisms are unknown but many have been proposed involving the role of folate and the related B-vitamins as co-factors for one-carbon transfer reactions, which are fundamental for DNA and RNA biosynthesis and the maintenance of methylation reactions. This review will examine the evidence linking folate and related B-vitamins with health and disease in ageing, associated mechanisms and public health implications.

  2. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. In addition, models are included for assessing the risks of several nonlethal early and continuing effects -- including prodromal vomiting and diarrhea, hypothyroidism and radiation thyroiditis, skin burns, reproductive effects, and pregnancy losses. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ''other.'' The category, ''other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also developed. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. The models of cancer risk are derived largely from information summarized in BEIR III -- with some adjustment to reflect more recent studies. 64 refs., 18 figs., 46 tabs

  3. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S. (Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (USA). School of Public Health)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. In addition, models are included for assessing the risks of several nonlethal early and continuing effects -- including prodromal vomiting and diarrhea, hypothyroidism and radiation thyroiditis, skin burns, reproductive effects, and pregnancy losses. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and other.'' The category, other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also developed. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. The models of cancer risk are derived largely from information summarized in BEIR III -- with some adjustment to reflect more recent studies. 64 refs., 18 figs., 46 tabs.

  4. The consequences for human health of stratospheric ozone depletion in association with other environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R M; Norval, M; Neale, R E; Young, A R; de Gruijl, F R; Takizawa, Y; van der Leun, J C

    2015-01-01

    Due to the implementation of the Montreal Protocol, which has limited, and is now probably reversing, the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, only modest increases in solar UV-B radiation at the surface of the Earth have occurred. For many fair-skinned populations, changing behaviour with regard to exposure to the sun over the past half century - more time in the sun, less clothing cover (more skin exposed), and preference for a tan - has probably contributed more to greater levels of exposure to UV-B radiation than ozone depletion. Exposure to UV-B radiation has both adverse and beneficial effects on human health. This report focuses on an assessment of the evidence regarding these outcomes that has been published since our previous report in 2010. The skin and eyes are the organs exposed to solar UV radiation. Excessive solar irradiation causes skin cancer, including cutaneous malignant melanoma and the non-melanoma skin cancers, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, and contributes to the development of other rare skin cancers such as Merkel cell carcinoma. Although the incidence of melanoma continues to increase in many countries, in some locations, primarily those with strong sun protection programmes, incidence has stabilised or decreased over the past 5 years, particularly in younger age-groups. However, the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancers is still increasing in most locations. Exposure of the skin to the sun also induces systemic immune suppression that may have adverse effects on health, such as through the reactivation of latent viral infections, but also beneficial effects through suppression of autoimmune reactivity. Solar UV-B radiation damages the eyes, causing cataracts and pterygium. UV-B irradiation of the skin is the main source of vitamin D in many geographic locations. Vitamin D plays a critical role in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis in the body; severe deficiency causes the bone diseases, rickets in children

  5. Mental health consequences of stress and trauma: allostatic load markers for practice and policy with a focus on Indigenous health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Maximus; Juster, Robert-Paul; Sarnyai, Zoltán

    2015-12-01

    Mental health, well-being, and social life are intimately related as is evident from the higher incidence of psychiatric illness in individuals exposed to social stress and adversity. Several biological pathways linking social adversity to health outcomes are heavily investigated in the aims of facilitating early identification and prevention of adverse health outcomes. We provide a practice-orientated overview of the allostatic load model and how it relates to metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidity in psychiatric disorders. Allostatic load brings together a set of neuroendocrine, metabolic, immune and cardiovascular biomarkers that are elevated in individuals with adverse early life experiences and are predictive of cardiovascular and metabolic risk in psychiatric illness of critical importance for Indigenous Australians. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  6. Association between quality of cheap and unrecorded alcohol products and public health consequences in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Ganss, Sebastian; Rychlak, Bogumil; Rehm, Jürgen; Sulkowska, Urszula; Skiba, Michał; Zatonski, Witold

    2009-10-01

    The research aimed to study the quality of cheap alcohol products in Poland. These included unrecorded alcohols (i.e., home-produced or illegally imported), estimated to constitute more than 25% of total consumption and fruit wines. A sample of alcohol products (n = 52) was collected from local markets and chemical analyses were conducted. The parameters studied were alcoholic strength, volatiles (methanol, acetaldehyde, and higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, inorganic elements, and food additives including preservatives, colors, and sweeteners. The compositions of the beverages were then toxicologically evaluated using international standards. With the exception of 1 fortified wine, the unrecorded alcohols were home-produced fruit-derived spirits (moonshine) and spirits imported from other countries. We did not detect any nonbeverage surrogate alcohol. The unrecorded spirits contained, on average, 45% vol of alcohol. However, some products with considerably higher alcoholic strengths were found (up to 85% vol) with no labeling of the content on the bottles. These products may cause more pronounced detrimental health effects (e.g., liver cirrhosis, injuries, some forms of malignant neoplasms, alcohol use disorders, and cardiovascular disease) than will commercial beverages, especially as the consumer may be unaware of the alcohol content consumed. Fruit wines containing between 9.5 and 12.2% vol alcohol showed problems in terms of their additive content and their labeling (e.g., sulfites, sorbic acid, saccharin, and artificial colors) and should be subjected to stricter control. Regarding the other components investigated, the suspected human carcinogens, acetaldehyde and ethyl carbamate, were found at levels relevant to public health concerns. While acetaldehyde is a typical constituent of fermented beverages, ethyl carbamate was found only in home-produced unrecorded alcohols derived from stone fruits with levels significantly above international guidelines. The

  7. The predicted lifetime costs and health consequences of calcium and vitamin D supplementation for fracture preventio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, G.; Wisløff, T.; Sønbø Kristiansen, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Some studies indicate that calcium supplementation increases cardiovascular risk. We assessed whether such effects could counterbalance the fracture benefits from supplementation. Accounting for cardiovascular outcomes, calcium may cause net harm and would not be cost-effective. Clinicians...... and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of such supplementation. Methods: We created a probabilistic Markov simulation model that was analysed at the individual patient level. We analysed 65-year-old Norwegian women with a 2.3 % 10-year risk of hip fracture and a 9.3 % risk of any major fracture according......-, and high-risk scenario. Results: Assuming no cardiovascular effects, CaD supplementation produces improved health outcomes resulting in an incremental gain of 0.0223 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and increases costs by €322 compared with no treatment (cost-effectiveness ratio €14,453 per QALY gained...

  8. Elections Have Consequences for Student Mental Health: An Accidental Daily Diary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Michael J; Jacobson, Nicholas C

    2018-01-01

    Polling suggested that the 2016 United States presidential election affected citizens' mood and stress levels. Yet, polling often fails to employ repeated measurement designs that can capture pre- and post-levels of change within the same person. In this study, undergraduate students ( N = 85) completed a 14-day daily diary where mood, stress, and mental health outcomes were assessed before and after the election. Multilevel modeling revealed an immediate upsurge in anxiety, stress, and poor sleep quality the day after the election, followed by a recovery period indicating these effects were short-lived. Other reactions (anger, fear, marginalization, and experiencing discrimination) evidenced a significant upsurge without a significant recovery. We consider how daily diary research designs like this one could be integrated into college settings to inform counseling center resource allocation, and we also comment on the promise of the daily diary methodology for political research.

  9. Overweight and Obesity: Prevalence, Consequences, and Causes of a Growing Public Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ellen P; Mesidor, Marie; Winters, Karen; Dubbert, Patricia M; Wyatt, Sharon B

    2015-09-01

    This review considers a variety of perspectives on overweight and obesity (OW/obesity), including measurement and classification; prevalence and changes in prevalence in recent years; genetic, biological, medical, individual, and social correlates of OW/obesity; and treatment approaches. Despite increased attention, OW/obesity is escalating in prevalence worldwide, and the causes are exceedingly complex. A range of innovative studies, including basic research on gut microflora, dietary composition, pharmacologic interventions, and surgical procedures, is generating findings with potential for future prevention and treatment of OW/obesity. Social system changes such as school programs and the awareness of the roles of personal, family, health provider, and cultural experiences related to OW/obesity have also gained traction for vital prevention and treatment efforts over the past decade.

  10. Richer but fatter: the unintended consequences of microcredit financing on household health and expenditure in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana; Cunningham-Myrie, Colette; Fox, Kristin; Kirton, Claremont; Fraser, Raphael; McLeod, Georgia; Forrester, Terrence

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether there was a difference in wealth and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk between microcredit loan beneficiaries and community-matched non-beneficiaries (controls). Seven hundred and twenty-six households of microcredit loan beneficiaries were matched with 726 controls by age, sex and community. A standardised interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on health and household expenditure. Weights, heights, waist circumference and blood pressure measurements were taken for an adult and one child (6-16 years) from each household. Amongst adults, there was no difference in the prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension. More male (68.1% vs. 47.8%) and female beneficiaries (84.5% vs. 77.9%) were overweight/obese. More male (17.2% vs. 7.1%; P Microcredit financing is positively associated with wealth acquisition but worsened cardiovascular risk status. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Traumatic brain injuries caused by traffic accidents in five European countries: outcome and public health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdan, Marek; Mauritz, Walter; Wilbacher, Ingrid; Janciak, Ivan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Rusnak, Martin; Leitgeb, Johannes

    2013-08-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have been identified by public health organizations as being of major global concern. Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are among the most severe injuries and are in a large part caused by RTA. The objective of this article is to analyse the severity and outcome of TBI caused by RTA in different types of road users in five European countries. The demographic, severity and outcome measures of 683 individuals with RTA-related TBI from Austria, Slovakia, Bosnia, Croatia and Macedonia were analysed. Five types of road users (car drivers, car passengers, motorcyclists, bicyclists and pedestrians) were compared using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Short-term outcome [intensive care unit (ICU) survival] and last available long-term outcome of patients were analysed. In our data set, 44% of TBI were traffic related. The median age of patients was 32.5 years, being the lowest (25 years) in car passengers. The most severe and extensive injuries were reported in pedestrians. Pedestrians had the lowest rate of ICU survival (60%) and favourable long-term outcome (46%). Drivers had the highest ICU survival (73%) and car passengers had the best long-term outcome (59% favourable). No differences in the outcome were found between countries with different economy levels. TBI are significantly associated with RTA and thus, tackling them together could be more effective. The population at highest risk of RTA-related TBI are young males (in our sample median age: 32.5 years). Pedestrians have the most severe TBI with the worst outcome. Both groups should be a priority for public health action.

  12. Deleterious Effects From Occupational Exposure to Ethylene Thiourea in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutic, Abby D; Baker, Brenda J; McCauley, Linda A

    2017-12-01

    Human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has become common as a result of widespread application of these chemicals to the food supply, environmental contamination, and occupational exposures (Caserta et al., 2011). However, relatively little is known about the effects of EDCs such as ethylene thiourea (ETU) in developing fetuses and the lasting implications of this disruption on human development from birth through adulthood. Of highest concern are chronic, low-dose exposures among industrial and agricultural workers. Current knowledge regarding the significance of endocrine thyroid signaling on normal human development raises serious concerns about the possible deleterious effects of EDCs in the developing fetus, children, and mature adults. Occupational health nurses are critical in identifying women and families at increased risk of ETU exposure and mitigating early exposures in pregnancy.

  13. Assessing the Potential of Land Use Modification to Mitigate Ambient NO₂ and Its Consequences for Respiratory Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Meenakshi; George, Linda A; Shandas, Vivek; Rosenstiel, Todd N

    2017-07-10

    Understanding how local land use and land cover (LULC) shapes intra-urban concentrations of atmospheric pollutants-and thus human health-is a key component in designing healthier cities. Here, NO₂ is modeled based on spatially dense summer and winter NO₂ observations in Portland-Hillsboro-Vancouver (USA), and the spatial variation of NO₂ with LULC investigated using random forest, an ensemble data learning technique. The NO 2 random forest model, together with BenMAP, is further used to develop a better understanding of the relationship among LULC, ambient NO₂ and respiratory health. The impact of land use modifications on ambient NO₂, and consequently on respiratory health, is also investigated using a sensitivity analysis. We find that NO₂ associated with roadways and tree-canopied areas may be affecting annual incidence rates of asthma exacerbation in 4-12 year olds by +3000 per 100,000 and -1400 per 100,000, respectively. Our model shows that increasing local tree canopy by 5% may reduce local incidences rates of asthma exacerbation by 6%, indicating that targeted local tree-planting efforts may have a substantial impact on reducing city-wide incidence of respiratory distress. Our findings demonstrate the utility of random forest modeling in evaluating LULC modifications for enhanced respiratory health.

  14. Do flexicurity policies protect workers from the adverse health consequences of temporary employment? A cross-national comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Vahid Shahidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexicurity policies comprise a relatively novel approach to the regulation of work and welfare that aims to combine labour market flexibility with social security. Advocates of this approach argue that, by striking the right balance between flexibility and security, flexicurity policies allow firms to take advantage of loose contractual arrangements in an increasingly competitive economic environment while simultaneously protecting workers from the adverse health and social consequences of flexible forms of employment. In this study, we use multilevel Poisson regression models to test the theoretical claim of the flexicurity approach using data for 23 countries across three waves of the European Social Survey. We construct an institutional typology of labour market regulation and social security to evaluate whether inequalities in self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness between temporary workers and their permanent counterparts are smaller in countries that most closely approximate the ideal type described by advocates of the flexicurity approach. Our results indicate that, while the association between temporary employment and health varies across countries, institutional configurations of labour market regulation and social security do not provide a meaningful explanation for this cross-national variation. Contrary to the expectations of the flexicurity hypothesis, our data do not indicate that employment-related inequalities are smaller in countries that approximate the flexicurity approach. We discuss potential explanations for these findings and conclude that there remains a relative lack of evidence in support of the theoretical claims of the flexicurity approach. Keywords: Health inequalities, Cross-national, Temporary, Employment, Flexicurity, Multilevel

  15. Health consequences of Chernobyl: the New York Academy of Sciences publishes an antidote to the nuclear establishment's pseudo-science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alison Rosamund

    2010-01-01

    In February 2010, the New York Academy of Sciences published the most complete and up-to-date collection of evidence, from independent, scientific sources all over the world, on the health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident. For 24 years, through a high-level, internationally coordinated cover-up of the world's most serious industrial accident, the nuclear lobby has deprived the world of a unique and critically important source of scientific information. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), mouthpiece of the nuclear establishment, has coordinated the cover-up through the dissemination and imposition of crude pseudo-science. Regrettably, the World Health Organization, a U.N. agency on which the world's people rely for guidance, is subordinate to the IAEA in matters of radiation and health, has participated in the cover-up, and stands accused of non-assistance to populations in danger. The new book on Chernobyl makes available huge amounts of evidence from independent studies undertaken in the affected countries, unique and valuable data that have been ignored by the international health establishment. This comprehensive account of the full dimensions of the catastrophe reveals the shameful inadequacy of current international assistance to the affected populations. It also demonstrates, once more, that future energy options cannot include nuclear power.

  16. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.; Kellerer, A.M.; Bazyka, D.

    2006-01-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  17. Long-term socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Kay, Lise; Wanscher, Benedikte

    2016-01-01

    ) calculated in Cox-regression models. The analyses were performed separately for paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors and their controls, respectively. Compared with controls a higher percentage of paralytic polio survivors remained childless, whereas no difference was observed for non-paralytic polio...... survivors. The educational level among paralytic as well as non-paralytic polio survivors was higher than that among their controls, employment rate at the ages of 40, 50 and 60 years was slightly lower, whereas total income in the age intervals of 31–40, 41–50 and 51–60 years were similar to controls....... Paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors had a 2.5 [HR = 2.52 (95 % confidence interval (CI); 2.29–2.77)] and 1.4 [HR = 1.35 (95 % CI; 1.23–1.49)]-fold higher risk, respectively, of receiving disability pension compared with controls. Personal health care costs were considerably higher in all age groups...

  18. Vitamin D Status and Its Consequences for Health in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norval, Mary; Coussens, Anna K.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Bornman, Liza; Lucas, Robyn M.; Wright, Caradee Y.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, reports were retrieved in which vitamin D status, as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, was measured in South African population groups with varied skin colours and ethnicities. Healthy children and adults were generally vitamin D-sufficient [25(OH)D level >50 nmol/L] but the majority of those aged above 65 years were deficient. A major role for exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in determining 25(OH)D levels was apparent, with the dietary contribution being minor. Limited data exist regarding the impact of recent changes in lifestyles on vitamin D status, such as urbanisation. With regard to disease susceptibility, 11 of 22 relevant publications indicated association between low 25(OH)D levels and disease, with deficiency most notably found in individuals with tuberculosis and HIV-1. Information on the relationship between vitamin D receptor variants and ethnicity, disease or treatment response in the South African population groups demonstrated complex interactions between genetics, epigenetics and the environment. Whether vitamin D plays an important role in protection against the range of diseases that currently constitute a large burden on the health services in South Africa requires further investigation. Only then can accurate advice be given about personal sun exposure or dietary vitamin D supplementation. PMID:27763570

  19. Consequences of plant phenolic compounds for productivity and health of ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, Garry C; McNabb, Warren C

    2003-05-01

    Plant phenolic compounds are diverse in structure but are characterised by hydroxylated aromatic rings (e.g. flavan-3-ols). They are categorised as secondary metabolites, and their function in plants is often poorly understood. Many plant phenolic compounds are polymerised into larger molecules such as the proanthocyanidins (PA; condensed tannins) and lignins. Only the lignins, PA, oestrogenic compounds and hydrolysable tannins will be considered here. Lignins slow the physical and microbial degradation of ingested feed, because of resilient covalent bonding with hemicellulose and cellulose, rather than any direct effects on the rumen per se. The PA are prevalent in browse and are expressed in the foliage of some legumes (e.g. Lotus spp.), but rarely in grasses. They reduce the nutritive value of poor-quality diets, but can also have substantial benefits for ruminant productivity and health when improved temperate forages are fed. Beneficial effects are dependent on the chemical and physical structure, and concentration of the PA in the diet, but they have been shown to improve live-weight gain, milk yield and protein concentration, and ovulation rate. They prevent bloat in cattle, reduce gastrointestinal nematode numbers, flystrike and CH4 production. Some phenolic compounds (e.g. coumestans) cause temporary infertility, whilst those produced by Fusarium fungi found in pasture, silage or stored grains can cause permanent infertility. The HT may be toxic because products of their metabolism can cause liver damage and other metabolic disorders.

  20. Arsenic accumulation in rice: Consequences of rice genotypes and management practices to reduce human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shofiqul; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Islam, M R; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Rice is an essential staple food and feeds over half of the world's population. Consumption of rice has increased from limited intake in Western countries some 50years ago to major dietary intake now. Rice consumption represents a major route for inorganic arsenic (As) exposure in many countries, especially for people with a large proportion of rice in their daily diet as much as 60%. Rice plants are more efficient in assimilating As into its grains than other cereal crops and the accumulation may also adversely affect the quality of rice and their nutrition. Rice is generally grown as a lowland crop in flooded soils under reducing conditions. Under these conditions the bioavailability of As is greatly enhanced leading to excessive As bioaccumulation compared to that under oxidizing upland conditions. Inorganic As species are carcinogenic to humans and even at low levels in the diet pose a considerable risk to humans. There is a substantial genetic variation among the rice genotypes in grain-As accumulation as well as speciation. Identifying the extent of genetic variation in grain-As concentration and speciation of As compounds are crucial to determining the rice varieties which accumulate low inorganic As. Varietal selection, irrigation water management, use of fertilizer and soil amendments, cooking practices etc. play a vital role in reducing As exposure from rice grains. In the meantime assessing the bioavailability of As from rice is crucial to understanding human health exposure and reducing the risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of Health Consequences of Steel Industry Welders’ Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Zahra; Mortazavi, Saied Mohammad Javad; Asmand, Ebrahim; Nikeghbal, Kiana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Welding is among the most important frequently used processes in the industry with a wide range of applications from the food industry to aerospace and from precision tools to shipbuilding. The aim of this study was to assess the level of steel industry welders’ exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to investigate the health impacts of these exposures. Methods: In this case–control study, we measured the intensity of UV at the workers’ wrist in Fars Steel Company through manufacture of different types of heavy metal structures, using UV-meter model 666230 made by Leybold Co., from Germany. Results: The population under the study comprised 400 people including 200 welders as the exposed group and 200 nonwelders as the unexposed group. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19. The average, standard deviation, maximum and minimum of the UV at the welders’ wrist were 0.362, 0.346, 1.27, and 0.01 μW/cm2, respectively. There was a significantly (P radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures. PMID:26900437

  2. Assessment of Health Consequences of Steel Industry Welders' Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Zahra; Mortazavi, Saied Mohammad Javad; Asmand, Ebrahim; Nikeghbal, Kiana

    2015-01-01

    Welding is among the most important frequently used processes in the industry with a wide range of applications from the food industry to aerospace and from precision tools to shipbuilding. The aim of this study was to assess the level of steel industry welders' exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to investigate the health impacts of these exposures. In this case-control study, we measured the intensity of UV at the workers' wrist in Fars Steel Company through manufacture of different types of heavy metal structures, using UV-meter model 666230 made by Leybold Co., from Germany. The population under the study comprised 400 people including 200 welders as the exposed group and 200 nonwelders as the unexposed group. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19. The average, standard deviation, maximum and minimum of the UV at the welders' wrist were 0.362, 0.346, 1.27, and 0.01 μW/cm(2), respectively. There was a significantly (P radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures.

  3. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Radiological Protection and Human Health Div. (DRPH), Radiobiology and Epidemiology Dept., 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany); Bazyka, D. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  4. Consequences of tuberculosis among asylum seekers for health care workers in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel, Roland; Loddenkemper, Robert; Nienhaus, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Immigrants have been contributing to the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in Germany for many years. The current wave of migration of asylum seekers to Germany may increase that figure. Healthcare workers (HCW) who look after refugees not only in hospitals and medical practices but also in aid projects may be exposed to cases of TB. The incremental TB cases arising from imported TB as well as from TB cases that developed later in refugees were calculated in a Markov model over a period of 5 years. Infectious and non-infectious susceptible TB and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases were determined separately. In addition, the total amount of latent TB in contact persons and the risk of infection by HCW were estimated. Due to uncertainty of future refugee flows to Europe, different scenarios were considered in univariate and multivariate sensitivity analysis. Assuming a decrease in immigration by half each year to the bottom line of 2014, and in light of the current number of 800,000 asylum seekers, we calculated an additional 10,090 TB cases by the end of the fifth year (5976 cases of infectious pulmonary TB and 143 cases of pulmonary MDR-TB). In case of an unchanging influx of asylum seekers over the 5-year period, 19,031 TB cases would arise, 377 of which infectious MDR-TB. Eighty -seven ensuing TB cases would develop in HCW in the same period, 3 of which MDR-TB cases. Although the total number of TB cases in HCW expected to ensue from the current influx of asylum seekers is rather small, the 3 MDR-TB cases we calculated have to be taken seriously. We consider it essential to increase awareness of protective measures such as respiratory masks and, in the event of documented exposure, of supply-oriented occupational health screening.

  5. Tracing past ambient air pollution and its consequences on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, M. W.; Kjaer, K. H.; Dean, K.; Siggaard-Andersen, M. L.; Petersen, J.; Rasmussen, P.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Ilsøe, P.; Rivers, A.; Andersen, T.; Schreiber, N.; Bjork, A. A.; Funder, S.; Larsen, N. K.; Ruter, A.; Schomacker, A.; Andresen, C. S.; Hamerlik, L.; Orlando, L.; Hansen, A.; Mollerup, S.; Murray, A. S.; Thomsen, K. J.; Jensen, N.; Bjorck, S.; Bønløkke, J.; Tringe, S. G.; Rubin, E.; Louchouarn, P.; Willerslev, E.

