WorldWideScience

Sample records for deleniya 95zr 103ru

  1. 103Ru for tumor scanning, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizukawa, Kiichiro

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of 103 Ru-uptake in tumors was investigated through the incubation of rat ascites hepatoma cells (AH-130) in vitro with various concentrations of Ru-chloride containing 103 Ru-chloride as a tracer. Quantitative analysis of Ru binding to the cells indicated that ascites hepatoma cells contained high- and low-affinity binding sites for Ru. When ascites hepatoma cells were incubated with Ru after incubation with a low concentration of papain, most of the Ru was not bound to the cells but was found in the medium containing solubilized glycoproteins. However Ru bound mainly to washed cells after the incubation with papain. About 65% of the Ru bound to ascites hepatoma cells was liberated by the papain treatment, and about 45% of the liberated Ru was precipitated by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, indicating that Ru bound tightly to glycopeptides. These results suggest that the tumor affinity of 103 Ru is related to specific binding to glycopeptides on the tumor cell surface. (author)

  2. 103Ru/103mRh generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, B.; Kowalska, E.; Bilewicz, A.; Skarnemark, G.

    2009-01-01

    103m Rh is a very promising radionuclide for Auger electron therapy due to its very low photon/electron ratio. The goal of the present work was the elaboration a method for production of large quantities of 103m Rh for generator system. It was found that the combination of solvent extraction with evaporation of 103 RuO 4 followed by decomposition of H 5 IO 6 makes it possible to produce 103m Rh of high radionuclidic and chemical purity. (author)

  3. The factors affecting the 95Nb/95Zr and 140La/95Zr-cooling time correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Kh

    2005-03-01

    The factors affecting the 95 Nb/ 95 Zr and 140 La/ 95 Zr-cooling time correlations were studied by analysing the gamma scanning results of the IRT fuel assemblies. the results showed that, these ratios are stable along the fuel assembly regardless of the position of the measured section. This allow to limit gamma scanning of the whole assembly on the measurement of the central section. The effects of irradiation history and conditions, burnup, control rods on the 95 Nb/ 95 Zr and 140 La/ 95 Zr-cooling time correlations were studied. The results showed the following: the identical irradiation history and conditions during the last irradiation, whose period is comparable with half lives of the used fission products, is fundamental condition for fission product ratio-cooling time correlation. The background resulting from burnup cause high systematic error in the measured results and it does not cause arbitrary error; whereas control rods cause high arbitrary error. The 95 Nb/ 95 Zr-cooling time correlation is more sensitive than the 140 La/ 95 Zr-cooling time correlation. (author)

  4. Tropanol esters of metallocene carboxylic acids. Syntheses, labelling with 103Ru and sup(103m)Rh and organ distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, M.; Wu, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The tropanol esters of the carboxylic acids of ferrocene, 103 Ru-ruthenocene and sup(103m)Rh-rhodocinium were synthezised. The organ distribution of the 103 Ru or sup(103m)Rh labelled tropanol-esters were investigated. Only the 103 Ru labelled ester showed a high heart/blood ratio. (author)

  5. Separation and determination of 103Ru in samples of fission 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghazarian, V.P.; Duran, Adrian P.; Mondino, Angel V.

    2003-01-01

    In Argentina 99 Mo is produced in the RA-3 reactor at the Ezeiza Atomic Center (CAE), by irradiation of miniplates of Al/U (90% 235 U) alloy. The 99 Mo separation is carried out at the Fission Radioisotopes Production Plant. Quality control is important to assure the quality of molybdenum that is produced in CAE. A new method to purify and on line quantify 103 Ru as an impurity present in 99 Mo samples was developed. This procedure is based in the RuO 4 volatilization and its dissolution in NaOH 6M. This is necessary due to the fact that 103 Ru cannot be detected in presence of high activities of 99 Mo without previous separation. This method allows a quantitative, specific, efficient, fast and reproducible separation of 103 Ru from 99 Mo. (author)

  6. Effect of aquatic plants on 95Zr concentration in slightly polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianjun; Yang Ziyin; Chen Hui

    2004-01-01

    Effect of three aquatic plants (Ceratophyllum demersum, Azolla caroliniana and Eichhornia crassipes) on 95 Zr concentration in slightly polluted water was studied by using isotope tracer techniques. The results showed that the aquatic plants had strong ability of 95 Zr concentration in water. The concentration factor (CF) were from 56.78 to 112.94, so three aquatic plants were suggested be bio-indicators for 95 Zr polluted water. The specific activity of 95 Zr in water decreased with time when the aquatic plants were put in slightly 95 Zr polluted water. The descent of specific activity of 95 Zr in water was very quick during the beginning period (0-3d). The time for the specific activity reduced to 50% was only 3 days, indicating that theres aquatic plants could be used to purge slightly 95 Zr polluted water. The effect of Eichhornia crassipes on purging 95 Zr in water was the best among the three aquatic plants. The specific activity of 95 Zr in bottom clay only decreased 5% after putting aquatic plants in water, indicating that desorption of 95 Zr from bottom clay was not easy. As the bottom clay had strong ability of adsorption and fixation to 95 Zr, the effect of aquatic plant on purging 95 Zr adsorbed by bottom clay was not visible

  7. Dynamics of transfer and distribution of 95Zr in the broadbean-soil ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lili; Shi Jianjun; Zhao Xiyue; Hua Yuejin

    2005-01-01

    The transfer and distribution of 95 Zr in a simulated broadbean-soil system was studied by using isotope-tracer techniques. The results showed that the 95 Zr was mainly concentrated in the haulm, pod and root, and the activity concentration of 95 Zr in these tissues reached the maximum in the initial stage then decreased continuously. The activity concentration of 95 Zr in edible part-bean was relatively lower, which was just near to the detection limit. The 95 Zr in soil was mainly (97%) deposited in surface layer soil (0-6 cm), indicating that the 95 Zr absorbed by surface soil could not be moved downwards easily because of the strong adsorption. The dynamics of 95 Zr concentrations in broadbean and soil were also confirmed by application of nonlinear regression method

  8. Analysis of the direct contamination pathway of 85Sr, 103Ru and 134Cs in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, K. M.; Park, D. W.; Park, H. K.; Choi, Y. H.; Choi, S. D.; Lee, C. M.

    2001-01-01

    A solution containing 85 Sr, 103 Cs was sprayed to the aerial part of the soybean plant in a greenhouse at 6 different times before harvest and the direct contamination pathway of the radionuclide analyzed. Plant interception factor showed little difference among radionuclides. The maximum value was 0.93, which was observed at the middle growth stage. Translocation factors 85 Sr, 103 Cs in the soybean seed at harvest were in the range of 4.5x10 -5 ∼2.5x10 -3 , 6.0x10 -5 ∼2.3x10 -4 and 4.5x10 -3 ∼3.0x10 -1 , respectively. They were highest at the 3rd application for 85 Sr and 134 Cs and at the 2nd application for 103 Ru. Translocation factors of 85 Sr and 103 Ru in the soybean shell tended to increase with decreasing time interval between application and harvest but that of 134 Cs was highest at the 2nd application. The fractions of the initial deposition that remained in the soybeam plant at harvest were in the range of 0.14 ∼15.2% for 85 Sr and 103 Ru, 9.9∼41.9% for 134 Cs. These results can be utilized for predicting the radionuclide concentration in mature soybean plant and deciding counter-measures when an accidental deposition of the radionuclides occurs during the growing season of soybean

  9. Distribution and migration of 95Zr in a tea plant/soil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianjun; Guo Jiangfeng

    2006-01-01

    95 Zr is a primary radionuclide in the radioactive liquid efflux from a pressurized water reactor and one of the main radionuclides released after nuclear accidents. The fission yield of 95 Zr is as high as 6.2%, however, its environmental behavior has not been well documented. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the accumulation and distribution of 95 Zr in a tea plant/soil system. 95 Zr was accumulated primarily in the trunk of tea plants after being taken up from the soil. The radioactivity concentration of 95 Zr in the trunk increased slowly with time, then it reached a dynamic equilibrium 14 days after application. The radioactivity concentration of 95 Zr in the other parts of the tea plant was very low; only slighter greater than the detection limit. The results indicated that 95 Zr was not readily translocated in the tea plant. About 98.9% of applied 95 Zr was found to concentrate in the upper 5 cm layer after being sprayed onto the soil surface. The results indicated that 95 Zr could not readily move downwards with percolating water due to strong adsorption to surface soil

  10. Dynamics of transference and distribution of 95Zr in the tea-soil ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianjun

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of transference and distribution of 95 Zr in the tea-soil ecosystem were studied by using isotope tracer techniques for simulated pollutants from nuclear power plant, and the fitting equation was confirmed by application of the closed tow-compartment system model and nonlinear regression method. The results showed as follows. 1. The 95 Zr absorbed from soil mainly retained in the stem of tea plant, and the specific activity of 95 Zr in stem increased with time slowly, then reached a dynamics balance gradually after a period of time. The specific activity of rest parts was lower, and most parts were in the level of background activity, which indicated that the 95 Zr absorbed by the bark of tea was difficult to transfer to other parts of the tea; 2. The 95 Zr in soil deposited mainly (98.7%) in surface layer soil (1-5 cm), indicating that the 95 Zr absorbed by surface soil was not downflow with water current easily; 3. The regression equation of accumulation and disappearance of 95 Zr in the tea and soil were C t (t)=9.2360(1-e -0.1459t ) and C s (t)=486.84(0.1458-0.000082e -0.1459t ) by analyzing the experiment data with exponential regression method. The results of squared deviations indicated that each regression equation could described the dynamics of accumulation and disappearance of 95 Zr in the tea-soil ecosystems preferably

  11. [Dynamics of 95Zr in simulated marine water-sediment-organisms system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Shi, Jianjun; Sun, Pingyue; Li, Mingyun

    2003-06-01

    To provide scientific evidence to evaluate the behavior of 95Zr in ocean ecosystem, the dynamic model of the transference, accumulation and disappearance of 95Zr among the simulated marine water, sediment and organisms was investigated using Nassarius semiplicatus and Boleophthalums pectinirostris as experimental stuffs. The result showed that 95Zr(Bq.g-1 or Bq.ml-1) in the marine water was decreased more than 90% in the first 4 h, and then descended gradually. 95Zr in sediment was increased in the peak in 48 h and then declined. The radioactivity percent of 95Zr in the shell and muslce of Nassarius semiplicatus was 68.7% and 31.30% respectively, while the radioactivity percent was 22.80%, 12.64%, 34.82%, 10.31%, 4.48%, 11.55% and 3.71%, respectively in the fill, fin, viscera, skull, skin, vertebra and muscle of Boleophthalmus pectinirostris. Nassarius semiplicatus had a greater concentrating capability of 95Zr than Boleophthalmus pectinirostris. The order of the 95Zr concentration was found to be sediment > Nassarius semiplicatus > water > Boleophthalmus pectinirostris. A dynamic model of closed four-compartment was constructed with exponent function.

  12. Transfer of Chernobyl-derived 134Cs, 137Cs, 131I and 103Ru from flowers to honey and pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Kracke, W.

    1988-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 131 I and 103 Ru were determined separately in honey and pollen samples collected from a single bee colony during several months after the deposition of Chernobyl fallout. The source of each honey and pollen sample was determined by pollen analysis. Although the activity concentrations in honey and pollen varied with time, the concentrations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs were, in general, higher in pollen than in honey. For 103 Ru and 131 I, these differences were comparatively small. The mean 131 I/ 137 Cs and 103 Ru/ 137 Cs ratios were about one order of magnitude higher in honey than in pollen. The mean 131 I/ 103 Ru ratio was about the same for honey and pollen. This observation, in the light of the corresponding nuclide ratios found in the deposition, suggests that 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 131 I and 103 Ru were taken up by the plant leaves and transported to nectar and pollen. The higher activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs in pollen, relative to honey, indicate that these radionuclides behave analogously to potassium, which is also found in higher quantities in pollen. (author)

  13. Separation of [Rh-103m]-rhodocene-derivatives from the parent [103Ru]ruthenocen-derivatives and their organ distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, M.; Wu, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The radioactive decay of [ 103 Ru]ruthenocene derivatives leads to sup(103m)Rh labelled rhodocinium derivatives, which can be separated by the extraction of a lipophilic solution of the ruthenocen derivate with water. The separation factor sup(103m)Rh/ 103 Ru reaches values of 32:1 Rh 3+ ions are not liberated and extracted. The organ distribution of the sup(103m)Rh labelled rhodocinium derivatives gained from ruthenocene and from N-isopropyl-ruthenocene amphetamine is different from the distribution of the parent ruthenocene compound. The liver and kidney uptake of the rhodocinium-amphetamine is much higher than the uptake with ruthenocene amphetamine. (author)

  14. The 'Big Karl' magnetic spectrometer - studies of the 103Ru transition nucleus with (d,p) and (p,d) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerlimann, W.

    1981-04-01

    The paper describes the structure and characteristics of the spectrometer and its application in a study of the 102 Ru(d,p) 103 Ru and 104 Ru(p,d) 103 Ru reactions. The study is structured as follows: To begin with the theoretical fundamentals, ion-optical characteristics and layout of BIG KARL are described. Field measurements and analyses carried out on the magnets of the spectrometer are described as well as the functioning of the 'Ht correction coils' used here for the first time to prevent faulty imaging. Chapter IV then describes methods employed so far to optimize resolution for large aperture angles of the spectrometer. Finally, chapter V investigates the 103 Ru transition nucleons on the basis of the 102 Ru(d,p) 103 RU and 104 Ru(p,d) 103 Ru transfer reactions measured in BIG KARL. (orig./HSI) [de

  15. Ferrocene, ruthenocene or rhodocene analogues of Haloperidol. Synthesis and organ distribution after labelling with 103Ru or 103mRh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, M.; Wu, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Ferrocene-Haloperidol was synthesized by N-alkylation of 4-(4'-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidine with 1-ferrocenyl-4-chlor-butan-1-on. By heating the ferrocene-haloperidol with 103 RuCl 3 the 103 Ru-labelled ruthenocene-haloperidol was obtained. This compound showed a high affinity for lung but not for brain in rats and mice. The decay of the 103 Ru labelled compound results in the formation of the 103m Rh labelled rhodocene-haloperidol, which is rapidly oxidized by air to the corresponding rhodocinium-haloperidol. This compound can be separated by extraction and TLC. (author)

  16. Ferrocene, ruthenocene or rhodocene analogues of Haloperidol. Synthesis and organ distribution after labelling with /sup 103/Ru or /sup 103m/Rh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, M; Wu, Y

    1988-01-01

    Ferrocene-Haloperidol was synthesized by N-alkylation of 4-(4'-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidine with 1-ferrocenyl-4-chlor-butan-1-on. By heating the ferrocene-haloperidol with /sup 103/RuCl/sub 3/ the /sup 103/Ru-labelled ruthenocene-haloperidol was obtained. This compound showed a high affinity for lung but not for brain in rats and mice. The decay of the /sup 103/Ru labelled compound results in the formation of the /sup 103m/Rh labelled rhodocene-haloperidol, which is rapidly oxidized by air to the corresponding rhodocinium-haloperidol. This compound can be separated by extraction and TLC.

  17. Extraction of {sup 95}(Zr, Nb) from oxalic acid solutions by means of tri-iso-octyl amine, Annex 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susic, M V; Maksimovic, Z B [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za visoku aktivnost, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-12-15

    The extractability of {sup 95}(Zr, Nb) with tri-iso-octyl amine in xylene from an oxalic acid solution has been investigated. The behaviour of uranium and other fission products has also been observed. The extraction of {sup 95}(Zr, Nb) has been studied as u function of oxalic acid and amine concentrations. Effects of the aqueous phase pH, uranium and the presence of other electrolytes have also been observed and the possibility of separating {sup 95}(Zr, Nb) from uranium and from other fission products considered (author)

  18. Nuclear orientation of 9597Nb and 95Zr in ZrFe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.; Olsen, C.E.; Rosenblum, S.S.; Steyert, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    The angular distribution anisotropies of γ rays were measured following the decays of 95 , 97 Nb and 95 Zr oriented at low temperatures in the ferromagnetic Laves phase compound ZrFe 2 . The magnetic hyperfine field of Nb in ZrFe 2 was deduced to be 9.4+-1.6 T; that of Zr in ZrFe 2 was estimated to be 15+-4 T. The nuclear magnetic moment of 97 Nb was deduced to be μ = (7.5+-1.4) μ/subN/

  19. False indications of 95Zr-95Nb internal contamination due to contaminated sacred thread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, S.P.; Singh, I.S.; Sharma, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Whole body monitoring of a worker showed an apparent internal contamination with a considerable amount of 95 Zr- 95 Nb. Inhalation exposure was suspected to have taken place about a week earlier when he had last worked in the radioactive area. Unexpected fast clearance indicated by the third periodical weekly follow up monitoring was considered to be an abnormal behaviour. Investigations revealed an external contamination on a sacred thread, which the worker was putting on across his thorax and not removing it at the time of bath due to religious considerations. These studies have underscored that short term follow up measurements data should be critically scrutinized and a caution should be exercised in the interpretation such data particularly in case of such relatively short lived radionuclides. (author)

  20. Separation of (Rh-103m)-rhodocene-derivatives from the parent (/sup 103/Ru)ruthenocen-derivatives and their organ distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, M.; Wu, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The radioactive decay of (/sup 103/Ru)ruthenocene derivatives leads to sup(103m)Rh labelled rhodocinium derivatives, which can be separated by the extraction of a lipophilic solution of the ruthenocen derivate with water. The separation factor sup(103m)Rh//sup 103/Ru reaches values of 32:1 Rh/sup 3 +/ ions are not liberated and extracted. The organ distribution of the sup(103m)Rh labelled rhodocinium derivatives gained from ruthenocene and from N-isopropyl-ruthenocene amphetamine is different from the distribution of the parent ruthenocene compound. The liver and kidney uptake of the rhodocinium-amphetamine is much higher than the uptake with ruthenocene amphetamine.

  1. New determination of the half-lives of 57Co, 103Ru, sup(103m)Rh, 103Pd, and 109Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaninbroukx, R.; Grosse, G.; Zehner, W.

    1981-01-01

    The half-lives of five radionuclides were redetermined by photon-counting techniques using NaI(Tl)- and Si(Li) detectors. The results are: 57 Co: (271.90 +- 0.09)d, 103 Ru: (39.260 +- 0.020)d, sup(103m)Rh: (56.114 +- 0.020)m, 103 Pd: (16.991 +- 0.019)d, and 109 Cd: (461.90 +- 0.30)d. The quoted uncertainties, corresponding to a lσ level, take into account random and systematic uncertainties. (author)

  2. [Radioactive nuclides in the marine environment--distribution and behaviour of 95Zr, 95Nb originated from fallout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, A; Miyagawa, N; Miyanaga, N

    1984-07-01

    To investigate behaviour of 95Zr, 95Nb in the marine environment, various samples have been collected and measured by means of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometry and/or radiochemical analysis during a period from 1974 to 1982 at coastal area of Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture. Concentration of the nuclides in seaweeds increased remarkably after atmospheric nuclear detonation by P.R. of China, and the activity ratio between the nuclides changed by time was not fit well by the transient decay equation. Concentration variation in sea water was smaller than that in sea weeds, and the minimum change in sea sediment. Increase of concentration in these environmental samples was observed in chronological order of sea water, sea weeds then sediment after detonations, suggesting that the uptake of the nuclides by these sea weeds from sea water is faster than that via root. Observed concentration factors on the nuclides by sea weeds were calculated from the observed concentrations in sea water and sea weeds. Maximum values on 95Zr and 95Nb were 2110, 2150, respectively for Ecklonia cava and Eisenia bicyclis.

  3. False indications of {sup 95}Zr-{sup 95}Nb internal contamination due to contaminated sacred thread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, S P; Singh, I S; Sharma, R C [Internal Dosimetry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, BARC Hospital, Mumbai (India)

    2000-05-01

    Whole body monitoring of a worker showed an apparent internal contamination with a considerable amount of {sup 95}Zr-{sup 95}Nb. Inhalation exposure was suspected to have taken place about a week earlier when he had last worked in the radioactive area. Unexpected fast clearance indicated by the third periodical weekly follow up monitoring was considered to be an abnormal behaviour. Investigations revealed an external contamination on a sacred thread, which the worker was putting on across his thorax and not removing it at the time of bath due to religious considerations. These studies have underscored that short term follow up measurements data should be critically scrutinized and a caution should be exercised in the interpretation such data particularly in case of such relatively short lived radionuclides. (author)

  4. Studies of /sup 131/I, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 103/Ru in milk, meat and vegetables in North East Scotland following the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C J; Heaton, B; Robb, J D

    1988-01-01

    Uptake and clearance of radionuclides in foodstuffs have been studied in the neighbourhood of Aberdeen in North East Scotland following the Chernobyl accident. The level of /sup 131/I in goats' milk was 100-200 Bq litre/sup -1/ in early May and declined with an effective half-life of 4.3 days, but that in cows's milk was only a few Bq litre/sup -1/ as most cattle were kept indoors. /sup 137/Cs and /sup 103/Ru activities in broccoli declined with effective half-lives of 11 and 6 days respectively, while /sup 137/Cs in grass decreased with a half-life of 22 days, the reduction appearing to show a relationship to weekly rainfall. Studies of tissues from groups of lambs initially grazed on contaminated pasture and later (a) fed indoors on concentrates or (b) continuing to graze outdoors, showed the /sup 137/Cs concentrations to decline with half-lives of (a) 17 days and (b) 25 days, while the half-lives describing the reduction in total /sup 137/Cs activity were (a) 20 days and (b) 35 days.

  5. Studies of 131I, 137Cs and 103Ru in milk, meat and vegetables in North East Scotland following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.J.; Heaton, B.; Robb, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Uptake and clearance of radionuclides in foodstuffs have been studied in the neighbourhood of Aberdeen in North East Scotland following the Chernobyl accident. The level of 131 I in goats' milk was 100-200 Bq litre -1 in early May and declined with an effective half-life of 4.3 days, but that in cows's milk was only a few Bq litre -1 as most cattle were kept indoors. 137 Cs and 103 Ru activities in broccoli declined with effective half-lives of 11 and 6 days respectively, while 137 Cs in grass decreased with a half-life of 22 days, the reduction appearing to show a relationship to weekly rainfall. Studies of tissues from groups of lambs initially grazed on contaminated pasture and later (a) fed indoors on concentrates or (b) continuing to graze outdoors, showed the 137 Cs concentrations to decline with half-lives of (a) 17 days and (b) 25 days, while the half-lives describing the reduction in total 137 Cs activity were (a) 20 days and (b) 35 days. (author)

  6. Investigation of activation cross section data of alpha particle induced nuclear reaction on molybdenum up to 40 MeV: Review of production routes of medically relevant {sup 97,103}Ru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tárkányi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A., E-mail: aherman@vub.ac.be [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Ditrói, F.; Takács, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Ignatyuk, A. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    The main goals of this investigations were to expand and consolidate reliable activation cross-section data for the {sup nat}Mo(α,x) reactions in connection with production of medically relevant {sup 97,103}Ru and the use of the {sup nat}Mo(α,x){sup 97}Ru reaction for monitoring beam parameters. The excitation functions for formation of the gamma-emitting radionuclides {sup 94}Ru, {sup 95}Ru, {sup 97}Ru, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 93m}Tc, {sup 93g}Tc(m+), {sup 94m}Tc, {sup 94g}Tc, {sup 95m}Tc, {sup 95g}Tc, {sup 96g}Tc(m+), {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 93m}Mo, {sup 99}Mo(cum), {sup 90}Nb(m+) and {sup 88}Zr were measured up to 40 MeV alpha-particle energy by using the stacked foil technique and activation method. Data of our earlier similar experiments were re-evaluated and resulted in corrections on the reported results. Our experimental data were compared with critically analyzed literature data and with the results of model calculations, obtained by using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE 3.1 (Rivoli) and TALYS codes (TENDL-2011 and TENDL-2015 on-line libraries). Nuclear data for different production routes of {sup 97}Ru and {sup 103}Ru are compiled and reviewed.

  7. The {sup 95}Zr( n , γ ){sup 96}Zr Cross Section from the Surrogate Ratio Method and Its Effect on s -process Nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, S.Q.; Li, Z.H.; Wang, Y.B.; Su, J.; Li, Y. J.; Han, Y.L.; Shen, Y.P.; Guo, B.; Zeng, S.; Lian, G.; Chen, Y.S.; Liu, W.P. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(10), Beijing 102413 (China); Nishio, K.; Makii, H.; Nishinaka, I.; Hirose, K.; Orlandi, R. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Lugaro, M. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Karakas, A. I. [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Mohr, P., E-mail: panyu@ciae.ac.cn, E-mail: maria.lugaro@csfk.mta.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-10-20

    The {sup 95}Zr( n , γ ){sup 96}Zr reaction cross section is crucial in the modeling of s -process nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars because it controls the operation of the branching point at the unstable {sup 95}Zr and the subsequent production of {sup 96}Zr. We have carried out the measurement of the {sup 94}Zr({sup 18}O, {sup 16}O) and {sup 90}Zr({sup 18}O, {sup 16}O) reactions and obtained the γ -decay probability ratio of {sup 96}Zr* and {sup 92}Zr* to determine the {sup 95}Zr( n , γ ){sup 96}Zr reaction cross sections with the surrogate ratio method. Our deduced Maxwellian-averaged cross section of 66 ± 16 mb at 30 keV is close to the value recommended by Bao et al., but 30% and more than a factor of two larger than the values proposed by Toukan and Käppeler and Lugaro et al., respectively, and routinely used in s -process models. We tested the new rate in stellar models with masses between 2 and 6 M {sub ⊙} and metallicities of 0.014 and 0.03. The largest changes—up to 80% variations in {sup 96}Zr—are seen in models of mass 3–4 M {sub ⊙}, where the {sup 22}Ne neutron source is mildly activated. The new rate can still provide a match to data from meteoritic stardust silicon carbide grains, provided that the maximum mass of the parent stars is below 4 M {sub ⊙}, for a metallicity of 0.03.

  8. Transfer pathways of {sup 54}Mn, {sup 57}Co, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 103}Ru and {sup 134}Cs in rice and radish plants directly contaminated at different growth stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Y.H. E-mail: yhchoi1@kaeri.re.kr; Lim, K.M.; Yu, D.; Park, H.G.; Choi, Y.G.; Lee, C.M

    2002-03-01

    In order to study radionuclide transfer pathways related to direct contamination of plants, the above-ground parts of rice and radish plants were sprayed with a solution containing {sup 54}Mn, {sup 57}Co, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 103}Ru and {sup 134}Cs in a greenhouse at 5 or 6 different times. Showing little difference among radionuclides, the interception factor increased as plants grew to maturity. Its highest observed value was 0.94 in rice and 0.83 in radish. Weathering losses of the intercepted activity by harvest were 32-89% in rice and 32-85% in radish depending on application time and radionuclide. Half lives for weathering loss were estimated to be longer on the whole for earlier applications. The translocation factor varied with application time by factors of 6-110 for hulled rice seeds and 2-23 for radish roots depending on the radionuclide. It varied with radionuclides by factors of 6-800 depending on application time and plant species. It was highest in the plants sprayed during active seed growth for rice and during early plant growth for radish. In general, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 57}Co had the highest translocation factors followed by {sup 54}Mn, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 103}Ru. Based on the experimental results, radionuclide concentrations in the edible parts of mature plants were predicted for unit deposition.

  9. Extraction of zirconium(IV) and separation of 95Zr-95Nb from acidic thiocyanate media by LIX 54 and its mixtures with TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, P.K.; Chakravortty, V.; Dash, K.C.; Das, N.R.; Bhattacharyya, S.N.

    1990-01-01

    Appreciable extraction of 95 Zr- 95 Nb by LIX 54 from aqueous HCl alone is not observed in the concentration range from 0.1 to 2 M HCl. Presence of thiocyanate ions results in appreciable extraction of this pair from such acid medium. Synergism has been observed in the extraction of zirconium(IV) by mixtures of LIX 54 and TBP from thiocyanate media, whereas there has been no appreciable synergism in case of niobium(V) under identical conditions. Slope analyses indicate the species extracted by pure TBP to be disolvate whereas for extraction by the mixtures of LIX 54 and TBP it is found to be monosolvate with respect to TBP. The extraction of both the metal ions have been found to depend on the concentration of acid as well as that of thiocyanate ions. Extraction increases with increase in percentage of either of the extractants. Effective separation of these congeneric pairs has been achieved by suitable choice of above system. Extraction is independent of aq. zirconium concentration up to 0.01 M above which it decreases. (orig.)

  10. Radionuclidic contamination of 99Mo, 131I and 103Ru in the eluate of 99Mo-99mTc chromatographic generator: comparision on fission produced 99Mo from RPC, Nordio and ARI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soenarjo, Sunarhadijoso; Gunawan, Adang Hardi

    1996-01-01

    The 99 Mo- 99m Tc Chromatographic generators is the most popular system to provide 99m Tc medical radioisotope. Radioisotope Production Centre (RPC)- BATAN has routinely produced the generator loaded with 99 Mo prepared by 235 U fission. By using fission produced 99 Mo, the resulting 99m Tc is potentially contaminated by other fission products which are difficult to eliminate completely. In order to study the characteristic of the generator and radionuclidic impurity pattern of the 99m Tc eluates, an evaluation of gamma spectrometric determination has been carried out. The bulk solutions of 99 Mo produced by RPC BATAN (Indonesia), Nordion (Canada) and ARI (Australia) were loaded to generators manufactured between July 1993 to May 1994. The saline-eluate 99m Tc, in a total volume of 10 ml each, was subjected to gamma spectrometric determination. The radiation of 99m Tc was eliminated by lead shield of 0.6913 cm thickness. The 99m Tc yield fluctuation from 28 generators indicated that the characteristics of the generator columns were very good. The 99m Tc eluates were consistently contaminated by 99 Mo, 131 I and 103 Ru, although the contamination level in all cases did not exceed the maximum permissible levels. The fluctuation of radionuclidic impurities were probably caused by variation in the irradiation parameter or by variation in the 99 Mo separation methods. (author), 23 refs, 1 tab, 3 figs

  11. $sup 155$Eu, $sup 144$Ce, $sup 125$Sb, $sup 106$Ru, $sup 95$Zr, $sup 54$Mn, and $sup 7$Be in the reindeer lichen Cladonia alpestris: deposition, retention and internal distribution, 1961--1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, L J.S.

    1972-09-01

    The retention and distribution of the fallout radionuclides , /sup 106/ Ru, /sup 95/Zr, and /sup 54/Mn and the naturally occurring radionuclide /sup 7/Be were studied in undisturbed natural carpets of the lichen Cladonia alpesiris, a major component of the diet of reindeer in the Lake Rogen district in central Sweden during the period 1961 to 1970. The contents of the artificially produced radionuclides in the lichen-carpet reached their maxima in 1963 to 1966 and all showed high retention values. During the seven-year period of 1962 to 1968 the average absorbed dose in the gut of a reindeer was calculated to be about 3 rad due to the passage of the food alone. The dominating contributions (about 40%) came from /sup 144/Ce. (CH)

  12. Appendix to Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly, March 1, 1976--June 1, 1976. [Tabulated data on content of lead in surface air and /sup 7/Be, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 144/Ce, and /sup 90/Sr in surface air, milk, drinking water, and foods sampled in USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    Tabulated data are presented on: the monthly deposition of /sup 89/Sr and /sup 90/Sr at some 100 world land sites; the content of lead and /sup 7/Be, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 144/Ce in samples of surface air from various world sites; and the content of /sup 90/Sr in samples of milk, drinking water, and animal and human diets collected at various locations throughout the USA. (CH)

  13. Treatment of solutions of fission products - Separation of caesium-137; Traitement des solutions de produits de fission - Separation du cesium-137; Obrabotka rastvorov produktov deleniya - Razdelenie tseziya-137; Tratamiento de soluciones de productos de fision - Separacion del cesio-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiennon-Bovy, R [Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Gvion, R [Commission Israelienne de l' Energie Atomique, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    1962-01-15

    appreciable de l'activite du cesium, sa realisation a la temperature ordinaire, et la possibilite d'exploitation en regime continu. Par ce procede, la recuperation du cesium peut etre faite avant l'elimination de certains produits de fission. (author) [Spanish] Los autores han adaptado el metodo analitico de determinacion del cesio por medio de la dipierilamina a la recuperacion en escala industrial del cesio-137 contenido en soluciones de productos de fision de elevada actividad. El procedimiento propuesto permite aislar el cesio en forma de cloruro en una sola operacion y recuperar el reactivo de precipitacion con facilidad. Los autores proponen un procedimiento basico. Han estudiado el efecto de las radiaciones sobre la dipierilamina y sus compuestos. Este efecto es practicamente nulo para los compuestos solidos, y despreciable para las soluciones. Ademas, los autores han estudiado el arrastre del cesio por el ion amonico. El procedimiento descrito presenta las ventajas siguientes: elevado grado de descontaminacion del cesio, sencillez del procedimiento y facilidad con que se puede recuperar y volver a emplear el reactivo, elevado rendimiento en la recuperacion del cesio y de la dipierilamina, concentracion apreciable de la actividad del cesio, posibilidad de trabajar a temperatura ambiente, posibilidad de trabajar en regimen continuo. Este procedimiento permite recuperar cesio antes de eliminar ciertos productos de fision. (author) [Russian] Dlya promyshlennogo izvlecheniya tseziya-137 iz rastvorov produktov deleniya avtory primenili analiticheskij sposob dozirovki tseziya pri pomoshchi dipikrilamina v promyshlennom masshtabe i s vysokimi aktivnostyami. Predlagaemyj sposob pozvolyaet odnoj operatsiej izolirovat' tsezij v vide khloristogo soedineniya i legko izvlech' reagent osadka. Avtory predlagayut printsipial'nuyu skhemu. Oni izuchili dejstvie izluchenij na dipikrilamin i ego soedineniya. EHto dejstvie okazyvaetsya prakticheski ravnym nulyu dlya tverdykh soedinenij i

  14. Radiochemical analysis of the Bikini ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, M; Shigematsu, T; Ishida, T

    1954-01-01

    The following nuclides were detected in the Bikini ashes by radiochemical procedures: /sup 45/Ca, /sup 89/Sr, /sup 91/Y, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 103/Ru, /sup 144/Pr, and /sup 237/U. The ion-exchange method was used for analysis of contaminated rain water which fell on the Kyoto area on May 16, 1954 from which the presence of /sup 89/Sr, /sup 95/Zr, and /sup 140/Ba, was detected. Rare earths seemed also to be present.

  15. Generator separation of 103Ru//sup 103m/Rh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperson, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    A generator for producing carrier-free Rh-103m was developed using a liquid extraction technique. Initially, Ru-103 chloride was converted to the sulfate by moderate fuming for 80 minutes in 1:1 sulfuric acid. The Ru-103 was then brought to its highest oxidation state with 0.2 N ceric sulfate. Ru-103 tetroxide was removed from an aqueous equilibrium solution of Ru-103/Rh-103m by three one-minute extractions into CCl 4 . The Rh-103m daughter was not extracted under these conditions. Yields of Rh-103m exceeded 90 percent theoretical. The Ru-103 removed by CCl 4 could be recovered by two hours of back-extraction into 2 M sulfuric acid containing 5 mg of sodium sulfite. A cyclic extraction system was made possible by employing sulfate media. Equilibrium Ru-103 could be repeatedly extracted and recovered, thereby producing a ''generator'' system for the production of Rh-103m. Ru-103 chloride can be converted to the sulfate and then stored for at least 38 days prior to extraction. By performing the fuming step whenever convenient, the time required to perform an extraction separation was reduced to 15 minutes. Prior treatment of glassware surfaces with dilute sulfuric acid prevented Ru-103 glass adsorption losses and made glassware much easier to decontaminate. Off-the-shelf reagent-grade CCl 4 could be used without further purification. Efforts to separate Rh-103m from Ru-103 by chromatography techniques were unsuccessful

  16. Fission gas pressure build-up and fast-breeder economy; Accumulation de la pression des gaz de fission et economie des reacteurs surgenerateurs a neutrons rapides; Nakoplenie davleniya gazov produktov deleniya i ehkonomika reaktorov-razmnozhitelej na bystrykh nejtronakh; Aumento de la presion de los gases de fision y economia de los reactores reproductores rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, P [Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1962-03-15

    materiales de alta resistencia, tales como el Inconel-X y el molibdeno pueden soportar la presion de los gases de fision a las temperaturas de funcionamiento corrientes. Desgraciadamente , la seccion eficaz de absorcion de estos materiales es superior a la del acero inoxidable. El autor presenta los resultados de calculos, realizados segun una teoria de varios grupos, que permite conocer el efecto de la utilizacion de estos materiales y de la disminucion de la densidad del combustible, sobre la masa critica y sobre la razon de reproduccion en los reactores reproductores de pequenas y medianas dimensiones. (author) [Russian] Na stoimost' toplivnogo tsikla i na vremya udvoeniya reaktorovbriderov na bystrykh nejtronakh sil'no vliyaet stepen' dostigaemogo vygoraniya topliva. Ispol'zovani e oksidnogo ili karbidnogo topliva daet vozmozhnost' dostignut' vygoraniya poryadka 100 000 mvt-n/t. V toplivnykh ehlementakh s pokrytiem ogranichivayushchi m faktorom yavlyaetsya rost gazov produktov deleniya. Pri rassmatrivaemo m vysokom vygoranii poddayushchayasya otsenke fraktsiya gazov, obrazuemykh pri delenii, popadaet v pory i tem samym uvelichivaet davlenie na obolochku. Iskhodya iz izvestnykh vykhodov produktov deleniya i tsepochek raspada bylo vychisleno kolichestvo obrazuyushchegosya gaza i sozdavaemoe im davlenie. Pri raschete davleniya, dejstvuyushchego na obolochku, byli ispol'zovany tri fizicheskikh modeli: i) gaz soderzhalsya v svyazanykh mezhdu soboj porakh, ii) v otdel'nykh porakh i iii) v tsentral'nom otverstii. Budet rassmotrena zavisimost' davleniya ot svobodnogo ob{sup e}ma (plotnost' topliva) i temperatury. Obolochki, izgotovlennye iz vysokoprochnykh materialov, naprimer, iz inkonelya-Kh i molibdena, mogli by vyderzhat' pri rabochikh temperaturakh davlenie gazov, vydelyayushchikhsya v rezul'tate deleniya. K sozhaleniyu, ehti materialy obladayut bolee vysokimi poperechnymi secheniyami pogloshcheniya, chem nerzhaveyushchaya stal'. Budut dany rezul'taty mnogogruppovog o

  17. The Technology and Applications of Large Fission Product Beta Sources; Technologie et applications des grandes sources beta de fission; Tekhnologiya i primenenie krupnykh istochnikov beta-izluchenij, ispuskaemykh produktami deleniya; Tecnologia y utilizacion de los productos de fision como fuentes de irradiacion beta de elevada intensidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Joseph [Radiation Applications Incorporated (United States)

    1960-07-15

    ) [Russian] Beta-izluchatel i ne vkhodili ran'she v raschet v kachestve krupnykh istochnikov izlucheniya, tak kak v proshlom predstavlyayushchie interes protsessy oblucheniya osnovyvalis' na ispol'zovanii chastits, obladayushchikh sposobnost'yu glubokogo proniknoveniya; poehtomu glavnoe vnimanie sosredotochivalos' na ispol'zovanii gamma-izluchenij i iskusstvenno uskorennykh ehlektronov. Okolo chetyrekh let tomu nazad stalo ochevidnym, chto otkryvaetsya shirokaya oblast' vozmozhnykh primenenij, svyazannykh s poverkhnostnym oblucheniem, kak naprimer, izmenenie poverkhnosti obrazovavshegos ya sloya plastmassy putem sopolimerizatsionnogo narashchivaniya i poverkhnostnoj pasterizatsii pishchevykh produktov. Dlya ehtikh primenenij proniknovenie v glubinu yavlyaetsya neehkonomnym, a vozmozhno i vrednym. Est'eshche dve drugie oblasti, v kotorykh proizvedennye mekhanicheskim putem ehlektrony ne ochen' podkhodyat: khimicheskij sintez v nakhodyashchikhsya pod davleniem sosudakh s primeneniem oblucheniya i nekotorye vidy tsepnykh reaktsij so svobodnymi radikalami, dlya kotorykh proizvoditel'nost ' na kilovatt umen'shaetsya proportsional'no kvadratnomu kornyu moshchnosti dozy. Istochniki beta-izluchenij s shirokim polem pokazali ochevidnye potentsial'ny e preimushchestva dlya vsekh ehtikh operatsij i poskol'ku oni poluchayutsya v bol'shikh kolichestvakh za schet protsessov deleniya, to predstavlyalos ' tselesoobrazny m sdelat' tshchatel'nuyu pereotsenku vozmozhnostej ikh primeneniya. Vvidu ehtogo pod pokrovitel'stvom Komissii po atomnoj ehnergii SSHA bylo proizvedeno issledovanie primenenij i tekhnologii istochnikov beta-izluchenij, ispuskaemykh produktami deleniya. EHto issledovanie privelo k sleduyushchim rezul'tatam: 1. Otkryvayutsya perspektivny e vozmozhnosti primeneniya v kommercheskom masshtabe istochnikov beta-izluchenij, ispuskaemykh produktami deleniya, v oblasti oblucheniya produktov, v osobennosti dlya izmeneniya putem sopolimerizatsionnogo narashchivaniya obrazovavshikhsya

  18. Distinction between natural and depleted uranium using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Kh.

    2008-01-01

    A convenient method to discriminate between natural and depleted uranium samples was developed in this work. Traces of natural and depleted uranium were irradiated separately and the ratios of 95 Zr/ 103 Ru, 239 Np/ 95 Zr, 239 Np/ 103 Ru were measured. The results show that these ratios can be used as indicators of the uranium isotopic composition of the sample. These ratios are independent of the secular equilibrium of the 238 U with its daughters in the sample and indicate the isotopic composition for trace amounts. Date and truffle samples has been analysed also using this method. Results show that the uranium content in this product was less than the detection limit.(author)

  19. gamma. -spectra of radioactive fallout from the atmosphere. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, W; Sommermeyer, K

    1957-01-01

    Foils used for collecting dust which were exposed to radioactive fallout for 8 days, and grass ashes exhibit the same ..gamma..-spectra. The peaks were characteristic of the following isotopes, half-lives in brackets: /sup 140/Ba (13 days) + /sup 140/La; /sup 95/Zr (65 days) + /sup 95/Nb; and /sup 103/Ru (40 days). Relative peak heights indicated age of fallout.

  20. Metabolism of fission products in man: Marshallese experience; Metabolisme des produits de fission radioactifs chez l'homme: donnees recueillies aux iles Marshall; Metabolizm radioaktivnykh produktov deleniya v organizme cheloveka. (dannye obsledovaniya zhite- lej marshal'skikh ostrovov); Metabolismo de productos de fision radiactivos en el hombre: datos obtenidos en los habitantes de las islas Marshall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S. H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, NY (United States)

    1963-02-15

    gracias a estos estudios. Presenta los resultados de un tratamiento con la sal calcico-disodica del EDTA, que se efectuo poco despues de la contaminacion con el proposito de modificar la velocidad de eliminacion de las mezclas de productos de fision en los habitantes de las islas Marshall. Tambien discute el metabolismo de los radionuclidos y su relacion con la radiactividad ambiente en aquella zona. (author) [Russian] Meditsinskoe'obsledovanie zhitelej Marshal'skikh ostrovov, sluchajno podvergshikhsya dejstviyu mestnykh radioaktivnykh osadkov v 1954 godu, yavlyaetsya unikal'nym v tom smysle, chto ono, naryadu s obsledovaniem yaponskikh rybakov, daet vozmozhnost' poluchit' edinstvennye v ehtoj oblasti dannye po metabolizmu smeshannykh produktov deleniya v organizmakh lyudej. Rannyaya diagnostika vnutrennego radioaktivnogo zarazheniya osushchestvlyalas' s pomoshch'yu radiokhimicheskogo analiza vydelenij obluchennykh lyudej i metodami radiokhimicheskogo analiza tkanej zhivotnykh obluchennykh odno-vremenno. Na nachal'noj stadii bol'shuyu chast' vnutrennej dozy radiatsii sostavlyali strontsij-89, barij-140, jod-131, ikh bolee korotkozhivushchie dochernie produkty i ryad redkozemel'nykh ehlementov. Cherez god osnovnymi radioizotopami byli strontsij-90, tsezij-137 i tsink-65. Pozdnee periodi- cheski izmeryalas' aktivnost' ehtikh radioizotopov, a eshche pozdnee i kobal'ta-60. Nachinaya s 1958 goda gamma-spektry u zhitelej Marshal'skikh ostrovov poluchayut s pomoshch'yu portativnogo schetchika dlya izmereniya aktivnosti vsego tela. V doklade obsuzhdayutsya dannye ehtikh issledovanij za prshedshie vosem' let. Privodyatsya rezul'taty rannikh popytok izmenit' skorost' udaleniya smeshannykh produktov deleniya iz organizma s pomoshch'yu dvunatrievogo kal'tsiya EDTA. Obsuzhdaetsya takzhe metabolizm radioizotopov i svyaz'ikh s urovnyami v okruzhayushchej srede. (author)

  1. Release of Fission Products from UC-ZrC Fuel Inserts; Degagement des produits de fission liberes dans des noyaux combustibles UC-ZrC; Vydelenie produktov deleniya iz topliv UC - ZrC; Liberacion de productos de fision por pastillas de combustible de UC-ZrC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, F.; Von der Decken, C. B.; Schifferstein, K. [Brown Boveri/Krupp Reaktorbau G.M.B.H., Duesseldorf (Germany); Clauss, A.; Reichel, H.; Rygaert, J.; Ruston, W. R. [Societe d' Etudes de Recherches et d' Applications pour l' Industrie (S.E.R.A.I.), Brussels (Belgium)

    1963-11-15

    hallaron grandes diferencias en las energias de activacion determinadas en distintos tipos de pastillas, aunque algunas veces los valores D/r{sub 0}{sup 2} paragraph diferian en cuatro ordenes de magnitud para una misma temperatura de la muestra. Despues de la irradiacion, se determinaron las actividades de los isotopos {sup 131}I, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 140}Ba y {sup 141}Ce en el grafito de las capsulas. Exceptuando el {sup 131}I, las actividades resultaron superiores a las previstas para un desprendimiento debido solamente a retroceso. Los valores correspondientes al {sup 89}Sr, {sup 140}Ba y {sup 141}Ce son damasiado altos para que puedan atribuirse a una difusion de loe respectivos gases nobles precursores. Se supone que los isotopos medidos, o sus precursores distintos de los gases nobles se desprendieron por difusion. (author) [Russian] Provedeno issledovanie vo vremya oblucheniya v petle vydeleniya produktov deleniya ieh tabletok, imeyushchikh priblizitel'nyj sostav UC + 20 ZrC. Tsel' - proverka vozmozhnosti ispol'zovaniya podobnykh tabletok v kachestve topliva v sfericheskikh teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementakh vysokotemperaturnogo reaktora, postroennogo v Yulikhe ''Obshchestvom stroitel'stva reaktorov Braun Boveri/Krupp''. Ispytaniyu podvergalis' svobodnye tabletki i tabletki, vstavlennye v grafitovye kapsuly. Nekotorye iz tabletok imeli pogranichnuyu zonu ieh chistogo karbida tsirkoniya, tolshchinoj 1 - 2 mm. Obraztsy pomeshchalis' v pechi ehlektricheskogo soprotivleniya, dayushchie maksimal'nuyu temperaturu 1600{sup o}C. Nejtronnyj potok vo vremya oblucheniya sostavlyal 3 - 4 x 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2} -sek. Petlya pozvolyala izmerit' vydelenie izotopov inertnykh gazov Kr{sup 85m}, Kr{sup 87}, Kr{sup 88},Xe{sup 133} i Xe{sup 135} vo vremya oblucheniya, i kosvennoe opredelenie I{sup 133} i I{sup 135} posle vyklyucheniya reaktora. Minimum vydeleniya I{sup 131}, Sr{sup 88}, Ba{sup 141} i Ce{sup 141} byl opredelen radiokhimicheskim metodom posle izvlecheniya obraztsa iz

  2. Chernobyl radioactivity in Turkish tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.; Tufail, M.; Patzelt, P.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactivity measurement of Turkish tea of 1986 crops is reported. The total cesium activity ranged from about 5500 Bq kg -1 up to 43600 Bq kg -1 . Some other fission products from Chernobyl could be detected in the tea samples, e.g., 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 110m Ag and 125 Sb. In addition, some activity values found in tea from USSR are given. The transfer rate of cesium from tea leaves to tea water was found to be about 74%. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  3. 3. Quarterly progress report, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, undergroung water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  4. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts(air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  5. 1. Quaterly progress report, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This quaterly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  6. 4. Quaterly progress report, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This quaterly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmosheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  7. 4. Quarterly progress report, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  8. 4. Quarterly progress report, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  9. 4. Quarterly progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. the activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  10. Determination of nuclear fuel burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristak, J.; Vobecky, M.

