WorldWideScience

Sample records for delays natural deterioration

  1. An EOQ Model for Delayed Deteriorating Items with Linear Time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An EOQ model for delayed deteriorating items with linear time dependent holding cost is considered in this paper. This is a little deviation from most inventory models that consider the holding cost to be constant. In this paper, permissible delay in payment is not considered rather the payment is made immediately the ...

  2. Delayed neurological deterioration due to progressive pneumocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Amit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocephalus can develop immediately following head trauma or clinical presentation may be delayed for days. We report a case of 35 year male whose initial CT scan brain plain small specks of pneumocephalus in left para-sellar region. However the next day he was complaining of severe headache and had multiple episodes of vomiting. Repeat CT scan showed increase in the size of pneumocephalus including appearance of intraventricular air with mild cerebral edema. The patient recovered well with conservative management. The present case is a gentle reminder that in a subgroup of head injury patients, intracranial air can produce significant mass effect leading to tension pneumocephalus which can can behave like other intracranial mass lesions and causes worsening of the neurological status of these patients.

  3. AN OPTIMAL REPLENISHMENT POLICY FOR DETERIORATING ITEMS WITH RAMP TYPE DEMAND UNDER PERMISSIBLE DELAY IN PAYMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjay Jain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop an optimal replenishment policy for inventory models of deteriorating items with ramp type demand under permissible delay in payments. Deterioration of items begins on their arrival in stock.  An example is also presented to illustrate the application of developed model.

  4. Two warehouse inventory model for deteriorating item with exponential demand rate and permissible delay in payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliraman Naresh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A two warehouse inventory model for deteriorating items is considered with exponential demand rate and permissible delay in payment. Shortage is not allowed and deterioration rate is constant. In the model, one warehouse is rented and the other is owned. The rented warehouse is provided with better facility for the stock than the owned warehouse, but is charged more. The objective of this model is to find the best replenishment policies for minimizing the total appropriate inventory cost. A numerical illustration and sensitivity analysis is provided.

  5. Joint location, inventory, and preservation decisions for non-instantaneous deterioration items under delay in payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung

    2016-02-01

    This study models a joint location, inventory and preservation decision-making problem for non-instantaneous deteriorating items under delay in payments. An outside supplier provides a credit period to the wholesaler which has a distribution system with distribution centres (DCs). The non-instantaneous deteriorating means no deterioration occurs in the earlier stage, which is very useful for items such as fresh food and fruits. This paper also considers that the deteriorating rate will decrease and the reservation cost will increase as the preservation effort increases. Therefore, how much preservation effort should be made is a crucial decision. The objective of this paper is to determine the optimal locations and number of DCs, the optimal replenishment cycle time at DCs, and the optimal preservation effort simultaneously such that the total network profit is maximised. The problem is formulated as piecewise nonlinear functions and has three different cases. Algorithms based on piecewise nonlinear optimisation are provided to solve the joint location and inventory problem for all cases. Computational analysis illustrates the solution procedures and the impacts of the related parameters on decisions and profits. The results of this study can serve as references for business managers or administrators.

  6. Emissions deterioration for three alternative fuel vehicle types: Natural gas, ethanol, and methanol vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winebrake, J.J.; Deaton, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    Although there have been several studies examining emissions from in-use alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), little is known about the deterioration of these emissions over vehicle lifetimes and how this deterioration compares with deterioration from conventional vehicles (CVs). This paper analyzes emissions data from 70 AFVs and 70 CVs operating in the federal government fleet to determine whether AFV emissions deterioration differs significantly from CV emissions deterioration. The authors conduct the analysis on three alternative fuel types (natural gas, methanol, and ethanol) and on five pollutants (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, total hydrocarbons, non-methane hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides). They find that for most cases they studied, deterioration differences are not statistically significant; however, several exceptions suggest that air quality planners and regulators must further analyze AFV emissions deterioration in order to properly include these technologies into broader air quality management schemes

  7. Sucrose delays membrane deterioration of chrysanthemum flowers induced by gamma-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, O. K.; Todoriki, S.; Hayashi, T.

    1998-06-01

    Fluidity of the flower membranes of cut chrysanthemums ( Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitamura) decreased soon after gamma-irradiation at 750Gy and continued to decrease during storage following irradiation. Holding chrysanthemum cut inflorescence in 2% sucrose suppressed the decrease. The results suggest that sugars reduce radiation-induced physiological deterioration of chrysanthemum flower membranes.

  8. Effect of feedback on delaying deterioration in quality of compressions during 2 minutes of continuous chest compressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, Tobias S; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl; Wulff, Nille B

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Good quality basic life support (BLS) improves outcome following cardiac arrest. As BLS performance deteriorates over time we performed a parallel group, superiority study to investigate the effect of feedback on quality of chest compression with the hypothesis that feedback...... delays deterioration of quality of compressions. METHODS: Participants attending a national one-day conference on cardiac arrest and CPR in Denmark were randomized to perform single-rescuer BLS with (n = 26) or without verbal and visual feedback (n = 28) on a manikin using a ZOLL AED plus. Data were...... analyzed using Rescuenet Code Review. Blinding of participants was not possible, but allocation concealment was performed. Primary outcome was the proportion of delivered compressions within target depth compared over a 2-minute period within the groups and between the groups. Secondary outcome...

  9. Modelling Compensation Policy for Quality and Delay Deterioration in Rail Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Molkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the customers’ claims on provided services during train delay in personal railway transport. There is comparison between the situation in the Czech Republic (Brno main station and Austria (Wien Westbahnhof in the contribution. Development of the compensation policy cannot be based only on customer requirements. If the railway company focuses on providing compensation for delays, it must follow its economic balance. However, as the passengers' opinion survey showed, the negative impact of delays can be reduced by providing adequate information to passengers. Based on the passengers' opinion survey, it is necessary to consider the Regulation 1371/2007/ES as the minimum of the possible and on the basis of this reasoning to compile a compensation policy. The costs associated with compensation for the delay should be divided according to the causes of the delay among the individual culprits, so that railway undertakings bear the responsibility even for delays arising from reasons that are beyond the control of the railway undertaking itself. 

  10. Assisted bicycle training delays functional deterioration in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: the randomized controlled trial "no use is disuse".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Merel; van Alfen, Nens; Geurts, Alexander C H; de Groot, Imelda J M

    2013-01-01

    Physical training might delay the functional deterioration caused by disuse in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The "No Use Is Disuse" study is the first explorative, randomized controlled trial in boys with DMD to examine whether assisted bicycle training is feasible, safe, and beneficial. Ambulatory and recently wheelchair-dependent boys with DMD were allocated to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received assisted bicycle training of the legs and arms during 24 weeks. The control group received the same training after a waiting period of 24 weeks. The primary study outcomes were the Motor Function Measure (MFM) and the Assisted 6-Minute Cycling Test (A6MCT). Group differences were examined by an analysis of covariance. Thirty boys (mean age 10.5 ± 2.6 years, 18 ambulant and 12 wheelchair-dependent) were allocated to the intervention (n = 17) or the control (n = 13) group. All boys in the intervention group (except one) completed the training. After 24 weeks, the total MFM score remained stable in the intervention group, whereas it had significantly decreased in the control group (Δ = 4.9, 95% confidence interval = 2.2-7.6). No significant group differences were found for the A6MCT. No serious adverse events were observed. Our results suggest that assisted bicycle training of the legs and arms is feasible and safe for both ambulant and wheelchair-dependent children and may decline the deterioration due to disuse. Progressive deterioration, however, may compromise the design of trials for DMD.

  11. An integrated supply chain model for deteriorating items considering delay in payments, imperfect quality and inspection errors under inflationary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoudinezhad, Mahvash; Mirzazadeh, Abolfazl; Ghoreishi, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    In this article, an integrated production–distribution model is presented for a manufacturer and retailer supply chain under inflationary conditions, permissible delay in payments, deterioration, imperfect production process and inspection errors. We assume that the first-stage inspection...... of the manufacturer is not perfect and makes inspection errors of Type 1 and Type 2. The second-stage inspection of the manufacturer is at the end of production period without inspection errors. Also, the demand is linear function of time. Once the retailer receives the lot, a 100% screening process of the lot...... is conducted without inspection errors, and the screening process and demand proceed simultaneously. The main objective is to determine the optimal inspection time and the optimal number of cycle such that the present value of the total cost is minimized. Finally, a numerical example and sensitivity analyses...

  12. Defining clinical deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daryl; Mitchell, Imogen; Hillman, Ken; Story, David

    2013-08-01

    To review literature reporting adverse events and physiological instability in order to develop frameworks that describe and define clinical deterioration in hospitalised patients. Literature review of publications from 1960 to August 2012. Conception and refinement of models to describe clinical deterioration based on prevailing themes that developed chronologically in adverse event literature. We propose four frameworks or models that define clinical deterioration and discuss the utility of each. Early attempts used retrospective chart review and focussed on the end result of deterioration (adverse events) and iatrogenesis. Subsequent models were also retrospective, but used discrete complications (e.g. sepsis, cardiac arrest) to define deterioration, had a more clinical focus, and identified the concept of antecedent physiological instability. Current models for defining clinical deterioration are based on the presence of abnormalities in vital signs and other clinical observations and attempt to prospectively assist clinicians in predicting subsequent risk. However, use of deranged vital signs in isolation does not consider important patient-, disease-, or system-related factors that are known to adversely affect the outcome of hospitalised patients. These include pre-morbid function, frailty, extent and severity of co-morbidity, nature of presenting illness, delays in responding to deterioration and institution of treatment, and patient response to therapy. There is a need to develop multiple-variable models for deteriorating ward patients similar to those used in intensive care units. Such models may assist clinician education, prospective and real-time patient risk stratification, and guide quality improvement initiatives that prevent and improve response to clinical deterioration. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Fungal Deterioration on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hemp and Flax Natural Fiber Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Bryn; Pakpour, Sepideh; Kazemian, Negin; Klironomos, John; Stoeffler, Karen; Rho, Denis; Denault, Johanne; Milani, Abbas S

    2017-10-31

    The development and application of bio-sourced composites have been gaining wide attention, yet their deterioration due to the growth of ubiquitous microorganisms during storage/manufacturing/in-service phases is still not fully understood for optimum material selection and design purposes. In this study, samples of non-woven flax fibers, hemp fibers, and mats made of co-mingled randomly-oriented flax or hemp fiber (50%) and polypropylene fiber (50%) were subjected to 28 days of exposure to (i) no water-no fungi, (ii) water only and (iii) water along with the Chaetomium globosum fungus. Biocomposite samples were measured for weight loss over time, to observe the rate of fungal growth and the respiration of cellulose components in the fibers. Tensile testing was conducted to measure mechanical properties of the composite samples under different configurations. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to visualize fungal hyphal growth on the natural fibers, as well as to observe the fracture planes and failure modes of the biocomposite samples. Results showed that fungal growth significantly affects the dry mass as well as the tensile elastic modulus of the tested natural fiber mats and composites, and the effect depends on both the type and the length scale of fibers, as well as the exposure condition and time.

  14. Effect of Fungal Deterioration on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hemp and Flax Natural Fiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryn Crawford

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development and application of bio-sourced composites have been gaining wide attention, yet their deterioration due to the growth of ubiquitous microorganisms during storage/manufacturing/in-service phases is still not fully understood for optimum material selection and design purposes. In this study, samples of non-woven flax fibers, hemp fibers, and mats made of co-mingled randomly-oriented flax or hemp fiber (50% and polypropylene fiber (50% were subjected to 28 days of exposure to (i no water-no fungi, (ii water only and (iii water along with the Chaetomium globosum fungus. Biocomposite samples were measured for weight loss over time, to observe the rate of fungal growth and the respiration of cellulose components in the fibers. Tensile testing was conducted to measure mechanical properties of the composite samples under different configurations. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to visualize fungal hyphal growth on the natural fibers, as well as to observe the fracture planes and failure modes of the biocomposite samples. Results showed that fungal growth significantly affects the dry mass as well as the tensile elastic modulus of the tested natural fiber mats and composites, and the effect depends on both the type and the length scale of fibers, as well as the exposure condition and time.

  15. Transformation of Collagen into Gelatine in Historical Leather and Parchment Caused by Natural Deterioration and Moist Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    , eight major morphological features of the breakdown process have been characterized as typical and representative for degraded historical parchments. In most cases, one or more of these characteristics of damage are present to various degrees in a sample, and often even in a single fibre sample...... by microscopic examinations, as well as by hydrothermal shrinkage activity measurements. Examinations of degraded historical parchment documents and leather objects show that the gelatinisation may take place as part of the natural deterioration. However, especially parchment documents which have undergone...

  16. Delayed Diagnosis of Nasal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Villwock

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Midline destructive lesions of the face have multiple possible etiologies. The majority of these cases are found to be due to an extranodal lymphoma of natural killer/T-cell-type non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NKTL. Unfortunately, diagnosis is often delayed. With variable presenting complaints, including nonspecific issues like chronic rhinosinusitis or nasal congestion, initial treatments are aimed at these presumed diagnoses. Only as the lesion progresses do overt signs of destruction occur. As with our patient, who was initially treated for presumed infection and abscess, final diagnosis often does not occur until several months, and several antibiotic courses, from initial presentation. As such, it is important for this rare entity to remain in the clinician’s differential diagnosis for nasal lesion.

  17. Air Quality Deterioration of Urban Areas Caused by Wildfires in a Natural Reservoir Forest of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Carbajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world suffer loss of vegetation and reduced air quality due to wildfires. Studies on aerosol emissions by wildfires often discuss the negative effects of atmospheric contaminants from a regional or mesoscale perspective. The occurrence of wildfires reveals that a high percentage takes place close to large urban areas. Very high concentration of pollutants and PM10 particulate matter reach urban zones and millions of inhabitants. These events of high pollutant concentrations are seasonally recurrent. There are many large urban areas in the world that often undergo severe air deterioration due to wildfires smoke. We document the extreme impact of wildfire that occurs in the Protected Area of Flora and Fauna La Primavera located in neighborhood of Guadalajara, a large urban zone in Mexico. The simultaneous emissions of aerosols by 60 wildfires were simulated and compared with observed data. The plume generated by the wildfires reached large areas of the central part of Mexico. The principal characteristics of smog emissions (CO, NO2, and PM10 over the urban area were acceptably reproduced. Observed and modeled CO, PM10, and NO2 data indicated that aerosol plumes generated by the wildfires increased notably the concentrations over the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara.