    2017-12-01

    The onset and magniture of the industrialization and its impact on human health remains debated. This is because information largely comes from historical written records that primarily contains socio-political descriptions and thus do not provide a comprehensive environmental history. Therefore, it is essential to have an independent means for reconstructing pollution and disease levels around the time of industrialization. Here, we demonstrate how heavy metals, black carbon (BC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and environmental DNA (eDNA) in lake sediments can be used to track pollution and disease levels over the last 360 years in one major European capital city, Copenhagen (Denmark). We find that increased air pollution commenced in 1760s but decrease by the end of the 1790s, however it is not until 1850s a persistent increase occurs supporting the minority view that industrialization in Copenhagen initiated at this time rather than 20 years later as commonly thought. Over the following 125 years the pollution levels increased thousand-fold reaching a maximum level during the 1950-70s. After this time, the clean-air political initiative reduced emissions for most pollutants, some of which almost returned to pre-industrial levels. The high PAH levels measured between 1900 and 1950 imply that IQ levels of Copenhagen citizens, were probably 2-6 points lower during that period than today based upon their known impact on children's cognitive abilities. Changes in eDNA composition reveals establishment and cultivation of Copenhagen's Botanical Garden in the 1870s as well as the onset of the 1853 cholera epidemic. That epidemic, fuelled by high population density, caused the death of 4,737 Copenhageners. Our study establishes lake sediments as novel archives for tracking pollution levels, environmental changes and epidemics during urban development and understanding the changes associated with urbanisation.

  6. Dynamic modelling of costs and health consequences of school closure during an influenza pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yiting

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this article is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of school closure during a potential influenza pandemic and to examine the trade-off between costs and health benefits for school closure involving different target groups and different closure durations. Methods We developed two models: a dynamic disease model capturing the spread of influenza and an economic model capturing the costs and benefits of school closure. Decisions were based on quality-adjusted life years gained using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. The disease model is an age-structured SEIR compartmental model based on the population of Oslo. We studied the costs and benefits of school closure by varying the age targets (kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and closure durations (1–10 weeks, given pandemics with basic reproductive number of 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5. Results The cost-effectiveness of school closure varies depending on the target group, duration and whether indirect costs are considered. Using a case fatality rate (CFR of 0.1-0.2% and with current cost-effectiveness threshold for Norway, closing secondary school is the only cost-effective strategy, when indirect costs are included. The most cost-effective strategies would be closing secondary schools for 8 weeks if R0=1.5, 6 weeks if R0=2.0, and 4 weeks if R0= 2.5. For severe pandemics with case fatality rates of 1-2%, similar to the Spanish flu, or when indirect costs are disregarded, the optimal strategy is closing kindergarten, primary and secondary school for extended periods of time. For a pandemic with 2009 H1N1 characteristics (mild severity and low transmissibility, closing schools would not be cost-effective, regardless of the age target of school children. Conclusions School closure has moderate impact on the epidemic’s scope, but the resulting disruption to society imposes a potentially great cost in terms of lost productivity from parents’ work absenteeism.

  7. The health of homeless people in high-income countries: descriptive epidemiology, health consequences, and clinical and policy recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Geddes, John R; Kushel, Margot

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union, more than 400 000 individuals are homeless on any one night and more than 600 000 are homeless in the USA. The causes of homelessness are an interaction between individual and structural factors. Individual factors include poverty, family problems, and mental health and substance misuse problems. The availability of low-cost housing is thought to be the most important structural determinant for homelessness. Homeless people have higher rates of premature mortality than the rest of the population, especially from suicide and unintentional injuries, and an increased prevalence of a range of infectious diseases, mental disorders, and substance misuse. High rates of non-communicable diseases have also been described with evidence of accelerated ageing. Although engagement with health services and adherence to treatments is often compromised, homeless people typically attend the emergency department more often than non-homeless people. We discuss several recommendations to improve the surveillance of morbidity and mortality in homeless people. Programmes focused on high-risk groups, such as individuals leaving prisons, psychiatric hospitals, and the child welfare system, and the introduction of national and state-wide plans that target homeless people are likely to improve outcomes. PMID:25390578

  8. Assessing the Potential of Land Use Modification to Mitigate Ambient NO2 and Its Consequences for Respiratory Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Rao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how local land use and land cover (LULC shapes intra-urban concentrations of atmospheric pollutants—and thus human health—is a key component in designing healthier cities. Here, NO2 is modeled based on spatially dense summer and winter NO2 observations in Portland-Hillsboro-Vancouver (USA, and the spatial variation of NO2 with LULC investigated using random forest, an ensemble data learning technique. The NO2 random forest model, together with BenMAP, is further used to develop a better understanding of the relationship among LULC, ambient NO2 and respiratory health. The impact of land use modifications on ambient NO2, and consequently on respiratory health, is also investigated using a sensitivity analysis. We find that NO2 associated with roadways and tree-canopied areas may be affecting annual incidence rates of asthma exacerbation in 4–12 year olds by +3000 per 100,000 and −1400 per 100,000, respectively. Our model shows that increasing local tree canopy by 5% may reduce local incidences rates of asthma exacerbation by 6%, indicating that targeted local tree-planting efforts may have a substantial impact on reducing city-wide incidence of respiratory distress. Our findings demonstrate the utility of random forest modeling in evaluating LULC modifications for enhanced respiratory health.

  9. Do flexicurity policies protect workers from the adverse health consequences of temporary employment? A cross-national comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Faraz Vahid; De Moortel, Deborah; Muntaner, Carles; Davis, Owen; Siddiqi, Arjumand

    2016-12-01

    Flexicurity policies comprise a relatively novel approach to the regulation of work and welfare that aims to combine labour market flexibility with social security. Advocates of this approach argue that, by striking the right balance between flexibility and security, flexicurity policies allow firms to take advantage of loose contractual arrangements in an increasingly competitive economic environment while simultaneously protecting workers from the adverse health and social consequences of flexible forms of employment. In this study, we use multilevel Poisson regression models to test the theoretical claim of the flexicurity approach using data for 23 countries across three waves of the European Social Survey. We construct an institutional typology of labour market regulation and social security to evaluate whether inequalities in self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness between temporary workers and their permanent counterparts are smaller in countries that most closely approximate the ideal type described by advocates of the flexicurity approach. Our results indicate that, while the association between temporary employment and health varies across countries, institutional configurations of labour market regulation and social security do not provide a meaningful explanation for this cross-national variation. Contrary to the expectations of the flexicurity hypothesis, our data do not indicate that employment-related inequalities are smaller in countries that approximate the flexicurity approach. We discuss potential explanations for these findings and conclude that there remains a relative lack of evidence in support of the theoretical claims of the flexicurity approach.

  10. [The new organization of labor at public universities: collective consequences of job instability on the health of teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Katia Reis; Mendonça, André Luis Oliveira; Rodrigues, Andrea Maria Santos; Felix, Eliana Guimarães; Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Santos, Maria Blandina Marques; Moura, Marisa

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of this article is to analyze the new organization of labor of university teachers, seeking to investigate the potential relationship with the health status of these workers. It is based on the assumption that job instability in public universities has had repercussions on the health of higher education teachers. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted by means of bibliographic research in indexed databases. As a method of analysis, thematic analysis was used, focusing on four empirical categories, namely: job instability in the teaching profession; intensification of labor; aspects of the organization of teaching work in universities; and data on the health of university teachers. It was revealed in the literature that the use of strong organizational pressures prevails in the university scenario and consequently the intensification of labor is prevalent, with emphasis on the issue of increasing the demand for academic productivity. It was also observed that the topic of excess workload of teachers is recurrent and the concept of availability of less leisure time prevails. In addition, the need for organized collective resistance was confirmed in order to modify the job instability of teaching work.

  11. Intimate partner violence as seen in post-conflict eastern Uganda: prevalence, risk factors and mental health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyanda, Eugene; Weiss, Helen A; Mungherera, Margaret; Onyango-Mangen, Patrick; Ngabirano, Emmanuel; Kajungu, Rehema; Kagugube, Johnson; Muhwezi, Wilson; Muron, Julius; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-29

    Conflict and post-conflict communities in sub-Saharan Africa have a high under recognised problem of intimate partner violence (IPV). Part of the reason for this has been the limited data on IPV from conflict affected sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports on the prevalence, risk factors and mental health consequences of IPV victimisation in both gender as seen in post-conflict eastern Uganda. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two districts of eastern Uganda. The primary outcome of IPV victimisation was assessed using a modified Intimate Partner Violence assessment questionnaire of the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. The prevalence of any form of IPV victimisation (physical and/or sexual and/or psychological IPV) in this study was 43.7 % [95 % CI, 40.1-47.4 %], with no statistically significant difference between the two gender. The factors significantly associated with IPV victimisation were: sub-county (representing ecological factors), poverty, use of alcohol, and physical and sexual war torture experiences. The mental health problems associated with IPV victimisation were probable problem alcohol drinking, attempted suicide and probable major depressive disorder. In post-conflict eastern Uganda, in both gender, war torture was a risk factor for IPV victimisation and IPV victimisation was associated with mental health problems.

  12. Time orientation and eating behavior: Unhealthy eaters consider immediate consequences, while healthy eaters focus on future health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassen, Fania C M; Houben, Katrijn; Jansen, Anita

    2015-08-01

    Time orientation could play an important role in eating behavior. The current study investigated whether eating behavior is associated with the Consideration of Future Consequences scale (CFC). Specifically, it was examined whether unhealthy eaters consider the future less and are more concerned with immediate gratification. A related measure of time orientation is delay discounting, a process by which a reinforcer becomes less valuable when considered later in time. Recent research argues that the relation between time orientation and health behaviors is measured best at a behavior-specific level. In the current study, we explored the relationships between CFC and discount rate - both general and food-specific - and their influence on healthy eating. Participants with ages 18 to 60 (N = 152; final sample N = 146) filled in an online questionnaire consisting of the CFC, a food-specific version of the CFC (CFC-food), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) and an adapted MCQ version with snack food as a reinforcer. Self-reported healthy eating was positively related to the future subscale (r = .48, p  .05). In order to predict behavior, measurements of time orientation should thus be tailored to the behavior of interest. Based on current results, shifting one's concern from the immediate consequences of eating to a more future-oriented perspective may present an interesting target for future interventions aimed at promoting healthy eating and reducing overweight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Temporal framing and consideration of future consequences: effects on smokers' and at-risk nonsmokers' responses to cigarette health warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoquan; Nan, Xiaoli; Iles, Irina Alexandra; Yang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the influence of temporal framing (long-term vs. short-term) and individual difference in consideration of future consequences (CFC) on the effectiveness of cigarette health warnings among smokers and at-risk nonsmokers in a college population. An online experiment (N = 395) revealed a three-way interaction among temporal framing, CFC, and smoking status. The results among at-risk nonsmokers supported the temporal fit hypothesis--those high in CFC responded more favorably to long-term framing, whereas those low in CFC responded more positively to short-term framing. The findings among smokers revealed a different pattern in which short-term framing was more effective among high-CFC smokers, whereas among low-CFC smokers the framing effect was not distinct. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. 10 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Thyroid cancer and consequences of public health in the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengfelder, E.; Demidschik, E.; Demidschik, J.; Becker, K.; Rabes, H.; Birukowa, L.

    1996-01-01

    Ten years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, governmental and international organisations have identified considerable effects on the health of the various affected groups. A dramatic - over 100-fold - increase in thyroid cancers among children in Belarus has been caused by papillary thyroid carcinomas that are marked by aggressive growth with early metastatic spread. As early as 1995, the number of new cases of thyroid cancer among adults was four times the mean figure in the period before 1986. In Oblast Gomel, the number of children with diabetes mellitus doubled between 1986 and the end of 1995. The number of recorded cases of thyroid cancer, particularly among children, by far exceeds the prognoses made on the basis of established radiation risk estimates, and points to a considerable underestimation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (orig.) [de

  15. The emerging of xylazine as a new drug of abuse and its health consequences among drug users in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J C; Negrón, J L; Colón, H M; Padilla, A M; Millán, M Y; Matos, T D; Robles, R R

    2012-06-01

    During the last decade, the veterinary anesthetics have gained popularity as recreational drugs. The aim of this study was to document the use of "anestecia de caballo" (xylazine) and its consequences among drug users in Puerto Rico. The study combined a cross-sectional survey with 89 drug users and two focus groups conducted in Mayagüez with frontline drug treatment providers. Drug users were recruited from communities of the San Juan metropolitan area using a variety of ethnographic and outreach strategies. A short questionnaire developed for the study collected information on sociodemographics, xylazine use, and its consequences. The two focus groups were conducted to discuss the details related to xylazine use, its consequences, and utilization awareness. The sample comprised 63 males (70.8%) and 26 females with a mean age of 37.2 years. The mean number of years of drug use was 14.3, with a mean frequency of drug use of 5.9 times daily. More than 65% reported speedball as the principal drug of use. The prevalence of xylazine use was 80.7%. More than 42% of the sample used xylazine in a mixture with speedball. The main route of administration of xylazine was injection but 14% reported the use of xylazine by inhalation. More than 35% of the sample reported skin lesions and 21.1% reported at least one overdose episode. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that males (OR = 3.47, CI = 1.10-12.00) and those who reported speedball as their main drug of use (OR = 9.34, CI = 2.51-34.70) were significantly more likely to be xylazine users. Focus groups revealed that drug users claimed to recognize the presence of xylaxine in a mixture of speedball based on its effects, taste, the color of the drug (dark brown), and its odor. In conclusion, the use of xylazine among drug users in Puerto Rico seems to be an emerging trend with potentially serious health consequences.

  16. Follow-up of delayed health consequences of acute radiation exposure. Lessons to be learned from their medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    While the use of radioactive materials around the world offers a wide range of benefits in medicine, industry and research, safety precautions are essential to limit the exposure of persons to harmful radiation. When the quantity of radioactive material employed is substantial, as when radioactive sources are used for radiotherapy in medicine or for industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may lead to severe health consequences for the individuals involved. Despite the fact that the precautions to be taken are clearly established, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA, as part of its 'Safety of Radiation Sources' and 'Emergency Response' subprogrammes, follows up severe accidents of this kind. In so doing, the IAEA attempts to document both the circumstances leading to the accident and the subsequent medical treatment in order to define the lessons to be learned from these events. The overall objective is to provide information that will be of benefit to organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, the safety of radiation sources and the medical management of radiation accidents. The International Atomic Energy Agency has issued a number of publications on radiation accidents which have occurred in the past 15 years, reporting on the causes, radiation safety aspects and medical management of those affected particularly in the acute phase following an accident. These reports cover the accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraine (the Republic of the former Soviet Union) and Goiania (Brazil), and those in El Salvador, Vietnam, Belarus, Israel, Estonia, Costa Rica, Georgia, Russian Federation, Turkey, Peru and Panama. In 1998 the IAEA published three Safety Reports, co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, aimed at disseminating medical information on the recognition and treatment of radiation injuries, planning the medical response to radiation accidents and occupational health

  17. Follow-up of delayed health consequences of acute radiation exposure. Lessons to be learned from their medical management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    While the use of radioactive materials around the world offers a wide range of benefits in medicine, industry and research, safety precautions are essential to limit the exposure of persons to harmful radiation. When the quantity of radioactive material employed is substantial, as when radioactive sources are used for radiotherapy in medicine or for industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may lead to severe health consequences for the individuals involved. Despite the fact that the precautions to be taken are clearly established, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA, as part of its 'Safety of Radiation Sources' and 'Emergency Response' subprogrammes, follows up severe accidents of this kind. In so doing, the IAEA attempts to document both the circumstances leading to the accident and the subsequent medical treatment in order to define the lessons to be learned from these events. The overall objective is to provide information that will be of benefit to organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, the safety of radiation sources and the medical management of radiation accidents. The International Atomic Energy Agency has issued a number of publications on radiation accidents which have occurred in the past 15 years, reporting on the causes, radiation safety aspects and medical management of those affected particularly in the acute phase following an accident. These reports cover the accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraine (the Republic of the former Soviet Union) and Goiania (Brazil), and those in El Salvador, Vietnam, Belarus, Israel, Estonia, Costa Rica, Georgia, Russian Federation, Turkey, Peru and Panama. In 1998 the IAEA published three Safety Reports, co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, aimed at disseminating medical information on the recognition and treatment of radiation injuries, planning the medical response to radiation accidents and occupational health

  18. [Socio-economic impact at the household level of the health consequences of toxic waste discharge in Abidjan in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, B A; Tiembré, I; Dongo, K; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J; Cissé, G

    2011-02-01

    In August 2006, toxic wastes were discharged in the district of Abidjan, causing important health consequences in many households in the area. In order to appreciate the socio-economic impact of the consequences of toxic waste discharge on the households and of the measures taken by the authorities to deal with this catastrophe, and to appreciate the spatial extent of the pollution, we undertook a multidisciplinary transversal investigation at the sites of discharge of oxic waste, from October the 19th to December the 8th, 2006, using a transect sampling methodology. This paper presents the results related to the socio-economic aspects of the survey while the environmental and epidemiological results are presented in two other published papers. The socioeconomics investigation, conducted using a questionnaire, concerned 809 households across the various sites of discharge of toxic waste. More than 62% of households had at least one person who had been affected by toxic waste (affected households). 62.47% of these households were in Cocody district (with 2 sites and 4 points of discharge), 30.14% in Abobo district (with 2 sites and 3 points) and 7.39% in Koumassi district (with 1 site and 1 point). To escape the bad smell and the nuisance, 22.75% of the 501 "affected" households had left their houses. To face the health consequences generated by the toxic waste, 30.54% of the "affected" households engaged expenses. Those were on average of 92 450 FCFA (€141), with a minimum of 1 000 FCFA (€1.5) and a maximum of 1500000 FCFA (€2.287), in spite of the advertisement of the exemption from payment treatment fees made by the government. The decision of destroying cultures and farms near the points of discharge of the toxic products in a radius of 200 meters, taken by the authorities, touched 2.22% of the households. For these households, it did nothing but worsen their state of poverty, since the zone of influence of the toxic waste went well beyond the 200 meters

  19. Climate Change Education on Public Health Consequences and Impacts to the Human System - An Interdisciplinary Approach to Promoting Climate Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiella Novak, M.; Paxton, L. J.

    2012-12-01

    In this talk we will discuss our approach to translating an abstract, difficult to internalize idea ("climate change") into knowledge that speaks to people directly in terms of their own lives. Recent research suggests that communicating climate change in the context of public health impacts, and even national security risks, is a more effective method of reaching communities that are currently disengaged or nonresponsive to climate change science than the approaches currently being used. Understanding that these new perspectives might reach a broader audience, the Global Assimilation of Information for Action (GAIA) project has proposed implementing a suite of education activities that focus on the public health consequences that will arise and/or becoming exacerbated by climate change. Reaching the disparate communities that must be brought together to create a workable approach is challenging. GAIA has developed a novel framework for sharing information and developing communities of interest that cross boundaries in what is otherwise a highly disciplinary approach to climate change studies. Members of the GAIA community include climate change, environmental and public health experts, as well as relevant stakeholders, policy makers and decision makers. By leveraging the existing expertise within the GAIA community, an opportunity exists to present climate change education (CCE) in a way that emphasizes how climate change will affect public health, and utilizes an approach that has been shown to engage a broader and more diverse audience. Focusing CCE on public health effects is a new and potentially transformative method since it makes the results more tangible and less "random". When CCE is focused on what will happen to the Earth's climate and associated meteorological hazards one might be tempted to view this as something that can be coped with thus enabling the individualist entrepreneur point of view. Weather disasters always seem to happen to someone else

  20. Tracking implementation and (un)intended consequences: a process evaluation of an innovative peripheral health facility financing mechanism in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waweru, Evelyn; Goodman, Catherine; Kedenge, Sarah; Tsofa, Benjamin; Molyneux, Sassy

    2016-03-01

    In many African countries, user fees have failed to achieve intended access and quality of care improvements. Subsequent user fee reduction or elimination policies have often been poorly planned, without alternative sources of income for facilities. We describe early implementation of an innovative national health financing intervention in Kenya; the health sector services fund (HSSF). In HSSF, central funds are credited directly into a facility's bank account quarterly, and facility funds are managed by health facility management committees (HFMCs) including community representatives. HSSF is therefore a finance mechanism with potential to increase access to funds for peripheral facilities, support user fee reduction and improve equity in access. We conducted a process evaluation of HSSF implementation based on a theory of change underpinning the intervention. Methods included interviews at national, district and facility levels, facility record reviews, a structured exit survey and a document review. We found impressive achievements: HSSF funds were reaching facilities; funds were being overseen and used in a way that strengthened transparency and community involvement; and health workers' motivation and patient satisfaction improved. Challenges or unintended outcomes included: complex and centralized accounting requirements undermining efficiency; interactions between HSSF and user fees leading to difficulties in accessing crucial user fee funds; and some relationship problems between key players. Although user fees charged had not increased, national reduction policies were still not being adhered to. Finance mechanisms can have a strong positive impact on peripheral facilities, and HFMCs can play a valuable role in managing facilities. Although fiduciary oversight is essential, mechanisms should allow for local decision-making and ensure that unmanageable paperwork is avoided. There are also limits to what can be achieved with relatively small funds in

  1. Health consequences of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Gerald S

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have established that cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including obesity are identifiable in childhood. Childhood risk factors are predictive of adult cardiac risk and even premature death [Franks et al. (2010) N Engl J Med 362:485-493]. In the United States, CV diseases remains the leading causes of death. In fact, heart disease has become the major cause of death worldwide, surpassing undernutrition and infectious diseases, largely related to obesity in childhood [Wang and Lobstein (2006) Int J Pediatr Obes 1:11-25]. The concept that adult heart diseases begin in childhood is an outgrowth of extensive long-term epidemiologic studies in youth, that is, the Bogalusa Heart Study [Berenson et al. (1986) Causation of cardiovascular risk factors in children: Perspectives on cardiovascular risk in early life, Raven Press Books Ltd]. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Health consequences of the US Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) immigration programme: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Atheendar S; Shah, Sachin J; O'Brien, Rourke; Kawachi, Ichiro; Tsai, Alexander C

    2017-04-01

    , p=0·91). However, DACA-eligible individuals experienced a reduction in K6 score compared with DACA-ineligible individuals (adjusted incident risk ratio 0·78, 95% CI 0·56-0·95, p=0·020) and were less likely to meet screening criteria for moderate or worse psychological distress (aOR 0·62, 95% CI 0·41-0·93, p=0·022). Economic opportunities and protection from deportation for undocumented immigrants, as offered by DACA, could confer large mental health benefits to such individuals. Health consequences should be considered by researchers and policy makers in evaluations of the broader welfare effects of immigration policy. None. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Health consequences of the US Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA immigration programme: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atheendar S Venkataramani, DrMD

    2017-04-01

    health (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·66–1·44, p=0·91. However, DACA-eligible individuals experienced a reduction in K6 score compared with DACA-ineligible individuals (adjusted incident risk ratio 0·78, 95% CI 0·56–0·95, p=0·020 and were less likely to meet screening criteria for moderate or worse psychological distress (aOR 0·62, 95% CI 0·41–0·93, p=0·022. Interpretation: Economic opportunities and protection from deportation for undocumented immigrants, as offered by DACA, could confer large mental health benefits to such individuals. Health consequences should be considered by researchers and policy makers in evaluations of the broader welfare effects of immigration policy. Funding: None.