    1973-01-01

    Samples containing a known content of 235 U were irradiated with several different neutron doses and activities were determined of radionuclides including 125 Sb, 144 Ce, 134 Cs, 154 Eu, 103 Ru, 95 Zr. The values thus obtained were divided by the 137 Cs activity value. The resulting neutron dose-dependent value is plotted into a calibration graph. The degree of nuclear fuel burn-up is obtained from the graph using an experimentally determined ratio of the activities of the above radionuclides. (B.S.)

  11. 3. Quaterly progress report, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This quaterly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  12. 3. Quarterly progress report, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  13. 2. Quarterly progress report, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radiosotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  14. Gamma spectrometric determination of radioactivity in milk, milk products and breast-milk after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raics, Peter; Gyarmati, Edit

    1988-01-01

    Ge(Li) spectrometer was used to determine specific activities for nuclides 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 129 Te m , 132 Te, 131 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 La. Measurements lasted for 70 days. Maximum specific activities of commercial milk and breast-milk for 131 I were 225, and 133 Bq/l, respectively. Milk samples of cows stalled by different feeds, of scalded, unscalded milk, and of milk products were compared. Radioacitivity of powdered milk, parsley and red currant was also measured. Detailed results for nuclides as a function of time are listed in five tables. (author) 10 refs.; 5 tabs

  15. Radioactive ashes on the fifth Fukuryu-Maru, the fishing boat that suffered from the hydrogen bomb test on March 1, 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K

    1954-01-01

    By ordinary procedures with carriers and by separation with cation-exchange resins, the ashes were analyzed and the following radioactive nuclides were detected, /sup 95/Zr (65 days), /sup 95/Nb (35 days), /sup 132/I (2.4 h), /sup 132/Te (77.7 h), /sup 95m/Nb (90 h), /sup 131/I (8.141 days), /sup 140/Ba (12.8 days), /sup 140/La (40.0 h), /sup 89/Sr (53 days), /sup 127/Sb (93 h), /sup 103/Ru (39.8 days), and /sup 106/Ru (1.0 yr), etc.

  16. 2. Quaterly progress report, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This quaterly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  17. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-03-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  18. 3. Quarterly progress report, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  19. Measurement of the fast neutron flux in the MNSR inner irradiation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.

    2007-01-01

    The WIMSD4 code was used to calculate the fast neutron flux spectrum and the fast neutron fission cross sections for 238 U, using six energy groups ranging from 0.5 to 10 MeV. These results, with the measured radioactivities of the 140 Ba, 131 I, 103 Ru, 95 Zr and 97 Zr fission products emerging from the fission of the 238 U foil covered with a cadmium filter, were used to measure the fast neutron flux in the Syrian MNSR inner irradiation site. (author)

  20. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk plants, cattle, fish), seawater around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  1. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  2. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  3. Kinetic regularities of change in the concentration of radionuclides in the Georgian tea content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Katamadze, N.M.; Shoniya, N.I.; Ginturi, Eh.N.

    1990-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the results of a study of behavior of artificial radionuclides in Georgian tea technological products after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Station. A partial contribution of the activity of radionuclides 141 Ce, 140 La, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 140 Ba, 137 Cs, 95 Nb, 95 Zr, 134 Cs and 90 Sr to the total activity to Georgian tea samples. Maximum tolerated concentrations of radionuclides were assessed provided average annual tea consumption per capita was 1 kg. The maximum of solubility in the water phase falls on Cs radionuclides. The regularities of migration of half-lived radionuclides 3 yrs. After the Chernobyl accident were established

  4. Evolution of artificial radioactivity in Channel sediments, 1971-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guegueniat, Pierre; Baron, Yves.

    1976-03-01

    The radioactivity of sediments of the Channel and Atlantic shores was measured by Ge-Li diode spectrometry on gross and fine samples collected from 1971 to 1975. The effects of the fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague, the central point of the monitored area, were clearly demonstrated only from 1974 on the gross fraction for 106 Ru, 95 Zr, 125 Sb, 144 Ce, and on the fraction smaller than 28μm for 106 Ru, 95 Zr, 125 Sb, 144 Ce, 65 Zn, 103 Ru, 110 Ag, 134 Cs, 141 Ce, 155 Eu. As regards 137 Cs, in spite of rather significant discharges, no evident effects could be detected by measurements. Some aspects of in situ retention processes of radionuclides on sediments were demonstrated by comparing sediment activities versus discharged activities and by considering desorption characteristics [fr

  5. Determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in environmental air and precipitation samples with a Ge(Li) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.; Sansoni, B.

    1977-01-01

    The concentrations of the radionuclides 7 Be, 54 Mn, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs, 140 Ba/ 140 La, 141 Ce and 144 Ce in ground level air and of 7 Be, 95 Zr, 137 Cs and 144 Ce in precipitation were determined since 1970 and 1971 respectively at Neuherberg, 10 km north of Munich, by gamma spectrometry using a 60 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. Dust samples were collected twice a month 1 m above ground from about 40,000 m 3 of air on 46 cm x 28 cm microsorbane filters and pressed to small cylinders of 35 cm 3 in size. Sensitivity of the procedure is of the order of 1 fCi/m 3 for air and of 10 pCi/m 2 per month for precipitation samples at a counting time of 1500 min. (author)

  6. Radioactivity in surface air and precipitation in Japan after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Hideo; Fukatsu, Hiroko; Hashimoto, Takeo; Nonaka, Nobuhiro; Yoshimizu, Katsumi; Omine, Mamoru; Takano, Naoto; Abe, Toshihiko

    1988-01-01

    Radioactive plumes from the Chernobyl reactor accident first passed over Japan on 3 May 1986. Measurements of 103 Ru, 131 I and 137 Cs in rainfall and airborne dust collected at Chiba near Tokyo show that, in fact, at least two or more kinds of plume arrived during May. Their altitudes were calculated to be about 1500 m in early May and 6300 m in late May. Radionuclides detected in 33 precipitation samples collected by the network of radiation monitoring stations from 1 to 22 May were 7 Be, 89 Sr, 90 Sr, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, sup(110m)Ag, 125 Sb, sup(129m)Te, 131 I, 132 Te, 132 I, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 140 La, 141 Ce and 144 Ce. The radiation was characterized by higher levels of the volatile nuclides, such as 103 Ru, 132 Te, 131 I and 137 Cs, than fallout levels in nuclear weapons testing, and by activity ratios of 0.48 and 14 for, respectively, 134 Cs/ 137 Cs and 89 Sr/ 90 Sr, as on 26 April. the fallout activity was higher in Northwestern Japan, the average depositions of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in Japan from 1 May (or 30 April) to 22 May being 1.4 Bq m -2 and 95 Bq m -2 , inventories which are 14 and 550 times higher than the pre-Chernobyl values. (author)

  7. Preliminary studies on the extraction of 95Zr(IV) with alizarin into n-octanol (Paper No. AL-5 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, D.S.; Turel, Z.R.

    1990-02-01

    A rapid and selective method is described for the extraction of Zr(IV) with alizarin into n-octanol. The extraction coefficient value(E) of Zr(IV) between n-octanol and aqueous phase shows a maximum value of (E=118) at pH of 0.4. The percentage of extraction was found to be better than 99% over pH range of 3.5 to 4.5 at an equilibrium time of 3 min. (author)

  8. Radiochemical studies on Bikini ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiokawa, T

    1954-01-01

    Decay characteristics of the ashes which were brought back by the crew of the Fukuryu Maru No. 5 were: untreated ash I = ct/sup -1/ /sup 81/, water soluble part t/sup -2/ /sup 71/, insoluble part t/sup -1/ /sup 68/. Radioactive species separated by chemical method with carrier or collector were: nuclide, activity of nuclide (counts/min)/activity of original sample (counts/min), and the date of separation, /sup 89/Sr 6000/80 X 10/sup 4/, April 24; /sup 95/Zr, 280/80 x 10/sup 4/, -; /sup 111/Ag, 200/200 x 10/sup 4/, April 14; /sup 103/Ru, 2.300/25 x 10/sup 4/, etc.

  9. Measurement by γ spectrometry of specific activities of radioisotopes present in vegetal ashes. Study of variations of the ambient radioactivity level in the Grenoble transverse valley from March 1966 to August 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, Michel; Guitton, Pierre; Gagnaire, Janine; Ferard, Guy; Plebin, Roger; LACHET, Bernard

    1969-08-01

    The first part of this report addresses the dosimetry of γ emitting radio-elements which are present in vegetal samples. The dose measurements were performed by spectrometry and results were processed by using a least square method. The second part reports works performed in the Grenoble transverse valley by using the same techniques. Radioactivity fluctuations of various radio-elements ( 40 K, 54 Mn, 95 Zr + 95 Nb, 103 Ru + 106 Rh, 137 Cs, 137 Ba, 140 Ba + 140 La, 144 Ce + 144 Pr) in various vegetal species, in water and in sediments have been monitored in seven points of the Isere river banks, upstream and downstream the city of Grenoble, from March 1966 to August 1968. Fluctuations observed for each radio-element are explained by comparison with physiologic, hydrologic and atmospheric climate conditions. The principles of a systematic control of a site for the detection of possible radioactive pollutions are then defined [fr

  10. Solvent extraction of some fission products using tetracycline as a complexing agent : dependence on the ph of the aqueous phase and on the nature of some inorganic anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, I.I.L.; Nastasi, M.J.C.

    1982-10-01

    The behavior of tetracycline as a complexing agent in solvent extraction studies is presented. The extraction curves for the fission products 90 Sr, 140 Ba, 99 Mo, sup(99m)Tc, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru and also for U have been determined for the extraction system tetracycline-benzyl alcohol. The extraction dependence on the pH of the aqueous phase as well as on the kind of electrolyte present was examined. As a practical application, the possiblity of using the tetracycline-benzyl alcohol system for separation of the fission products present in a mixture of them, as well as for the separation of uranium from those elements, was tested. (Author) [pt

  11. Determination of 233U, 235U, 238U and 239Pu fission yields induced by fission and 14.7 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurec, Jean; Adam, Albert; Bruyne, Thierry de.

    1981-12-01

    The 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu fission yields have been determined by a radiochemical method. A target and a fission chamber made of same fissible material are irradied together. The total fission number is measured from the fission chamber. The fission product activities are directly measured on the target using calibrated Ge-Li detectors. The fissible material masses are determined by alpha and mass spectrometries. The irradiations were made on the critical assemblies PROSPERO and CALIBAN and on the 14 MeV neutron generator of C.E. VALDUC. 3 to 5% fission yield errors are got for the most measured nuclides: 95 Zr, 97 Zr, 99 Mo, 103 Ru, 131 I, 132 Te, 140 Ba, 141 Ce, 143 Ce, 144 Ce, 147 Nd [fr

  12. Separation and purification of short lived fission products from irradiated uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K.R.; Rao, K.L.N.; Mathai, C.; Varma, R.N.; Dhiwar, V.I.; Saxena, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    Fission produced radioisotopes like 95 Zr, 140 Ba, 103 Ru, 89 Sr and 91 Y whose half lives are less than 1 year find a wide variety of applications in the fields of industry, medicine and research. Isotope Division, BARC has been supplying these isotopes in hudreds of mCi amounts during the past several years. A new method for the sequential separation of these isotopes from irradiated uranium has been developed based on synthetic inorganic exchangers like stannic phosphate, polyphospho antimonic acid, hydrous manganese dioxide, etc. This report describes the new flow sheet worked out and adopted for the regular processing of these isotopes at hundreds of milli curie amounts. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs. , 1 fig

  13. Quantitative analysis of fission products by γ spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, G.

    1962-01-01

    The activity of the fission products present in treated solutions of irradiated fuels is given as a function of the time of cooling and of the irradiation time. The variation of the ratio ( 144 Ce + 144 Pr activity)/ 137 Cs activity) as a function of these same parameters is also given. From these results a method is deduced giving the 'age' of the solution analyzed. By γ-scintillation spectrography it was possible to estimate the following elements individually: 141 Ce, 144 Ce + 144 Pr, 103 Ru, 106 Ru + 106 Rh, 137 Cs, 95 Zr + 95 Nb. Yield curves are given for the case of a single emitter. Of the various existing methods, that of the least squares was used for the quantitative analysis of the afore-mentioned fission products. The accuracy attained varies from 3 to 10%. (author) [fr

  14. On-site inspection for the radionuclide observables of an underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty an on-site inspection (OSI) may be undertaken to identify signatures from a potential nuclear explosion. This includes the measurement of 17 particulate radionuclides ( 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 99 Mo, 99m Tc, 103 Ru, 106 Rh, 132 Te, 131 I, 132 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 140 La, 141 Ce, 144 Ce, 144 Pr, 147 Nd). This research provides an assessment of the potential to detect these radionuclides during an OSI within 1 week to 2 years after a nuclear explosion at two locations. A model has been developed that simulates the underground detonation of a 1 kT 235 U nuclear weapon with 1 % venting. This indicates a requirement to minimise the time since detonation with accurate determination of the test location. (author)

  15. Application of the radiochemical - and the direct gamma ray spectrometry method to the burnup determination of irradiated uranium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, I.I.L.

    1979-01-01

    The burn up of natural U 3 O 8 that occurs by the action of thermal neutrons was determined, using the radioisotopes 144 Ce, 137 Cs, 103 Ru, 106 Ru and 95 Zr as monitors. The determination of the burn up was made using both destructive and non-destructive methods. In the non-destructive method, the technique of direct gamma-ray spectrometry was used and the radioisotopes mentioned were simultaneously counted in a Ge-Li detector. In the radiochemical method the same radioisotopes were isolated one from the other and from all other fission products before counting. The solvent extraction technique was used for the radiochemical separation of uranium, cerium, cesium and ruthenium. To separate zirconium and niobium, adsorption in silica-gel was used. The extraction agent employed to isolate cesium was dipycrilamine and for the separation of the other radioisotopes Di-(2-Ethyl Hexyl) Phosphoric acid (HDEHP) was used. (Author) [pt

  16. 1975 progress report: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site radioecology--ecology programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, O.D.

    1976-06-01

    Results are reported from measurements of the content of various radionuclides in the tissues of wild animals on or near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sampled during 1975. Tissue samples from antelope, waterfowl, rodents, rabbits, and doves were analyzed for 13 radionuclides, including 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 90 Sr, 131 I, and 60 Co which were responsible for the largest amounts of radioactivity. Measurements were also made of the content of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 241 Am in soil samples and the radioactivity in tumbling weeds at the radioactive waste management site. Data are included from studies on the ecology of the pygmy rabbit, Salvilagus idahoensis, amphibians, reptiles, birds of prey, rodents, and coyotes, and vegetation in relation to land use at the site. Seasonal variations in the deposition and retention of 141 Ce and 134 Cs on sagebrush and bottlebrush grass were compared

  17. Quantitative analysis of fission products by {gamma} spectrography; Analyse quantitative des produits de fission par spectrographie {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, G

    1962-07-01

    The activity of the fission products present in treated solutions of irradiated fuels is given as a function of the time of cooling and of the irradiation time. The variation of the ratio ({sup 144}Ce + {sup 144}Pr activity/{sup 137}Cs activity) as a function of these same parameters is also given. From these results a method is deduced giving the 'age' of the solution analyzed. By {gamma}-scintillation spectrography it was possible to estimate the following elements individually: {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce + {sup 144}Pr, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru + {sup 106}Rh, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 95}Zr + {sup 95}Nb. Yield curves are given for the case of a single emitter. Of the various existing methods, that of the least squares was used for the quantitative analysis of the afore-mentioned fission products. The accuracy attained varies from 3 to 10%. (author) [French] L'activite des produits de fission presents dans les solutions de traitement de combustibles irradies est donnee en fonction du temps de refroidissement et du temps d'irradiation. On etudie de plus la variation du rapport Activite du {sup 144}Ce + {sup 144}Pr /Activite du {sup 137}Cs en fonction de ces memes parametres. De ces resultats, on deduit une methode donnant l'age de la solution analysee. La spectrographie {gamma} a scintillation a permis le dosage individuel des produits suivants: {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce + {sup 144}Pr, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru + {sup 106}Rh, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 95}Zr + {sup 95}Nb. Des courbes de rendement sont donnees dans le cas d'un emetteur unique. Des differentes methodes existantes, la methode des moindres carres a ete employee pour l'analyse quantitative des produits de fission precites. La precision obtenue varie entre 3 et 10 pour cent. (auteur)

  18. Effect of sterilization by gamma-irradiation on the sorption of 137Cs, 85Sr, 139Ce, 57Co, 109Cd, 65Zn, 103Ru, 95mTc and 131I by soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Schimmack, W.

    1988-01-01

    Six soils, two Sphagnum peat samples and a clay mineral were irradiated with 40 and 80 kGy (4 and 8 Mrad) from a 60 Co source. As a result the microbial biomass, determined separately for each sample, decreased considerably. Depending on the radionuclide, the sorption, as characterised by the distribution coefficient, decreased, increased or remained unchanged. The effect of the irradiation on the sorption of the radionuclides depended, in general, also on the type of the sample, especially whether well humified soils, (e.g. crop soils), poorly humified samples (Sphagnum peat, O-horizon from woodland), or a clay mineral was employed. The data reveal that irradiation produces, besides sterilization, also other effects in soils, which can change their sorption properties. (orig.)

  19. Environmental gamma radiation and fallout measurements in Finland, 1986-87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Markkanen, M.; Lemmelae, H.; Blomqvist, L.

    1989-07-01

    Results from a survey of environmental gamma radiation levels in Finland after the Chernobyl accident 1986 are presented. The measurements were made in 1986-87 by means of sensitive Geiger-counters and a gamma-spectrometer placed in cars. The results show the level of external radiation caused by the cesium fallout on the first of October 1987. The fallout pattern of 137 Cs as well as of 95 Zr and 103 Ru are also presented. In the center of Southern Finland there are wide areas with exposure levels exceeding 0.03 μSv h -1 , areas exceeding 0.10 μSv h -1 being very rare. The surface area weighted mean dose rate for the 461 municipalities in Finland was 0.027 μSv h -1 (range 0-0.19 μSv h -1 ). The population weighted mean dose rate was 0.037 μSv h -1 . The corresponding estimated surface activity of 137 Cs was 10.7 kBq m -2 . The passage of the Chernobyl plume over Finland in 1986 led to various fallout patterns for different radionuclides. The deposition of the non-volatile nuclides, 95 Zr and 141 Ce, is closely related to the passage of the hot particle dust formed at the initial explosion in the reactor at 01.23 LT on 26 April. This cloud passed over Finland between the morning and the night of 27 April. The deposition of volatile fission products such as 131 I, 132 Te, 134 Cs and 137 Cs in Finland was caused by releases from the burning reactor after the initial explosion. The radioactive plume spread over Southern and Central Finland between Sunday 27 April and Tuesday 29 April. On 30 April and finally on 1 May a could northerly airstream spread into the whole of Finland purifying the atmosphere. The volatile nuclides were mainly deposited by intermittent rain on 28-30 April. The deposition pattern of 103 Ru is a combination of the fallou patterns due to the initial explosion and the reactor burn, as well as the wet deposition occurring on 10-12 May caused by the releases from the burning reactor in early May

  20. Calculated activities of some isotopes in the RA reactor highly enriched fuel significant for possible environmental contamination - Operational report; Radni izvestaj - Proracun aktivnosti nekih izotopa u visokoobogacenom uranskom gorivu reaktora RA, znacajnih sa gledista moguce kontaminacije okoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulovic, V; Martinc, R; Cupac, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1976-12-15

    This report contains calculation basis and obtained results of activities for three groups of isotopes in the RA reactor 80% enriched fuel element. The following isotopes are included: 1) {sup 85m}Kr, {sup 87}Kr, {sup 88}Kr, {sup 131}J, {sup 132}J, {sup 133}J, {sup 134}J, {sup 135}J, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 138}Xe i {sup 138}Cs, 2) {sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 91}Sr, {sup 92}Sr, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 97}Zr, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 105}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 129m}Te, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 144}Ce, kao i 3) {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu i {sup 240}Pu. It was estimated that the fuel is exposed to mean neutron flux. The periodicity of reactor operation is taken into account. Calculation results are given dependent on the time of exposure. These results are to be used as source data for Ra reactor safety analyses. [Serbo-Croat] Izlozene su osnove i prikazani su rezultati izvedenog proracuna aktivnosti tri grupe izotopa u gorivnom elementu reaktora RA sa 80% obogacenim uranom - 235. Obuhvaceni su: 1) {sup 85m}Kr, {sup 87}Kr, {sup 88}Kr, {sup 131}J, {sup 132}J, {sup 133}J, {sup 134}J, {sup 135}J, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 138}Xe i {sup 138}Cs, zatim, 2) {sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 91}Sr, {sup 92}Sr, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 97}Zr, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 105}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 129m}Te, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 144}Ce, kao i 3) {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu i {sup 240}Pu. Pretpostavljeno je da se gorivo ozracuje na srednjem fluksu neutrona, a periodicnost rada reaktora je uvazavana. Rezultati proracuna, dati u numerickom obliku, sistematizovani su kao funkcija toka vremena ozracivanja goriva. Ovi rezultati bice korisceni kao izvorni podaci kod izrade sigurnosnih analiza za reaktor RA (author)

  1. Biological effects of radiation: The induction of malignant transformation and programmed cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, K.

    1991-04-01

    In the Chernobyl explosions and fire, powderized nuclear fuel was released from the reactor core, causing an unexpected fallout. X-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy showed that the isolated single particles were essentially pure uranium. These uranium aerosols contained all of the nonvolatile fission products, including the b-emitters, 95 Zr, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 141 Ce, and 144 Ce. The hot particles are extremely effective in inducing malignant transformation in mouse fibroblast cells in vitro. The major factor responsible for this effect is focus promotion caused by a wound-mediated permanent increase in cell proliferation (mitogenesis associated with mutagenesis). Transformed foci were analysed for the activation of c-abl, c-erb-A, c-erb-B, c-fms, c-fos, c-myb, c-myc, c-Ha-ras, c-Ki-ras, c-sis, and c-raf oncogenes at the transcriptional level. The pattern of oncogene activation was found to vary from focus to focus. Long interspersed repeated DNA (L1 or LINE makes up a class of mobile genetic elements which can amplify in the cell genome by retroposition. This element is spontaneously transcriptionally activated at a critical population density and later amplified in rat chloroleukaemia cells. UV light and ionizing radiation induce this activation prematurely, and the activation is followed by programmed cell death (apoptosis) in a sequence of events identical to that seen in LIRn activation occurring spontaneously

  2. Standard test method for gamma energy emission from fission products in uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of gamma energy emitted from fission products in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and uranyl nitrate solution. It is intended to provide a method for demonstrating compliance with UF6 specifications C 787 and C 996 and uranyl nitrate specification C 788. 1.2 The lower limit of detection is 5000 MeV Bq/kg (MeV/kg per second) of uranium and is the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual reporting limits of the nuclides to be measured. The limit of detection was determined on a pure, aged natural uranium (ANU) solution. The value is dependent upon detector efficiency and background. 1.3 The nuclides to be measured are106Ru/ 106Rh, 103Ru,137Cs, 144Ce, 144Pr, 141Ce, 95Zr, 95Nb, and 125Sb. Other gamma energy-emitting fission nuclides present in the spectrum at detectable levels should be identified and quantified as required by the data quality objectives. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its us...

  3. Interim environmental monitoring report for the Nevada test site, first quarter 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    During the first calendar quarter of 1981, no radioactivity from the nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site was measured offsite by the US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory. Low concentrations of 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, and 141 Ce attributed to the People's Republic of China nuclear test of October 15, 1980, were detected in air samples throughout the Air Surveillance Network. The maximum concentrations of these radionuclides were less than 0.1 percent of the Concentration Guides. The dosimeters of fixed station at Complex I (Coal Valley) indicated an exposure of 1.6 mR, and the dosimeters of two offsite residents, one living at Glendale, Nev., and the other near Complex I, (Coal Valley) appeared to have net exposures of 3.1 mR and 3.2 mR, respectively; however, further evaluation revealed that the net exposures were not due to an exposure from NTS operations, but may be a statistical anomaly related to an unusually low variation in the environmental background exposure rate. Further investigation is in progress

  4. Particle size distribution of radioactive aerosols after the Fukushima and the Chernobyl accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malá, Helena; Rulík, Petr; Bečková, Vera; Mihalík, Ján; Slezáková, Miriam

    2013-12-01

    Following the Fukushima accident, a series of aerosol samples were taken between 24th March and 13th April 2011 by cascade impactors in the Czech Republic to obtain the size distribution of (131)I, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (7)Be aerosols. All distributions could be considered monomodal. The arithmetic means of the activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) for artificial radionuclides and for (7)Be were 0.43 and 0.41 μm with GDSs 3.6 and 3.0, respectively. The time course of the AMADs of (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (7)Be in the sampled period showed a slight decrease at a significance level of 0.05, whereas the AMAD pertaining to (131)I increased at a significance level of 0.1. Results obtained after the Fukushima accident were compared with results obtained after the Chernobyl accident. The radionuclides released during the Chernobyl accident for which we determined the AMAD fell into two categories: refractory radionuclides ((140)Ba, (140)La (141)Ce, (144)Ce, (95)Zr and (95)Nb) and volatile radionuclides ((134)Cs, (137)Cs, (103)Ru, (106)Ru, (131)I, and (132)Te). The AMAD of the refractory radionuclides was approximately 3 times higher than the AMAD of the volatile radionuclides; nevertheless, the size distributions for volatile radionuclides having a mean AMAD value of 0.51 μm were very close to the distributions after the Fukushima accident. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Air radioactivity levels following the Fukushima reactor accident measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, P; Brudanin, V; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J-L; Stekl, I; Warot, G; Zampaolo, M

    2012-12-01

    The radioactivity levels in the air of the radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident were measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, in the South-East of France, during the period 25 March-18 April 2011. Air-filters from the ventilation system exposed for one or two days were measured using low-background gamma-ray spectrometry. In this paper we present the activity concentrations obtained for the radionuclides (131)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (95)Nb, (95)Zr, (106)Ru, (140)Ba/La and (103)Ru. The activity concentration of (131)I was of the order of 100 μBq/m(3), more than 100 times higher than the activities of other fission products. The highest activities of (131)I were measured as a first peak on 30 March and a second peak on 3-4 April. The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs varied from 5 to 30 μBq/m(3). The highest activity concentration recorded for Cs corresponded to the same period as for (131)I, with a peak on 2-3 April. The results of the radioactivity concentration levels in grass and mushrooms exposed to the air in the Modane region were also measured. Activity concentrations of (131)I of about 100 mBq/m(2) were found in grass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Deposition of gamma emitters from Chernobyl accident and their transfer in lichen-soil columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Jukka; Paatero, Jussi; Pehrman, Reijo; Kulmala, Seija; Suksi, Juhani; Koivula, Teija; Jaakkola, Timo

    2008-10-01

    Lichen-soil column samples were taken from several locations in the Southern Finland between 1986 and 2006. Columns were divided into three parts, upper lichen, lower lichen and underlying soil, and their gamma emitting radionuclides, 134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 95Zr, 106Ru, 110mAg, 125Sb and 144Ce, were measured with gamma spectrometry. Deposition values were calculated as Bq/m2 for each sampling site. Distribution of various radionuclides in the three compartments as a function of time was determined. Both effective and ecological half-lives of all radionuclides were calculated for upper lichen, whole lichen and whole lichen-soil column. A linear relation was derived between the physical half-lives and effective half-lives for whole lichen and for whole lichen-soil column. Reindeer meat activity concentrations of various radionuclides and ensuing radiation doses to reindeer-herding people were also estimated for a hypothetical case where a similar high radioactive pollution, as was taken place in the Southern Finland, would have occurred in the reindeer-herding areas in the Finnish Lapland.

  7. Distribution of radionuclides in mussels, winkles and prawns: Pt. 1; Study of organisms under environmental conditions using conventional radio-analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, P [Scottish Research Reactor Centre, East Kilbride (United Kingdom); Baxter, M S; Fowler, S W [International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco (Monaco). Marine Environment Lab.

    1993-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) and winkles (Littorina littorea), collected from Ravenglass, Cumbria, England in the vicinity of the British Nuclear Fuels plc nuclear reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and prawns (Palaemon serratus), landed nearby at Whitehaven, have been investigated to determine the distributions of [alpha]-emitting ([sup 210]Po, [sup 238]Pu, [sup 239] [sup +] [sup 240]Pu, [sup 241]Am) and [gamma]-emitting ([sup 95]Nb, [sup 95]Zr, [sup 103]Ru, [sup 106]Ru, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 241]Am) radionuclides in their tissues and organs. Previous studies have attempted to determine the principal nuclide source to marine organisms by comparing nuclide activity ratios in their tissues, sea water and particulate material. From the environmental samples studied here, no single transport medium appears to dominate uptake. The primary radiological implantation of the observed radionuclide concentrations in Ravenglass mussels and winkles is that, from seafood ingestion, the critical group receives only a small percentage (ca. 10%) of the ICRP-recommended subsidiary dose limit. Dose contributions from [sup 210]Po are higher than those from [sup 239] + [sup 240]Pu in mussels but are less than those from [sup 239] [sup +] [sup 240]Pu in winkles. (Author).

  8. Burn-up determination of irradiated uranium oxide by means of direct gama spectrometry and by radiochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, I.I.L.; Nastasi, M.J.C.; Lima, F.W.

    1981-09-01

    The burn-up of thermal neutrons irradiated U 3 O 8 (natural uranium) samples has been determined by using both direct gamma spectrometry and radiochemical methods and the results obtained were compared. The fission products 144 Ce, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 137 Cs and 95 Zr were chosen as burn-up monitors. In order to isolate the radioisotopes chosen as monitors, a radiochemical separation procedure has been established, in which the solvent extraction technique was used to separate cerium, cesium and ruthenium one from the other and all of them from uranium. The separation between zirconium and niobium and of both elements from the other radioisotopes and uranium was accomplished by means of adsorption on a silica-gel column, followed by selective elution of zirconium and of niobium. When use was made of the direct gamma-ray spectrometry method, the radioactivity of each nuclide of interest was measured in presence of all others. For this purpose use was made of gamma-ray spectrometry and of a Ge-Li detector. Comparison of burn-up values obtained by both methods was made by means of Student's 't' test, and this showed that results obtained in each case are statistically equal. (Author) [pt

  9. Application of radiochemical-and direct gamma ray spectrometry methods for the determination of the burnup of irradiated uranium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, I.I.L.; Nastasi, M.J.C.; Lima, F.W. de

    1979-01-01

    The burn-up of U 3 O 8 (natural uranium) samples was determined by using both destructive and non-destructive methods, and comparing the results obtained. The radioisotopes 144 Ce, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 137 Cs and 95 Zr were chosen as monitors. In order to isolate the radioisotopes chosen as monitors, a separation scheme has been established in which the solvent extraction technic is used to separate cerium, cesium, and ruthenium one from the other and from uranium. The separation between zirconium and niobium and of both from the others was accomplished by means of adsorption on a silica-gel column. When the non-destructive method was used, the radioactivity of each nuclide of interest was measured in the presence of all others. For this purpose, use was made of gamma-ray spectrometry and a Ge-Li detector. The comparison of burn-up values obtained by both destructive and non-destructive methods was made by means of Student's 't' test, and it has shown that the averages of results obtained in each case are equal. (Author) [pt

  10. Inorganic oxides as alternative in the separation of non fissioned residual uranium; Oxidos inorganicos como alternativa en la separacion del uranio residual no fisionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca G, A

    1997-07-01

    The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} as well as vegetable carbon have been studied for its possible use as sorbent in the concentration and separation of non fissioned residual uranium of some fission products such as: {sup 141} Ce, {sup 134} Cs, {sup 125} Sb, {sup 103} Ru, {sup 95} Zr, {sup 95} Nb of alkaline aqueous systems. The separation efficiency has been evaluated using natural uranium and radionuclides in static and dynamic processes, through liquid scintillation and gamma spectrometry. Therefore Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, SnO{sub 2} and carbon were pre-treated thermic and chemically and characterized through the technique of Nitrogen absorption analysis, X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. By means of the p H determination and the aqueous system potential the present hydrolysis products were determined. The inorganic oxides show structural and surface changes due to the treatment. The adsorption process is realized by different mechanism depending of the sorbent. The results show that the retention capacity is a dependence of the oxides pre-treatment and of the hydrolysis products in the aqueous system, as well as of the experimental conditions. Not in this way for carbon in which the results show the treatment and the experimental conditions significantly have not influence in its adsorption capacity. (Author)

  11. Inorganic oxides as alternative in the separation of non fissioned residual uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca G, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 and SnO 2 as well as vegetable carbon have been studied for its possible use as sorbent in the concentration and separation of non fissioned residual uranium of some fission products such as: 141 Ce, 134 Cs, 125 Sb, 103 Ru, 95 Zr, 95 Nb of alkaline aqueous systems. The separation efficiency has been evaluated using natural uranium and radionuclides in static and dynamic processes, through liquid scintillation and gamma spectrometry. Therefore Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , SnO 2 and carbon were pre-treated thermic and chemically and characterized through the technique of Nitrogen absorption analysis, X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. By means of the p H determination and the aqueous system potential the present hydrolysis products were determined. The inorganic oxides show structural and surface changes due to the treatment. The adsorption process is realized by different mechanism depending of the sorbent. The results show that the retention capacity is a dependence of the oxides pre-treatment and of the hydrolysis products in the aqueous system, as well as of the experimental conditions. Not in this way for carbon in which the results show the treatment and the experimental conditions significantly have not influence in its adsorption capacity. (Author)

  12. Application of various laboratory assay techniques to the verification of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty. Analyses of samples from Kuwait and from AFTAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, H.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Leppaenen, A.; Poellaenen, R.; Rantavaara, A.; Saxen, R.; Likonen, J.; Zilliacus, R.

    1997-11-01

    Various laboratory assay techniques were applied to two particulate air filters from Kuwait and to one filter salted artificially. The monitoring system, run by the PIDC in Arlington, identified 137 Cs but no 134 Cs in the air samples. Long-term counting using a 100 % HPGe detector in laboratory did not reveal 134 Cs either. Upper limit of the activity ratio 134 Cs/ 137 Cs was estimated to be 0.015 which is below the expected average value of the Chernobyl fall-out (0.025). This finding may indicate that the Cs in the sample has other origin than Chernobyl fall-out. Radiochemical methods to purify Cs from the bulk material were investigated. However, because of low yield, the preliminary efforts failed to improve detection limits. The high-resolution gamma-spectrometry of the artificial sample (AFTAC) identified the following man-made radionuclides: 95 Zr/ 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 137 Cs, 140 Ba/ 140 La, 141 Ce, 147 Nd. 241 Am was found in alpha spectrometry. The isotope ratios indicate that the sample is produced early in November 1996. The presence of Am shows that the material is most likely irradiated high-burnup uranium or plutonium containing transuranium elements before irradiation. Advantages of mass spectrometry were studied and the preliminary results are very promising. However, a separate programme for sample preparation should be launched. (orig.)

  13. Measurement of radioactive isotopes by {gamma} and x rays spectrometry with INa crystals. application to radiochemistry of some fission and activation products; Mesures d'isotopes radioactifs par spectrometrie {gamma} et x a l'aide de cristaux INa. application a la radiochimie de certains produits de fission et d'activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonet, P; Boile, G; Simonet, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The measurement of an number of atoms N may be obtained by detection of one {gamma} ray emitted if its branching ratio K{sub E} is known (number of E energy {gamma} transitions/number of disintegrations). N = A/{lambda} N{sub {gamma}}{sub E} / (K{sub E} * {lambda}) This measurement is effectuated in well-defined geometry, {gamma} rays emitted by the source are detected by a calibrated NaI crystal which is connected to a photomultiplier delivering electric impulses analysed by a multichannel analyser. Crystals are chosen according to energy, intensity of measured rays and of background. Calibration is established with standard sources or by total absolute efficiency of a definite crystal. Half-life, energy of measured photopeak branching ratio have been determined for these isotopes: Fission products: {sup 95}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 99}Mo, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 111}Ag, {sup 115}Cd, {sup 115m}Cd, {sup 132}Te, {sup 129m}Te, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 136}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 140}La. Rare earth elements: {sup 91}Y, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 147}Nd, {sup 156}Eu. Products from reactions (n, {gamma}) (n, 2n): 1{sup 10}Ag, {sup 124}Sb, {sup 239}Np, {sup 237}U, {sup 241}Am. (authors) [French] La mesure du nombre d'atomes N d'un isotope peut s'effectuer sur un rayonnement {gamma} si l'on connait le rapport d'embranchement K{sub E} (nombre de rayonnements {gamma} d'energie E/nombre de desintegrations). N = A/{lambda} N{sub {gamma}}{sub E} / (K{sub E} * {lambda}) La mesure s'effectue en geometrie definie; les rayonnements {gamma} emis par la source sous mylar sont detectes par un cristal INa etalonne en fonction de l'energie, lequel est relie a un photomultiplicateur delivrant des impulsions electriques qui seront analysees par un selecteur multicanaux. La connaissance de la distribution theorique (effet photoelectrique, compton, paires, retrodiffusion, echappement... ) permet de determiner qualitativement si les elements sont purs, et de faire une mesure sur

  14. Long term survey on food pollution and contamination by radioactive fallout in Fukuoka, Japan (1961 - 1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishige, Toshiko; Ishinishi, Noburu; Cho, Tetsuji.

    1977-01-01

    The contamination and the pollution of foodstuffs by radioactive fallout have been investigated since 1961 in Fukuoka city and its suburban area. The results obtained were as follows. 1) Recently, the degree of the contamination of greens by radioactive fallout which fell on the leaves decreased to one thousandth in the early stage of the investigation (1961 - 1962). In the period of the investigation, the remarkable increase of the radioactivity of fallout was observed within a week after the Chinese nuclear bomb explosion in the atmosphere (1st, 2nd, 5th, 12th, 13th, and 15th). The radioactivity was 2 to 300 times higher than the usual level. 2) The radioactivity was not remarkable in vegetables which were washed with soap, but it decreased gradually year by year. The increase of the radioactivity was also observed a few days after the atmospheric nuclear explosion. 3) In milk, there were no remarkable yearly decreases of the radioactivity from the beginning of the investigation, but the seasonal variations of the radioactivity, such as higher in April and May, were observed. 4) The radioactivity in diets based on the standard food production in Japan was the highest in 1967. It decreased gradually from 1967 to 1971 and after that the remarkable variation of the activity was not observed. 5) 137 Cs contamination of foodstuffs has been observed quantitatively by the method of gamma spectrometry, while sometimes 95 Zr- 95 Nb, 103 Ru, and 131 I were also detected from the specimens obtained immediately after the nuclear explosions. (auth.)

  15. Environmental and health consequences in Japan due to the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi; Nakamura, Yuji; Kankura, Takako; Iwasaki, Tamiko; Fujimoto, Kenzo; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi.

    1988-03-01

    A comprehensive review was made on the results of national monitoring program for environmental radioactivity in Japan resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in USSR. Period of monitoring efforts covered by the present review is from 30th of April 1986 to 31st of May 1987. A radioactive cloud released from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor initially arrived in Japan on 30th of April 1986 as indicated by the elevated level of 131 I, 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity in the total deposition on 30th of April and also by the increased 137 Cs body burden noted on 1st of May. Almost all the radioactive nuclides detected in the European countries were also identified in Japan. For example, the observed nuclides were: 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 99m Tc, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 110m Ag, 111 Ag, 125 Sb, 127 Sb, 129m Te, 131 I, 132 Te, 132 I, 133 I, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 140 La, 141 Ce and 144 Ce. Among the above radionuclides, the country average concentration was determined for 131 I, 137 Cs and 134 Cs in various environmental materials such as air, fresh water, soil, milk, leafy and root vegetables, cereals, marine products and other foodstuffs. In contrast to the sharp decline of 131 I which was negligible after a few months, 137 Cs showed a tendency to maintain its activity in foodstuffs at an appreciable level one year later. Collective effective dose equivalent and dose equivalent to thyroid in Japanese population due to 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 131 I were estimated to be around 590 man Sv and 4760 man Sv, respectively. Corresponding values for the per caput dose equivalent are 5 μSv for whole body and 40 μSv for thyroid, respectively. (author)

  16. Thyroid doses from external gamma-exposure following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretyakevich, Sergey; Kukhta, Tatyana; Minenko, Victor; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Gavrilin, Yury; Khrouch, Valeri; Shinkarev, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Full text: An increase of thyroid cancer incidence among children in Belarus has been observed after the Chernobyl accident. The main contributor to the thyroid dose was caused by 131 I intake with fresh milk in 1986. Other contributions to the thyroid dose (external gamma-exposure, short-lived iodine isotopes, internal radiocesium) were small in comparison to the dose from 131 I intakes soon after the accident. However, exposures to external radiation continued for a number of years after the accident. Thyroid doses from external gamma-exposure following the Chernobyl accident were mainly caused by gamma-exposure to 24 nuclides: 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 99 Mo, 99 mTc, 103 Ru, 103m Rh, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 125m Te, 131m Te, 131 I, 132 Te, 132 I, 133 I, 135 I, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 140 La, 141 Ce, 144 Ce, 144 Pr, 239 Np. Data of personal interview were used to take into account the personal residence history for the time elapsed from the Chernobyl accident until the interview (10 to 15 years later). Cumulative thyroid doses caused by external gamma-exposure during the passage of the radioactive cloud and from the ground contamination following the Chernobyl accident have been reconstructed. The median thyroid dose from external gamma-exposure to ∼11,770 cohort members of an epidemiological study was estimated to be ∼6 mGy. There are ∼3,400 persons with external dose estimates that exceed 20 mGy. Exposure from radionuclides deposited on the ground was the main source of external dose. The contribution from the passing radioactive cloud to external dose was found to be negligible. (author)

  17. Radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakulovsky, S.M.; Kryshev, I.I.; Nikitin, A.I.; Savitsky, Y.V.; Malyshev, S.V.; Tertyshnik, E.G.

    1995-01-01

    Based on observational data in the period 1971-1993, radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River ecosystem was analysed within 2000 km of the site of discharges from the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Industrial Complex. Data on the content of 24 Na, 32 P, 46 Sc, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 56 Mn, 58 Co, 60 Co, 59 Fe, 65 Zn, 90 Sr, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 141 Ce, 144 Ce and 239 Np in the river ecosystem components were generalised. Radioactive contamination of water in the near zone of discharges (within 15 km) was shown to be determine mainly by the short-lived nuclides, such as 24 Na, 32 P, 56 Mn and 239 Np, as well as 51 Cr. Outside the near zone the water contamination level decreased appreciably. According to observational data of 1973, the total contamination inventory of the river bottom in the near zone was as great as 5800 kBq m -2 . More than half was accounted for by two radionuclides: 51 Cr and 65 Zn. At a distance of 1930 km from the site of discharges a technogenic activity of bottom sediments amounted to 5 kBq m -2 and was accounted for by 137 Cs and 65 Zn. The main radionuclide accumulated in fish was 32 P. Exposure doses to aquatic organisms and population were assessed in the near and far zones of the Krasnoyarsk radioactive contamination trace. Within 250 km of the site of discharges the exposure dose to the population from a consumption of 1 kg of fish was shown to amount to an average of 10 μSv. (author)

  18. Pollution of atmospheric air with toxic and radioactive particulate matter investigated by means of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagielak, J.

    1978-01-01

    The application of spectrometric methods of nuclear techniques to the investigations of atmospheric air pollution by toxic and radioactive elements and results of these investigations conducted in the highly industrialized and urbanized regions of Poland have been presented. The method of precipitation of the samples, the measurements and analysis of radiation spectra of alpha and gamma radiation emitted by isotopes present in the samples have been described. The concentrations of toxic metal dust in the air have been evaluated by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Appropriate methods of measurement, calibration of instrument and the discussion of results have been presented. The work presents the results of investigations performed in Siersza within the years 1973-1974 and in Warsaw in the period of 1975-1977, which have permitted to estimate the mean monthly values of concentration in the atmospheric air of the following radioisotopes: 7 Be, 54 Mn, 95 Zr, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 141 Ce, 144 Ce, 226 Ra, Th-nat, U-nat and the following stable elements: Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Sb, W, Pb. The analysis of changes in concentration of each particular artificial radioisotope in the air for the region of Poland in connection with Chinese nuclear explosions have been given. On the basis of the performed environmental investigations the method of analysis of relations between the concentrations of particular elements present in the dust has been discussed. The applications of this method have been presented. The hazard to the population and the environment caused by the radioactive and toxic dust present in the atmospheric air has been estimated. (author)

  19. Solvent--solvent extraction of rhodium-103m from ruthenium-103 employing a sulfate-carbon tetrachloride medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperson, C.E.; Landolt, R.R.; Kessler, W.V.

    1976-01-01

    /sup 103m/Rh in equilibrium with parent 103 Ru was separated in yields of 94 percent of those theoretically possible. 103 Ru chloride was first converted to the tetroxide which was then extracted from an aqueous solution of the equilibrium mixture with carbon tetrachloride

  20. Problems of the agriculture radiology and radiobiology at the environment contamination by the young mixture of the nuclear fission products; Problemy sel'skokhozyajstvennoj radioehkologii i radiobiologii pri zagryaznenii okruzhayushchej sredy molodoj smes'yu produktov yadernogo deleniya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prister, B S

    2008-07-01

    The basic problem on population radiation safety and the farm production at the environment contamination by the young mixture of the nuclear fission products are considered. In the field experiments, the conformities of the out of root plant contamination, kinetics of the irradiation absorbed doses and the biological effect of the NFP on the plants during the different ontogenesis phases are investigated. The kinetics of the nuclear fission product accumulation and drawing out from the cattle organisms of the most movable radionuclides in the biological systems; the distribution and kinetics of the absorbed irradiation doses formation and the nuclear fission products biological effect on the cattle organism is studied. The comparative quantitative assessment of the meaning of the basic formation factors of the radiation situation is produced.