  18. Prevalence and nature of communication delays in a South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communication delays are the most common impairment in early childhood[1] and have a negative effect on long-term academic, psychological and social development.[2,3] Early identification of, and early intervention for, communication delays in infants minimise the effect of the delay on educational and social outcomes.

  19. Delayed school entry and academic performance: a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Julia; Strauss, Vicky Yu-Chun; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-02-18

    Recent reports suggest that delayed school entry (DSE) may be beneficial for children with developmental delays. However, studies of the effects of DSE are inconclusive. This study investigated the effects of DSE versus age-appropriate school entry (ASE) on children's academic achievement and attention in middle childhood. In total, 999 children (492 females, 507 males; 472 born preterm) were studied as part of a prospective population-based longitudinal study in Germany. Using a natural experimental design, propensity score matching was applied to create two matched groups who differed only in terms of DSE versus ASE. Teacher ratings of achievement in mathematics, reading, writing, and attention were obtained in Year 1, and standardized tests were administered at 8 years of age. There was no evidence of a difference in the odds of DSE versus ASE children being rated as above average by teachers in Year 1. In contrast, the standardized mean test scores for DSE children were lower than ASE children's mean scores in all domains (mathematics: B=-0.28 [-0.51 to -0.06)], reading: B=-0.39 [-0.65 to -0.14], writing: B=-0.90 [-1.07 to -0.74], and attention: B=-0.58 [-0.79 to -0.36]). DSE did not affect teacher-rated academic performance. However, missing 1 year of learning opportunities was associated with poorer average performance in standardized tests at 8 years of age. Future research is needed to determine the long-term effect of DSE on academic achievement. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  20. Nature of phonological delay in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsolini, M; Sechi, E; Maronato, C; Bonvino, E; Corcelli, A

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of phonological delay in a group of children with specific language impairment. It was asked whether phonological errors in this group of children were generated by a slow but normal language learning process or whether they reflected a selective impairment in some representations that enhance normal acquisition and use of a language phonology. A group of 10 children with SLI (mean age = 5.1) was compared with three groups of normal children who were matched in age (age control group, mean age = 5.1), in sentence comprehension and recalling (grammar control group, mean age = 3.7), or who exhibited a phonological performance lower than the age average (group with low phonological performance, mean age = 4.4). The four groups of children were assessed in terms of: (1) responses to a mispronunciation detection task; and (2) error profiles with complex and simple syllabic structures. Performance on the mispronunciation detection task showed that the group with SLI could distinguish a target lexical item from acoustic non-word stimuli that were highly similar to it in terms of phonetic characteristics. An analysis of overall error rate at this task showed, however, that four children with SLI had a much lower performance than normal children of the same age, even when the auditory stimuli were tokens of the target word, or non-words that were phonetically different from the target. A difficulty in coordinating vocal actions in an articulatory plan accounted for error profiles with simple syllabic structures both for some children with SLI and normal children with phonological performance lower than the age average. A severe difficulty with representing complex syllabic structures was a homogeneous characteristic of the group with SLI and worked as the main indicator of impaired, rather than simply slow, phonological development.

  1. Transformation of Collagen into Gelatine in Historical Leather and Parchment Caused by Natural Deterioration and Moist Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, René

    2013-01-01

    It is known that, for parchment and leather tanned with condensed types of vegetable tannins stored under acid conditions, chemical deterioration may lead to a transformation of the collagen into a gelatine-like substance that may dissolve in water even at ambient temperature. In a previous study...

  2. Transformation of collagen into gelatine in historical leather and parchment caused by natural deterioration and moist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, René

    2012-01-01

    to the hydrothermal stability of the material. For parchment and leather tanned with condensed types of vegetable tannins stored under acid conditions, the chemical deterioration may lead to a transformation of the collagen into a gelatine-like substance that may dissolve in water even at ambient temperature...

  3. The nature of impulsivity: visual exposure to natural environments decreases impulsive decision-making in a delay discounting task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith S Berry

    Full Text Available The benefits of visual exposure to natural environments for human well-being in areas of stress reduction, mood improvement, and attention restoration are well documented, but the effects of natural environments on impulsive decision-making remain unknown. Impulsive decision-making in delay discounting offers generality, predictive validity, and insight into decision-making related to unhealthy behaviors. The present experiment evaluated differences in such decision-making in humans experiencing visual exposure to one of the following conditions: natural (e.g., mountains, built (e.g., buildings, or control (e.g., triangles using a delay discounting task that required participants to choose between immediate and delayed hypothetical monetary outcomes. Participants viewed the images before and during the delay discounting task. Participants were less impulsive in the condition providing visual exposure to natural scenes compared to built and geometric scenes. Results suggest that exposure to natural environments results in decreased impulsive decision-making relative to built environments.

  4. Extreme phenophase delays and their relationship with natural forcings in Beijing over the past 260 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Mingqing; Fang, Xiuqi

    2018-03-01

    By merging reconstructed phenological series from published articles and observations of China Phenology Observation Network (CPON), the first blooming date of Amygdalus davidiana (FBA) in Beijing between 1741 and 2000 is reconstructed. The Butterworth method is used to remove the multi-year variations for generating the phenological series of annual variations in the first blooming date of A. davidiana. The extreme delay years in the phenological series are identified using the percentage threshold method. The characteristics of the extreme delays and the correspondence of these events with natural forcings are analysed. The main results are as follows. In annual phenological series, the extreme delays appeared in single year as main feature, only A.D.1800-1801, 1816-1817 and 1983-1984 were the events of two consecutively extreme years. Approximately 85% of the extreme delays occurred during 1-2 years after the large volcanic eruptions (VEI ≥ 4) in the eastern rim or the western rim of the Pacific Ocean, as the same proportion of the extreme delays followed El Niño events. About 73% years of the extreme delays fall in the valleys of sunspot cycles or the Dalton minimum period in the year or the previous year. According to the certainty factor (CF), the large eruptions have the greatest influence to the extreme delays; sunspot activity is the second, and ENSO is the last one. The extreme phenological delayed year is most likely to occur after a large eruption, which particularly occurs during El Niño year and its previous several years were in the descending portion or valley of sunspot phase.

  5. Deterioration of natural antioxidant species of vegetable edible oils during the domestic deep-frying and pan-frying of potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K; Dedoussis, George V Z; Falirea, Ageliki; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Hatzinikola, Haristoula S

    2002-07-01

    In the present work, virgin olive oil, sunflower oil and a vegetable shortening were used as cooking oils for the deep-frying and pan-frying of potatoes, for eight successive sessions, under the usual domestic practice. Several chemical and physicochemical parameters (acidic value, peroxide value, total polar artefacts, total phenol content and triglyceride fatty acyl moiety composition) were assayed during frying operations in order to evaluate the status of the frying oils, which were found within expected ranges similar to those previously reported. The oil fatty acids were effectively protected from oxidation by the natural antioxidants. The frying oil absorption by the potatoes was quantitated within 6.1-12.8%, depending on the oil type and the frying process. The retention of alpha- and (beta + gamma)-tocopherols during the eight fryings ranged from 85-90% (first frying) to 15-40% (eighth frying), except for the (beta + gamma)-tocopherols of sunflower oil, which almost disappeared after the sixth frying. The deterioration during the successive frying of several phenolic species present in virgin olive oil is reported for the first time. The retention of total phenolics ranged from 70-80% (first frying) to 20-30% (eighth frying). Tannic acid, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol-elenolic acid dialdeydic form showed remarkable resistance in all frying sessions in both frying methods, while hydroxytyrosol and hydroxytyrosol-elenolic acid were the faster eliminated. The deterioration of the other phenolic species account for 40-50% and 20-30% for deep-frying and pan-frying, respectively, after three to four frying sessions, which are the most usual in the household kitchen. Deep-frying resulted in better recoveries of all the parameters examined. The correlation of the deterioration rate of the phenolic compounds and tocopherols during frying is discussed and the nutritional aspects of the natural antioxidant intake, through the oil absorbed by the potatoes, are

  6. An experimental field study of delayed density dependence in natural populations of Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael K Walsh

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus, a species known to transmit dengue and chikungunya viruses, is primarily a container-inhabiting mosquito. The potential for pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus has increased our need to understand its ecology and population dynamics. Two parameters that we know little about are the impact of direct density-dependence and delayed density-dependence in the larval stage. The present study uses a manipulative experimental design, under field conditions, to understand the impact of delayed density dependence in a natural population of Ae. albopictus in Raleigh, North Carolina. Twenty liter buckets, divided in half prior to experimentation, placed in the field accumulated rainwater and detritus, providing oviposition and larval production sites for natural populations of Ae. albopictus. Two treatments, a larvae present and larvae absent treatment, were produced in each bucket. After five weeks all larvae were removed from both treatments and the buckets were covered with fine mesh cloth. Equal numbers of first instars were added to both treatments in every bucket. Pupae were collected daily and adults were frozen as they emerged. We found a significant impact of delayed density-dependence on larval survival, development time and adult body size in containers with high larval densities. Our results indicate that delayed density-dependence will have negative impacts on the mosquito population when larval densities are high enough to deplete accessible nutrients faster than the rate of natural food accumulation.

  7. Optimal pricing and lot-sizing policies for an economic production quantity model with non-instantaneous deteriorating items, permissible delay in payments, customer returns, and inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishi, Maryam; Mirzazadeh, Abolfazl; Nakhai Kamalabadi, Isa

    2014-01-01

    . The effects of time value of money are studied using the Discounted Cash Flow approach. The main objective is to determine the optimal selling price, the optimal length of the production period, and the optimal length of inventory cycle simultaneously such that the present value of total profit is maximized....... An efficient algorithm is presented to find the optimal solution of the developed model. Finally, a numerical example is extracted to solve the presented inventory model using our proposed algorithm, and the effects of the customer returns, inflation, and delay in payments are also discussed....

  8. Mental deterioration correlates with response of natural killer (NK) cell activity to physiological modifiers in patients with short history of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masera, Rosa Gabriella; Prolo, Paolo; Sartori, Maria Luisa; Staurenghi, Antonio; Griot, Giulietta; Ravizza, Luigi; Dovio, Andrea; Chiappelli, Francesco; Angeli, Alberto

    2002-05-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell activity of peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells was measured in 16 subjects with mild to moderate senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (sDAT) chosen for short history of disease and no medication, and in 17 age- and sex-matched controls. Levels of cytotoxicity at baseline and after PBM cell exposure to modifiers either negative (cortisol 10(-6) M) or positive (rIL-2 650 IU/ml and rIFN-gamma 100 UI/ml, respectively) were related to indices of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function and Gottfries Bråne Rating Scale (GBS) score for mental deterioration. Spontaneous NK cell activity was not significantly different in sDAT subjects vs controls. In vitro inhibition by cortisol was lower in sDAT (Pmild cognitive impairment and short history of sDAT show abnormal responsiveness of NK cell activity to physiological modifiers while maintaining normal spontaneous activity. Furthermore, data are compatible with partial glucocorticoid resistance at the immune level. Progressing sDAT longitudinal studies are needed to address: i) the clinical applicability of these abnormalities as prognostic factors; ii) the role played by pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides and adrenal androgens in the control of NK cell activity.

  9. Herbs and natural supplements in the prevention and treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meamarbashi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Unaccustomed and intense eccentric exercise is a common cause of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). There are multiple remedies for the treatment of DOMS, but its clinical and laboratory pieces of evidence are scarce. Currently, the treatments proposed for DOMS are numerous and include pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, stretching, massage, nutritional supplements, and other alternatives. To find a holistic treatment with effective pain relief and minimum side effects, complementary and alternative medicine, including herbal therapies, plays a main role. In this review, the existing published studies investigating the efficacy of herbal and natural supplementation therapies for the prevention or treatment of side effects, symptoms, and signs of DOMS are summarized. Previous studies have documented the efficacy of herbal therapies to treat pain, inflammation, as well as laboratory and clinical side effects of DOMS. The use of herbs in DOMS seems safer and has lower side effects than pharmacotherapy. However, the potential for side effects and drug interactions should be considered.

  10. Spatial and temporal nature of reactive oxygen species production and programmed cell death in elm (Ulmus pumila L.) seeds during controlled deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Die; Ma, Gang; Wang, Qiong; Yao, Jinghan; Wang, Yu; Pritchard, Hugh W; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2012-11-01

    Seed deterioration is poorly understood and remains an active area for research. Seeds of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) were aged at 37 °C above water [controlled deterioration treatment (CDT)] for various lengths of time to assess programmed cell death (PCD) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) product in embryonic tissues during a 5 d period. The hallmarks of PCD were identified in the elm seeds during CDT including TUNEL experiments, DNA laddering, cytochrome c (cyt c) leakage and enzymatic activities. These analyses indicated that PCD occurred systematically and progressively in deteriorated elm seeds. Cyt c release and increase in caspase-3-like/DEVDase activity occurred during CDT, which could be suppressed by ascorbic acid (AsA) and caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO, respectively. In situ localization of ROS production indicated that the distinct spatial-temporal signature of ROS during CDT coincided with the changes in PCD hallmark features. Multiple antioxidant elements were activated during the first few days of CDT, but were subsequently depleted as PCD progressed. Taken together, our findings identify PCD as a key mechanism that occurs asymmetrically during elm seeds CDT and suggest an important role for PCD in seeds deterioration. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Vaccination delays maedi-visna lentivirus infection in a naturally-infected sheep flock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudnadóttir Margrét

    2013-01-01

    response at birth of their lambs. Conclusion Compared with their unvaccinated siblings, natural infection was delayed in significant number of vaccinated twins born by seronegative and seroconverting mothers and vaccinated at birth, 3 weeks and 3 months with formalin inactivated whole MV vaccine adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. Maternal antibodies interfered with vaccination so early in life if the mother had old infection.

  12. Single Agent Polysaccharopeptide Delays Metastases and Improves Survival in Naturally Occurring Hemangiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Cimino Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 World Health Organization World Cancer Report describes global cancer incidence soaring with many patients living in countries that lack resources for cancer control. Alternative treatment strategies that can reduce the global disease burden at manageable costs must be developed. Polysaccharopeptide (PSP is the bioactive agent from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor. Studies indicate PSP has in vitro antitumor activities and inhibits the growth of induced tumors in animal models. Clear evidence of clinically relevant benefits of PSP in cancer patients, however, is lacking. The investment of resources required to complete large-scale, randomized controlled trials of PSP in cancer patients is more easily justified if antitumor and survival benefits are documented in a complex animal model of a naturally occurring cancer that parallels human disease. Because of its high metastatic rate and vascular origin, canine hemangiosarcoma is used for investigations in antimetastatic and antiangiogenic therapies. In this double-blind randomized multidose pilot study, high-dose PSP significantly delayed the progression of metastases and afforded the longest survival times reported in canine hemangiosarcoma. These data suggest that, for those cancer patients for whom advanced treatments are not accessible, PSP as a single agent might offer significant improvements in morbidity and mortality.