  4. Artificial light pollution: Shifting spectral wavelengths to mitigate physiological and health consequences in a nocturnal marsupial mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimovski, Alicia M; Robert, Kylie A

    2018-05-02

    The focus of sustainable lighting tends to be on reduced CO 2 emissions and cost savings, but not on the wider environmental effects. Ironically, the introduction of energy-efficient lighting, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), may be having a great impact on the health of wildlife. These white LEDs are generated with a high content of short-wavelength 'blue' light. While light of any kind can suppress melatonin and the physiological processes it regulates, these short wavelengths are potent suppressors of melatonin. Here, we manipulated the spectral composition of LED lights and tested their capacity to mitigate the physiological and health consequences associated with their use. We experimentally investigated the impact of white LEDs (peak wavelength 448 nm; mean irradiance 2.87 W/m 2 ), long-wavelength shifted amber LEDs (peak wavelength 605 nm; mean irradiance 2.00 W/m 2 ), and no lighting (irradiance from sky glow light treatments. White LED exposed wallabies had significantly suppressed nocturnal melatonin compared to no light and amber LED exposed wallabies, while there was no difference in lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant capacity declined from baseline to week 10 under all treatments. These results provide further evidence that short-wavelength light at night is a potent suppressor of nocturnal melatonin. Importantly, we also illustrate that shifting the spectral output to longer wavelengths could mitigate these negative physiological impacts. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Multiple Stressors in a Top Predator Seabird: Potential Ecological Consequences of Environmental Contaminants, Population Health and Breeding Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan O Bustnes

    in Shetland, especially related to BDEs. This indicates stronger fitness consequences of POPs following seasons with very poor breeding conditions and/or high reproductive effort. This study suggests that the impacts of POPs may differ depending on population health and breeding conditions, and that even low concentrations of POPs could have ecological consequences during adverse circumstances. This is important with regard to risk assessment of biomagnifying contaminants in marine ecosystems.

  6. A selective sweep on a deleterious mutation in CPT1A in Arctic populations

    KAUST Repository

    Clemente, Florian J.

    2014-11-01

    Arctic populations live in an environment characterized by extreme cold and the absence of plant foods for much of the year and are likely to have undergone genetic adaptations to these environmental conditions in the time they have been living there. Genome-wide selection scans based on genotype data from native Siberians have previously highlighted a 3 Mb chromosome 11 region containing 79 protein-coding genes as the strongest candidates for positive selection in Northeast Siberians. However, it was not possible to determine which of the genes might be driving the selection signal. Here, using whole-genome high-coverage sequence data, we identified the most likely causative variant as a nonsynonymous G>A transition (rs80356779; c.1436C>T [p.Pro479Leu] on the reverse strand) in CPT1A, a key regulator of mitochondrial long-chain fatty-acid oxidation. Remarkably, the derived allele is associated with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and high infant mortality yet occurs at high frequency in Canadian and Greenland Inuits and was also found at 68% frequency in our Northeast Siberian sample. We provide evidence of one of the strongest selective sweeps reported in humans; this sweep has driven this variant to high frequency in circum-Arctic populations within the last 6-23 ka despite associated deleterious consequences, possibly as a result of the selective advantage it originally provided to either a high-fat diet or a cold environment.

  7. Deleterious mutations can surf to high densities on the wave front of an expanding population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Justin M J; Münkemüller, Tamara; Burton, Olivia J; Best, Alex; Dytham, Calvin; Johst, Karin

    2007-10-01

    There is an increasing recognition that evolutionary processes play a key role in determining the dynamics of range expansion. Recent work demonstrates that neutral mutations arising near the edge of a range expansion sometimes surf on the expanding front leading them rather than that leads to reach much greater spatial distribution and frequency than expected in stationary populations. Here, we extend this work and examine the surfing behavior of nonneutral mutations. Using an individual-based coupled-map lattice model, we confirm that, regardless of its fitness effects, the probability of survival of a new mutation depends strongly upon where it arises in relation to the expanding wave front. We demonstrate that the surfing effect can lead to deleterious mutations reaching high densities at an expanding front, even when they have substantial negative effects on fitness. Additionally, we highlight that this surfing phenomenon can occur for mutations that impact reproductive rate (i.e., number of offspring produced) as well as mutations that modify juvenile competitive ability. We suggest that these effects are likely to have important consequences for rates of spread and the evolution of spatially expanding populations.

  8. A selective sweep on a deleterious mutation in CPT1A in Arctic populations

    KAUST Repository

    Clemente, Florian J.; Cardona, Alexia; Inchley, Charlotte E.; Peter, Benjamin M.; Jacobs, Guy; Pagani, Luca; Lawson, Daniel John; Antã o, Tiago; Vicente, Má rio; Mitt, Mario; Degiorgio, Michael; Faltyskova, Zuzana; Xue, Yali; Ayub, Qasim; Szpak, Michal; Mä gi, Reedik; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Raghavan, Maanasa; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt Rendt; Rasmussen, Simon B.; Willerslev, Eske; Vidal-Puig, Antonio J.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus Wedel; Metspalu, Mait; Malyarchuk, Boris A.; Derenko, Miroslava V.; Kivisild, Toomas

    2014-01-01

    Arctic populations live in an environment characterized by extreme cold and the absence of plant foods for much of the year and are likely to have undergone genetic adaptations to these environmental conditions in the time they have been living there. Genome-wide selection scans based on genotype data from native Siberians have previously highlighted a 3 Mb chromosome 11 region containing 79 protein-coding genes as the strongest candidates for positive selection in Northeast Siberians. However, it was not possible to determine which of the genes might be driving the selection signal. Here, using whole-genome high-coverage sequence data, we identified the most likely causative variant as a nonsynonymous G>A transition (rs80356779; c.1436C>T [p.Pro479Leu] on the reverse strand) in CPT1A, a key regulator of mitochondrial long-chain fatty-acid oxidation. Remarkably, the derived allele is associated with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and high infant mortality yet occurs at high frequency in Canadian and Greenland Inuits and was also found at 68% frequency in our Northeast Siberian sample. We provide evidence of one of the strongest selective sweeps reported in humans; this sweep has driven this variant to high frequency in circum-Arctic populations within the last 6-23 ka despite associated deleterious consequences, possibly as a result of the selective advantage it originally provided to either a high-fat diet or a cold environment.

  9. Changes in dietary habits after migration and consequences for health: a focus on South Asians in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Holmboe-Ottesen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immigrants from low-income countries comprise an increasing proportion of the population in Europe. Higher prevalence of obesity and nutrition related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD is found in some immigrant groups, especially in South Asians. Aim: To review dietary changes after migration and discuss the implication for health and prevention among immigrants from low-income countries to Europe, with a special focus on South Asians. Method: Systematic searches in PubMed were performed to identify relevant high quality review articles and primary research papers. The searches were limited to major immigrant groups in Europe, including those from South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka. Articles in English from 1990 and onwards from Europe were included. For health implications, recent review articles and studies of particular relevance to dietary changes among South Asian migrants in Europe were chosen. Results: Most studies report on dietary changes and health consequences in South Asians. The picture of dietary change is complex, depending on a variety of factors related to country of origin, urban/rural residence, socio-economic and cultural factors and situation in host country. However, the main dietary trend after migration is a substantial increase in energy and fat intake, a reduction in carbohydrates and a switch from whole grains and pulses to more refined sources of carbohydrates, resulting in a low intake of fiber. The data also indicate an increase in intake of meat and dairy foods. Some groups have also reduced their vegetable intake. The findings suggest that these dietary changes may all have contributed to higher risk of obesity, T2D and CVD. Implications for prevention: A first priority in prevention should be adoption of a low-energy density – high fiber diet, rich in whole grains and grain products, as well as fruits, vegetables and pulses. Furthermore

  10. Consequences of Population Aging in Iran with Emphasis on its Increasing Challenges on the Health System (Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Azizi Zeinalhajlu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​ Background and objectives: Nowadays among majority of societies, the problem of aging as a social issue has been concentrated due to its rapid increase and its consequences. Regarding level of its development, each country would face the problem sooner or later but it can be predicted that most societies will encounter the phenomena. According to the present statistics in Iran, the ratio of population above 6o years has been raised from 6.6 % in 1996 to 8.2 % in 2011 and it is predicted that would go up to 22% in 2047. The present study actually tries to highlight the importance of engaging in such imminent phenomena that may cause numerous challenges to the health system. Material and Methods: The present study is a literature review inside which, obtained data from various resources like Statistical Center of Iran, UN‘s databases, WHO website, English and Persian databases alongside with ISI, Pubmed, Medline and SID indexes, reports by active organizations in terms of aging issues, books, dissertations, journals and finally the magazines about health policies in Iran are collected and processed. Discussion and Conclusion: Aging problem in Iran is going to emerge rapidly, yet without adequate planning and concentration. In addition, there is no enough legal support to settle aged people’s affairs. Analysis of present situations and future perspectives can divulge the present challenges, problems and the complication of growing obstacles in a near future. Though it is too late by now, there seems to be inevitable to settle down, support and promote health in aging population.

  11. Health Care Professionals as Victims of Stalking: Characteristics of the Stalking Campaign, Consequences, and Motivation in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquadro Maran, Daniela; Varetto, Antonella; Zedda, Massimo; Franscini, Monica

    2015-07-05

    Stalking is a phenomenon characterized by a set of repetitive behaviors, intrusive surveillance, control, communication, and search of contact with a victim who is afraid and/or worried and/or annoyed by such unwanted attention. Literature analysis shows that Health Care Professionals (HCPs) are at greater risk of being stalked than the general population. As described by Mullen, Pathé, Purcell, and Stuart, stalkers may have different motives: relational rejection, an infatuation, an inability to express their own emotions and recognize those of others, or a desire for revenge. The aim of this study was to explore stalkers' motivation as perceived by their victims, characteristics of stalking campaigns, and consequences. A copy of the Italian modified version of The Network for Surviving Stalking (NSS) Questionnaire on Stalking, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State Trait Inventory (STAI) Y1-Y2 scales were distributed in six Italian state hospitals. Participants included 1,842 HCPs, 256 (13.9%) of which had been victims. The majority of victims reported that stalkers were Rejected (96, 37.5%), Intimacy seekers (41, 16%), Incompetent suitors (60, 23.4%), and/or Resentful (43, 16.8%; χ 2 = 163.3, p = .001). Stalking campaigns were characterized by several behaviors, principally contact (by telephone calls, text message) and following. The stalking campaign caused in victims both physical and emotional consequences, the most frequent being weight changes, sleep disorders, weakness, apprehension, anger, and fear. The most used coping strategies were moving away and moving toward, the less used was moving inward. Intervention programs and preventive measures (both individual and organizational) for HCP victims and those who could be considered at risk are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Are Mental Health Effects of Internet Use Attributable to the Web-Based Content or Perceived Consequences of Usage? A Longitudinal Study of European Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    H?kby, Sebastian; Hadlaczky, Gerg?; Westerlund, Joakim; Wasserman, Danuta; Balazs, Judit; Germanavicius, Arunas; Mach?n, N?ria; Meszaros, Gergely; Sarchiapone, Marco; V?rnik, Airi; Varnik, Peeter; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescents and young adults are among the most frequent Internet users, and accumulating evidence suggests that their Internet behaviors might affect their mental health. Internet use may impact mental health because certain Web-based content could be distressing. It is also possible that excessive use, regardless of content, produces negative consequences, such as neglect of protective offline activities. Objective The objective of this study was to assess how mental health is as...

  13. The impact of ageing on natural killer cell function and potential consequences for health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeldine, Jon; Lord, Janet M

    2013-09-01

    Forming the first line of defence against virally infected and malignant cells, natural killer (NK) cells are critical effector cells of the innate immune system. With age, significant impairments have been reported in the two main mechanisms by which NK cells confer host protection: direct cytotoxicity and the secretion of immunoregulatory cytokines and chemokines. In elderly subjects, decreased NK cell activity has been shown to be associated with an increased incidence and severity of viral infection, highlighting the clinical implications that age-associated changes in NK cell biology have on the health of older adults. However, is an increased susceptibility to viral infection the only consequence of these age-related changes in NK cell function? Recently, evidence has emerged that has shown that in addition to eliminating transformed cells, NK cells are involved in many other biological processes such as immune regulation, anti-microbial immune responses and the recognition and elimination of senescent cells, novel functions that involve NK-mediated cytotoxicity and/or cytokine production. Thus, the decrease in NK cell function that accompanies physiological ageing is likely to have wider implications for the health of older adults than originally thought. Here, we give a detailed description of the changes in NK cell biology that accompany human ageing and propose that certain features of the ageing process such as: (i) the increased reactivation rates of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, (ii) the slower resolution of inflammatory responses and (iii) the increased incidence of bacterial and fungal infection are attributable in part to an age-associated decline in NK cell function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cleaning and disinfection in home care: A comparison of 2 commercial products with potentially different consequences for respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, Nancy; Markkanen, Pia; Beato-Melendez, Christian; Mohamed, Hagir; Gore, Rebecca; Galligan, Catherine; Sama, Susan; Quinn, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Home care aides perform personal care and homemaking services in client homes, including cleaning and disinfection (C&D). Although C&D are performed to remove soil and dust, they are increasingly performed for infection prevention. Many C&D products contain respiratory irritants. The objective of this study was to evaluate 2 commercial products for C&D effectiveness on common household surfaces in seniors' homes. Two C&D visits were conducted in 46 seniors' homes. One visit applied a bleach-containing cleaning product and the other applied an environmentally preferable product. Before and after C&D, the study team performed organic soil bioluminometer measurements on surfaces and collected cotton swab and wipe samples for total bacteria count, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium difficile identification. Both products removed microorganisms from tested surfaces. S aureus was found in 7 households, 1 strain of which was methicillin-resistant. Both products removed S aureus from all surfaces. Bleach-containing products removed somewhat more soil than environmentally preferable products, although results were statistically significant for only 1 surface. The study showed similar, not identical, C&D performance for 2 cleaning products with potentially different consequences for respiratory health. Additional research is needed to develop robust recommendations for safe, effective C&D in home care. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Are Mental Health Effects of Internet Use Attributable to the Web-Based Content or Perceived Consequences of Usage? A Longitudinal Study of European Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hökby, Sebastian; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Westerlund, Joakim; Wasserman, Danuta; Balazs, Judit; Germanavicius, Arunas; Machín, Núria; Meszaros, Gergely; Sarchiapone, Marco; Värnik, Airi; Varnik, Peeter; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir

    2016-07-13

    Adolescents and young adults are among the most frequent Internet users, and accumulating evidence suggests that their Internet behaviors might affect their mental health. Internet use may impact mental health because certain Web-based content could be distressing. It is also possible that excessive use, regardless of content, produces negative consequences, such as neglect of protective offline activities. The objective of this study was to assess how mental health is associated with (1) the time spent on the Internet, (2) the time spent on different Web-based activities (social media use, gaming, gambling, pornography use, school work, newsreading, and targeted information searches), and (3) the perceived consequences of engaging in those activities. A random sample of 2286 adolescents was recruited from state schools in Estonia, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Questionnaire data comprising Internet behaviors and mental health variables were collected and analyzed cross-sectionally and were followed up after 4 months. Cross-sectionally, both the time spent on the Internet and the relative time spent on various activities predicted mental health (Pengaging in those activities were more important predictors, explaining 11.1% variance. Only Web-based gaming, gambling, and targeted searches had mental health effects that were not fully accounted for by perceived consequences. The longitudinal analyses showed that sleep loss due to Internet use (ß=.12, 95% CI=0.05-0.19, P=.001) and withdrawal (negative mood) when Internet could not be accessed (ß=.09, 95% CI=0.03-0.16, Peffect on mental health in the long term. Perceived positive consequences of Internet use did not seem to be associated with mental health at all. The magnitude of Internet use is negatively associated with mental health in general, but specific Web-based activities differ in how consistently, how much, and in what direction they affect mental health. Consequences of

  16. International conference - Papeete - French Polynesia - June 29, 2006. Scientists and nuclear tests consequence on health. The Colloquium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, Lyn; Cavillon, Arlette; Rowland, Al; Parmentier, Claude; Vahaire, Florent de; Brindel, Pauline; Doyon, Francoise; Drozdovich, Vladimir; Rachedi, Frederique; Boissin; Sebag, Joseph; Shan, Larys; Bezeaud, Frederique; Petitdidier, Patrick; Paaoafaite, John; Teuri, Joseph; Hirshon, Unutea; Luc, Helene; ONG, Cara; Bouveret, Patrice; Ruff, Tilman A.; Smith, Nick; Okumura, Eiji; Valatx, Jean-Louis; Tardieu, Arlette; Hervieux, J.C.; NOONAN, Anne; Sercombe, Robert

    2006-06-01

    Forty years after the first bomb in Moruroa, a conference to promote recognition and justice for all victims of nuclear tests. More than thirty speakers, scientists, legal experts, parliamentarians and members of associations from French Polynesia, Australia, Fiji, New Zealand, the United States, Japan, the Netherlands and France debated on June 29-30, at the President's palace in Papeete, on the rights of the victims of nuclear tests to be recognized by nuclear powers. During this conference, we heard scientists explain very clearly that contamination and irradiation had widespread consequences including on the gene pool of the victims. Today, damage found on the chromosomes of Polynesian thyroid cancer patients who lived 1000 km away from Moruroa is ten times higher than damage found on average nuclear workers. Researchers tell us that many of those who worked on nuclear sites die earlier. Average life expectancy for the veterans from New Zealand is for example 51 years - and for most of them a life marred by suffering and cancers. Researchers tell us that conducting credible surveys is becoming more and more difficult as the impact of radiations that were absorbed 20, 30 or even 40 years earlier is getting more difficult to discern from damages due to old age or other illnesses. Testimonies and information given at this conference are indispensable for the public to realize the actual impact of the nuclear tests as well as show the elected representatives how urgent it is to meet the expectations of the victims. The suffering and strong discontent of the former test site workers moved the parliamentarians as well as the public. The strong words that were said will have to give a human face to the law we will have to implement in order to do justice to the victims. An impact of nuclear testing on health and environment are experienced by many peoples in the world. The testing nations are of course the ones who should compensate the victims. But there is also

  17. Assessing the economic burden of illness for tuberculosis patients in Benin: determinants and consequences of catastrophic health expenditures and inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laokri, Samia; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle; Kassa, Ferdinand; Anagonou, Séverin; Dujardin, Bruno

    2014-10-01

    To inform policy-making, we measured the risk, causes and consequences of catastrophic expenditures for tuberculosis and investigated potential inequities. Between August 2008 and February 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted among all (245) smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients of six health districts from southern Benin. A standardised survey questionnaire covered the period of time elapsing from onset of tuberculosis symptoms to completion of treatment. Total direct cost exceeding the conventional 10% threshold of annual income was defined as catastrophic and used as principal outcome in a multivariable logistic regression. A sensitivity analysis was performed while varying the thresholds. A pure gradient of direct costs of tuberculosis in relation to income was observed. Incidence (78.1%) and intensity (14.8%) of catastrophic expenditure were high; varying thresholds was insensitive to the intensity. Incurring catastrophic expenditure was independently associated with lower- and middle-income quintiles (adjusted odd ratio (aOR) = 36.2, 95% CI [12.3-106.3] and aOR = 6.4 [2.8-14.6]), adverse pre-diagnosis stage (aOR = 5.4 [2.2-13.3]) and less education (aOR = 4.1[1.9-8.7]). Households incurred important days lost due to TB, indebtedness (37.1%), dissaving (51.0%) and other coping strategies (52.7%). Catastrophic direct costs and substantial indirect and coping costs may persist under the 'free' tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment strategy, as well as inequities in financial hardship. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. An overview of current knowledge concerning the health and environmental consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Wu, Junwen; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the scientific community has worked to identify the exact transport and deposition patterns of radionuclides released from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan. Nevertheless, there still remain many unknowns concerning the health and environmental impacts of these radionuclides. The present paper reviews the current understanding of the FDNPP accident with respect to interactions of the released radionuclides with the environment and impacts on human and non-human biota. Here, we scrutinize existing literature and combine and interpret observations and modeling assessments derived after Fukushima. Finally, we discuss the behavior and applications of radionuclides that might be used as tracers of environmental processes. This review focuses on (137)Cs and (131)I releases derived from Fukushima. Published estimates suggest total release amounts of 12-36.7PBq of (137)Cs and 150-160PBq of (131)I. Maximum estimated human mortality due to the Fukushima nuclear accident is 10,000 (due to all causes) and the maximum estimates for lifetime cancer mortality and morbidity are 1500 and 1800, respectively. Studies of plants and animals in the forests of Fukushima have recorded a range of physiological, developmental, morphological, and behavioral consequences of exposure to radioactivity. Some of the effects observed in the exposed populations include the following: hematological aberrations in Fukushima monkeys; genetic, developmental and morphological aberrations in a butterfly; declines in abundances of birds, butterflies and cicadas; aberrant growth forms in trees; and morphological abnormalities in aphids. These findings are discussed from the perspective of conservation biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. From bad to good: Fitness reversals and the ascent of deleterious mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Cowperthwaite

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious mutations are considered a major impediment to adaptation, and there are straightforward expectations for the rate at which they accumulate as a function of population size and mutation rate. In a simulation model of an evolving population of asexually replicating RNA molecules, initially deleterious mutations accumulated at rates nearly equal to that of initially beneficial mutations, without impeding evolutionary progress. As the mutation rate was increased within a moderate range, deleterious mutation accumulation and mean fitness improvement both increased. The fixation rates were higher than predicted by many population-genetic models. This seemingly paradoxical result was resolved in part by the observation that, during the time to fixation, the selection coefficient (s of initially deleterious mutations reversed to confer a selective advantage. Significantly, more than half of the fixations of initially deleterious mutations involved fitness reversals. These fitness reversals had a substantial effect on the total fitness of the genome and thus contributed to its success in the population. Despite the relative importance of fitness reversals, however, the probabilities of fixation for both initially beneficial and initially deleterious mutations were exceedingly small (on the order of 10(-5 of all mutations.

  20. Deleterious Metabolic Effects of High Fructose Intake: The Preventive Effect of Lactobacillus kefiri Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiría, María Guillermina; Gambaro, Sabrina Eliana; Rey, María Amanda; Carasi, Paula; Serradell, María de Los Ángeles; Giovambattista, Andrés

    2017-05-17

    Modern lifestyle and diets have been associated with metabolic disorders and an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota. Probiotics are widely known for their health beneficial properties targeting the gut microbial ecosystem. The aim of our study was to evaluate the preventive effect of Lactobacillus kefiri ( L. kefiri ) administration in a fructose-rich diet (FRD) mice model. Mice were provided with tap water or fructose-added (20% w / v ) drinking water supplemented or not with L. kefiri . Results showed that probiotic administration prevented weight gain and epidydimal adipose tissue (EAT) expansion, with partial reversion of the adipocyte hypertrophy developed by FRD. Moreover, the probiotic prevented the increase of plasma triglycerides and leptin, together with the liver triglyceride content. Leptin adipocyte secretion was also improved by L. kefiri , being able to respond to an insulin stimulus. Glucose intolerance was partially prevented by L. kefiri treatment (GTT) and local inflammation (TNFα; IL1β; IL6 and INFγ) was completely inhibited in EAT. L. kefiri supplementation generated an impact on gut microbiota composition, changing Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes profiles. Overall, our results indicate that the administration of probiotics prevents the deleterious effects of FRD intake and should therefore be promoted to improve metabolic disorders.

  1. Malocclusion and deleterious oral habits among adolescents in a developing area in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although malocclusions represent a serious public health issue, there is insufficient information about this problem in adolescents in Brazil, especially in poorer areas. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of facial alterations, dental malocclusions, and deleterious oral habits (DOH among adolescents in a developing area in northeastern Brazil and to test the hypothesis that the occurrence of DOH in infancy is associated with DOH during adolescence. The study included a probabilistic population-based sample of 2,060 Brazilian students aged 12-15 years. Facial characteristics (type of facial profile, facial symmetry, and passive lip sealing and malocclusions (Angle and Dental Aesthetic Index, DAI were evaluated. DOH in infancy and adolescence were evaluated by interviews with the parents and adolescents. Most adolescents presented with normal facial characteristics. The malocclusion prevalence (Angle was 83%. The DAI ranged from 13 to 69 (mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 7.7. Orthodontic treatment was necessary in 45.1% of the sample. The most prevalent DOH in adolescents were nail biting, object biting, cheek/lip biting, and bruxism, which were associated with finger sucking during infancy (P < 0.05. We conclude that malocclusions and DOH are common among Brazilian adolescents and that finger sucking during infancy may be a good predictor of DOH occurrence during adolescence.