  1. Determination of Fallout Radionuclides in Environmental Samples by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry; Mesure Spectrometrique Gamma des Radionucleides de Retombee Presents dans des Echantillons du Millieu; Opredelenie radioizotopov radioaktivnykh osadkov v probakh iz okruzhayushchej sredy pri pomoshchi spektrometrii gamma-luchej; Determinacion, por Espectrometria Gamma, de los Radionuclidos de Precipitaciones en Muestras del Medio Ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, G. M.; Johnson, J. E.; Wilson, D. W. [Department of Animal Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1965-10-15

    effet les seuls seuls produits de fission absorbes en quantite appreciable. Les autres echantillons contenaient {sup 144}Ce, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 103,106}Ru, Zr-{sup 95}Nb et {sup 54}Mn. Dans ces echantillons, qui ont ete preleves en 1962 et 1963, seul {sup 95}-Nb a pu, en raison de son abondance relative. Etre mesure de facon sure par la spectrometrie gamma pendant environ six mois apres le prelevement. Les cretes photoelectriques de {sup 137}Cs, {sup 54}Mn et {sup 125}Sb ont ete completement obscurcies et a l'activite des nucleides de faible energie ({sup 141,} {sup 144}Ce et {sup 103}Ru) venait s'ajouter l'effet Compton provenant des nucleides d'energie plus elevee. On ne peut pas se fier a la methode de separation spectrale si les cretes photoelectriques ne sont pas apparentes. Lorsque l'interference rend impossible la mesure directe de {sup 137}Cs et d'autres nucleides, i l faut stocker jusqu'a desintegration de {sup 95}Zr-Nb (T{sub Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half} = 65 j) et {sup 103}Ru (T{sub Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half} = 40 j), ce qui permet l'identification des cretes photoelectriques des nucleides restants. On peut separer chimiquement {sup 137}Cs et {sup 54}Mn en digerant les echantillons dans NaOH concentree ({sup 137}cs provenant des retombees n'est completement soluble que dans les bases fortes) et en les filtrant, ce qui permet d'enlever environ 95% de {sup 95}Zr-Nb. Par elution du concentre d'eau de pluie des colonnes avec une solution molaire de NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, les auteurs ont elimine quantitativement {sup 137}Cs et separe de facon efficace les activites de {sup 95}Zr-Nb et de {sup 54}Mn. Lorsque toutes les cretes photoelectriques sont devenues apparentes, du fait de la desintegration ou a la suite de la separation chimique, il a ete possible de doser chaque radionucleide en procedant a un etalonnage pour chaque nucleide et en calculant l'effet Compton de chacun d'entre eux egalement. Les equations resultantes ont ete resolues avec un ordinateur IBM 1620 et un

  2. Experimental Validation of Ex-Vessel Neutron Spectrum by Means of Dosimeter Materials Activation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Santa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutron spectrum information in reactor core and around of ex-vessel reactor needs to be known with a certain degree of accuracy to support the development of fuels, materials, and other components. The most common method to determine neutron spectra is by utilizing the radioactivation of dosimeter materials. This report presents the evaluation of neutron flux incident on M3dosimeter sets which were irradiated outside the reactor vessel,as well as the validation of  neutron spectrum calculation. Al capsules containing both dosimeter set covered withCd and dosimeter set without Cd cover have been irradiated during the 35th operational cycle in the M3 ex-vessel irradiation hole position207 cmfrom core centerline at the space between the reactor vessel and the safety vessel. The capsules were positioned at Z=0.0 cm of core midplane. Each dosimeter set consists of Co-Al, Sc, Fe, Np, Nb, Ni, B, and Ta. The gamma-ray spectra of irradiated dosimeter materials were measured by 63 cc HPGe solid-state detector and photo-peak spectra were analyzed using BOB75 code. The reaction rates of each dosimeter materials and its uncertainty were analyzed based on 59Co (n,g 60Co, 237Np (n,f 95Zr-103Ru,  45Sc (n,g 46Sc, 58Fe (n,g 59Fe, 181Ta (n,g 182Ta, and 58Ni (n,p58Co reactions. The measured Cd ratios indicate that neutron spectrum at the irradiated dosimeter sets was dominated by low energy neutron. The experimental result shows that the calculated neutron spectra by DORT code at the ex-vessel positions need correction, especially in the fast neutron energy region, so as to obtain reasonable unfolding result consistent with the reaction rate measurement without any exception. Using biased DORT initial spectrum, the neutron spectrum and its integral quantity were unfolded by NEUPAC code. The result shows that total neutron flux, flux above 1.0 MeV, flux above 0.1 MeV, and the displacement rate of the dosimeter set not covered with Cd were 1.75× 1012 n cm2 s-1, 1

  3. [Comparative analysis of the radionuclide composition in fallout after the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenko, K V; Shinkarev, S M; Abramov, Iu V; Granovskaia, E O; Iatsenko, V N; Gavrilin, Iu I; Margulis, U Ia; Garetskaia, O S; Imanaka, T; Khoshi, M

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (March 11, 2011) similarly to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (April 26, 1986) is related to the level 7 of the INES. It is of interest to make an analysis of the radionuclide composition of the fallout following the both accidents. The results of the spectrometric measurements were used in that comparative analysis. Two areas following the Chernobyl accident were considered: (1) the near zone of the fallout - the Belarusian part of the central spot extended up to 60 km around the Chernobyl NPS and (2) the far zone of the fallout--the "Gomel-Mogilev" spot centered 200 km to the north-northeast of the damaged reactor. In the case of Fukushima accident the near zone up to about 60 km considered. The comparative analysis has been done with respect to refractory radionuclides (95Zr, 95Nb, 141Ce, 144Ce), as well as to the intermediate and volatile radionuclides 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140La, 140Ba and the results of such a comparison have been discussed. With respect to exposure to the public the most important radionuclides are 131I and 137Cs. For the both accidents the ratios of 131I/137Cs in the considered soil samples are in the similar ranges: (3-50) for the Chernobyl samples and (5-70) for the Fukushima samples. Similarly to the Chernobyl accident a clear tendency that the ratio of 131I/137Cs in the fallout decreases with the increase of the ground deposition density of 137Cs within the trace related to a radioactive cloud has been identified for the Fukushima accident. It looks like this is a universal tendency for the ratio of 131I/137Cs versus the 137Cs ground deposition density in the fallout along the trace of a radioactive cloud as a result of a heavy accident at the NPP with radionuclides releases into the environment. This tendency is important for an objective reconstruction of 131I fallout based on the results of 137Cs measurements of soil samples carried out at

  4. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination

  5. In Vivo and Air Dosimetry of Fission-Spectrum Neutrons; Dosimetrie In Vivo et dans l'Air du Spectre des Neutrons de Fission; Dozimetriya v vozdukhe i dozimetriya In Vivo nejtronov spektra deleniya; Dosimetria In Vivo y en el Aire de Neutrones de un Espectro de Fision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobley, T. S.; Engel, R. E.; Godden, W. R. [Kirtland Airforce Base, New Mexico (United States); Penikas, V. T. [AFIT, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, with Duty Station at University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1964-03-15

    In an attempt to estimate the depth-dose pattern during exposure to fission-spectrum neutrons, a method of in vivo neutron dosimetry in the sheep has been developed. A pulsed-reactor assembly similar to the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's GODIVA II was used for these studies. The reactor was pulse operated producing a 50-{mu}s pulse width at half maximum pulse height and a fuel-material temperature rise of about 100 Degree-Sign C. A subcutaneous pack contains a cadmium-covered gold foil, a bare gold foil,and three thermoluminescent glass-rod dosimeters in a glass-lined lithium-lead container. The packs were placed in the subcutaneous tissue on both sides of the body to detect the integrated thermal-neutron flux and gamma dose as the neutrons are delivered ''broadside''. Abdominal packs are prepared in a manner similar to the subcutaneous ones and consist of a boron ball containing cadmium covered fission threshold foils (Pu, Np, U) a sulphur tablet, and the three types of dosimeters included in the subcutaneous pack. The dosimetry pack was placed in the abdomen of the experimental animals eighteen hours before exposure. The pack is attached to the anterior pillar of the rumen. A Rumenotomy technique is described. The neutron dose was determined by means of threshold-foil measurements. Gold and cadmium-covered gold were used for determining the integrated thermal flux; plutonium-239, neptunium-237, uranium-238 and sulphur-32 for determining the integrated fast-neutron fluxes; and radiophotoluminescent glass rods for determining the gamma dose. The sheep received lateral exposures at a midline distance of two hundred centimeters or one hundred seventy five centimeters from the centre of the critical assembly. The neutron rad dose measured in air at 200 cm was 161 {+-} 5.5 rad; at 175 cm the neutron dose was 242 {+-} 16.6 rad. The gamma dose at the respective distances were 33 {+-}2.4 and 42 {+-} 2.5 r. The entrance and exit doses as well as the dose to the internal package varied with burst temperature rise, distance from the reactor, orientation of the foils with respect to the reactor, and the thickness and composition of the attenuating tissues. (author) [French] En vue d'evaluer la dose profonde du fait de l'exposition au spectre des neutrons de fission, les auteurs ont mis au point une methode de dosimetrie in vivo sur le mouton. On a utilise pour ces etudes un reacteur a flux puise semblable a l'appareil GODIVA II du Laboratoire scientifique de Los Alamos. En regime puise, le reacteur donne une impulsion d'une largeur de 50 {mu}s a la moitie du maximum d'amplitude pour une elevation de temperature du combustible d'environ 100 Degree-Sign C. Une insertion sous-cutanee contient une feuille d'or recouverte de cadmium, une feuille d'or nue et trois dosimetres en verre thermoluminescent places dans un etui de lithium et de plomb double de verre. On a place les insertions dans le tissu sous-cutane des deux cotes du corps pour detecter la dose totale de neutrons thermiques-gamma, les neutrons etant delivres sur les flancs. Des insertions abdominales sont preparees a peu pres de la meme facon que les insertions sous-cutanees; elles sont constituees d'une boule de bore contenant des feuilles a seuil de fission (Pu, Np, Ue) recouvertes de cadmium, d'un comprime de soufre et de trois dosimetres identiques a ceux des insertions sous-cutanees. On les a placees dans l'abdomen des sujets 18 h avant l'exposition, en les fixant au pilier anterieur du rumen. Les auteurs decrivent un procede de rumenotomie. On a determine la dose de neutrons au moyen de la feuille a seuil. On a utilise les feuilles d'or et les feuilles d'or recouvertes de cadmium pour determiner le flux integre de neutrons thermiques, le plutonium-239, le neptumum-237, l'uranium-238 et le soufre-32 pour determiner le flux integre de neutrons rapides, et les batonnets de verre radiophotoluminescents pour determiner la dose gamma. Les moutons ont subi des expositions laterales a une distance mediane de 200 cm ou de 175 cm du centre de l ' assemblage critique. La dose de neutrons mesuree dans l ' air etait de 161 {+-} 5 ,5 rad a 200 cm et de 242 {+-} 16.6 rad a 175 cm. A ces distances, la dose gamma etait respectivement de 33 {+-} 2,4 et 42 {+-} 2,5 r. Les doses d'entree et de sortie ainsi que la dose a l ' insertion variaient selon l'elevation de temperature due aux bouffees de neutrons, la distance du reacteur, l 'orientation des feuilles par rapport au reacteur et l'epaisseur et la composition de tissus attenuants. (author) [Spanish] Con el proposito de evaluar la configuracion de la dosis profunda durante la exposicion a neutrones de un espectro de fisionalos autores han ideado un metodo de dosimetria neutronica in vivo que aplicaron a ovejas. Utilizaron para estos estudios un reactor pulsante analogo al GODIVA II del Laboratorio Cientifico de Los Alamos. Dicho conjunto funciona de forma de producir impulsos de 50 {mu}s de amplitud, medida a la mitad de la altura maxima, y un ascenso de temperatura del combustible de unos 100 Degree-Sign C. Ademas, prepararon 'apositos ' subcutaneos que contienen una lamina de oro recubierta de cadmio, una lamina de oro sin recubrir y tres dosimetros de varilla de vidrio, termoluminiscentes, en un recipiente de plomo al litio revestido de vidrio. Estos apositos se introdujeron en el tejido subcutaneo, a ambos lados del cuerpo, y sirvieron para medir el flujo integrado de neutrones termicos y la dosis gamma, a medida que la irradiacion neutronica se aplica 'lateralmente'. Los apositos abdominales se prepararon en forma semejante a los subcutaneos; constan de una esfera de boro que contiene laminas de umbral de fision (Pu, Np, U) recubiertas de cadmio, una pastilla de azufre y los mismos tres tipos de dosimetros que forman parte del aposito subcutaneo. El aposito dosimetrico se sujeto al pilar anterior del rumen del animal 18 h antes de someterlo a la exposicion. En la memoria se describe la tecnica de rumenotomfa empleada. La dosis neutronica se determina mediante laminas de umbral. Para medir el flujo integrado de neutrones termicos, se utilizaron las laminas de oro y de oro recubierto de cadmio; para el flujo integrado de neutrones rapidos, se recurrio al plutonio-239, al neptunio-237, al uranio-238 y al azufre-32; la dosis gamma se determino con varillas de vidrio radiofotoluminiscentes. Las ovejas fueron sometidas a exposiciones laterales, a una distancia de linea media de 200 o 175 cm del centro del conjunto critico. La dosis neutronica medida en el aire, a 200 cm, fue 161 {+-} 5 ,5 rad; y a 175 cm, fue 242 {+-} 16,6 rad. A las mismas distancias, la dosis gamma fue, respectivamente, 33 {+-} 2,4 y 42 {+-}2,5 r. Las dosis de entrada y salida, asi como la dosis recibida por el aposito interno varian con el ascenso de temperatura, la distancia al reactor, la orientacion de las laminas con respecto a este y el espesor y composicion de los tejidos atenuadores. (author) [Russian] Dlja opredelenija glubinnoj dozy vo vremja obluchenija nejtronami spektra delenija na ovcah razrabotan metod dozimetrii nejtronov in vivo. Dlja issledovanij ispol'zovalas impul'snaja reaktornaja sborka podobnaja sborke Godiva I I Los-Alamosskoj nauchnoj laboratorii. Reak tor rabotal v impul'snom rezhime, proizvodja impul'sy prodolzhitel'nost'ju 50 mksek shirinoj v polovinu vysoty maksimal'nogo impul'sa, prichem temperatura toplivnogo materiala povyshalas' primerno do 100 Degree-Sign S. Podkozhnyj detektor soderzhal kadmij, pokrytyj zolotoj fol'goj, prostuju zolotuju fol'gu i tri stekljannyh termoljuminescentnyh sterzhnevyh dozimetra v stekljannom kontejnere, vylozhennom litiem i svincom. Jeti detektory pomeshhalis' v podkozhnoj tkani po obeim storonam tela dlja obnaruzhenija integrirovannogo potoka teplovyh nejtronov i gamma-dozy, tak kak potoki nejtronov napravljalis' sboku. Detektory dlja brjushnoj polosti byli podgotovleny takim zhe obrazom, kak i dlja podkozhnogo vvedenija, i sostojali iz bornogo sharika, soderzhashhego kadmij i pokrytogo fol'goj poroga delenija (Pu, Np, U), sernoj tabletki i treh tipov dozimetrov, primenjavshihsja v podkozhnom detektore. Dozimetricheskij pribor pomeshali v brjushnoj polosti podopytnyh zhivotnyh za vosemnadcat' chasov do obluchenija, prikrepljaja e go k perednej storone rubcevogo otdela zheludka. Opisyvaetsja metod rassechenija rubcevogo otdela zheludka. Doza nejtronov izmerjalas' s pomoshh'ju porogovyh izmerenij fol'gi. Zoloto i zoloto, pokrytoe kadmiem, ispol'zovalis' dlja opredelenija integrirovannogo potoka teplovyh nejtronov; plutonij-239, neptunij-237, uran-238 i sera-32 - dlja opredelenija integrirovannyh potokov bystryh nejtronov; radiofotoljuminiscentnye stekljannye sterzhni - dlja opredelenija dozy gamma-luchej. Ovcu podvergali oblucheniju sboku na rasstojanii (po srednej linii) 200 cm, ili 175 sm ot centra kriticheskoj sborki. Doza nejtronov v radah, izmerennaja v vozduhe na rasstojanii 200 sm sostavljala 161 {+-}5,5 rada; na rasstojanii 175 sm - 242 {+-} 16,6 rada. Doza gamma-luchej na sootvetstvujushhih rasstojanijah so stavljala 3 3 {+-}2 ,4 i 4 2 {+-}2 ,5 rentgena. Dozy na vhode i vyhode, a takzhe doza vo vnutrennem detektore kolebalas' v svjazi s vnezapnym pod{sup e}mom temperatury, uvelicheniem rasstojanija ot reaktora, polozheniem fol'gi v otnoshenii reaktora i zavisela ot tolshhiny i sostava oslabljajushhih dozu tkanej. (author)

  6. Pathogenesis of Intrapulmonary Haemorrhage in Dogs Exposed to Pulsed Fission-Spectrum Neutrons; Pathogenese de l'Hemorragie Intrapulmonaire chez des Chiens Exposes a des Neutrons de Fission Pulses; Patogenez vnutrilegochnykh krovoizliyanij u sobak pri obluchenii impul'snymi nejtronami spektra deleniya; Patogenesis de la Hemorragia Intrapulmonar en Perros Expuestos a Neutrones de Fision Pulsados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R. K.; Engel, R. E.; Godden, W. R. [Kirtland AFB, New Mexico (United States)

    1964-05-15

    Previous comparison in this laboratory of tissue alterations in dogs produced by exposure to 250 kVp X-rays and pulsed fission-spectrum neutrons has shown general similarity of response. However, the lungs of animals exposed to fission-spectrum neutrons are considerably more susceptible to peribronchial and perivascular pulmonary haemorrhage. An attempt has been made to define the pathogenesis of this lesion by exposing five beagles to 400 rad (MAD) fast neutrons from a bare GODIVA-type reactor and serially sacrificing the animals at periodic intervals. Gross pathologic alterations consisting of occasional small peripheral-pulmonary haemorrhages were discernible at +5 d post-irradiation. These became progressively more numerous by the ninth day. The most striking changes occurred at +13 d, consisting of extensive perivascular haemorrhage around pulmonary-arterial branches from the hilum to the pleural suriace. The earliest histologic changes observed in the lungs occurred at +5 d, consisting of focal well-demarcated areas of alveolar congestion, swelling of capillary-endothelial cells and slight alveolar extravasation of red blood cells. These changes became more generalized by + 9 d and in addition there were focal areas of peribronchial extravasation of blood involving the right and left main-stem bronchi. Animals necropsied on the thirteenth day post-irradiation revealed extensive perivascular haemorrhage involving large and small pulmonaryarterial vessels. The blood appeared within the advential-connective tissue and periarterial-lymphatic spaces. Endothelial swelling was extremely marked in affected vessels, but the media appeared essentially unremarkable. Peribronchial haemorrhage was also present adjacent to affected pulmonary-arterial branches. The pathogenesis of these alterations appears to be related to primary endothelial damage produced by pulsed fission-spectrum neutrons. An additional contributing factor is probably thrombocytopenia as the number of marrow megakaryocytes was found to be inversely proportional to the severity of intrapulmonary haemorrhage. (author) [French] Des comparaisons precedemment effectuees dans le laboratoire des auteurs entre les modifications tissulaires observees chez des chiens exposes a des rayons X de 250 kV-crete et a des neutrons de fission puises ont montre que, dans les deux cas, les reactions etaient en general semblables. Cependant, les poumons des animaux exposes aux neutrons de fission ont ete beaucoup plus souvent le siege d'hemorragies peribronchiales et peri vasculaires. On a essaye de determiner la pathogenese de cette lesion en exposant cinq bigles a une dose de 400 rad (DMA) de neutronsrapides emanant d'un reacteur du type GODIVA et en sacrifiant successivement les animaux a intervalles reguliers. Cinq jours apres l 'exposition, on a pu discerner un ensemble d'alterations pathologiques constituees par de petites hemorragies pulmonaires sporadiques a la peripherie. Leur nombre a augmente progressivement vers le neuvieme jour. Les modifications les plus frappantes sont survenues au bout de 13 j sous forme de grandes hemorragies perivasculaires autour des ramuscules des arteres pulmonaires, depuis le hile jusqu' a la suriace de la plevre. Les premieres modifications histologiques observees dans les poumons sont survenues le cinquieme jour, sour forme de foyers nettement demarques de congestion alveolaire,- de gonflement des cellules capillaires endotheliales et d'extravasion alveolaire legere des globules rouges. Ces alterations se sont generalisees au bout de neuf jours et on.a pu observer en outre des foyers d'extravasion peribronchiale du sang autour des deux bronches primaires. On a constate, chez les animaux autopsies le treizieme jour apres l ' exposition, une grosse hemorragie-peri vasculaire autour des grandes et des petites arteres pulmonaires. Le sang se trouvait dans le tissu conjonctif externe et dans les vaisseaux lymphatiques periarteriels. Les vaisseaux atteints presentaient un gonflement endothelial extremement marque, mais leur tunique moyenne ne presentait pas de modifications essentielles. On notait egalement une hemorragie peribronchiale au niveau des arteres pulmonaires atteintes. La pathogenese de ces alterations semble etre liee primitivement a une deterioration de l 'endothelium provoquee par les neutrons de fission puises; un facteur complementaire est vraisemblablement la thrombocytopenie, puisqu'on a constate que le nombre de megacaryocytes de la moelle etait inversement proportionnel a'la gravite de l'hemorragie intiapulmonaire. (author) [Spanish] La comparacion de las alteraciones de los tejidos en perros expuestos a rayos X de 250 kVp y a un haz pulsado de neutrones de fision, efectuada anteriormente en el mismo laboratorio, revelo que las reacciones son similares en lineas generales. Sin embargo, los pulmones de los animales expuestos a neutrones de fision son mucho mas propensos a las hemorragias peribronquiales y perivasculares. Los autores han intentado definir la patogenesis de esta lesion exponiendo 5 sabuesos a una dosis de 400 rad (dosis maxima admisible) de un haz de neutrones rapidos procedentes de un reactor tipo GODIVA (sin reflector) y sacrificando luego los animales a intervalos regulares. Cinco dias despues de la irradiacion, se manifestaron serias alteraciones patologicas constituidas por pequenas hemorragias pulmonares esporadicas en la periferia. Hacia el noveno dia, el numero de estas hemorragias aumenta progresivamente. Los cambios mas notables ocurren a los 13 dias y consisten en extensas hemorragias perivasculares en torno a las ramas de la arteria pulmonar, desde el hilio hasta la superficie de la pleura. Las primeras modificaciones histologicas en los pulmones se observaron a los cinco dias: se trata de zonas focales bien delimitadas de congestion alveolar, acompanadas por una hinchazon de las celulas del endotelio capilar y una leve extravasacion alveolar de los hematies. Estos cambios se generalizan aun mas a los nueve dias, observandose tambien zonas focales de extravasacion peribronquial de la sangre alrededor de los dos bronquios primarios. La autopsia al decimotercer dia de la irradiacion revelo una extensa hemorragia perivascular que comprende las arterias pulmonares gruesas y finas. La sangre aparece dentro del tejido conjuntivo adventicio y de los espacios linfaticos periarteriales. La hinchazon del endotelio es muy pronunciada en los vasos afectados, pero la zona media de estos no presenta modificaciones esenciales. Tambien se manifiesta una hemorragia peribronquial contigua a las ramas afectadas de la arteria pulmonar. La patogenesis de estas alteraciones guarda al parecer una relaciuen con una lesion endotelial primaria producida por los neutrones de fision pulsados. Es probable que tambien actue como factor complementario una trombocitopenia, ya que se comprobo que el numero de megacariocitos medulares es inversamente proporcional a la gravedad de la hemorragia intrapulmonar. (author) [Russian] Predydushhie issledovanija v dannoj laboratorii po tkanevym povrezhdenijam u sobak, vyzyvaemym rentgenovskim oblucheniem s pikovym naprjazheniem 250 kv i impul'snymi nejtronami spektra delenija pokazali obshhee shodstvo reakcii. Odnako u zhivotnyh, obluchennyh nejtronami spektra delenija, chashhe v o z nikajut peribronhial'nye i perivaskuljarnye legochnye krovoizlijanija. Sdelana popytka opredelit' patogenez jetih porazhenij putem obluchenija pjati gonchih sobak dozoj v 400 rad bystryh nejtronov na reaktore tipa GODIVA bez otrazhatelja i serijnogo zabivanija zhivotnyh cherez opredelennye intervaly. Ch erez +5 dnej posle obluchenija mozhno bylo videt' znachitel'nye patologicheskie iz menenija, sostojashhie iz redkih melkih perifericheskih l egochnyh krovoizlijanij. K 9-mu dnju oni stanovilis' bolee mnogochislennymi. Naibolee porazitel'nye izmenenija, nabljudavshiesja k + 13-mu dnju, sostojali iz obshirnyh perivaskuljarnyh krovoizlijanij vokrug v et vej legochnoj arterii ot vorot legkih do poverhnosti plevry. Samye rannie gistologicheskie izmenenija v le gk i h nabljudalis' na + 5 -j den' i s o stojali iz fokusnyh, horosho ogranichennyh uchastkov giperemirovannyh a l'v eo l , otechnost' kletok jendotileja kapilljarov i vyhozhdenija jeritrocitov v nebol'shom kolichestve v polosti a l'veol. Jeti izmenenija stanovilis' generalizovannymi k + 9 -m u dnju i, krome t o go , nabljudalis' fokusnye uchastki peribronhial'nyh krovoizlijanij s vovlecheniem levogo i prav ogo glavnogo bronhov. Pri vskrytii zhivotnyh na 13-j den' posle obluchenija obnaruzheny obshirnye perivaskuljarnye krovoizlijanija s vovlecheniem krupnyh i melkih legochnyh arterial'nyh so sudov. Krov' pojavljalas' v adventicial'noj soedinitel'noj tkani i periarteri- al'nyh limfaticheskih prostranstvah. Otek jendotelija byl rezko vyrazhen v porazhennyh sosudah, no v sredinnoj obolochke zametnyh izmenenij ne bylo. Obnaruzhivalis' takzhe peribronhial'nye krovoizlijanija v sochetanii s porazheniem vetvej le gochn oj arterii. Patogenez jetih povrezhdenij, po-vidimomu, svjazan s pervichnym porazheniem jendotelija, vyzvannym impul'snymi nejtronami spektra delenija. Dopolnitel'nym faktorom, vozmozhno, javljaetsja trombocitopenija, poskol'ku okazalos', chto kolichestvo megakariocitov v kostnom m o z gu bylo obratno proporcional'no tjazhesti vnutrilegochnyh krovoizlijanij. (author)

  7. Mass and energy distribution of fragments of sup 232 Th nucleus fission by 21-26. 4 MeV. alpha. -particles. Massovye i ehnergeticheskie raspredeleniya oskolkov deleniya yadra sup 232 Th. alpha. -chastitsami s ehnergiyami 21-26,4 MehV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaika, N I; Kibkalo, Yu V; Parlag, O A; Sikora, D I; Tokarev, V P; Shityuk, V A [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukrainian SSR). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij

    1989-04-01

    Two-parameter measurements of the mass and energy distributions of fission products in the fission of {sup 232}Th by 21.0-26.4 MeV {alpha}-particles (h=1 MeV) are conducted using the correlation method. The obtained results show that in the region under investigation the average total kinetic energies of the fission products E-bar{sub k} have no noticeable variations within the experimental error of {plus minus} 1.5 MeV and the dispersion {sigma}{sup 2}E{sub k} slowly increases. For the E-bar{sub k} mass dependence of heavy fraction the maximum is observed at A=132, that confirms a hypothesis on the influence of the closed-shell effects at the magic numbers of Z=50 and N=82. Assuming the existence of different barrier values for two models of the fission the ratio of symmetric and asymmetric fission yields are analyzed in the statistical model. It is shown that the barrier difference for two modes of fission is 1.3-1.4 MeV, which is in good agreement with the model of two fission modes.

  8. Quantitative analysis of the fission product distribution in a damaged fuel assembly using gamma-spectrometry and computed tomography for the Phébus FPT3 test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biard, B.

    2013-01-01

    (locate and identify the materials and estimate their density with the X-ray tomograms, locate the FP distribution inside the bundle with the gamma emission tomograms) and to automate the processing of the gamma spectra acquired. The specificities of these gamma spectra (high count rate, number of gamma rays, number of measurements, etc.) required in particular to analyse key lines only and needed an original counting loss correction. The method was validated over the pre-test examination of the fuel bundle, through a comparison with the classical gamma analysis method used at the laboratory for objects of known geometry. The final results, given with acceptable uncertainties, gave for all FPs identified (mainly 137 Cs, 131 I, 132 Te, 140 Ba, 95 Zr, 103 Ru, etc.) their quantitative activity profile along the bundle, their retained and released fractions in the bundle, and also some information about their relocation inside the bundle. The results are in very good agreement with other Phébus FPT3 measurements and inventory calculations

  9. Quantitative analysis of the fission product distribution in a damaged fuel assembly using gamma-spectrometry and computed tomography for the Phébus FPT3 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biard, B., E-mail: bruno.biard@irsn.fr

    2013-09-15

    (locate and identify the materials and estimate their density with the X-ray tomograms, locate the FP distribution inside the bundle with the gamma emission tomograms) and to automate the processing of the gamma spectra acquired. The specificities of these gamma spectra (high count rate, number of gamma rays, number of measurements, etc.) required in particular to analyse key lines only and needed an original counting loss correction. The method was validated over the pre-test examination of the fuel bundle, through a comparison with the classical gamma analysis method used at the laboratory for objects of known geometry. The final results, given with acceptable uncertainties, gave for all FPs identified (mainly {sup 137}Cs, {sup 131}I, {sup 132}Te, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 103}Ru, etc.) their quantitative activity profile along the bundle, their retained and released fractions in the bundle, and also some information about their relocation inside the bundle. The results are in very good agreement with other Phébus FPT3 measurements and inventory calculations.

  10. Behaviour of solute and particle markers in the stomach of sheep given a concentrate diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faichney, G.J.; Griffiths, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Fistulated sheep given a concentrate diet were used to study the behaviour of solute ([ 51 Cr]EDTA) and particle ([ 103 Ru]phenanthroline) markers in the stomach under conditions of continuous feeding. An injection of a mixed dose of [ 51 Cr]EDTA and [ 103 Ru]phenanthroline was given into the rumen and the time course of marker concentrations in the rumen and the abomasum was recorded. The curves were analysed on the assumption that the stomach of the sheep could be represented as two mixing compartments (reticulo-rumen and abomasum) and a time delay (omasum). This model provided a very good description of the data. [ 103 Ru]-phenanthroline associated with small particles was retained in the rumen much longer than [ 51 Cr]EDTA. Although exchange of [ 103 Ru] phenanthroline occurred between large and small particle fractions, the results suggested that small particles may have been retained somewhat longer in the rumen than solutes. However, it was clear from the results that the mean retention times for particulate matter in the rumen could not be simply obtained using adsorbable markers. Cyclical fluctuations in the concentration of [ 51 Cr]EDTA in the rumen indicated that there were daily variations in net water flux in the rumen. The presence of protozoa was associated with much shorter retention times of both solutes and particles in the rumen. Protozoa were also associated with reduced rumen volumes. (author)

  11. A technique for studying digestion by grasshoppers using a 103Ruthenium-labelled marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandar, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    103 Ru-labelled tris (I,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium (II) chloride has proved to be a convenient marker in investigating digestion in grasshoppers. Assimilation efficiencies and the retension time of the food in the gut were measured. It is surmised that the technique described in this paper will be applicable to studies of a variety of chewing herbivorous insects. (author)

  12. A monoenergetic electron source generated by nuclear stimulated desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelson, I.; Levy, Y.; Nir, D.; Haustein, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    A series of measurements of nuclear stimulated desorption was performed for 103 Ru, using thin ruthenium films irradiated by thermal neutrons. The magnitude, time dependence and electric charge state of the outgoing 103m Rh flux was investigated. The utilization of monoenergetic electrons accompanying the 103 Rh decay for thin film thickness measurement is considered. (Author)

  13. The radiological significance of beta emitting hot particles released from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Martonen, T.B.

    1988-01-01

    In order to assess radiological hazards associated with inhalation of beta emitting hot particles detected in fall-out from the Chernobyl incident, radiation doses and lung cancer risk are calculated for a hot particle composed entirely of 103 Ru. Lung cancer risk estimates are based upon an initiation-promotion model of carcinogenesis. In the immediate vicinity of a hot particle, calculations indicate that doses may be extremely high, so that all cells are killed and no tumour will arise. At intermediate distances, however, the probability for lung cancer induction exhibits a distinct maximum. Risk enhancement factors, computed relative to a uniform radionuclide distribution of equal activity, are highest for intermediate activities and hot particles moving in the lung. While the risk from inhalation of 103 Ru hot particles might, indeed, exceed that from all other exposure pathways of the Chernobyl fall-out, it still lies within normal fluctuations of radon progeny induced lung cancer risk. (author)

  14. Rapid radiochemical separation of zirconium-95 and niobium-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, D.M.; McLaughlin, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    A rapid method for the quantitative separation of 95 Zr and 95 Nb has been developed. The method is based on the ion flotation of cationic zirconium complex ions with sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS) from niobium which is masked with hydrogen peroxide. The separation was applied to mixtures of 95 Zr and 95 Nb initially in oxalic acid solution and quantitative recoveries of the radiochemically pure radioisotopes were obtained. (orig.)

  15. Rapid radiochemical separation of zirconium-95 and niobium-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downey, D.M.; McLaughlin, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    A rapid method for the quantitative separation of /sup 95/Zr and /sup 95/Nb has been developed. The method is based on the ion flotation of cationic zirconium complex ions with sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS) from niobium which is masked with hydrogen peroxide. The separation was applied to mixtures of /sup 95/Zr and /sup 95/Nb initially in oxalic acid solution and quantitative recoveries of the radiochemically pure radioisotopes were obtained.

  16. Biochemistry of metallocenes. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, M.; Klose, W.

    1977-01-01

    103 Ru labelled 1-Ruthenocenyl-3-phenyl-propen-1-one was administered to mice intropertioneally. The organ distribution was determined in liver, spleen, lung, muscle, blood, kidney and thymus. The highest concentration was found in the thymus-up to 22% of the injected dose/g with corresponding thymus to muscle ration of up to 364 : 1. The consequences for nuclear medicine are discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. Radioactive dust from No. 5 Fukuryu Maru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamatera, H

    1954-01-01

    Analysis of radioactive dust collected on board No. 5 Fukuryu Maru were done by chemical separation and measurement of ..gamma..-ray energy and half-life of each species. Results are summarized as follows, radioactive nuclide and approximate percentage of radioactivity given: /sup 103/Ru, 4.3 to 57; /sup 106/Ru, 1.4; /sup 129/Te, 1.3; /sup 131/I, 4.5; /sup 132/I, 1.0; /sup 132/Te, 1.0; etc.

  18. Quality assurance of Mo-99/Tc-99m radionuclide generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunov, Nikolay; Yordanova, Galina; Salim, Seniha; Stancheva, Natalya; Mineva, Vanya; Meléndez-Alafort, Laura; Rosato, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry analyses of the radionuclide content of eluate from two Mo-99/Tc-99m radionuclide generators POLTECHNET have been performed. The relative activities of 99Mo 103Ru and 131I radioisotopes with respect to the activity of 99mTc at different time intervals after the primary pertechnetate elution of the generators have been analyzed. The relative activities of the isotopes were determined and compared to the radionuclidic purity requirements for 99mTc.

  19. Interception and translocation of radionuclides in major food crops for Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. H.; Lim, K. M.; Park, H. G.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, H. S.

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the direct plant contamination pathway of 54 Mn, 57 Co, 85 Sr, 103 Ru and 134 Cs in major food crops for Koreans, rice, soybean and radish plants at different growth stages were sprayed with radioactive solutions in a greenhouse. The interception factor and the translocation factor were quantified as the fraction of the total deposition that is initially retained on the aboveground plant surface and the fraction of the total initial plant activity that is contained in the edible part at harvest, respectively. In rice and radish, interception factors increased as plants grew old to harvest. In soybean, however, rapid defoliation in old plants made interception factors decrease with increasing age during the later part of the growth. There was little difference in the interception factor among radionuclides. Translocation factors decreased in the order of 134 Cs ≥> 57 Co > 54 Mn ≥ 85 Sr > 103 Ru in general and varied with radionuclides by factors of 6-4000, depending on application time and plant species. Translocation factors for rice seeds were the highest when radionuclides were applied at the active seed growth stage and those for soybean seeds were the highest following the application at the early pod-filling stage except for 103 Ru. For radish roots, translocation factors were on the whole the highest following the early- growth-stage application. The obtained data can be used for parameter values in food-chain dose assessment models especially for Koreans and many other Asian people

  20. ZZ MATXSLIBJ33, JENDL-3.3 based, 175 N-42 photon groups (VITAMIN-J) MATXS library for discrete ordinates multi-group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, K.; Yamano, N.; Fukahori, T.; Shibata, K.; Hasegawa, A.

    2006-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: JENDL-3.3 based, 175 neutron-42 photon groups (VITAMIN-J) MATXS library for discrete ordinates multi-group transport codes. Format: MATXS. Number of groups: 175 neutron, 42 gamma-ray. Nuclides: 337 nuclides contained in JENDL-3.3: H-1, H-2, He-3, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-Nat, N-14, N-15, O-16, F-19, Na-23, Mg-24, Mg-25, Mg-26, Al-27, Si-28, Si-29, Si-30, P-31, S-32, S-33, S-34, S-36, Cl-35, Cl-37, Ar-40, K-39, K-40, K-41, Ca-40, Ca-42, Ca-43, Ca-44, Ca-46, Ca-48, Sc-45, Ti-46, Ti-47, Ti-48, Ti-49, Ti-50, V-Nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Cu-63, Cu-65, Ga-69, Ga-71, Ge-70, Ge-72, Ge-73, Ge-74, Ge-76, As-75, Se-74, Se-76, Se-77, Se-78, Se-79, Se-80, Se-82, Br-79, Br-81, Kr-78, Kr-80, Kr-82, Kr-83, Kr-84, Kr-85, Kr-86, Rb-85, Rb-87, Sr-86, Sr-87, Sr-88, Sr-89, Sr-90, Y-89, Y-91, Zr-90, Zr-91, Zr-92, Zr-93, Zr-94, Zr-95, Zr-96, Nb-93, Nb-94, Nb-95, Mo-92, Mo-94, Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-97, Mo-98, Mo-99, Mo-100, Tc-99, Ru-96, Ru-98, Ru-99, Ru-100, Ru-101, Ru-102, Ru-103, Ru-104, Ru-106, Rh-103, Rh-105, Pd-102, Pd-104, Pd-105, Pd-106, Pd-107, Pd-108, Pd-110, Ag-107, Ag-109, Ag-110m, Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-111, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-116, In-113, In-115, Sn-112, Sn-114, Sn-115, Sn-116, Sn-117, Sn-118, Sn-119, Sn-120, Sn-122, Sn-123, Sn-124, Sn-126, Sb-121, Sb-123, Sb-124, Sb-125, Te-120, Te-122, Te-123, Te-124, Te-125, Te-126, Te-127m, Te-128, Te-129m, Te-130, I-127, I-129, I-131, Xe-124, Xe-126, Xe-128, Xe-129, Xe-130, Xe-131, Xe-132, Xe-133, Xe-134, Xe-135, Xe-136, Cs-133, Cs-134, Cs-135, Cs-136, Cs-137, Ba-130, Ba-132, Ba-134, Ba-135, Ba-136, Ba-137, Ba-138, Ba-140, La-138, La-139, Ce-140, Ce-141, Ce-142, Ce-144, Pr-141, Pr-143, Nd-142, Nd-143, Nd-144, Nd-145, Nd-146, Nd-147, Nd-148, Nd-150, Pm-147, Pm-148, Pm-148m, Pm-149, Sm-144, Sm-147, Sm-148, Sm-149, Sm-150, Sm-151, Sm-152, Sm-153, Sm-154, Eu-151, Eu-152, Eu-153, Eu-154, Eu-155, Eu

  1. Comparison of the Economic Aspects of the Treatment and Storage of Fission Products from Installations Processing Irradiated Natural Uranium; Aspects Economiques Compares du Traitement et du Stockage des Produits de Fission Issus des Usines de Traitement de l'Uranium Naturel Irradie; Sravnitel'nye ehkonomicheskie aspekty obrabotki i khraneniya produktov deleniya, poluchaemykh na zavodakh po pererabotke obluchennogo prirodnogo urana; Aspectos Economicos Comparados del Tratamiento y del Almacenamiento de los Productos de Fision que Salen de las Plantas de Tratamiento de Uranio Natural Irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L.; Lesur, P.; Giraud, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France); Wanlin, J. [Societe Saint-Gobain Techniques Nouvelles, Paris (France)

    1966-02-15

    The paper summarizes the main policies adopted for the management of fission product effluents and briefly describes the essential technical features of the stainless steel storage installations (in acid medium) used in France, giving a breakdown of the costs involved. The dependence of these costs on the activity of the solutions stored and on their heat release is shown. The second part of the paper discusses the cost of storage in terms of feasible tank size. The optimum size for such tanks and the rate at which they are placed in service are determined in relation to the characteristics of the fission products to be stored and to the respective capacities of the installations for processing irradiated natural uranium. It is shown that although storage costs depend on the assumptions made regarding the useful life of installations, rates of interest and operating costs, optimum policy decisions (as to size and rate of entry into service) are independent of these assumptions, being determined solely by the variation in the cost of tanks, according to size. These are the factors which enter into the optimized cost of storing these effluents indefinitely. In the third part, this method of indefinite storage is compared with other possibilities of fission product management, e.g. vitrification and separation of Cs and Sr. The paper discusses the economics of the various methods and summarizes some possible long-term solutions. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele les principales politiques de gestion le plus souvent envisagees pour les produits de fission, le memoire decrit sommairement les caracteristiques techniques essentielles des installations de stockage en acier inoxydable (en milieu acide) utilisees en France et la structure des couts de ces installations. U montre la sensibilite de ces couts a l'activite des solutions stockees et a leur degagement de chaleur. Dans une deuxieme partie, les auteurs examinent leur cout de stockage, selon la taille des reservoirs pouvant etre construits, et on determine la taille et la cadence optimales de leur mise en service, compte tenu des caracteristiques des produits de fission a stocker et pour diverses capacites de l'usine de traitement de l'uranium naturel irradie. Ils montrent que, si le cout de stockage depend des hypotheses faites sur la duree de vie des installations, le taux d'interet, les frais d'exploitation, le choix de la politique optimale par contre (tailles et cadences de mise en service) est independant de ces hypotheses et n'est lie qu'a la loi de variation du cout des reservoirs selon leur taille. On obtient ainsi le cout optimise de stockage indefini de ces effluents. Dans une troisieme partie, les auteurs comparent a cette solution du stockage indefini d'autres politiques possibles de gestion des produits de fission: vitrification et separation du Cs et du Sr. Ils situent economiquement ces diverses alternatives et esquissent des solutions possibles a long terme. (author) [Spanish] Despues de recordar las principales practicas administrativas que suelen aplicarse a los productos de fision, los autores exponen sucintamente las caracteristicas tecnicas esenciales de las instalaciones de almacenamiento en acero inoxidable (en medio acido) utilizadas en Francia y analizan la estructura de sus costos. Muestran hasta que punto esos costos dependen de la radiactividad de las soluciones almacenadas y del calor que desprenden. En la segunda parte de la memoria se examina el costo del almacenamiento segun las dimensiones de los depositos que pueden construirse, se determinan las dimensiones optimas de estos depositos y se indica el ritmo mas conveniente para su puesta en servicio teniendo en cuenta las caracteristicas de los productos de fision que es preciso almacenar y las diversas capacidades de las plantas de tratamiento de uranio natural irradiado. Se demuestra que si bien el costo del almacenamiento depende de algunas hipotesis (duracion de la vida util de las instalaciones, tipo de interes y gastos de explotacion) la eleccion de la politica Optima (dimensiones y ritmo de la puesta en servicio) es en cambio independiente de estas hipotesis y esta unicamente ligada a la ley de variacion del costo de los depositos en funcion de sus dimensiones. Se obtiene, asi, el costo optimizado del almacenamiento de los efluentes por tiempo indefinido. En la tercera parte se compara la solucion del almacenamiento indefinido con otras posibilidades: vitrificacion y separacion del Cs y del Sr. Los autores analizan esas posibilidades desde el punto de vista economico e indican algunas soluciones a largo plazo. (author) [Russian] Posle upominanija osnovnyh metodov obrashhenija s produktami delenija v zhidkom vide, daetsja kratkoe opisanie osnovnyh tehnicheskih harakteristik primenjaemyh vo Francii ustanovok dlja hranenija iz nerzhavejushhej stali (v kisloj srede) i struktury stoimosti jetih ustanovok. Pokazyvaetsja, kak jeta sistema zavisit ot aktivnosti nahodjashhihsja na hranenii rastvorov i ot vydelenija imi tepla. Vo vtoroj chasti issleduetsja stoimost' ih hranenija v zavisimosti ot razmerov rezervuarov, kotorye mogut byt' postroeny, i opredeljajutsja razmery i maksimal'nye predely ih ispol'zovanija s uchetom harakteristik podlezhashhih hraneniju produktov delenija i razlichnyh vozmozhnostej zavoda po pererabotke obluchennogo prirodnogo urana. Pokazyvaetsja, chto esli stoimost' hranenija predpolozhitel'no zavisit ot sroka sluzhby ustanovok, procenta na kapital i jekspluatacionnyh rashodov, to vybor optimal'nogo metoda nezavisim ot jetogo i svjazan lish' s zakonom izmenenija stoimosti jetih rezervuarov s uchetom ih razmerov. Takim putem poluchajut optimizirovannuju stoimost' beskonechnogo hranenija zhidkih produktov. V tret'ej chasti s jetim resheniem beskonechnogo hranenija sravnivajutsja drugie vozmozhnye mery obrashhenija s produktami delenija: osteklovyvanie i vydelenie cezija i stroncija. Obsuzhdaetsja jekonomika razlichnyh metodov hranenija i namechajutsja vozmozhnye reshenija problemy na dlitel'nyj srok. (author)

  2. Distributions of radionuclides among green alga (Ulva pertusa), sea water and marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Ueda, Taishi

    1976-01-01

    Distributions of radionuclides ( 60 Co, 137 Cs, 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 106 Ru- 106 Rh) among green alga (Ulva pertusa), sea water and marine sediment were examined by radioisotope tracer experiment in order to estimate the influence of sediment on the accumulation of radionuclides by the alga. By the application of the compartment model to the experimental results, exponential formulas of distributions were obtained. Through comparison of the transfer coefficients of radionuclides calculated from the exponential formulas, the influence of the sediment on the accumulation of the radionuclides by the green alga was determined to be the largest for 60 Co, followed by 95 Zr,- 95 Nb, 106 Ru- 106 Rh and 137 Cs in this order. The activity ratios of 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 106 Ru- 106 Rh calculated from the transfer coefficients are larger for the alga than for the sediment, inversely those of 60 Co and 137 Cs show higher values for the sediment than for the alga. Especially, in the case of 60 Co, the activity ratio for the sediment is approximately 20 times greater than that for the alga. Biological half lives in green alga estimated from the transfer coefficients were 10 days for 60 Co, 7 days for 137 Cs, 26 days for 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 24 days for 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 24 days for 106 Ru- 106 Rh. (auth.)

  3. Zirconium/niobium-95 determined in Hudson River water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.; Cohen, N.

    1982-01-01

    Zirconium 95 and Niobium 95 are the fission products detected in greatest abundance in Hudson River water following the atmospheric testing of a nuclear device in N.W. China in 1980. Water samples, collected continuously and on a 'grab' basis, and processed monthly, have been studied to determine 95 Zr and 95 Nb concentrations, and plotted against collection time. Total precipitation values for each month, averaged over the whole Hudson River are also plotted. Airborne concentration data were obtained from sites in Lower Manhattan and Chester, N.J. A maximum value for 95 Zr in the Hudson River was found for February 1981. Half-time removal of 95 Zr from water was also calculated. (U.K.)

  4. Dry deposition on smooth and rough urban surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1987-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, dry deposition velocities on smooth surfaces indoors and outdoors have been measured in Denmark. Internal wall surfaces gave deposition velocities of 0.0008-0.0009 cm/s for 131I and 0.0001-0.0002 cm/s for 134Cs and 103Ru. Internal floor surfaces gave higher values for the deposition velocities: for 131I, 0.002 cm/s and for 134Cs and 103Ru, 0.0005-0.0013 cm/s. The deposition velocities on vertical and horizontal external surfaces were nearly equal. Those for 131I were found as 0.02-0.03 cm/s and for 137Cs as 0.001-0.002 cm/s. On external rough surfaces such as grass and corrugated roof material the deposition velocities for 134Cs and 103Ru were 0.03-0.05 cm/s. For iodine, however, deposition velocities were higher for clipped grass (2 cm/s) than for roof material (0.2-0.4 cm/s). The results show that internal deposition velocities are considerably lower than those on external smooth surfaces, and that the deposition velocities on rough surfaces are an order of magnitude higher than on smooth surfaces. It was also shown that the deposition velocities of iodine are considerably higher than those of cesium and ruthenium. This work was supported by EEC Radiation Protection Programme No B16-107-DK and by NKA, The Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy. (author)

  5. Affinity for a malignant tumor and organs at the elements in group VIII of the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Atsushi; Hisada, Kinichi; Ando, Itsuko.

    1975-01-01

    In order to investigate the tumor affinity of the radioisotopes, iron(Fe-59), cobalt(Co-58), ruthenium(Ru-103), palladium(Pd-103), osmium(Os-185+191) and iridium(Ir-192), the elements of group VIII in the periodic table were examined, using rats which were subcutaneously transplanted with Yoshida sarcoma. Six preparations, 59 Fe-chloride, 58 Co-chloride, 103 Ru-chloride, 103 Pd-chloride, 185+191 Os-hexachlorosmic acid and 192 Ir-hexachloriridic acid were injected intravenously in to each group of tumor bearing rats. These rats were sacrificed at various periods after injection of each preparation: 3 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours in all preparations, except 59 Fe-chloride with 30 minutes, 3 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. The radioactivities of the tumor, blood muscle, liver, kidney and spleen were measured by a well-type scintillation counter, and retention values (in every tissue including the tumor were calculated in percent of administered dose per g-tissue weight). 185+191 Os-hexachlorosmic acid had a considerably strong affinity for the malignant tumor. 59 Fe-chloride, 58 Co-chloride, 103 Ru-chloride, 103 Pd-chloride and 192 Ir-hexachloriridic acid did not have any affinity for the malignant tumor. However 59 Fe-chloride had a very strong affinity for blood corpuscles. 103 Pd-chloride had a fairly strong affinity for the kidney and liver, 58 Co-chloride had a fairly affinity for the liver, 103 Ru-chloride, 185+191 Os-hexachlorosmic acid and 192 Ir-hexachloriridic acid had a fairly strong affinity for the kidney. (Evans, J.)