  13. Herbs and natural supplements in the prevention and treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Meamarbashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  Unaccustomed and intense eccentric exercise is a common cause of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS. There are multiple remedies for the treatment of DOMS, but its clinical and laboratory pieces of evidence are scarce. Currently, the treatments proposed for DOMS are numerous and include pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, stretching, massage, nutritional supplements, and other alternatives. To find a holistic treatment with effective pain relief and minimum side effects, complementary and alternative medicine, including herbal therapies, plays a main role.Methods: In this review, the existing published studies investigating the efficacy of herbal and natural supplementation therapies for the prevention or treatment of side effects, symptoms, and signs of DOMS are summarized.Results: Previous studies have documented the efficacy of herbal therapies to treat pain, inflammation, as well as laboratory and clinical side effects of DOMS.Conclusion: The use of herbs in DOMS seems safer and has lower side effects than pharmacotherapy. However, the potential for side effects and drug interactions should be considered.

  14. Bridge element deterioration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the development of bridge element deterioration rates using the NYSDOT : bridge inspection database using Markov chains and Weibull-based approaches. It is observed : that Weibull-based approach is more reliable for developing b...

  15. Concrete pavement joint deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Concrete pavements are an important part of our national infrastructure. In recent years the relatively small number of reported joints deteriorating prematurely in concrete pavements around Indiana has increased. Changes over the past 45 years in IN...

  16. Cable deterioration analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Masahiko; Nitta, Makoto.

    1997-01-01

    At first, a hardness of a minute region and an elongation at break are measured relative to a plurality of reference samples having deterioration which is different stepwise, to obtain a relation between the hardness of the minute region and the elongation at break. They are obtained as information of correlation showing the degree of deterioration of cables. Then, samples are collected. The samples are collected from a PVC sheath. In this case, the samples to be used for the measurement are extremely small piece having the size of one side of about several hundred μm. Then, the hardness of the minute region of the samples is measured. The measured hardness of the minute region is corresponded to the previously obtained information of the correlation for deteriorations to judge the state of deterioration for the collected samples. With such procedures, the state of deterioration for electric wires and cables to be used in nuclear facilities such as power plants can easily be diagnosed substantially non destructively. (I.N.)

  17. Visualising Deteriorating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Andrews, RN, B.Sc. (Hons, M.Sc., Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aims were to investigate the difficulties ward staff experienced in detecting deterioration and how these were resolved. The emphasis within the literature tends to be on identifying premonitory signs that may be useful in predicting deterioration. Changes in respiratory rate is the most consistent of these (Fieselmann et al. 1993; Sax and Charlson 1987; Schein et al. 1990; Smith and Wood 1998 but in common with other signs, it lacks sensitivity and specificity. The sample consisted of 44 nurses, doctors (Interns and health care support workers from a general medical and surgical ward. Data were collected by means of nonparticipant observations and interviews, using grounded theory as originated by (Glaser and Strauss 1967 and (Glaser 1978. As data were collected, the constant comparative method and theoretical sensitivity were used as outlined in grounded theory. A core category of “visualising deteriorating conditions” emerged, together with its sub-core categories of “intuitive knowing”, “baselining” and “grabbing attention”.The main concern in visualising deteriorating conditions is to ensure that patients suspected of deterioration are successfully referred to medical staff. The aim is to convince those who can treat or prevent further deterioration to intervene. Through intuitive knowing they pick up that patients have changed in a way that requires a medical assessment. To make the referral more credible, nurses attempt to contextualise any changes in patients by baselining (establishing baselines. Finally with the backup of colleagues, nurses refer patients by providing as much persuasive information as possible in a way that grabs attention. The whole process is facilitated by knowledge and experience, together with mutual trust and respect.

  18. Deterioration of Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Chloride ingress is a common cause of deterioration of reinforced concrete bridges. Concrete may be exposed to chloride by seawater or de-icing salts. The chloride initiates corrosion of the reinforcement, which through expansion disrupts the concrete. In addition, the corrosion reduces the cross...

  19. The natural number bias and its role in rational number understanding in children with dyscalculia. Delay or deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Jo; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquière, Pol; Van Dooren, Wim

    2017-12-01

    Previous research indicated that in several cases learners' errors on rational number tasks can be attributed to learners' tendency to (wrongly) apply natural number properties. There exists a large body of literature both on learners' struggle with understanding the rational number system and on the role of the natural number bias in this struggle. However, little is known about this phenomenon in learners with dyscalculia. We investigated the rational number understanding of learners with dyscalculia and compared it with the rational number understanding of learners without dyscalculia. Three groups of learners were included: sixth graders with dyscalculia, a chronological age match group, and an ability match group. The results showed that the rational number understanding of learners with dyscalculia is significantly lower than that of typically developing peers, but not significantly different from younger learners, even after statistically controlling for mathematics achievement. Next to a delay in their mathematics achievement, learners with dyscalculia seem to have an extra delay in their rational number understanding, compared with peers. This is especially the case in those rational number tasks where one has to inhibit natural number knowledge to come to the right answer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nature of the singlet and triplet excitations mediating thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Y.; Yurash, B.; Muccioli, L.; D'Avino, G.; Mikhnenko, O.; Sancho-García, J. C.; Adachi, C.; Nguyen, T.-Q.; Beljonne, D.

    2017-12-01

    Despite significant efforts, a complete mechanistic understanding of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials has not yet been fully uncovered. Part of the complexity arises from the apparent dichotomy between the need for close energy resonance and for a significant spin-orbit coupling between alike charge-transfer singlet and triplet excitations. Here we show, in the case of reference carbazole derivatives, that this dichotomy can be resolved in a fully atomistic model accounting for thermal fluctuations of the molecular conformations and microscopic electronic polarization effects in amorphous films. These effects yield electronic excitations with a dynamically mixed charge-transfer and localized character, resulting in thermally averaged singlet-triplet energy differences and interconversion rates in excellent agreement with careful spectroscopic studies.

  1. Pravcice Rock Arch (Bohemian Switzerland National Park, Czech Republic) deterioration due to natural and anthropogenic weathering (vol 63, pg 1861, 2011)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vařilová, Z.; Přikryl, R.; Cílek, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 4 (2011), s. 1191-1194 ISSN 1866-6280 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : corection * Pra vcice Rock Arch * nature protection Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 1.059, year: 2011

  2. Effect of ranitidine on postoperative suppression of natural killer cell activity and delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Pedersen, B K; Moesgaard, F

    1989-01-01

    hypersensitivity (DTH) antigens, and blood drawn immediately before and 24 hours after skin incision was analyzed for spontaneous and in vitro stimulated (IL-2, IFN-alpha or indomethacin) natural killer (NK) cell activity and PHA and PPD-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Lymphocyte subsets (helper...

  3. A programmed cell division delay preserves genome integrity during natural genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergé, Matthieu J; Mercy, Chryslène; Mortier-Barrière, Isabelle; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; Brun, Yves V; Grangeasse, Christophe; Polard, Patrice; Campo, Nathalie

    2017-11-20

    Competence for genetic transformation is a differentiation program during which exogenous DNA is imported into the cell and integrated into the chromosome. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, competence develops transiently and synchronously in all cells during exponential phase, and is accompanied by a pause in growth. Here, we reveal that this pause is linked to the cell cycle. At least two parallel pathways impair peptidoglycan synthesis in competent cells. Single-cell analyses demonstrate that ComM, a membrane protein induced during competence, inhibits both initiation of cell division and final constriction of the cytokinetic ring. Competence also interferes with the activity of the serine/threonine kinase StkP, the central regulator of pneumococcal cell division. We further present evidence that the ComM-mediated delay in division preserves genomic integrity during transformation. We propose that cell division arrest is programmed in competent pneumococcal cells to ensure that transformation is complete before resumption of cell division, to provide this pathogen with the maximum potential for genetic diversity and adaptation.

  4. Effect of ranitidine on postoperative suppression of natural killer cell activity and delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Pedersen, B K; Moesgaard, F

    1989-01-01

    In a randomized study of patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery, 12 received i.v. ranitidine (50 mg every 6 hours for 72 hours from the skin incision) and 12 had no ranitidine. Cell-mediated immunity was assessed pre- and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common delayed type....../inducer-T cells, suppressor/cytotoxic-T cells, Pan-T cells and NK-cells) were counted by flow-cytometry. Perioperative ranitidine diminished the expected postoperative reduction in DTH responses (p less than 0.0001), as well as in spontaneous NK-cell activity (p less than 0.03) and in vitro IL-2 stimulated NK......-cell activity (p less than 0.02). Postoperative decrease in helper/inducer-T cell numbers was not significantly lessened (p = 0.07), and ranitidine did not influence the levels of suppressor-T cells. PHA and PPD responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were unaltered. The results may suggest potential...

  5. Consumption of low-fat dairy products may delay natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carwile, Jenny L; Willett, Walter C; Michels, Karin B

    2013-10-01

    Later menopause is a risk factor for breast and endometrial cancer, yet few studies have investigated dietary predictors of this potentially modifiable event. In particular, dairy contains hormones and growth factors that could potentially affect menopausal timing. We therefore assessed the association between regular consumption of dairy foods and related nutrients and age at natural menopause. We conducted a prospective analysis with up to 20 y of follow-up in 46,059 participants in the Nurses' Health Study who were premenopausal in 1980. We observed 30,816 events of natural menopause over 401,754 person-years. In the total population, the estimated mean age at natural menopause was 51.5 y for women who consumed no low-fat dairy and 51.5, 51.6, 51.7, and 51.8 y for women who consumed 0.1-1.0, 1.1-2.0, 2.1-3.0, and >3 servings of low-fat dairy daily, respectively. Premenopausal women 3 servings of low-fat dairy per day were 14% less likely (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96; P-trend menopause in the next month relative to those consuming 0.1-1 servings/d. Similar results were obtained for skim milk (for >6 servings/wk vs. 0-1 servings/mo: HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.97; P-trend menopause among women ≥51 y of age. These findings support the growing body of literature on the hormonally active nature of milk and dairy foods.

  6. Consumption of Low-Fat Dairy Products May Delay Natural Menopause123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carwile, Jenny L.; Willett, Walter C.; Michels, Karin B.

    2013-01-01

    Later menopause is a risk factor for breast and endometrial cancer, yet few studies have investigated dietary predictors of this potentially modifiable event. In particular, dairy contains hormones and growth factors that could potentially affect menopausal timing. We therefore assessed the association between regular consumption of dairy foods and related nutrients and age at natural menopause. We conducted a prospective analysis with up to 20 y of follow-up in 46,059 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study who were premenopausal in 1980. We observed 30,816 events of natural menopause over 401,754 person-years. In the total population, the estimated mean age at natural menopause was 51.5 y for women who consumed no low-fat dairy and 51.5, 51.6, 51.7, and 51.8 y for women who consumed 0.1–1.0, 1.1–2.0, 2.1–3.0, and >3 servings of low-fat dairy daily, respectively. Premenopausal women 3 servings of low-fat dairy per day were 14% less likely (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96; P-trend menopause in the next month relative to those consuming 0.1–1 servings/d. Similar results were obtained for skim milk (for >6 servings/wk vs. 0–1 servings/mo: HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.97; P-trend menopause among women ≥51 y of age. These findings support the growing body of literature on the hormonally active nature of milk and dairy foods. PMID:23946341

  7. Consumption of Low-Fat Dairy Products May Delay Natural Menopause123

    OpenAIRE

    Carwile, Jenny L.; Willett, Walter C.; Michels, Karin B.

    2013-01-01

    Later menopause is a risk factor for breast and endometrial cancer, yet few studies have investigated dietary predictors of this potentially modifiable event. In particular, dairy contains hormones and growth factors that could potentially affect menopausal timing. We therefore assessed the association between regular consumption of dairy foods and related nutrients and age at natural menopause. We conducted a prospective analysis with up to 20 y of follow-up in 46,059 participants in the Nur...

  8. a cash flow eoq inventory model for non- deteriorating items with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    credit- linked demand under permissible delay in payments. Optimal retailer's ordering policies in the EOQ model for deteriorating items under trade credit financing in supply chain was developed by Mahata and Mahata (2009). Musa and Sani. (2009) developed an EOQ model for items that exhibit delay in deterioration.

  9. Credit financing for deteriorating imperfect quality items with allowable shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Khanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outset of new technologies, systems and applications in manufacturing sector has no doubt lighten up our workload, yet the chance causes of variation in production system cannot be eliminated completely. Every produced/ordered lot may have some fraction of defectives which may vary from process to process. In addition the situation is more susceptible when the items are deteriorating in nature. However, the defective items can be secluded from the good quality lot through a careful inspection process. Thus, a screening process is obligatory in today’s technology driven industry which has the customer satisfaction as its only motto. Moreover, in order to survive in the current global markets, credit financing has been proven a very influential promotional tool to attract new customers and a good inducement policy for the retailers. Keeping this scenario in mind, the present paper investigates an inventory model for a retailer dealing with imperfect quality deteriorating items under permissible delay in payments. Shortages are allowed and fully backlogged. This model jointly optimizes the order quantity and shortages by maximizing the expected total profit. A mathematical model is developed to depict this scenario. Results have been validated with the help of numerical example. Comprehensive sensitivity analysis has also been presented.

  10. Deterioration Assessment of Bridge Rubber Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Haosheng; 伊藤, 義人; Itoh, Yoshito

    2005-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) with lead plugs and high damping rubber (HDR) are often used for base-isolated rubber bearings. However, it is usually known that ageing causes rubber performance to drop. This research is to study the deterioration characteristics of these two kinds of bridge rubber bearings through accelerated thermal oxidation tests. The property variations inside the aged rubber blocks are investigated. For natural rubber bearing, the mechanical properties on the surface change the mos...

  11. Delayed visual loss following transcranial surgery for tuberculum sella meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Menon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative visual loss is a dreaded complication following transcranial excision of tuberculum sella meningioma. Visual deterioration is commonly noticed immediately after surgery, and delayed deterioration after 72 h is uncommon. We report a case of delayed postoperative deterioration in a 48-year-old female and discuss the possible mechanisms.