  2. Proceeding of the 2-nd International Conference 'Long-term Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Disaster'; Materialy 2-j Mezhdunarodnoj konferentsii 'Otdalennye Meditsinskie posledstviya Chernobyl'skoj katastrofy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagu, A I; Sushkevitch, G N [eds.

    1998-07-01

    On the second International conference 'Long-term health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster' in 1-6 June 1998 Kiev (Ukraine) the following problems were discussed: 1.Epidemiological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 2.Clinical and biological effects of ionizing radiation; 3.Social and psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster; 4.Rehabilitation of the Chernobyl disaster survivors.

  3. Deleterious effect of Usutu virus on human neural cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Salinas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the number of emerging Flaviviruses described worldwide has increased considerably. Among them Zika virus (ZIKV and Usutu virus (USUV are African mosquito-borne viruses that recently emerged. Recently, ZIKV has been intensely studied due to major outbreaks associated with neonatal death and birth defects, as well as neurological symptoms. USUV pathogenesis remains largely unexplored, despite significant human and veterinary associated disorders. Circulation of USUV in Africa was documented more than 50 years ago, and it emerged in Europe two decades ago, causing massive bird mortality. More recently, USUV has been described to be associated with neurological disorders in humans such as encephalitis and meningoencephalitis, highlighting USUV as a potential health threat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of USUV to infect neuronal cells. Our results indicate that USUV efficiently infects neurons, astrocytes, microglia and IPSc-derived human neuronal stem cells. When compared to ZIKV, USUV led to a higher infection rate, viral production, as well as stronger cell death and anti-viral response. Our results highlight the need to better characterize the physiopathology related to USUV infection in order to anticipate the potential threat of USUV emergence.

  4. Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Peraica

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin with carcinogenic properties. Its presence was detected in various foodstuffs all over the world but with significantly higher frequency and concentrations in areas with endemic nephropathy (EN. Even though food is often contaminated with more than one mycotoxin, earlier studies focused on the occurrence and toxicology of only OTA. Only a limited number of surveys showed that OTA co-occurs in food with mycotoxins (citrinin-CIT, penicilic acid, fumonisin B1-FB1, aflatoxins-AF which exert nephrotoxic, carcinogenic or carcinogen-promoting activity. This review summarises the findings on OTA and its co-occurrence with the mentioned mycotoxins in food as well as experimental data on their combined toxicity. Most of the tested mycotoxin mixtures involving OTA produced additive or synergistic effects in experimental models suggesting that these combinations represent a significant health hazard. Special attention should be given to mixtures that include carcinogenic and cancer-promoting mycotoxins.

  5. Using Multiple-hierarchy Stratification and Life Course Approaches to Understand Health Inequalities: The Intersecting Consequences of Race, Gender, SES, and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tyson H; Richardson, Liana J; Hargrove, Taylor W; Thomas, Courtney S

    2016-06-01

    This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  6. It's no surprise! Men are not hit more than women by the health consequences of unemployment in the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Anne; Gustafsson, Per E; Strandh, Mattias; Virtanen, Pekka; Janlert, Urban

    2011-03-01

    Research often fails to ascertain whether men and women are equally hit by the health consequences of unemployment. The aim of this study was to analyze whether men's self-reported health and health behaviour were hit more by unemployment than women's in a follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort. A follow-up study of a cohort of all school leavers in a middle-sized industrial town in northern Sweden was performed from age 16 to age 42. Of those still alive of the original cohort, 94% (n = 1,006) participated during the whole period. A sample was made of participants in the labour force and living in Sweden (n = 916). Register data were used to assess the length of unemployment from age 40 to 42, while questionnaire data were used for the other variables. In multivariate logistic regression analyses significant relations between unemployment and mental health/smoking were found among both women and men, even after control for unemployment at the time of the investigation and indicators of health-related selection. Significant relations between unemployment and alcohol consumption were found among women, while few visits to a dentist was significant among men. Men are not hit more by the health consequences of unemployment in a Swedish context, with a high participation rate of women in the labour market. The public health relevance is that the study indicates the need to take gendered contexts into account in public health research.

  7. Modelling hydrological changes in surface in relation with anthropogenic drivers and consequences on human health and local economic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Alain; Leblond, Agnès; Boutron, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    of the watershed. The modeling also performed to simulate a change in rainfall locally to measure hydrological and environmental consequences. According to these scenarios, it was possible to map the potential areas of mosquitoes breeding sites (presence / absence of mosquitoes) and their impact on urban populations in terms of health risks and nuisance. This territory represents many interests for decision-makers interested in issues of governance and renaturation. To improve the inclusion of better water governance and territories, as well as facilitate dynamic annealing, it might be necessary to help decision-makers having a better knowledge of the impact of human drivers on water management on the territory. This increased knowledge would also enable local decision-makers to improve their awareness of the heritage and biodiversity of wetlands. This project was funded by the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy as part of the projects Water and Territories.

  8. Incomplete dominance of deleterious alleles contributes substantially to trait variation and heterosis in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious alleles have long been proposed to play an important role in patterning phenotypic variation and are central to commonly held ideas explaining the hybrid vigor observed in the offspring of a cross between two inbred parents. We test these ideas using evolutionary measures of sequence conservation to ask whether incorporating information about putatively deleterious alleles can inform genomic selection (GS models and improve phenotypic prediction. We measured a number of agronomic traits in both the inbred parents and hybrids of an elite maize partial diallel population and re-sequenced the parents of the population. Inbred elite maize lines vary for more than 350,000 putatively deleterious sites, but show a lower burden of such sites than a comparable set of traditional landraces. Our modeling reveals widespread evidence for incomplete dominance at these loci, and supports theoretical models that more damaging variants are usually more recessive. We identify haplotype blocks using an identity-by-decent (IBD analysis and perform genomic prediction analyses in which we weigh blocks on the basis of complementation for segregating putatively deleterious variants. Cross-validation results show that incorporating sequence conservation in genomic selection improves prediction accuracy for grain yield and other fitness-related traits as well as heterosis for those traits. Our results provide empirical support for an important role for incomplete dominance of deleterious alleles in explaining heterosis and demonstrate the utility of incorporating functional annotation in phenotypic prediction and plant breeding.

  9. Incomplete dominance of deleterious alleles contributes substantially to trait variation and heterosis in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinliang; Mezmouk, Sofiane; Baumgarten, Andy; Buckler, Edward S; Guill, Katherine E; McMullen, Michael D; Mumm, Rita H; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Deleterious alleles have long been proposed to play an important role in patterning phenotypic variation and are central to commonly held ideas explaining the hybrid vigor observed in the offspring of a cross between two inbred parents. We test these ideas using evolutionary measures of sequence conservation to ask whether incorporating information about putatively deleterious alleles can inform genomic selection (GS) models and improve phenotypic prediction. We measured a number of agronomic traits in both the inbred parents and hybrids of an elite maize partial diallel population and re-sequenced the parents of the population. Inbred elite maize lines vary for more than 350,000 putatively deleterious sites, but show a lower burden of such sites than a comparable set of traditional landraces. Our modeling reveals widespread evidence for incomplete dominance at these loci, and supports theoretical models that more damaging variants are usually more recessive. We identify haplotype blocks using an identity-by-decent (IBD) analysis and perform genomic prediction analyses in which we weigh blocks on the basis of complementation for segregating putatively deleterious variants. Cross-validation results show that incorporating sequence conservation in genomic selection improves prediction accuracy for grain yield and other fitness-related traits as well as heterosis for those traits. Our results provide empirical support for an important role for incomplete dominance of deleterious alleles in explaining heterosis and demonstrate the utility of incorporating functional annotation in phenotypic prediction and plant breeding.

  10. Victimization of patients with severe psychiatric disorders: prevalence, risk factors, protective factors and consequences for mental health. A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Rien

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a set of instruments registering victimization of psychiatric patients; to determine risk factors and protective factors; and to gain insight into the possible consequences of victimization. Methods/Design An extensive data set of 323 patients with Sever Mental Illness (assessed 4 years ago is used. In 2010 a second measurement will be performed, enabling longitudinal research on the predictors and consequences of victimization. Discussion The consequences of (revictimization have barely been subjected to analysis, partially due to the lack of a comprehensive, conceptual model for victimization. This research project will contribute significantly to the scientific development of the conceptual model of victimization in chronic psychiatric patients.

  11. Social aspects in evaluation of health status of subjects who participated in liquidation of radiation accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukov, A.R.; Kleev, N.A.; Shafranskij, I.L.

    2000-01-01

    The morbidity rate of the Russian atomic industry workers, the liquidators of ChNPP accident consequences and their future life span shorting with an account of their social status are evaluated. Tentative and standard morbidity values were calculated with an account of various social groups of the liquidators. Intensive values of the man-year losses were used in the methodology for evaluating the vital potential losses. The study results indicated considerable morbidity difference in certain diseases by the persons of various social groups, who took part in liquidation of the ChNPP accident consequences [ru

  12. Harnessing Omics Big Data in Nine Vertebrate Species by Genome-Wide Prioritization of Sequence Variants with the Highest Predicted Deleterious Effect on Protein Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Vita; Kunej, Tanja

    2018-05-10

    Harnessing the genomics big data requires innovation in how we extract and interpret biologically relevant variants. Currently, there is no established catalog of prioritized missense variants associated with deleterious protein function phenotypes. We report in this study, to the best of our knowledge, the first genome-wide prioritization of sequence variants with the most deleterious effect on protein function (potentially deleterious variants [pDelVars]) in nine vertebrate species: human, cattle, horse, sheep, pig, dog, rat, mouse, and zebrafish. The analysis was conducted using the Ensembl/BioMart tool. Genes comprising pDelVars in the highest number of examined species were identified using a Python script. Multiple genomic alignments of the selected genes were built to identify interspecies orthologous potentially deleterious variants, which we defined as the "ortho-pDelVars." Genome-wide prioritization revealed that in humans, 0.12% of the known variants are predicted to be deleterious. In seven out of nine examined vertebrate species, the genes encoding the multiple PDZ domain crumbs cell polarity complex component (MPDZ) and the transforming acidic coiled-coil containing protein 2 (TACC2) comprise pDelVars. Five interspecies ortho-pDelVars were identified in three genes. These findings offer new ways to harness genomics big data by facilitating the identification of functional polymorphisms in humans and animal models and thus provide a future basis for optimization of protocols for whole genome prioritization of pDelVars and screening of orthologous sequence variants. The approach presented here can inform various postgenomic applications such as personalized medicine and multiomics study of health interventions (iatromics).

  13. Characterization by X ray diffraction of deleterious phases precipitated in a super duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardal, Juan M.; Tavares, Sergio S. Maior; Fonseca, Maria P. Cindra; Montenegro, Talles Ribeiro; Dias, Antonio Jose N.; Almeida, Sergio L. de

    2010-01-01

    In this work the identification and quantification of deleterious phases in two super duplex stainless steels grade UNS S32750, with quite different grain sizes, was performed by X-ray diffraction. The materials were isothermally aged in the 800 . 950 deg C range. Direct comparison method was used to quantify the ferrite phase in each sample. The amount of deleterious phases (σ, χ and γ2) formed was calculated by the difference of the amount of ferrite phase measured in each specimen to the amount of ferrite initially measured in the un-aged steel. The results obtained give an useful contribution to the understanding of kinetics of deleterious phases precipitation in super duplex steels. (author)

  14. Pairing images of unhealthy and healthy foods with images of negative and positive health consequences: Impact on attitudes and food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Gareth J; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-08-01

    To examine the impact of presenting images of foods paired with images of positive and negative health consequences of their consumption on food choice and attitudes. Participants (N = 711) were randomly allocated in a 2 × 3 factorial design (Food Type × Affective Valence) to 1 of 6 conditioning procedures that paired images of either energy-dense snack foods or fruit, with (a) images of negative health outcomes, (b) images of positive health outcomes, or (c) a no image control. The primary outcome was food choice assessed postintervention with a behavioral choice task. Secondary outcomes were implicit attitudes (assessed pre- and postintervention) and explicit attitudes (assessed postintervention). Presenting images of negative health outcomes led to more healthy food choices relative to control and positive image conditions, irrespective of whether they were paired with images of energy-dense snack foods or fruit. This relationship was partially mediated by changes in implicit and explicit attitudes. Images of positive health outcomes did not alter food choices. This study replicates and extends previous research showing that presenting images of negative health consequences increases healthy food choices. Because effects were elicited by manipulating affective valence irrespective of paired food type, these results appear more consistent with an explanation based on priming than on evaluative conditioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Predicting H1N1 vaccine uptake and H1N1-related health beliefs: the role of individual difference in consideration of future consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Kim, Jarim

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the influence of individual difference in consideration of future consequences on H1N1 vaccine uptake and H1N1-related health beliefs (i.e., perceived susceptibility to and severity of the H1N1 flu, perceived efficacy and safety of the H1N1 vaccine, and perceived self-efficacy in obtaining the H1N1 vaccine). A survey of 411 college students showed that consideration of future consequences had no direct effect on vaccine uptake, but higher consideration of future consequences was associated with greater perceived severity of the flu, higher perceived effectiveness of the vaccine, and greater perceived self-efficacy. Additional analysis suggested that consideration of future consequences had a significant indirect effect on vaccine uptake through perceived vaccine efficacy. Results of the study also revealed gender and racial differences in some of the H1N1-related health beliefs. Implications of the findings for vaccine risk communication are discussed.

  16. The genomic load of deleterious mutations: relevance to death in infancy and childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Alfred Morris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The human diploid genome has approximately 40,000 functioning conserved genes distributed within 6 billion base pairs of DNA. Most individuals carry a few heterozygous deleterious mutations and this leads to an increased risk of recessive disease in the offspring of cousin unions. Rare recessive disease is more common in the children of cousin marriages than in the general population, even though less than 1% of marriages in the Western World are between first cousins. But more than 90% of the children of cousin marriages do not have recessive disease and are as healthy as the rest of the population. A mathematical model based on these observations generates simultaneous equations linking the mean number of deleterious mutations in the genome of adults (M, the mean number of new deleterious mutations arising in gametogenesis and passed to the next generation (N and the number of genes in the human diploid genome (L. The best estimates are that M is less than 7 and N is approximately 1. The nature of meiosis indicates that deleterious mutations in zygotes will have a Poisson distribution with a mean of M + N. There must be strong selective pressure against zygotes at the upper end of the Poisson distribution otherwise the value of M would rise with each generation. It is suggested that this selection is based on synergistic interaction of heterozygous deleterious mutations acting in large complex highly redundant and robust genetic networks. To maintain the value of M in single figures over many thousands of generations means that the zygote loss must be of the order of 30%. Most of this loss will occur soon after conception but some will occur later; during fetal development, in infancy and even in childhood. Selection means genetic death and this is caused by disease to which the deleterious mutations predispose. In view of this genome sequencing should be undertaken in all infant deaths in which the cause of death is not ascertained by

  17. [Mental health of children, adolescents and young adults--part 1: prevalence, illness persistence, adversities, service use, treatment delay and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, M; Bock, T; Naber, D; Löwe, B; Schulte-Markwort, M; Schäfer, I; Gumz, A; Degkwitz, P; Schulte, B; König, H H; Konnopka, A; Bauer, M; Bechdolf, A; Correll, C; Juckel, G; Klosterkötter, J; Leopold, K; Pfennig, A; Karow, A

    2013-11-01

    Numerous birth-control studies, epidemiological studies, and observational studies have investigated mental health and health care in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, treatment delay and course of illness. Moreover, the impact of the burden of illness, of deficits of present health care systems, and the efficacy and effectiveness of early intervention services on mental health were evaluated. According to these data, most mental disorders start during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Many children, adolescents and young adults are exposed to single or multiple adversities, which increase the risk for (early) manifestations of mental diseases as well as for their chronicity. Early-onset mental disorders often persist into adulthood. Service use by children, adolescents and young adults is low, even lower than for adult patients. Moreover, there is often a long delay between onset of illness and first adequate treatment with a variety of linked consequences for a poorer psychosocial prognosis. This leads to a large burden of illness with respect to disability and costs. As a consequence several countries have implemented so-called "early intervention services" at the interface of child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. Emerging studies show that these health-care structures are effective and efficient. Part 1 of the present review summarises the current state of mental health in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, and treatment delay with consequences. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Consequências da judicialização das políticas de saúde: custos de medicamentos para as mucopolissacaridoses Consequences of the judicialization of health policies: the cost of medicines for mucopolysaccharidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Diniz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo analisa os gastos da judicialização de medicamentos para a mucopolissacaridose (MPS, uma doença rara, de alto custo, fora da política de assistência farmacêutica e com benefício clínico. O levantamento de dados foi realizado nos arquivos de 196 dossiês que determinou que o Ministério da Saúde fornecesse medicamentos no período entre 2006 e 2010, e nos registros administrativos e contábeis do Ministério da Saúde. A análise identifica sujeição do governo brasileiro a monopólios de distribuição de medicamentos e, consequentemente, perda de sua capacidade de administrar compras. Também identifica que a imposição da aquisição imediata e individualizada impede a obtenção de economias de escala com a compra planejada de maiores quantidades de medicamento, e impõe dificuldades logísticas para o controle das quantidades consumidas e estocadas. Conclui-se que a judicialização decorre da ausência de uma política clara do sistema de saúde para doenças raras em geral, e tem como consequência gastos acima do necessário para o tratamento.This study analyzes expenditures backed by court rulings to ensure the public provision of medicines for treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS, a rare disease that requires high-cost drugs not covered by the Brazilian government's policy for pharmaceutical care and which have disputed clinical efficacy. The methodology included a review of files from 196 court rulings ordering the Brazilian Ministry of Health to provide the medicines, in addition to Ministry of Health administrative records. According to the analysis, the "judicialization" of the health system subjected the Brazilian government to a monopoly in the distribution of medicines and consequently the loss of its capacity to manage drug purchases. The study also indicates that the imposition of immediate, individualized purchases prevents obtaining economies of scale with planned procurement of larger amounts of the

  19. Mental health problems in Pakistani society as a consequence of violence and trauma: a case for better integration of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Khalily

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper discusses the increasing incidence of mental health problems in Pakistan, and specifically in the Swat valley, in relation to the growing insurgency and current violence in Pakistani society. The paper argues that the health care system's response in Pakistan is not adequate to meet the current challenges and that changes in policy are needed to build mental health care services as an important component of the basic health package at primary care level in the public sector. Method: This paper reviews the existing mental health situation in Pakistan with reference to the findings of a case study in the Swat valley in Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa Pakistan. The figures presented in the case study are used to support the need for an integrated national mental health policy. Conclusion: Mental health care needs to be incorporated as a core service in primary care and supported by specialist services. There is a strong need to provide adequate training for general practitioners and postgraduate training for mental health professionals to meet the current demands. A collaborative network between stakeholders in the public and private sector, as well as non-governmental organisations are required that promotes mental health care and advocates for changes in mental health policy.

  20. Mental health problems in Pakistani society as a consequence of violence and trauma: a case for better integration of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Khalily

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper discusses the increasing incidence of mental health problems in Pakistan, and specifically in the Swat valley, in relation to the growing insurgency and current violence in Pakistani society. The paper argues that the health care system's response in Pakistan is not adequate to meet the current challenges and that changes in policy are needed to build mental health care services as an important component of the basic health package at primary care level in the public sector.Method: This paper reviews the existing mental health situation in Pakistan with reference to the findings of a case study in the Swat valley in Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa Pakistan. The figures presented in the case study are used to support the need for an integrated national mental health policy.Conclusion: Mental health care needs to be incorporated as a core service in primary care and supported by specialist services. There is a strong need to provide adequate training for general practitioners and postgraduate training for mental health professionals to meet the current demands. A collaborative network between stakeholders in the public and private sector, as well as non-governmental organisations are required that promotes mental health care and advocates for changes in mental health policy.

  1. Impact of untreated dental caries and its clinical consequences on the oral health-related quality of life of schoolchildren aged 8-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Veloso, Isabella; Soares, Maria Eliza C; Alencar, Bruna Mota; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Ramos-Jorge, Joana

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of untreated dental caries and its clinical consequences on the quality of life of Brazilian schoolchildren aged 8-10 years. A randomly selected sample of 587 children underwent a clinical oral examination for the assessment of untreated dental caries and clinical consequences. The WHO criteria (decayed component of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth--D-DMFT in permanent teeth or d-dfmt in primary teeth) and the PUFA index, which records the presence of severely decayed permanent (upper case) and primary (lower case) teeth with visible pulpal involvement (P/p), as well as ulceration caused by dislocated tooth fragments (U/u), fistula (F/f), and abscesses (A/a), were used for the oral examination. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was evaluated using the Child's Perception Questionnaire (CPQ8-10). Poisson regression was employed to test unadjusted and adjusted associations between untreated dental caries/clinical consequences and OHRQoL. The prevalence of untreated dental caries was 64.6% (D/d component of DMFT/dmft > 0) and 17.9% of children exhibited clinical consequences of caries (PUFA/pufa index >0). In the adjusted models, untreated caries was significantly associated with the total CPQ8-10 score and all subscale scores. The clinical consequences of dental caries (PUFA/pufa index >0) were significantly associated with the total CPQ8-10 as well as the oral symptoms and functional limitations' subscales. Untreated dental caries and its clinical consequences exerted a negative impact on the OHRQoL of the schoolchildren analyzed.

  2. The Information Ecology of Personal Health Record Systems: Secure Messaging as Catalyst and Its Evolving Impact on Use and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazi, Kim M.

    2012-01-01

    Personal Health Records (PHRs) and PHR systems have been designed as consumer-oriented tools to empower patients and improve health care. Despite significant consumer interest and anticipated benefits, adoption remains low. Understanding the consumer perspective is necessary, but insufficient by itself. Consumer PHR use also has broad implications…

  3. Sick regimes and sick people: a multilevel investigation of the population health consequences of perceived national corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, Margot I.; Kunst, Anton E.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Stronks, Karien

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of empirical work on the potential population health impact of living under a regime marred by corruption. African countries differ in the extent of national corruption, and we explore whether perceived national corruption is associated with population health across all rungs of

  4. [The current state of health education in France: cause or consequence of the lack of political commitment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeulemeester, René

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, the limited resources allocated to health education in France were due to a lack of legitimacy compounded by a lack of professional recognition, in addition to a lack of research and a state of methodological anarchy. A national health education program was launched in 2001 to address this issue. However, the program was only partially implemented. Recent reforms have strengthened the national structure and promoted health communication campaigns. Therapeutic patient education has also been legally recognized. However, the resources allocated to community health education have steadily declined, despite efforts to promote training, quality improvement and rationalization. Health promotion--without which health education activities cannot be developed--is still struggling to gain recognition. Investments in health promotion have not increased as a result of the demonstrable effectiveness and professionalization of the sector and of the quality of its services. Indeed, the reverse may be true. In other words, investments in this area may promote the development of research, assessment and quality, while also highlighting the impact on the determinants of health and well-being. Ultimately, there is evidence to suggest that investments in this area can help to reduce premature mortality rates and the number of preventable deaths.