  6. Interception and translocation of radionuclides in major food crops for Koreans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Y. H.; Lim, K. M.; Park, H. G.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, H. S. [KAERI, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    In order to investigate the direct plant contamination pathway of {sup 54}Mn, {sup 57}Co, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 103}Ru and {sup 134}Cs in major food crops for Koreans, rice, soybean and radish plants at different growth stages were sprayed with radioactive solutions in a greenhouse. The interception factor and the translocation factor were quantified as the fraction of the total deposition that is initially retained on the aboveground plant surface and the fraction of the total initial plant activity that is contained in the edible part at harvest, respectively. In rice and radish, interception factors increased as plants grew old to harvest. In soybean, however, rapid defoliation in old plants made interception factors decrease with increasing age during the later part of the growth. There was little difference in the interception factor among radionuclides. Translocation factors decreased in the order of {sup 134}Cs {>=}> {sup 57}Co > {sup 54}Mn {>=} {sup 85}Sr >{sup 103}Ru in general and varied with radionuclides by factors of 6-4000, depending on application time and plant species. Translocation factors for rice seeds were the highest when radionuclides were applied at the active seed growth stage and those for soybean seeds were the highest following the application at the early pod-filling stage except for {sup 103}Ru. For radish roots, translocation factors were on the whole the highest following the early- growth-stage application. The obtained data can be used for parameter values in food-chain dose assessment models especially for Koreans and many other Asian people.

  7. A possible in vivo generator 103Pd/103mRh-Recoil considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooyen, Johann van; Szucs, Zoltan; Rijn Zeevaart, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The use of Auger emitters as potential radiopharmaceuticals is increasingly investigated. One such radionuclide of interest is 103m Rh. This can be produced from 103 Ru or from 103 Pd in an in vivo generator. A potential problem with this concept is the recoil of the 103m Rh out of the carrier molecule and even out of the target cell. In order to determine whether this would happen in the 103 Pd/ 103m Rh case calculations were done to prove that this does not happen. From theoretical considerations it seems that the 103 Pd/ 103m Rh in vivo generator system would be possible

  8. Excitation function and yield for the 103Rh(d,2n)103Pd nuclear reaction: Optimization of the production of palladium-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manenti, Simone; Alí Santoro, María del Carmen; Cotogno, Giulio; Duchemin, Charlotte; Haddad, Ferid; Holzwarth, Uwe; Groppi, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Deuteron-induced nuclear reactions for the generation of 103 Pd were investigated using the stacked-foil activation technique on rhodium targets at deuteron energies up to E d = 33 MeV. The excitation functions of the reactions 103 Rh(d,xn) 101,103 Pd, 103 Rh(d,x) 100g,cum,101m,g,102m,g Rh and 103 Rh(d,2p) 103 Ru have been measured, and the Thick-Target Yield for 103 Pd has been calculated.

  9. Monitoring the radiation consequences due to the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear facility from April 28 to June 12, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrasi, A.; Beleznay, E.; Deme, S.

    1986-07-01

    Environmental radiation measurements were carried out by the Health Physics Department of the Central Research Institute for Physics in cooperation with the Hungarian Civil Defence Organization in the title period in Hungary. The following data were measured: activity concentration of radioaerosols and radioactive iodine in air, fallout activity, in situ gamma spectroscopy to estimate ground surface contamination, gamma dose rate, activity concentration in milk, incorporated radionuclides, activities of 131 I in thyroid gland and of 103 Ru in lung, whole-body activities of 137 Cs and 134 Cs. (R.P.)

  10. Contribution in reprocessing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, P.G.V. de.

    1973-01-01

    Gamma radiation effect on extraction coefficient of ruthenium by pure TBP is studied. Samples of ruthenium in different concentrations of HNO 3 were irradiated. Extraction coefficient is found by measuring gamma activity of 498 keV of 103 Ru from organic and aqueous phases. Extraction coefficient in such conditions depends on the radiation doses. There is an increase in the coefficient of the acid. However the saturation velocity is proportional to HNO 3 concentration. The variations of the extraction coefficient due to HNO 3 radiolysis which gives HNO 2 as a result is presented [pt

  11. Peculiarities of the contamination with radionuclides of the cultured pasture grass of the Lithuanian SSR after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedvetskajte, T.N.; Filistovich, V.I.; Petrulis, R.A.; Dauskurdis, S.I.; Tamulenajte, O.P.; Chias, K.V.

    1989-01-01

    Data on the contamination of pastures in the Lithuanian SSR with 131 I after the Chernobyl accident are given on the basis of measuring the grass samples from the cultured pastures. The predominant radionculides on the grass in the north-eastern and central parts of Lithuanie were 1 31 I and 103 Ru, while in its western and southern parts the 141 Ce, 144 Ce, 134 Cs, 137 Cs and other radioisotopes as well as hot particles predominated. The value of the grass-milk transfer coefficient was specified. 2 refs.; 5 figs

  12. Concentration factors of stable elements and radionuclides in Po river fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achilli, M.; Ciceri, G.; Bozzani, A.; Guzzi, L.; Queirazza, G.

    1988-01-01

    The concentration factors (CF) of stable Co, Cs, Mn, Fe, Zn and Sr in different fish from six stretches in the middle course of the Po river (N. Italy) have been investigated. The space-time variation in water has been followed for 14 months. The investigation has been undertaken to study CF variations in the same fish species as a function of the physico-chemical form of the different elements in water (dissolved, dissolved and exchangeable fraction of the particulate, total). CF values of 103 Ru, 131 I and 134 - 137 Cs were also investigated for Cyprinus carpio reared, with artificial food, in two semi-natural environments

  13. Evaluation of the contamination of the territory of Croatia by means of radioactive rain as a consequence of the incident in the NPP 'Lenin'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulic, S.; Barisic, D.; Kosutic, K.; Kvastek, K.; Tuta, J.; Vertacnik, A.; Vrhovac, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper radioactive contamination level in Croatia by means of radioactive rain waters, that was caused by the accident of NPP 'Lenin' in Chernobyl, has been described. The displayed results represent the sum of the measured activity of radionuclides 103 Ru, 131 I, 132 Te-I, 134 Cs and 140 Ba-La. It has been constructed on the basis of measured and evaluated data and the scheme of the radioactive contamination level in Croatia by means of radioactive rain waters between April 28 to May 20th, 1986. (author)

  14. Influences of marine sediment on the accumulation of radionuclides by green alga (Ulva pertusa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Ueda, Taiji

    1975-01-01

    Distribution of radionuclides ( 60 Co, 137 Cs, 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 106 Ru- 106 Rh) among green alga (Ulva pertusa), sea water and marine sediment were examined by radioisotope tracer experiment in order to estimate the influence of sediment on the accumulation of radionuclides by the alga. By the application of the compartment model to the experimental results, exponential formulas of distributions were obtained. Through comparison of the transfer coefficients of radionuclides calculated from the exponential formulas, the influence of the sediment on the accumulation of the radionuclides by the green alga was determined to be the largest for 60 Co, followed by 95 Zr- 95 Nb, 106 Ru- 106 Rh and 137 Cs in this order. The activity ratios of 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 106 Ru- 106 Rh calculated from the transfer coefficients are larger for the alga than for the sediment, inversely those of 60 Co and 137 Cs show higher values for the sediment than for the alga. Especially, in the case of 60 Co, the activity ratio for the sediment is approximately 20 times greater than that for the alga. Biological half lives in green alga estimated from the transfer coefficients were 10 days for 60 Co, 7 days for 137 Cs, 26 days for 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 24 days for 106 Ru- 106 Rh. (auth.)

  15. Enriched uranium recovery flowsheet improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Savannah River uses 7.5% TBP to recover and purify enriched uranium. Adequate decontamination from fission products is necessary to reduce personnel exposure and to ensure that the enriched uranium product meets specifications. Initial decontamination of the enriched uranium from the fission products is carried out in the 1A bank, 16 stages of mixer-settlers. Separation of the enriched uranium from the fission product, 95 Zr, has been adequate, but excessive solvent degradation caused by the long phase contact times in the mixer-settlers has limited the 95 Zr decontamination factor (DF). An experimental program is investigating the replacement of the current 1A bank with either centrifugal contactors or a combination of centrifugal contactors and mixer-settlers. Experimental work completed has compared laboratory-scale centrifugal contactors and mixer-settlers for 95 Zr removal efficiencies. Feed solutions spiked with actual plant solutions were used. The 95 Zr DF was significantly better in the mixer-settlers than in the centrifugal contactors. As a result of this experimental study, a hybrid equipment flowsheet has been proposed for plant use. The hybrid equipment flowsheet combines the advantages of both types of solvent extraction equipment. Centrifugal contactors would be utilized in the extraction and initial scrub sections, followed by additional scrub stages of mixer-settlers

  16. Removal of radionuclides from liquid streams by reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, U.A.; Ramachandhran, V.; Misra, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Separation of radionuclides in trace concentrations by cellulose acetate membranes has been under investigation in this laboratory, and the behaviour of some important radionuclides such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr under reverse osmosis has been reported earlier. The present work deals with a few other typical radionuclides such as 60 Co, 103 Ru and 131 I which are not fully amenable to conventional methods for their removal. Separation of these radionuclides from liquid streams by the reverse osmosis process was studied using a small reverse osmosis test cell. Various parameters like membrane porosity, applied pressure and feed activity levels were investigated. Cellulose acetate membranes offer reasonable separation of 60 Co, 103 Ru and 131 I radionuclides, indicating the potential of reverse osmosis for treatment of effluents containing these radioisotopes. The percent separation is found to be in the order of Co > Ru > I. The percent radioactive separation improves with increases in feed activity. The performance data are explained in terms of solution-diffusion mechanism. It appears that the separation of radionuclides is not governed by diffusion alone, but by the interaction of solutes with the membranes. (author)

  17. An application of clonal Japanese flounder, paralichthys olivaceus to the experiment on bioaccumulation of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Taeko; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Hirano, Shigeki; Watabe, Teruhisa; Yamamoto, Eiichi

    2000-01-01

    A laboratory experiment of accumulation and excretion of radionuclides ( 125 I, 57 Co, 141 Ce, 103 Ru, 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 54 Mn) in juvenile Japanese flounder was carried out in order to elucidate the genetic factor intervening in the mineral balance, which possibly caused the fluctuation of so-called concentration factors. Fish originating from two populations, namely clone brood and hatchery-reared brood, were used in the present study. The variance of concentration of radionuclides was compared in terms of the radionuclides activity ratio, which was defined by radionuclide concentration in fish normalized by that in surrounding water. In general, narrower variations of concentration were observed in clone brood than in hatchery-reared brood, and significant differences were observed for 57 Co, 141 Ce and 137 Cs in the accumulation process and for five radionuclides other than 125 I and 103 Ru in excretion process. The present study suggested that a probability of application of clonal fish would be advantageous in experimental assessments of biological effects of environmental contaminants in the sea. (author)

  18. Reliability assessment of MVP-BURN and JENDL-4.0 related to nuclear transmutation of light platinum group elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terashima Atsunori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aprés ORIENT research program, as a concept of advanced nuclear fuel cycle, was initiated in FY2011 aiming at creating stable, highly-valuable elements by nuclear transmutation from ↓ssion products. In order to simulate creation of such elements by (n, γ reaction succeeded by β− decay in reactors, a continuous-energy Monte Carlo burnup calculation code MVP-BURN was employed. Then, it is one of the most important tasks to con↓rm the reliability of MVP-BURN code and evaluated neutron cross section library. In this study, both an experiment of neutron activation analysis in TRIGA Mark I reactor at University of California, Irvine and the corresponding burnup calculation using MVP-BURN code were performed for validation of the simulation on transmutation of light platinum group elements. Especially, some neutron capture reactions such as 102Ru(n, γ103Ru, 104Ru(n, γ105Ru, and 108Pd(n, γ109Pd were dealt with in this study. From a comparison between the calculation (C and the experiment (E about 102Ru(n, γ103Ru, the deviation (C/E-1 was signi↓cantly large. Then, it is strongly suspected that not MVP-BURN code but the neutron capture cross section of 102Ru belonging to JENDL-4.0 used in this simulation have made the big di↑erence as (C/E-1 >20%.

  19. Reliability assessment of MVP-BURN and JENDL-4.0 related to nuclear transmutation of light platinum group elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Atsunori; Nilsson, Mikael; Ozawa, Masaki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    The Aprés ORIENT research program, as a concept of advanced nuclear fuel cycle, was initiated in FY2011 aiming at creating stable, highly-valuable elements by nuclear transmutation from ↓ssion products. In order to simulate creation of such elements by (n, γ) reaction succeeded by β- decay in reactors, a continuous-energy Monte Carlo burnup calculation code MVP-BURN was employed. Then, it is one of the most important tasks to con↓rm the reliability of MVP-BURN code and evaluated neutron cross section library. In this study, both an experiment of neutron activation analysis in TRIGA Mark I reactor at University of California, Irvine and the corresponding burnup calculation using MVP-BURN code were performed for validation of the simulation on transmutation of light platinum group elements. Especially, some neutron capture reactions such as 102Ru(n, γ)103Ru, 104Ru(n, γ)105Ru, and 108Pd(n, γ)109Pd were dealt with in this study. From a comparison between the calculation (C) and the experiment (E) about 102Ru(n, γ)103Ru, the deviation (C/E-1) was signi↓cantly large. Then, it is strongly suspected that not MVP-BURN code but the neutron capture cross section of 102Ru belonging to JENDL-4.0 used in this simulation have made the big di↑erence as (C/E-1) >20%.

  20. The biokinetics of ruthenium in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The biokinetics of ruthenium (Ru) in the human body is of interest due mainly to the potential for occupational or environmental exposure to 106Ru (T1/2 = 373.6 d) and 103Ru (T1/2 = 39.3 d), which typically represent a significant portion of the fission products in a reactor inventory. During reactor operations or nuclear fuel reprocessing these ruthenium isotopes may be present as ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) vapor, a highly mobile form of ruthenium that has been involved in a number of cases of accidental exposure to 106Ru or 103Ru. This paper summarizes the biokinetic database for ruthenium and proposes a new respiratory model for inhaled RuO4 vapor, a new biokinetic for systemic (absorbed) ruthenium, and material-specific gastrointestinal absorption fractions for ruthenium. The proposed respiratory model for RuO4 differs from the current ICRP model mainly in that it depicts slower clearance of deposited activity from the respiratory tract and lower absorption to blood than depicted in the current ICRP model. The proposed systemic biokinetic model depicts more realistic paths of movement of absorbed ruthenium in the body than the current ICRP model and, in contrast to the present model, a less uniform distribution of systemic activity. Implications of the proposed models with regard to inhalation and ingestion dose coefficients for 106Ru are examined.

  1. Study on (d,t) reaction in the 100, 102 and 104 ruthenium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, J.L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron-hole components in 99, 101, 103 Ru isotopes were investigated by (d,t) reactions at incident deuteron energies of 15.5 MeV and 16 MeV on, respectively, 100 Ru and 102 , 104 Ru. Outgoing triton groups were momentum analyzed by a magnetic spectrograph and detected in nuclear emulsion plates with an energy resolution better than 8 KeV. A total of 14,36 and 46 levels up to 1.4, 2.1 2.5 MeV excitation energy were identified, respectively, in 99 , 101 , 103 Ru. The transferred orbital angular momenta, l, and the spectroscopic strengths were obtained by comparing experimental angular distributions, measured at carefully chosen scattering angles between 8 0 C and 46 0 C, with Distorted Wave Born Approximation predictions. The analysis of the spectroscopic strength distributions corresponding to each l-value reveals a similar pattern among the three isotopes, although there is a shift of the highest strengths towards low energy, for increasing neutron number, indicating increasing deformation. Special attention is drawn to transitions to low-lying states with l=3 and l=1 character, associated with the next major shell, whose description is discussed in terms of a quasiparticle-prolate non-rigid rotor model with the Coriolis effect fully treated, and the Interacting Boson-Fermion Model. (author)

  2. Comparison of Clinical and Laboratory Responses in Sheep and Dogs following Whole-Body Exposures to 250-Kvp X-Rays and Fission-Spectrum Neutrons; Etude Comparee Clinique et en Laboratoire, des Reactions de Moutons et de Chiens a la Suite d'une Exposition du Corps Entier a des Rayons X de 250 Kv-Crete et a des Neutrons de Fission; Sravnenie klinicheskikh i laboratornykh dannykh o reaktsii ovets i sobak na obluchenie vsego tela rentgenovskimi luchami pri pikovom napryazhenii 250 Kv i nejtronami spektra deleniya; Estudio Comparado, Clinico y de Laboratorio, de las Reacciones de Ovejas y Perros Consecutivas a la Irradiacion del Cuerpo Entero con Rayos X de 250 KVp y Neutrones de Fision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaife, M. A.; Boer, J. de; Jones, R. K.; Ichiki, A. T.; Godden, W. R.; Davis, H.; Engel, R. E. [Kirtland AFB, New Mexico (United States)

    1964-05-15

    Fifteen sheep and eight dogs were exposed to 400 rad (air dose) of pulsed fission-spectrum neutrons, and an equal number of sheep and 14 dogs to 400 r (midline air dose) 250 kVp X-rays. Seven additional sheep and four dogs served as un-irradiated controls. Control data were obtained for two weeks preceding the exposures and at frequent and regular intervals after the injury. In sheep, the most consistent clinical change was complete loss of wool by the 51st day post-exposure. The underlying skin was pink in colour closely resembling that of a mild blush sometimes noted in humans. Dogs did not demonstrate loss of hair. Formed blood elements, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and thrombocytes fell rapidly after the radiation in both species. At about post-exposure day 24 recovery in white cell numbers was noted only in the neutron groups. Thrombocyte levels decreased to safe level in both species but somewhat earlier in the dog. Recovery appeared during the third post-exposure week in both species ex posed to neutrons, but not in those given X-rays. Red blood-cell haematocrits showed significant drops in both groups of dogs by the ninth day, but neither group of sheep exhibited significant decrease in haematocrit values. Plasma Fe{sup 59} clearance rates were determined in the experimental subjects as a parameter of measurement of haematopoietic function. Prognostic implications of alteration in this parameter of haemapoiesis are discussed. The most significant gross-pathologic changes were confined to the lungs wherein extensive perivascular haemorrhage around the arteries was noted. On microscopic study the area of haemorrhage was observed to be within the advential-connective tissue and periarterial vessels. Thirty-day mortality for dogs was 50% following neutron exposures and 93% after the X-ray insult. In sheep neutrons produced 22% mortality and X-rays 80%. (author) [French] On a expose 15 moutons et 8 chiens a une dose de 400 rad (dose dans l'air) de neutrons de fission puises, ainsi que 15 moutons et 14 chiens a une dose de 400 r (dose mediane dans l'a ir ) de rayons X de 250 kV-crete. Sept moutons et quatre chiens ont servi de temoins. On a fait des observations pendant les deux semaines qui ont precede les expositions, puis a intervalles frequents et reguliers apres l'irradiation. Chez les moutons, l'alteration clinique la plus constante a ete la perte complete de la laine 51 j apres l'exposition. La peau ainsi mise a nu etait d'une couleur rose semblable a celle que produit parfois chez les humains un leger rougissement. Il n'y a pas eu de chute de poils chez les chiens. Le nombre des polynucleaires neutrophiles, des lymphocytes et des plaquettes a baisse rapidement apres l 'irradiation chez les moutons et les chiens. Environ 24 j apres l 'exposition, on a note une restauration du nombre des globules blancs uniquement dans les groupes exposes aux neutrons. Le nombre des plaquettes a baisse dans la meme proportion chez les moutons et les chiens, mais un peu plus tot chez les chiens. Dans les deux cas, une restauration a ete constatee au cours de la troisieme semaine apres l'exposition aux neutrons, mais il n'en a pas ete de meme chez les animaux exposes aux rayons X. Neuf jours apres l 'exposition, le nombre des globules rouges avait sensiblement diminue chez les deux groupes de chiens; on n'a pas constate de diminution notable chez les moutons. On a determine le taux d'elimination du {sup 59}Fe dans le plasma des animaux d'experience, comme parametre de mesure de la fonction hematopoieetique. Les auteurs discutent l'influence sur le pronostic des modifications survenant dans ce parametre de l'hematopoieese. Les modifications pathologiques les plus significatives ont ete limitees aux poumons, ou on a constate une importante hemorragie perivasculaire autour des arteres. L'observation microscopique a revele que la zone d'hemorragie se trouvait dans les tissus conjonctifs adventices et les vaisseaux periarteriels. Au trentieme jour, la mortalite chez les chiens a ete de 50% pour les sujets exposes aux neutrons et de 93% pour les sujets exposes aux rayons X. Chez les moutons, les neutrons ont cause une mortalite de 22% et les rayons X une mortalite de 80%. (author) [Spanish] Los autores expusieron 15 ovejas y 8 perros a una dosis de 400 rad (en el aire) de un espectro pulsante de neutrones de fision y el mismo numero de ovejas y 14 perros a una dosis de 400 r (dosis media, en el aire) de rayos X de 250 kVp. Ademas, emplearon como testigos 7 ovejas y 4 perros sin irradiar. Efectuaron observaciones durante dos semanas, antes de proceder a la exposicion y, luego, a intervalos frecuentes y regulares una vez provocadas las lesiones. En las ovejas, la alteracion clinica mas sistematica fue la perdida total de la lana a los 51 dias de la exposicion. La piel subyacente presentaba un color rosado semejante a la leve erubescencia que se observa a veces en el hombre. Los perros no perdieron el pelo. El numero de polinucleares, neutrofilos, linfocitos y trombocitos disminuyo rapidamente despues de la irradiacion en ambas especies. Solamente en los grupos irradiados con neutrones, alrededor de 24 dias despues de la irradiacion se registro un restablecimiento del numero de globulos blancos. El indice de trombocitos disminuyo en ambas especies, un poco antes en el perro que en la oveja. En ambas especies, a la tercera semana a contar de la irradiacion, se observo que se restablecian los valores normales en los animales expuestos a los neutrones, pero no en aquellos sometidos a la accion de los rayos X. En ambos grupos de perros, al noveno dia se registro una reduccion importante del indice hematocrito, pero no ocurrio lo mismo con ninguno de los grupos de ovejas expuestos. Como parametro para la determinacion de la funcion hematopoyetica, se determinaron los indices de depuracion plasmatica del {sup 59}Fe en los sujetos estudiados. Los autores estudian la posibilidad de aplicar las alteraciones de este parametro de la hematopoyesis con fines diagnosticos. Las alteraciones patologicas mas significativas se circunscribieron a los pulmones, donde se observaron extensas hemorragias perivasculares. Mediante el microscopio se confirmo que la zona hemorragica estaba situada entre el tejido conjuntivo adventicio y los vasos periarteriales. El indice de mortalidad a los 30 dias, en los perros, fue del 50% despues de la exposicion a los neutrones y del 93% despues de la exposicion a los iayos X. En cuanto a las ovejas, los neutrones ocasionaron una mortalidad de 22% y los rayos X, una de 80%. (author) [Russian] Pjatnadcat' ovec i vosem' sobak byli oblucheny dozoj 400 rad (vozdushnaja doza) pul'sirujushhih nejtronov spektra delenija, a takoe zhe kolichestvo ovec i 14 sobak -dozoj 400 rentgen (sredinnaja vozdushnaja doza) rentgenovskih luchej pri pikovom naprjazhenii 250 kv. Sem' ovec i chetyre sobaki byli ostavleny neobluchennymi dlja kontrolja. Kontrol'nye dannye poluchali v techenie dvuh nedel', predshestvovavshih oblucheniju, a takzhe reguljarno i chasto posle n ego . U ovec naibolee opredelennym klinicheskim izmeneniem bylo polnoe vypadenie shersti k 51 dnju posle obluchenija. Obnazhivshajasja kozha byla rozovogo cveta, ochen' napominajushhego slabyj rumjanec. U sobak vypadenija shersti ne bylo. Posle obluchenija u oboih vidov zhivotnyh rezko upalo soderzhanie formennyh jelementov krovi, nejtrofil'nyh lejkocitov, limfocitov i trombocitov. Primerno na 24-j den' posle obluchenija vosstanovlenie kolichestva lejkocitov bylo otmecheno to l'ko u zhivotnyh, podvergshihsja oblucheniju nejtronami. Urovni trombocitov snizilis' do bezopasno go urovnja u oboih vidov zhivotnyh, no u sobak jeto proizoshlo neskol'ko ran'she. Vosstanovlenie nastupilo na tret'ej nedele posle obluchenija u oboih vidov zhivotnyh, podvergshihsja oblucheniju nejtronami, no ne proizoshlo u zhivotnyh, obluchennyh rentgenovskimi luchami. Issledovanija gematokrita pokazali znachitel'noe sokrashhenie gemoglobina u oboih grupp sobak k 9-mu dnju, v to vremja kak ni u odnoj iz grupp ovec znachitel'nogo sokrashhenija gemoglobina o tm e cheno ne bylo. Skorost' ochishhenija plazmy ot Fe{sup 59} byla opredelena u podopytnyh zhivotnyh kak parametr izmerenija krovotvornoj funkcii. Rassmatrivajutsja budushhie posledstvija iz menenija jet o go parametra krovotvorenija. Samye znachitel'nye grubye patologicheskie iz menenija byli ogranicheny legkimi, gde byli otmecheny obshirnye krovotechenija vokrug arterij. Pod mikroskopom oblast' krovotechenija nabljudalas' v predelah pobochnoj soedinitel'noj tkani i okolo arterial'nyh so sudov. V techenie tridcati dnej pogiblo 50%sobak, podvergshihsja oblucheniju nejtronami, i 93%sobak, obluchennyh rentgenovskimi luchami. Dlja ovec smertnost' sostavila 22% i 80% so otv etstvenno. (author)

  3. Separation of uranium, plutonium and fission products on zirconium phosphate, Part 1 - Adsorption equilibria and kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, I.; Ruvarac, A.

    1963-01-01

    The distribution coefficients of UO 2 ++ , PuO 2 ++ , Pu 3+ , Pu 4+ , Fe 3+ , 137 Cs + , 90 Sr ++ , 95 Zr + + 95 Nb 5+ , 106 Ru and 144 Ce 3+ were determined in the system zirconium phosphate-aqueous solution of HNO 3 . As for the exchange reation Cs + /H + and Sr ++ /2H + , it has been shown that the mass action law can be applied. For these reactions the corresponding equilibrium constants were calculated. The rates of adsorption of Cs + , Sr ++ , Fe 3+ and Pu 4+ from solutions of a fixed HNO 3 concentration were studied, and empirical rate equations were derived. The experimental data confirm that UO 2 ++ can be separated from Pu 4+ . Among the fission products, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 144 Ce mainly follow the fraction of uranium, while 137 Cs, 95 Zr and 95 Nb follow the plutonium fraction. Separations within the fractions are possible (author)

  4. Results of regular study on radionuclidic purity of sup(99m)Tc obtained from 99Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlcek, J.; Rohacek, J.; Husak, V.

    1979-01-01

    A total of 39 sup(99m)Tc eluates obtained from 9 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators delivered by The Radiochemical Centre Amersham during one year was studied with regard to their radionuclide purity. Using a Ge(Li) spectrometer the contaminants 60 Co, 103 Ru, 131 I, 134 Cs, 140 La and 188 Re were found in sup(99m)Tc-eluates with average levels ranging from 2.9 x 10 -3 to 2.8 x 10 -1 per cent of sup(99m)Tc activity. The additional total body absorbed dose caused by these contaminants, as calculated from their average content in sup(99m)Tc eluates, was less than 1% of the dose due to sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 CS [de

  5. Recoil effect on β-decaying in vivo generators, interpreted for 103Pd/103mRh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szucs, Zoltan; Rooyen, Johann van; Zeevaart, Jan Rijn

    2009-01-01

    The use of Auger emitters as potential radiopharmaceuticals is being increasingly investigated. One of the radionuclides of interest is 103m Rh, which can be produced from 103 Ru or 103 Pd in an in vivo generator. A potential problem, however, is the recoil of the 103m Rh out of the carrier molecule and even out of the target cell. In order to determine the likelihood of this happening in the 103 Pd/ 103m Rh, case calculations were made to prove that this does not happen. The equations were generalised for all radionuclides with an atomic mass of 10-240 as a tool for determining the recoil threshold of any β-emitting radionuclide.

  6. Radionuclide table. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Jean; Perolat, J.-P.; Lagoutine, Frederic; Le Gallic, Yves.

    The evaluation of the following 29 radionuclides is presented: 22 Na, 24 Na, sup(24m)Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 58 Co, sup(58m)Co, 60 Co, sup(60m)Co, 75 Se, 103 Ru, sup(103m)Rh, sup(110m)Ag- 110 Ag, 109 Cd, 125 Sb, sup(125mTe), 125 I, 133 Xe, sup(133m)Xe, 131 Cs, 134 Cs, sup(134m)Cs, 139 Ce, 144 Ce- 144 Pr, 144 Pr, 169 Er, 186 Re, 203 Hg. The introduction contains a brief description of radioactive processes and the evaluation rules followed. The best values and associated uncertainties are given for each radionuclide for the major parameters of the decay scheme and the radiation intensities emitted, together with a decay table. Gamma, X-rays and sometimes conversion electron spectra are also provided [fr

  7. Separation of rhodium-103m from ruthenium-103 by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, J.H.; Landolt, R.R.; Kessler, W.V.

    1978-01-01

    The results for eight replications of the solvent extraction and purification procedures were /sup 103m/Rh yield, 100.9 +- 2.1% and 103 Ru contamination, 0.0%. The use of sodium hypochlorite as the oxidizing agent eliminated the need for fuming with 1:1 H 2 SO 4 to eliminate chlorides as was required when ceric sulfate was used as the oxidizing agent. The optimum pH for extraction of RuO 4 into CCl 4 was determined to be in the range 6.5 to 7.5. A boiling procedure was used to purify the extracted aqueous solution of /sup 103m/Rh

  8. Extension of activation cross section data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on rhodium up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2015-11-01

    In the frame of the systematical study of light ion induced nuclear reactions activation cross sections for deuteron induced reactions on monoisotopic {sup 103}Rh were extended to 50 MeV incident energy. Excitation functions were measured in the 49.8–36.6 MeV energy range for the {sup 103}Rh(d,xn){sup 100,101}Pd, {sup 103}Rh(d,pxn){sup 99m,99g,100,101m,101g,102m,102g}Rh and {sup 103}Rh(d,x){sup 97,103}Ru reactions by using the stacked foil irradiation technique and off-line high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The experimental results are compared to our previous results and to the theoretical predictions in the TENDL-2014 library (TALYS 1.6 code).

  9. Neutron separation energies of Zr isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, L.C.; Dietzsch, O.

    1976-01-01

    Q values are reported for (d,t) reactions on all the stable isotopes of zirconium. The neutron separation energies of 94 Zr and 96 Zr differ greatly (by 27.5 and 22.1 keV, respectively) from the values in the 1971 Atomic Mass Evaluation. These results combined with those from other authors seem to indicate that the 1971 values for the masses of 93 Zr and 95 Zr are in error. (orig.) [de

  10. Evaluation of gamma-ray intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Inoue, Hikaru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Yosei.

    1978-03-01

    Results of literature survey and evaluation of relative intensities and intensities per decay of gamma rays are presented. Evaluations were made for 22 Na, 24 Na, 46 Sc, 48 Sc, 48 V, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 60 Co, 85 Sr, 88 Y, 95 Nb, 95 Zr, sup(108m)Ag, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 144 Pr, 203 Hg, and 207 Bi. For eight of the nuclides, the half-lives were also evaluated. (auth.)

  11. High-Performance γ spectrometry Using Ge(Li) Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brethon, J.; Libs, G.; Detourne, G.; Legrand, J.; Boulanger, J.

    1968-01-01

    This report describes a high resolution gamma spectrometer design which use Ge-Li detectors, a cooled field effect transistor preamplifier, and a spectrum stabiliser. The obtained resolution and the 122 keV gamma ray of the 57 Co is 0.96 keV, and 239 Pu, 233 Pa and 95 Zr + 95 Nb spectra are shown for the example. (authors) [fr

  12. Behavior of ruthenium, cesium and antimony during simulated HLLW vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Weyers, C.; Goossens, W.R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of ruthenium, cesium, and antimony during the vitrification of simulated high-level radioactive liquid wastes (HLLW) in a liquid fed melter was studied on a laboratory scale and on a semi-pilot scale. In the laboratory melter of a 2.5 kg capacity, a series of tests with the simulate traced with 103 Ru, 134 Cs and 124 Sb, has shown that the Ru and Cs losses to the melter effluent are generally higher than 10% whereas the antimony losses remain lower than 0.4%. A wet purification system comprising in series, a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column retains most of the activity present in the off-gas so that the release fractions for Ru at the absolute filter inlet ranges between 5.10 -3 to 5.10 -5 % of the Ru fed, for Cs the corresponding release fraction ranges between 3.10 -3 to 10 -4 % and for Sb the release fraction ranges between 1.7 10 -4 to 1.7 10 -5 %. The same experiments were performed at a throughput of 1 to 2 1 h -1 of simulated solution in the semi-pilot scale unit RUFUS. The RUFUS unit comprises a glass melter with a 50 kg molten glass capacity and the wet purification train comprises in series a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column. The tracer tests were restricted to 103 Ru and 134 Cs since the laboratory tests had shown that the antimony losses were very low. The results of the tests are presented

  13. Release behavior of fission products from irradiated dispersion fuels at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Takashi; Shimizu, Michio; Nakagawa, Tetsuya

    1990-02-01

    As a framework of reduced enrichment fuel program of JMTR Project, the measurements of fission products release rates at high temperatures (600degC - 1100degC) were performed in order to take the data to use for safety evaluation of LEU fuel. Three type miniplates of dispersion silicide and aluminide fuel, 20% enrichment LEU fuel with 4.8 gU/cc (U 3 Si 2 90 %, USi 10 % and U 3 Si 2 50 %, U 3 Si 50 % dispersed in aluminium) and 45 % enrichment MEU fuel with 1.6 gU/cc, were irradiated in JMTR. The burnups attained by one cycle (22 days) irradiation were within 21.6 % - 22.5 % of initial 235 U. The specimens cut down from miniplates were measured on fission products release rates by means of new apparatus specially designed for this experiment. The specimens were heated up within 600degC - 1100degC in dry air. Then fission products such as 85 Kr, 133 Xe, 131 I, 137 Cs, 103 Ru, 129m Te were collected at each temperature and measured on release rates. In the results of measurement, the release rates of 85 Kr, 133 Xe, 131 I, 129m Te from all specimens were slightly less than that of G.W. Parker's data on U-Al alloy fuel. For 137 Cs and 103 Ru from a silicide specimen (U 3 Si 2 90 %, USi 10 % dispersed in aluminium) and 137 Cs from an aluminide specimen, the release rates were slightly higher than that of G.W. Parker's. (author)

  14. Dispersions of Oxides in Oxide Matrices as High-Temperature Reactor Fuels; Dispersions d'oxyde dans des matrices d'oxyde, utilisees comme combustibles dans des reacteurs a haute temperature; Dispersiya okisej v okislovykh matritsakh v kachestve topliva dlya vysokotemperaturnogo reaktora; Empleo de dispersiones de oxidos en matrices de oxidos, como combustibles para reactores de elevada temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    incorporarlas en matrices de elevada densidad. Los trabajos sobre metodos de elaboracion en escala experimental se hallan bastante avanzados. (author) [Russian] Daetsya obzor vozmozhnosti primeneniya dispersij PuO{sub 2},UO{sub 2}, ThO{sub 2} v matritsakh iz BeO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO i SiO{sub 2} s tochki zreniya sokhraneniya tselostnosti takogo topliva i sposobov ego izgotovleniya. Neizmennost' razmerov i sposobnost' uderzhaniya produktov deleniya yavlyayutsya naibolee vazhnymi svojstvami s tochki zreniya sokhraneniya tselostnosti topliva. Sovmestimost' sostavnykh ehlementov topliva drug s drugom i s teplonositelem okazyvayut vliyanie na neizmennost' razmerov, no v ehtom otnoshenii okislovye vidy topliva obladayut znachitel'nymi preimushchestvami. Na izmenenie razmerov pod dejstviem oblucheniya okazyvayut vliyanie: povrezhdeniya matritsy pod dejstviem nejtronov i oskolkov deleniya; radiatsionnoe povrezhdenie fazy delyashchikhsya veshchestv vosproizvodyashchikh materialov i nakoplenie produktov deleniya v gazoobraznom sostoyanii. Termicheskie napryazheniya takzhe mogut vyzyvat' izmeneniya formy. Odnako svedeniya o mekhanizme relaksatsii napryazhenij slishkom ogranicheny, chtoby mozhno bylo dat' kakuyu-libo priemlimuyu teoreticheskuyu otsenku povedeniyu topliva. Issledovaniya vykhoda produktov deleniya kak v sluchae legkogo oblucheniya, tak i pri sil'nom vygoranii okisej delyashchikhsya veshchestv/vosproizvodyashchikh materialov ogranichivalis' glavnym obrazom gazoobraznymi produktami deleniya, preimushchestvenno ksenonom. Dannye o vykhode drugikh produktov deleniya, a takzhe svedeniya o prokhozhdenii produktov deleniya voobshche cherez vozmozhnye materialy dlya matrits ochen' ogranicheny. Issledovaniya pronitsaemosti chistykh spekshikhsya okisej pokazyvayut, chto dlya ustraneniya otkrytoj poristosti takikh matrits potrebovalos' by dostizhenie plotnostej, dokhodyashchikh po men'shej mere do 95, a to i do 98% ot teoreticheski osushchestvimoj. Dlya izgotovleniya chastits

  15. Chromatographic purification of neutron capture molybdenum-99 from cross-contaminant radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Technetium-99m is called the work horse, for many reasons, in nuclear medicine diagnostic purposes. It is produced as the β - decay of 99 Mo radionuclide. Molybdenum-99 gel type generators are considered as a suitable alternative of the conventional chromatographic alumina columns loaded with fission molybdenum-99. 99 Mo neutron-capture is cross-contaminated with radionuclides originated from activation of chemical impurities in the Mo target such 60 C0, 65 Zn, 95 Zr, 175 Hf, 181 Hf, 86 Rb, 134 Cs, 141 Ce, 152 Eu, 140 La, 51 Cr, 124 Sb, 46 Sc, 54 Mn, 59 Fe and / or fast neutrons interactions with the stable isotopes of molybdenum such as 92m Nb, 95 Nb and 95 Zr. To prevent contamination of the eluted 99m Tc, successive purification methods were made. After complete dissolution of the irradiated target wrapped with thin Al foil in 5 M NaOH solution, hydrogen peroxide was added to start precipitation of Fe(OH) 3 . The formed Fe (III) minerals allow complete elimination of some radio contaminants from the molybdate solute such as 152 Eu, 140 La, 141 Ce, 45 Mn and 92m Nb in addition to partial elimination of 46 Sc, 60 Co and 59 Fe radionuclides. The remaining supernatant was acidified by concentrated nitric acid to ph 9.5 for precipitation of Al(OH) 3 with complete elimination of radio contaminants such as 95 Zr 175 Hf, 181 Hf, 65 Zn, 124 Sb, 51 Cr, 46 Sc, 60 Co and 59 Fe. 134 Cs and 86 Rb radionuclides were not affected by precipitation of Fe(OH) 3 or Al(OH) 3 . Chromatographic column of potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate (II) (KNHCF) has high affinity towards elimination of 134 Cs and 86 Rb radionuclides. Highly pure molybdate- 99 Mo solution was processed for preparation of zirconium molybdate gel generator with 99m Tc eluate of high radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purity suitable for use in medical purposes.

  16. Avian radioecology on a nuclear power station site. Technical progress report, 1 July 1974--30 June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, C.K.

    1975-01-01

    The continuation of a program demonstrating that free-ranging wild birds can be used to assess environmental radionuclide levels is described. Wild passerine birds are trapped at a nuclear power station site and at two control sites, uniquely marked, non-destructively counted for levels of gamma-emitting radionuclides, and released. Subsequent recapture rates are as high as 80 percent for certain species. Nuclides detected included 40 K, 95 Zr- 95 Nb, 137 Cs, and apparent 131 I, the latter at levels just above detection limits (0.07 pCi/g). Significant variations in mean 137 Cs body burdens in Blue Jays and Bobwhite have been observed between sites less than 6 km apart. A significant temporal decrease in 137 Cs body burdens has been observed in various species of birds only at the reactor site. Vegetation and meteorological studies have been initiated to help explain these body-burden differences. The effective half-life of 137 Cs in the Blue Jay is 6.7 +- 1.5 days. The highest observed level of 95 Zr- 95 Nb (1.08 +- 0.07 pCi/g) was in a Grey Catbird. The effective half-life of the 95 Zr- 95 Nb was 69.9 +- 15 days, corresponding to the physical half-life of this isotope pair (65.5d), and the activity abruptly disappeared after the twelfth day of captivity suggesting that it was present in particulate form either on the feathers or skin, or in the bird's pulmonary system. Inter-laboratory comparisons of radionuclide measurements are reported. The number of birds banded during the current reporting period is 2720, while 2047 specimens were radioassayed, an increase of 9 percent and 313 percent, respectively. An exercise to test the practicality of obtaining avian samples from remote sites (i.e., > 50 miles away) for radionuclide measurement was performed satisfactorily. (U.S.)

  17. Metabolism of the radioisotopes contained in the radioactive ashes obtained from the No. 5 Fukuryu Maru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T; Wakisaka, G; Kono, T; Goto, H; Akagi, H; Yamamasu, T; Sugawa, I

    1954-01-01

    Among the radioisotopes 141, 144 Ce obtained by separation from ashes on the ship, i.e., /sup 91/Y, /sup 141,144/Ce, Pr/sup 144/, /sup 45/Ca, sup/ 89, 90/Sr, /sup 103, 106/RU, /sup 106/Rh, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 131/I, Sr, Ca, and Y were accumulated chiefly in the bones of adult mice, and the elimination of radio-Sr from there was very slow. When administered by mouth, radio-Sr and radio-Ca were readily absorbed from the digestive tract, while the absorption of radio-Y from the tract was poor.

  18. Radioactive substances found on the contaminated fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiba, T; Ohashi, S; Shibata, M; Mizube, T

    1954-01-01

    Radiochemical investigation of the substance collected from the surface of tuna fish which were brought back by the No. 5 Fukuryu Maru was performed. Most of the radioactivity was found on the scales which could not be decontaminated by treating with H/sub 2/O; 80% of the activity was removed by washing the dried scales with 3N HCl. Paper chromatographic separation of the HCl fraction showed the presence of /sup 140/Ba, /sup 89/Sr, /sup 132/Te, and probably /sup 95/Zr, /sup 140/La, and rare earths.

  19. The dispersion of pollutants in the Romanian rivers Olt, Somes and Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascu, M.; Paunica, I.; Pascu, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the results obtained in three tracer experiments carried out into the Romanian rivers Olt and Somes as well as into the Romanian part of the Danube by using the radioactive tracer 82 Br. The possibility of a radioactive discharge to occur from the Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant bring to focus also knowing of the distribution of fission products between water and solid suspended material. Consequently there were also studied and presented the distribution coefficients of the radionuclides 131 I, 99 Mo, 144 Ce, 137 Cs, and 95 Zr for clay, loess and the particular alluvium collected from the Danube bed. (author)

  20. Pressure of saturated vapor of yttrium and zirconium acetylacetonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembovetskij, G.V.; Berdonosov, S.S.; Murav' eva, I.A.; Martynenko, L.I. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1984-08-01

    The static method and the flow method using /sup 91/Y and /sup 95/Zr radioactive indicators have been applied to determine pressure of saturated vapour of yttrium and zirconium acetylacetonates. Values of thermodynamic functions ..delta..Hsub(subl)=(98+-16)kJ/mol and ..delta..Ssub(subl.)=(155+-30)J/mol x K are calculated for sublimation of yttrium acetylacetonate. For sublimation of zirconium acetylacetonates ..delta..Hsub(subl) equals (116+-38) kJ/mol and ..delta..Ssub(subl) is equal to (198+-65) J/molxK.

  1. Separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products in the zirconium pyrophospate column; Prilog 5: Odvajanje plutonijuma od urana i fisionih produkata na koloni cirkonijum pirofosfatu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvjeticanin, D; Milic, N [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za visoku aktivnost, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-12-15

    Distribution coefficients were of the following ions were determined in the system zirconium pyrophosphate - aqueous solution HNO{sub 3} : Pu{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 4+}, PuO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, {sup 234}Th{sup 2+}, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 144}Ce{sup 3+}, {sup 90}Sr{sup 2+}, {sup 137}Cs{sup +}, {sup 59}Fe{sup 3+} and {sup 59}Fe{sup 2+}. According to the distribution coefficients it can be concluded that the separation of some cations is possible. This was proved by using separation columns. The following successful separations were completed: {sup 90}Sr{sup 2+} from {sup 90}I{sup 3+}, {sup 90}Sr{sup 2+} from {sup 90}I{sup 3+} and {sup 1}'{sup 37}Cs{sup +}, UO{sub 2}{sup +} from {sup 234}Th{sup 4+}, Pu{sup 4+} from UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 144}Ce{sup 3+}, {sup 90}Sr{sup 2+}, {sup 137}Cs{sup +}. Decontamination factors of plutonium from the mentioned cations were determined. It was found that the sorption of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} is based on ion exchange. Odredjeni su distribucioni koeficijenti Pu{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 4+}, PuO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, {sup 234}Th{sup 2+}, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 144}Ce{sup 3+}, {sup 90}Sr{sup 2+}, {sup 137}Cs{sup +}, {sup 59}Fe{sup 3+} i {sup 59}Fe{sup 2+} u sistemu cirkonijum pirofosfat - vodeni rastvor HNO{sub 3}. Na osnovu distribucionih koeficijenata moglo se zakljuciti da su moguca neka medjusobna odvajanja pomenutih katjona, sto je i potvrdjeno radom na kolonama. Uspesno su odvojeni: {sup 90}Sr{sup 2+} od {sup 90}I{sup 3+}, {sup 90}Sr{sup 2+} od {sup 90}I{sup 3+} i {sup 1}'{sup 37}Cs{sup +}, UO{sub 2}{sup +} od {sup 234}Th{sup 4+}, Pu{sup 4+} od UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 144}Ce{sup 3+}, {sup 90}Sr{sup 2+} i {sup 137}Cs{sup +}. Odredjeni su faktori dekontaminacije plutonijuma od pomenutih katjona. Utvrdjeno je da sorpcija Cs{sup +} i Sr{sup 2+} bazira na jonskoj izmeni.

  2. Measurement of thermal neutron capture cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaolong; Han Xiaogang; Yu Weixiang; Lu Hanlin; Zhao Wenrong

    2001-01-01

    The thermal neutron capture cross sections of 71 Ga(n, γ) 72 Ga, 94 Zr(n, γ) 95 Zr and 191 Ir(n, γ) 192 Ir m1+g,m2 reactions were measured by using activation method and compared with other measured data. Meanwhile the half-life of 72 Ga was also measured. The samples were irradiated with the neutron in the thermal column of heavy water reactor of China Institute of Atomic Energy. The activities of the reaction products were measured by well-calibrated Ge(Li) detector

  3. Radioactivity of fishes contaminated by nuclear-bomb test explosions with special reference to the nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T; Saiki, M

    1957-01-01

    The nuclides formerly found in contaminated fish are /sup 89/Sr, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 90/Y, /sup 32/P, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 106/Ru in bones and scales and /sup 137/Cs, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 144/Pr, /sup 95/Zr, and /sup 95/Nb in viscera and muscles. Moreover the following were found newly by M. and S.: /sup 65/Zn, /sup 113m, 115/Cd, /sup 55/ /sup 59/Fe, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 140/Ba, and /sup 140/La in viscera and muscles.

  4. Precise explosive force determination of the first A-bomb 70 years after the explosion; Genaue Sprengkraftbestimmung der ersten A-Bombe 70 Jahre nach der Explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-11-01

    This short note provides a reference to an American magazine article [Susan K. Hanson et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113, 8104 (2016) - 4933] in which an approach to measuring extinct fission products is described that would allow for the characterization of a nuclear test at any time. The isotopic composition of molybdenum in five samples of glassy debris from the 1945 Trinity nuclear test has been measured. Non-natural molybdenum isotopic compositions were observed, reflecting an input from the decay of the short-lived fission products {sup 95}Zr and {sup 97}Zr. By measuring both the perturbation of the {sup 95}Mo/{sup 96}Mo and {sup 97}Mo/{sup 96}Mo isotopic ratios and the total amount of molybdenum in the Trinity nuclear debris samples, it is possible to calculate the original concentrations of the {sup 95}Zr and {sup 97}Zr isotopes formed in the nuclear detonation. Together with a determination of the amount of plutonium in the debris, these measurements of extinct fission products allow for new estimates of the efficiency and yield of the historic Trinity test.