  12. Deterioration of gait and balance over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreisel, Stefan H; Blahak, Christian; Bäzner, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the severity of age-related white matter change (ARWMC) and lower body motor function. However, the association between prevalent ARWMC and incident deterioration of balance and gait remains insufficiently investigated. This study investig......Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the severity of age-related white matter change (ARWMC) and lower body motor function. However, the association between prevalent ARWMC and incident deterioration of balance and gait remains insufficiently investigated. This study...... relevance: given the increasing use of neuroimaging, incidental white matter pathology is common; being able to delineate natural trajectories of balance and gait function given ARWMC may improve patient advice and help optimize allocation of care....

  13. A probability evaluation method of early deterioration condition for the critical components of wind turbine generator systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Li, H.; Liao, X

    2016-01-01

    This study determines the early deterioration condition of critical components for a wind turbine generator system (WTGS). Due to the uncertainty nature of the fluctuation and intermittence of wind, early deterioration condition evaluation poses a challenge to the traditional vibration...... method of early deterioration condition for critical components based only on temperature characteristic parameters. First, the dynamic threshold of deterioration degree function was proposed by analyzing the operational data between temperature and rotor speed. Second, a probability evaluation method...... of early deterioration condition was presented. Finally, two cases showed the validity of the proposed probability evaluation method in detecting early deterioration condition and in tracking their further deterioration for the critical components....

  14. Identifying ingredients that delay outgrowth of Listeria monocytogenes in natural, organic, and clean-label ready-to-eat meat and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Lindsey M; Glass, Kathleen A; Sindelar, Jeffrey J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify ingredients that inhibit Listeria monocytogenes in natural, organic, or clean-label ready-to-eat meat and poultry products. Fourteen ingredients were screened in uncured (no-nitrate-or-nitrite-added), traditional-cured (156 ppm of purified sodium nitrite), cultured (alternative cured, natural nitrate source, and Staphylococcus carnosus), or preconverted (alternative cured, natural nitrite source) turkey slurries. Slurries were cooked, cooled, inoculated to yield 3 log CFU/ml L. monocytogenes, stored at 4°C, and tested weekly for 4 weeks. Three antimicrobial ingredients, 1.5 % vinegar-lemon-cherry powder blend, 2.5 % buffered vinegar, and 3.0 % cultured sugar-vinegar blend, were incorporated into alternative-cured ham and uncured roast beef and deli-style turkey breast. Controls included all three meat products without antimicrobial ingredients and a traditional-cured ham with 2.8 % sodium lactate-diacetate. Cooked, sliced products were inoculated with 3 log CFU/g L. monocytogenes, vacuum packed, and stored at 4 or 7°C, for up to 12 weeks. For control products without antimicrobial agents stored at 4°C, a 2-log L. monocytogenes increase was observed at 2 weeks for ham and turkey and at 4 weeks for roast beef. Growth (>1-log increase) in the sodium lactate-diacetate was delayed until week 6. Compared with the control, the addition of either vinegar-lemon-cherry powder blend or buffered vinegar delayed L. monocytogenes growth for an additional 2 weeks, while the addition of cultured sugar-vinegar blend delayed growth for an additional 4 weeks for both ham and turkey. The greatest L. monocytogenes delay was observed in roast beef containing any of the three antimicrobial ingredients, with no growth detected through 12 weeks at 4°C for all the treatments. As expected, L. monocytogenes grew substantially faster in products stored at 7°C than at 4°C. These data suggest that antimicrobial ingredients from a natural source

  15. 40 CFR 1033.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deterioration factors. 1033.245... CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Certifying Engine Families § 1033.245 Deterioration factors. Establish deterioration factors for each pollutant to determine, as described in § 1033.240, whether your...

  16. 40 CFR 1042.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deterioration factors. 1042.245... Certifying Engine Families § 1042.245 Deterioration factors. This section describes how to determine deterioration factors for Category 1 and Category 2 engines, either with an engineering analysis, with pre...

  17. Early warning scores: a sign of deterioration in patients and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Adrian; Elliott, Naomi

    2015-04-01

    The early warning score system is a decision-making tool that has a simple design, yet its implementation in healthcare organisations is proving complex. This article reports the results of a survey that evaluated nurses' experiences of using the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) in an acute hospital in Ireland. Staff reported that the NEWS was easy to use, did not increase workload and enhanced their ability to identify deteriorating patients. However, they also identified problems related to doctors' delayed response times, doctors' lack of training in the use of the tool, and a failure by doctors to modify trigger parameters for patients with chronic conditions. NEWS enhances nurses' roles in early detection of patient deterioration, but delays in response times by doctors expose systematic flaws in health care. This suggests that it is not only an indicator of patient deterioration, but also of deteriorating healthcare systems.

  18. Early warning scores: a sign of deterioration in patients and systems

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fox, A

    2015-02-01

    The early warning score is a decision-making tool that has a simple design, yet its implementation in healthcare organisations is proving complex. This article reports the results of a survey that evaluated the nurses’ experiences of using the NEWS (National Early Warning Score) in an acute hospital in Ireland. Staff reported that the NEWS was easy to use, did not increase workload and enhanced their ability to identify deteriorating patients. However, they also identified problems related to doctors’ delayed response times, doctors lack of training in the use of the tool, and a failure by doctors to modify parameters for patients with chronic conditions. NEWS enhances nurses’ role in early detection of patient deterioration but delays in response times by doctors, exposes systematic flaws in healthcare. This suggests that it is not only an indicator of patient deterioration but also of deteriorating healthcare systems.

  19. Reliability assessment of aging structures subjected to gradual and shock deteriorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cao; Zhang, Hao; Li, Quanwang

    2017-01-01

    Civil structures and infrastructure facilities are susceptible to deterioration posed by the effects of natural hazards and aggressive environmental conditions. These factors may increase the risk of service interruption of infrastructures, and should be taken into account when assessing the structural reliability during an infrastructure's service life. Modeling the resistance deterioration process reasonably is the basis for structural reliability analysis. In this paper, a novel model is developed for describing the deterioration of aging structures. The deterioration is a combination of two stochastic processes: the gradual deterioration posed by environmental effects and the shock deterioration caused by severe load attacks. The dependency of the deterioration magnitude on the load intensity is considered. The Gaussian copula function is employed to help construct the joint distribution of correlated random variables. Semi-analytical methods are developed to assess the structural failure time and the number of significant load events (shocks) to failure. Illustrative examples are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model in structural reliability analysis. Parametric studies are performed to investigate the role of deterioration-load correlation in structural reliability. - Highlights: • A new resistance deterioration model for aging structures is proposed. • Time-dependent reliability analysis methods incorporating the proposed deterioration model are developed. • Parametric studies are performed to investigate the role of deterioration-load correlation in structural reliability.

  20. Overexpression of MpCYS4, a phytocystatin gene from Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh., delays natural and stress-induced leaf senescence in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanxiao; Yang, Yingli; Li, Chao; Liang, Bowen; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2017-06-01

    Phytocystatins are a well-characterized class of naturally occurring protease inhibitors that prevent the catalysis of papain-like cysteine proteases. The action of cystatins in stress tolerance has been studied intensively, but relatively little is known about their functions in plants during leaf senescence. Here, we examined the potential roles of the apple cystatin, MpCYS4, in leaf photosynthesis as well as the concentrations and composition of leaf proteins when plants encounter natural or stress-induced senescence. Overexpression of this gene in apple rootstock M26 effectively slowed the senescence-related declines in photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll concentrations and prevented the action of cysteine proteinases during the process of degrading proteins (e.g., Rubisco) in senescing leaves. Moreover, MpCYS4 alleviated the associated oxidative damage and enhanced the capacity of plants to eliminate reactive oxygen species by activating antioxidant enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, and catalase. Consequently, plant cells were protected against damage from free radicals during leaf senescence. Based on these results, we conclude that MpCYS4 functions in delaying natural and stress-induced senescence of apple leaves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of Enhanced Pavement Deterioration Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Ercisli, Safak

    2015-01-01

    Modeling pavement deterioration and predicting the pavement performance is crucial for optimum pavement network management. Currently only a few models exist that incorporate the structural capacity of the pavements into deterioration modeling. This thesis develops pavement deterioration models that take into account, along with the age of the pavement, the pavement structural condition expressed in terms of the Modified Structural Index (MSI). The research found MSI to be a significant input...

  2. Improvement of deficient natural killer activity and delayed bactericidal activity by a thiol proteinase inhibitor, E-64-d, in leukocytes from Chediak-Higashi syndrome patients in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Fuminori; Kasai, Hirotake; He, Limin; Kin, Tomohiro; Fujikado, Takashi; Kumamoto, Toshihide; Hara, Toshiro; Iwata, Tsutomu; Ito, Masahiko

    2009-03-01

    We previously reported that administration of a potent calpain inhibitor, E-64-d, which protects protein kinase C (PKC) from proteolysis, in a mouse model of Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) (beige mice), decreases its susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus infection. In the present study, we examined the in vitro effect of E-64-d on both deficient natural killer (NK) and delayed bactericidal activities of leukocytes from six CHS patients. Our results showed that pretreatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from CHS patients with E-64-d (1 microg/ml) significantly enhanced NK activity against K562 cells. The delayed bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) against S. aureus also showed marked improvement. This was recovered to almost normal levels when PMNs were pretreated with E-64-d (1 microg/ml). On the other hand, the same concentration of E-64-d did not affect either the NK or bactericidal activity of normal controls. In addition, we confirmed that following E-64-d treatment, the abnormal down-regulation of PKC activity after concanavalin A (Con A) stimulation was eliminated in PBMCs obtained from CHS patients. To examine whether PKC is involved in the NK cell-mediated cytolysis and bactericidal activity of PMNs, two potent PKC inhibitors, chelerythrin and GO6976, were used. We found that chelerythrin inhibits NK activity of normal PBMCs in a dose-dependent manner, and GO6976 inhibits NK activity at doses that inhibit Ca(2+)-dependent PKC isozymes. These inhibitors also suppressed the bactericidal activity of PMNs against S. aureus. Taken together, our findings suggested that E-64-d improved the compromised NK and bactericidal activity of leukocytes from CHS patients by reversing the down-regulation of PKC activity.

  3. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Delayed puberty can be a source of great concern and anxiety, although it usually is caused by a self-limiting variant of the normal physiological timing named constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Delayed puberty can, however, also be the first presentation of a permanent condition ...... mineral density) and psychological (e.g., low self-esteem) and underline the importance of careful clinical assessment of the patients....

  4. Up-Conversion Intersystem Crossing Rates in Organic Emitters for Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence: Impact of the Nature of Singlet vs Triplet Excited States

    KAUST Repository

    Samanta, Pralok Kumar

    2017-02-28

    The rates for up-conversion intersystem crossing (UISC) from the T1 state to the S1 state are calculated for a series of organic emitters with an emphasis on thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials. Both the spin-orbit coupling and the energy difference between the S1 and T1 states (ΔEST) are evaluated, at the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT levels. The calculated UISC rates and ΔEST values are found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. Our results underline that small ΔEST values and sizable spin-orbit coupling matrix elements have to be simultaneously realized in order to facilitate UISC and ultimately TADF. Importantly, the spatial separation of the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of the emitter, a widely accepted strategy for the design of TADF molecules, does not necessarily lead to a sufficient reduction in ΔEST; in fact, either a significant charge-transfer (CT) contribution to the T1 state or a minimal energy difference between the local-excitation and charge-transfer triplet states is required to achieve a small ΔEST. Also, having S1 and T1 states of a different nature is found to strongly enhance spin-orbit coupling, which is consistent with the El-Sayed rule for ISC rates. Overall, our results indicate that having either similar energies for the local-excitation and charge-transfer triplet states or the right balance between a substantial CT contribution to T1 and somewhat different natures of the S1 and T1 states, paves the way toward UISC enhancement and thus TADF efficiency improvement.

  5. Toward better understanding of postharvest deterioration: biochemical changes in stored cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Coelho, Bianca; Moresco, Rodolfo; Domínguez, Moralba Garcia; Sánchez, Teresa; Meléndez, Jorge Luis Luna; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernan; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Hershey, Clair; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    Food losses can occur during production, postharvest, and processing stages in the supply chain. With the onset of worldwide food shortages, interest in reducing postharvest losses in cassava has been increasing. In this research, the main goal was to evaluate biochemical changes and identify the metabolites involved in the deterioration of cassava roots. We found that high levels of ascorbic acid (AsA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), dry matter, and proteins are correlated with overall lower rates of deterioration. On the other hand, soluble sugars such as glucose and fructose, as well as organic acids, mainly, succinic acid, seem to be upregulated during storage and may play a role in the deterioration of cassava roots. Cultivar Branco (BRA) was most resilient to postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD), while Oriental (ORI) was the most susceptible. Our findings suggest that PPO, AsA, and proteins may play a distinct role in PPD delay.

  6. Can Sensors Solve the Deterioration Problems of Public Infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Chitoshi

    2014-11-01

    Various deteriorations are detected in public infrastructures, such as bridges, viaducts, piers and tunnels and caused fatal accidents in some cases. The possibility of the applications of health monitoring by using sensors is the issues of this lecture. The inspection and diagnosis are essential in the maintenance works which include appropriate rehabilitations and replacements. The introduction of monitoring system may improve accuracy and efficiency of inspection and diagnosis. This seems to be innovation of maintenance, old structures may change smart structures by the installation of nerve network and brain, specifically. Cost- benefit viewpoint is also important point, because of public infrastructures. The modes of deterioration are fatigue, corrosion, and delayed fracture in steel, and carbonization and alkali aggregate reaction in concrete. These are like adult disease in human bodies. The developments of Infrastructures in Japan were concentrated in the 1960th and 1970th. These ages are approaching 50 and deterioration due to aging has been progress gradually. The attacks of earthquakes are also a major issue. Actually, these infrastructures have been supporting economic and social activities in Japan and the deterioration of public infrastructure has become social problems. How to secure the same level of safety and security for all public infrastructures is the challenge we face now. The targets of monitoring are external disturbances such as traffic loads, earthquakes, winds, temperature, responses against external disturbances, and the changes of performances. In the monitoring of infrastructures, 3W1H(WHAT, WHERE, WHEN and HOW) are essential, that is what kind of data are necessary, where sensors place, when data are collected, and how to collect and process data. The required performances of sensors are accuracy, stability for long time. In the case of long term monitoring, the durability of systems needs more than five years, because the interval

  7. Delayed Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of stress Delayed ejaculation Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  8. Delayed Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the penis Psychological causes of delayed ejaculation include: Depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions Relationship problems due to stress, poor communication or other concerns Anxiety about performance Poor body image Cultural or religious taboos Differences between the reality ...