  5. Enrichment of deleterious variants of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gene (POLG1) in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Takaoki; Ishiwata, Mizuho; Kakiuchi, Chihiro; Fuke, Satoshi; Iwata, Nakao; Ozaki, Norio; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Minabe, Yoshio; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Yasuhide; Fujii, Kumiko; Kanba, Shigenobu; Ujike, Hiroshi; Kusumi, Ichiro; Kataoka, Muneko; Matoba, Nana; Takata, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Kazuya; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Kato, Tadafumi

    2017-08-01

    Rare missense variants, which likely account for a substantial portion of the genetic 'dark matter' for a common complex disease, are challenging because the impacts of variants on disease development are difficult to substantiate. This study aimed to examine the impacts of amino acid substitution variants in the POLG1 found in bipolar disorder, as an example and proof of concept, in three different modalities of assessment: in silico predictions, in vitro biochemical assays, and clinical evaluation. We then tested whether deleterious variants in POLG1 contributed to the genetics of bipolar disorder. We searched for variants in the POLG1 gene in 796 Japanese patients with bipolar disorder and 767 controls and comprehensively investigated all 23 identified variants in the three modalities of assessment. POLG1 encodes mitochondrial DNA polymerase and is one of the causative genes for a Mendelian-inheritance mitochondrial disease, which is occasionally accompanied by mood disorders. The healthy control data from the Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization were also employed. Although the frequency of carriers of deleterious variants varied from one method to another, every assessment achieved the same conclusion that deleterious POLG1 variants were significantly enriched in the variants identified in patients with bipolar disorder compared to those in controls. Together with mitochondrial dysfunction in bipolar disorder, the present results suggested deleterious POLG1 variants as a credible risk for the multifactorial disease. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. Similarity of Deleterious Effects of Divorce on Chinese and American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao

    2001-01-01

    Reviews and contrasts the effects of divorce on Chinese children's adjustment to American children of divorce. Results indicate that the deleterious effects of divorce on children's academic and social functioning appear to be similar to that experienced by American children. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

  7. Rhizoplane colonisation of peas by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae and a deleterious Pseudomonas putida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berggren, I.; Alstrom, S.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Martensson, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida strain angstrom 313, a deleterious rhizosphere bacterium, reduced pea nitrogen content when inoculated alone or in combination with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae on plants in the presence of soil under greenhouse conditions. When plants were grown gnotobiotically in liquid

  8. Tumor necrosis factor alpha polymorphism correlates with deleterious effects of ultraviolet B light on cutaneous immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincek, V.; Kurimoto, I.; Medema, J. P.; Prieto, E.; Streilein, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Intradermally injected tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mimics the effects of UV B light (UVB) radiation and neutralizing anti-TNF-alpha antibodies abolish the deleterious effects of UVB on induction of contact hypersensitivity suggesting that TNF-alpha is the major mediator of UVB effects on

  9. Potential Deleterious Effects of Vasopressin in Chronic Kidney Disease and Particularly Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Boertien, W. E.; Zietse, R.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is crucial for regulating free water clearance in normal physiology. However, it has also been hypothesized that vasopressin has deleterious effects on the kidney. Vasopressin is elevated in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. Suppression of

  10. Genetic Factors of the Disease Course After Sepsis: Rare Deleterious Variants Are Predictive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Taudien

    2016-10-01

    Sepsis patients with favorable disease course after sepsis, even in the case of unfavorable preconditions, seem to be affected more often by rare deleterious SNVs in cell signaling and innate immunity related pathways, suggesting a protective role of impairments in these processes against a poor disease course.

  11. Evaluation of health status for children born in families of the participants of the Chernobyl nuclear accident consequences liquidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coretchi, Liubov; Bahnarel, Ion; Ursulean, Ion; Cornescu, Alexandra; Botezatu, Nicolae; Belic, Ghenadie

    2011-01-01

    The study of the effects of health and the psychological and social rehabilitation of the children born in families of 'liquidators' in the period 1996-2010 reveals compromised immune status and the decrease of the main health indicators. The health status of the children is characterized by a high level of general morbidity, primarily psychosomatic, compared with the general population, a significant frequency of the chromosome aberrations are due to the influence of a large number of endogenous and exogenous factors, most significant exposure to irradiation of the father

  12. Constrained consequence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available their basic properties and relationship. In Section 3 we present a modal instance of these constructions which also illustrates with an example how to reason abductively with constrained entailment in a causal or action oriented context. In Section 4 we... of models with the former approach, whereas in Section 3.3 we give an example illustrating ways in which C can be de ned with both. Here we employ the following versions of local consequence: De nition 3.4. Given a model M = hW;R;Vi and formulas...

  13. Hidden consequences of success in pediatrics: parental health-related quality of life--results from the Care Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzmann, Janneke; Heymans, Hugo S A; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; van Praag, Bernard M S; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2008-11-01

    The number of parents who care for a chronically ill child is increasing. Because of advances in medical care, parental caring tasks are changing. A detailed description of parental health-related quality of life will add to the understanding of the impact of caring for a chronically ill child. This will contribute to pediatric family care. Our goal was to determine the health-related quality of life of parents of chronically ill children compared with parents of healthy schoolchildren. A survey of 533 parents of children with chronic conditions (10 diagnosis groups, children aged 1-19 years, diagnosed >1 year ago, living at home) and 443 parents of schoolchildren was conducted between January 2006 and September 2007. Parents were approached through Emma Children's Hospital (which has a tertiary referral and a regional function) and through parent associations. The comparison group included parents of healthy schoolchildren. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the TNO-AZL Questionnaire for Adult's Health Related Quality of Life. Health-related quality of life measures gross and fine motor function, cognitive functioning, sleep, pain, social functioning, daily activities, sexuality, vitality, positive and depressive emotions, and aggressiveness. The health-related quality of life of the study group was compared with that of the comparison group, and effect sizes were estimated. The percentages of parents at risk for a low health-related quality of life were compared with the 25th percentile scores of the comparison group. RESULTS. Parents of chronically ill children had a significantly lower health-related quality of life. Subgroup analysis showed lower health-related quality of life on sleep, social functioning, daily activities, vitality, positive emotions, and depressive emotions in disease-specific groups. On average, 45% of the parents were at risk for health-related quality-of-life impairment. Parents of chronically ill children report a seriously

  14. Health consequences of the US Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) immigration programme: a quasi-experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Atheendar S Venkataramani, DrMD; Sachin J Shah, MD; Rourke O'Brien, PhD; Ichiro Kawachi, ProfPhD; Alexander C Tsai, MD

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Background: The effects of changes in immigration policy on health outcomes among undocumented immigrants are not well known. We aimed to examine the physical and mental health effects of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) programme, a 2012 US immigration policy that provided renewable work permits and freedom from deportation for a large number of undocumented immigrants. Methods: We did a retrospective, quasi-experimental study using nationally representative, repea...

  15. Trunk muscle activity is modified in osteoporotic vertebral fracture and thoracic kyphosis with potential consequences for vertebral health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Greig

    Full Text Available This study explored inter-relationships between vertebral fracture, thoracic kyphosis and trunk muscle control in elderly people with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased risk of further vertebral fractures; but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Several factors may explain this association, including changes in postural alignment (thoracic kyphosis and altered trunk muscle contraction patterns. Both factors may increase risk of further fracture because of increased vertebral loading and impaired balance, which may increase falls risk. This study compared postural adjustments in 24 individuals with osteoporosis with and without vertebral fracture and with varying degrees of thoracic kyphosis. Trunk muscle electromyographic activity (EMG associated with voluntary arm movements was recorded and compared between individuals with and without vertebral fracture, and between those with low and high thoracic kyphosis. Overall, elderly participants in the study demonstrated co-contraction of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles during forwards arm movements, but those with vertebral fractures demonstrated a more pronounced co-contraction than those without fracture. Individuals with high thoracic kyphosis demonstrated more pronounced alternating flexor and extensor EMG bursts than those with less kyphosis. Co-contraction of trunk flexor and extensor muscles in older individuals contrasts the alternating bursts of antagonist muscle activity in previous studies of young individuals. This may have several consequences, including altered balance efficacy and the potential for increased compressive loads through the spine. Both of these outcomes may have consequences in a population with fragile vertebrae who are susceptible to fracture.

  16. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.; Gilbert, E.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  17. Prevalence of deleterious germline variants in risk genes including BRCA1/2 in consecutive ovarian cancer patients (AGO-TR-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Harter

    of 31.6% (36.0% versus 11.4% (17.6% and histologic subtype of high grade serous ovarian cancer versus other showed a prevalence of deleterious variants of 23.2% (29.1% and 10.2% (14.8%, respectively. Testing only for BRCA1/2 would miss in our series more than 5% of the patients with a deleterious variant in established risk genes.26.4% of all patients harbor at least one deleterious variant in established risk genes. The threshold of 10% mutation rate which is accepted for reimbursement by health care providers in Germany was observed in all subgroups analyzed and neither age at primary diagnosis nor histo-type or family history sufficiently enough could identify a subgroup not eligible for genetic counselling and testing. Genetic testing should therefore be offered to every patient with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and limiting testing to BRCA1/2 seems to be not sufficient.

  18. Prospective Study of the Mental Health Consequences of Sexual Violence Among Women Living With HIV in Rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Wolfe, William R; Kumbakumba, Elias; Kawuma, Annet; Hunt, Peter W; Martin, Jeffrey N; Bangsberg, David R; Weiser, Sheri D

    2016-05-01

    The association between sexual violence and depression is well known, but the temporal aspects of the association have not been well established. We analyzed data from a cohort of 173 HIV-positive women in rural Uganda who were interviewed every 3 months for a median of 1.8 years of follow-up. The method of generalized estimating equations (GEE) was used to model the marginal expectation of depression symptom severity (Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Depression), mental health-related quality of life (MOS-HIV Mental Health Summary), and heavy drinking (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) as a function of self-reported forced-sex victimization in the 3 months prior to interview. Estimates were adjusted for variables known to confound the association between victimization and mental health status. To assess any potential reciprocal relationships, we reversed the temporal ordering of the exposures and outcomes and refitted similar GEE models. In multivariable analyses, victimization was associated with greater depression symptom severity (b = 0.17; 95% CI = [0.02, 0.33]) and lower mental health-related quality of life (b = -5.65; 95% CI = [-9.34, -1.96]), as well as increased risks for probable depression (adjusted relative risk [ARR] = 1.58; 95% CI = [1.01, 2.49) and heavy drinking (ARR = 3.99; 95% CI = [1.84, 8.63]). We did not find strong evidence of a reciprocal relationship. Our findings suggest that forced sex is associated with adverse mental health outcomes among HIV-positive women in rural Uganda. Given the substantial mental health-related impacts of victimization, effective health sector responses are needed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Child Maltreatment and Allostatic Load: Consequences for Physical and Mental Health in Children from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogosch, Fred A.; Dackis, Melissa N.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment and biomarkers of allostatic load were investigated in relation to child health problems and psychological symptomatology. Participants attended a summer research day camp and included 137 maltreated and 110 nonmaltreated low-income children, who were aged 8 to 10 years (M = 9.42) and racially and ethnically diverse; 52% were male. Measurements obtained included salivary cortisol and DHEA, body-mass index, waist-hip ratio, and blood pressure; these indicators provided a composite index of allostatic load. Child self-report and camp adult-rater reports of child symptomatology were obtained; mothers provided information on health problems. The results indicated that higher allostatic load and child maltreatment status independently predicted poorer health outcomes and greater behavior problems. Moderation effects indicated that allostatic load was related to somatic complaints, attention problems, and thought problems only among maltreated children. Risks associated with high waist-hip ratio, low morning cortisol, and high morning DHEA also were related to depressive symptoms only for maltreated children. The results support an allostatic load conceptualization of the impact of high environmental stress and child abuse and neglect on child health and behavioral outcomes and have important implications for long-term physical and mental health. PMID:22018084

  20. Long-term health consequences of violence exposure in adolescence: a 26–year prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olofsson Niclas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence victimization represents a serious risk factor for health related symptoms, for both men and women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of violence exposure in late adolescence and early adulthood on adult health, physical as well as mental, using a long-term prospective population-based study, with a follow up of 9, 19, and 26 years. Methods The primary data source is a longitudinal panel from one of the longest running social science surveys in the world, the Swedish Level-of-Living surveys (LNU. We analyzed three cohorts, individuals aged 15–19 in 1974 and 1981, and individuals aged 18–19 in 1991 which were followed up 2000. Structured interviews on childhood, family relationships, life-events, living conditions, health history and status, working conditions, behavioral, psychosocial, and demographic variables were repeatedly used in all cohorts. Results Multivariate models of violence exposures in adolescence in the 1974–91 cohorts as predictors of adult health in 2000 are reported for both men and women. Women exposed to violence had raised odds ratios for ill health, measured as heavy illness burden, and poor self rated health, after controlling for possible confounders. No such associations were found for men. Conclusions This study’s findings provide additional empirical support for the importance of policies and practices to identify and prevent violence exposure in adolescence and young adulthood and to supply treatments for adolescence exposed to violence and above all the young women.

  1. Social-psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident and ways of minimization their effect on the population health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhangel'skaya, G.V.; Liberman, A.N.; Ivanov, E.V.; Komarov, E.I.; Anishchenko, E.V.; Randarenko, I.G.; Rumyantsev, G.M.; Ramzaev, V.P.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the social-and-sanitary and of the clinic-and-physiological investigations of the stress level, its reasons and effects for the health of the Bryansk region contaminated area population. The abrupt growth of the population concern linked with the radiation situation in 1992 in contrast to 1988 is determined. The extremely low level of the radiation-and-sanitary knowledge characteristic for all groups of the population is stressed. The psychological investigations revealed a complex of reactions called as a victim complex. It is shown that the long-term psychological stress of the population may affect essentially the health aspects

  2. Medium-term consequences of low birth weight on health and behavioral deficits - is there a catch-up effect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight.  Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long-run.  While some studies find effects of the same size at both school age and young adulthoo...... Longitudinal Survey of Children. Observing the same children at different points in time allows us to chart the evolution of health and behavioral deficits among children born with low birth weight and helps inform the nature and timing of interventions....

  3. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    to support hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing, and decision making. In addition to sensors in buildings, infrastructure, or the environment, we also propose the instrumentation of user interfaces to help measure performance in decision making applications. We show the benefits of applying principles...... between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  4. 78 FR 7860 - Initial Research on the Long-Term Health Consequences of Exposure to Burn Pits in Iraq and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... epidemiologic research initiatives for VA and DoD to further study potential long-term health effects. IOM first... examined through a research-based physical examination component of a broader research program. As a first step, VA intends to develop research goals and objectives, structures, and establish essential study...

  5. Hidden consequences of success in pediatrics: parental health-related quality of life—results from the Care Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatzmann, J.; Heymans, H.S.A.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.; van Praag, B.M.S.; Grootenhuis, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT. The number of parents who care for a chronically ill child is increasing. Because of advances in medical care, parental caring tasks are changing. A detailed description of parental health-related quality of life will add to the understanding of the impact of caring for a chronically ill

  6. Hidden Consequences of Success in Pediatrics: Parental Health-Related Quality of Life-Results From the Care Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatzmann, Janneke; Heymans, Hugo S. A.; Ferrer-I-Carbonell, Ada; van Praag, Bernard M. S.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT. The number of parents who care for a chronically ill child is increasing. Because of advances in medical care, parental caring tasks are changing. A detailed description of parental health-related quality of life will add to the understanding of the impact of caring for a chronically ill

  7. Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…

  8. The global expansion of precarious employment, work disorganization, and consequences for occupational health: a review of recent research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, M; Mayhew, C; Bohle, P

    2001-01-01

    In this review of a range of studies on the health and safety effects of precarious employment in industrialized societies published since 1984, the authors examine the overall findings and methodological issues and identify areas in need of further research. Of the 93 published journal articles and monographs/book chapters reviewed, 76 studies found precarious employment was associated with a deterioration in occupational health and safety (OHS) in terms of injury rates, disease risk, hazard exposures, or worker (and manager) knowledge of OHS and regulatory responsibilities. Of the more than 25 studies each on outsourcing and organizational restructuring/downsizing, well over 90 percent find a negative association with OHS. The evidence is fairly persuasive for temporary workers, with 14 of 24 studies finding a negative association with OHS. The evidence is less strong for small business, and a handful of studies on part-time workers found no clear association with negative OHS outcomes (in some cases the reverse). Further research is needed to more clearly link health effects to particular business practices and neoliberal policies and to explore the regulatory implications of the growth of precarious employment. The authors suggest some ways to conceptualize the association between precarious employment and occupational health.

  9. The intergenerational consequences of war: anxiety, depression, suicidality, and mental health among the children of war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Walter; Edwards, Ben; Daraganova, Galina

    2018-03-24

    The long-term effects of military deployment on the mental health of war veterans have been investigated extensively, but few studies have examined the long-term impact of parental deployment on children's mental health. Using a retrospective, multigenerational survey and propensity score analysis to adjust for selection effects and endogeneity bias, we investigated the impact of parental deployment on the mental health of the adult children of Australian veterans of the Vietnam War. We analysed data from 1966 adult men (35%) and women (65%) whose fathers (N = 1418) were selected at random from the population of surviving men who served in the Australian army during the Vietnam War (1962-75). Mean age of respondents was 37. The main outcome measures were self-reported diagnosis or treatment for anxiety and depression (i.e. lifetime and previous 12 months), suicidality based on Psychiatric Symptom Frequency Scale, and current mental health as measured by the Mental Health Inventory of the SF-36. The key independent variable was whether their fathers were deployed to the Vietnam War. Almost 40 years after the war, the adult children of deployed veterans were more likely to have been diagnosed with anxiety [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54, confidence interval (CI) = 1.04, 2.28] and depression (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.03, 3.05), to have had thoughts of suicide and self-harm (OR = 2.39, CI = 1.57, 3.65) and to have made suicidal plans (OR = 3.52, CI = 1.40, 8.85) than the offspring of comparable, non-deployed army veterans. They also reported poorer current mental health (Coefficient = -5.08, CI = -6.60 - -3.56). The results imply that there are significant and enduring adverse effects of parental deployment on the mental health of children in military families, and provide some insight into the potential long-term impacts of recent military engagements in Afghanistan and Iraq.

  10. The Fiscal Consequences Attributed to Changes in Morbidity and Mortality Linked to Investments in Health Care: A Government Perspective Analytic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mark P; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Postma, Maarten J; Bhatt, Aomesh

    2017-02-01

    Governments have an enormous economic and political stake in the health of their populations. Population health is not only fundamental to economic growth but also affects short-term and long-term government expenditure on health care, disability, and other social programs and influences direct and indirect tax receipts. Fiscal transfers between citizen and state are mostly ignored in conventional welfare economics analyses based on the hypothesis that there are no winners or losers through transference of wealth. However, from the government perspective, this position is flawed, as disability costs and lost taxes attributed to poor health and reduced productive output represent real costs that pose budgetary and growth implications. To address the value of health and health care investments for government, we have developed a fiscal health analytic framework that captures how changes in morbidity and mortality influence tax revenue and transfer costs (e.g., disability, allowances, ongoing health costs). The framework can be used to evaluate the marginal impact of discrete investments or a mix of interventions in health care to inform governmental budgetary consequences. In this context, the framework can be considered as a fiscal budget impact and/or cost-benefit analysis model that accounts for how morbidity and mortality linked to specific programs represent both ongoing costs and tax revenue for government. Mathematical models identical to those used in cost-effectiveness analyses can be employed in fiscal analysis to reflect how disease progression influences public accounts (e.g., tax revenue and transfers). Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Consequences of lack of specialists in radiation protection in health services and the different ways to overcome it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoardi, Roberto; Acosta, Norma B.; Velez, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    In Argentina, most medical physicists are almost exclusive dedicated to radiotherapy and nuclear medicine to a lesser extent, due to standards where is required the physicist presence. The behavior is not the same in the area of diagnostic radiology where there is no standard to regulate it. The proposal elements to achieve sustainable development in the Medical Physics can be resumed like this: 1) the acceptance of the physicist as the health professional; 2)the request of it incorporation in the control of the Health Ministry (X-ray and ionizing radiations); 3) definition of the professional profiles to have the accreditation and certification of the specialists; 4) effort on the training of specialists in the areas where there is not this human resource

  12. Behavioral consequences of conflict-oriented health news coverage: the 2009 mammography guideline controversy and online information seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Brian E; Friedenberg, Laura M; Southwell, Brian G; Slater, Jonathan S

    2012-01-01

    Building on channel complementarity theory and media-system dependency theory, this study explores the impact of conflict-oriented news coverage of health issues on information seeking online. Using Google search data as a measure of behavior, we demonstrate that controversial news coverage of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's November 2009 recommendations for changes in breast cancer screening guidelines strongly predicted the volume of same-day online searches for information about mammograms. We also found that this relationship did not exist 1 year prior to the coverage, during which mammography news coverage did not focus on the guideline controversy, suggesting that the controversy frame may have driven search behavior. We discuss the implications of these results for health communication scholars and practitioners.

  13. Diversion of drugs within health care facilities, a multiple-victim crime: patterns of diversion, scope, consequences, detection, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Keith H; Dillon, Kevin R; Sikkink, Karen M; Taylor, Timothy K; Lanier, William L

    2012-07-01

    Mayo Clinic has been involved in an ongoing effort to prevent the diversion of controlled substances from the workplace and to rapidly identify and respond when such diversion is detected. These efforts have found that diversion of controlled substances is not uncommon and can result in substantial risk not only to the individual who is diverting the drugs but also to patients, co-workers, and employers. We believe that all health care facilities should have systems in place to deter controlled substance diversion and to promptly identify diversion and intervene when it is occurring. Such systems are multifaceted and require close cooperation between multiple stakeholders including, but not limited to, departments of pharmacy, safety and security, anesthesiology, nursing, legal counsel, and human resources. Ideally, there should be a broad-based appreciation of the dangers that diversion creates not only for patients but also for all employees of health care facilities, because diversion can occur at any point along a long supply chain. All health care workers must be vigilant for signs of possible diversion and must be aware of how to engage a preexisting group with expertise in investigating possible diversions. In addition, clear policies and procedures should be in place for dealing with such investigations and for managing the many possible outcomes of a confirmed diversion. This article provides an overview of the multiple types of risk that result from drug diversion from health care facilities. Further, we describe a system developed at Mayo Clinic for evaluating episodes of potential drug diversion and for taking action once diversion is confirmed. Copyright © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Implementation of a national, nurse-led telephone health service in Scotland: assessing the consequences for remote and rural localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A; Heaney, D; Haddow, G; O'Donnell, C A

    2009-01-01

    Internationally, nurse-led models of telephone triage have become commonplace in unscheduled healthcare delivery. Various existing models have had a positive impact on the delivery of healthcare services, often reducing the demand on accident and emergency departments and staff workload 'out of hours'. Our objective was to assess whether a model of centralised nurse telephone triage (NHS 24, introduced in Scotland in 2001) was appropriate for remote and rural areas. In this qualitative study the views and perspectives of health professionals across Scotland are explored. Thirty-five participants were purposively selected for interviews during 2005. Two types of interview were conducted: detailed, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders of NHS 24; and briefer telephone interviews with partners from NHS Boards across Scotland. A constant comparative approach was taken to analysis. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Scottish Multi-site Research Ethics Committee. The findings are comparable with other research studies of new service developments in remote and rural health care. The rigidity of the centralised triage model introduced, the need to understand variation of health service delivery, and the importance of utilising local professional knowledge were all key issues affecting performance. Remote and rural complexities need to be considered when designing new healthcare services. It is suggested that new health service designs are 'proofed' for remote and rural complexities. This study highlights that a centralised nurse-led telephone triage model was inappropriate for remote and rural Scotland, and may not be appropriate for all geographies and circumstances.