  5. Separation of uranium, plutonium and fission products on zirconium phosphate, Part 1 - Adsorption equilibria and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, I; Ruvarac, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za hemiju visoke aktivnosti, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-02-15

    The distribution coefficients of UO{sub 2}{sup ++}, PuO{sub 2}{sup ++}, Pu{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 4+}, Fe{sup 3+}, {sup 137}Cs{sup +}, {sup 90}Sr{sup ++}, {sup 95}Zr{sup +}+{sup 95}Nb{sup 5+}, {sup 106}Ru and {sup 144}Ce{sup 3+} were determined in the system zirconium phosphate-aqueous solution of HNO{sub 3}. As for the exchange reation Cs{sup +}/H{sup +} and Sr{sup ++}/2H{sup +}, it has been shown that the mass action law can be applied. For these reactions the corresponding equilibrium constants were calculated. The rates of adsorption of Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup ++}, Fe{sup 3+} and Pu{sup 4+} from solutions of a fixed HNO{sub 3} concentration were studied, and empirical rate equations were derived. The experimental data confirm that UO{sub 2}{sup ++} can be separated from Pu{sup 4+}. Among the fission products, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 106}Ru and {sup 144}Ce mainly follow the fraction of uranium, while {sup 137}Cs, {sup 95}Zr and {sup 95}Nb follow the plutonium fraction. Separations within the fractions are possible (author)

  6. Analysis and development of methods for the recovery of tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP)-30%v/v-degraded dodecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalston, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate associated with an inert hydrocarbon is the main solvent used in reprocessing of nuclear irradiated fuel arising of pressurized water reactors. The combined action of radiation and nitric acid cause severe damage to solvent, in reprocessing steps. The recovery of the solvent is, thus, of great importance, since it decreases the amount of the waste and improves the process economy. A comparative analysis of several methods of the recovery of this solvent was carried out, such as: alkaline washing, adsorption with resins, adsorption with aluminium oxide, adsorption by active carbon and adsorption by vermiculite. Some modifications of analytical 95 Zr test and a mathematical definition of two new parameters (degradation grade and efficiency of recovery) were done. Through this modified 95 Zr test, the residence time and the rate of degraded solvent: recuperator were determined. After laboratory tests, vermiculite associated with active carbon was employed for the treatment of 50 liters of tri-n-butyl phosphate (30% V/V)-dodecane, degraded by hydrolysis. Other analyses were performed to check the potentialities of these solids for this solvent recovery. (Author) [pt

  7. Analysis and development of methods for the recovery of degraded tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)-30%V/V-dodecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalston, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate associated with an inert hydrocarbon, is the principal solvent used in reprocessing of nuclear irradiated fuel arising of pressurized water reactors, nowdays. The combined action of radiation and nitric acid cause severe damage to solvent, in reprocessing steps. Then, the recovery of solvent gets some importance, since it decreases the amount of the waste and improves the economy of the process. A comparative analysis of several methods of the recovery of this solvent was done, such as: alkaline washing, adsortion with resins, adsorption with aluminium oxide, adsorption by active carbon and adsorption by vermiculite. Some modifications of the analytical test of 95 Zr and a mathematical definition of two new parameters were done: the degradation grade and the eficiency of recovering. Through this modified test of 95 Zr, the residence time and the rate of degraded solvent: recuperator, were determined. After the laboratory tests had been performed, vermiculite, associated with active carbon, were employed in the treatment of 50 liters of tri-n-butyl phosphate (30%V/V)-dodecane, degraded by hydrolysis. Succeding analyses were made to check up the potentialities of these solids in the recovering of this solvent. (Author) [pt

  8. Radioactive nuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Aiji; Miyagawa, Naoto; Miyanaga, Naotake

    1984-01-01

    To investigate behaviour of 95 Zr, 95 Nb in the marine environment, various samples have been collected and measured by means of Ge(Li) γ-ray spectrometry and/or radiochemical analysis during a period from 1974 to 1982 at coastal area of Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture. Concentration of the nuclides in seaweeds increased remarkably after atmospheric nuclear detonation by P.R. of China, and the activity ratio between the nuclides changed by time was not fit well by the transient decay equation. Concentration variation in sea water was smaller than that in sea weeds, and the minimum change in sea sediment. Increase of concentration in these environmental samples was observed in chronological order of sea water, sea weeds then sediment after detonations, suggesting that the uptake of the nuclides by these sea weeds from sea water is faster than that via root. Observed concentration factors on the nuclides by sea weeds were calculated from the observed concentrations in sea water and sea weeds. Maximum values on 95 Zr and 95 Nb were 2110, 2150, respectively for Ecklonia cava and Eisenia bicyclis. (author)

  9. Analysis of radioactive fallout of the atomic bomb explosion on Bikini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K

    1954-01-01

    The radioactive fallout was found to contain 55.2, 7.0, 11.8, and 26.0% of CaO, MgO, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O, respectively, the chief constituent being Ca(OH)/sub 2/. The electric-spark method of analysis showed the presence of Al, Fe, and Si in addition to Ca and Mg. Its decay curve followed I = ct/sup -1/ /sup 37/, where I represents radioactivity, t, time since the explosion took place, March 1, 1954, and c, const. Its specific activity measured on April 23, 1954, was 0.37 mc./g. Radioactive nuclei identified by March 26 were /sup 89/Sr, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 91/Y, /sup 95/Sr, /sup 95m/Nb, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 103/Ru, /sup 106/Rh, /sup 129m/Te, /sup 129/Te, /sup 132/Te, /sup 131/I, /sup 132/I, /sup 140/Ba, /sup 141/Ce, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 143/Pr, /sup 144/Pr, /sup 147/Nd, /sup 147/Pm, /sup 35/S, /sup 45/Ca, /sup 237/U, and /sup 239/Pu.

  10. First radiochemical studies on the transmutation of 239Pu with spallation neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, J.-S.; Langrock, E.-J.; Westmeier, W.

    2000-01-01

    Incineration studies of plutonium were carried out at the synchrophasotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna) using proton beams with energies of 0.53 GeV and 1.0 GeV. Solid lead target (8 cm in diameter and 20 cm long) was surrounded with 6 cm thick paraffin as neutron moderator and then irradiated. The transmutation of 239 Pu and the associated production of fission products 91 Sr, 92 Sr, 97 Zr, 99 Mo, 103 Ru, 105 Ru, 129 Sb, 132 Te, 133 I, 135 I and 143 Ce were studied. The plutonium samples (each 449 mg) were placed on the outer surface of moderator. For 1.0 GeV proton beam, the fission rate of 239 Pu is 0.0032 fissions per proton in one gram plutonium samples, for 0.53 GeV proton this value is 0.0022. The experimental uncertainty is about 15%. The experiments are compared to two theoretical model calculations with moderate success, using the Dubna Cascade Model (CEM) and the LAHET code. The practical incineration rate of 239 Pu is very high. For example: if one uses 10mA, 1 GeV proton beams under the same (fictive) experimental conditions, the incineration rate of 239 Pu via fission is 3 mg out of the 449 mg sample per day. For 0.53 GeV protons the corresponding rate is 2 mg per day

  11. Relative contributions of natural and waste-derived organics to the subsurface transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Myers, R.B.

    1985-06-01

    Our laboratory is studying the role of organic compounds in the subsurface transport of radionuclides at shallow-land burial sites of low-level nuclear waste, including a commercial site at Maxey Flats, Kentucky, and an aqueous waste disposal site. At the Maxey Flats site, several radionuclides, notably Pu and 60 Co, appear to exist as anionic, organic complexes. Waste-derived organics, particularly chelating agents such as EDTA, HEDTA and associated degradation products (e.g., ED3A), are abundant in aqueous waste leachates and appear to account for the complexation. EDTA, and probably other waste-derived chelating agents as well, are chelated to the Pu and 60 Co in the leachates, potentially mobilizing these radionuclides. In contrast, at the low-level aqueous waste disposal site, naturally-occurring organics, ranging from low molecular weight (MW) acids to high MW humic acids, account for the bulk of the groundwater's organic content. Certain radionuclides, notably 60 Co, 103 Ru and 125 Sb, are mobile as anionic complexes. These radionuclides are clearly associated with higher MW organics, presumably humic and fulvic acids with nominal MW's > 1000. It is clear, therefore, that naturally-occurring organics may play an important role in radionuclide transport, particularly at nuclear waste burial sites containing little in the way of waste-derived organics

  12. Korean experimental studies on the radionuclide transfer in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.H.; Lim, K.M.; Choi, G.S.; Choi, H.J.; Lee, H.S.; Lee, C.W.

    2003-01-01

    In Korea, data on the radionuclide transfer in crop plants have been produced almost exclusively at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), where experimental studies have been carried out for last about 20 years. These works are briefly outlined in this paper which shows results with emphasis on rice data. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of radionuclides including radiocesium and radiostrontium were measured through greenhouse experiments for various crop species. Not only conventional transfer factors but also those based on the activity applied to unit area of the soil surface were investigated. Field studies on the transfer of fallout 137 Cs were carried out for rice and Chinese cabbage. As for parameters in relation to direct plant contamination, interception factors and translocation factors were obtained through greenhouse experiments. Plants were sprayed with radioactive solutions containing 54 Mn, 57 Co, 85 Sr, 103 Ru and 134 Cs at different growth stages. Experiments on the plant exposure to airborne HTO and I 2 vapor were also carried out. The transfer parameters generally showed great variations with soils, crops, radionuclides and isotope application times. Most experiments were designed for acute releases of radioactivity but some results are applicable to steady-state conditions, too. Many of the produced data would be of use also in other countries including Japan. (author)

  13. Development of pulmonary vascular response to oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, F.C. III; Egan, E.A.; Ferguson, W.; Lundgren, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of the pulmonary circulation of the fetal lamb to respond to a rise in oxygen tension was studied from 94 to 146 days of gestation. The unanesthetized ewe breathed room air at normal atmospheric pressure, followed by 100% oxygen at three atmospheres absolute pressure in a hyperbaric chamber. In eleven near-term lambs, fetal arterial oxygen tension (Pa O 2 ) increased from 25 to 55 Torr, which increased the proportion or right ventricular output distributed to the fetal lungs from 8 to 59%. In five very immature lambs fetal Pa O 2 increased from 27 to 174 Torr, but the proportion of right ventricular output distributed to the lung did not change. In five of the near-term lambs, pulmonary blood flow was measured. For each measurement of the distribution of blood flow, approximately 8 x 10 5 spheres of 15-μm diameter, labeled with either 153 Gd, 113 Sn, 103 Ru, 95 Nb, or 46 Sc were injected. It increased from 34 to 298 ml · kg fetal wt -1 · min -1 , an 8.8-fold increase. The authors conclude that the pulmonary circulation of the fetal lamb does not respond to an increase in oxygen tension before 101 days of gestation; however, near term an increase in oxygen tension alone can induce the entire increase in pulmonary blood flow that normally occurs after the onset of breathing at birth

  14. Influence of nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl' on the environmental radioactivity in Toyama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Miyuki; Shoji, Miki; Honda, Takashi; Sakanoue, Masanobu.

    1987-01-01

    The environmental radioactivity caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl' was investigated from May 7 to May 31 of 1986 in Toyama. Measurement of radioactivities in airborne particles, rain water, drinking water, milk, and mugwort are carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry (pure Ge detector; ORTEC GMX-23195). Ten different nuclides ( 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 131 I, 132 Te-I, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba-La) are identified from samples of airborne particles. In the air samples, a maximum radioactivity concentration of each nuclide is observed on 13th May 1986. The time of the reactor shut-down and the flux of thermal neutron at the reactor were calculated from 131 I/ 132 I and 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratio. The exposure dose in Toyama by this accident is given as follows: internal exposure; [thyroid] adult-59 μSv, child-140 μSv, baby-130 μSv, [total body] adult-0.2 μSv, child, baby-0.4 μSv, external exposure; 7 μSv, effective dose equivalent; adult-9 μSv, child-12 Sv, baby-11 μSv. (author)

  15. Thirty years after Chernobyl: Long-term determination of 137Cs effective half-life in the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Pugliese, M; Quarto, M; Adamo, P; Loffredo, F; De Cicco, F; Roca, V

    2017-06-01

    It has been widely shown that nuclear fallout includes substances, which accumulate in organisms such as crustaceans, fish, mushrooms and lichens, helping to evaluate the activity concentration of contaminants accumulated on a long time. In this context, radiocaesium deposited in soil following the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986 is known to have remained persistently available for plant uptake in many areas of Europe. Studies on the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum show the plant's high capacity to retain radionuclides from the substrate and the air. After the Chernobyl accident, starting from September 1986, at the Radioactivity Laboratory (LaRa) of the University of Naples Federico II, four monitoring campaigns to evaluate the activity concentration of four isotopes of the two elements caesium and ruthenium ( 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 103 Ru and 106 Ru) were carried out until 1999. This study allowed the effective half-life of 134 Cs and 137 Cs to be estimated. Twenty-eight years after the accident, in December 2014, a further sampling was carried out; only 137 Cs was revealed beyond the detection limits, measuring activity concentrations ranging from 20 to 40 Bq/kg, while the other radionuclides were no longer observed due to their shorter half-life. The last sampling allowed more precise determination of the effective half-life of 137 Cs (6.2 ± 0.1 year), due to the larger dataset on a large time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurements after the Chernobyl accident in relation to the exposure of an urban population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.

    2000-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in-situ gammaspectrometric measurements have been performed in Munich and in smaller towns in Southern Bavaria. At the measurement sites about two thirds of the total contamination was deposited by rain. For grassland, the attenuation of the radiation from 131 I, 103 Ru, 134 Cs, and 140 Ba due to the initial migration of the radionuclides in the ground and due to the surface roughness was found to be similar. However, large variations between the retention of the various elements on smooth surfaces have been observed. The absorbed dose-rate inside houses due to Chernobyl radionuclides was the range of one tenth to one hundredth of the absorbed dose-rate over open grassland, depending on the type of house and the location in the house, especially on the angle of view from the detector position to outside locations. The absorbed dose-rate in air due to caesium, isotopes was measured over a period of 1 month to 8 years after the accident. To facilitate a use in models on radiation doses in urban environments, the time dependence of the results were approximated by analytical functions. (author)

  17. Production of 103mRh for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarnemark, G.; Oedegaard-Jensen, A.; Bernhardt, P.

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive nuclides that emit charged particles with short range are of great interest for internal radiotherapy of small tumors or even single cancer cells. Such therapy uses radio-labelled molecules that find cancer cells and attach to them. When the radionuclide decays it destroys the cancer cell but does not affect the surrounding healthy tissue. Internal radiotherapy may be a complement to surgery, chemotherapy or external irradiation. For larger tumors it is possible to use β-emitters like 90 Y but for small tumors the required short range limits the choice of radio-nuclides to emitters of alpha-particles or low energy electrons, e.g., Auger electrons. A promising α-emitter is 211 At that has undergone laboratory and clinical tests. An example of the other decay mode is the low energy electron emitter 103m Rh. A study performed by BERNHARDT et al. showed that this nuclide has very favorable properties: low electron energy, suitable half-life (56 min) and a low photon/electron ratio (p/e = 0.04). It has also the advantage that it can be produced via a generator containing either 103 Ru or 103 Pd. (author)

  18. Radionuclide deposition and migration within the Gideaa and Finnsjoen study sites, Sweden: A study of the fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, E.; Sundblad, B.; Karlberg, O.; Lampe, S.; Tullborg, E.L.

    1987-12-01

    Radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 were deposited over large areas of Sweden. The distribution and migration of the radionuclides during the first months after deposition were measured in a comprehensive survey within two study sites, Gideaa in Aangermanland county and Finnsjoen in Uppland county. The sites are previously investigated in the SKB site characterization programme and well defined regarding geology and hydrology. Radionuclides analysed are: Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-90, Zr-95, Nb-95, Mo-99, Ru-103, Ru-106, Ag-110m, Sb-125, I-131, Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, Ba-140, La-140, Ce-141 and Ce-144. The CS-137 surface activity gave a range of 30-100 kBq/m 2 in Gideaa and 20-40 kBq/m 2 in Finnsjoen. Radionuclide migration is observed in soil profiles, groundwater and rock fissures. An active transport by surface water is also evident from sediment samples. Radionuclides have been absorbed in different types of vegetation. (orig./DG)

  19. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockdale, J.A.D.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Lee, H.T.

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation and comparison of proposed thermal treatment systems for mixed wastes can be expedited by tests in which the radioactive components of the wastes are replaced by surrogate materials chosen to mimic, as far as is possible, the chemical and physical properties of the radioactive materials of concern. In this work, sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Project of the US Department of Energy, the authors have examined reported experience with such surrogates and suggest a simplified standard list of materials for use in tests of thermal treatment systems. The chief radioactive nuclides of concern in the treatment of mixed wastes are 239 Pu, 238 U, 235 U, 137 Cs, 103 Ru, 99 Tc, and 90 Sr. These nuclides are largely by-products of uranium enrichment, reactor fuel reprocessing, and weapons program activities. Cs, Ru, and Sr all have stable isotopes that can be used as perfect surrogates for the radioactive forms. Technetium exists only in radioactive form, as do plutonium and uranium. If one wishes to preclude radioactive contamination of the thermal treatment system under trial burn, surrogate elements must be chosen for these three. For technetium, the authors suggest the use of natural ruthenium, and for both plutonium and uranium, they recommend cerium. The seven radionuclides listed can therefore be simulated by a surrogate package containing stable isotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, and cerium

  20. Blood flow in transplantable bladder tumors treated with hematoporphyrin derivative and light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selman, S.H.; Kreimer-Birnbaum, M.; Klaunig, J.E.; Goldblatt, P.J.; Keck, R.W.; Britton, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    Following hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) photochemotherapy, blood flow to transplantable N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thia-zolyl] formamide-induced urothelial tumors was determined by a radioactive microsphere technique using either 103 Ru or 141 Ce. Two tumors were implanted s.c. on the abdominal wall of Fischer 344 weanling rats. HPD (10 mg/kg body weight) was administered 24 hr prior to phototherapy (red light, greater than 590 nm; 360 J/sq cm). One of the two tumors was shielded from light exposure and served as an internal control. Blood flows were determined in control animals that received no treatment (Group 1), HPD only (Group 2), or light only (Group 3). In Groups 4 and 5, animals received the combination of HPD and light but differed in the time interval between treatment and blood flow determinations (10 min and 24 hr, respectively). Only blood flow to tumors treated with HPD and light showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.05) when compared with their internal controls both at 10 min (Group 4) and 24 hr (Group 5) after completion of phototherapy. These studies suggest that disruption of tumor blood flow may be an important mechanism of action of this method of cancer therapy

  1. Measurement of radioactive tracer microsphere blood from with NaI(Tl)- and Ge-well type detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, B.; Staemmler, G.; Schaper, W.; Frank, J.; Langsdorf, S.

    1982-01-01

    An intrinsic Ge-well type detector was applied for the detection of gamma rays from labeled tracer microspheres. The high energy resolution and the large peak-to-Compton ratio of this spectrometer ensures the application of all available differently labeled tracer microspheres in one experiment. The superior energy resolution of the Ge-detector was documented with the separated photopeak regions of 103-Ru and 85-Sr-labeled tracer microspheres, which result in a single photopeak when an NaI(Tl) detector is used. The Ge-well type detector was compared with an NaI(Tl) spectrometer by counting samples of cardiac muscle in either spectrometer systems. Regression analysis between both spectrometer systems demonstrate identical flow values in these samples for 5 differently labeled tracer microspheres which were administered in 5 dogs. The high sensitivity of the Ge-well-type detector together with a suitable technique for sampling of myocardial tissue accomplishes a high spatial resolution of myocardial perfusion for all available differently labeled tracer microspheres. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of Cesium, Iodine, Strontium and Ruthenium isotopes behaviour in urban areas, after contamination from accidental release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetere, Maria Ines de Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    The exposures of urban populations to the radiation derived from the deposition, after accidental atmospheric releases, of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 129 I, 131 I, 133 I, 89 Sr, 103 Ru and 106 Ru were assessed, using the integrated system for the evaluation of environmental radiological impact in emergency situations, developed by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). These radionuclide are fission products likely to be emitted in the occurrence of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Their environmental behaviour in urban areas, due to their deposition in soil, in urban surfaces and in vegetable-garden food products, such as leafy and non-leafy vegetables, were analyzed, and dose assessments at the short, medium and long terms were performed, with an without the application of protective measures for reduction of doses. Simulations of unitary initial deposition for each radionuclide and of two different potential accidents involving water reactors (PWR), with different source terms and distinct deposition for each radionuclide, were performed. Results were analyzed on the basis of relative relevance of radionuclides and pathways for the exposure of members of the public, as a function of age and time after the release. It was also performed an assessment of the effectiveness of protective measures as a function of the moment of their implementation. (author)

  3. Radioactive decontamination methods and their effectiveness as a function of terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, T; Kellner, C R; Oswald, K M [California Univ., Mercury, NV (USA). Lawrence Radiation Lab.

    1978-08-01

    A large area of rugged terrain on the Nevada Test Site was contaminated following a spill of radioactively contaminated drilling mud. The contamination was shown to consist of /sup 103/Ru and /sup 106/(Ru-Rh) with total estimated activity at release time of 38 and 6 Ci, respectively. Several decontamination methods were used and their effectiveness assessed by determining the fraction of radioactivity remaining (FR) following each. In flat areas, the front end loader was by far the most efficient method, removing large quantities of dirt in relatively short periods of time. FRs of 10-/sup 22/ were achieved. In canyon areas, flushing with water was most effective on rocky surfaces with FRs of 10/sup -3/, while shoveling and bagging in evaporated mud collection ponds worked well and resulted in FRs of 10/sup -2/. The FR in rocky cracks was about 10/sup -1/ following flushing with water. In Locations where radioactive mud/water had not penetrated the ground surface to more than 1-2in., such as fine grain, flat compact dirt, vacuuming was very effective achieving FRs of 10/sup -3/. However, unless the contaminated area was very small (e.g. dropping from front end loading operations), vacuuming was too slow to be of practical value. Under the supervision of experienced radiation monitors, the radioactive mud spill area was safely cleaned up using, for the most part, standard earth moving equipment and personnel untrained in decontamination procedures.

  4. Radioactive decontamination methods and their effectiveness as a function of terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Kellner, C.R.; Oswald, K.M.

    1978-01-01

    A large area of rugged terrain on the Nevada Test Site was contaminated following a spill of radioactively contaminated drilling mud. The contamination was shown to consist of 103 Ru and 106 [Ru-Rh] with total estimated activity at release time of 38 and 6 Ci, respectively. Several decontamination methods were used and their effectiveness assessed by determining the fraction of radioactivity remaining (FR) following each. In flat areas, the front end loader was by far the most efficient method, removing large quantities of dirt in relatively short periods of time. FRs of 10- 22 were achieved. In canyon areas, flushing with water was most effective on rocky surfaces with FRs of 10 -3 , while shoveling and bagging in evaporated mud collection ponds worked well and resulted in FRs of 10 -2 . The FR in rocky cracks was about 10 -1 following flushing with water. In Locations where radioactive mud/water had not penetrated the ground surface to more than 1-2in., such as fine grain, flat compact dirt, vacuuming was very effective achieving FRs of 10 -3 . However, unless the contaminated area was very small (e.g. dropping from front end loading operations), vacuuming was too slow to be of practical value. Under the supervision of experienced radiation monitors, the radioactive mud spill area was safely cleaned up using, for the most part, standard earth moving equipment and personnel untrained in decontamination procedures. (author)

  5. Neural control of adrenal medullary and cortical blood flow during hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breslow, M.J.; Jordan, D.A.; Thellman, S.T.; Traystman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Hemorrhagic hypotension produces an increase in adrenal medullary blood flow and a decrease in adrenal cortical blood flow. To determine whether changes in adrenal blood flow during hemorrhage are neurally mediated, the authors compared blood flow responses following adrenal denervation (splanchnic nerve section) with changes in the contralateral, neurally intact adrenal. Carbonized microspheres labeled with 153 Gd, 114 In, 113 Sn, 103 Ru, 95 Nb or 46 Se were used. Blood pressure was reduced and maintained at 60 mmHg for 25 min by hemorrhage into a pressurized bottle system. Adrenal cortical blood flow decreased to 50% of control with hemorrhage in both the intact and denervated adrenal. Adrenal medullary blood flow increased to four times control levels at 15 and 25 min posthemorrhage in the intact adrenal, but was reduced to 50% of control at 3, 5, and 10 min posthemorrhage in the denervated adrenal. In a separate group of dogs, the greater splanchnic nerve on one side was electrically stimulated at 2, 5, or 15 Hz for 40 min. Adrenal medullary blood flow increased 5- to 10-fold in the stimulated adrenal but was unchanged in the contralateral, nonstimulated adrenal. Adrenal cortical blood flow was not affected by nerve stimulation. They conclude that activity of the splanchnic nerve profoundly affects adrenal medullary vessels but not adrenal cortical vessels and mediates the observed increase in adrenal medullary blood flow during hemorrhagic hypotension

  6. Concentration parameters for radionuclides by marine molluscs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Makamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Matsuba, Mitsue

    1994-01-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides from seawater and from food by marine molluscs was observed in the laboratory experiments to get bioconcentration parameters for the nuclides. The radionuclides investigated were 57 Co, 95m Tc, 103 Ru, 137 Cs, 65 Zn and 54 Mn. Several species of molluscs containing pelecypods, gastropods and cephalopod were used for the experimental organisms. For the uptake experiment from seawater, the organisms were kept for more than seven days in radioactive seawater containing those radionuclides together. Then the organisms were transferred into nonradioactive seawater to observe the loss of the nuclides from the organisms. Biphasic loss curves were observed for all of the nuclides. Bioconcentration parameters, such as uptake rate, excretion rate, biological half-life and concentration factor at steady state were estimated from the uptake and excretion curves of the nuclides by the organisms by applying an exponential model. In the uptake experiments from radioactive food, the phytoplankton (Tetraselmis tetrathele), the brown algae (Eisenia bicyclis) and the viscera of abalone (Haliotis discus) were fed to bivalves, herbivorous gastropods and carnivorous molluscs, respectively. After single feeding of the labelled food with the nuclides, retention of the nuclides in whole body of the organisms was followed for several weeks or more. The organisms showed relatively high retention of the nuclides in whole body, except 137 Cs and 54 Mn. Retention of 137 Cs and 54 Mn in the organisms one day after feeding of radioactive food was lower than 25% of the radioactivity dosed. (author)

  7. Concentration of radionuclides by marine organisms and their food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu

    1993-01-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides from seawater and from food by marine organisms was observed in the laboratory experiments to get bioconcentration parameters for the nuclides. The radionuclides investigated were 57 Co, 95m Tc, 103 Ru, 137 Cs, 65 Zn and 54 Mn. Several species of molluscs containing pelecypods, gastropods and cephalopod were used for the experimental organisms. For the uptake experiment from seawater, the organisms were kept for more than seven days in radioactive seawater containing those radionuclides together. Then the organisms were transferred into non-radioactive seawater to observe the loss of the nuclides from the organisms. Biphasic loss curves were observed for all of the nuclides. Bioconcentration parameters, such as uptake rate, excretion rate, biological half-life and concentration factor at steady state were estimated from the uptake and excretion curves of the nuclides by the organisms by applying an exponential model. In the uptake experiments from radioactive food, the phytoplankton (Tetraselmis tetrathele), the brown algae (Eisenia bicyclis) and the viscera of abalone were fed to bivalves, herbivorous gastropods and carnivorous molluscs, respectively. After single feeding of the labelled food with the nuclides, retention of the nuclides in whole body of the organisms was followed for several weeks or more. The organisms showed relatively high retention of the nuclides in whole body, except 137 Cs and 54 Mn. Retention of 137 Cs and 54 Mn in the organisms one day after feeding of radioactive food was lower than 25 % of the radioactivity dosed. (author)

  8. Extraction of indicator quantities of zirconium by di-n-cresylphosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fomin, V V; Potapova, S A

    1976-01-01

    The carrier-free extraction is studied of /sup 95/Zr from 1, 2, 5 and 9M HNO/sub 3/ with the solutions of d-n-cresyl-phosphoric acid (HA) in CHCl/sub 3/ concentrated from 1.25x10/sup -4/ to 5x10/sup -4/ M from the mixtures of HNO/sub 3/ and LiNO/sub 3/ NaNO/sub 3/, Ca(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ solutions and HClO/sub 4/ and NaClO/sub 4/ depending on the concentration of hydrogen ions at a constant concentration of HA in CHCl/sub 3/ equal to 2.5x10/sup -4/ M, and the concentration of NO/sub 3//sup -/ and ClO/sub 4//sup -/ ions equal to 5 g-ion/1. The results are presented in terms of bilogarithmic dependencies of the distribution coefficient (..cap alpha..) on the equilibrium concentration of the (HA)/sub 2/ - ions in the aqueous phase. It follows from the data obtained that the region 1-5 M HNO/sub 3/ is dominated by the hydrolyzed ions of Zr(OH)/sub 2//sup 2 +/, while the region 3-5 M HClO/sub 4/ - by Zr/sup 4 +/, and the compound to be extracted has the composition ZrA/sub 4/. In the extraction of /sup 95/Zr with a 2.5x10/sup -4/ M solution of HA from HNO/sub 3/ or HClO/sub 4/ only, ..cap alpha.. passes through a minimum at a concentration of 3.4 and 5.4 M, respectively. The extraction is studied of /sup 95/Zr with a 2.5x1g/sup -4/ M solution of HA from the mixtures of HNO/sub 3/ and HClO/sub 4/ with an aggregate concentration of 1 and 5 M, respectively. At a definite mixture composition corresponding to the 1.3 M HNO/sub 3/ and 3.7 M HClO/sub 4/, ..cap alpha.. passes through a maximum. The maximum value of ..cap alpha.. is 11 times that in the extraction from 5 M HClO/sub 4/ and 4.5 times that in the extraction from 5 M HNO/sub 3/.

  9. A Study of the Recoil Reactions of Three Isotopes of Ruthenium in Ruthenocene; Etude des Reactions d'Atomes de Recul de Trois Isotopes du Ruthenium dans le Ruthenocen; 0418 0417 0423 0427 0415 041d 0418 0415 0420 0415 0410 041a 0426 0418 0419 041e 0422 0414 0410 0427 0418 0422 0420 0415 0425 0418 0417 041e 0422 041e 041f 041e 0412 0420 0423 0422 0415 041d 0418 042f 0412 0420 0423 0422 0415 041d 041e 0421 0415 041d 0415 ; Estudio de las Reacciones de Retroceso de Tres Isotopos del Rutenio en el Rutenoceno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G.; Zahn, U. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1965-04-15

    -state of the different ruthenium isotopes following de-excitation of the compound nuclear state, must also be considered. Several alternative explanations of these results are discussed. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont etudie les reactions d'atomes de recul de trois isotopes de ruthenium dans le ruthenocene, compose moleculaire 'sandwich' [(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2} Ru]. Les radioisotopes produits dans le reacteur par des reactions (n, {gamma}) etaient: {sup 97}Ru (2, 9 j) {sup 109}Ru (40 j) et {sup 105}Ru (4,45 h); leurs activites relatives ont ete determinees par analyse des spectres de scintillation au moyen d'un appareil multicanaux. Les auteurs ont bombarde des cristaux de ruthenocene a diverses temperatures et en divers emplacements; a la temperature ambiante, ils ont observe les retentions suivantes: {sup 97}Ru, 9.5{+-}0.1; {sup 103}Ru, 10.7 {+-} 0.2; et {sup 105}Ru , 9.9{+-}0.2%. A la suite d'un recuit des cristaux a 140 Degree-Sign C, la retention n'a augmente que legerement; toutefois, il s'est forme un autre compose organique volatil (inconnu), marque par le ruthenium, qui a pu etre separe du ruthenocene par sublimation repetee. Lorsque les auteurs ont pris pour cible une solution a 2% de ruthenocene dans du benzene, ils ont observe les retentions suivantes: 0.61{+-}0.03, 1.04{+-}0.02 and 0.98{+-}0.02%; ces valeurs n'ont pas sensiblement varie lorsqu'ils ont pris comme cible une solution dix fois plus diluee (concentration 0,2%). Pour determiner l'effet possible de la viscosite du milieu, les auteurs ont egalement fait des recherches sur des solutions a 2% de ruthenocene dans du benzene contenant 2, 10 et 20% de polystyrene. La encore, les resultats etaient tres analogues a ceux qu'ils avaient obtenus pour le benzene pur. Les auteurs ont aussi etudie des solutions benzeniques (2 et 0,2% de ruthenocene) solides a basse temperature; les valeurs de la retention se rapprochaient de celles des cristaux de ruthenocene a la meme temperature. Si l'on exprime l

  10. Chemical Production using Fission Fragments; Emploi des fragments de fission dans la production de substances chimiques; Ispol'zovanie produkto v raspada v khimicheskom proizvodstve; Empleo de los fragmentos de fision en la industria quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, J K; Moseley, F [AERE, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1960-07-15

    'eau. Aucun des systemes etudies jusqu'a present ne parait offrir de possibilites interessantes pour la grande industrie chimique. (author) [Spanish] En una memoria presentada en la segunda Conferencia Internacional sobre la Utilizacion de la Energia Atomica con Fines Pacificos [A/Conf. 15/P. 76] se expusieron algunas consideraciones , atendiendo al diseno de los reactores, sobre la utilizacion de la energia de retroceso de los fragmentos de fision para la produccion de ciertos compuestos quimicos de importancia industrial. La presente memoria pasa revista a los progresos realizados desde entonces en esta materia por el Atomic Energy Research Establishment de Harwell. Los autores examinan la relacion entre el alcance y la energia para los fragmentos de fision al discutirse la eleccion del combustible para un reactor destinado a la produccion de compuestos quimicos y describen la variacion de efecto quimico observada a lo largo de la trayectoria de los fragmentos de fision en la irradiacion de mezclas de nitrogeno y oxigeno. Analizan tambien los resultados de investigaciones recientes acerca de los efectos de fragmentos de fision sobre mezclas de monoxido de carbono e hidrogeno y sobre el vapor de agua. Al parecer, ninguno de los sistemas estudiados hasta la fecha ofrece perspectivas particularmente interesantes para la industria quimica pesada. (author) [Russian] V doklade, predstavlennom ran'she na Vtoroj mezhdunarodnoj konferentsii Organizatsii Ob'edinennykh Natsij po mirnomu ispol'zovaniyu atomnoj ehnergii (A/Conf. 15/P. 76) v svyazi s konstruktsiej reaktorov obsuzhdalis' nekotorye soobrazheniya otnositel'no vozmozhnosti ispol'zovaniya ehnergii otdachi produktov raspada dlya proizvodstva vazhnykh dlya promyshlennosti khimikaliev. V nastoyashchem doklade rezyumiruyutsya bolee nedavnie rezul'taty, dostignutye v ehtoj oblasti Nauchno-issledo-vatel'skim institutom po atomnoj ehnergii v KHaruehlle. Sootnoshenie mezhdu prokhodimym rasstoyaniem i ehnergiej produktov deleniya

  11. The determination of iron-59 in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Min; Ban Ying

    1993-06-01

    A method to analyse iron-59 in water is introduced. The procedure of this method includes concentration by co-precipitation with hydroxides purification by anion exchange, electrodeposition in NH 4 H 2 PO 4 -(NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 system and final measurements of beta activity with a background beta-counter. The effect of iron carrier amount and pH value of water sample on the carrying Fe-59, and the effect of concentration hydrochloric acid, flowrate of adsorption and elutriation with 6 mol/L HCl-1% H 2 O 2 solution on the adsorption efficiency have been studied. The experimental results indicate that for 101 water sample, both the chemical and radiochemical yields are greater than 90%. For 51 Cr, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 137 Cs the decontamination factor is greater than 10 3 . The minimum detectable limit of this method is 3.8 x 10 -3 Bq/L

  12. Specific processes in solvent extractiotn of radionuclide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.

    1982-01-01

    The doctoral thesis discusses the consequences of the radioactive beta transformation in systems liquid-liquid and liquid-ion exchanger, and the effect of the chemical composition of liquid-liquid systems on the distribution of radionuclide traces. A model is derived of radiolysis in two-phase liquid-liquid systems used in nuclear chemical technology. The obtained results are used to suggest the processing of radioactive wastes using the Purex process. For solvent extraction the following radionuclides were used: 59 Fe, 95 Zr- 95 Nb, 99 Mo, sup(99m)Tc, 99 Tc, 103 Pd, 137 Cs, 141 Ce, 144 Ce- 144 Pr, 234 Th, and 233 Pa. Extraction was carried out at laboratory temperature. 60 Co was used as the radiation source. Mainly scintillation spectrometry equipment was used for radiometric analysis. (E.S.)

  13. Preparative electrophoresis of industrial fission product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret, Joel

    1971-07-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the development of the continuous electrophoresis technique while studying its application in the preparative electrophoresis of industrial fission product solutions. The apparatus described is original. It was built for the purposes of the investigation and proved very reliable in operation. The experimental conditions necessary to maintain and supervise the apparatus in a state of equilibrium are examined in detail; their stability is an important factor, indispensable to the correct performance of an experiment. By subjecting an industrial solution of fission products to preparative electrophoresis it is possible, according to the experimental conditions, to prepare carrier-free radioelements of radiochemical purity (from 5 to 7 radioelements): 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 141+144 Ce, 91 Y, 95 Nb, 95 Zr, 103+106 Ru. (author) [fr

  14. Magnox fuel inventories. Experiment and calculation using a point source model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.

    1978-08-01

    The results of calculations of Magnox fuel inventories using the point source code RICE and associated Magnox reactor data set have been compared with experimental measurements for the actinide isotopes 234 , 235 , 236 , 238 U, 238 , 239 , 240 , 241 , 242 Pu, 241 , 243 Am and 242 , 244 Cm and the fission product isotopes 142 , 143 , 144 , 145 , 146 , 150 Nd, 95 Zr, 134 , 137 Cs, 144 Ce and daughter 144 Pr produced in four samples of spent Magnox fuel spanning the burnup range 3000 to 9000 MWd/Te. The neutron emissions from a further two samples were also measured and compared with RICE predictions. The results of the comparison were such as to justify the use of the code RICE for providing source terms for environmental impact studies, for the isotopes considered in the present work. (author)

  15. Measurements of fission product concentrations in surface air at Bombay, India, during the period 1975-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, C.D.; Rangarajan, C.; Menon, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements on airborne fallout radioactivity for the period 1975 up to the middle of 1981 are given. Normally, these measurements are confined to Bombay, but after nuclear tests, some of the other stations where these measurements were carried out in previous years are operated for some time to study the levels of fresh activity. The levels of the long-lived fission products 144 Ce, 106 Ru and 137 Cs, and the short-lived fission products 95 Zr and 140 Ba, were measured, whenever they could be detected following nuclear tests, and tabulated. The data indicate that the activity varies by large factors from tests of similar yield, depending on the meteorological and other conditions. It was determined that the travel time for the Chinese test debris from Lop Nor, China to the West-coast of India is 14 to 16 days

  16. Solvent extraction of Zr(IV) and Nb(V) with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4benzoyl-pyrazole-5-one and tri-iso-octylamine from different mineral acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.Y.; Nwabue, F.I.; Ahmed, S.

    1981-01-01

    The extraction of Zr(IV) and Nb(V) from aqueous solutions of mineral acids with 1% 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazole-5-one and 5% tri-iso-octylamine solutions in chloroform has been investigated respectively. The mechanism of extraction and the composition of the extracted species have been suggested and the effect of complexing and salting-out agents also determined. Separation factors of various metals with respect to niobium have been estimated and separation from zirconium and many other elements has been achieved. Procedures are recommended for the separation of 95 Nb from 95 Zr- 95 Nb mixture as well as from the fission products. (orig.) [de

  17. Radiochemical analysis of the body of the late Mr. Kuboyama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K; Ikedo, N; Kimura, K; Kawanishi, H; Kimura, M

    1956-01-01

    Analyses were carried out of various organs of Mr. Kuboyama 200 days after he had exposed himself to radiation of the atomic bomb explosion on Bikini Atoll, March, 1954. By ion-exchange chromatography, the presence of the following nuclides was indicated: /sup 144/Ce, and /sup 144/Pr in the bone (I) (20 x 10/sup -12/ counts/g. fresh wt.). Liver (II), and Kidneys (III); /sup 95/Zr and /sup 95/Nb in II and III; /sup 106/Rh, /sup 129m/Te, and /sup 129/Te in I, III, and muscles; and /sup 89/Sr, /sup 90/Sr, and /sup 90/Y in I, II, and III. Activities found in these organs were decidedly higher than those found in the control samples obtained from individuals who died of other than the so-called radiation sickness. Radiation dose received by the bones of Mr. Kuboyama was calculated to be approximately 8 r.e.p.

  18. Development of a cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.L.; Davies, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic radiation contributes significantly towards the background radiation measured by a gamma-spectrometer. A novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed that provides a mean background reduction of 54.5%. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates operated in time-stamp mode to detect coincident muon interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer. The instrument is easily configurable and provides improved sensitivity for radionuclides indicative of nuclear weapons tests and reactor incidents, including 140 Ba, 95 Zr, 99 Mo, 141 Ce, 147 Nd, 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs. This has been demonstrated for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty applications to obtain the required 140 Ba MDA of 24 mBq within 2 days counting. Analysis of an air filter sample collected during the Fukushima incident indicates improved sensitivity compared to conventional gamma-spectrometers. (author)

  19. Solution chemistry of element 104: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerwinski, K.R.; Gregorich, K.E.; Hannink, N.J.; Kacher, C.D.; Kadkhodayan, B.A.; Kreek, S.A.; Lee, D.M.; Nurmia, M.J.; Tuerler, A.; Seaborg, G.T.; Hoffman, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extractions of element 104 (Rf), Zr, Nb, Th, and Eu were conducted using triisooctylamine (TIOA), an organic soluble high molecular weight amine. Initial studies were conducted studying the extraction of Zr, Nb, Th and Eu from 12 M HCl in an organic phase of TIOA in benzene. Tracer loss due to thin sample formation was examined using 95 Zr. Based on the tracer extraction results, Rf extractions were conducted with an aqueous phase of 12 M HCl and an organic phase of 1.0 M and 0.1 M TIAO in benzene. The Rf extraction results showed that 0.1 M TIOA in benzene extracts Rf to a greater extent than 1.0 M TIOA in benzene. This difference is attributed to Rf loss during thin sample formation. The extraction of Rf by TIOA is further evidence that Rf behaves similar to the group 4 elements. (orig.)

  20. Removal of zirconium and niobium activities from plutonium nitrate during plutonium reconversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajithlal, R.T.; Rakshe, P.R.; Kumaraguru, K.

    2010-01-01

    Present investigation deals with quality improvement of Pu solutions after ion exchange cycle of Purex process. In order to improve the decontamination factor of Pu with respect to fission products zirconium ( 95 Zr) and niobium ( 95 Nb), Pu-Product solution was precipitated as oxalate at different compositions of nitric acid with stoichiometric and hyper-stoichiometric amount of oxalic acid. The Pu-oxalate so precipitated was washed with respective feed solutions of oxalic and nitric acid mixture, similar to feed conditions. Fission product activities in the feed, supernatant and the washes were analysed for gross gamma activity and individual fission products by Multichannel analyzer using HPGe-detector. A solution comprising of 4M HNO 3 + 0.2M excess oxalic acid precipitation with excess amount of washing yielded effective decontamination of the Pu product. (author)

  1. Some problems of parametric neutron activation analysis based on the use of radioactive daughters of longer-lived mothers with low mother/daughter half-life ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical and practical aspects of the use of radioactive daughters originated from the decay of longer-lived radioactive mothers in parametric activation analysis, when the ratio: mother half-life to daughter half-life is less than 10, are discussed. The mother-daughter relationships: 47 Ca/ 47 Sc; 95 Zr/ 95 Nb; 140 Ba/ 140 La; 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and 115 Cd/ 115m In are selected as models for the study. The cases when the radionuclide of interest is formed through both direct and indirect routes are also analyzed. As illustrative example, the direct reaction and the reaction chain: 47 Ti(n,p) 47 Sc/ 46 Ca(n,γ) 47 Ca(β - ) 47 Sc are evaluated with respect to the determination of the elements involved and their reciprocal interferences. (author)

  2. Burn-up measurements of LEU fuel for short cooling times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereda B, C.; Henriquez A, C.; Klein D, J.; Medel R, J.

    2005-01-01

    The measurements presented in this work were made essentially at in-pool gamma-spectrometric facility, installed inside of the secondary pool of the RECH-1 research reactor, where the measured fuel elements are under 2 meters of water. The main reason for using the in-pool facility was because of its capability to measure the burning of fuel elements without having to wait so long, that is with only 5 cooling days, which are the usual times between reactor operations. Regarding these short cooling times, this work confirms again the possibility of using the 95 Zr as a promising burnup monitor, in spite of the rough approximations used to do it. These results are statistically reasonable within the range calculated using codes. The work corroborates previous results, presented in Santiago de Chile, and it suggests future improvements in that way. (author)

  3. Contribution to the study of zirconium self-diffusion in zirconium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Chul

    1972-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to determine experimental conditions allowing the measurement of the self-diffusion coefficient of zirconium in zirconium carbide. The author reports the development of a method of preparation of zirconium carbide samples. He reports the use of ion implantation as technique to obtain a radio-tracer coating. The obtained results give evidence of the impossibility to use sintered samples with small grains because of the demonstrated importance of intergranular diffusion. The self-diffusion coefficient is obtained in the case of zirconium carbide with grains having a diameter of few millimetres. The presence of 95 Nb from the disintegration of 95 Zr indicates that these both metallic elements have very close diffusion coefficients at 2.600 C [fr

  4. Single-crystal growth of Group IVB and VB carbides by the floating-zone method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, C.B.; Chang, Y.K.; Abraham, M.M.

    1989-02-01

    The floating-zone method for the growth of Group IVB and VB carbides is described and reviewed. We have systematically investigated the technique and confirmed the growth of large single crystals of TiC/sub 0.95/, ZrC/sub 0.93/, ZrC/sub 0.98/, VC/sub 0.80/, NbC/sub 0.95/, TaC/sub 0.89/. Optimal growth conditions were in the 0.5-2.0 cm/h range under 8-12 atm helium. Good crystal growth results were achieved with hot-pressed starting rods of 90-95% density, using a ''double pancake'' induction coil and a 200-kHz/100- kW rf power supply. 36 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  5. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of {sup 137}Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of {sup 7}Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites.

  6. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of 137 Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, 7 Be and 210 Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of 7 Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of 7 Be and 210 Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of 7 Be, 95 Zr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, and 210 Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of 7 Be, 95 Zr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, and 210 Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites

  7. Precise simultaneous determination of zirconium and hafnium in silicate rocks, meteorites and lunar samples. [Neutron reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P A; Garg, A N; Ehmann, W D [Kentucky Univ., Lexington (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1977-01-01

    A precise, sensitive and rapid analytical technique has been developed for the simultaneous determination of Zr and Hf in natural silicate matrices. The technique is based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis and employs a rapid fusion dissolution of the sample and simultaneous precipitation of the Zr-Hf pair with p-hydroxybenzene arsenic acid in an acidic medium. The indicator radionuclides, /sup 95/Zr and /sup 181/Hf, are counted and the /sup 95/Zr activity is corrected for the contribution from U fission. The chemical yields of the radiochemical separation are based on Hf carrier. The yield is determined by reactivation of the processed samples and standards with a /sup 252/Cf isotopic neutron source and by counting the 18.6 sec half-life sup(179m)Hf. The RNAA procedure for Zr and Hf has been shown to be precise and accurate for natural silicate samples, based on replicate analyses of samples containing Zr in the range of 1 ..mu..g/g to over 600 ..mu..g/g. The procedure is relatively rapid with a total chemical processing time of approximately 3 hours. At least 4 samples are processed simultaneously. Ten additional elements (Fe, Cr, Co, Sc, Eu, La, Lu, Ce, Th and Tb) can be determined by direct Ge(Li) spectrometry (INAA) on the samples prior to dissolution for the RNAA determination of Zr and Hf. Corrections for the U fission contribution can be made on the basis of the known U content or from the INAA Th content, based on the relatively constant natural Th/U ratio.