  9. Developing deterioration models for Nebraska bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Nebraska Bridge Management System (NBMS) was developed in 1999 to assist in optimizing budget allocation for : the maintenance, rehabilitation and replacement needs of highway bridges. This requires the prediction of bridge : deterioration to calcula...

  10. The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruza, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.

  11. Multitasking Scheduling Problems with Deterioration Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanguo Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multitasking scheduling problems with a deterioration effect incurred by coexisting behavioral phenomena in human-related scheduling systems including deteriorating task processing times and deteriorating rate-modifying activity (DRMA of human operators are addressed. Under the assumption of this problem, the processing of a selected task suffers from the joint effect of available but unfinished waiting tasks, the position-dependent deterioration of task processing time, and the DRMA of human operators. Traditionally, these issues have been considered separately; herein, we address their integration. We propose optimal algorithms to solve the problems to minimize makespan and the total absolute differences in completion time, respectively. Based on the analysis, some special cases and extensions are also discussed.

  12. Deterioration and cost information for bridge management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This study applies contract bid tabulations and elementlevel condition records to develop elementlevel actions, : costs for actions, transition probabilities for models of deterioration of bridge elements, and transition probabilities : for imp...

  13. Deteriorating Inventory Model for Chilled Food

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ming-Feng; Tseng, Wei-Chung

    2015-01-01

    With many aspects that affect inventory policy, product perishability is a critical aspect of inventory policy. Most goods will deteriorate during storage and their original value will decline or be lost. Therefore, deterioration should be taken into account in inventory practice. Chilled food products are very common consumer goods that are, in fact, perishable. If the chilled food quality declines over time customers are less likely to buy it. The value the chilled food retains is, however,...

  14. Early warnings of heart rate deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Vânia G.; Nabney, Ian T.

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals can experience difficulty in detecting and responding to early signs of patient deterioration leading to late intensive care referrals, excess mortality and morbidity, and increased hospital costs. Our study aims to explore potential indicators of physiological deterioration by the analysis of vital-signs. The dataset used comprises heart rate (HR) measurements from MIMIC II waveform database, taken from six patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and diagnosed with sever...

  15. Use of a 3-Telsa magnet to perform delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the distal interphalangeal joint of horses with and without naturally occurring osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischofberger, Andrea S; Fürst, Anton E; Torgerson, Paul R; Carstens, Ann; Hilbe, Monika; Kircher, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) features of healthy hyaline cartilage of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) of horses, to determine whether dGEMRIC can be used to differentiate various stages of naturally occurring osteoarthritis of the DIPJ, and to correlate relaxation times determined by dGEMRIC with the glycosaminoglycan concentration, water content, and macroscopic and histologic findings of hyaline cartilage of DIPJs with and without osteoarthritis. SAMPLE 1 cadaveric forelimb DIPJ from each of 12 adult warmblood horses. PROCEDURES T1-weighted cartilage relaxation times were obtained for predetermined sites of the DIPJ before (T1 preGd ) and after (T1 postGd ) intra-articular gadolinium administration. Corresponding cartilage sites underwent macroscopic, histologic, and immunohistochemical evaluation, and cartilage glycosaminoglycan concentration and water content were determined. Median T1 preGd and T1 postGd were correlated with macroscopic, histologic, and biochemical data. Mixed generalized linear models were created to evaluate the effects of cartilage site, articular surface, and macroscopic and histologic scores on relaxation times. RESULTS 122 cartilage specimens were analyzed. Median T1 postGd was lower than the median T1 preGd for normal and diseased cartilage. Both T1 preGd and T1 postGd were correlated with macroscopic and histologic scores, whereby T1 preGd increased and T1 postGd decreased as osteoarthritis progressed. There was topographic variation of T1 preGd and T1 postGd within the DIPJ. Cartilage glycosaminoglycan concentration and water content were significantly correlated with T1 preGd and macroscopic and histologic scores but were not correlated with T1 postGd . CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dGEMRIC relaxation times varied for DIPJs with various degrees of osteoarthritis. These findings may help facilitate early detection of osteoarthritis.

  16. Rule based deterioration identification and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, S.; Pavinich, W.; Lapides, M.

    1993-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of IHI and EPRI, a rule-based screening system has been developed that can be used by utility engineers to determine which deterioration mechanisms are acting on specific LWR components, and to evaluate the efficacy of an age-related deterioration management program. The screening system was developed using the rule-based shell, NEXPERT, which provides traceability to the data sources used in the logic development. The system addresses all the deterioration mechanisms of specific metals encountered in either BWRs or PWRs. Deterioration mechanisms are listed with reasons why they may occur during the design life of LWRs, considering the plant environment, manufacturing process, service history, material chemical composition, etc. of components in a specific location of a LWR. To eliminate the evaluation of inactive deterioration quickly, a tier structure is applied to the rules. The reasons why deterioration will occur are extracted automatically by backward chaining. To reduce the amount of user input, plant environmental data are stored in files as default environmental data. (author)

  17. Speech deterioration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) after manifestation of bulbar symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Tanja; Ruottinen, Hanna; Puhto, Riitta; Helminen, Mika; Palmio, Johanna

    2018-03-01

    The symptoms and their progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are typically studied after the diagnosis has been confirmed. However, many people with ALS already have severe dysarthria and loss of adequate speech at the time of diagnosis. Speech-and-language therapy interventions should be targeted timely based on communicative need in ALS. To investigate how long natural speech will remain functional and to identify the changes in the speech of persons with ALS. Altogether 30 consecutive participants were studied and divided into two groups based on the initial type of ALS, bulbar or spinal. Their speech disorder was evaluated on severity, articulation rate and intelligibility during the 2-year follow-up. The ability to speak deteriorated to poor and necessitated augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) methods with 60% of the participants. Their speech remained adequate on average for 18 months from the first bulbar symptom. Severity, articulation rate and intelligibility declined with nearly all participants during the study. To begin with speech deteriorated more in the bulbar group than in the spinal group and the difference remained during the whole follow-up with some exceptions. The onset of bulbar symptoms indicated the time to loss of speech better than when assessed from ALS diagnosis or the first speech therapy evaluation. In clinical work, it is important to take the initial type of ALS into consideration when determining the urgency of AAC measures as people with bulbar-onset ALS are more susceptible to delayed evaluation and AAC intervention. © 2017 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  18. Reliability analysis and updating of deteriorating systems with subset simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Ronald; Thöns, Sebastian; Straub, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    An efficient approach to reliability analysis of deteriorating structural systems is presented, which considers stochastic dependence among element deterioration. Information on a deteriorating structure obtained through inspection or monitoring is included in the reliability assessment through B...

  19. Modelling delays in pharmacokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Z.H.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Linear system analysis has come to form the backbone of pharmacokinetics. Natural systems usually involve time delays, thus models incorporating them would be an order closer approximation to the real world compared to those that do not. Delays may be modelled in several ways. The approach considered in this study is to have a discrete-time delay dependent rate with the delay respresenting the duration between the entry of a drug into a compartment and its release in some form (may be as a metabolite) from the compartment. Such a delay may be because of one or more of several physiological reasons, like, formation of a reservoir, slow metabolism, or receptor binding. The mathematical structure this gives rise to is a system of delay-differential equations. Examples are given of simple one and two compartment systems with drugs like bumetanide, carbamazepine, and quinolone-caffeine interaction. In these examples generally a good fit is obtained and the suggested models form a good approximation. 21 refs., 6 figs

  20. Deteriorating food security in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, C.; Samanta, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Kumar, K.; Ganguly, S.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Srivastava, A. N.; Nemani, R. R.; Myneni, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    One of the major challenges we face on our planet is increasing agricultural production to meet the dietary requirements of an additional 2.5 billion people by the mid of the century while limiting cropland expansion and other damages to natural resources. This problem is even more so challenging given that nearly all the population growth will take place where the majority of the hungry live today and where ongoing and future climate changes are projected to most negatively impact agricultural production, the semi-arid tropics (SAT). The SAT contain 40% of the global irrigated and rainfed croplands in over 50 developing countries and a growing population of over a billion and half people, many of which live in absolute poverty and strongly depend on agriculture that is constrained by chronic water shortages. Rates of food grain production in many of the countries of the SAT have progressively increased since the mid 1960s aided by the Green Revolution and relatively favourable climatic conditions. However, aggregated agricultural production statistics indicate that the rate of food grain production has recently stalled or declined in several of the countries in this region, escalating the concerns over matters of food security, that is availability of food and one’s access to it, in a region where many people live in extreme poverty, depend on an agrarian economy and are expected to face increasingly worse climatic conditions in the near future. In this paper we analyze the agricultural deceleration and its drivers over the country of India, which faces the daunting challenge of needing a 50-100% increase in yields of major crops by the middle to the 21st century to feed its growing population. We analyze the long term (1982-2006) record of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA/AVHRR) together with climate, land use, and crop production

  1. Rock Pore Structure as Main Reason of Rock Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrášik, Martin; Kopecký, Miloslav

    2014-03-01

    Crashed or dimensional rocks have been used as natural construction material, decoration stone or as material for artistic sculptures. Especially old historical towns not only in Slovakia have had experiences with use of stones for construction purposes for centuries. The whole buildings were made from dimensional stone, like sandstone, limestone or rhyolite. Pavements were made especially from basalt, andesite, rhyolite or granite. Also the most common modern construction material - concrete includes large amounts of crashed rock, especially limestone, dolostone and andesite. However, rock as any other material if exposed to exogenous processes starts to deteriorate. Especially mechanical weathering can be very intensive if rock with unsuitable rock properties is used. For long it had been believed that repeated freezing and thawing in relation to high absorption is the main reason of the rock deterioration. In Slovakia for many years the high water absorption was set as exclusion criterion for use of rocks and stones in building industry. Only after 1989 the absorption was accepted as merely informational rock property and not exclusion. The reason of the change was not the understanding of the relationship between the porosity and rock deterioration, but more or less good experiences with some high porous rocks used in constructions exposed to severe weather conditions and proving a lack of relationship between rock freeze-thaw resistivity and water absorption. Results of the recent worldwide research suggest that understanding a resistivity of rocks against deterioration is hidden not in the absorption but in the structure of rock pores in relation to thermodynamic properties of pore water and tensile strength of rocks and rock minerals. Also this article presents some results of research on rock deterioration and pore structure performed on 88 rock samples. The results divide the rocks tested into two groups - group N in which the pore water does not freeze

  2. Macroscopical morphology of deterioration of the stone used in the cathedral whole of Granada/Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Alcalde, M.; Martin, L.; Bello, M. A.; Martin, A.

    1992-01-01

    The main factors of deterioration that affect the Cathedral Whole of Granada are one of natural thermic origin due to the low temperatures during the winters and the higher thermic oscillations and those of anthropogenical origin: fundamentally the oxidation of metallic elements and atmospheric pollution due to burnt products. For this reason, the more important deterioration mechanisms are the freezing ones due to the expansion produced in the water retained inside the pores and microcracks,...

  3. Macroscopical morphology of deterioration of the stone used in the cathedral whole of Granada (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Alcalde Moreno, Manuel; Bello López, Miguel Ángel; Martín García, Lourdes; Martín Pérez, Antonio

    1992-01-01

    The main factors of deterioration that affect the Cathedral Whole of Granada are one of natural thermic origin due to the low temperatures during the winters and the higher thermic oscillations and those of anthropogenical origin: fundamentally the oxidation of metallic elements and atmospheric pollution due to burnt products. For this reason, the more important deterioration mechanisms are the freezing ones due to the expansion produced in the water retained inside the por...

  4. Family presence during management of acute deterioration: Clinician attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngson, Megan J; Currey, Judy; Considine, Julie

    2016-08-01

    The nature of acute clinical deterioration has changed over the last three decades with a decrease in in-hospital cardiac arrests and an increase in acute clinical deterioration. Despite this change, research related to family presence continues to focus on care during resuscitation rather than during acute deterioration. To explore healthcare clinician attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of current practices surrounding family presence during episodes of acute deterioration in adult Emergency Department patients. Clinicians (n=156) from a single study site in Melbourne, Australia completed a 17-item survey. Participants disagreed that family members would interrupt (59.0%) or interfere (61.5%) with patient care if present during episodes of patient deterioration. Most (77.6%) participants stated that they included family during episodes of patient deterioration. Females, nurses and Australians/New Zealanders had a more positive attitude towards including family during episodes of patient deterioration when compared to males, doctors and clinicians of other ethnicities. Nurses with post-graduate qualifications and those with more years of experience had a more positive attitude towards including family during episodes of patient deterioration than nurses without post-graduation qualification and with less years of experience. Clinicians had predominantly positive attitudes towards including family during episodes of patient deterioration and perceived it to be a common day-to-day practice. Gender, profession, country of birth, education level and years of experience all impacted on clinician attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of family presence during acute deterioration. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bio-deterioration of breadfruit (Artocarpus Communis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gaga E Tonukari

    deteriorating breadfruit in storage The freshly harvested breadfruit has 70.2% carbohydrate which reduced to 59.4% within 9 days of storage under room temperature. The amount of fat content, protein and the energy of the breadfruit also reduced in fruit samples stored for 9 days, while there was an increase in the moisture ...

  6. Modelling of Deterioration Effects on Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Teplý

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the service life of concrete structures models for deterioration effects are needed. This paper has the form of a survey, listing and describing such analytical models, namely carbonation of concrete, ingress of chlorides, corrosion of reinforcing steel and prestressing tendons. The probabilistic approach is applied.

  7. Prediction of Deterioration of Concrete Bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaal, G.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the early 20th century, the general idea was that concrete structures would never show deterioration. However, in the 1990s concrete structures showed an increase in number of cracks and area of spalling. Especially spalling of the concrete cover could create a harmful situation to the users.