  15. Posttraumatic stress and other health consequences of catastrophic avalanches: A 16-year follow-up of survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordardottir, Edda Bjork; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur Anna; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Resnick, Heidi; Shipherd, Jillian C; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind

    2015-05-01

    To date, no study has investigated the effects of avalanches on survivor's health beyond the first years. The aim of this study was to examine long-term health status 16 years after exposure to avalanches using a matched cohort design. Mental health, sleep quality and somatic symptoms among avalanche survivors (n=286) and non-exposed controls (n=357) were examined. Results showed that 16% of survivors currently experience avalanche-specific PTSD symptoms (PDS score>14). In addition, survivors presented with increased risk of PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (>85th percentile) (aRR=1.83; 98.3% CI [1.23-2.74]); sleep-related problems (PSQI score>5) (aRR=1.34; 95% CI [1.05-1.70]); PTSD-related sleep disturbances (PSQI-A score≥4) (aRR=1.86; 95% CI [1.30-2.67]); musculoskeletal and nervous system problems (aRR 1.43; 99% CI 1.06-1.93) and gastrointestinal problems (aRR 2.16; 99% CI 1.21-3.86) compared to the unexposed group. Results highlight the need for treatment for long-term PTSD symptoms and sleep disruption in disaster communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of the grain size on deleterious phase precipitation in superduplex stainless steel UNS S32750

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardal, J.M.; Tavares, S.S.M.; Fonseca, M. Cindra; Souza, J.A. de; Corte, R.R.A.; Abreu, H.F.G. de

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of grain size on deleterious phase precipitation in a superduplex stainless steel was investigated. The materials studied were heat treated isothermally at 800 deg. C, 850 deg. C and 900 deg. C for times up to 120 min. Hardness tests, light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were carried out to detect sigma and other harmful precipitate phases. The ferritic and austenitic grain sizes in the solution treated condition of the two steels analyzed were measured by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). Cyclic polarization corrosion tests were performed to evaluate the effect of grain size on the corrosion resistance. The results presented show that the precipitation of deleterious phases such as χ, σ and γ 2 , which can occur during welding and forming operations, is retarded by grain growth

  17. Calculation of the equilibrium distribution for a deleterious gene by the finite Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, K

    1982-03-01

    In a population of constant size every deleterious gene eventually attains a stochastic equilibrium between mutation and selection. The individual probabilities of this equilibrium distribution can be computed by an application of the finite Fourier transform to an appropriate branching process formula. Specific numerical examples are discussed for the autosomal dominants, Huntington's chorea and chondrodystrophy, and for the X-linked recessive, Becker's muscular dystrophy.

  18. Recurrent loss of sex is associated with accumulation of deleterious mutations in Oenothera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Jesse D; Greiner, Stephan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wright, Stephen I; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-04-01

    Sexual reproduction is nearly universal among eukaryotes. Theory predicts that the rarity of asexual eukaryotic species is in part caused by accumulation of deleterious mutations and heightened extinction risk associated with suppressed recombination and segregation in asexual species. We tested this prediction with a large data set of 62 transcriptomes from 29 species in the plant genus Oenothera, spanning ten independent transitions between sexual and a functionally asexual genetic system called permanent translocation heterozygosity. Illumina short-read sequencing and de novo transcript assembly yielded an average of 16.4 Mb of sequence per individual. Here, we show that functionally asexual species accumulate more deleterious mutations than sexual species using both population genomic and phylogenetic analysis. At an individual level, asexual species exhibited 1.8 × higher heterozygosity than sexual species. Within species, we detected a higher proportion of nonsynonymous polymorphism relative to synonymous variation within asexual compared with sexual species, indicating reduced efficacy of purifying selection. Asexual species also exhibited a greater proportion of transcripts with premature stop codons. The increased proportion of nonsynonymous mutations was also positively correlated with divergence time between sexual and asexual species, consistent with Muller's ratchet. Between species, we detected repeated increases in the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous divergence in asexual species compared with sexually reproducing sister taxa, indicating increased accumulation of deleterious mutations. These results confirm that an important advantage of sex is that it facilitates selection against deleterious alleles, which might help to explain the dearth of extant asexual species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The consequences of "Culture's consequences"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne; Froholdt, Lisa Loloma

    2009-01-01

      In this article, it is claimed that research on cross-cultural crews is dominated by one specific understanding of the concept of culture, which is static, evenly distributed and context-independent. Such a conception of culture may bring some basic order while facing an unknown culture...... review of the theory of Geert Hofstede, the most renowned representative of this theoretical approach. The practical consequences of using such a concept of culture is then analysed by means of a critical review of an article applying Hofstede to cross-cultural crews in seafaring. Finally, alternative...... views on culture are presented. The aim of the article is, rather than to promote any specific theory, to reflect about diverse perspectives of cultural sense-making in cross-cultural encounters. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober...

  20. Computational Methods to Work as First-Pass Filter in Deleterious SNP Analysis of Alkaptonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Magesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in the analysis of human genetic variation is to distinguish functional from nonfunctional SNPs. Discovering these functional SNPs is one of the main goals of modern genetics and genomics studies. There is a need to effectively and efficiently identify functionally important nsSNPs which may be deleterious or disease causing and to identify their molecular effects. The prediction of phenotype of nsSNPs by computational analysis may provide a good way to explore the function of nsSNPs and its relationship with susceptibility to disease. In this context, we surveyed and compared variation databases along with in silico prediction programs to assess the effects of deleterious functional variants on protein functions. In other respects, we attempted these methods to work as first-pass filter to identify the deleterious substitutions worth pursuing for further experimental research. In this analysis, we used the existing computational methods to explore the mutation-structure-function relationship in HGD gene causing alkaptonuria.

  1. Computational Methods to Work as First-Pass Filter in Deleterious SNP Analysis of Alkaptonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magesh, R.; George Priya Doss, C.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in the analysis of human genetic variation is to distinguish functional from nonfunctional SNPs. Discovering these functional SNPs is one of the main goals of modern genetics and genomics studies. There is a need to effectively and efficiently identify functionally important nsSNPs which may be deleterious or disease causing and to identify their molecular effects. The prediction of phenotype of nsSNPs by computational analysis may provide a good way to explore the function of nsSNPs and its relationship with susceptibility to disease. In this context, we surveyed and compared variation databases along with in silico prediction programs to assess the effects of deleterious functional variants on protein functions. In other respects, we attempted these methods to work as first-pass filter to identify the deleterious substitutions worth pursuing for further experimental research. In this analysis, we used the existing computational methods to explore the mutation-structure-function relationship in HGD gene causing alkaptonuria. PMID:22606059

  2. Pathway to neural resilience: Self-esteem buffers against deleterious effects of poverty on the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Lin; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hong, Yingyi; Cheon, Bobby; Liu, Jia

    2016-11-01

    Human neuroimaging studies have shown that people living in poverty tend to suffer hippocampal atrophy, which leads to impaired memory and learning throughout life. However, behavioral studies demonstrate that poor people with high self-esteem are often exempt from the deleterious effect of poverty and instead possess a happy and successful life. Here we investigated whether high self-esteem can buffer against the deleterious effects of poverty, as indicated by low subjective socioeconomic status (SSS), on the hippocampal gray matter volume (GMV) in a large cohort of young participants (N = 280). As expected, findings revealed that although low (vs. high) SSS was linked with a smaller hippocampal GMV, the deleterious effect of low SSS on hippocampal GMV was alleviated when the participants have high self-esteem. Commonality analyses further confirmed this observation. The current study suggests that positive psychological resources such as self-esteem may provide protection for the hippocampal atrophy in adversity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3757-3766, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Potential role of masting by introduced bamboos in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus population irruptions holds public health consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C Smith

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic ("running" bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species (Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata, wheat, Pinus ponderosa, and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y. brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food.

  4. Socioeconomic variation in the financial consequences of ill health for older people with chronic diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtorta, Nicole K; Hanratty, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Chronic disease has financial consequences for older adults, but it is unclear how this varies between conditions with different disease trajectories. The aim of this study was to review evidence on the financial burden associated with cancer, heart failure or stroke in older people, to identify those most at risk of financial adversity. We systematically searched nine databases for studies with data on the illness-related financial burden (objective), or on the perception of financial hardship (subjective), of older patients and/or their informal caregivers in high-income countries. We identified thirty-eight papers published in English between 1984 and 2012. Studies fell into three categories: those reporting direct, out of pocket, costs (medical and/or non-medical); studies of the indirect costs associated with illness (such as wage or income loss); and papers reporting general financial or economic burdens secondary to illness. Three out of four studies focused on people with cancer. More affluent people had greater out of pocket costs, but were less financially burdened by illness, compared with older adults from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Disadvantaged patients and families were more likely to report experiences of financial hardship, and spend a higher proportion of their income on all expenses related to their diagnoses. This review illustrates how little is known about the financial adversity experienced by patients with some common chronic conditions. It raises the possibility that higher expenditure by more affluent older people may be creating inequalities in how chronic illness is experienced. The development of effective strategies for financial protection at older ages will require more information on who is affected and at which point in their illness trajectory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus on offspring's cardiovascular health: MySweetHeart Cohort study protocol, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bernardo, Stefano; Mivelaz, Yvan; Epure, Adina Mihaela; Vial, Yvan; Simeoni, Umberto; Bovet, Pascal; Estoppey Younes, Sandrine; Chiolero, Arnaud; Sekarski, Nicole

    2017-11-14

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a state of glucose intolerance with onset during pregnancy. GDM carries prenatal and perinatal risks as well as long-term risks for the mother and her child. GDM may be involved in the foetal programming of long-term cardiovascular health. However, evidence is sparse and the effect of GDM on cardiovascular health is unknown. To address these issues, we will conduct MySweetHeart Cohort study. The objectives are to assess the effect of GDM on offspring's cardiovascular health early in life by using surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. This is a cohort study of 100 offspring of women with GDM and 100 offspring of women without GDM. At inclusion, a baseline assessment of the mothers will be conducted through means of self-report questionnaires, a researcher-administrated interview, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and a maternal blood sampling. Between the 30th and 34th weeks of gestation, a foetal echography will be performed to assess the foetal cardiac structure and function, the fetomaternal circulation and the hepatic volume. At birth, maternal and neonatal characteristics will be assessed. An echocardiography will be performed to assess cardiac structure and function 2-7 days after birth; carotid intima-media thickness will be also measured to assess vascular structure. MySweetHeart Cohort is linked to MySweetHeart Trial (clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02890693), a randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of a multidimensional interdisciplinary lifestyle and psychosocial intervention to improve the cardiometabolic and mental health of women with GDM and their offspring. A long-term follow-up of children is planned. Ethical approval has been obtained through the state Human Research Ethics Committee of the Canton de Vaud (study number 2016-00745). We aim to disseminate the findings through regional, national and international conferences and through peer-reviewed journals

  6. Identification of Deleterious Mutations in Myostatin Gene of Rohu Carp (Labeo rohita Using Modeling and Molecular Dynamic Simulation Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Dashrath Rasal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The myostatin (MSTN is a known negative growth regulator of skeletal muscle. The mutated myostatin showed a double-muscular phenotype having a positive significance for the farmed animals. Consequently, adequate information is not available in the teleosts, including farmed rohu carp, Labeo rohita. In the absence of experimental evidence, computational algorithms were utilized in predicting the impact of point mutation of rohu myostatin, especially its structural and functional relationships. The four mutations were generated at different positions (p.D76A, p.Q204P, p.C312Y, and p.D313A of MSTN protein of rohu. The impacts of each mutant were analyzed using SIFT, I-Mutant 2.0, PANTHER, and PROVEAN, wherein two substitutions (p.D76A and p.Q204P were predicted as deleterious. The comparative structural analysis of each mutant protein with the native was explored using 3D modeling as well as molecular-dynamic simulation techniques. The simulation showed altered dynamic behaviors concerning RMSD and RMSF, for either p.D76A or p.Q204P substitution, when compared with the native counterpart. Interestingly, incorporated two mutations imposed a significant negative impact on protein structure and stability. The present study provided the first-hand information in identifying possible amino acids, where mutations could be incorporated into MSTN gene of rohu carp including other carps for undertaking further in vivo studies.

  7. Tanshinol Attenuates the Deleterious Effects of Oxidative Stress on Osteoblastic Differentiation via Wnt/FoxO3a Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now increasing evidence which suggests a pivotal role for oxidative stress in the development and progression of osteoporosis. We confirm herein the protective effects of natural antioxidant Tanshinol against oxidative stress in osteoblastic differentiation and the underlying mechanism. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 leads to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, decrease in cell viability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a caspase-3-dependent manner, and inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation. Tanshinol reverses these deleterious consequence triggered by oxidative stress. Moreover, under the condition of oxidative stress, Tanshinol suppresses the activation of FoxO3a transcription factor and expressions of its target genes Gadd45a and catalase (CAT and simultaneously counteracts the inhibition of Wnt signalling and expressions of target genes Axin2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and Osteoprotegerin (OPG. The findings are further consolidated using FoxO3a siRNA interference and overexpression of Tcf4. The results illustrate that Tanshinol attenuates oxidative stress via down-regulation of FoxO3a signaling, and rescues the decrease of osteoblastic differentiation through upregulation of Wnt signal under oxidative stress. The present findings suggest that the beneficial effects of Tanshinol may be adopted as a novel therapeutic approach in recently recognized conditions of niche targeting osteoporosis.

  8. Health, social and economic consequences of hypersomnia: a controlled national study from a national registry evaluating the societal effect on patients and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2014-04-01

    Hypersomnia causes significant socioeconomic burden, but there is insufficient information about the time course and the effect on the partner. The aim of this study was to estimate the factual direct and productivity costs of hypersomnia in a controlled study including all national patients and their partners. Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1997-2009), we identified all patients with a diagnosis of hypersomnia and compared these patients and their partners with randomly chosen controls matched for age, gender, geographic area and marital status. Direct and productivity costs, including frequencies of primary and sector contacts and procedures, medication, labour supply and social transfer payments were extracted from the national databases. A total of 2,855 national patients was compared to 11,382 controls. About 70 % of patients and controls were married or cohabiting. Patients with hypersomnia had significantly higher rates of health-related contact, medication use and socioeconomic cost. Furthermore, they had slightly lower employment rates, and those in employment had a lower income level than control subjects. The annual mean excess health-related cost including social transfers was 3,498 for patients with hypersomnia and 3,851 for their partners. The social and health-related consequences could be identified up to 11 years before the first diagnosis among both the patients and their partners and became more pronounced as the disease advanced. The health effects were present in all age groups and in both genders. On the basis of this retrospective controlled study in the Danish population, symptoms and findings of hypersomnia are associated with major socioeconomic consequences for patients, their partners and society.

  9. [Floods and public health: a review of the recent scientific literature on the causes, consequences and responses to prevention and mitigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli

    2012-06-01

    Floods are among the most frequent natural disasters and they affect the lives of approximately 102 million people each year, mainly in developing countries and in major urban areas with a tendency to grow further over the coming decades. The scope of this paper is to provide input for a clearer understanding of these events through the results and experiences to be gleaned from the recent scientific literature. From the Pubmed database, 70 articles were analyzed that fulfilled the criteria to address at least one of the items selected for analysis, namely: 1) causes; 2) consequences; 3) responses and actions: submission of proposals and solutions for the prevention and/or mitigation of the risks and impacts of flooding. Tables for each of the items selected were organized in order to systematize and synthesize the results for causes (attributed to natural and human activities); environmental, infrastructure and services, and health consequences (injuries and diseases classified according to chapters of ICD-10); prevention and mitigation responses and actions. It was concluded that given the scenarios of increased frequency and severity of these events, the challenges facing public health for disaster risk reduction require integrated responses with broad policies for sustainable development.

  10. Predictors and health consequences of screen-time change during adolescence--1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2012-12-01

    To investigate screen-time change from early to mid adolescence, its predictors, and its influence on body fat, blood pressure, and leisure-time physical activity. We used data from a longitudinal prospective study, conducted among participants of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. At baseline, adolescents were, on average, 11 years old. They were later visited at age 15 years. Screen time was self-reported, accounting for the time spent watching television, playing video games, and using the computer. Several predictors were examined. The effect of screen-time change on some health outcomes was also analyzed. Screen time increased on average 60 min/d from 11 to 15 years of age, for the 4,218 adolescents studied. The groups that presented the highest increases in screen time were male, wealthiest, those whose mothers had higher education, and adolescents with a history of school failure. There were positive associations between screen-time change and body mass index, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and leisure-time physical activity at 15 years of age. Screen time increased from early to mid adolescence. This increment was higher among boys and the wealthiest adolescents. Increases in screen time affected body composition, with negative implications on adiposity. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. International conference - Papeete - French Polynesia - June 29, 2006. Scientists and nuclear tests consequence on health. The Colloquium; Conference internationale - Papeete - Polynesie Francaise - 29 juin 2006. Les scientifiques et les consequences des essais nucleaires sur la sante. Le colloque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Lyn [Parliamentarians for a Nuclear Free Future (Australia); International Nuclear Test Network, Paris (France); Cavillon, Arlette [Le Mouvement pour la Paix, 139 boulevard Victor Hugo, F-93400 St-Ouen (France); Rowland, Al [Institute of Molecular BioSciences, Massey University, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Parmentier, Claude [Institut Gustave-Roussy, lab. UPRES EA no. 27-10, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif cedex (France); Vahaire, Florent de; Brindel, Pauline; Doyon, Francoise [Unite 605 INSERM, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Drozdovich, Vladimir [International Agency for Research on Cancer - IARC, Lyon (France); Rachedi, Frederique; Boissin,; Sebag, Joseph; Shan, Larys; Bezeaud, Frederique; Petitdidier, Patrick [Tahiti, Polynesie francaise (France); Paaoafaite, John; Teuri, Joseph [Institut de recherche pour le developpement - IRD, Chemin de l' Arahiri, PK 3,5, Arue 98713, Polynesie francaise (France); Hirshon, Unutea [Assemblee de Polynesie francaise, BP 28 Papeete - 98713 Tahiti, Polynesie francaise (France); Luc, Helene [commission des Affaires etrangeres et de la Defense (France); ONG, Cara [Marshall Islands (United States); Bouveret, Patrice [Observatoire des armes nucleaires francaises, Centre de Documentation et de Recherche sur la Paix et les Conflits - CDRPC (France); Ruff, Tilman A. [Nossal Institute for Global Health, University of Melbourne (Australia); International Dept, Australian Red Cross (Australia); Smith, Nick [New Zealand Parliamentary Network for Nuclear Disarmament (New Zealand); Okumura, Eiji [Hibakusha Hiroshima (Japan); Valatx, Jean-Louis; Tardieu, Arlette; Hervieux, J. C. [Association des Veterans des Essais Nucleaires - Aven, 44-A rue de la Favorite, 69005 Lyon (France); NOONAN, Anne [Medical Association for Prevention of War - MAPW (Australia); Sercombe, Robert [Australia Parliament (Australia)

    2006-06-15

    Forty years after the first bomb in Moruroa, a conference to promote recognition and justice for all victims of nuclear tests. More than thirty speakers, scientists, legal experts, parliamentarians and members of associations from French Polynesia, Australia, Fiji, New Zealand, the United States, Japan, the Netherlands and France debated on June 29-30, at the President's palace in Papeete, on the rights of the victims of nuclear tests to be recognized by nuclear powers. During this conference, we heard scientists explain very clearly that contamination and irradiation had widespread consequences including on the gene pool of the victims. Today, damage found on the chromosomes of Polynesian thyroid cancer patients who lived 1000 km away from Moruroa is ten times higher than damage found on average nuclear workers. Researchers tell us that many of those who worked on nuclear sites die earlier. Average life expectancy for the veterans from New Zealand is for example 51 years - and for most of them a life marred by suffering and cancers. Researchers tell us that conducting credible surveys is becoming more and more difficult as the impact of radiations that were absorbed 20, 30 or even 40 years earlier is getting more difficult to discern from damages due to old age or other illnesses. Testimonies and information given at this conference are indispensable for the public to realize the actual impact of the nuclear tests as well as show the elected representatives how urgent it is to meet the expectations of the victims. The suffering and strong discontent of the former test site workers moved the parliamentarians as well as the public. The strong words that were said will have to give a human face to the law we will have to implement in order to do justice to the victims. An impact of nuclear testing on health and environment are experienced by many peoples in the world. The testing nations are of course the ones who should compensate the victims. But there is also a

  12. Health effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevillard, S.; Ugolin, N.; Lebeau, J.; Ory, K.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear energy production is necessarily associated with the handling and storage of radioactive elements, which are liable to have deleterious effects on human health, and on environment. These deleterious effects are varied, but they greatly depend on the dose, which has been received, and the exposure type. Therefore, only intense and massive exposures are liable to be clinically detected. They can entail immediate consequences, even lead to the person's death. Thanks to safety measures, which have been implemented to an international scale, this occurs very rarely. Excluding extensive accidental cases, medical irradiation for therapeutic use and conflicts, workers and population in general are exposed to low doses and low dose-rates. Low dose exposures, resulting from either a contamination or an external irradiation are more frequent. In fact, we could say that the whole humanity is concerned by natural exposure, which varies depending on regions, as well as by medical exposure, which varies depending on the medicalisation status of the country. (author)

  13. Determination of strontium in drinking water and consequences of radioactive elements present in drinking water for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkovic, M.B.; Stojanovic, M.D.; Pantelic, G.K.; Vuletic, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the analysis of strontium and uranium content in drinking water has been done, indirectly, according to the scale which originates from drinking water in water-supply system of the city of Belgrade. Gamaspectrometric analysis showed the presence of free natural radionuclide in low activities. The activity of 90Sr in scale which is 0.72±0.11 Bq/kg was determined by radiochemical. Because of the small quantities of fur in the house heater this activity can be considered as irrelevant, but the accumulation of scale can have intensified influence. In this paper, the analysis of effects of the radioactive isotopes presence (first of all 238U and 235U) in drinking water on human health has been done

  14. Health issues of the operators on video display units - the consequence of electromagnetic radiation or something else

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumen, V.; Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Franekic Colic, J.; Radalj, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last few decades, video display units (VDUs) have become inevitable in a number of workplaces. This raised a debate on possible health effects of occupational exposure to VDUs. Most frequently reported complaints are eyestrain, bone/muscle disorders and psychological problems related to monotonous, repetitive work. Questions have been raised whether regular exposure to electromagnetic fields generated by the screen could induce cataract. In response to a direct inquiry of VDU operators from a large Croatian company, whether their eye discomforts could be attributed to screen irradiation, we measured electromagnetic fields generated by screens. Measurements were performed using a portable measuring device PMM 8051, serial number 0182 (PMM Costruzioni Elettroniche Centro Misure Radioelettriche s.r. Milan, Italy) with three different probes, with and without a filter. The results showed that screen-generated fields were far bellow the threshold required for a causing a cataract, which overruled the possibility that the actinic effect should produce eye discomfort.(author)

  15. Assessment of nuclear tests consequences for biota and population health for period after the test site shutting down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigaliev, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1993 by the 'Nevada-Semej' International Anti-Nuclear Movement the Scientific Committee 'Radiation, Ecology, Heath' was created by the initiative of thr movement Leader - O.O.Sulejnenov. The committee jointed the energies of scientists - biologists, radio-biologists, physicians, radiologists, physicists and other specialists. In the Scientific Committee the Expert Councils for conducting the independent assessment of radiation influence on the natural environment and population health have been organized. The scientists and specialists have been took part in data systematization on radiation situation, dose loads on the Semipalatinsk test site population on the base of archival materials analysis, published papers and own data of studies. One may note, that currently the ecological map of site territory radiation contamination was developed,But these data are evaluative only and its demand clarification

  16. and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Athanasopoulou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (a Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify the types of CSR initiatives employed by sports organisations; their antecedents, and their consequences for the company and society. (b Design/methodology/approach: This study is exploratory in nature. Two detailed case studies were conducted involving the football team and the basketball team of one professional, premier league club in Greece and their CSR initiatives. Both teams have the same name, they belong to one of the most popular teams in Greece with a large fan population; have both competed in International Competitions (UEFA’s Champion League; Final Four of the European Tournament and have realised many CSR initiatives in the past. The case studies involved in depth, personal interviews of managers responsible for CSR in each team. Case study data was triangulated with documentation and search of published material concerning CSR actions. Data was analysed with content analysis. (c Findings: Both teams investigated have undertaken various CSR activities the last 5 years, the football team significantly more than the basketball team. Major factors that affect CSR activity include pressure from leagues; sponsors; local community, and global organisations; orientation towards fulfilling their duty to society, and team CSR strategy. Major benefits from CSR include relief of vulnerable groups and philanthropy as well as a better reputation for the firm; increase in fan base; and finding sponsors more easily due to the social profile of the team. However, those benefits are not measured in any way although both teams observe increase in tickets sold; web site traffic and TV viewing statistics after CSR activities. Finally, promotion of CSR is mainly done through web sites; press releases; newspapers, and word-of-mouth communications. (d Research limitations/implications: This study involves only two case studies and has limited generalisability. Future research can extend the