  8. Processing of data issued from {gamma} spectrometer. Application to the study of decay schemes; Traitement des informations issues d'un spectrometre {gamma}. Application a l'etude de schemas de desintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, J P; Legrand, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The main purpose of the following report is the study of a generation method of {gamma} spectra corresponding to any energy, from a library of some basic spectra. Then we point out how to establish the decay scheme of a radio-nuclide, in using an accurate analysis of full-energy peaks which appear in its complex spectrum, followed by a generation of plain spectra corresponding to the energies of the different transitions, and ending with a least-squares fitting procedure of the complex spectrum. The accuracy of the process is examined comparing the calculated spectra to the ones issued from two kinds of spectrometers (Na I(Tl) and Ge(Li)). The method is then applied to the study of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 95}Zr - {sup 95}Nb. (authors) [French] Le present rapport a pour principal objet l'etude d'une methode de generation de spectres {gamma} correspondant a n'importe quelle energie, a partir d'une bibliotheque de quelques spectres de reference. On montre ensuite comment on peut etablir le schema de desintegration d'un radionucleide, a l'aide d'une analyse precise des pics d'absorption totale apparaissant dans son spectre complexe, suivie d'une generation des spectres simples correspondant aux energies des diverses transitions, et en terminant par une decomposition du spectre complexe par la methode des moindres carres. On examine la validite du procede en comparant les spectres calcules a ceux obtenus avec deux types de detecteurs (scintillateurs et semi-conducteurs). On applique alors la methode a l'etude du {sup 134}Cs et du {sup 95}Zr - {sup 95}Nb. (auteurs)

  9. Experimental studies on correlation between accumulation of radionuclides by fish, availability of bottom sediments, and concentration of microelements in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katkov, A E

    1979-07-01

    There are revealed peculiarities of accumulation of radionuclides desorbed from the ground by hydrobionts as compared with the accumulation of radionuclides appearing in the basin for the first time. The results of the experimental investigations on the dependence of nuclide accumulation coefficients (AC) on their concentration in water are summarized. The experiments have been performed on adult (6-8 years) golden crucian carp Carassius carassius in a basin with fresh water with /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe, /sup 60/Co, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 131/I, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 210/Po. The radionuclide group (/sup 54/Mn, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 210/Po) has been found out. The ground has contributed to its accumulation. For another group (/sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 51/Cr) it has been found an indistinctly expressed influence only of silt containing ground on AC. The third group comprises the radionuclides (/sup 90/Sr, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 131/I) accumulation of which in fish has been prevented by the ground. An inverse correlation between the nuclide AC changes in fishes (..delta..K) and changes in the concentration of their isotope carried (..delta..C) in water has been observed. The results of the mathematical processing of the summarized experimental data according to the ..delta..Kx ..delta..C=1 criterion are described by the dependence close to ACxC..-->.. const., cor. responding to the law of tendency to constancy preservation in the microelement concentration tissues. In the course of investigation of the relationship between the AC and the change of the radionuclide aggregate state in water no common dependence has been established.

  10. Irradiated-Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA): an integrated system for HTGR coated particle fuel performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, M.J.; Valentine, K.H.

    1980-02-01

    The Irradiated-Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA) System, designed and built at ORNL, provides the capability of making statistically accurate failure fraction measurements on irradiated HTGR coated particle fuel. The IMGA records the gamma-ray energy spectra from fuel particles and performs quantitative analyses on these spectra; then, using chemical and physical properties of the gamma emitters it makes a failed-nonfailed decision concerning the ability of the coatings to retain fission products. Actual retention characteristics for the coatings are determined by measuring activity ratios for certain gamma emitters such as 137 Cs/ 95 Zr and 144 Ce/ 95 Zr for metallic fission product retention and 134 Cs/ 137 Cs for an indirect measure of gaseous fission product retention. Data from IMGA (which can be put in the form of n failures observed in N examinations) can be accurately described by the binomial probability distribution model. Using this model, a mathematical relationship between IMGA data (n,N), failure fraction, and confidence level was developed. To determine failure fractions of less than or equal to 1% at confidence levels near 95%, this model dictates that from several hundred to several thousand particles must be examined. The automated particle handler of the IMGA system provides this capability. As a demonstration of failure fraction determination, fuel rod C-3-1 from the OF-2 irradiation capsule was analyzed and failure fraction statistics were applied. Results showed that at the 1% failure fraction level, with a 95% confidence level, the fissile particle batch could not meet requirements; however, the fertile particle exceeded these requirements for the given irradiation temperature and burnup

  11. Derived intervention levels for mostly consumed foodstuffs in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathivand, A. A.; Amidi, J.

    2006-01-01

    Measures to protect the public following an accidental release of radionuclides to the environment will depend on the circumstances including the extent of the potential hazards. The projected levels of risk are an important precondition in emergency planning. The levels can be expressed in terms of concentration levels in the environment or in protection in foodstaffs. These derived intervention levels can be determined for the range of important radionuclides that could be released to the environment in the event of a nuclear accident. Materials and Methods: Derived intervention levels for 90 Sr, 131 l, Cs 134 + 137 Cs, 238 Pu + 239 Ru+ 241 Am and 103 Ru + 106 Ru radionuclide groups were calculated for infants ( 17 years) for mostly consumed foodstuffs in Iran. Calculations of DlLs were based on recommendations from international, national organizations and average food consumption rate data for Iran. Results: From our research it was found that DlLs for foodstuffs consumed in lran for above mentioned radionuclide groups except for Ruthenium group are equal to 387, 250, 1023 and 2.8 Bqkg -1 respectively. Conclusion: The comparison of DILs for foodstuffs consumed in lran and DILs adopted in the new food and drug administration Compliance Policy Guide which are 160, 170, 1200, 2 Bq.kg -1 for 90 Sr, 131 I, 134 / 137 Cs, 2 38 / 239 Pu plus 241 Am radionuclide groups respectively, shows agreement with cesium and plutonium group and higher values for strontium and Iodine group. In the case of nuclear accident or radiological events that might affect our country calculated DILs can be used to prevent or reduce exposure due to consumption of foodstuffs

  12. Spectroscopical study of the yrast and yrare structure in far-from-stability nuclei; Etude spectroscopique de la structure yrast et yrare de noyaux loin de la stabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoellinger Fabien [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23, Rue du Loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)]|[Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1999-01-13

    The nuclear structure study of neutron-rich nuclei was realized with the EUROGAM II array in two different experiments. The first study consisted in the analysis of the product of spontaneous fission of {sup 248}Cm. Three neutron-rich cerium isotopes {sup 147,149,151}Ce were analyzed. A level scheme for {sup 151}Ce is presented for the first time. The yrast structure of the three nuclei does not show alternative parity bands as expected in this region of octupole deformations. We studied the rotational structure of the bands and this leads to suggest Nilsson configurations to some of them. The aim of this second experiment was the study of the nuclei {sup 99}Mo, {sup 101}Tc, {sup 103}Ru. The three nuclei are situated on the neutron-rich side of the nuclear chart and are produced as fission fragments of a heavy-ion induced reaction. Some bands are extended to higher spins and some new bands are observed. The structure of the rotational bands is interpreted by means of the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov model. A last experiment intended to study the structure of the proton-rich nucleus {sup 223}Pa has been achieved with the JURO+RITU array located at Jyvaeskylae (Finland). In this proton-rich actinide region, the nuclei develop octupole features around Z{approx_equal}88, N{approx_equal}132. The analysis of this experiment leads to the first assignment of gamma transitions to the {sup 223}Pa. (author) 91 refs., 78 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Fetoplacental transport of various trace elements in pregnant rat using the multitracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Shuichi; Hirunuma, Rieko [Radioisotope Technology Division, Cyclotron Center, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    The placenta functions as the barrier between fetus and mother, providing means of regulation of heat exchange, respiration, nutrition, and excretion for the fetus. In this paper, the multitracer technique was applied to study the maternal transport of trace elements via the placenta to the fetus. In this experiment, the multitracer solution used contained the following nuclides: {sup 7}Be, {sup 22}Na, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 48}V, {sup 52}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 56}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 74}As, {sup 75}Se, {sup 84}Rb, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 87}Y, {sup 88}Zr, {sup 96}Tc, {sup 101m}Rh, and {sup 103}Ru. We examined the time dependence of the uptake amounts about various elements. From these results, we observed a large difference in the time dependencies between elements and the elements were classified into three groups. Group I elements, such as Be, Sc, V, As, Y, Zr, Tc, Rh, and Ru, are transported to the placenta from the maternal blood and only accumulates in the placenta. Group II elements, such as Na, Co, Ga, Rb, and Sr, are transported to the placenta from the maternal blood and accumulate in the placenta, fetus, and amniotic fluid. Group III elements, such as Mn, Fe, Zn, and Se, are transported to the placenta from the maternal blood and mainly accumulate in the fetus. From these results, it was considered that the placenta is a highly selective filters because essential elements such as Group III elements are readily transported from the placental membrane to the growing fetus, whereas nonessential metals such as Group I elements have difficulty penetrating the placental barrier that protects the fetus from the toxic effects of these elements. (author)

  14. Recovery of nonradioactive palladium and rhodium from high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDuffie, H.F.

    1979-01-01

    A possible method for recovering significant quantities of nonradioactive palladium from fission-product wastes requires essentially complete separation of the fission-product (radioactive) palladium from fission-product ruthenium. After the decay of 106 Ru via 106 Rh to 106 Pd, this nonradioactive palladium is recovered for normal commercial use. The U.S. production of palladium has never been above 1000 kg per year vs consumption of about 46,000 kg per year. Most of the supply comes from Russia and South Africa. It has been estimated that a 400-GW(e) nuclear reactor economy will make available 2000 kg per year of 106 Ru at reactor fuel discharge. A substantial increase might be achieved if plutonium were recycled as fissionable material because of the higher yields of the 106 chain from plutonium. A literature search has uncovered support for three promising approaches to the required separation of palladium from ruthenium: (1) recrystallization from solution in bismuth or in zinc; (2) selective precipitation of a titanium--ruthenium intermetallic compound from bismuth, followed by precipitation of a zinc--palladium intermetallic compound; and (3) dissolution in molten magnesium followed by partitioning between molten magnesium and a molten uranium-5 wt % chromium eutectic at a temperature above 870 0 C. Liquid-liquid extraction appears to be the most promising method from a technological point of view, although intermetallic compound formation is much more interesting chemically. Recovery of some nonradioactive 103 Rh may be possible by liquid-liquid extraction of the fuel before the decay of the 39.8-d 103 Ru has gone substantially to completion. Demonstration of the practicality of these separations will contribute a positive factor to the evaluation of resumption in the United States of nuclear fuel reprocessing and plutonium recycle in light-water-moderated reactors

  15. Cleanup of radioactive mud spill U20aa postshot drilling site NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Kellner, C.R.; Oswald, K.M.

    1977-03-01

    Radioactive decontamination of a large rugged terrain on the NTS (Area 20) was undertaken during the Summer of 1976. Several decontamination methods were used and their effectiveness, as measured by the fraction of radioactivity remaining (FR), ranged from 10 -1 to 10 -3 , depending upon the method used and type of terrain. Front end loading was most efficient in large relatively flat areas of fine grain, compact dirt with an FR of about 10 -2 . Shoveling and bagging achieved FRs of 10 -2 in locations of fine grain, compact dirt. However, if dirt was coarse grain or gravel-like, the contaminated mud/water had seeped to considerable depths, making shoveling impractical. Flushing with water was the method chosen for rocky surfaces and was the primary method of decontamination in Area 4. FRs down to 10 -3 were achieved on smooth surfaces and about 10 -1 in cracks. Vacuuming was very effective in flat areas with fine grain compact dirt achieving FRs down to 10 -3 , but was a very slow process compared to front end loading. Approximately 900 man days were expended on this cleanup, and 2584 yd 3 of contaminated dirt were removed. A similar amount of clean dirt was transported from about two miles away to cover the crater burial site, mud sump, and areas containing residual radiation above 1 mrem/h contact. Total quantity of residual radioactivity present 6 months following the spill and after decontamination was estimated as 900 millicuries of 106 Ru/Rh and 0.034 millicuries 103 Ru. No person was exposed to doses of radiation (external or internal) above the maximum allowable limits listed in ERDAM 0524. Estimates based upon hand dose measurements indicate that no individual should have received more than 584 mrem to hands

  16. Concentration parameters for radionuclides by marine molluscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Makamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Matsuba, Mitsue [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Nakaminato, Ibaraki (Japan). Nakaminato Lab. Branch Office

    1994-03-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides from seawater and from food by marine molluscs was observed in the laboratory experiments to get bioconcentration parameters for the nuclides. The radionuclides investigated were {sup 57}Co, {sup 95m}Tc, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 65}Zn and {sup 54}Mn. Several species of molluscs containing pelecypods, gastropods and cephalopod were used for the experimental organisms. For the uptake experiment from seawater, the organisms were kept for more than seven days in radioactive seawater containing those radionuclides together. Then the organisms were transferred into nonradioactive seawater to observe the loss of the nuclides from the organisms. Biphasic loss curves were observed for all of the nuclides. Bioconcentration parameters, such as uptake rate, excretion rate, biological half-life and concentration factor at steady state were estimated from the uptake and excretion curves of the nuclides by the organisms by applying an exponential model. In the uptake experiments from radioactive food, the phytoplankton (Tetraselmis tetrathele), the brown algae (Eisenia bicyclis) and the viscera of abalone (Haliotis discus) were fed to bivalves, herbivorous gastropods and carnivorous molluscs, respectively. After single feeding of the labelled food with the nuclides, retention of the nuclides in whole body of the organisms was followed for several weeks or more. The organisms showed relatively high retention of the nuclides in whole body, except {sup 137}Cs and {sup 54}Mn. Retention of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 54}Mn in the organisms one day after feeding of radioactive food was lower than 25% of the radioactivity dosed. (author).

  17. Health risks from radionuclides released into the Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.A.; Hoffman, F.O.; Miller, L.F.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to estimate off-site radiation doses and health risks (with uncertainties) associated with the release of radionuclides from the X-10 site. Following an initial screening analysis, the exposure pathways of interest included fish ingestion, drinking water ingestion, the ingestion of milk and meat, and external exposure from shoreline sediment. Four representative locations along the Clinch River, from the White Oak Creek Embayment to the city of Kingston, were chosen. The demography of the lower Clinch River supplied information dealing with land use that aided in the determination of sites on which to focus efforts. The locations that proved to be the most significant included Jones Island at Clinch River Mile (CRM) 20.5, Grassy Creek and K-25 (CRM 14), Kingston Steam Plant (CRM 3.5), and the city of Kingston (CRM 0). These areas of interest have historically been and are still primarily agricultural and residential areas. Reference individuals were determined with respect to the pathways involved. The primary radionuclides of interest released from the X-10 facility into the Clinch River via White Oak Creek were identified in the initial screening analysis as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 60 Co, 106 Ru, 144 Ce, 131 I, 95 Zr, and 95 Nb. Of these radionuclides, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 106 Ru, 90 Sr, 144 Ce, 95 Zr, and 95 Nb were evaluated for their contribution to the external exposure pathway. This study utilized an object-oriented modeling software package that provides an alternative to the spreadsheet, providing graphical influence diagrams to show qualitative structure of models, hierarchical models to organize complicated models into manageable modules, and intelligent arrays with the power to scale up simple models to handle large problems. The doses and risks estimated in this study are not significant enough to cause a detectable increase in health effects in the population. In most cases, the organ does are well below the limits of epidemiological

  18. Observations on the radioactive fallout originated from the reactor accident at Chernobyl in USSR, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Hisanaga, Saemi

    1986-01-01

    On 26 April a large amount of radioactive materials was accidentally released from the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in USSR. At the beginning of May the radioactivity was also detected at first at Chiba city in Japan, soon later at many places in country; the whole country was covered with radioactive plume transported from Chernobyl. In Higashi-Osaka city district radioactivity was found in air-borne dust at dawn of 4 May. The health physics group at Atomic Energy Research Institute of Kinki University in Osaka analysed γ and β radioactivities in a large amount of environmental samples, such as air-borne dust, rain water, vegetations, milk on the market, tap water and Biwa-lake water etc. Gamma-ray spectral analyses and gross β analyses were carried out for the above samples and nuclides of fission products such as 131 I, 132 I, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 99 Mo( 99m Tc), 132 Te, 140 Ba and 140 La etc. were detected. Maximum 131 I concentrations in air-borne dust, rain water, milk on the market, tap water, vegetations and Biwa-lake water etc. were 2.45 pCi/m 3 (0.0907 Bq/m 3 ), 118 pCi/l (4.37 Bq/l), 91.4 pCi/l (3.38 Bq/l), 20 pCi/l (0.74 Bq/l), 7.9 x 10 3 pCi/kg fresh weight (292 Bq/kg fresh weight) and 0.81 pCi/l (0.0300 Bq/l), respectively. Thereafter average radioactivity concentrations in air-borne dust, rainwater, tap water and milk on the market etc. gradually declined to the normal value or below detectable limit. However, nuclides of long half-lives were expected to remain in vegetations and soils. After administration of 131 I through milk, the radioactivity concentration of which is 91 pCi/l (3.4 Bq/l), internal exposure is calculated to be 8.6 mrem/y (0.086 mSv/y), referring the guide-line issued by Japan Atomic Energy Commission for the purpose of exposure estimation near nuclear power stations. (J.P.N.)

  19. Ruthenium release at high temperature from irradiated PWR fuels in various oxidising conditions. Main findings from the VERCORS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducros, G.; Pontillon, Y.; Malgouyres, P.P.; Taylor, P.; Dutheillet, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Fission product release and transport in case of PWR severe accident is a major topic in reactor safety assessment due to the potential radiological consequences for surrounding populations and the environment. In this context, the Institute for Radiological Protection and Safety (IRSN) and Electricite de France (EDF) have supported the VERCORS analytical test program which was performed by the ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'' (CEA). It is usually considered as complementary to the PHEBUS FP in-pile integral experimental program. 25 annealing tests were performed between 1983 and 2002 on irradiated PWR fuels under various conditions of temperature and atmospheres (oxidising or reducing conditions).The influence of the nature of the fuel (UO 2 versus MOX, burn-up) and the fuel morphology (initially intact or fragmented fuels) have also been investigated. These led to an extended data base allowing on the one hand to study mechanisms which promote fission products release, and on the other hand to enhance models implemented in severe accident codes. Among all the fission products investigated, ruthenium is of specific concern because of its high radiological effects due essentially to the combination of both its short and long half-life isotopes (i.e. 103 Ru and 106 Ru respectively), but also by its ability to generate volatile gaseous oxides (RuO 3 , RuO 4 ) in very oxidising conditions, in particular in the case of air ingress accidents. Important uncertainties still remain on the release and transport of this element in such situations, and investigations on this open issue are notably carried out in the SARNET European framework. The present communication gives a general overview of the VERCORS program and presents more deeply the main findings concerning the ruthenium release. Its global behaviour is analysed on the basis of several comparative tests: same UO 2 sample (35 and 50 GWd/t) under hydrogen or steam conditions, similar MOX sample (40 GWd/t) under

  20. The protective effect of houses on air-polution episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.; Gjoerup, H.L.; Prip, H.

    1985-10-01

    The time-integrated in- and outdoor air pollution concentration will differ during a pollution episoe. The ratio of the former to the latter has been found for 17 Danish dwellings. In 15 of them a separate ratio was found for each room with the inner doors closed. In the last 2 dwellings the inner doors were left open, and for all 17 dwellings the outer doors and windows were kept shut during the measurements. It has been shown to be convenient to classify the pollutants into three categories: 1. non-reactive gases (e.g. nobel gases), 2. non-reactive particles, 3. reactive matter (e.g. elementary iodine). The indoor/outdoor ratio described above has been found for non-reactive gases by using SF 6 as a tracer. For non-reactive particles the relationship has been found by means of 7 Be-marked particles, created by spallation in the atmosphere, and 103 Ru-marked particles originating from Chinese nuclear bomb tests in the atmosphere. In the present investigation the relationship for reactive matter has not been measured. However, from the relevant literature and a comparison of the deposition and filtering mechanism for non-reactive particles and reactive matter a maximum value for the indoor/outdoor relationship for reactive matter has been found. The relation between the outdoor/indoor ratio and the exchange velosity has also been investigated and an equation describing it has been established. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly afterward was also investigated. It is found that staying indoors in a normal living-room with closed windows and doors will reduce the aerosol inhalation dose by a factor of about 3. Operating a vacuum cleaner while staying indoors will increase this reduction factor to about 9. Airing one hour after the passage of a plume of three hours duration will raise these two factors to 6 and 12, respectively. The only way to obtain a reduction in inhalation dose from non-depositing gases is by

  1. Study of methodologies for quality control of 99Mo used in 99Mo/99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, Daphne de Souza

    2016-01-01

    99m Tc is the most used radionuclide in nuclear medicine. In Brazil, the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators are exclusively produced by Radiopharmacy Center at IPEN-CNEN/ SP, by importing 99 Mo from different suppliers. 99 Mo (t 1/2 = 66 h) is a fission product of 235 U and it can have radionuclidic impurities that are prejudicial for human health. For safe use of generators, it is necessary to perform the evaluation of 99 Mo by quality control tests in order to assess if 99 Mo complies with the specifications. The European Pharmacopoeia (EP) presents a monograph for evaluation of the quality of the [ 99 Mo] solution as sodium molybdate,that is used as raw material for 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators production, including specification parameters (identification, radiochemical purity and radionuclidic purity), analysis methods and limits. However, it has been observed difficulties on the execution and implementation of these methods by the generators producers, with a few literature about this subject, probably due to complexity of the proposed methods. In this work, many quality control parameters of 99 Mo described in the EP monograph were evaluated. Separation methods for 99M o from its radionuclidic impurities by solid phase extraction (SPE) and TLC were studied. After SPE separation, the quantification of metals by ICP-OES to evaluate the percentage of retention of Mo and the percentage of recovery of Ru, Te and Sr using different types of cartridges were proposed, replacing radiotracers use. It was observed that the specific type of SPE cartridge recommended by the EP for separation of 99 Mo presented low recoveries for Ru, compared to other available anion exchange SPE cartridges. 99 Mo samples from different worldwide suppliers were analyzed. It was observed that quantification of 103 Ru in 99 Mo samples with decay time higher than 4 weeks is possible. An alternative method for separation of 131 I from 99 Mo showed promising results by TLC. The quantification of beta and

  2. R[ionuclide transport after the Chernobyl reactor accident and derivation of r[ioecological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.

    1998-01-01

    branches, mykorrhiza mushrooms, forest honey and roe and red deer meat is remarkable. The single time sequences show a fairly closed picture of the transport of the r[ionuclides in the environment which could be measured in Aachen with normal expenditure. These were in particular: 103 Ru, 131 I, 132 Te, 134 Cs and 137 Cs. Most of the measured values were summarized in voluminous tables and diagrams. (orig.) [de

  3. The analysis of the drainage network state near town Seversk after the radiation accident at the Siberian Chemical Plant, April, 6, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosov, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    The main results of the field studies of water objects on contaminated territory near the town Seversk realized in April-June 1993 are discussed. The data characterizing the levels of the territory radioactive contamination by 95 Nb, 95 Zr and 106 Ru near the Samus'ka river and its main inflows, namely the Kantes and Talovka rivers are given. The results of analysis of snow and soil samples from the Samus'ka river drainage basin, as well as samples of water and sediments of this river and its inflow Talovka are considered. The mechanism of aerosol radioactive contamination of the rivers is discussed, and forecasting estimation of the levels of possible contaminations of water and sediments in the Samus'ka river for the case if radioactive fallout trace would go through the river water surface mirror is made. The trace concentration (less than 8 Bq/m 3 ) of 106 Ru only is detected in water but not other radioisotopes contaminating the Samus'ka river drainage basin. The technogenic radioisotopes typical for fallout are found in only one of 16 sediment samples

  4. Radiobiological significance of radioactive contamination - summary assessment based on great number of measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelov, V.; Bonchev, Ts.; Mavrodiev, V.; Kyrdzhilov, N.

    1995-01-01

    In order to facilitate quantitative and qualitative characterisation of radioactive contamination the authors introduce a relative estimate of radionuclide activity by setting as a reference the most abundant element -Co-60 in the case of the Kozloduy NPP. The ratio η i of the mean annual permissible concentration in air for each radionuclide (RPC-92) to that of Co-60 is calculated. It is found that η i has the same or close values for groups of radionuclides, e.g. η i = 2.10 -4 for 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Am, 244 Cm; η i = 5 for 89 Sr, 91 Y; 93 Nb, 134 Cs, 137 Cs; η i = 50 for 55 Fe, 63 Ni, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 140 Ba, 140 La. Then it is compared to the experimentally measured values of the same quantity η iexp , derived from surface contamination data. The ratio η iexp /η i is plotted against log η i . The resulting nomograms give graphic representation of the radiobiological significance of various radionuclide groups. Data from different locations at the Kozloduy NPP are presented. It is found that the alpha emitter contamination has highest values in the Unit 1 (WWER-440) control rooms after repair. The Unit 5 (WWER-1000) has lower alpha contamination compared to WWER-440 units. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. Determination of uranium fission products interference factors in neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de fatores de interferencia de produtos de fissao de uranio na analise por ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro Junior, Ibere Souza

    2014-09-01

    Neutron activation analysis is a method used in the determination of several elements in different kinds of matrices. However, when the sample contains high U levels the problem of {sup 235}U fission interference occurs. A way to solve this problem is to perform the correction using the interference factor due to U fission for the radionuclides used on elemental analysis. In this study was determined the interference factor due to U fission for the radioisotopes {sup 141}Ce, {sup 143}Ce, {sup 140}La, {sup 99}Mo, {sup 147}Nd, {sup 153}Sm and {sup 95}Zr in the research nuclear reactor IEA-R1 on IPEN-CNEN/SP. These interference factors were determined experimentally, by irradiation of synthetic standards for 8 hours in a selected position in the reactor, and theoretically, determining the epithermal to neutron fluxes ratio in the same position where synthetic standards were irradiated and using reported nuclear parameters on the literature. The obtained interference factors were compared with values reported by other works. To evaluate the reliability of these factors they were applied in the analysis of studied elements in the certified reference materials NIST 8704 Buffalo River Sediment, IRMM BCR- 667 Estuarine Sediment e IAEA-SL-1 Lake Sediment. (author)

  6. Internal contamination during enmasse coolant channel replacement (EMCCR) operation at MAPS-2, Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, S.; Sreedevi, K.R.; Rajendran, V.; Parthasarathi, S.; Kannan, V.; Gurg, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    The operation of Enmasse Coolant Channel Replacement (EMCCR) of MAPS Unit-2, started in the month of March 2002. Since the whole operation was carried out inside the reactor building in the environment of high radiation level in air, it was necessary to whole body count all the personnel involved in the operation. These personnel were whole body monitored for internal contamination due to gamma emitting radionuclides. To measure the internal contamination of the personnel a shadow shield whole body counter having NaI (Tl) detector is used. To study the concentration of airborne radionuclides present during the EMCCR job air filter samples were collected and analysed using HPGe gamma Spectrometer. It was seen that nearly 95% of the total activity present in the air was due to activation products and the remaining 5% is due to fission products. About 2000 personnel (of which 97% contract personnel) involved in the EMCCR job were whole body monitored. Around 57% showed no internal contamination. In the remaining 43% of personnel activation products such as 65 Zn, 95 Zr/ 95 Nb, and 60 Co were observed. It is interesting to note that the radionuclides observed in the internal contamination were also observed in air filter samples collected from the work spot. The observation that all the personnel involved in the EMCCR job received dose less than the Derived Recording Level (DRL) of 0.6 mSv can be attributed to a clean and neat job carried out by the management and personnel involved. (author)

  7. Radioactivity in food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for 241 Am, 7 Be, 60 Co, 55 Fe, 3 H, 131 I, 54 Mn, 95 Nb, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 228 Th, 232 Th, and 95 Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g -1 (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins

  8. ICP-AES determination of rare earths in zirconium with prior chemical separation of the matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajeswari, B.; Dhawale, B.A.; Page, A.G.; Sastry, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Zirconium being one of the most important material in nuclear industry used as a fuel cladding in reactors and an additive in advanced fuels necessitates its characterization for trace metallic contents. Zirconium, as refractory in nature as the rare earth elements, has a complex spectrum comprising of several emission lines. Rare earths, which are high neutron absorbers have to be analysed at very low limits. Hence, to achieve the desired limits, the major matrix has to be separated prior to rare earth determination. The present paper describes the method developed for the separation of rare earths from zirconium by solvent extraction using Trioctyl Phosphine Oxide (TOPO) as the extractant followed by their determination using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometric (ICP-AES) method. Initially, radiochemical studies were carried out using known amounts of gamma active tracers of 141 Ce, 152-154 Eu, 153 Gd and 95 Zr for optimisation of extraction conditions using Tl- activated NaI detector. The optimum conditions at 0.5 M TOPO/xylene in 6 M HCl so as to achieve a quantitative recovery of rare earth analytes alongwith a near total extraction of zirconium in the organic phase, was further extended to carry out the studies using ICP-AES method. The recovery of rare earths was found to be quantitative within experimental error with a precision better than 10% RSD. (author)

  9. A study of gamma-emitting radionuclides present into the sediments and algae of the ''Baie de l'Orne'' (Central Normandy Coast) collecting during the years 1980 - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepy, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The present status of some environmental effects of existing sources of gamma-emitting radionuclides, along the Central part of the Normandy Coast (Calvados shores and river Orne mouth) was determined. A systematic study was made on the behaviour of the marine sediments and brown alga 'Laminaria digitata' with regard to their properties as indicators of radioactive contamination. Marine sediments were collected into the river Orne at fixed locations and into the sea in and around the estuary from 1977 to 1982. Algae samples were picked up along the coast from 1980 to 1982, mostly on the western part of the Orne estuary. Dosimetry techniques employed have produced accurate and reliable results, despite the very low levels of activity involved. Gamma-emitting radionuclides present in the environment (chiefly 106 Ru, 137 Cs, 95 Zr) were identified and measured. Their behaviour into the marine sediments and into Laminaria Digitata were determined. This study provides evidence on the presence of numerous gamma-emitting radionuclides into the marine environment of the Central part of the Normandy coast, but, altogether with very low levels of radioactivity [fr

  10. Mechanisms of impurity diffusion in rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, N.L.; Sasaki, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tracer diffusion of 46 Sc, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co, 63 Ni, and 95 Zr, was measured as functions of crystal orientation, temperature, and oxygen partial pressure in rutile single crystals using the radioactive tracer sectioning technique. Compared to cation self-diffusion, divalent impurities (e.g., Co and Ni) diffuse extremely rapidly in TiO 2 and exhibit a large anisotropy in the diffusion behavior; divalent-impurity diffusion parallel to the c-axis is much larger than it is perpendicular to the c-axis. The diffusion of trivalent impurity ions (Sc and Cr) and tetravalent impurity ions (Zr) is similar to cation self-diffusion, as a function of temperature and of oxygen partial pressure. The divalent impurity ions Co and Ni apparently diffuse as interstitial ions along open channels parallel to the c-axis. The results suggest that Sc, Cr, and Zr ions diffuse by an interstitialcy mechanism involving the simultaneous and cooperative migration of tetravalent interstitial titanium ions and the tracer-impurity ions. Iron ions diffused both as divalent and as trivalent ions. 8 figures

  11. Burn-up measurements of spent fuel using gamma spectrometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereda, C.; Henriquez, C.; Klein, J.; Medel, J.

    2005-01-01

    Burn-up results obtained for HEU (45% of 235 U) fuel assemblies of the RECH-1 Research Reactor using gamma spectrometry technique are presented. The spectra were got from an in-pool facility built in the reactor to be mainly used to measure the burnup of irradiated fuel assemblies with short cooling time, where 95 Zr is being evaluated as possible fission monitor. A program to measure all spent fuel assemblies of the RECH-1 reactor was initiated in the frame of the Regional Project RLA/4/018: 'Management of Spent Fuel from Research Reactors'. The results presented here were obtained from HEU spent fuel assemblies with cooling time greater than 100 days and 137 Cs was used as fission monitor. The efficiency of the in-pool system was determined using a slightly burnt experimental fuel assembly, which has one fuel plate (one of the outer plates) and the rest are dummy plates. An average burn-up of 2.8% of 235 U was previously measured for the experimental fuel assembly utilizing a facility installed in a hot cell and 137 Cs was used as monitor. (author)

  12. Transfer coefficients of selected radionuclides to animal products. I. Comparison of milk and meat from dairy cows and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.E.; Ward, G.M.; Ennis, M.E. Jr.; Boamah, K.N.

    1988-01-01

    The diet-milk transfer coefficient, Fm (Bq L-1 output in milk divided by Bq d-1 intake to the animal) was studied for eight radionuclides that previously had been given little attention. The Fm values for cows and goats, respectively, were: 2.3 x 10(-5) and 1.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 99m/Tc, 1.4 x 10(-4) and 8.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 95m/Tc, 1.1 x 10(-2) for 99 Tc (goats only); 1.7 x 10(-3) and 9 x 10(-3) for 99 Mo; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.4 x 10(-3) for /sup 123m/Te; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.6 x 10(-3) for 133 Ba; 5.5 x 10(-7) and 5.5 x 10(-6) for 95 Zr; and 4.1 x 10(-7) and 6.4 x 10(-6) for 95 Nb. The goat/cow transfer coefficient ratios for milk were approximately 10, but the goat/cow ratios for meat varied by three orders of magnitude

  13. Animal investigation program 1972 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Giles, K.R.; Bernhardt, D.E.

    1976-05-01

    This report presents the data from the radioanalyses of tissues collected from cattle, deer, desert bighorn sheep, and other wildlife that reside on or near the Nevada Test Site. Also discussed are special actinide studies with cattle from the Tonopah Test Range and Searchlight, Nevada, special sampling of an Arizona buffalo herd, and bioenvironmental sampling of the Gnome site in New Mexico and the Tatum Dome Test Site in Mississippi. The thyroids of cattle sampled during May and deer sampled in March and May contained detectable levels of 131 I. The possible source of this radionuclide was an atmospheric nuclear detonation in the People's Republic of China during March. Cesium-137 and 95 Zr were the only gamma-emitting radionuclides that were regularly detected in the soft tissues. Cesium-137 was found in ten beef muscle and two beef liver samples. The median values were 30 and 28 pCi/kg, respectively. Elevated tritium levels were found in three cattle, one deer, and a coyote. Postulated sources of these levels are discussed. The 90 Sr levels in bones of ruminants continued the downward trend of recent years. Levels of 239 Pu detected in muscle of beef cows ranged from 0.5 percent to 4 percent of the levels found in the ingesta. These levels in the bones tended to increase with age of the animal. Hypothetical dose estimates resulting from the daily consumption of liver or muscle containing 3 H, 137 Cs, 203 Hg, U, 238 Pu, and 239 Pu were calculated

  14. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented on the environmental behavior of radioactive wastes. The management of high-level wastes and waste disposal methods were discussed. Some topics included were ore processing, coagulation, absorption and ion exchange, fixation, ground disposal, flotation, evaporation, transmutation and extraterrestrial disposal. Reports were given of the 226 Ra, 224 Ra and tritium activity in hot springs, 90 Sr concentrations in the groundwater and in White Oak Creek, radionuclide content of algae, grasses and plankton, radionuclides in the Danube River, Hudson River, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Lake Michigan, Columbia River and other surface waters. Analysis showed that 239 Pu was scavenged from Lake Michigan water by phytoplankton and algae by a concentration factor of up to 10,000. Benthic invertebrates and fish showed higher 239 Pu concentrations than did their pelagic counterparts. Concentration factors are also given for 234 Th, 60 Co, Fe and Mr in marine organisms. Two models for predicting the impact of radioactivity in the food chain on man were mentioned. In an accidental release from a light-water power reactor to the ocean, the most important radionuclides discharged were found to be 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239 Pu and activation products 65 Zr, 59 Fe, and 95 Zr

  15. Zirconium Zr and hafnium Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busev, A.I.; Tiptsova, V.G.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The basic methods for extracting and determining Zr(4) and Hf(4) are described. Diantipyrinemethane and its alkyl homologs selectively extract Zr and Hf from HNO 3 solutions in the presence of nitrates. Zr is selectively extracted with tetraethyldiamide of heptyl phosphoric acid (in benzene) as well as with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (in an acid). The latter reagents is suitable for rapid determination of 95 Zr in a mixture with 95 Nb and other fragments. The complexometric determination of Zr is based on formation of a stable complex of Zr with EDTA. The titration is carried out in the presence of n-sulfobenzene-azo-pyrocatechol, eriochrome black T. The determination is hindered by Hf, fluoride-, phosphate-, oxalate- and tartrate-ions. The method is used for determining Zr in zircon and eudialyte ore. Zr is determined photometrically with the aid of xylenol orange, arsenazo 3 and pyrocatechol violet (in phosphorites). Hf is determined in the presence of Zr photometrically with the aid of xylenol orange or methyl-thymol blue. The method is based on Zr being masked with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfate-ions

  16. Exceptionally High Piezoelectric Coefficient and Low Strain Hysteresis in Grain-Oriented (Ba, Ca)(Ti, Zr)O3 through Integrating Crystallographic Texture and Domain Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingchun; Chang, Yunfei; Li, Fei; Yang, Bin; Sun, Yuan; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Shantao; Wang, Ruixue; Cao, Wenwu

    2017-09-06

    Both low strain hysteresis and high piezoelectric performance are required for practical applications in precisely controlled piezoelectric devices and systems. Unfortunately, enhanced piezoelectric properties were usually obtained with the presence of a large strain hysteresis in BaTiO 3 (BT)-based piezoceramics. In this work, we propose to integrate crystallographic texturing and domain engineering strategies into BT-based ceramics to resolve this challenge. [001] c grain-oriented (Ba 0.94 Ca 0.06 )(Ti 0.95 Zr 0.05 )O 3 (BCTZ) ceramics with a texture degree as high as 98.6% were synthesized by templated grain growth. A very high piezoelectric coefficient (d 33 ) of 755 pC/N, and an extremely large piezoelectric strain coefficient (d 33 * = 2027 pm/V) along with an ultralow strain hysteresis (H s ) of 4.1% were simultaneously achieved in BT-based systems for the first time, which are among the best values ever reported on both lead-free and lead-based piezoceramics. The exceptionally high piezoelectric response is mainly from the reversible contribution, and can be ascribed to the piezoelectric anisotropy, the favorable domain configuration, and the formation of smaller sized domains in the BCTZ textured ceramics. This study paves a new pathway to develop lead-free piezoelectrics with both low strain hysteresis and high piezoelectric coefficient. More importantly, it represents a very exciting discovery with potential application of BT-based ceramics in high-precision piezoelectric actuators.

  17. Radionuclide transfer to marine biota species: review of Russian language studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Fesenko, E; Titov, I; Karpenko, E; Sanzharova, N; Fonseca, A Gondin; Brown, J

    2010-11-01

    An extensive programme of experiments on transfer of radionuclides to aquatic species was conducted in the former USSR starting from the early 1950s. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of radionuclide behaviour in marine ecosystems. Therefore, an overview of original information on radionuclide transfer to marine biota species available from Russian language literature sources is presented here. The concentration ratio (CR) values for many radionuclides and for marine species such as: (239)Pu, (106)Ru and (95)Zr (crustacean), (54)Mn, (90)Sr, (95)Nb, (106)Ru, (137)Cs (239)Pu, (241)Am and natural U (molluscs), and (54)Mn, (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (144)Ce (fish) are in good agreement with those previously published, whilst for some of them, in particular, for (32)P and (110)Ag (crustaceans), (35)S (molluscs), (32)P, (35)S, (95)Nb, and (106)Ru (macroalgae) and (60)Co and (239,240)Pu (fish) the data presented here suggest that changes in the default CR reference values presented in recent marine reviews may be required. The data presented here are intended to supplement substantially the CR values being collated within the handbook on Wildlife Transfer Coefficients, coordinated under the IAEA EMRAS II programme.

  18. Concentrations of radionuclides and selected stable elements in fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two types of fruits and vegetables collected from two commercial supermarkets have been analyzed for their radionuclidic and stable-element composition. A specific gamma-emitting isotope analysis was performed on each sample for 40 K, 60 Co, 95 Zr-Nb, 106 Ru, 137 Cs, 226 Ra, and 232 Th. The concentration of the stable elements in each sample were determined using multi-element neutron-activation analysis (Al, Ag, Au, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mn, Mo, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Te, Th, Ti, Zn, Zr) and atomic absorption (Cd, Ni, Pb). Information on the composition of a typical diet is used to estimate the radiological dose to man subsequent to ingestion of these fruits and vegetables. The stable-elemental compositions of the foodstuffs analyzed were compared with estimated values assuming foliar deposition and long-term buildup of effluents from a large modern coal-fired steam plant. It is tentatively concluded that for the general case of a precipitator-equipped, coal-fired steam plant, no toxic levels of trace elements in foodstuffs are expected as a result of the plant operation

  19. Fabrication of a large area cathode-supported thin electrolyte film for solid oxide fuel cells via tape casting and co-sintering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chunhua; Liu, Renzhu; Wang, Shaorong; Wen, Tinglian [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2009-04-15

    A large area cathode-supported electrolyte film, comprising porous (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}){sub 0.95}MnO{sub 3} (LSM95) cathode substrate, LSM95/Zr{sub 0.89}Sc{sub 0.1}Ce{sub 0.01}O{sub 2-x} (SSZ) cathode active layer, and SSZ electrolyte, has been successfully fabricated by tape casting and co-sintering techniques. The interface reaction between cathode and electrolyte was inhibited by using A-site deficient LSM. A dense enough SSZ thin film with a thickness of {proportional_to}26 {mu}m was obtained at 1250 C. By using Pt as anode, the obtained single cell reached the maximum power density of 0.54 W cm{sup -2} at 800 C in O{sub 2}/humidified H{sub 2}, with open circuit voltage (OCV) value of 1.08 V. (author)

  20. Studies on tin based inorganic ion exchangers for fission products separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, A.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Murthy, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Tin(IV) antimonate and hydrous tin(IV) oxide have been prepared and their characteristics are evaluated. A new method has been finalized for the separation of 95 Zr- 95 Nb from irradiated uranium using hydrous tin(IV) oxide. In this process, the irradiated sample is dissolved in concentrated HNO 3 , evaporated to near dryness and taken up in 0.5 M HNO 3 . The solution is passed over tin(IV) oxide column and the isotope eluted with 10 M HNO 3 . The product is obtained in pure nitrate form which is generally preferred for different applications. A method has been finalized for the separation of 106 Ru from fission product solution using tin(IV) antimonate. In this method fission product solution is adjusted to 2 M with respect to nitric acid, 137 Cs is separated on a column of ammonium phosphomolybdate, the effluent after adjustment of acidity to 0.2 M is then passed over a column of tin(IV) antimonate where the effluent contains pure 106 Ru. (author). 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Implications of sedimentological and hydrological processes on the distribution of radionuclides: the example of a salt marsh near Ravenglass, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, A.P.; Blackley, M.W.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes sedimentological and hydrological studies at a salt marsh site on the north bank of the River Esk near Ravenglass which have a bearing on the fate of the low-level radioactive effluent from the reprocessing facility at Sellafield, Cumbria. A range of techniques has been used including electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) and pore water pressure studies. The results show that: (a) Over a two-year period there were no significant net changes in salt marsh creek level, although shorter-term (probably seasonal) fluctuations, of the order of 2 cm, occurred. These were attributed to expansion of clay particles during the winter months. Nearby, however, there were vertical changes of the order of 1 m due to erosion. (b) Pore water pressures indicated a dynamic situation with very rapid responses both to tidal fluctuations and to rainfall. During neap tides there was clear evidence for water seeping upwards from the underlying clay/sand interface. Shortlived radionuclides ( 95 Zr/ 95 Nb and 106 Ru) were detected in this zone. (c) soil polygons, once initiated by desiccation, thereafter provide preferential routes for water (and radionuclides) to the sub-surface sediment. These, and other results, are discussed in the context of previous studies. It is concluded that the complexity of the estuarine environment results in most data being site specific. (author)

  2. Spatial distribution of radionuclides in Lake Michigan biota near the Big Rock Point Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, M.A.; Yaguchi, E.M.; Nelson, D.M.; Marshall, J.S.

    1974-01-01

    A survey was made of four groups of biota in the vicinity of the Big Rock Point Nuclear Plant near Charlevoix, Michigan, to determine their usefulness in locating possible sources of plutonium and other radionuclides to Lake Michigan. This 70 MW boiling-water reactor, located on the Lake Michigan shoreline, was chosen because its fuel contains recycled plutonium, and because it routinely discharges very low-level radioactive wastes into the lake. Samples of crayfish (Orconectes sp.), green algae (Chara sp. and Cladophora sp.), and an aquatic macrophyte (Potamogeton sp.) were collected in August 1973, at varying distances from the discharge and analyzed for 239 240 Pu, 90 Sr, and five gamma-emitting radionuclides. Comparison samples of reactor waste solution have also been analyzed for these radionuclides. Comparisons of the spatial distributions of the extremely low radionuclide concentrations in biota clearly indicated that 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 65 Zn, and 60 Co were released from the reactor; their concentrations decreased exponentially with increasing distance from the discharge. Conversely, concentrations of 239 240 Pu, 95 Zr, and 90 Sr showed no correlation with distance, suggesting any input from Big Rock was insignificant with respect to the atmospheric origin of these isotopes. The significance of these results is discussed, particularly with respect to current public debate over the possibility of local environmental hazards associated with the use of plutonium as a nuclear fuel. (U.S.)

  3. The use of algae in monitoring discharges of radionuclides. Experiences from the 1992 and 1993 monitoring programmes at the Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeijs, P. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecological Botany; Simenstad, P. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    All four Swedish nuclear power plants (Forsmark, Oskarshamn, Barsebaeck and Ringhals) use brackish water as coolant (Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast). Radionuclides are discharged together with the cooling water. The gamma spectra of monthly algal samples harvested in 1992 and 1993 close to the discharge points of these power plants were determined within the routine monitoring programmes. The main radionuclides detected in the algal samples were {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. Most {sup 137}Cs in the samples from the northern Baltic Sea (Forsmark) still originated from the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Other radionuclides, notably {sup 51}Cr, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 124}b, {sup 125}Sb and {sup 134}Cs, were regularly detected at s of the sites. Transfer factors from discharge to algae were generally in the order of 0.3-3 Bq kg{sup -1} per MBq discharge. For the major discharged radionuclides, significant linear relationships were in most cases found between discharges and concentrations in algal samples. Differences in transfer factors and regression coefficients were explained by location of the sampling sites and type of radionuclide. It is concluded that algal samples provide useful complements to water and sediment samples in the monitoring programmes since radionuclide concentrations are much higher in algal samples and proportional to the discharges. 21 refs, figs.