  8. The connection of hydronephrosis and microcirculation deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobets Dmytro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have analyzed the influence of hydronephrosis upon the microcirculation system, in situations of pyeloureteral junction obstruction. Herein, bulbar conjunctiva has been chosen as the object of this biomicroscopic study because of its simplicity and the method availability in clinic practice. In fulfilling this work, we ascertained the connections between extravascular, intravascular, vascular and general conjunctival indices of the patients before radical and paliatic correction of the pyeloureteral junction obstruction (i.e. by open and laparoscopic pyeloplasty, endopyelotomy, laser resection and balloon dilatation. We concluded that, apart from the proved deterioration of kidney function, systemic deteriorations of microcirculation may be observed in situations of clinically marked hydronephrosis, according to the results of radioisotope renography and excretory urography.

  9. Tree mineral nutrition is deteriorating in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonard, Mathieu; Fürst, Alfred; Verstraeten, Arne

    2015-01-01

    The response of forest ecosystems to increased atmospheric CO2 is constrained by nutrient availability. It is thus crucial to account for nutrient limitation when studying the forest response to climate change. The objectives of this study were to describe the nutritional status of the main...... that were observed in foliar nutrient concentrations, 20 were decreasing and two were increasing. Some of these trends were alarming, among which the foliar P concentration in F. sylvatica, Q. Petraea and P. sylvestris that significantly deteriorated during 1992–2009. In Q. Petraea and P. sylvestris...... to higher nutrient demand by trees. As the soil nutrient supply was not always sufficient to meet the demands of faster growing trees, this could partly explain the deterioration of tree mineral nutrition. The results suggest that when evaluating forest carbon storage capacity and when planning to reduce CO...

  10. A new deteriorated energy-momentum tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The stress-tensor of a scalar field theory is not unique because of the possibility of adding an 'improvement term'. In supersymmetric field theories the stress-tensor will appear in a super-current multiplet along with the sypersymmetry current. The general question of the supercurrent multiplet for arbitrary deteriorated stress tensors and their relationship to supercurrent multiplets for models with gauge antisymmetric tensors is answered for various models of N = 1, 2 and 4 supersymmetry. (U.K.)

  11. Deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The main interest in the energy cane is the bioenergy production from the bagasse. The juice obtained after the cane milling may constitute a feedstock for the first-generation ethanol units; however, little attention has been dedicated to this issue. In order to verify the feasibility of the energy cane juice as substrate for ethanol production, the objectives of this research were first to determine the microbiological characteristics and deterioration along the time of the juices from two clones of energy cane (Type I and second, their fermentability as feedstock for utilization in ethanol distilleries. There was a clear differentiation in the bacterial and yeast development of the sugarcane juices assayed, being much faster in the energy canes than in sugarcane. The storage of juice for 8 hours at 30oC did not cause impact in alcoholic fermentation for any sample analyzed, although a significant bacterial growth was detected in this period. A decrease of approximately seven percentage points in the fermentative efficiency was observed for energy cane juice in relation to sugarcane in a 24-hour fermentation cycle with the baking yeast. Despite the faster deterioration, the present research demonstrated that the energy cane juice has potential to be used as feedstock in ethanol-producing industries. As far as we know, it is the first research to deal with the characteristics of deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juices.

  12. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  13. Influence of nuclear glasses composition on their liability to deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovena, I.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the study of the nuclear glasses composition influence on their liability to deterioration. The methodology of the experimental research used has lead to define between the thirty oxides which form the reference glass light water, six oxides of interest. For each of these oxides, a composition variation area has been defined. A matrix of twenty glass compositions has then been defined. The preparation of materials of these compositions has sometimes lead to materials weakly heterogeneous which have been characterized before deterioration. This study has been completed by those of three glasses in a composition variation area narrower of the light water nuclear glass : the R7T7 and two glasses at limits having respectively an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees Celsius theoretically maximum and minimum. Some deterioration parameters in pure water have been experimentally measured on the twenty three glasses : 1) an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees (Vo 1 00) Celsius and another one at 90 degrees Celsius (Vo 9 0) 2) a dissolution velocity in conditions near the saturation at 90 degrees Celsius 3) an apparent solubility of glass based on the ortho silicic acid activity 4) the evolution of the dissolution kinetics at 90 degrees Celsius in sub-saturated medium towards saturated medium 5) the alteration films nature developed at the glasses surface during these last alteration tests. Some thermodynamic and structural models have been studied in order to predict Vo 9 0 and Vo 1 00. The dissolution kinetic law developed from reference glass dissolution results has been studied with the calculation code LIXIVER. It has not been able to be used for most of the glasses compositions studied. As a consequence, the glasses dissolution control by a surface reaction which are itself controlled by the only dissolved silica is an hypothesis which is not verified for the greater part of the glasses. (O.L.). refs., figs

  14. Entrepreneurial Behaviour in Periods of Deterioration of Small Firms' Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Ropęga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the paper is to indicate types of entrepreneurial behaviour which should be triggered during periods of deterioration of small firms' condition. Research Design & Methods: The study concerned the causes and symptoms of economic failure identified along the trajectories of this phenomenon. The paper uses selected parts of the study related to the non-occurrence of entrepreneurial behaviour or errors in this behaviour identified in the surveyedfirms. The entire study was conducted based on the analysis of 32 case studies carried out among the former entrepreneurs  of  micro  and  small  firms  liquidated  in  the  period  from  01.01.2006  to 31.12.2011. Findings: The  study  helped  to  identify  shortcomings  in  the  entrepreneurial  process along individual trajectories of economic failure of the surveyed companies. Implications & Recommendations: As  a  result  of  the  conscious  entrepreneurial  process, small firms have the opportunity to leave the trajectory of economic failure, indicated by the deteriorating condition of the company.  It is therefore necessary to develop knowledge concerning the entrepreneurial processand entrepreneurship among managers of small firms. Contribution & Value Added: According to the author, one of the key factors affecting the survival of small businesses in the period of deterioration of their condition is the initiation of the entrepreneurial process and/or its deliberate continuation. It seems quite natural to base components of this process on the existing support tools for entrepreneurs that are at risk of economic failure.

  15. Deterioration of J-bar reinforcement in abutments and piers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    Deterioration and necking of J-bars has been reportedly observed at the interface of the footing and stem wall during the demolition : of older retaining walls and bridge abutments. Similar deterioration has been reportedly observed between the pier ...

  16. Investigation of mechanistic deterioration modeling for bridge design and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The ongoing deterioration of highway bridges in Colorado dictates that an effective method for allocating limited management resources be developed. In order to predict bridge deterioration in advance, mechanistic models that analyze the physical pro...

  17. Characterization and mediation of microbial deterioration of concrete bridge structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Samples obtained from deteriorated bridge structures in Texas were cultured in growth medium containing thiosulfate as an energy source and investigated for acid production, type of acid produced by microbes and the bio-deterioration of concrete cyli...

  18. Bridge deterioration models to support Indiana's bridge management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    An effective bridge management system that is equipped with reliable deterioration models enables agency engineers to carry out : monitoring and long-term programming of bridge repair actions. At the project level, deterioration models help the agenc...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. [56 FR 5656, Feb. 12, 1991, as amended at 68 FR 11324...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality, the...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  11. 40 CFR 52.530 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.530 Section 52.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) EPA approves the Florida Prevention of Significant Deterioration program, as...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. Application of Chemical Kinetics to Deterioration of Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1984-01-01

    Possible modes of food deterioration (such as microbial decay, nonenzymatic browning, senescence, lipid oxidation) are reviewed. A basic mathematical approach to the kinetics of food deterioration, kinetic approach to accelerating shelf-life deterioration, and shelf-life predictions are discussed. (JN)

  16. Maintenance planning for a deteriorating production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Reza; Fouladirad, Mitra

    2017-01-01

    We consider a system subject to degradation, more precisely a production process with three quality states evolving according to a homogeneous Markov process. The degradation decreases the income generated by the system. To maintain revenue stream and prevent the loss of revenue, the system is inspected according to a Markov-modulated Poisson process. It is assumed that each inspection at time t incurs a time dependent cost. Each inspection improves the system health and therefore the degradation level jumps to a less deteriorated state. In absence of inspections, the system state is prone to shift to a more deteriorated state with a constant rate. The problem is to determine an optimal operating (stopping) time which truly balances some flow of income and increasing costs due to inspections, and so maximizes the expected gain of the proposed policy. To demonstrate the applicability of the explored approach and its effectiveness, some numerical results are provided. - Highlights: • An integrated model based on a quality state-dependent reward structure is explored. • The model allows the revenue stream responds to variation in the quality state. • The production process is inspected according to a Markovmodulated Poisson process. • Assuming a Markovian structure, we predict the quality state behavior. • We determine an optimal production run length based on a stopping decision rule.

  17. Early warnings of heart rate deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Vania G; Nabney, Ian T

    2016-08-01

    Hospitals can experience difficulty in detecting and responding to early signs of patient deterioration leading to late intensive care referrals, excess mortality and morbidity, and increased hospital costs. Our study aims to explore potential indicators of physiological deterioration by the analysis of vital-signs. The dataset used comprises heart rate (HR) measurements from MIMIC II waveform database, taken from six patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and diagnosed with severe sepsis. Different indicators were considered: 1) generic early warning indicators used in ecosystems analysis (autocorrelation at-1-lag (ACF1), standard deviation (SD), skewness, kurtosis and heteroskedasticity) and 2) entropy analysis (kernel entropy and multi scale entropy). Our preliminary findings suggest that when a critical transition is approaching, the equilibrium state changes what is visible in the ACF1 and SD values, but also by the analysis of the entropy. Entropy allows to characterize the complexity of the time series during the hospital stay and can be used as an indicator of regime shifts in a patient's condition. One of the main problems is its dependency of the scale used. Our results demonstrate that different entropy scales should be used depending of the level of entropy verified.

  18. Partial discharge patterns related to surface deterioration in voids in epoxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from an investigation of the relationship between changes in partial discharge patterns and the surface deterioration process taking place in small naturally formed spherical voids in epoxy plastic. The voids were exposed to a moderate electric stress above inception level...

  19. Reversal deterioration of renal function accompanied with primary hypothyrodism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragović Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hypothyroidism is often accompanied with decline of kidney function, or inability to maintain electrolyte balance. These changes are usually overlooked in everyday practice. Early recognition of this association eliminates unnecessary diagnostic procedures that postpone the adequate treatment. Case report. Two patients with elevated serum creatinine levels due to primary autoimmune hypothyroidism, with complete recovery of creatinine clearance after thyroid hormone substitution therapy are presented. The first patient was a young male whose laboratory tests suggested acute renal failure, and the delicate clinical presentation of reduced thyroid function. The second patient was an elderly woman with a history of a long-term signs and symptoms attributed to ageing, including the deterioration of renal function, with consequently delayed diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Conclusion. Serum thyrotropin and thyroxin levels measurement should be done in all cases of renal failure with undefined renal desease, even if the typical clinical presentation of hypothyroidism is absent. Thyroid hormone assays sholud also be performed in all patients with chronic kidney disease whose kidney function is rapidly worsening.

  20. Early Warning Scoring System for Early Recognition of and Timely Intervention in Deteriorating Patients in the Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikirti

    2016-05-01

    Delay in recognizing clinical deterioration in acutely unwell patients often leads to cardiac arrests and unexpected admissions to the Intensive Care Unit. Early Warning Scoring Systems based on vital physiological parameters help in early detection of clinical deterioration. When combined with a system of prompt and appropriate clinical response, they have been shown to improve outcome. A standardised National Early Warning Score has been implemented in the United Kingdom. There is a need to implement an early warning scoring system in hospitals in India in order to ensure effective and judicious utilization of our overburdened acute services and to minimize adverse outcomes. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  1. Damage Detection and Deteriorating Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Lijia; Thöns, Sebastian; Döhler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the quantification of the value of damage detection system and algorithm information on the basis of Value of Information (VoI) analysis to enhance the benefit of damage detection information by providing the basis for its optimization before it is performed and implemented....... The approach of the quantification the value of damage detection information builds upon the Bayesian decision theory facilitating the utilization of damage detection performance models, which describe the information and its precision on structural system level, facilitating actions to ensure the structural...... integrity and facilitating to describe the structural system performance and its functionality throughout the service life. The structural system performance is described with its functionality, its deterioration and its behavior under extreme loading. The structural system reliability given the damage...

  2. Optimal Control Inventory Stochastic With Production Deteriorating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affandi, Pardi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we are using optimal control approach to determine the optimal rate in production. Most of the inventory production models deal with a single item. First build the mathematical models inventory stochastic, in this model we also assume that the items are in the same store. The mathematical model of the problem inventory can be deterministic and stochastic models. In this research will be discussed how to model the stochastic as well as how to solve the inventory model using optimal control techniques. The main tool in the study problems for the necessary optimality conditions in the form of the Pontryagin maximum principle involves the Hamilton function. So we can have the optimal production rate in a production inventory system where items are subject deterioration.

  3. Capacitive sensor for engine oil deterioration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Harish; Bewoor, Anand

    2018-04-01

    A simple system or mechanism for engine Oil (lubricating oil) deterioration monitoring is a need. As engine oil is an important element in I C engines and it is exposed to various strains depending on the operating conditions. If it becomes contaminated with dirt and metal particles, it can become too thick or thin and loses its protective properties, leads to unwanted friction. In turn, to avoid an engine failure, the oil must be changed before it loses its protective properties, which may be harmful to engine which deteriorates vehicle performance. At the same time, changing the lubricant too early, cause inefficient use of already depleting resources, also unwanted impact on the environment and economic reasons. Hence, it will be always helpful to know the quality of the oil under use. With this objective, the research work had been undertaken to develop a simple capacitance sensor for quantification of the quality of oil under use. One of the investigated parameter to quantify oil degradation is Viscosity (as per standard testing procedure: DIN 51562-1). In this research work, an alternative method proposed which analyzing change in capacitance of oil, to quantify the quality of oil underuse and compared to a conventional standard method. The experimental results reported in this paper shows trend for the same. Engine oil of grade SAE 15W40 used for light-duty vehicle, vans and passenger cars is used for experimentation. Suggested method can form a base for further research to develop a cost-effective method for indicating the time to change in engine oil quality have been presented.