  17. Determinants and consequences of insulin initiation for type 2 diabetes in France: analysis of the National Health and Wellness Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reach G

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gérard Reach,1 Véronique Le Pautremat,2 Shaloo Gupta31Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolic Diseases, Avicenne Hospital APHP, and EA 3412, CRNH-IdF, Paris 13 University, Sorbonnne Paris Cité, Bobigny, France; 2Kantar Health, Paris, France; 3Kantar Health, Princeton, NJ, USABackground: The aim of the study was to identify the intrinsic patient characteristics and extrinsic environmental factors predicting prescription and use and, more specifically, early initiation (up to 5 years of disease duration of insulin for type 2 diabetes in France. A secondary objective was to evaluate the impact of insulin therapy on mental and physical quality of life and patient adherence.Methods: The data used in this study were derived from the 2008, 2010, and 2011 France National Health and Wellness Survey. This survey is an annual, cross-sectional, self-administered, Internet-based questionnaire among a nationwide representative sample of adults (aged 18 years or older. Of the total of 45,958 persons recruited in France, 1,933 respondents (deduped were identified as diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. All unique respondents from the three waves, currently using insulin or oral bitherapy or tritherapy at the time of assessment, were included in this analysis.Results: Early (versus late initiation of insulin therapy was 9.9 times more likely to be prescribed by an endocrinologist or diabetologist than by a primary care physician (P < 0.0001. Younger age at diagnosis and current smoking habits were significant predictors of early (versus late insulin initiation (odds ratio [OR] 1.031, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.005–1.059, P = 0.0196, and OR 2.537, 95% CI 1.165–5.524, P = 0.0191, respectively. Patients with a yearly income ≥€50,000 were less likely to be put on insulin early (P = 0.0399. A link between insulin prescription and complications was shown only in univariate analysis. Mental quality of life was lower in patients on early (versus

  18. Workarounds Emerging From Electronic Health Record System Usage: Consequences for Patient Safety, Effectiveness of Care, and Efficiency of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blijleven, Vincent; Koelemeijer, Kitty; Wetzels, Marijntje; Jaspers, Monique

    2017-10-05

    Health care providers resort to informal temporary practices known as workarounds for handling exceptions to normal workflow unintendedly imposed by electronic health record systems (EHRs). Although workarounds may seem favorable at first sight, they are generally suboptimal and may jeopardize patient safety, effectiveness of care, and efficiency of care. Research into the scope and impact of EHR workarounds on patient care processes is scarce. This paper provides insight into the effects of EHR workarounds on organizational workflows and outcomes of care services by identifying EHR workarounds and determining their rationales, scope, and impact on health care providers' workflows, patient safety, effectiveness of care, and efficiency of care. Knowing the rationale of a workaround provides valuable clues about the source of origin of each workaround and how each workaround could most effectively be resolved. Knowing the scope and impact a workaround has on EHR-related safety, effectiveness, and efficiency provides insight into how to address related concerns. Direct observations and follow-up semistructured interviews with 31 physicians, 13 nurses, and 3 clerks and qualitative bottom-up coding techniques was used to identify, analyze, and classify EHR workarounds. The research was conducted within 3 specialties and settings at a large university hospital. Rationales were associated with work system components (persons, technology and tools, tasks, organization, and physical environment) of the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) framework to reveal their source of origin as well as to determine the scope and the impact of each EHR workaround from a structure-process-outcome perspective. A total of 15 rationales for EHR workarounds were identified of which 5 were associated with persons, 4 with technology and tools, 4 with the organization, and 2 with the tasks. Three of these 15 rationales for EHR workarounds have not been identified in prior

  19. Our Breaths We Take: Outdoor Air Quality, Health, and Climate Change Consequences of Household Heating and Cooking with Solid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Zoe Anna

    Worldwide, nearly 3 billion people--40% of the global population--burn wood, coal, and other solid fuels every day to cook their food; this number is even larger when including those who heat their homes with solid fuels as well. Exposure to pollution from heating and cooking fires causes about 3 million deaths each year, making it one of the biggest environmental health problems the world faces. The harm from this smoke is not restricted to those who breathe it, however: it contains gases and particles that contribute to global climate change as well. Chapter 2 shows that household cooking with solid fuels caused an estimated 12% of population-weighted ambient PM2.5 worldwide in 2010. Exposure to this air pollution caused the loss of 370,000 lives and 9.9 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) globally in the same year. In Chapter 3 I demonstrate that household heating with solid fuels caused an estimated 21% of population-weighted ambient PM2.5 in 2010 in Central Europe, 13% in Eastern Europe, 12% in Western Europe, and 8% in North America. Exposure to this air pollution results caused approximately 60,000 premature deaths in Europe, and nearly 10,000 deaths in North America, as well as an estimated 1.0 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in Europe and 160,000 DALYs in North America. Chapter 4 addresses drivers of household wood combustion pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area, where the sector is the largest source of PM 2.5 and regulators recently introduced amendments to wood burning rules for the airshed. Fireplaces are the source of the vast majority (84%) of PM 2.5 from residential wood combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area, despite their use primarily as an aesthetic or recreational combustion activity. By evaluating hypothetical fuel and combustion device changeouts, I find that replacing fireplaces with gas would yield significant health and economic benefits. Specifically, retrofitting frequently used fireplaces (300,000 units

  20. Patient- and population-level health consequences of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy in settings with inadequate HIV treatment availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmel April D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-limited settings, HIV budgets are flattening or decreasing. A policy of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy (ART after HIV treatment failure was modeled to highlight trade-offs among competing policy goals of optimizing individual and population health outcomes. Methods In settings with two available ART regimens, we assessed two strategies: (1 continue ART after second-line failure (Status Quo and (2 discontinue ART after second-line failure (Alternative. A computer model simulated outcomes for a single cohort of newly detected, HIV-infected individuals. Projections were fed into a population-level model allowing multiple cohorts to compete for ART with constraints on treatment capacity. In the Alternative strategy, discontinuation of second-line ART occurred upon detection of antiretroviral failure, specified by WHO guidelines. Those discontinuing failed ART experienced an increased risk of AIDS-related mortality compared to those continuing ART. Results At the population level, the Alternative strategy increased the mean number initiating ART annually by 1,100 individuals (+18.7% to 6,980 compared to the Status Quo. More individuals initiating ART under the Alternative strategy increased total life-years by 15,000 (+2.8% to 555,000, compared to the Status Quo. Although more individuals received treatment under the Alternative strategy, life expectancy for those treated decreased by 0.7 years (−8.0% to 8.1 years compared to the Status Quo. In a cohort of treated patients only, 600 more individuals (+27.1% died by 5 years under the Alternative strategy compared to the Status Quo. Results were sensitive to the timing of detection of ART failure, number of ART regimens, and treatment capacity. Although we believe the results robust in the short-term, this analysis reflects settings where HIV case detection occurs late in the disease course and treatment capacity and the incidence of newly detected patients are

  1. The mental health consequences of the recession: economic hardship and employment of people with mental health problems in 27 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; Knapp, Martin; McCrone, Paul; Thornicroft, Graham; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    A period of economic recession may be particularly difficult for people with mental health problems as they may be at higher risk of losing their jobs, and more competitive labour markets can also make it more difficult to find a new job. This study assesses unemployment rates among individuals with mental health problems before and during the current economic recession. Using individual and aggregate level data collected from 27 EU countries in the Eurobarometer surveys of 2006 and 2010, we examined changes in unemployment rates over this period among individuals with and without mental health problems. Following the onset of the recession, the gap in unemployment rates between individuals with and without mental health problems significantly widened (odds ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.34). This disparity became even greater for males, and individuals with low levels of education. Individuals with mental health problems living in countries with higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes regarding dangerousness of people with mental illness were more vulnerable to unemployment in 2010, but not 2006. Greater agreement that people with mental health problems have themselves to blame, was associated with lower likelihood of unemployment for individuals with and without mental health problems. These findings study suggest that times of economic hardship may intensify social exclusion of people with mental health problems, especially males and individuals with lower education. Interventions to combat economic exclusion and to promote social participation of individuals with mental health problems are even more important during times of economic crisis, and these efforts should target support to the most vulnerable groups.

  2. The mental health consequences of the recession: economic hardship and employment of people with mental health problems in 27 European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Evans-Lacko

    Full Text Available A period of economic recession may be particularly difficult for people with mental health problems as they may be at higher risk of losing their jobs, and more competitive labour markets can also make it more difficult to find a new job. This study assesses unemployment rates among individuals with mental health problems before and during the current economic recession.Using individual and aggregate level data collected from 27 EU countries in the Eurobarometer surveys of 2006 and 2010, we examined changes in unemployment rates over this period among individuals with and without mental health problems.Following the onset of the recession, the gap in unemployment rates between individuals with and without mental health problems significantly widened (odds ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.34. This disparity became even greater for males, and individuals with low levels of education. Individuals with mental health problems living in countries with higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes regarding dangerousness of people with mental illness were more vulnerable to unemployment in 2010, but not 2006. Greater agreement that people with mental health problems have themselves to blame, was associated with lower likelihood of unemployment for individuals with and without mental health problems.These findings study suggest that times of economic hardship may intensify social exclusion of people with mental health problems, especially males and individuals with lower education. Interventions to combat economic exclusion and to promote social participation of individuals with mental health problems are even more important during times of economic crisis, and these efforts should target support to the most vulnerable groups.

  3. The Mental Health Consequences of the Recession: Economic Hardship and Employment of People with Mental Health Problems in 27 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; Knapp, Martin; McCrone, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A period of economic recession may be particularly difficult for people with mental health problems as they may be at higher risk of losing their jobs, and more competitive labour markets can also make it more difficult to find a new job. This study assesses unemployment rates among individuals with mental health problems before and during the current economic recession. Methods Using individual and aggregate level data collected from 27 EU countries in the Eurobarometer surveys of 2006 and 2010, we examined changes in unemployment rates over this period among individuals with and without mental health problems. Results Following the onset of the recession, the gap in unemployment rates between individuals with and without mental health problems significantly widened (odds ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.34). This disparity became even greater for males, and individuals with low levels of education. Individuals with mental health problems living in countries with higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes regarding dangerousness of people with mental illness were more vulnerable to unemployment in 2010, but not 2006. Greater agreement that people with mental health problems have themselves to blame, was associated with lower likelihood of unemployment for individuals with and without mental health problems. Conclusion These findings study suggest that times of economic hardship may intensify social exclusion of people with mental health problems, especially males and individuals with lower education. Interventions to combat economic exclusion and to promote social participation of individuals with mental health problems are even more important during times of economic crisis, and these efforts should target support to the most vulnerable groups. PMID:23922801

  4. The behavioral and health consequences of sleep deprivation among U.S. high school students: relative deprivation matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Ryan Charles; Restivo, Emily

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate whether the strength of the association between sleep deprivation and negative behavioral and health outcomes varies according to the relative amount of sleep deprivation experienced by adolescents. 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data of high school students (N=15,364) were analyzed. Associations were examined on weighted data using logistic regression. Twelve outcomes were examined, ranging from weapon carrying to obesity. The primary independent variable was a self-reported measure of average number of hours slept on school nights. Participants who reported deprivations in sleep were at an increased risk of a number of negative outcomes. However, this varied considerably across different degrees of sleep deprivation. For each of the outcomes considered, those who slept less than 5h were more likely to report negative outcomes (adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.38 to 2.72; psleeping 8 or more hours. However, less extreme forms of sleep deprivation were, in many instances, unrelated to the outcomes considered. Among U.S. high school students, deficits in sleep are significantly and substantively associated with a variety of negative outcomes, and this association is particularly pronounced for students achieving fewer than 5h of sleep at night. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Public health consequences of a false-positive laboratory test result for Brucella--Florida, Georgia, and Michigan, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-06

    Human brucellosis, a nationally notifiable disease, is uncommon in the United States. Most human cases have occurred in returned travelers or immigrants from regions where brucellosis is endemic, or were acquired domestically from eating illegally imported, unpasteurized fresh cheeses. In January 2005, a woman aged 35 years who lived in Nassau County, Florida, received a diagnosis of brucellosis, based on results of a Brucella immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) performed in a commercial laboratory using analyte specific reagents (ASRs); this diagnosis prompted an investigation of dairy products in two other states. Subsequent confirmatory antibody testing by Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT) performed at CDC on the patient's serum was negative. The case did not meet the CDC/Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists' (CSTE) definition for a probable or confirmed brucellosis case, and the initial EIA result was determined to be a false positive. This report summarizes the case history, laboratory findings, and public health investigations. CDC recommends that Brucella serology testing only be performed using tests cleared or approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or validated under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and shown to reliably detect the presence of Brucella infection. Results from these tests should be considered supportive evidence for recent infection only and interpreted in the context of a clinically compatible illness and exposure history. EIA is not considered a confirmatory Brucella antibody test; positive screening test results should be confirmed by Brucella-specific agglutination (i.e., BMAT or standard tube agglutination test) methods.

  6. The TERRA framework: conceptualizing rural environmental health inequities through an environmental justice lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Patricia; Postma, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The deleterious consequences of environmentally associated diseases are expressed differentially by income, race, and geography. Scientists are just beginning to understand the consequences of environmental exposures under conditions of poverty, marginalization, and geographic isolation. In this context, we developed the TERRA (translational environmental research in rural areas) framework to explicate environmental health risks experienced by the rural poor. Central to the TERRA framework is the premise that risks exist within physical-spatial, economic-resources, and cultural-ideologic contexts. In the face of scientific and political uncertainty, a precautionary risk reduction approach has the greatest potential to protect health. Conceptual and technical advances will both be needed to achieve environmental justice.

  7. Fifteen years of successful spread of Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka clone ST413 in Poland and its public health consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Hoszowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, [i]Salmonella enterica[/i] serovar (S. Mbandaka occurred in feed and poultry in Poland. In the following years, the serovar also gained epidemiological importance in other EU countries. The objectives of current study were to evaluate the genetic relationship of contemporary S. Mbandaka with isolates originating from the beginning of the epidemics, and to assess the contribution of poultry as the source of infections in humans. Seventy S. Mbandaka isolated mainly in 2009 – 2010 from humans, poultry, food, and feed were typed with API ID32 [sup]®[/sup], MIC, plasmid profiling, PFGE, and MLST. PCR and sequencing were used to identify plasmid mediated quinolone and cephalosporin resistance mechanisms. Six biochemical profiles were identified and 59 of S. Mbandaka proved to be susceptible to the applied antimicrobials. Eight strains carried plasmids and a few of them were positive for [i]bla[/i][sub]CMY-2[/sub] and [i]qnr[/i]S1 genes. Two clusters of 15 [i]XbaI[/i]-PFGE profiles with similarity of 77.5% were found. The first cluster, gathered 7 profiles involving historical isolates and several contemporary non-human S. Mbandaka. The predominant profile in the second cluster consisted of 28 human and 1 broiler isolate. MLST analysis showed sequence type ST413 occurring among all tested isolates. The identification of close genetic relationships between S. Mbandaka of human and poultry origin indicates animals as a primal human infection route. Despite [i]Salmonella [/i]control programmes, the S. Mbandaka ST413 clone has been circulating for several years in Poland. [i]Salmonella[/i] control polices in food production chain should be continuously updated to target serovars of major epidemiological importance. Resistance noted in S. Mbandaka to such antimicrobials as fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins may hinder public health.

  8. An evaluation of health risk to the public as a consequence of in situ uranium mining in Wyoming, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Johnson, Thomas E

    2015-12-01

    In the United States there is considerable public concern regarding the health effects of in situ recovery uranium mining. These concerns focus principally on exposure to contaminants mobilized in groundwater by the mining process. However, the risk arising as a result of mining must be viewed in light of the presence of naturally occurring uranium ore and other constituents which comprise a latent hazard. The United States Environmental Protection Agency recently proposed new guidelines for successful restoration of an in situ uranium mine by limiting concentrations of thirteen groundwater constituents: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, nitrate (as nitrogen), molybdenum, radium, total uranium, and gross α activity. We investigated the changes occurring to these constituents at an ISR uranium mine in Wyoming, USA by comparing groundwater quality at baseline measurement to that at stability (post-restoration) testing. Of the groundwater constituents considered, only uranium and radium-226 showed significant (p < 0.05) deviation from site-wide baseline conditions in matched-wells. Uranium concentrations increased by a factor of 5.6 (95% CI 3.6-8.9 times greater) while radium-226 decreased by a factor of about one half (95% CI 0.42-0.75 times less). Change in risk was calculated using the RESRAD (onsite) code for an individual exposed as a resident-farmer; total radiation dose to a resident farmer decreased from pre-to post-mining by about 5.2 mSv y(-1). Higher concentrations of uranium correspond to increased biomarkers of nephrotoxicity, however the clinical significance of this increase is unclear. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Prospective study of predictors and consequences of insomnia: personality, lifestyle, mental health, and work-related stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedaa, Øystein; Krossbakken, Elfrid; Grimsrud, Ingse Dagny; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Sivertsen, Børge; Magerøy, Nils; Einarsen, Ståle; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-04-01

    To prospectively investigate the reciprocal relationships between personality traits, lifestyle factors, mental health, sleepiness, and work-related stressors against insomnia. A total of 799 Norwegian shift-working nurses (mean age 33.2 years, 90% female) participated in this prospective cohort study. They were assessed on self-report instruments (Bergen Insomnia Scale, Diurnal Type Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised, Work-Family Interface Scale, among others) in 2008/2009 (wave 1) and 2011 (wave 3). Structural equation modeling was employed to investigate the bidirectional relationship between a wide range of individual and work-related variables and insomnia. Languidity (β = 0.18***), anxiety (β = 0.11**), depression (β = 0.14***), exposure to bullying behavior (β = 0.08*), and negative spillover between work and family life (work to family, β = 0.08*; family to work, β = 0.07*) predicted increased symptoms of insomnia over time. Morningness (β = -0.09*) and positive spillover from work to family (β = -0.11**) predicted less symptoms of insomnia over time. No support was found for night work as a predictor of increased insomnia. Insomnia was a precursor for anxiety (β = 0.11**), but not for depression (*p work-related factors than as a precursor to them. The scope of factors causing insomnia, and factors protecting against it, should be further investigated. Insomnia should be considered in prediction models for mental illnesses and as an outcome of adverse work-related experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The composition of alcohol products from markets in Lithuania and Hungary, and potential health consequences: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Sarsh, Bart; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    The rates of alcohol-attributable mortality in Lithuania and Hungary have been shown to be higher than those in most other European countries. Quality of alcohol products is investigated as a possible explanation. In a descriptive pilot study, a convenience sample of alcohol products was collected from local city markets in both countries (Lithuania n = 10, Hungary n = 15) and chemical analyses, including some that have not been done in prior studies, were conducted. The parameters studied were alcoholic strength, volatiles (methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, anions (including nitrate) and inorganic elements (including lead). Additionally, a multi-target screening analysis for toxicologically relevant substances was conducted. The majority of samples (64%) had an alcohol content between 35% vol. and 40% vol., being in accordance with the typical strength of legal spirits in Europe. Three samples containing significantly higher concentrations of alcohol above 60% vol. were found to be unrecorded alcohol products, defined as any alcohol that is outside of legal and taxed production. Screening analysis showed that those samples contained various flavourings, including the hepatotoxic substance coumarin, at concentrations above the legal limit for foods. All other substance classes under study were found to be at levels of no toxicological concern. Although some problems with the quality of the alcohol samples were found, there is insufficient evidence from this pilot study to conclude that alcohol quality has an influence on health as reflected in alcohol-attributable mortality rates. Given the extent of alcohol-attributable disease burden in central and eastern European countries, future research should focus on collection of large, representative samples, particularly of unrecorded sources, which was the most problematic product group in our study.

  11. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Modifications of models resulting from recent reports on health effects of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, S. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States)); Bender, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Gilbert, E.S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The most recent health effects models resulting from these efforts were published in two reports, NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990) and Part 2 (1989). Several major health effects reports have been published recently that may impact the health effects models presented in these reports. This addendum to the Part 2 (1989) report, provides a review of the 1986 and 1988 reports by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council BEAR 5 Committee report and Publication 60 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection as they relate to this report. The three main sections of this addendum discuss early occurring and continuing effects, late somatic effects, and genetic effects. The major changes to the NUREG/CR-4214 health effects models recommended in this addendum are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies like that on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. The results presented in this addendum should be used with the basic NUREG/CR-4214 reports listed above to obtain the most recent views on the potential health effects of radionuclides released accidentally from nuclear power plants. 48 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Modifications of models resulting from recent reports on health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.

    1991-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The most recent health effects models resulting from these efforts were published in two reports, NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990) and Part 2 (1989). Several major health effects reports have been published recently that may impact the health effects models presented in these reports. This addendum to the Part 2 (1989) report, provides a review of the 1986 and 1988 reports by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council BEAR 5 Committee report and Publication 60 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection as they relate to this report. The three main sections of this addendum discuss early occurring and continuing effects, late somatic effects, and genetic effects. The major changes to the NUREG/CR-4214 health effects models recommended in this addendum are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies like that on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. The results presented in this addendum should be used with the basic NUREG/CR-4214 reports listed above to obtain the most recent views on the potential health effects of radionuclides released accidentally from nuclear power plants. 48 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs

  13. Financial Impact of Colorectal Cancer and Its Consequences: Associations Between Cancer-Related Financial Stress and Strain and Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Linda; O'Leary, Eamonn; O'Ceilleachair, Alan; Skally, Mairead; Hanly, Paul

    2018-01-01

    The financial impact and consequences of cancer on the lives of survivors remain poorly understood. This is especially true for colorectal cancer. We investigated objective cancer-related financial stress, subjective cancer-related financial strain, and their association with health-related quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors. This was a cross-sectional postal survey. The study was conducted in Ireland, which has a mixed public-private healthcare system. Colorectal cancer survivors, diagnosed 6 to 37 months prior, were identified from the population-based National Cancer Registry. Cancer-related financial stress was assessed as impact of cancer on household ability to make ends meet and cancer-related financial strain by feelings about household financial situation since cancer diagnosis. Health-related quality of life was based on European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 global health status. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between financial stress and strain and low health-related quality of life (lowest quartile, score ≤50). A total of 493 survivors participated. Overall, 41% reported cancer-related financial stress and 39% cancer-related financial strain; 32% reported both financial stress and financial strain. After adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical variables, the odds of low health-related quality of life were significantly higher in those who reported cancer-related financial stress postdiagnosis compared with those who reported no change in financial stress postcancer (OR = 2.54 (95% CI, 1.62-3.99)). The odds of low health-related quality of life were also significantly higher in those with worse financial strain postdiagnosis (OR =1.73 (95% CI, 1.09-2.72)). The OR for those with both cancer-related financial stress and financial strain was 2.59 (95% CI, 1.59-4.22). Survey responders were younger, on average, than nonresponders. Responders and nonresponders may have differed in cancer

  14. Mental health consequences of overstretch in the UK Armed Forces, 2007-09: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, Roberto J; Jones, Margaret; Keeling, Mary; Hull, Lisa; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T

    2014-12-01

    Concerns have been raised about the effect of tour length on the mental health of the UK armed forces. In 2007, we reported that cumulative length of deployment was associated with mental illness in military personnel. Our findings provided empirical evidence to support the UK advisory policy for tour length, known as the Harmony Guidelines. If fully implemented, these guidelines could aid prevention of mental illnesses. We aimed to reassess the association between cumulative length of deployment and number of deployments with mental illness in the UK forces. Our analysis was based on data from a representative study of the military for UK regular personnel who had completed a questionnaire between Nov 2, 2007, and Sept 24, 2009, and were deployed in the 3 years before questionnaire completion. Study outcomes were presence of possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, multiple physical symptoms, alcohol misuse, problems at home during and after deployment, and relationship or family problems. The key independent factors were deployment for 13 months or more, and months and number of deployments in the past 3 years. 8278 regulars responded to the questionnaire, of whom 3982 (48%) had been deployed in the 3 years before questionnaire completion. Deployment for 13 months or more decreased from 22% in March, 2005, (median March 8, 2005 [IQR Oct 10, 2004 to April 28, 2005]), to 12% in May, 2008, (May 17, 2008, [Feb 14, 2008, to Dec 5, 2008]). We noted an association between cumulative time deployed as a continuous variable and a score of 40 or more on the PTSD checklist (p=0·002), presence of psychological distress (p=0·018), and multiple physical symptoms (p=0·030; table 2). Furthermore, 13 months or more of deployment was associated with multiple physical symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2·15, 95% CI 1·39-3·32), a PTSD checklist score of 40 or more (2·02, 1·31-3·12), and problems at home, but not a PTSD checklist score of 50 or

  15. Radiation protection principles applied to conventional industries producing deleterious environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1980-01-01

    Comparison of the radiation protection standards, for the population at large, with the conventional pollutants ambient standards, reveals differences in basic principles which result in more relaxed ambient standards for conventional pollutants and consequently, the penalization of the nuclear industry, due to the increased cost of its safety measures. It is proposed that radiation protection principles should be used as a prototype for pollutants having harmful environmental effects and that radiation health physicists should be active in the application of these principles of population protection. A case study of atmospheric release of SO 2 , under different conditions, is analyzed, to emphasize the importance of consideration of the size of the exposed population. (H.K.)