  4. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  5. Comparison of two selective separation method for 93Zr by using TRU and TEVA resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de

    2011-01-01

    The zirconium isotope 93 Zr is a long-lived pure β-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from 235 U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope 92 Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half life, 93 Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Measurement of 93 Zr is difficult owing to its trace level concentration and its low activity in nuclear wastes and further because its certified standards are not frequently available. The aim of this work was to compare two radiochemical procedure based on selective extraction using an anion-exchange chromatography, TRU and TEVA resins, in order to separate zirconium from the matrix and to analyze it by liquid scintillation spectrometry technique. To set up the radiochemical separation procedure for zirconium, a tracer solution of 95 Zr and its 724.19 keV γ-ray measurements by γ - spectrometry were used in order to follow the behavior of zirconium during the radiochemical separation. A tracer solution of 55 Fe, the main interference in the LSC measurements, was used in order to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. The limit of detection of the 0.05 Bq 1 -1 was obtained for 55 Fe standard solutions by using a sample:cocktail ratio of 3:17 mL for Optiphase Hisafe 3 cocktail. (author)

  6. Geographical distribution of radioactive nuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in eastern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Masanobu; Umetsu, Kohei; Sugimoto, Miyabi; Yamaguchi, Yuta; Yamazaki, Hideo; Nakagawa, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    The geographical distribution of radioactive nuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in metropolitan areas located in eastern Japan was investigated. The radioactive contamination of environmental samples, including soil and biological materials, was analyzed. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs in the soil samples collected from Fukushima City were 122000, 11500 and 14000 Bq/kg on 19th March 2011 and 129000, 11000 and 13700 Bq/kg on 26th March 2011, for the three nuclides respectively. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the soil samples collected from March-June 2011 from study sites ranged from 240 to 101000, 28 to 26200, and 14 to 33700 Bq/kg, respectively. In Higashiosaka City, it began to detect those radioactive nuclides in the atmospheric airborne dust from 25th March. Radioactive fission products 95 Zr- 95 Nb were detected on 18th April 2011. Biological samples collected from Tokyo Bay were studied. The maximum concentrations of 134 Cs and 137 Cs detected in the biological samples were 12.2 and 19.2 Bq/kg, which were measured in goby. 131 I was not detected in the biological samples however, trace amounts of the short half-life nuclide 110m Ag were found in the shellfish samples. (author)

  7. A critical summary of microscopic fast-neutron interactions with reactor structural, fissile and fertile materials; Apercu critique des interactions microscopiques des neutrons rapides avec les materiaux de construction et les matieres fissiles et fertiles utilisees dans les reacteurs; Kriticheskij obzor mikroskopicheskog o vzaimodejstviya bystrykh nejtronov s konstruktsionnymi, rasshcheplyayushchimis ya i vosproizvodyashchim i reaktornymi materialami; Resumen critico de las interacciones microscopicas de los neutrones rapidos con los materiales estructurales fisionables y fertiles utilizados en los reactores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A B [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1962-03-15

    reactions provoquees par des neutrons rapides, en insistant sur les conditions que doivent remplir, dans les reacteurs, les donnees nucleaires fondamentales. (author) [Spanish] El autor examina el estado actual de los conocimientos acerca de las reacciones inducidas por los neutrones rapidos que se utilizan en el proyecto de reactores nucleares. Estudia con particular atencion los metodos experimentales microscopicos, sus resultados y la precision de los mismos. Considera con detalle la dispersion de los neutrones rapidos, y da los resultados de mediciones experimentales de la dispersion en el caso del oxigeno, hierro, zirconio, niobio, wolframio, torio y uranio. Expone los resultados mas significativos de los estudios experimentales de la captura de neutrones rapidos y de la fision inducida por los mismos. Las mediciones estudiadas no solo conducen a resultados de gran utilidad practica, sino que sirven como ejemplos de la aplicacion de las tecnicas nucleares experimentales mas modernas. El autor indica los terrenos en que la informacion experimental es limitada, contradictoria o inexistente. Por ultimo, formula previsiones sobre el desarrollo de los conocimientos relativos a las reacciones de los neutrones rapidos, subrayando lo referente al cumplimiento de las condiciones necesarias para que el reactor proporcione datos nucleares basicos. (author) [Russian] V doklade rassmatrivaetsya primenenie shiroko rasprostranenny kh znanij o reaktsiyakh, vyzyvaemykh bystrymi nejtronami v yadernykh proektakh reaktornykh sistem. Osnovnoe znachenie pridaetsya mikroskopicheski m ehksperimental'ny m metodam, rezul'tatam i tochnosti. Podrobno rassmatrivaetsya rasseyanie bystrykh nejtronov, vklyuchaya rezul'taty ehksperimental'nogo opredeleniya rasseyaniya na kislorode, zheleze, tsirkonii, niobii, vol'frame, torii i urane. Privodyatsya dannye, poluchennye v rezul'tate ehksperimental'ny kh issledovanij zakhvata bystrykh nejtronov i deleniya, vyzvannogo nejtronami. Izmereniya, privedennye v

  8. The Application of Non-Metallic Core Materials in a High-Temperature Reactor Experiment; Utilisation de materes non metalliques dans le coeur d'un reacteur experimental a haute temperature; Ispol'zovanie nemetallicheskikh materialov dlya aktivnoj zony vysokotemperaturnogo opytnogo reaktora; Empleo de materiales no metalicos en el nucleo de un reactor experimental de alta temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huddle, R. A.U.; Shepherd, L. R. [Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Dragon Project, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    'nuyu ustanovku, gde iz nego udalyayutsya produkty deleniya i drugie primesi, posle chego tsikl povtoryaetsya. Takaya protsedura pozvolyaet snizit' popadanie produktov deleniya ieh sil'no nagretogo keramicheskogo topliva v pervichnyj potok okhladitelya. (author)

  9. Study of various decontamination processes for evaporation concentrates; Etude de differents traitements de decontamination sur des concentrats d'evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefillatre, G; Cudel, Y; Rodi, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1968-07-01

    Generally speaking, the evaporation concentrates are in the form of acid solutions of high salt content, about 400 g/l. The specific activity is very variable: from 0.5 mCi/l to many hundreds of Ci/l. Because of the high solubility of these salts, an attempt has been made to render the radio-elements insoluble in the concentrates before their possible coating with bitumen. With this in view, the possibility of fixing them on inorganic products, of precipitating them in the form of insoluble salts, or of adsorbing them on co-precipitates has been considered. In the case of a fixation of radio-elements by natural or synthetic inorganic products with a high absorptive capacity such as clays, diatomaceous earths, synthetic silicates and alumina, 48 products have been tried. Their selective efficiency with respect to {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 106}Ru-Rh, {sup 144}Ce-Pr, {sup 95}Zr-Nb has been determined both with acid concentrates and with neutralized concentrates (precipitation of hydroxides). In the case of the fixation of radio-elements as insoluble salts or their adsorption on co-precipitates, the choice of treatments involved the two most dangerous radio-elements: {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. The conventional processing methods were tried. For {sup 90}Sr. calcium carbonate, calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, strontium phosphate, manganese oxides, barium sulfate. For {sup 137}Cs: the ferrocyanides of nickel, copper, zinc, cobalt and manganese. The technique consists in carrying out the precipitations (hydroxides, specific processes for {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) one after the other without separating the precipitates. (authors) [French] D'une facon generale, les concentrats d'evaporation se presentent sous forme de solutions acides de mineralisation elevee, de l'ordre de 400 g/l. Leur activite specifique est tres variable: de 0.5 mCi/l a plusieurs centaines de Ci/l. En raison de la tres grande solubilite de ces sels, il a paru interessant de rechercher a

  10. Ruthenium release modelling in air and steam atmospheres under severe accident conditions using the MAAP4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuzet, Emilie; Lamy, Jean-Sylvestre; Perron, Hadrien; Simoni, Eric; Ducros, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a new modelling of fuel oxidation and ruthenium release in the EDF version of the MAAP4 code. ► We validated this model against some VERCORS experiments. ► Ruthenium release prediction quantitatively and qualitatively well reproduced under air and steam atmospheres. - Abstract: In a nuclear power plant (NPP), a severe accident is a low probability sequence that can lead to core fusion and fission product (FP) release to the environment (source term). For instance during a loss-of-coolant accident, water vaporization and core uncovery can occur due to decay heat. These phenomena enhance core degradation and, subsequently, molten materials can relocate to the lower head of the vessel. Heat exchange between the debris and the vessel may cause its rupture and air ingress. After lower head failure, steam and air entering in the vessel can lead to degradation and oxidation of materials that are still intact in the core. Indeed, Zircaloy-4 cladding oxidation is very exothermic and fuel interaction with the cladding material can decrease its melting temperature by several hundred of Kelvin. FP release can thus be increased, noticeably that of ruthenium under oxidizing conditions. Ruthenium is of particular interest because of its high radio-toxicity due to 103 Ru and 106 Ru isotopes and its ability to form highly volatile compounds, even at room temperature, such as gaseous ruthenium tetra-oxide (RuO 4 ). It is consequently of great need to understand phenomena governing steam and air oxidation of the fuel and ruthenium release as prerequisites for the source term issues. A review of existing data on these phenomena shows relatively good understanding. In terms of oxygen affinity, the fuel is oxidized before ruthenium, from UO 2 to UO 2+x . Its oxidation is a rate-controlling surface exchange reaction with the atmosphere, so that the stoichiometric deviation and oxygen partial pressure increase. High temperatures combined with the presence

  11. Beta, gamma contamination analysis of thermo luminescence dosimeter cassettes using Geiger Muller counting set up and gamma spectrometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.K.; Sudheer, T.S.; Sahoo, L.; Vinayagam, Bhakti; Kamble, Mahesh; Khuspe, R.R.; Anilkumar, Rekha; Verma, K.K.

    2009-01-01

    Β-γ contamination cheek up of TLD cassettes were carried out and the isotopes found were 137 Cs, 106 Ru, 60 Co, 64 Cu, 144 Ce and 95 Nb with activity per square cm varying from 0.05-4.70 Bq/cm 2 with median value 1.3. The assessed dose in TLD was in the range of 2.10 mSv to 22.05 mSv for beta, 0.05 mSv to 5.25 mSv for gamma. The beta doses have median value of 6.19 mSv. This contamination may be due to active water contamination on TLD's of personnel working for irradiated fuel handling or work in fuel rod (under water) storage area. This gives a method to estimate skin exposure of personnel due to skin contamination during work. Chances of getting TLD's contaminated due to various reasons were studied. Contamination was found maximum inside the cassette box having area 16 cm 2 . In case of plastic pouch of TLD disc contamination was detected in three cases. Contamination level on TLD cassettes using GM counter was found in the range of 0.30-3.6 Bq/cm 2 for cassettes. By opening the window of the surveymeter contamination and field of these cassettes in closed condition were found to increase by 20% due to the measurement of beta dose. With the same condition contamination of TLD cassette in open condition was found five times more. This is due to the a-contamination which is five times more than a contamination, The most prominent isotope 137 Cs in common chemical forms are soluble in water and if inhaled or ingested are rapidly and completely absorbed in the lungs and across the gastrointestinal tract. Thus a skin contamination of most prominent isotope 137 Cs can lead to intake in addition to skin dose. Fading studies of contamination of TLD cassettes were carried out. It was found negligible after counting with GM counting set up after a period of 3 months. But one of the TLD cassettes was showing an 80% reduction of contamination after 3 months with GM counting set up, the contaminants being 141 Ce, 103 Ru and 95 Nb. The gamma peaks in the external exposure

  12. Separation of 103Pd from metal Rhodium by dry distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuecs, Z.; Takacs, S.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Introduction. The use of Auger emitters as potential radiopharmaceuticals is increasingly investigated. One such radionuclide of interest is 103m Rh. This can be produced from 103 Ru or from 103 Pd in an in vivo generator. It has been proven on theoretical considerations that use of 103 Pd/ 103m Rh in vivo generator will be successful in delivering 103 mRh to a target site when complexed to a tumor selective carrier. 103 Pd is widely used in internal radiotherapy with one of the production routes via the irradiation of Rh by protons in a cyclotron. The charged particle production of 103 Pd is the only way for no-carrier -added production of this radionuclide, which is required for use in nuclear medicine. However, the widely used separation technique to get 103 Pd from the target material (as well as recovery of the Rh) by wet chemistry is a very complicated, labour intensive and expensive procedure, resulting in low yields of 103 Pd and high amounts of radioactive waste. An alternative more efficient separation and production technology can be developed based on differential evaporation. The principle is the following: The produced 103 Pd 'contaminating' new element within the crystal structure of the Rh target can be forced to diffuse out from the deformed crystal lattice by heating up the target. In this process the 103 Pd accumulates on the surface of the target from where it can be evaporated. A prerequisite for this process is that the target metal (Rh) has a different partial pressure than the evaporated metal (Pd). The thick target yield is 6MBq/μ Ah and the activities of potential contaminating radioisotopes produced by side reaction are negligible, if the energy of the irradiating beam will be chosen precisely. The natural abundance of 116 Cd is 7,5%, it means that the price of the enriched material is reasonable. A potential cyclotron facility with α-beam was found at JINR, Dubna, Russia where the radiochemical

  13. Study of solution speciation, soil retention and soil-plant transfer of zirconium; Etude de la speciation en solution, de la retention dans les sols et du transfert sol-plante du zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrand, E

    2005-12-15

    Within the framework of the risks prevention policy of Andra, the radioactive zirconium introduction ({sup 93}Zr and {sup 95}Zr) into the environment could be carried out starting from the nuclear waste whose storage is envisaged in deep geological layers. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the parameters and phenomena influencing speciation (various chemical forms) and the soil-plant transfer of zirconium. Experiments of adsorption/desorption of zirconium with different ligands likely to be present in soils (goethite and humic acid) and with two soils, with contrasted characteristics, close to the underground research laboratory of Andra (Meuse) were carried out. These results of adsorption were then confronted with those obtained by the MUSIC and NICA-DONNAN models carried out using the computer code ECOSAT. Zr presents a strong affinity for the two types of soils and the soils constituents. Specific interactions of internal sphere type with the goethite were highlighted using the model. Soil-solution partition coefficients, or K{sub d}, values increase with pH and contact time. Various types of edible plants, pea (Pisum sativum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L cv. St Pierre) were cultivated in hydroponic conditions and in soils spiked with various sources of Zirconium. The maximum zirconium contents are mainly measured in the roots of the plants. The soil-plant transfer factors measured during these experiments show a weak bioavailability of zirconium. An influence of speciation on Zr bioavailability is however highlighted. Some chemical forms, such as oxychloride or acetate, are more easily mobilized than others by the plant. (author)

  14. Study of solution speciation, soil retention and soil-plant transfer of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrand, E.

    2005-12-01

    Within the framework of the risks prevention policy of Andra, the radioactive zirconium introduction ( 93 Zr and 95 Zr) into the environment could be carried out starting from the nuclear waste whose storage is envisaged in deep geological layers. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the parameters and phenomena influencing speciation (various chemical forms) and the soil-plant transfer of zirconium. Experiments of adsorption/desorption of zirconium with different ligands likely to be present in soils (goethite and humic acid) and with two soils, with contrasted characteristics, close to the underground research laboratory of Andra (Meuse) were carried out. These results of adsorption were then confronted with those obtained by the MUSIC and NICA-DONNAN models carried out using the computer code ECOSAT. Zr presents a strong affinity for the two types of soils and the soils constituents. Specific interactions of internal sphere type with the goethite were highlighted using the model. Soil-solution partition coefficients, or K d , values increase with pH and contact time. Various types of edible plants, pea (Pisum sativum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L cv. St Pierre) were cultivated in hydroponic conditions and in soils spiked with various sources of Zirconium. The maximum zirconium contents are mainly measured in the roots of the plants. The soil-plant transfer factors measured during these experiments show a weak bioavailability of zirconium. An influence of speciation on Zr bioavailability is however highlighted. Some chemical forms, such as oxychloride or acetate, are more easily mobilized than others by the plant. (author)

  15. Zero Time of Transitory Nuclear Events Derived by Parent-Daughter Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nir-El, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The detection and identification of a nuclear event that results in the dissemination of radioactive products into the environment can be realized by dating the age of the event. In order to correct observed activities for the decay since the occurrence of the event, the age must be known to a high level of confidence. Previous papers. described the method to date the age of a nuclear event by measuring the activity of two fission products, which constitute the clock in this application. Within the proficiency test programme for radionuclide laboratories supporting the CTBT, a simulated gamma spectrum with the characteristics of an atmospheric test of a Chinese thermonuclear device, was used to determine the zero time by calculating the theoretical peak area ratio of 95Nb/95Zr. Their approach used only the main gamma lines at 766 and 757 keV and assigned the same detection efficiency to both these close lines. Their methodology of calculating the uncertainty of zero time is subject to comments because it takes the sum of two components (nuclide ratio and activity ratio as function of time) in quadrature. In another paper, the activity of 95Nb as a function of time was presented without any development or expression for the zero time. Analytical equations for zero time and the associated uncertainty calculations were derived in a recent paper using a measured activity ratio of two nuclides and illustrating the procedure by data from the Chinese test. The evaluation of the zero time uncertainty was performed by a very large set of very complicated analytical equations. The present paper aims at developing a procedure to determine the zero time and its uncertainty in a transitory nuclear event by treating a parent-daughter system of 3 nuclides, where one daughter feeds the other one, in addition to its direct feeding by the decay of the parent

  16. Study of precipitation behaviour of Mo and Zr in nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Cansheng; Wang Xiaoying; Zhang Chonghai

    1992-01-01

    The precipitation behaviour of Mo and Zr which depends on the concentrations of Mo, Zr, nitric acid and temperature is studied. Precipitation, post-precipitation and ultracentrifugation experiments are made at 100 deg C, 80 deg C, 60 deg C, 40 deg C and room temperatures in the range of 0.6-6.0 mol/1 nitric acid. The experimental feeds are made up of molybdenum labelled with 99 Mo, zirconium labelled with 95 Zr and nitric acid solution. The feed is allowed to stand at constant temperature for some time for the observation of precipitation behaviour. The filtered precipitate and ultracentrifuged liquid is to be measured with HP (Ge)-multichannel analyser in order to determine the content of Mo, Zr and their mole ration in the precipitate and to find out whether there is colloid in the liquid. The results show that the mixed solution of Mo and Zr can produce precipitate and post-precipitate in nitric acid. If the filtrated liquid is allowed to stand for some time, precipitate can be produced again, until the concentration of Mo and Zr in the feed is too low to form precipitate, such as 2.5 x 10 -3 mol/1. If the concentration of nitric acid is less than 4.0 mol/1, the precipitation is produced easily and more precipitate is formed. Precipitation is slower in solutions which are more than 4.0 mol/1 in HNO 3 . The mole-ratio of Mo to Zr in the precipitate is 2 to 1 and it is not dependent on that ratio in the system

  17. Environmental behavior of the radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    The environmental behavior of radioactive nuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident in eastern Japan was investigated. The radioactive pollution of environmental samples, including airborne dust, soil, sediment, fish, and other organisms was described. It was evaluated for environmental behavior and fate of the radioactive material from the spatial and temporal distribution of the radioactive nuclides. In Higashiosaka City about 600 km away from FDNPS, it begins to detect the radioactive nuclides in the airborne dust from 25th March 2011. Radioactive fission products 95 Zr- 95 Nb was detected on 18th April. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs in the soil collected from Fukushima City were 126000, 14000, and 14200 Bq/kg on 19th March 2011 and 12800, 13200, and 13700 Bq/kg on 26th March 2011, respectively. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs in the soil samples collected from March-June 2011 from study sites in metropolitan area and Kanto region ranged from nd to 91900, 59 to 16100, and 69 to 17600 Bq/kg, respectively. (Concentrations of 131 I were done decay correction to the value of 16th March) Radioactivities in fish samples collected from off FDNPS, Tokyo Bay, and Kejonuma Pond were measured. The radioactive contamination of forest ecosystem was also investigated. Two processes are involved in the radioactive contamination of the environment from the FDNPS accident. One is contamination by radioactive nuclides released from the hydrogen explosion. Leakage of contaminated cooling water to the ocean is in other important environmental pollution. We must continue carefully monitoring of radioactive nuclides in the environment. (author)

  18. Non-destructive assay of leached hulls in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Henderson, B.C.; Gray, J.H.; Huff, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The hull monitor at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant (BNFP) will be a remotely controlled, fully automated system designed to quantitatively assay leached hulls for undissolved U and Pu. The hull monitor will assay the hulls from one metric ton of fuel per dissolver basket with the design goal of detecting 0.1% undissolved fuel and yet remain within the framework of the BNFP materials flow of five hull baskets per day. The non-destructive assay will be accomplished using a computer-based gamma-ray pulse height analysis system employing a 5 x 5 inch NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The intense radiations from the fission product isotopes and the activation product isotopes produced in the reactor prevent direct assay of the undissolved fuel left in the hulls. The measurement will be made indirectly by demonstrating a correlation between the amount of 144 Ce undissolved and the remaining U. The isotope 144 Ce is a direct fission product with high cumulative yield. The daughter isotope 144 Pr has a gamma ray at 2.18 MeV well above other predominant radiations in the spectrum from the major interferences 60 Co, 58 Co, 95 Zr( 95 Nb), 137 Cs and 106 Ru( 106 Rh). Segmented scanning operation of the hull monitor is accomplished by rotation and vertical transversal of the hulls container past the detector station. Proper collimation and absorbers are required to maximize the 144 Ce( 144 Pr) to background ratio. A basket indexer is provided which monitors the scanning rate and ensures repositioning. The leached hull monitor system will be interfaced to a computer-based multichannel analyzer for ease of operation and data handling. A calibration basket has been fabricated to accomodate radioactive sources and inactive Zircaloy hulls

  19. Study of various decontamination processes for evaporation concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefillatre, G.; Cudel, Y.; Rodi, L.

    1968-01-01

    Generally speaking, the evaporation concentrates are in the form of acid solutions of high salt content, about 400 g/l. The specific activity is very variable: from 0.5 mCi/l to many hundreds of Ci/l. Because of the high solubility of these salts, an attempt has been made to render the radio-elements insoluble in the concentrates before their possible coating with bitumen. With this in view, the possibility of fixing them on inorganic products, of precipitating them in the form of insoluble salts, or of adsorbing them on co-precipitates has been considered. In the case of a fixation of radio-elements by natural or synthetic inorganic products with a high absorptive capacity such as clays, diatomaceous earths, synthetic silicates and alumina, 48 products have been tried. Their selective efficiency with respect to 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 106 Ru-Rh, 144 Ce-Pr, 95 Zr-Nb has been determined both with acid concentrates and with neutralized concentrates (precipitation of hydroxides). In the case of the fixation of radio-elements as insoluble salts or their adsorption on co-precipitates, the choice of treatments involved the two most dangerous radio-elements: 137 Cs and 90 Sr. The conventional processing methods were tried. For 90 Sr. calcium carbonate, calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, strontium phosphate, manganese oxides, barium sulfate. For 137 Cs: the ferrocyanides of nickel, copper, zinc, cobalt and manganese. The technique consists in carrying out the precipitations (hydroxides, specific processes for 90 Sr and 137 Cs) one after the other without separating the precipitates. (authors) [fr

  20. Experience of Assessment of Current Radiation Doses to the Population from the Contamination of the Techa River (The Urals, Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshakov, V. N.; Pozolotina, V. N.; Cabianca, T.; Simmonds, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Significant quantities (about 108 PBq) of liquid radioactive waste were discharged to the Techa River in the Urals region of Russia in the early years of operation of the MAYK Production Association (1948-1951). The compositions of the releases consisted mainly of medium and long-lived beta emitting radionuclides: 103,106 Ru (28 PBq), 95 Zr/Nb (14 PBq), 137 Cs (13 PBq), 90 Sr (12 PBq). More than 120,000 people received high levels of radiation as a result of this contamination of the Techa River. The objective of this study is preliminary assessment of current and future radiation doses received by the population living in the affected area (Brodokalmak village). The assessment made use of local habit data and measurements of radionuclides concentrations in food and water, supplemented by model predictions whenever measurements in environmental materials were not available. Exposure pathways included in the calculations were ingestion of foods and external exposure to gamma radiation from radionuclides deposited on the banks of the river. Doses were calculated for three age groups (adults, children, infants) and two types of individuals: average consumers and users of the river banks, and individuals most likely to receive the highest dose. Two scenarios were considered in the calculations. In the first scenario is was assumed that access to the river banks, for both people and cattle, was restricted. For the second scenario, doses were calculated assuming that restrictions were lifted and people had free access to all areas in the village. With restrictions the highest dose estimated was 0.56 mSv/y for the most exposed adults and without restrictions this increased to 3.4 mSv/y. (author)

  1. Vertical Distribution and Estimated Doses from Artificial Radionuclides in Soil Samples around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Tsuchiya, Rimi; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kazlovsky, Alexander; Urazalin, Marat; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides (241Am, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 60Co) were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radionuclides (241Am, 57Co, 137Cs, 95Zr, 95Nb, 58Co, and 60Co) were detected in surface soil around SNTS. Effective doses around CNPP were over the public dose limit of 1 mSv/y (International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1991). These levels in a contaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 were high, whereas levels in a decontaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 and another contaminated area 15 km from Unit 4 were comparatively low. On the other hand, the effective doses around SNTS were below the public dose limit. These findings suggest that the environmental contamination and effective doses on the ground definitely decrease with decontamination such as removing surface soil, although the effective doses of the sampling points around CNPP in the present study were all over the public dose limit. Thus, the remediation of soil as a countermeasure could be an extremely effective method not only for areas around CNPP and SNTS but also for areas around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), and external exposure levels will be certainly reduced. Long-term follow-up of environmental monitoring around CNPP, SNTS, and FNPP, as well as evaluation of the health effects in the population residing around these areas, could contribute to radiation safety and reduce unnecessary exposure to the public. PMID:23469013

  2. Analysis of radionuclide mixtures by {alpha}-{gamma} and {beta}-{gamma} coincidences using a simple device; Analyse de melanges de radionucleides par un dispositif simple de coincidences {alpha}-{gamma} et {beta}-{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottier, R; Berger, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1966-06-01

    A procedure is described for the qualitative and quantitative spectrographic analysis of radioactive sources containing two alpha-gamma emitters having the same alpha energy or two beta-gamma emitters having the same gamma energy. The main apparatus is a multichannel pulse-height analyzer including a coincidence circuit. The principle of the method, the synoptic scheme, the electronic device, the type of sources, and the precautions to be taken or the corrections to take into account are reported. The results obtained in solving the three following problems are discussed as examples of applications of the method: analysis of {sup 241}Am in alpha-gamma sources containing {sup 238}Pu; analysis of {sup 237}Np in beta-gamma sources containing {sup 239}Pu; and analysis of {sup 106}Ru-{sup 106}Rh in beta-gamma sources containing {sup 95}Zr-{sup 95}Nb. (authors) [French] Dans ce. rapport, on presente une methode d'analyse spectrographique qualitative et quantitative de sources radioactives contenant deux emetteurs alpha-gamma de meme energie alpha et deux emetteurs beta-gamma de meme energie gamma. L'organe principal est un analyseur d'amplitude a 400 canaux comprenant un circuit de coincidence. On decrit le principe de la methode, le schema synoptique, l'appareillage, le type des sources, les precautions a prendre ou les corrections a faire. On discute les resultats obtenus dans la solution des trois problemes suivants traites a titre d'application de la methode: 1. analyse d'americium 241 en presence de plutonium 238; 2. analyse de neptunium 237 en presence de plutonium 239; 3. analyse de ruthenium 106-rhodium 106 en presence de zirconium 95-niobium 95. (auteurs)

  3. Comparison of two selective separation method for {sup 93}Zr by using TRU and TEVA resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: tco@cdtn.b, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G., E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The zirconium isotope {sup 93}Zr is a long-lived pure {beta}-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from {sup 235}U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope {sup 92}Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half life, {sup 93}Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Measurement of {sup 93}Zr is difficult owing to its trace level concentration and its low activity in nuclear wastes and further because its certified standards are not frequently available. The aim of this work was to compare two radiochemical procedure based on selective extraction using an anion-exchange chromatography, TRU and TEVA resins, in order to separate zirconium from the matrix and to analyze it by liquid scintillation spectrometry technique. To set up the radiochemical separation procedure for zirconium, a tracer solution of {sup 95}Zr and its 724.19 keV {gamma}-ray measurements by {gamma} - spectrometry were used in order to follow the behavior of zirconium during the radiochemical separation. A tracer solution of {sup 55}Fe, the main interference in the LSC measurements, was used in order to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. The limit of detection of the 0.05 Bq 1{sup -1} was obtained for {sup 55}Fe standard solutions by using a sample:cocktail ratio of 3:17 mL for Optiphase Hisafe 3 cocktail. (author)

  4. Radiobiological significance of radioactive contamination - summary assessment based on great number of measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelov, V [Civil Defence Administration, Sofia (Bulgaria); Bonchev, Ts; Mavrodiev, V; Kyrdzhilov, N [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet

    1996-12-31

    In order to facilitate quantitative and qualitative characterisation of radioactive contamination the authors introduce a relative estimate of radionuclide activity by setting as a reference the most abundant element -Co-60 in the case of the Kozloduy NPP. The ratio {eta}{sub i} of the mean annual permissible concentration in air for each radionuclide (RPC-92) to that of Co-60 is calculated. It is found that {eta}{sub i} has the same or close values for groups of radionuclides, e.g. {eta}{sub i} = 2.10{sup -4} for {sup 238} Pu, {sup 239} Pu, {sup 240} Pu, {sup 241} Am, {sup 244} Cm; {eta}{sub i} = 5 for {sup 89} Sr, {sup 91} Y; {sup 93} Nb, {sup 134} Cs, {sup 137} Cs; {eta}{sub i} = 50 for {sup 55} Fe, {sup 63} Ni, {sup 95} Zr, {sup 95} Nb, {sup 140} Ba, {sup 140} La. Then it is compared to the experimentally measured values of the same quantity {eta}{sub iexp}, derived from surface contamination data. The ratio {eta}{sub iexp}/{eta}{sub i} is plotted against log {eta}{sub i}. The resulting nomograms give graphic representation of the radiobiological significance of various radionuclide groups. Data from different locations at the Kozloduy NPP are presented. It is found that the alpha emitter contamination has highest values in the Unit 1 (WWER-440) control rooms after repair. The Unit 5 (WWER-1000) has lower alpha contamination compared to WWER-440 units. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Contribution of Physical Fitness Component to Health Status in Elderly Males and Females over 60 years – Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ignacio Cuesta-Vargas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the physicalfitness (PF level of a cohort of elderly people that are subjected tophysical activity (PA, and to establish a regression model for theevaluation of health status (HS of elderly people based on their PF.This is a Cross-sectional study. Consists of 114 Participants over60 years old, that were recruited from a physical activity program.Were measured variables about anthropometric characteristics,jumping tests with jumping platform, dynamic and static balance, riskof falls, lung capacity, HS and quality of life (QoL. We used Pearson’slinear correlation with 95% Zr. We looked for simple and multiple regression models. We used the bayesianinformation criterion approach and statistical inference to find and calculated a numerical estimate of thebest regression model. We used the dependent variable physical function of SF-12. Physical fitness variablesselected for the models were weight, height, Countermovement Jump test (flight time, Functional Reachtest, lumbosacral flexion mobility, Extended Timed Get Up and Go (ETGUG (10 meters time score andtotal time score. The HS and QoL measurement are important for the prevention of injury during physicalexercise and should be conducted whenever is possible. The regression models proposed in this study can beused as an initial screening of HS or QoL at fitness facilities and fitness clubs that do not provide HS or QoLquestionnaires. However, these models are not an alternative to health care for a detailed determination ofHS and is not intended for use as a final evaluation.

  6. Radioactivity in certain pelagic fish. IV. Separation and confirmation of radioiron in skipjack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, K; Tozawa, H; Takase, A

    1956-01-01

    Incinerated liver (0.2g.) and stomach (0.15g.) of a skipjack caught near the Bikini Atoll on June 19, 1954, were dissolved in 0.2N HCl, filtered, and the filtrates made up to 100 cc.; the radioactivities were 130 and 86 counts/min./cc., respectively. The solutions were passed through column of Dowex 50. Elution with 0.5% oxalic acid gave powerful radioactivity with liver, but very weak with stomach. Elution with a solution of NH/sub 4/ citrate at pH 3.5 from both samples showed strong radioactivity, probably due to the presence of /sup 65/Zn. Distinct radioactivity was also detected in the NH/sub 4/ citrate eluate at pH 4.1 from the liver, but not from the stomach; this eluted element emitted no ..gamma..-rays and differed from /sup 65/Zn. The elution behavior of the radioactive element in the 0.5% oxalic acid elution showed that it was Fe; elution by 0.6M HCl after adsorption to Dowex 1 supported this result. /sup 95/Zr and /sup 95/Nb were indicated from these data to be absent. The pulse height distribution curve of ..gamma..-ray emitted by the element also indicated that it was Fe. However, the radiation decay curve differed considerably from that of /sup 59/Fe, suggesting the presence of radioactive element with longer half-life. Comparison of the absorption coefficient of Al, Ag, and Au for x rays from /sup 55/Fe, /sup 63/Ni and the isolated element indicated that the element was /sup 55/Fe.

  7. Internal and external dose conversion coefficient for domestic reference animals and plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Park, Du Won; Choi, Young Ho

    2009-07-15

    This report presents the internal and external dose conversion coefficients for domestic reference animals and plant, which are essential to assess the radiological impact of an environmental radiation on non-human species. To calculate the dose conversion coefficients, a uniform isotropic model and a Monte Carlo method for a photon transport simulation in environmental media with different densities have been applied for aquatic and terrestrial animals, respectively. In the modeling all the target animals are defined as a simple 3D elliptical shape. To specify the external radiation source it is assumed that aquatic animals are fully immersed in infinite and uniformly contaminated water, and the on-soil animals are living on the surface of a horizontally infinite soil source, and the in-soil organisms are living at the center of a horizontally infinite and uniformly contaminated soil to a depth of 50cm. A set of internal and external dose conversion coefficients for 8 Korean reference animals and plant (rat, roe-deer, frog, snake, Chinese minnow, bee, earthworm, and pine tree) are presented for 25 radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 7}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 40}K, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 129}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 136}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 140}La, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu)

  8. Fuel reprocessing and environmental problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Ryushi

    1977-01-01

    The radioactive nuclides which are released from the reprocessing plants of nuclear fuel are 137 Cs, 106 Ru, 95 Zr and 3 H in waste water and 85 Kr in the atmosphere. This release affects the environment for example, the reprocessing plant of the Nuclear Fuel Service Co in the USA releases about 2 x 10 5 Ci/y of 85 Kr, which is evaluated as about 0.025 mr/y as external exposure dose. The radioactivity in milk around this plant was measured as less than 10 pCi/lit of 129sup(I. The radioactive concentration in the sea, especially in fish and shellfish, was measured near the reprocessing plant of Windscale in UK. The radioactive release rate from this plants more than 10)5sup( Ci/y as the total amount of )137sup(Cs, )3sup(H, )106sup(Ru, )95sup(Zr, )95sup(Nb, )90sup(Sr, )144sup(Ce, etc., and the radioactivity in seaweeds near Windscale is about 400 pCi/g as the maximum value, and the mayonnaise which was made of this seaweeds contained about 1 pCi/g of )106sup(Ru, which is estimated as about 7 mr/y for the digestive organ if 100 g is eaten every day. On the other hand, the experimental result is presented for the reprocessing plant of La Hague in France, in which the radioactive release rate from this plant is about 10)4sup( Ci/y, and the radioactivity in sea water and shellfish is about 4 pCi/l of )106sup(Ru and about 400 pCi/kg of )137 Cs, respectively, near this plant. The philosophy of ALAP (as low as practicable) is also applied to reprocessing plants. (Nakai, Y.)

  9. Vertical distribution and estimated doses from artificial radionuclides in soil samples around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taira

    Full Text Available For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS, the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides ((241Am, (134Cs, (137Cs, and (60Co were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radionuclides ((241Am, (57Co, (137Cs, (95Zr, (95Nb, (58Co, and (60Co were detected in surface soil around SNTS. Effective doses around CNPP were over the public dose limit of 1 mSv/y (International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1991. These levels in a contaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 were high, whereas levels in a decontaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 and another contaminated area 15 km from Unit 4 were comparatively low. On the other hand, the effective doses around SNTS were below the public dose limit. These findings suggest that the environmental contamination and effective doses on the ground definitely decrease with decontamination such as removing surface soil, although the effective doses of the sampling points around CNPP in the present study were all over the public dose limit. Thus, the remediation of soil as a countermeasure could be an extremely effective method not only for areas around CNPP and SNTS but also for areas around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP, and external exposure levels will be certainly reduced. Long-term follow-up of environmental monitoring around CNPP, SNTS, and FNPP, as well as evaluation of the health effects in the population residing around these areas, could contribute to radiation safety and reduce unnecessary exposure to the public.

  10. Vertical distribution and estimated doses from artificial radionuclides in soil samples around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Tsuchiya, Rimi; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kazlovsky, Alexander; Urazalin, Marat; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides ((241)Am, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co) were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radionuclides ((241)Am, (57)Co, (137)Cs, (95)Zr, (95)Nb, (58)Co, and (60)Co) were detected in surface soil around SNTS. Effective doses around CNPP were over the public dose limit of 1 mSv/y (International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1991). These levels in a contaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 were high, whereas levels in a decontaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 and another contaminated area 15 km from Unit 4 were comparatively low. On the other hand, the effective doses around SNTS were below the public dose limit. These findings suggest that the environmental contamination and effective doses on the ground definitely decrease with decontamination such as removing surface soil, although the effective doses of the sampling points around CNPP in the present study were all over the public dose limit. Thus, the remediation of soil as a countermeasure could be an extremely effective method not only for areas around CNPP and SNTS but also for areas around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), and external exposure levels will be certainly reduced. Long-term follow-up of environmental monitoring around CNPP, SNTS, and FNPP, as well as evaluation of the health effects in the population residing around these areas, could contribute to radiation safety and reduce unnecessary exposure to the public.

  11. Studies on uptake and loss of radionuclides by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku; Suzuki, Hamaji; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Ishii, Toshiaki

    1978-01-01

    Uptake and loss of 137 Cs, 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 59 fe by marine fishes were observed by the radio-isotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors and biological half-lives for these radionuclides by the fishes were estimated. Concentration factors of 137 Cs by fish muscles calculated at 200th day as 17.5 - 27.5 were lower than the values obtained by the field survey on stable or radioactive cesium suggesting slow turnover in fish muscles and contribution of food to the accumulation of the nuclide. Transfer of radionuclides associated with sediment to marine benthic organisms was examined by rearing the organisms in contaminated sediment or administering the sediment orally to the organisms. The transfer ratios of the nuclides from sediment to organisms were less than the concentration factors based on seawater by the factors ranging from around 100 to about 5,000 depending on the species of organisms or radionuclides. Accumulation of radionuclides through food chain in marine ecosystem was studied by feeding shellfishes with labelled phytoplankton and seaweeds by feeding fishes with assorted feeds labelled by radioisotopes. Absorption of 60 Co by abalones was affected by the species of the seaweeds as food and 47% of the administered dose was retained through Laminaria japonica, whereas 31% through Undaria and 26% through Eisenia. Absorption of the radionuclides by the fishes fed with labelled feeds was most significant in the case of 137 Cs and 65 Zn and transfer rate showed the maximum values at 48 hours after feeding as 100 and 24%, respectively. About 45% of the former distributed in muscle and 52% of the latter in digestive tract and blood of the fishes. (author)

  12. Development of Non-Metallic Fuel Elements for a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor; Mise au point d'elements combustibles non metalliques pour un reacteur a haute temperature, refroidi par un gaz; Razrabotka nemetallicheskikh teplovydelyashchikh ehlementov dlya vysokotemperaturnogo reaktora s gazovym okhlazhdeniem; Elementos combustibles no metalicos para un reactor de temperatura elevada refrigerado por gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebmann, B.; Schafer, L.; Spener, G. [NUKEM, Nuklear-Chemie und -Metallurgie G.m.b.H., Wolfgang bei Hanau, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1963-11-15

    /Krupp'' byli rassmotreny i razrabotany dva razlichnykh vida teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov. Oba varianta ispol'zuyut grafitovyj sharik diametrom b sm, soderzhashchij tsilindricheskuyu tabletku topliva diametrom okolo 20 mm i vysotoj 16 mm. Oba vida teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov razlichayutsya po tipu toplivnoj tabletki, a takzhe po metodu izgotovleniya grafitnogo sharika. Tabletka pervogo vida sostoit iz smesi UO{sub 2} i grafita, poluchennoj smeshivaniem U{sub 3}O{sub 8} s grafitom, pressovaniem tabletok i posleduyushchim vzaimodejstviem komponentov v vakuumnoj pechi pri 1800{sup o}C. Atomnoe otnoshenie U : C ravnyaetsya 1:45. Vvidu togo, chto takoj tip toplivnoj tabletki ne uderzhivaet polnost'yu produktov delenii, prishlos' obespechit' nepronitsaemost' grafitnogo sharika putem propitki, chtoby poluchit' teplovydelyayushchij ehlement, uderzhivayushchij produkty deleniya. Udalos' dostich' koehffitsientov fil'tratsii poryadka 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2}/sek. Toplivnaya tabletka vtorogo vida sostoit iz tverdogo rastvora UC v ZrC i pokryta sloem ieh ZrC. Molyarnoe otnoshenie UC:ZrC ravnyaetsya 1:20. Izgotovlenie toplivnykh tabletok provodilos' sleduyushchim sposobom: iz smesi UO{sub 2},ZrO{sub 2} i grafita otpressovyvalis' tabletki, v kotorykh komponenty vzaimodejstvovali do obrazovaniya karbidov. Izmolotye v sharovoj mel'nitse karbidy podvergalis' goryachej pressovke pri temperaturakh okolo 2000{sup o}C. Pri ehtom dostigalis' plotnosti bolee chem 95% teoreticheskoj. V rabote dano podrobnoe opisanie metoda izgotovleniya, a takzhe ukazany nekotorye fizicheskie svojstva toplivnykh tabletok. Ehtot tip toplivnykh tabletok udovletvoritel'no uderzhivaet gazoobraznye produkty deleniya, tak chto okazalos' vozmozhnym vklyuchit' ikh v nepropitannye grafitnye shariki. Obsuzhdayutsya i prochie preimushchestva reaktornykh topliv podobnogo roda. (author)

  13. Behaviour of semiconductor nuclear-particle detectors; Comportement des semi-conducteurs comme detecteurs de particules nucleaires; Povedenie detektorov yadernykh chastits na poluprovodnikakh; Propiedades de los detectores de particulas nucleares a base de semiconductores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, F J; Dabbs, J W.T.; Roberts, L D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-04-15

    ot detektora i usilitelya. Dlya bar'ernogo detektora s kremnievoj poverkhnost'yu v 40 mm{sup 2} pri 77{sup o}K. byli ustanovleny pokazateli shuma, ehkvivalentnye c {<=} 3 kehv (polnaya shirina pri polumaksimume). Poluprovodnikovym detektoram svojstvenen ''defekt amplitudy impul'sa'' dlya oskolkov deleniya. Imeyutsya dannye, svidetel'stvuyushchie o tom, chto ehtot defekt ne vyzyvaetsya ''neradioaktivnym sloem''. Esli ehlektricheskie polya, kotorye yavlyayutsya nedostatochnymi dlya obespecheniya polnogo ''sbora'', vyzyvayut ehtot defekt, neobkhodimym minimal'nym polem (na poverkhnosti) yavlyaetsya pole svyshe 3 x 10{sup 4} vol't/sm dlya oskolkov deleniya po sravneniyu c 2 x 10{sup 3} vol't/sm, neobkhodimost' chego byla ustanovlena dlya al'fa-chastits v germanii i kremnii. Podrobnye issledovaniya vremeni narastaniya impul'sa v usilitele pokazali, chto v materialakh s vysokoj soprotivlyaemost'yu kak vremya ''diehlektricheskoj'' relaksatsii, tak i soprotivlenie, svyazannoe s neistoshchennym osnovnym materialom, mogut igrat' vazhnuyu rol'. V doklade daetsya kolichestvennoe opisanie dejstviya parametrov detektora i usilitelya na formy i vremya narastaniya, svyazannye s impul'som. V doklade obsuzhdayutsya preimushchestva i problemy, svyazannye s ispol'zovaniem poverkhnostnykh bar'ernykh detektorov v nekotorykh opytakh po yadernomu vyravnivaniyu pri unikal'no nizkikh temperaturakh. V khode ehtikh opytov proiskhodili uglovye raspredeleniya oskolkov raspada i razreshenie al'fa-mikrostruktury s dolgosrochnoj stabil'nost'yu. V doklade takzhe daetsya opisanie tekhniki izgotovleniya s koehffitsientom soglasovannogo rasshireniya, kotoraya uspeshno ispol'zovalas' dlya izgotovleniya detektorov do 8 cm{sup 2} v aktivnoj zone. (author)

  14. Studies on {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc adsorption and elution behaviors using the inorganic sorbent ceric tungstate and conventional organic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sweify, Fatma H.; Fattah, Alaa El-Din A. Abdel; Aly, Shorouk M.; Ghamry, Mohamed A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Laboratories Center; El-Sheikh, Ragaa [Zagazig Univ. (Egypt). Chemistry Dept.

    2017-09-01

    Adsorption behavior of {sup 99}Mo(VI) and {sup 99m}Tc(VII) was studied on ceric tungstate (CeW) and compared with the adsorption on the conventional cation and anion exchangers Dowex-50X8 and AG-2X8, respectively. The studies were carried out under static and dynamic conditions. The effect of contact time and pH on the adsorption was investigated under static conditions. High K{sub d}-values for sorption of {sup 99}Mo(VI) on (CeW) were obtained over the investigated pH range. {sup 99m}Tc was adsorbed with much lower K{sub d}-values. The K{sub d}-values were pH dependent. K{sub d}-values of {sup 99}Mo-adsorption on AG-2X8 were lower than those on (CeW) and vice versa for {sup 99m}Tc. Ionic species of both elements were not adsorbed on Dowex-50X8, indicating the absence of cationic species and the adsorption of both elements on AG-2X8 and (CeW) as anionic species. The loading and elution behaviors of {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc on (CeW) were studied using different eluents. {sup 99}Mo remained strongly adsorbed under all conditions whereas {sup 99m}Tc was easily eluted. Adsorption of some fission products, i.e. {sup 95}Zr(IV) and {sup 95}Nb(V), in addition to {sup 123m}Te(IV) and {sup 75}Se(IV), as representatives of their corresponding fission product isotopes, as well as {sup 181}Hf, as probable radioactive contaminant was also studied. Solutions of the ionic species of those metals were loaded in mixtures together with {sup 99}Mo on (CeW) columns. Strong adsorption of those ionic species and {sup 99}Mo on (CeW) was found whereas {sup 99m}Tc was easily eluted. Different eluents were investigated for eluting {sup 99m}Tc from {sup 99}Mo-adsorbed on (CeW).

  15. Establishment of methodology for determination of 93Zr in radioactive wastes by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thiago Cesar de

    2014-01-01

    The zirconium-93 is a long-lived pure β-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from 235 U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope 92 Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half life, 93 Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Measurement of 93 Zr is difficult owing to its trace level concentration and its low activity in nuclear wastes and further because its certified standards are not frequently available. The aim of this work was to develop a selective radiochemical separation methodology for the determination of 93 Zr in nuclear waste and analyze it by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). To set up the radiochemical separation procedure for zirconium, a tracer solution of 95 Zr and its 724 keV γ-ray measurements by γ- spectrometry were used in order to follow the behavior of zirconium during the radiochemical separation. For the LSC technique a 55 Fe solution, which is one of the major interfering measures zirconium, was used to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. The efficiency detection for 63 Ni was used to determination of 93 Zr activity in the matrices analyzed. The limit of detection of the 0.05 Bq 1 −1 was obtained for 63 Ni standard solutions by using a sample:cocktail ratio of 3:17 mL for Optiphase Hisafe 3 cocktail. For the ICP-MS technique a zirconium stable solution was used to verify the zirconium behavior and recovery during radiochemical separation and a solution of Ba, Co, Eu, Fe, Mn, Nb, Sr and Y was used to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. A standard solution 93 Nb as isotope for determining the 93 Zr by ICP-MS was used for calibration and analysis. The detection limit of 0.039 ppb was obtained for the standard solution of zirconium. Then, the protocol was applied to low level

  16. The radiation monitoring of environment around place of treatment and storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovina, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Large success was attained in the field of radiation protection of research nuclear center, but it is necessary to carry out works in this way around place of treatment and storage of radioactive wastes too. Moreover, for protection of environment it is necessary to control radiation condition of system (radioactive wastes of nuclear center - environment). There is large amount of natural and man-made radionuclides in environment and it is important to solve problem to control individual radionuclides, polluting natural environment. Also, it is necessary to control concentrations of specific radionuclides, which are marks of definite radioactive source. The radionuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 60 Co, 141 Ce, 144 Ce, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 131 I and natural radionuclides of uranium, thorium and their products of decay are basic radionuclides. The 57 Co, 35 S, 32 P are considered also basic radionuclides taking into consideration specialization of our Institute. The basic problems of control of environment are following: observation of radioactive pollution level of environment objects; estimation of radioactive pollution level with the purpose of warning of possible negative consequences; investigation of dynamics of radioactivity and prognosis of radioactive pollution of environment objects; influence on sources of radioactive pollution. There is large volume information, characterizing radiation condition of environment around research nuclear center and around place of treatment and storage of radioactive wastes. The bank of environment object analysis result date was build for investigation of information. The system of protection around location of treatment and storage of radioactive wastes and around nuclear center consists of control of radioactive wastes, superficial and underground water, soil, plants, atmospheric precipitation. There are analysis of total β- activity, α-activity and γ-spectrometry. This control includes estimation of throw down values

  17. Formation of Microbial Mats and Salt in Radioactive Paddy Soils in Fukushima, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue Tazaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas in Minami-soma City, Fukushima, Japan, were seriously damaged by radioactive contamination from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP accident that caused multiple pollution by tsunami and radionuclide exposure, after the Great East Japan Earthquake, on 11 March 2011. Some areas will remain no-go zones because radiation levels remain high. In Minami-soma, only 26 percent of decontamination work had been finished by the end of July in 2015. Here, we report the characterization of microbial mats and salt found on flooded paddy fields at Karasuzaki, Minami-soma City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan which have been heavily contaminated by radionuclides, especially by Cs (134Cs, 137Cs, 40K, Sr (89Sr, 90Sr, and 91 or 95Zr even though it is more than 30 km north of the FDNPP. We document the mineralogy, the chemistry, and the micro-morphology, using a combination of micro techniques. The microbial mats were found to consist of diatoms with mineralized halite and gypsum by using X-ray diffraction (XRD. Particular elements concentrated in microbial mats were detected using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS and X-ray fluorescence (XRF. The objective of this contribution is to illustrate the ability of various diatoms associated with minerals and microorganisms which are capable of absorbing both radionuclides and stable isotopes from polluted paddy soils in extreme conditions. Ge semiconductor analysis of the microbial mats detected 134Cs, 137Cs, and 40K without 131I in 2012 and in 2013. Quantitative analysis associated with the elemental content maps by SEM-EDS indicated the possibility of absorption of radionuclide and stable isotope elements from polluted paddy soils in Fukushima Prefecture. In addition, radionuclides were detected in solar salts made of contaminated sea water collected from the Karasuzaki ocean bath, Minami-soma, Fukushima in 2015, showing high Zr content associated

  18. Fission Product Data Measured at Los Alamos for Fission Spectrum and Thermal Neutrons on 239Pu, 235U, 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, H.D.; Mac Innes, M.R.; Barr, D.W.; Keksis, A.L.; Meade, R.A.; Burns, C.J.; Chadwick, M.B.; Wallstrom, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe measurements of fission product data at Los Alamos that are important for determining the number of fissions that have occurred when neutrons are incident on plutonium and uranium isotopes. The fission-spectrum measurements were made using a fission chamber designed by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in the BIG TEN critical assembly, as part of the Inter-laboratory Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Reaction Rate (ILRR) collaboration. The thermal measurements were made at Los Alamos' Omega West Reactor. A related set of measurements were made of fission-product ratios (so-called R-values) in neutron environments provided by a number of Los Alamos critical assemblies that range from having average energies causing fission of 400-600 keV (BIG TEN and the outer regions of the Flattop-25 assembly) to higher energies (1.4-1.9 MeV) in the Jezebel, and in the central regions of the Flattop-25 and Flattop-Pu, critical assemblies. From these data we determine ratios of fission product yields in different fuel and neutron environments (Q-values) and fission product yields in fission spectrum neutron environments for 99 Mo, 95 Zr, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 141,143 Ce, and 147 Nd. Modest incident-energy dependence exists for the 147 Nd fission product yield; this is discussed in the context of models for fission that include thermal and dynamical effects. The fission product data agree with measurements by Maeck and other authors using mass-spectrometry methods, and with the ILRR collaboration results that used gamma spectroscopy for quantifying fission products. We note that the measurements also contradict earlier 1950s historical Los Alamos estimates by ∼5-7%, most likely owing to self-shielding corrections not made in the early thermal measurements. Our experimental results provide a confirmation of the England-Rider ENDF/B-VI evaluated fission-spectrum fission product yields that were carried over to the ENDF/B-VII.0 library, except

  19. Sources of variability for the single-comparator method in a heavy-water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damsgaard, E.; Heydorn, K.