  4. Tree mineral nutrition is deteriorating in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonard, Mathieu; Fürst, Alfred; Verstraeten, Arne; Thimonier, Anne; Timmermann, Volkmar; Potočić, Nenad; Waldner, Peter; Benham, Sue; Hansen, Karin; Merilä, Päivi; Ponette, Quentin; de la Cruz, Ana C; Roskams, Peter; Nicolas, Manuel; Croisé, Luc; Ingerslev, Morten; Matteucci, Giorgio; Decinti, Bruno; Bascietto, Marco; Rautio, Pasi

    2015-01-01

    The response of forest ecosystems to increased atmospheric CO2 is constrained by nutrient availability. It is thus crucial to account for nutrient limitation when studying the forest response to climate change. The objectives of this study were to describe the nutritional status of the main European tree species, to identify growth-limiting nutrients and to assess changes in tree nutrition during the past two decades. We analysed the foliar nutrition data collected during 1992-2009 on the intensive forest monitoring plots of the ICP Forests programme. Of the 22 significant temporal trends that were observed in foliar nutrient concentrations, 20 were decreasing and two were increasing. Some of these trends were alarming, among which the foliar P concentration in F. sylvatica, Q. Petraea and P. sylvestris that significantly deteriorated during 1992-2009. In Q. Petraea and P. sylvestris, the decrease in foliar P concentration was more pronounced on plots with low foliar P status, meaning that trees with latent P deficiency could become deficient in the near future. Increased tree productivity, possibly resulting from high N deposition and from the global increase in atmospheric CO2, has led to higher nutrient demand by trees. As the soil nutrient supply was not always sufficient to meet the demands of faster growing trees, this could partly explain the deterioration of tree mineral nutrition. The results suggest that when evaluating forest carbon storage capacity and when planning to reduce CO2 emissions by increasing use of wood biomass for bioenergy, it is crucial that nutrient limitations for forest growth are considered. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. An inventory model of instantaneous deteriorating items with controllable deterioration rate for time dependent demand and holding cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Mishra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper to develop an inventory model for instantaneous deteriorating items with the consideration of the facts that the deterioration rate can be controlled by using the preservation technology (PT and the holding cost & demand rate both are linear function of time which was treated as constant in most of the deteriorating inventory model. Design/methodology/approach: Developed the mathematical equation of deterministic deteriorating inventory model in which demand rate and holding cost both is linear function of time, deterioration rate is constant, backlogging rate is variable and depend on the length of the next replenishment, shortages are allowed and partially backlogged and obtain an analytical solution which optimizes the total cost of the proposed inventory model. Findings: The model can be applied for optimizing the total inventory cost of deteriorating items inventory for such business enterprises where they use the preservation technology to control the deterioration rate under other assumptions of the model. Originality/value: The inventory system for deteriorating items has been an object of study for a long time, but little is known about the effect of investing in reducing the rate of product deterioration and their significant impact in the business. The proposed model is effective as well as efficient for the business organization that uses the preservation technology to reduce the deterioration rate of the instantaneous deteriorating items of the inventory.

  6. A 44-year-old woman with metabolic acidosis, high anion gap, and delayed neurologic deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Abhay; Upadhyay, Hinesh; Sherani, Khalid; Cervellione, Kelly; Trepeta, Scott; Patel, Mahendra C

    2015-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman was brought to the ED from John F. Kennedy International Airport. The patient was returning with her son from a 3-month visit to Bangladesh. Her journey started with a 4-h flight from Dhaka, Bangladesh to Dubai, United Arab Emirates. She consumed 240 mL of whiskey during the flight. This was followed by a 14-h flight from Dubai to New York. According to the patient's son, she did not consume any alcohol during the second flight. The patient was in her usual state of health with normal mentation throughout her journey. Upon landing, she started complaining of shortness of breath. After disembarking, she was witnessed to have seizure-like activity with involuntary passage of urine, following which she collapsed. The patient was intubated by emergency medical services in the field.

  7. Surface water quality deterioration during low-flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Jost; Stahl, Kerstin; Lange, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Water quality deterioration during low streamflow has mostly been linked to a lower dilution potential for pollutants. Some studies have also found spatial heterogeneities and a different behavior of different water quality parameters. Even though the general mechanisms that cause water quality changes during low-flow are well understood, only a few efforts have been made to explain the differences in the magnitudes of observed deteriorations. We investigated 72 catchments across the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany, for changes in water quality during low-flow events. Data from the state's water quality monitoring network provided seven water quality parameters (water temperature, electrical conductivity, concentrations of chloride, sodium, sulfate, nitrate and phosphate), which we statistically related to streamflow variability. Water temperatures increased during low flow in summer but decreased during low flow in winter. Nitrate concentrations revealed high spatial heterogeneity with about one third of the stations showing decreasing values during drought. For all other parameters concentrations rose during low-flow with only a few exceptions. Despite consistent trend directions, the magnitudes of changes with streamflow differed markedly across the state. Both multiple linear regression and a multiple analysis of variances were applied to explain these differences with the help of catchment characteristics. Results indicated that for sulfate and conductivity geology of the catchments was the most important control whereas for chloride, sodium and nitrate sewage treatment plants had largest influence. For phosphate no clear control could be identified. Independent from the applied method, land use was a less important control on river water quality during drought than geology or inflow from sewage treatment plants. These results show that the effects of diffuse and point sources, as well as those of natural and anthropogenic sources differ for

  8. Effective Prevention of Oxidative Deterioration of Fish Oil: Focus on Flavor Deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Kazuo; Uemura, Mariko; Hosokawa, Masashi

    2018-03-25

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), both abundant in fish oil, are known to have significant biochemical and physiological effects primarily linked to the improvement of human health, especially cardiovascular and brain health. However, the incorporation of fish oil into foods and beverages is often challenging, as fish oil is very easily oxidized and can cause undesirable flavors. This review discusses this rapid formation of the fishy and metallic off-flavors, focusing especially on an early stage of fish oil oxidation. Although oxidative stability and quality of commercialized fish oil have improved over the past few years, there is a still a problem with its application: Flavor deterioration can be found even at very low oxidation levels. This review also notes the effective way to inhibit the formation of the volatile compounds responsible for the flavor deterioration.

  9. An eoq model for weibull deteriorating item with ramp type demand and salvage value under trade credit system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Mohan Pradhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present competitive business scenario researchers have developed various inventory models for deteriorating items considering various practical situations for better inventory control. Permissible delay in payments with various demands and deteriorations is considerably a new concept introduced in developing various inventory models. These models are very useful for both the consumers and the manufacturer. Methods: In the present work an inventory model has been developed for a three parameter Weibull deteriorating item with ramp type demand and salvage value under trade credit system. Here we have considered a single item for developing the model. Results and conclusion: Optimal order quantity, optimal cycle time and total variable cost during a cycle have been derived for the proposed inventory model. The results obtained in this paper have been illustrated with the help of numerical examples and sensitivity analysis.   

  10. Deterioration and conservation of plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2002-01-01

    Plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) in museum collections deteriorates by migration, loss and chemical breakdown of the plasticizer, accompanied by dehydrochlorination of the polymer. The extent, rate and mechanisms of deterioration of new and deteriorated plasticized PVC were compared during...... of samples. Optical densitometry was used to quantify darkening of the PVC component of samples. Degradation of new and deteriorated PVC was inhibited by enclosing it in a non-adsorbent material, such as glass containing non-agitated air. Such storage inhibited migration and loss of DEHP....

  11. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tainter, Frank, H.; McMinn, James, W.

    1999-02-16

    Tainter, F.H., and J.W. McMinn. 1999. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris. In: Proc. Tenth Bien. South. Silv. Res. Conf. Shreveport, LA, February 16-18, 1999. Pp. 232-237 Abstract - Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important structural component of southern forest ecosystems. CWD loading may be affected by different decomposition rates on sites of varying quality. Bolts of red oak and loblolly pine were placed on plots at each of three (hydric, mesic. and xerlc) sites at the Savannah River Site and sampled over a I6-week period. Major changes were in moisture content and nonstructural carbohydrate content (total carbohydrates, reducing sugars, and starch) of sapwood. Early changes in nonstructural carbohydrate levels following placement of the bolts were likely due to reallocation of these materials by sapwood parenchyma cells. These carbohydrates later formed pools increasingly metabolized by bacteria and invading fungi. Most prevalent fungi in sapwood were Ceratocysfis spp. in pine and Hypoxy/on spp. in oak. Although pine sapwood became blue stained and oak sapwood exhibited yellow soft decay with black zone lines, estimators of decay (specific gravity, sodium hydroxide solubility, and holocellulose content) were unchanged during the 16-week study period. A small effect of site was detected for starch content of sapwood of both species. Fungal biomass in sapwood of both species, as measured by ergosterol content, was detectable at week zero, increased somewhat by week three and increased significantly by week 16.

  12. Effect of flood conditions on the deterioration of porous clay-based brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, L.; Tomor, A.

    2017-12-01

    Man-made materials represent an increasingly large proportion of geomaterials that are used to build up a rapidly expanding urbanised landscape. The deterioration of such materials is of increasing concern, in particular in light of the projected increase in storm and flood events and their associated high water levels. The effect of prolonged saturation in porous materials, man-made as well as natural, can lead to accelerated deterioration. This can be of particular concern for load-bearing structural materials, for example bridges. In this study, the effect of moisture movement has been investigated for brick masonry, as one of the most commonly used porous building materials. Saturation of brick masonry can be of particular concern for historical masonry, such as masonry arch bridges in conjunction with under increasing levels of long-term traffic loading. While flooding can lead to scour and sudden collapse of bridges, saturation can also lead to accelerated medium and long-term deterioration. A series of small-scale laboratory tests have been carried out on brick masonry to identify the effects of saturation on the material properties and changes in the rate of deterioration. Brick masonry prisms have been loaded to failure under quasi-static and long-term cyclic compression and monitored with the help of acoustic emission technique, accelerometers, linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs), permeametry and brick surface hardness measurements. Under quasi-static loading saturated samples showed significant reduction in the load capacity and increased fracture development. Under fatigue loading the number of cycles to failure reduced significantly for saturated specimens and characteristic changes in material parameters have been related to stages of fatigue deterioration. Test results indicated that increasing flood events can accelerate moisture-related deterioration in porous brick masonry.

  13. The Social and Economic Effects of Deterioration in Health: ‘Naked-eye’ Evidence from a European Panel Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigone Lyberaki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the mobilization of social reserves in action in a large European sample survey. The longitudinal dataset of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE is used to identify individuals whose health underwent a major deterioration. The objective is to give a characterization of the problems faced by individuals in different parts of Europe when confronted by similar problems. Though the prevalence of health deterioration was roughly uniform across countries, men’s health impact rises sharply with age, while women appear to accept deterioration as a natural part of ageing. Health deterioration is instrumental in driving individuals out of employment, especially in the South. Treatment styles are very different, with emphasis on hospitals in central Europe, and Doctor visits more common in the South.

  14. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act...

  16. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and modified...

  18. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation...

  1. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) [Reserved] (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the...

  3. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  4. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of this...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality...

  6. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph (a...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention of...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) All applications and other information...

  9. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  10. 40 CFR 52.181 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.181 Section 52.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Arkansas as follows: (1) April 23, 1981...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR chapter 340, Divisions 200, 202...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new and...

  15. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the applicable...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  18. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The plan...

  20. 40 CFR 52.986 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.986 Section 52.986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Louisiana on August 14, 1984 (as adopted... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the...

  1. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met...

  2. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as amended...

  3. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  4. Concern With Environmental Deterioration and Attitudes Toward Population Limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Larry D.

    1970-01-01

    Analysis of Gallup Poll data of Junuary 1969 reveals weak association between concern about environmental deterioration and the recognition of need for eventual limitation of human population. Suggests that to increase favorable attitudes to population control, role of overpopulation in causing environmental deterioration needs to be presented to…

  5. microbial deterioration studies of military cotton and leather based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Microbial deterioration studies on selected cotton based uniforms were carried out using test-fungi earlier isolated from the uniforms stored in the Military Warehouses. These fungi includes, Aspergillus nigar, A. fumigatus, C. gwbosum, C. thermophile, Var. coprohile, B. stolonifer and S. pulveru/entum. The deteriorative ...

  6. Microbial deterioration studies of military cotton and leather based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial deterioration studies on selected cotton based uniforms were carried out using test-fungi earlier isolated from the uniforms stored in the Military Warehouses. These fungi includes, Aspergillus nigar, A. fumigatus, C. gwbosum, C. thermophile, Var.coprohile, B. stolonifer and S. pulverulentum. The deteriorative ...

  7. Lethal hopelessness: Understanding and responding to asylum seeker distress and mental deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Nicholas G; Kenny, Mary Anne; Eaton, Heather; Grech, Carol

    2018-02-01

    The mental deterioration of the so called 'legacy caseload' (asylum seekers who arrived in Australia by boat between August 2012-December 2013) has become a national concern and is garnering international attention. Prolonged uncertainty is contributing to mental deterioration and despair. There have been at least 11 deaths by suicide since June 2014. Social support services have been limited and legal assistance in short supply; this is associated with lengthy delays with visa applications. Thwarted belongingness, purpose and identity, a shortage of available services, and barriers to legal support for processes attendant upon Refugee Status Determination increase the likelihood that the mental health of asylum seekers will deteriorate further, potentially developing into worsening decline, which will lead to increased self-harm and suicide. This article summarises recent suicide deaths in Australia, positing practical assistance and support for asylum seekers living in the community. Therapeutic engagement should be trauma-informed wherever possible, helping asylum seekers to reframe their sense of lethal hopelessness. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  8. Performance deterioration and durability issues while running a diesel engine with crude palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, S.; Yu, C.W.; Lim, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    Short-term performance tests using crude palm oil (CPO) as fuel for a diesel engine showed CPO to be a suitable substitute, with a peak pressure about 5 per cent higher and an ignition delay about 3 deg shorter compared with diesel. Emissions of NO and CO were about 29 and 9 per cent higher respectively for CPO. However, prolonged use of CPO as fuel caused the engine performance to deteriorate. After 500 h cumulative running with CPO, the maximum power was reduced by about 20 per cent and the minimum brake specific fuel consumption (b.s.f.c.) was increased by about 26 per cent. Examination of the different parts after the engine was dismantled revealed heavy carbon deposits in the combustion chamber; traces of wear on the piston rings, the plunger and the delivery valve of the injection pump; slight scuffing of the cylinder liner; and uneven spray from the nozzles. The affected parts were installed in a new identical engine one by one to evaluate the performance of each respectively. Tests revealed that the main reason for engine performance deterioration was 'valve sticking', caused by carbon deposits on the valve seats and stems. This resulted in leakage during the compression and power strokes and a reduced effective compression ratio and subsequently affected the power and fuel economy. Valve sticking alone contributed about 18 and 23 per cent to the deterioration in maximum power and minimum b.s.f.c. respectively. (Author)

  9. Neutron stochastic transport theory with delayed neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Cobo, J.L.; Verdu, G.