  16. The New Unified Theory of ATP Synthesis/Hydrolysis and Muscle Contraction, Its Manifold Fundamental Consequences and Mechanistic Implications and Its Applications in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Nath

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Complete details of the thermodynamics and molecular mechanisms of ATP synthesis/hydrolysis and muscle contraction are offered from the standpoint of the torsional mechanism of energy transduction and ATP synthesis and the rotation-uncoiling-tilt (RUT energy storage mechanism of muscle contraction. The manifold fundamental consequences and mechanistic implications of the unified theory for oxidative phosphorylation and muscle contraction are explained. The consistency of current mechanisms of ATP synthesis and muscle contraction with experiment is assessed, and the novel insights of the unified theory are shown to take us beyond the binding change mechanism, the chemiosmotic theory and the lever arm model. It is shown from first principles how previous theories of ATP synthesis and muscle contraction violate both the first and second laws of thermodynamics, necessitating their revision. It is concluded that the new paradigm, ten years after making its first appearance, is now perfectly poised to replace the older theories. Finally, applications of the unified theory in cell life and cell death are outlined and prospects for future research are explored. While it is impossible to cover each and every specific aspect of the above, an attempt has been made here to address all the pertinent details and what is presented should be sufficient to convince the reader of the novelty, originality, breakthrough nature and power of the unified theory, its manifold fundamental consequences and mechanistic implications, and its applications in health and disease.

  17. SDS, a structural disruption score for assessment of missense variant deleteriousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanawadee ePreeprem

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel structure-based evaluation for missense variants that explicitly models protein structure and amino acid properties to predict the likelihood that a variant disrupts protein function. A structural disruption score (SDS is introduced as a measure to depict the likelihood that a case variant is functional. The score is constructed using characteristics that distinguish between causal and neutral variants within a group of proteins. The SDS score is correlated with standard sequence-based deleteriousness, but shows promise for improving discrimination between neutral and causal variants at less conserved sites.The prediction was performed on 3-dimentional structures of 57 gene products whose homozygous SNPs were identified as case-exclusive variants in an exome sequencing study of epilepsy disorders. We contrasted the candidate epilepsy variants with scores for likely benign variants found in the EVS database, and for positive control variants in the same genes that are suspected to promote a range of diseases. To derive a characteristic profile of damaging SNPs, we transformed continuous scores into categorical variables based on the score distribution of each measurement, collected from all possible SNPs in this protein set, where extreme measures were assumed to be deleterious. A second epilepsy dataset was used to replicate the findings. Causal variants tend to receive higher sequence-based deleterious scores, induce larger physico-chemical changes between amino acid pairs, locate in protein domains, buried sites or on conserved protein surface clusters, and cause protein destabilization, relative to negative controls. These measures were agglomerated for each variant. A list of nine high-priority putative functional variants for epilepsy was generated. Our newly developed SDS protocol facilitates SNP prioritization for experimental validation.

  18. Accident consequence assessment code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, T.; Togawa, O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the new computer code system, OSCAAR developed for off-site consequence assessment of a potential nuclear accident. OSCAAR consists of several modules which have modeling capabilities in atmospheric transport, foodchain transport, dosimetry, emergency response and radiological health effects. The major modules of the consequence assessment code are described, highlighting the validation and verification of the models. (author)

  19. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation: Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.; Book, S.

    1989-05-01

    This report provides dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Two-parameter Weibull hazard functions are recommended for estimating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid and ''other''. The category, ''other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Linear and linear-quadratic models are also recommended for assessing genetic risks. Five classes of genetic disease -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocation and multifactorial diseases --are considered. In addition, the impact of radiation-induced genetic damage on the incidence of peri-implantation embryo losses is discussed. The uncertainty in modeling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of all model parameters. Data are provided which should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk. 22 refs., 14 figs., 51 tabs

  20. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation: Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.; Book, S.; Buncher, C.; Denniston, C.; Gilbert, E.; Hahn, F.; Hertzberg, V.; Maxon, H.; Scott, B.

    1989-05-01

    This report provides dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Two-parameter Weibull hazard functions are recommended for estimating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid and ''other''. The category, ''other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Linear and linear-quadratic models are also recommended for assessing genetic risks. Five classes of genetic disease -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocation and multifactorial diseases --are considered. In addition, the impact of radiation-induced genetic damage on the incidence of peri-implantation embryo losses is discussed. The uncertainty in modeling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of all model parameters. Data are provided which should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk. 22 refs., 14 figs., 51 tabs.

  1. Predictors of Adolescent Male Body Image Dissatisfaction: Implications for Negative Health Practices and Consequences for School Health from a Regionally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, James E.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Kittleson, Mark; Welshimer, Kathleen J.; Partridge, Julie A.; Robertson, Stacia L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescent males are more likely to sustain intentional and unintentional injuries, be involved in a physical confrontation, and be successful in suicide attempts. Body image dissatisfaction (BID) has been linked as a possible contributing factor to these negative health behaviors and risks; however, research is limited with males. The…

  2. Long-term socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis: a historical cohort study involving 3606 polio patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Kay, Lise; Wanscher, Benedikte; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob; Jennum, Poul

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide 10-20 million individuals are living with disabilities after acute poliomyelitis. However, very little is known about the socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis. We carried out a historical register-based study including 3606 individuals hospitalised for poliomyelitis in Copenhagen, Denmark 1940-1954, and 13,795 age and gender-matched Danes. Participants were followed from 1980 until 2012, and family, socio-economic conditions and health care costs were evaluated in different age groups using chi-squared tests, boot-strapped t tests or hazard ratios (HR) calculated in Cox-regression models. The analyses were performed separately for paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors and their controls, respectively. Compared with controls a higher percentage of paralytic polio survivors remained childless, whereas no difference was observed for non-paralytic polio survivors. The educational level among paralytic as well as non-paralytic polio survivors was higher than that among their controls, employment rate at the ages of 40, 50 and 60 years was slightly lower, whereas total income in the age intervals of 31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years were similar to controls. Paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors had a 2.5 [HR = 2.52 (95 % confidence interval (CI); 2.29-2.77)] and 1.4 [HR = 1.35 (95 % CI; 1.23-1.49)]-fold higher risk, respectively, of receiving disability pension compared with controls. Personal health care costs were considerably higher in all age groups in both groups of polio survivors. Individuals with a history of poliomyelitis are well educated, have a slightly lower employment rate, an income similar to controls, but a considerably higher cost in the health care system.

  3. Positive Selection of Deleterious Alleles through Interaction with a Sex-Ratio Suppressor Gene in African Buffalo: A Plausible New Mechanism for a High Frequency Anomaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, van W.F.; Greyling, B.J.; Getz, W.M.; Helden, P.D.; Zwaan, B.J.; Bastos, A.D.S.

    2015-01-01

    Although generally rare, deleterious alleles can become common through genetic drift, hitchhiking or reductions in selective constraints. Here we present a possible new mechanism that explains the attainment of high frequencies of deleterious alleles in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

  4. Positive Selection of Deleterious Alleles through Interaction with a Sex-Ratio Suppressor Gene in African Buffalo: A Plausible New Mechanism for a High Frequency Anomaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, van W.F.; Greyling, B.J.; Getz, W.M.; Helden, van P.D.; Zwaan, B.J.; Bastos, A.D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Although generally rare, deleterious alleles can become common through genetic drift, hitchhiking or reductions in selective constraints. Here we present a possible new mechanism that explains the attainment of high frequencies of deleterious alleles in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

  5. In-Silico Computing of the Most Deleterious nsSNPs in HBA1 Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed AbdulAzeez

    Full Text Available α-Thalassemia (α-thal is a genetic disorder caused by the substitution of single amino acid or large deletions in the HBA1 and/or HBA2 genes.Using modern bioinformatics tools as a systematic in-silico approach to predict the deleterious SNPs in the HBA1 gene and its significant pathogenic impact on the functions and structure of HBA1 protein was predicted.A total of 389 SNPs in HBA1 were retrieved from dbSNP database, which includes: 201 non-coding synonymous (nsSNPs, 43 human active SNPs, 16 intronic SNPs, 11 mRNA 3' UTR SNPs, 9 coding synonymous SNPs, 9 5' UTR SNPs and other types. Structural homology-based method (PolyPhen and sequence homology-based tool (SIFT, SNPs&Go, PROVEAN and PANTHER revealed that 2.4% of the nsSNPs are pathogenic.A total of 5 nsSNPs (G60V, K17M, K17T, L92F and W15R were predicted to be responsible for the structural and functional modifications of HBA1 protein. It is evident from the deep comprehensive in-silico analysis that, two nsSNPs such as G60V and W15R in HBA1 are highly deleterious. These "2 pathogenic nsSNPs" can be considered for wet-lab confirmatory analysis.

  6. Increased burden of deleterious variants in essential genes in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiao; Kember, Rachel L; Brown, Christopher D; Bućan, Maja

    2016-12-27

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous, highly heritable neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by impaired social interaction, communication, and repetitive behavior. It is estimated that hundreds of genes contribute to ASD. We asked if genes with a strong effect on survival and fitness contribute to ASD risk. Human orthologs of genes with an essential role in pre- and postnatal development in the mouse [essential genes (EGs)] are enriched for disease genes and under strong purifying selection relative to human orthologs of mouse genes with a known nonlethal phenotype [nonessential genes (NEGs)]. This intolerance to deleterious mutations, commonly observed haploinsufficiency, and the importance of EGs in development suggest a possible cumulative effect of deleterious variants in EGs on complex neurodevelopmental disorders. With a comprehensive catalog of 3,915 mammalian EGs, we provide compelling evidence for a stronger contribution of EGs to ASD risk compared with NEGs. By examining the exonic de novo and inherited variants from 1,781 ASD quartet families, we show a significantly higher burden of damaging mutations in EGs in ASD probands compared with their non-ASD siblings. The analysis of EGs in the developing brain identified clusters of coexpressed EGs implicated in ASD. Finally, we suggest a high-priority list of 29 EGs with potential ASD risk as targets for future functional and behavioral studies. Overall, we show that large-scale studies of gene function in model organisms provide a powerful approach for prioritization of genes and pathogenic variants identified by sequencing studies of human disease.

  7. Deleterious phases precipitation on superduplex stainless steel UNS S32750: characterization by light optical and scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Pardal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious phases precipitation in superduplex stainless steels is the main concern in fabrication by welding and hot forming of this class of material. Sigma, chi and secondary austenite phases are considered deleterious phases because they produce negative effects on corrosion resistance. Besides, sigma and chi phases also promote strong decrease of toughness. In the present work, the precipitations of sigma, chi and secondary austenite under aging in the 800-950 °C interval were studied in two UNS S32750 steels with different grain sizes. The deleterious phases could be quantified by light optical microscopy, with no distinction between them. Scanning electron microscopy was used to distinguish the individual phases in various aging conditions. The results elucidate the influence of the aging temperature and grain size on the kinetics precipitation and morphology of deleterious phases. The kinetics of deleterious phases is higher in the fine grained material in the initial stage of aging, but the maximum amount of deleterious phases is higher in the coarse grained steel.

  8. Health consequences of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anindya Kumar; Sarkar, Neille; Chatterjee, Tapabrata

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the cardiovascular and endocrine effects of childhood obesity as well as prevalence of metabolic syndrome associated with it. 49 obese and overweight children aged between 6 and 11 years as study group and 45 healthy non-obese controls of same age were selected for the study. Both the groups were evaluated for height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting serum lipid fractions, insulin level, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose and C-reactive protein. Screening for metabolic syndrome was performed following most acceptable criteria. The study group children had significantly higher blood pressure, altered lipid fractions and high C-reactive Protein. Criteria-wise insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and low high density lipoprotein also were found at significantly higher rate among obese children. The metabolic syndrome existed at a high prevalence of 14.1% in the study group. Obesity in childhood causes cardiovascular and endocrine dysregulation with onset of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome even in absence of significant evidence of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in this age group.

  9. Health Consequences of Drug Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  10. The etiology, risk factors, and interactions of enteric infections and malnutrition and the consequences for child health and development study (MAL-ED): description of the Tanzanian site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mduma, Estomih R; Gratz, Jean; Patil, Crystal; Matson, Kristine; Dakay, Mary; Liu, Sarah; Pascal, John; McQuillin, Lauren; Mighay, Emmanuel; Hinken, Elizabeth; Ernst, Alexandra; Amour, Caroline; Mvungi, Regisiana; Bayyo, Eliwaza; Zakaria, Yeconia; Kivuyo, Sokoine; Houpt, Eric R; Svensen, Erling

    2014-11-01

    The Haydom, Tanzania, site (TZH) of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) Study is in north-central Tanzania, 300 km from the nearest urban center. TZH is in a remote rural district where most of the population are agropastoralists and grow maize as the staple food. The average household size is 7. The average woman achieves a parity of 6 and has 1 child death. Socioeconomic indicators are poor, with essentially no household having access to electricity, piped water, or improved sanitary facilities (compared with 14%, 7%, and 12%, respectively, reported nationally). The Demographic Health Survey Tanzania 2004 indicated that the region had high rates of stunting and underweight (40% and 31% of children aged child mortality rate of 5.8%. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence among 18-month-old children is rural African population with profound poverty and malnutrition, but a strong community-based research infrastructure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Can I risk using public services? Perceived consequences of seeking help and health care among households living in poverty: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canvin, Krysia; Jones, Chris; Marttila, Anneli; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret

    2007-11-01

    To improve understanding of how families living in adverse conditions perceive their encounters with public services and how past experiences influence current and future attempts to seek help. Qualitative interviews with adult members of households living in poverty in deprived areas, plus observations conducted in the surrounding neighbourhoods and service settings. Purposive sample of 25 adults living in a deprived area, on welfare benefits. Eight sites in disadvantaged areas in Merseyside, North Wales, London and Greater Manchester in 2004/05. Participants generally perceived public services as a source of distrust and a potential risk to well-being. Encounters with a range of services were perceived as risky in terms of losing resources, being misunderstood or harshly judged, and carrying the ultimate threat of losing custody of their children. Participants perceived that they were subjected to increasing levels of surveillance, with fear of "being told on" by neighbours, in addition to service providers, adding to anxiety. Adverse consequences included avoiding child health and social services, anxiety and self-imposed isolation. Approaching services was perceived as akin to taking a gamble that might or might not result in their needs being met. Faced with this "choice", participants employed strategies to minimise the risks that on the surface may appear risky to health. If public services are to succeed in providing support to disadvantaged families, greater efforts are needed to build trust and demonstrate understanding for the strategies these families use to maintain their well-being against formidable odds.

  12. Prevalence, Motivations, and Social, Mental Health and Health Consequences of Cyberbullying Among School-Aged Children and Youth: Protocol of a Longitudinal and Multi-Perspective Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInroy, Lauren B; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Bhole, Payal; Van Wert, Melissa; Schwan, Kaitlin; Birze, Arija; Daciuk, Joanne; Beran, Tanya; Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra J; Wiener, Judith; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Johnston, David

    2016-01-01

    Background While the online environment may promote important developmental and social benefits, it also enables the serious and rapidly growing issue of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying constitutes an increasing public health problem – victimized children and youth experience a range of health and mental health concerns, including emotional and psychosomatic problems, maladaptive behaviors, and increased suicidality. Perpetrators demonstrate a lack of empathy, and may also struggle with health and mental health issues. Objective This paper describes the protocols applied in a longitudinal and multi-perspective mixed-methods study with five objectives: (1) to explore children/youth’s experiences, and children/youth’s, parents’, and teachers’ conceptions, definitions, and understanding of cyberbullying; (2) to explore how children/youth view the underlying motivations for cyberbullying; (3) to document the shifting prevalence rates of cyberbullying victimization, witnessing, and perpetration; (4) to identify risk and protective factors for cyberbullying involvement; and (5) to explore social, mental health, and health consequences of cyberbullying. Methods Quantitative survey data were collected over three years (2012-2014) from a stratified random baseline sample of fourth (n=160), seventh (n=243), and tenth (n=267) grade children/youth, their parents (n=246), and their teachers (n=103). Quantitative data were collected from students and teachers during in-person school visits, and from parents via mail-in surveys. Student, parent, and teacher surveys included questions regarding: student experiences with bullying/cyberbullying; student health, mental health, and social and behavioral issues; socio-demographics; and information and communication technology use. In-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted twice with a sub-sample of students (n=57), purposively selected based on socio-demographics and cyberbullying experience, twice with

  13. Overexpression of human and fly frataxins in Drosophila provokes deleterious effects at biochemical, physiological and developmental levels.

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    Juan A Navarro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Friedreich's ataxia (FA, the most frequent form of inherited ataxias in the Caucasian population, is caused by a reduced expression of frataxin, a highly conserved protein. Model organisms have contributed greatly in the efforts to decipher the function of frataxin; however, the precise function of this protein remains elusive. Overexpression studies are a useful approach to investigate the mechanistic actions of frataxin; however, the existing literature reports contradictory results. To further investigate the effect of frataxin overexpression, we analyzed the consequences of overexpressing human (FXN and fly (FH frataxins in Drosophila. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained transgenic flies that overexpressed human or fly frataxins in a general pattern and in different tissues using the UAS-GAL4 system. For both frataxins, we observed deleterious effects at the biochemical, histological and behavioral levels. Oxidative stress is a relevant factor in the frataxin overexpression phenotypes. Systemic frataxin overexpression reduces Drosophila viability and impairs the normal embryonic development of muscle and the peripheral nervous system. A reduction in the level of aconitase activity and a decrease in the level of NDUF3 were also observed in the transgenic flies that overexpressed frataxin. Frataxin overexpression in the nervous system reduces life span, impairs locomotor ability and causes brain degeneration. Frataxin aggregation and a misfolding of this protein have been shown not to be the mechanism that is responsible for the phenotypes that have been observed. Nevertheless, the expression of human frataxin rescues the aconitase activity in the fh knockdown mutant. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide in vivo evidence of a functional equivalence for human and fly frataxins and indicate that the control of frataxin expression is important for treatments that aim to increase frataxin levels.

  14. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects; Mezhdunarodnaya konferentsiya `Aktual`nye i prognoziruemye narusheniya psikhicheskogo zdorov`ya posle yadernoj katastrofy v Chernobyle`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagu, A I [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation.

  15. The oral health of seniors in Brazil: addressing the consequences of a historic lack of public health dentistry in an unequal society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonesca, Flamorion A; Jones, Kimberly M; Mendes, Danilo C; dos Santos Neto, Pedro E; Ferreira, Raquel C; Pordeus, Isabela A; Martins, Andréa M E de Barros Lima

    2015-03-01

    National epidemiological data on the oral health of elders was analysed to examine relationships between the need for oral treatment and external environment, the dental care delivery system, personal characteristics and subjective conditions of oral health. Brazil's universal public healthcare system is theoretically responsible to provide dental care to Brazilians of all ages. However, as dentists were integrated into public primary care facilities only in 2000, Brazilian seniors have accumulated needs. Seniors (65-74 years old) were examined and interviewed by calibrated professionals. The association of overall need for oral treatment and component factors were analysed. Associations with socio-demographic factors and self-reported attitudes and behaviours were also calculated. A total of 85.9% of Brazilian seniors demonstrated a need for some oral treatment, 83.8% of the dentate needed periodontal treatment and 57.3% of all seniors needed full or partial prostheses. Social inequalities were also evident as Brazilians using free oral care services demonstrated a higher degree of need, as did elders who had not previously accessed dental services, nonwhites and males. Our findings demonstrate that the elderly population in Brazil has a very high degree of need in general and that certain subgroups have been especially vulnerable to oral disease. © 2013 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Satisfaction with life in adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS): associations with health-related consequences of MFS, pain, fatigue, and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velvin, Gry; Bathen, Trine; Rand-Hendriksen, Svend; Geirdal, Amy Østertun

    2016-07-01

    The objective with this study was to explore satisfaction with life (SWL) among adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS) compared to the general Norwegian population and other patient groups and further to examine the associations between SWL and demographic factors, contact with social and health services, MFS-related health problems, chronic pain, and fatigue. This is a cross-sectional study with postal questionnaire, including the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), questions on demographic factors, health-related aspects of MFS, and validated instruments measuring chronic pain (Standardized Nordic Questionnaire) and fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale). One hundred and seventeen adults with MFS were invited to participate, and 73 (62 %) participated. The SWLS mean score in adults with MFS was significantly lower than that reported for the general Norwegian population, but similar to or higher than that reported for other patient groups. Only fatigue, aortic dissection, and having regular contact with psychologist showed significant unique contribution to the SWLS score in the hierarchical multiple linear analyses. The total variance explained by the model was 45.2 % p ≤ 0.000, confirming that the combination of independent variables significantly predicted SWLS. The results reflect that MFS influences people's SWL and that particularly severe fatigue, aortic dissection, and psychological aspects are associated with lower SWL. This is important to take into account in the clinical work with people with MFS. Further investigation is needed, especially on larger sample groups. Studies with combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches are recommended to obtain more comprehensive and accurate knowledge about the consequences of MFS on satisfaction with life.

  17. Bisphenol A (BPA) in the serum of pet dogs following short-term consumption of canned dog food and potential health consequences of exposure to BPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, Zoe L; Backus, Robert C; Tsuruta, Kaoru; Spollen, William G; Johnson, Sarah A; Javurek, Angela B; Ellersieck, Mark R; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Xue, Jingchuan; Bivens, Nathan J; Givan, Scott A; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2017-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely present endocrine disruptor chemical found in many household items. Moreover, this chemical can bioaccumulate in various terrestrial and aquatic sources; thereby ensuring continual exposure of animals and humans. For most species, including humans, diet is considered the primary route of exposure. However, there has been little investigation whether commercial-brands of dog foods contain BPA and potential health ramifications of BPA-dietary exposure in dogs. We sought to determine BPA content within dog food, whether short-term consumption of these diets increases serum concentrations of BPA, and potential health consequences, as assessed by potential hem