    1978-11-01

    The well thermalized flux in the heavy-water-moderated DR 3 reactor at Risoe prompted us to investigate to what extent a single comparator could be used for multi-element determination instead of multiple comparators. The reliability of the single-comparator method is limited by the thermal-to-epithermal ratio, and experiments were designed to determine the variations in this ratio throughout a reactor operating period (4 weeks including a shut-down period of 4-5 days). The bi-isotopic method using zirconium as monitor was chosen, because 94 Zr and 96 Zr exhibit a large difference in their Isub(o)/Σsub(th) values, and would permit determination of the flux ratio with a precision sufficient to determine variations. One of the irradiation facilities comprises a rotating magazine with 3 channels, each of which can hold five aluminium cans. In this rig, five cans, each holding a polyvial with 1 ml of aqueous zirconium solution were irradiated simultaneously in one channel. Irradiations were carried out in the first and the third week of 4 periods. In another facility consisting of a pneumatic tube system, two samples were simultaneously irradiated on top of each other in a polyethylene rabbit. Experiments were carried out once a week for 4 periods. All samples were counted on a Ge(Li)-detector for 95 Zr, 97 sup(m)Nb and 97 Nb. The thermal-to-epithermal flux ratio was calculated from the induced activity, the nuclear data for the two zirconium isotopes and the detector efficiency. By analysis of variance the total variation of the flux ratio was separated into a random variation between reactor periods, and systematic differences between the positions, as well as the weeks in the operating period. If the variations are in statistical control, the error resulting from use of the single-comparator method in multi-element determination can be estimated for any combination of irradiation position and day in the operating period. With the measure flux ratio variations in DR

  20. Establishment of methodology for determination of {sup 93}Zr in radioactive wastes by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS); Estabelecimento de metodologia para determinacao de {sup 93}Zr em rejeitos radioativos por Espectrometria de Cintilacao Liquida (LSC) e Espectrometria de Massa com Plasma Indutivamente Acoplado (ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thiago Cesar de

    2014-06-01

    The zirconium-93 is a long-lived pure β-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from {sup 235}U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope {sup 92}Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half life, {sup 93}Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Measurement of {sup 93}Zr is difficult owing to its trace level concentration and its low activity in nuclear wastes and further because its certified standards are not frequently available. The aim of this work was to develop a selective radiochemical separation methodology for the determination of {sup 93}Zr in nuclear waste and analyze it by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). To set up the radiochemical separation procedure for zirconium, a tracer solution of {sup 95}Zr and its 724 keV γ-ray measurements by γ- spectrometry were used in order to follow the behavior of zirconium during the radiochemical separation. For the LSC technique a {sup 55}Fe solution, which is one of the major interfering measures zirconium, was used to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. The efficiency detection for {sup 63}Ni was used to determination of {sup 93}Zr activity in the matrices analyzed. The limit of detection of the 0.05 Bq 1{sup −1} was obtained for {sup 63}Ni standard solutions by using a sample:cocktail ratio of 3:17 mL for Optiphase Hisafe 3 cocktail. For the ICP-MS technique a zirconium stable solution was used to verify the zirconium behavior and recovery during radiochemical separation and a solution of Ba, Co, Eu, Fe, Mn, Nb, Sr and Y was used to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. A standard solution {sup 93}Nb as isotope for determining the {sup 93}Zr by ICP-MS was used for calibration and analysis. The detection limit of 0.039 ppb was obtained for the standard

  1. Self-diffusion in volume and at the grain-boundaries of gamma-iron of high purity (99.99%); Autodiffusion en volume et aux joints de grains du fer gamma de haute purete (99,99 %); Ob'emnaya samodiffuziya i samodiffuziya na poverkhnosti granul zheleza u vysokoj chistoty (99,99%); Autodifusion en volumen y en los limites intergranulares del hierro gamma de elevada pureza (99,99 por ciento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacombe, P; Guiraldenq, P; Leymonie, C [Centre de Recherches Metallurgiques, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, Paris (France)

    1962-01-15

    1260 Degree-Sign y 918 Degree-Sign C, y de las constantes de autodifusion en las uniones intergranulares entre 1020 Degree-Sign y 918 Degree-Sign C. (author) [Russian] Vvidu trudnostej, s kotorymi vstretilis' pri tochnom izmerenii koehffitsientov samodiffuzii kak vnutri, tak i mezhdu samimi granulami v nekotorykh intervalakh temperatury, kogda sosushchestvuyut oba yavleniya, my byli vynuzhdeny pribegnut' k obychnomu metodu deleniya na chasti. V samom dele my uzhe ustanovili, chto dlya vyazkogo polutverdogo tela posle diffuzii kontsentratsiya radioaktivnykh atomov c (x{sub n}) na rasstoyanii x{sub n} ot pervonachal'nogo radioaktivnogo osadka yavlyaetsya prostoj funktsiej obshchej aktivnosti, kotoraya ostaetsya v obraztse posle abrazii na glubinu x{sub n}. EHtot vyvod yavlyaetsya rezul'tatom obobshcheniya formuly Gruzina, kotoraya do nastoyashchego vremeni primenyalas' tol'ko v ob{sup e}mnoj diffuzii. Takim obrazom my pokazali, chto mozhno putem izmereniya obshchej aktivnosti, ostayushchejsya v zavisimosti ot glubiny proniknoveniya razlichat' dolyu aktivnosti, kotoraya proiskhodit iz-za ob{sup e}mnoj samodiffuzii ot aktivnosti, proiskhodyashchej iz-za mezhgranulovoj samodiffuzii. Odnako tsennost' metoda zaklyuchaetsya v tom, chtoby prosledit' dal'she na tom zhe samom obraztse perekhod ob{sup e}mnoj samodiffuzii v mezhgranulovuyu samodiffuziyu. My primenili ehtot novyj metod dlya izmereniya konstant ob{sup e}mnoj samodiffuzii v zheleze u pri temperature 1260 Degree-Sign i 980 Degree-Sign C, a takzhe samodiffuzii na poverkhnosti granul pri temperature 1020 Degree-Sign i 918 Degree-Sign C. (author)

  2. New processing techniques for radioisotopes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Production de radioisotopes: nouvelles techniques employees au Laboratoire national d'Oak Ridge; Novye tekhnologicheskie metody polucheniya radioizotopov v Okridzhskoj natsional'noj laboratorii; Nuevos metodos de preparacion de radioisotopos aplicados en el Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T A; Lamb, E; Rupp, A F [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-01-15

    combinacion de procedimientos de precipitacion y de extraccion con disolventes, se han podido recuperar cantidades de tecnecio-99 del orden de algunos gramos, a partir de desechos de productos de fision. La pureza quimica del tecnecio obtenido es superior al 99,9%, en tanto que su pureza radioquimica sobrepasa el 99.99%. Trabajando tambien con vestigios, se ha demostrado la posibilidad de separar y purificar por extraccion continua pequenas cantidades de estroncio contenidas en otros materiales. Se obtuvo estroncio de 98% de pureza a partir de un material contaminado por un 95% de calcio inerte. El estroncio se transforma en titanato de estroncio, con el que se elaboran elementos ceramicos. (author) [Russian] Novejshaya progressivnaya programma proizvodstva radioizotopov v Okridzhskoj natsional'noj laboratorii vklyuchaet novye tekhnologicheskie protsessy i uluchsheniya ikh dlya proizvodstva tseriya-144, prometiya-147, tekhnetsiya-99 i strontsiya-90. TSerij-144 byl proizveden v kolichestve neskol'kikh kilokyuri pri probnoj postanovke proizvodstva. Produkt byl rekuperirovan bolee chem na 98 protsentov pri chistote produkta svyshe 99 protsentov. Posle ehtogo tserij byl obrabotan dlya polucheniya chistoj okisi tseriya-144 v vide poroshka s kontsentratsiej aktivnosti v 235 kyuri na gramm. Poroshok spressovyvalsya v tabletki, kotorye spekalis' v vide plotnogo keramicheskogo tela. Prometij-147 byl proizveden v kolichestve neskol'kikh kilokyuri po metodu osazhdeniya sovmestno s metodom ionnogo obmena. Dlya otdeleniya prometiya-147 ot drugikh redkikh zemel' byl isprobovan v masshtabe indikatorov metod izvlecheniya rastvoritelem. Iz produktov deleniya v stoke otkhodnykh materialov bylo rekuperirovano neskol'ko grammov tekhnetsiya-99 pri pomoshchi protsessa osazhdeniya sovmestno s protsessom izvlecheniya rastvoritelem. Tekhnetsij byl poluchen bolee chem s 99,9-protsentnoj khimicheskoj chistotoj i s radiokhimicheskoj chistotoj bolee chem 99,99%. V masshtabe indikatorov byla dokazana

  3. The epithermal critical experiments; Experiences critiques avec des neutrons epitliermiques; Nadteplovye kriticheskie ehksperimenty; Experimentos criticos con neutrones epitermicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morewitz, H A; Carpenter, S O [Atomics International, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1962-03-15

    provistos de detectores calibrados, de umbrales diferentes, y con un espectrometro en 'emparedado' de contador de {sup 6}Li solido. Se utilizara una calculador a numerica corriente para agrupar todas las mediciones en un registro sistematico de secciones eficaces promediadas respecto del espectro. (author) [Russian] Sovremennaya faza programmy issledovanij usovershenstvovannog o nadteplovogo torievogo reaktora sostoit iz polnykh ehksperimen- tov po reaktornoj fizike, provodimykh s tsel'yu obespecheniya informatsiej po nejtronnym secheniyam v diapazone ot 10 Mehv do 1 kehv. Izuchaetsya gruppa devyati mnogozonal'nykh , medlenno-bystrykh , psevdosfericheski kh kriticheskikh sborok 'KHanikouma' s dvumya podvizhnymi polovinami aktivnoj zony. K nastoyashchemu vremeni ispytany tri sborki. Vneshnyaya peremeshchayushchayas ya zona dvigaetsya po otnosheniyu k vnutrennej sfericheskoj ehksperimental'noj aktivnoj zone na urane-233 - torii, spektor nejtronnogo potoka kotoroj uspeshno smyagchaetsya uvelicheniem otnosheniya grafitovogo zamedlitelya k toplivu. EHksperiment s generatorom pryamougol'nykh impul'sov opredelit tsentral'nuyu reaktivnuyu sposobnost' soroka malykh obraztsov razlichnykh materialov do 10{sup -8} {Delta}k dlya kazhdoj sborki. Krome togo, vzaimno kalibrovannye iskusstvennye istochniki nejtronov ostsilliruyutsya v tselyakh opredeleniya razlichnykh funktsij tsentral'nogo nejtronnogo znacheniya. Spektry poluchayut putem izmerenij schetchikom deleniya s pomoshch'yu kalibrovannoj fol'gi razlichnykh porogov, a takzhe putem ispol'zovaniya schetnogo sloistogo spektrometra s L{sup 6} v tverdom sostoyanii. Dlya sbora vsekh izmerenij v samosoglasovannu yu biblioteku spektral'nykh srednikh poperechnykh sechenij budut pol'zovat'sya odnoznachnym vychislitel'nym rezhimom. (author)

  4. Technical Developments in the USAEC Process Radiation Development Program; Etudes technologiques dans le cadre du programme de mise au point d'applications industrielles des rayonnements de la CEA-EU; Issledovaniya v oblasti promyshlennogo primeneniya izluchenij, vkhodyashchie v programmu komissii po atomnoj ehnergii USAEC; Progresos tecnicos en el programa de la USAEC para el fomento de la irradiacion industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machurek, J. E.; Stein, M. H. [Division of Isotopes Development, USAEC, Washington, DC (United States)

    1963-11-15

    ispol'zovanie ioniziruyushchikh izluchenij v promyshlennosti. Provedeno chetyrnadtsat' takikh issledovanij, rezul'taty nekotorykh iz nikh izlozheny v obshchikh chertakh v dannoj rabote, ostal'nye izlagayutsya bolee podrobno - v drugikh stat'yakh trudov. Temy issledovanij vklyuchayut: 1. Prigotovlenie kombinatsij derevo-plastik, ispol'zuya gamma-izluchenie dlya indutsirovaniya polimerizatsii. 2. Ispol'zovanie beta-izlucheniya produktov deleniya dlya gidrogenizatsii uglya, i ego produktov s tsel'yu polucheniya zhidkogo uglevodorodnogo topliva. 3. Poluchenie poluprovodnikovykh priborov s formirovaniem zadannogo prostranstvennogo raspredeleniya primesej v zavisimosti ot legirovaniya putem nejtronnykh prevrashchenij. 4. Vyzvannaya izlucheniem polimerizatsiya ehtilena i sopolimerov. 5. Osnovnye issledovaniya mekhanizmov i kinetiki reaktsij, vyzvannykh izlucheniem. 6. Radiatsionno-khimicheskie protsessy pri ftorirovanii razlichnykh aromaticheskikh soedinenij. 7. Ispol'zovanie polifunktsional'nykh monomerov dlya intensifikatsii radiatsionnogo sshivaniya poliehtilena, polipropilena, poliizobutilena i atsetattsellyulozy. 8. Vliyanie nabukhaniya, deformatsii i temperatury na fizicheskie i khimicheskie svojstva polimerov, poluchennykh s pomoshch'yu radiatsii. 9. Vliyanie strukturnykh faktorov na radiatsionnye izmeneniya v polimerakh, privodyashchie k graftsopolimerizatsii. 10. Ispol'zovanie yadernykh izluchenij dlya modifikatstsii tekstil'nykh materialov. 11. Reaktsii, vyzvannye izlucheniem kriptona-85. 12. Podgotovka ''Spravochnika po radiatsii''. 13. Ispol'zovanie metalloorganicheskoj svyazi dlya gamma-dozimetrii pri bol'shikh moshchnostyakh dozy. 14. Razrabotka dozimetra s solnechnym ehlementom. (author)

  5. Production of Strontium-90 Thermal Power Sources; Fabrication de sources d'energie thermique au strontium-90; Proizvodstvo istochnikov ''teplovoj ehnergii iz Sr''9''0; Preparacion de fuentes de energia termica con estroncio-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J. S.; Bloom, J. L.; Schneider, A. [Martin Company, Nuclear Division, Baltimore 3, MD (United States)

    1963-11-15

    rajonakh. V ehtom smysle Sr{sup 90} priobretaet bol'shoe znachenie iz-za ego shirokoj dostupnosti, aktivnosti i toj sravnitel'noj legkosti, s kotoroj ego mozhno prevrashchat' v kompaktnye istochniki tepla. Generatory, rabotayushchie na Sr{sup 90} sluzhat v kachestve istochnikov pitaniya avtomaticheskikh meteorologicheskikh i navigatsionnykh stantsij; rassmatrivaetsya vozmozhnost' primeneniya Sr{sup 90} v kachestve istochnika ehnergii dlya dvigatelej kosmicheskikh korablej. Pri sravnitel'noj otsenke ryada strontsievykh soedinenij okazalos', chto naibolee tselesoobrazno ispol'zovat' titanat, tak kak on obladaet naibolee tsennymi svojstvami. Sr{sup 90}, otdelennyj ot drugikh produktov deleniya, ochishchaetsya do trebuemoj stepeni chistoty na predpriyatii Komissii po atomnoj ehnergii SSHA v Khehnforde i trasportiruetsya v vide karbonata v ''gorya- chuyu'' kameru(firmy ''Martin''), gde prevrashchaetsya v granulirovannyj titanat. V ehtom protsesse ispol'zuetsya distantsionnoe upravlenie, analogichnoe primenyaemomu v obychnom khimicheskom i keramicheskom proizvodstve. Granuly, zaklyuchennye v kapsuly, pomeshchayutsya v kontejnery tipa ''Khastellou C'' dlya primeneniya v ehnergeticheskikh ustanovkakh s termoehlektricheskim preobrazovaniem ehnergii. Zdes' prikhoditsya stalkivat'sya s neobychnymi ehkspluatatsionnymi problemami, tak kak bol'shie kolichestva obrabatyvaemogo Sr{sup 90} (milliony kyuri v god) obladayut strashnoj radioaktivnost'yu i sozdayut opasnost' zarazheniya. Opisano ustrojstvo prisposoblenij, oborudovaniya, kharakterizuyutsya tekhnologiya i tekhnika bezopasnosti. Opisyvayutsya dannye opyta, priobretennogo vo vremya nedavnej pererabotki pervykh 250 000 kyuri Sr{sup 90} v toplivo dlya generatora SNAP-7 (yadernaya batareya). Privodyatsya takzhe dannye po germetizatsii granul v kontejnerakh, po kalorimetrii, dezaktivatsii i metodike udaleniya otkhodov. (author)

  6. Application of LiF for determining the gamma-radiation characteristics of the shut-down reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibragimova, E M; Musaeva, M A; Ashrapov, U T; Kalanov, M U; Muminov, M I [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: The power of {sup 60}Co {approx}1.25 MeV gamma-radiation source at the INP AS RUz is limited by 8 Gy/s, which does not satisfy several tasks of material science now. Therefore, we were first to suggest the irradiation of materials with gamma-rays of 0.1-7 MeV, which are emitted by the uranium fission products ({sup 41}Ar, {sup 135}Xe, {sup 125}Xe, {sup 125}I,{sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 140}La, {sup 99}Mo, {sup 60}Co) and {sup l6}N, {sup 24}Na, {sup 28}Al radio-nuclides in water during prophylactic shut-downs of our nuclear reactor WWR-SM. The gamma-dose rate kinetics was monitored with the ion current in ionization chambers KNK-53M fixed outside the reactor core from the stop-moment. The current kinetics comprised 4 steps with a high reproducibility at 2 and 0.5 {mu}A, then 50 and 10 nA, each lasting for 1,10, 40 and up to 200 hours, according to the isotope life-times. LiF crystal is known as a thermal luminescence dosimeter of mixed radiations up to 100 Gy. Yet in this work the absorbed gamma-energy dose D{sub {gamma}} was determined by accumulation of the known stable structure defects in thin cleaved LiF crystals: by induced optical absorption and luminescence of F- and M-centers. The samples were irradiated in Al-containers filled with water to keep the temperature of {approx}40 deg. C in the time range from 30 minutes to 150 hours. Optical absorption spectra were registered at spectrometer Specord M-40. Then the induced color center concentration was calculated by the Smakula relation, which is proportional to the absorbed dose D{gamma}. For a better reliability the photoluminescence center content was also determined. Selecting comparable close intensities of the induced absorption and luminescence bands obtained after irradiations of LiF references in the certified {sup 60}Co gamma-sources of the known gamma fluxes 0.7 and 7.5 Gy/s, the gamma-radiation intensity of the shut-down reactor was estimated in

  7. Application of LiF for determining the gamma-radiation characteristics of the shut-down reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimova, E.M.; Musaeva, M.A.; Ashrapov, U.T.; Kalanov, M.U.; Muminov, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The power of 60 Co ∼1.25 MeV gamma-radiation source at the INP AS RUz is limited by 8 Gy/s, which does not satisfy several tasks of material science now. Therefore, we were first to suggest the irradiation of materials with gamma-rays of 0.1-7 MeV, which are emitted by the uranium fission products ( 41 Ar, 135 Xe, 125 Xe, 125 I, 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 144 Ce, 95 Zr, 140 Ba, 140 La, 99 Mo, 60 Co) and l6 N, 24 Na, 28 Al radio-nuclides in water during prophylactic shut-downs of our nuclear reactor WWR-SM. The gamma-dose rate kinetics was monitored with the ion current in ionization chambers KNK-53M fixed outside the reactor core from the stop-moment. The current kinetics comprised 4 steps with a high reproducibility at 2 and 0.5 μA, then 50 and 10 nA, each lasting for 1,10, 40 and up to 200 hours, according to the isotope life-times. LiF crystal is known as a thermal luminescence dosimeter of mixed radiations up to 100 Gy. Yet in this work the absorbed gamma-energy dose D γ was determined by accumulation of the known stable structure defects in thin cleaved LiF crystals: by induced optical absorption and luminescence of F- and M-centers. The samples were irradiated in Al-containers filled with water to keep the temperature of ∼40 deg. C in the time range from 30 minutes to 150 hours. Optical absorption spectra were registered at spectrometer Specord M-40. Then the induced color center concentration was calculated by the Smakula relation, which is proportional to the absorbed dose Dγ. For a better reliability the photoluminescence center content was also determined. Selecting comparable close intensities of the induced absorption and luminescence bands obtained after irradiations of LiF references in the certified 60 Co gamma-sources of the known gamma fluxes 0.7 and 7.5 Gy/s, the gamma-radiation intensity of the shut-down reactor was estimated in correlation with the ion current as 10 nA = 15 Gy/s. At short times of irradiation the linear dose dependence

  8. Some factors influencing the absorption, retention and elimination of ruthenium; Facteurs agissant sur l'absorption, la retention et l'elimination du ruthenium; Nekotorye faktory, vliyakshchie na vsasyvanie, zaderzhku i vydelenie ruteniya; Factores que influyen sobre la absorcion, retencion y eliminacion de rutenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, R. S. [Radiobiological Research Council, Medical Research Council, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1963-02-15

    The radioactive isotopes of ruthenium, Ru{sup 103} (t1/2 = 40 d) and Ru{sup 106}(t1/2 = 1 yr), are formed in relatively high yield as a result of nuclear fission of U{sup 235}. There is almost no information on the metabolism of ruthenium by man and the following considerations are based on investigations with rats and rabbits. The nature and extent of the hazard from radioruthenium will depend not only on the circumstances of contamination but also on the physical and chemical state of the ruthenium; Ru{sup 106} administered orally as the dioxide is absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract to a negligible extent when it is in a particulate form with carrier present but when given as a colloid in the absence of carrier, uptake is similar to that which follows administration of the chloride (3-5%). Nitrato-derivatives of nitrosyl ruthenium may be absorbed to an even greater extent (an average of 13% is absorbed by rabbits). Absorption by rats, which are not fasted, is complete within one hour of an intragastric dose. The limited period of absorption may be explained in terms of the rate of gastric emptying and combination of ruthenium with the contents of the gut. When rats are fasted overnight before the ruthenium is administered, absorption is increased threefold-and continues over a longer period. Nitrato derivatives of nitrosyl-ruthenium, in contrast to other compounds tested, react with the wall of the upper small intestine where up to 20% of an oral dose may be retained for several hours. Although the chemical state of ruthenium influences the degree of absorption, the subsequent distribution is not greatly affected. Approximately half of the absorbed ruthenium is excreted in the urine during the first 24 h. After one month, 5 to 20% of the absorbed fraction is retained with a long biological half-life. The ruthenium is distributed throughout the body with the concentrations in the various organs seldem differing by a factor of more than five, though the distribution within a single tissue is not necessarily uniform. The concentration in the kidney, which is the main route of excretion, is high. Consideration of the behaviour of ruthenium in blood serum helps to explain the processes involved in its distribution and retention. When ruthenium is mixed with serum in vitro some is firmly bound to the proteins and some remains free. Free ruthenium may be detected in the serum immediately after an intravenous injection or oral dose but it rapidly disappears. It seems probable that after ruthenium is absorbed in a freely diffusible form, some reacts with serum proteins and is initially confined to the vascular space, some is removed immediately by the kidneys and some diffuses rapidly into the extravascular space and tissues. The latter fraction may either react with the tissue and be retained or diffuse back into the blood and be excreted. After the first few days the ruthenium concentration in serum decreases at a rate which corresponds very closely to the rate of serum protein degradation. The retention of ruthenium in other tissues may also be governed by their catabolic rate. As ruthenium reacts with proteins to give stable complexes it is difficult to suggest any remedial treatment to decrease retention. The chelating agents EDTA, DTPA and TTHA do not influence the distribution or excretion of ruthenium administered intravenously to rats. (author) [French] Deux radioisotopes du ruthenium, ''1''0''3Ru (periode de 40 jours) et ''1''0''6Ru (periode de 1 an) sont produits en quantites relativement elevees a la suite de la fission nucleaire de {sup 235}U. On ne possede presque aucun renseignement sur le metabolisme du ruthenium chez l'homme et les considerations ci-dessous decoulent de recherches sur le rat et le lapin. La nature et l'importance des risques resultant du radioruthenium ne dependent pas seulement des conditions de la contamination, mais aussi de l'etat physique et chimique du ruthenium. ''1''0''6Ru administre par voie buccale sous torme de bioxyde sort du tractus gastro-intestinal en quantite negligeable s'il se presente sous la forme de particules incorporees a un excipient; mais lorsqu'on l'administre sous la forme colloidale et sans excipient, la fixation est la meme que celle qui succede a l'administration du chlorure (3 a 5%). Les derives nitres du ruthenium nitrose peuvent etre absorbes en plus grande quantite encore (en moyenne 13% chez le lapin). L'absorption chez le rat sans jeune prealable est terminee au bout de une heure (dose intragastrique). La brievete de cette absorption peut s'expliquer par le fait que l'estomac se vide assez rapidement et que le ruthenium se melange au contenu de l'intestin. Lorsqu'on fait jeuner le rat pendant la nuit qui precede l'administration de ruthenium, l'absorption est trois fois plus elevee et se prolonge sur une plus longue periode. Les derives nitres du ruthenium nitrose, contrairement aux autres composes ayant fait l'objet des experiences, reagissent sur la paroi du duodenum superieur, ou jusqu'a 20% d'une dose par voie buccale peuvent etre retenus pendant plusieurs heures. Bien que l'etat chimique du ruthenium influence le degre d'absorption, la distribution ulterieure n'est pas sensiblement affectee. Environ la moitie du ruthenium absorbe est excretee dans l'urine au cours des premieres 24 heures. Apres un mois, de 5 a 20% de la fraction absorbee sont encore retenus dans l'organisme, avec une longue periode d'activite biologique. Le ruthenium se repartit dans l'ensemble du corps avec des concentrations qui different rarement d'un facteur superieur a cinq d'un organe a un autre, mais la repartition dans un meme tissu n'est pas necessairement uniforme. La concentration dans le rein, qui constitue la principale voie d'excretion, est tres elevee. L'etude du comportement du ruthenium dans le serum sangiun permet d'expliquer les processus qui conditionnent sa repartition et sa retention. Si l'on melange in vitro du ruthenium et du serum, une partie du ruthenium devient etroitement liee aux proteines et une autre partie reste libre. Le ruthenium libre peut etre decele dans le serum immediatement apres une injection intraveineuse ou une administration par voie buccale, mais il disparait rapidement. Il est probable qu'apres l'absorption du ruthenium sous une forme librement diffusible, une partie reagit avec les proteines du serum et reste tout d'abord dans l'espace vasculaire, une partie est immediatement excretee par les reins et une partie se diffuse rapidement dans l'espace extra-vasculaire et les tissus. Cette derniere fraction peut, soit reagir avec les tissus et etre retenue par eux, soit retourner dans le sang et etre excretee. Apres quelques jours, la concentration de ruthenium dans le serum decroit a une vitesse voisine de la vitesse de degradation des proteines du serum. La retention du ruthenium dans les autres tissus peut egalement dependre de la vitesse de leur catabolisme. Comme le ruthenium reagit avec les proteines pour donner des complexes stables, il est difficile.de proposer un traitement qui permette de diminuer sa retention. Les agents de chelation EDTA, DTPA et TTHA n'ont aucun effet sur la distribution ou l'excretion du ruthenium administre a des rats par voie intraveineuse. (author) [Spanish] Los isotopos radiactivos del rutenio, ''1''0''3Ru(t1/2 = 40 d) y ''1''0''6Ru(t1/2 = 1 a) se forman con rendimiento relativamente elevado durante ia fision del {sup 235}U . Las consideraciones que siguen se basan en investigaciones realizadas con ratas y conejos, ya que se poseen escasos datos sobre el metabolismo del rutenio en el hombre. La fndole y ia gravedad de los peligros que ocasiona el radiorrutenio no solo dependen de las circuns- tancias en que se produzca la contaminacion, sino tambien de los estados fisico y quimico del rutenio. Cuando el {sup 106}Ru se administra oralmente en forma de dioxido, la absorcion en el tubo digestivo es despreciable, siempre que se trabaje en presencia de portador y con el dioxido en forma de particulas, mientras que si esta en estado coloidal y exento de portador, la absorcion es similar a la que se produce al administrar el cloruro (3 a 5%). Los nitratodenvactos del mtrosilrutenio se pueden absorber en mayor grado aun (los conejos absorben en promedio el 13%). Cuando las ratas no se encuentran en ayunas, la absorcion es total a la hora de administrar una dosis por via oral. Este periodo de absorcion tan corto se podria explicar por la velocidad de vaciado del estomago y la combinacion del rutenio con ciertas sustancias contenidas en el intestino. Si se mantienen las ratas en ayunas la noche antes de administrar el rutenio; el grado de absorcion se triplica y el proceso continua durante bastante tiempo. Contrariamente a otros compuestos ya ensayados los nitratoderivados del nitrosilrutenio reaccionan con las paredes de la parte superior del intestino delgado, que son capaces de retener durante varias horas hasta el 20% de una dosis orai. El estado quimico del rutenio ejerce influencia sobre el grado de absorcion, pero no afecta mayormente a la distribucion ulterior del elemento. Durante las primeras 24 horas se excreta por la orina aproximadamente la mitad del rutenio absorbido. Al cabo de un mes, quedan todavia retenidos, con un periodo biologico largo, del 5 al 20{sup o}/ode la fraccion absorbida. El rutenio se distribuye por todo el organismo y las concentraciones en los diversos organos rara vez difieren en un factor superior a cinco, aunque la distribucion en un solo tejido no sea necesariamente homogenea. La concentracion en los rinones, que constituyen la via principal de eliminacion, es elevada. El estudio del comportamiento del rutenio en el suero sanguineo ayuda a explicar los procesos que gobiernan su distribution y retencion. Cuando el rutenio se mezcla in vitro con ei suero una parte queda firmemente ligada a las proteinas en tanto que el resto permanece libre. El rutenio libre se puede detectar en el suero inmediatamente despues de una inyeccion endovenosa o una administracion por via oral, pero desaparece con rapidez. Es probable que una vez que el rutenio sea absorbido en una forma que difunde libremente, parte del mismo reaccione con las proteinas del suero y que en un primer momento permanezca confinado en el espacio vascular; una parte es eliminada sin demora por los rinones y otra se difunde rapidamente en el espacio extravascular y en los tejidos. Esta ultima fraccion puede, bien reaccionar con el tejido y quedar retenida o difundirse de nuevo a la sangre, bien ser excretada. Despues de los primeros dias, la concentracion de rutenio en el suero disminuye a una velocidad que guarda una relacion estrecha con la velocidad de degradacion de las seroproteinas. Es posible que la retencion del rutenio en otros tejidos se rija tambien por su velocidad catabolica. (author) [Russian] Dva radioaktivnykh izotopa ruteniya, rutenij-103 (T1/2 = 40 dnej) i rutenij-106 (T1/2 = 1 god) obrazuyutsya v otnositel'no bol'shom kolichestve v rezul'tate rasshchepleniya urana-235. Pochti ket informatsii otnositel'no metabolizma ruteniya v organizme cheloveka, i privodimye soobrazheniya osnovyvayutsya ka issledovaniyakh krys i krolikov. KHarakter i razmer opasnosti, vyzyvaemoj radioruteniem, zavisit ne tol'ko ot uslovij zarazheniya, no i ot fizicheskogo i khimicheskogo sostoyaniya ruteniya. Rutenij-106, prinyatyj vnutr' v vide dvuokisi, vsasyvaetsya iz zheludochno-kishechnogo trakta v neznachitel'noj stepeni, kogda on prisutstvuet v forme chastits s nositelem, no pri vvedenii v vide kolloida bez nositelya pogloshchenie ego pochti takoe zhe, kak posle vvedeniya khlorida (3 - 5%). Nitratoproizvodnye nitroehila ruteniya mogut vsasyvat'sya eshche v bol'shej stepeni (u krolikov v srednem vsasyvaetsya okolo 13%). Vsasyvanie u negolodavshikh krys zakanchivaetsya v techenie odnogo chasa i ogranicheno vnutrizheludochnoJ dozoj. Ogranichennyj period vsasyvaniya mozhet ob'yasnyatsya skorost'yu oporozhneniya zheludka i soedineniem' ruteniya s soderzhimym kishechnika. Vsasyvanie uvelichivaetsya v tri raza i prodolzhaetsya znachitel'no dol'she, esli rutenij vvoditsya krysam posle nochnogo golodaniya. Nitratoproizvodnye nitroehila ruteniya v protivopolozhnost' drugim issledovannym soedineniyam vstupayut v reaktsiyu so stenkoj verkhnego otdela tonkogo kishechnika, gde na neskol'ko chasov mozhet zaderzhivat'sya okolo 20% prinyatoj vnutr' dozy. Khotya stepen' vsasyvaniya zavisit ot khimicheskogo sostoyaniya ruteniya, ono ne vliyaet v zametnoj stepeni na posledukhiee raspredelenie ehlementa. Priblizitel'no polovina vsosavshegosya ruteniya vydelyaetsya s mochoj v techenie pervykh 24 chasov. Po istechenii mesyatsa zaderzhivaetsya ot 5 do 20% vsosav-shikhsya fraktsij s dlinnyj biologicheskim periodom poluraspada. Faktor raspredeleniya kontsentratsij ruteniya v razlichnykh organakh redko prevyshaet 5, khotya raspredelenie v odnoj i toj zhe tkani ne vsegda odinakovo. Naibolee vysoka kontsentratsiya v pochkakh, yavlyayuiikhsya glaznym putem vyvedeniya. Rassmotrenie povedeniya ruteniya v syvorotke krovi pomogaet ob{sup y}asnyat' protsessy ego raspredeleniya i zaderzhki. Esli smeshat' rutenij s syvorotkoj In vitro, to chast' ego prochno svyazyvaetsya s belkami; a chast' ostaetsya svobodnoj. Svobodnyj rutenij mozhet byt' obnaruzhen v syvorotke neposredstvenno posle vnutrivennogo vvedeniya ili prinyatiya vnutr', no bystro ischezaet. Vozmozhno, chto posle togo, kak rutenij vsasyvaetsya v svobodno diffundiruyushchej forme, chast' ego reagiruet s belkami syvorotki i pervonachal'no ostaetsya v sosudistom prostranstve, chast' nemedlenno vyvoditsya cherez pochki, a chast' bystro diffundiruet vo vnesosudietoe prostranstvo i tkani. Poslednyaya fraktsiya mozhet libo reagirovat' s tkan'yu i zaderzhivat'sya ili diffundirovat' obratno v krov' i vydelit'sya. CHerez neskol'ko dnej kontsentratsiya ruteniya v syvorotke snizhaetsya so skorost'yu, sootvetstvuyushchej skorosti degradatsii belkov syvorotki. Zaderzhka ruteniya v drugikh tkanyakh takzhe mozhet opredelyat'sya skorost'yu katabolizma belkov. Poskol'ku pri reaktsii ruteniya s belkami obrazuyutsya ustojchivye kompleksy, trudno najti kakoelibo aek and rgtgennoe lechenie dlya snizheniya zaderzhki. Kompleksoobrazukhntsie veshchestva EDTA, DTRA i TTJA ne vliyayut na raspredelenie ili vydelenie ruteniya, vvedennogo krysam vnutrivenno. (author)

  9. A Survey of the Fuel Cycles Operated in the United Kingdom; Etude d'ensemble sur les cycles de combustible au Royaume-Uni; Obzor toplivnykh tsiklov, ispol'zuemykh v soedinennom korolevstve; Estudio de los ciclos de combustible utilizados en el Reino Unido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allday, C. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Risley, Warrington, Lancs (United Kingdom)

    1963-10-15

    enriquecido tambien se puede utilizar como combustible oxido de uranio natural enriquecido con plutonio. En la memoria se resume la experiencia adquirida en la produccion de combustible de oxido para el AGR y en la explotacion del reactor y los planes para la regeneracion del combustible. Se examina la posibilidad de utilizar combustible de plutonio y se analizan las consecuencias que tendria su adopcion sobre los costos y el ciclo del combustible. Por ultimo, se destaca la importancia de los reactores Magnox y AGR en el programa energetico del Reino Unido. (author) [Russian] a ) Prirodnyj uran/topdivnyj tsikl ''Magnoks''. Soedinennoe Kor olevstvo izb ralo reaktor na prirodnom urane s grafitovym zam edli tel em i gazovy m okhlazhdeniem v kachestve osnovy programmy po yadernoj ehnergii. Ono ehkspluatirovalo ehti reaktory v Kolder-Kholle i Chepelkrosse v techenie semi det; reaktory v Berkli i Braduehlle v nastoyashchee vremya nakhodyatsya v stadii ehkspluatatsii, a reaktory v semi drugikh mestakh v stadii stroitel'stva ili planirovaniya. Toplivo dlya ehtikh reaktorov proizvoditsya na zavode v Springfilde i zatem perevozitsya dlya zagruzki k mestopolozheniyu reaktora. Posle oblucheniya i razgruzki toplivo transportiruetsya na zavod v Uindskejl dlya otdeleniya urana i plutoniya ot produktov deleniya. Daetsya opisanie opyta CK v oblasti konstruktsii i proizvodstva toplivnykh ehlementov, ehkspluatatsii reaktora, transportirovki obluchennogo topliva i posleduyushchej obrabotki topliva. Upominaetsya o povedenii topliva v reaktore i ob al'ternativnykh programmakh zagruzki l razgruzki toplivnykh ehlementov; ehta tema razrabatyvaetsya v drugikh trudakh. b) Reaktory, ispol'zuyushchie obogashchennoe toplivo. Soedinennoe Korolevstvo razrabatyvaet usovershenstvovannyj reaktors gazovym okhlazhdeniem AGE, prototip kotorogo voshel v stroj v 1963 godu. Toplivo proizvoditsya iz obogashchennoj okisi urana, zaklyuchennoj v obolochku iz nerzhaveyushchej stali, i Sudet pererabatyvat'sya posredstvom

  10. Present Status of Nitrogen Fixation by Reactor Radiation; Etat Actuel des Recherches sur l'oxydation directe de l'azote sous irradiation dans des reacteurs; Sovremennoe sostoyani opytov po okisleniyu azota izlucheniem iz reaktorov; Estado actual de las investigaciones sobre fijacion del nitrogeno por irradiacion en reactores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harteck, P; Dondes, S [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1960-07-15

    fision liberada en las fibras de vidrio y de la resistencia termica del circuito. Otro circuito, que habra de funcionar a 50 - 75 atmosferas y 600{sup o}C se encuentra en curso de construccion. Estos circuitos permitiran evaluar las caracteristicas de un sistema continuo, incluido el comportamient o de los productos de fision liberados en la corriente gaseosa. Los autores distinguen tres fases en la cinetica compleja de la oxidacion del nitrogeno: reacciones iniciales en el sistema;, reacciones subsiguientes a la fijacion de cierta cantidad de nitrogeno y, por ultimo, cinetica del equilibrio alcanzado en presencia de radiaciones. Se estudian las condiciones necesarias para la formacion de N{sub 2}0{sub 5}, N{sub 2}0{sub 4} y O{sub 3}, asi como los efectos que ejercen sobre el proceso en conjunto. (author) [Russian] Pri issledovaniyakh okisleniya azota izlucheniem iz reaktorov, kotorye proizvodilis ' v Rensselerovskom institute i v Brukkhejvenskoj natsional'noj laboratorii v techenie ryada let, byla ispol'zovana, v kachestve neposredstvennogo ioniziruyushchego izlucheniya, ehnergiya otdachi oskolkov deleniya putem rasseyaniya urana-235 v steklyannom volokne diametrom priblizitel'no v 5 mikronov. Bylo opredeleno vliyanie temperatury, davleniya i sootnosheniya mezhdu kolichestvom azota i kolichestvom kisloroda na velichinu radiatsionno-khimicheskogo vykhoda G na okislenie azota i rezul'taty byli soobshcheny v tekhnicheskoj literature. Nizhe daetsya kratkaya svodka ehtoj raboty. Upomyanutaya vyshe rabota proizvodilas' nad staticheskimi sistemami ; nedavno proizvedennaya rabota okhvatyvala kak staticheskie, tak i tsiklicheskie sistemy. V staticheskikh sistemakh glavnoe vnimanie obrashchalos' na vliyanie intensivnosti izlucheniya, v osobennosti v sostoyanii kineticheskogo ravnovesiya izlucheniya. Bylo ustanovleno, chto obrazovanie N0{sub 2}. i N{sub 2}0 V smesyakh azota i kisloroda v proportsiyakh 4:1 i 2: 1 proiskhodit do polnogo istoshcheniya yusloroda. TSiklicheskaya

  11. Design and characteristics of beta-excited X-ray sources; Caracteristiques des sources de rayons X excitees par des particules beta; Konstruktsiya i kharakteristiki beta-vozbuzhdennykh istochnikov rentgenovskikh luchej; Diseno y caracteristicas de las fuentes de rayos X excitadas por particulas beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filosofo, I; Reiffel, L; Stone, C A; Voyvodic, L [Physics Division, Armour Research Foundation, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1962-01-15

    se describe en la memoria. Si se tienen en cuenta la radiacion de frenado (Bremsstrahlung), la ionizacion de la capa K y la fluorescencia provocada por los rayos X, puede lograrse una formulacion matematica satisfactoria para calcular los rendimientos y los espectros fotonicos en funcion de la energia {beta} maxima, del espesor del blanco y de la configuracion de la fuente. Los rendimientos calculados concuerdan perfectamente con los determinados por via experimental, lo que confirma la validez del metodo analitico. De esta forma, resulta posible disenar fuentes isotopicas de rayos X que responden optimamente a las exigencias de las aplicaciones a las que van destinadas. Los autores disenaron prototipos de fuentes de {sup 85}Kr y de {sup 147}Pm, y la memoria analiza su eficacia en las mediciones de espesores y el analisis de sustancias compuestas. Tambien disenaron una fuente de {sup 147}Pm de elevada intensidad destinada a la radiografia industrial; la memoria examina su funcionamiento, asi como la utilidad de los intensificadores de imagen que permiten ampliar el campo de aplicaciones de dicha fuente. Los autores terminan su memoria con un examen general de las posibilidades, ventajas y limitaciones de las fuentes isotopicas de rayos X. (author) [Russian] V dokumente izlagayutsya novejshie rezul'taty rabot nad beta-vozbuzhdennymi istochnikami rentgenovskikh luchej. Opisyvayutsya rezul'taty podrobnogo ehksperimental'nogo issledovaniya rentgenovskikh luchej, proizvodimykh produktami deleniya Rt-147, Kg-85 i Sr-90. Vykhod rentgenovskikh luchej i spektral'noe raspredelenie byli izucheny dlya mishenej, postroennykh iz materialov, idushchikh ot medi do urana, a takzhe dlya raznoobraznogo vzaimnogo raspolozheniya istochnika i mishenej: (propuskayushchaya mishen', otrazhayushchaya mishen', 'sloenaya'' mishen', tesnoperemeshannye istochniki i mishen'). Osobenno podrobno byla izuchena smes' iz prometiya-147 s okis'yu samariya dlya vyyasneniya perspektiv ispol

  12. Interesting Developments in UO{sub 2} Technology; Progres interessants dans la technologie du bioxyde d'uranium; Interesnye usovershenstvovaniya tekhnologii UO{sub 2}; Recientes progresos en la tecnologia del UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J. A.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1963-11-15

    vydelenie iz UO{sub 2} gazov, yavlyayushchikhsya produktami deleniya. V chastnosti, uvelichenie oblucheniya s 10{sup 15} do 10{sup 18} delenij/cm{sup 2} mozhet snizit' ochevidnye skorosti diffuzii dlya ksenona v UO{sub 2} pri posleduyushchikh obzhigakh na koehffitsient 10{sup 3}. Gaz, po-vidimomu, uderzhivaetsya v mel'chajshikh lovushkakh, chast' iz kotorykh sushchestvuet v iskhodnom materiale, a chast' obrazuetsya v rezul'tate radiatsionnogo povrezhdeniya. Tshchatel'nyj analiz pokazal sushchestvovanie medlennoj utechki iz lovushek, chto, veroyatno, ob''yasnyaetsya ogranichennoj rastvorimost'yu ksenona v UO{sub 2}. Vozmozhnost' osushchestvleniya izmerenij v reaktore otkryvaet novuyu fazu eshche bolee vazhnykh ehksperimentov. Oni pokazhut, imeyutsya li kakie-libo potentsial'nye ehkonomicheskie preimushchestva v novykh formakh topliva. V to zhe vremya budut prodolzhat'sya nastojchivye razrabotki spechenoj UO{sub 2} v prostoj geometrii sterzhnya. (author)

  13. Radioisotope Power Sources; Sources d'energie utilisant les radiobotopes; Radioizotopnye istochniki ehnergii; Fuentes radio isotopicas de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culwell, J. P. [USAEC, Washington, D.C (United States)

    1963-11-15

    , obychno ispuskayut al'fa- ili beta-luchi. Al'fa-izluchateli kak toplivo predstavlyayut bol'shuyu tsennost', no oni stoyat doroge i v to zhe vremya menee dostupny, chem beta-izluchateli, poehtomu ikh, kak pravilo, ispol'zuyut dlya kosmicheskikh zadach. Beta-goryuchee, vydelennoe iz otkhodov reaktora, v nastoyashchee vremya primenyaetsya isklyuchitel'no dlya nazemnykh ili morskikh tselej. Odnako sleduet ozhidat', chto takie beta-izluchateli, kak strontsij-90, v kontse kontsov budut primenyat'sya i v kosmose. V nastoyashchee vremya vedutsya issledovatel'skie raboty s generatorami, v kotorykh v kachestve goryuchego budut primenyat' smeshannye produkty deleniya. Ehto goryuchee budet deshevle, chem chistye radioizotopy, poskol'ku sokratyatsya zatraty na razdelenie izotopov i na ikh ochistku. Prototipom termoehlektri- cheskikh generatorov, pitaemykh strontsiem-90 i tseziem-137, yavlyayutsya uzhe funktsionirujte ili razrabatyvaemye generatory na meteorologicheskikh stantsiyakh, v navigatsii i v glubokovodnykh ustrojstvakh obnaruzheniya. Termoehlektricheskim generatorom, rabotayushchim na plutonii-238, osnashchen iskustvennyj sputnik ''Tranzit'', razrabotannyj voennomorskim vedomstvom SSHA. Razrabatyvayutsya generatory dlya ispol'zovaniya v kosmose Upravleniem po natsional'noj aehronavtike i issledovaniyu kosmicheskogo prostranstva. Vysokaya aktivnost' radioizotopnykh istochnikov ehnergii trebuet, chtoby voprosam bezopasnosti bylo udeleno osoboe vnimanie. Sleduet ustanovit' strogij kontrol' za soblyudeniem tekhniki bezopasnosti i provesti ryad shirokikh ispytanij, chtoby udostoverit'sya, chto radioaktivnye sistemy mogut funktsionirovat', ne nanosya ushcherba okruzhayushchim. (author)