    1987-01-01

    From the stochastic transport theory with delayed neutrons, the Boltzmann transport equation with delayed neutrons for the average flux emerges in a natural way without recourse to any approximation. From this theory a general expression is obtained for the Feynman Y-function when delayed neutrons are included. The single mode approximation for the particular case of a subcritical assembly is developed, and it is shown that Y-function reduces to the familiar expression quoted in many books, when delayed neutrons are not considered, and spatial and source effects are not included. (author)

  10. Acute functional deterioration in a child with cerebral palsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of acute functional deterioration in a 13-year-old girl with severe spastic diplegia (GMFCS III) and a new diagnosis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). She presented with acute deterioration in mobility and motor function over 1 month, which was associated with dysarthria, dysphagia and behavioural change. Her mother had noticed subtle functional deterioration over the 2 months prior to this. Her physiotherapist who was concerned about her acute functional deterioration referred her for emergency review. Neurological imaging revealed a diffuse pontine lesion consistent with DIPG. She was subsequently referred to oncology. She deteriorated further, clinically, over the next few days and following discussion with the team; her family opted for palliative treatment, given the poor prognosis associated with DIPG.

  11. Deteriorating mechanisms of electric generators; Mecanismos de deterioro de generadores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Tevillo, Arturo; Reyes Martinez, Oscar Alfonso; Robles Pimentel, Edgar Guillermo; Esparza Saucedo, Marcos; Lopez Azamar, Jose Ernesto; Medina Flores, Alfredo; Uribe Martinez, Manuel O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    It is of the greatest importance to know the deteriorating mechanisms that an electric generator undergoes, in order to take corrective measures to stop the process in order to avoid catastrophic damages that imply non scheduled interruptions for maintenance, or inclusively, to carry on the overhaul. In this paper are discussed the deteriorating mechanisms that have been found in the stator (winding and core) and the rotor of thermoelectric and hydroelectric power stations by the natural aging process and abnormal operation. [Espanol] Es de suma importancia conocer los mecanismos de deterioro que sufre un generador, para tomar medidas correctivas que detengan el proceso, con el fin de evitar danos catastroficos que impliquen salidas no programadas para dar mantenimiento, o incluso, para efectuar la rehabilitacion. En este articulo se discuten los mecanismos de deterioro que se han encontrado en el estator (devanado y nucleo) y el rotor de generadores termicos e hidroelectricos por el proceso natural de envejecimiento y por operacion anormal.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation ameliorates motor function deterioration of spinocerebellar ataxia by rescuing cerebellar Purkinje cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wei-Hsien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA refers to a disease entity in which polyglutamine aggregates are over-produced in Purkinje cells (PCs of the cerebellum as well as other neurons in the central nervous system, and the formation of intracellular polyglutamine aggregates result in the loss of neurons as well as deterioration of motor functions. So far there is no effective neuroprotective treatment for this debilitating disease although numerous efforts have been made. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs possess multi-lineage differentiation potentials as well as immuno-modulatory properties, and are theoretically good candidates for SCA treatment. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether transplantation of human MSCs (hMSCs can rescue cerebellar PCs and ameliorate motor function deterioration in SCA in a pre-clinical animal model. Method Transgenic mice bearing poly-glutamine mutation in ataxin-2 gene (C57BL/6J SCA2 transgenic mice were serially transplanted with hMSCs intravenously or intracranially before and after the onset of motor function loss. Motor function of mice was evaluated by an accelerating protocol of rotarod test every 8 weeks. Immunohistochemical stain of whole brain sections was adopted to demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of hMSC transplantation on cerebellar PCs and engraftment of hMSCs into mice brain. Results Intravenous transplantation of hMSCs effectively improved rotarod performance of SCA2 transgenic mice and delayed the onset of motor function deterioration; while intracranial transplantation failed to achieve such neuroprotective effect. Immunohistochemistry revealed that intravenous transplantation was more effective in the preservation of the survival of cerebellar PCs and engraftment of hMSCs than intracranial injection, which was compatible to rotarod performance of transplanted mice. Conclusion Intravenous transplantation of hMSCs can indeed delay the onset as well as improve the motor

  13. Flight into sanity. Jones's allegation of Ferenczi's mental deterioration reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, C

    1999-06-01

    In 'The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud', Volume III, Ernest Jones explained Ferenczi's final contributions as the product of a mental deterioration based on a progressive psychosis. Erich Fromm collected various testimonies by witnesses of Ferenczi's last years, all contrasting with Jones's assertions, and challenged Jones's manner of writing history. However, since Fromm was himself a dissident, and his witnesses were pupils, relatives or friends of Ferenczi's, they were discarded as 'partisans'. The present study aims at reconsidering the question of Ferenczi's insanity on the basis of many unpublished documents. The consulted documents do not support Jones's allegation of Ferenczi's insanity. At the same time, they show that Jones's allegation was not a one-man fabrication, but reflected a shared belief, eliciting many questions about the nature of this belief, the lack of scrutiny that characterised its spreading, and its possible function within the psychoanalytic community. It is suggested that Ferenczi's personality and teaching, especially his emphasis on the need to accept the patient's criticism, contrasted with the dominant conception of psychoanalysis, based on the analyst's infallibility.

  14. Performance assessment of deteriorated and retrofitted steel HP piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Steel piles are known to deteriorate at high rates in Nebraska, partially as a result of exposure to weathering, and partially due to corrosive soils. The Nebraska Department of Roads (NDOR) employs a reinforced concrete jacket to slow the progressio...

  15. A literature review of time-deterioration prediction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Ronald L.; Graber, Donald R.; Clear, Kenneth C.; Markow, Michael J.

    1992-07-01

    A literature review of existing deterioration models used to predict corrosion-related deterioration on reinforced concrete bridges is presented. Most models in this review are based on the performance of all bridges in a system. In addition, the model information was developed using condition ratings provided by technical-inspectors performing visual surveys in accordance with the National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). Discussion of the models illuminates equation definitions, research parameters, and life-cycle cost analyses. An annotated bibliography is included.

  16. Measurement of Deterioration of Frying Oil Using Electrical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    羽倉, 義雄; 佐々木, 芳浩; 鈴木, 寛一

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between the electrical properties of frying oil (relative dielectric constant and conductance) and its deterioration indicators (acid value, amounts of polymerized triacylglycerols and chromaticity) were examined, focusing on the changes in electrical properties that accompany deterioration. The samples of frying oil used in this experiment were collected from fried food processing sites (school, hospital and factory feeding centers) and were collected at closi...

  17. Bundle Pricing Decisions for Fresh Products with Quality Deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Yan; Jiang, Yiping; Han, Xingxing

    2018-01-01

    How to sell fresh products quickly to decrease the storage cost and to meet customer quality requirement is of vital importance in the food supply chain. Bundling fresh products is an efficient strategy to promote sales and reduce storage pressure of retailers. In this paper, we consider the bundle pricing decisions for homogeneous fresh products with quality deterioration. The value of fresh products with quality deterioration is approximated as an exponential function based on which custome...

  18. [Prevention of soil deterioration during cultivation of medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi; Jiang, You-xu; Lv, Dong-mei

    2006-05-01

    This paper summarized the aspects of the soil deterioration due to continuous growth of medicinal plants, such as nutrition insufficient, pH variation, harmful salt accumulating, harmful microbe and allelopathic substance increasing, soil physics and chemistry properties variation. And the ways to prevent and rehabilitate the deteriorated soil was indicated, which included anti-adversity species selecting, scientific management such as whorl cropping, nutrient elements supplement, usage of physical methods, nutrient liquid cultivating and VAM inoculating etc.

  19. Modelling of the Deterioration of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Stochastic modelling of the deterioration of reinforced concrete structures is addressed in this paper on basis of a detailed modelling of corrosion initiation and corrosion cracking. It is proposed that modelling of the deterioration of concrete should be based on a sound understanding...... of the physical and chemical properties of the concrete. The relationship between rebar corrosion and crack width is investigated. A new service life definition based on evolution of the corrosion crack width is proposed....

  20. Nondestructive analysis of the natural uranium mass through the measurement of delayed neutrons using the technique of pulsed neutron source; Analise nao destrutiva da massa de uranio natural atraves da medida de neutrons atrasados com o uso da tecnica de fonte pulsada de neutrons rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Paulo Rogerio Pinto

    1979-07-01

    This work presents results of non destructive mass analysis of natural uranium by the pulsed source technique. Fissioning is produced by irradiating the test sample with pulses of 14 MeV neutrons and the uranium mass is calculated on a relative scale from the measured emission of delayed neutrons. Individual measurements were normalised against the integral counts of a scintillation detector measuring the 14 MeV neutron intensity. Delayed neutrons were measured using a specially constructed slab detector operated in anti synchronism with the fast pulsed source. The 14 MeV neutrons were produced via the T(d,n) {sup 4}He reaction using a 400 kV Van de Graaff accelerated operated at 200 kV in the pulsed source mode. Three types of sample were analysed, namely: discs of metallic uranium, pellets of sintered uranium oxide and plates of uranium aluminium alloy sandwiched between aluminium. These plates simulated those of Material Testing Reactor fuel elements. Results of measurements were reproducible to within an overall error in the range 1.6 to 3.9%; the specific error depending on the shape, size and mass of the sample. (author)

  1. Diagnosing delayed ettringite formation in concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Michael; Folliard, Kevin; Drimalas, Thano; Ramlochan, Terry

    2008-01-01

    There has been a number of cases involving deteriorated concrete structures in North America where there has been considerable controversy surrounding the respective contributions of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and delayed ettringite formation (DEF) to the observed damage. The problem arises because the macroscopic symptoms of distress are not unequivocal and microscopical examinations of field samples often reveal evidence of both processes making it difficult to separate the individual contributions. This paper presents the results of an investigation of a number of concrete columns carrying a raised expressway in North America; prior studies had implicated both DEF and ASR as possible causes of deterioration. Although the columns were not deliberately heat-cured, it is estimated that the peak internal temperature would have exceeded 70 deg. C and perhaps even 80 deg. C, in some cases. The forensic investigation included scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and expansion testing of cores extracted from the structure. Small-diameter cores stored in limewater expanded significantly (0.3 to 1.3%) and on the basis of supplementary tests on laboratory-produced concrete specimens it was concluded that expansion under such conditions is caused by DEF as the conditions of the test will not sustain ASR. In at least one column, DEF was diagnosed as the sole contributory cause of damage with no evidence of any contribution from ASR or any other deterioration process. In other cases, both ASR and DEF were observed to have contributed to the apparent damage. Of the columns examined, only concrete containing fly ash appeared to be undamaged. The results of this study confirm that, under certain conditions, the process of DEF (acting in isolation of other processes) can result in significant deterioration of cast-in-place reinforced concrete structures

  2. Protective effects of ethanol extracts of Artemisia asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. on ageing-induced deterioration in mouse oocyte quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyuk-Joon; You, Seung Yeop; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeon, Hong Bae; Oh, Jeong Su

    2017-08-01

    Following ovulation, oocytes undergo a time-dependent deterioration in quality referred to as post-ovulatory ageing. Although various factors influence the post-ovulatory ageing of oocytes, oxidative stress is a key factor involved in deterioration of oocyte quality. Artemisia asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. has been widely used in East Asia as a food ingredient and traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation, cancer, and microbial infections. Recent studies have shown that A. asiatica exhibits antioxidative effects. In this study, we investigated whether A. asiatica has the potential to attenuate deterioration in oocyte quality during post-ovulatory ageing. Freshly ovulated mouse oocytes were cultured with 0, 50, 100 or 200 μg/ml ethanol extracts of A. asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. After culture for up to 24 h, various ageing-induced oocyte abnormalities, including morphological changes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, apoptosis, chromosome and spindle defects, and mitochondrial aggregation were determined. Treatment of oocytes with A. asiatica extracts reduced ageing-induced morphological changes. Moreover, A. asiatica extracts decreased ROS generation and the onset of apoptosis by preventing elevation of the Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio during post-ovulatory ageing. Furthermore, A. asiatica extracts attenuated the ageing-induced abnormalities including spindle defects, chromosome misalignment and mitochondrial aggregation. Our results demonstrate that A. asiatica can relieve deterioration in oocyte quality and delay the onset of apoptosis during post-ovulatory ageing.

  3. A naturally occurring C-terminal fragment of the prion protein (PrP) delays disease and acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of PrPSc formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergard, Laura; Turnbaugh, Jessie A; Harris, David A

    2011-12-23

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) undergoes constitutive proteolytic cleavage between residues 111/112 to yield a soluble N-terminal fragment (N1) and a membrane-anchored C-terminal fragment (C1). The C1 fragment represents the major proteolytic fragment of PrPC in brain and several cell types. To explore the role of C1 in prion disease, we generated Tg(C1) transgenic mice expressing this fragment (PrP(Δ23-111)) in the presence and absence of endogenous PrP. In contrast to several other N-terminally deleted forms of PrP, the C1 fragment does not cause a spontaneous neurological disease in the absence of endogenous PrP. Tg(C1) mice inoculated with scrapie prions remain healthy and do not accumulate protease-resistant PrP, demonstrating that C1 is not a substrate for conversion to PrPSc (the disease-associated isoform). Interestingly, Tg(C1) mice co-expressing C1 along with wild-type PrP (either endogenous or encoded by a second transgene) become ill after scrapie inoculation, but with a dramatically delayed time course compared with mice lacking C1. In addition, accumulation of PrPSc was markedly slowed in these animals. Similar effects were produced by a shorter C-terminal fragment of PrP(Δ23-134). These results demonstrate that C1 acts as dominant-negative inhibitor of PrPSc formation and accumulation of neurotoxic forms of PrP. Thus, C1, a naturally occurring fragment of PrPC, might play a modulatory role during the course of prion diseases. In addition, enhancing production of C1, or exogenously administering this fragment, represents a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of prion diseases.

  4. A real case of steam-cured concrete track slab premature deterioration due to ASR and DEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunlin Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration mechanisms of some premature damaged steam-cured concrete track slabs (CTS in Chinese railway less than 4 years were investigated. Field investigation, raw materials test and suspicious products analysis were carried out. Results show that steam-cured heat damage (SCHD of concrete takes place in steam-cured process. Expansion products are ettringite in hydrated products and alkali-silica gels between the interface of hydrated products and coarse aggregate. SCHD makes CTS surface layer loose, porous and more micro-cracks. Long-term fatigue load from high-speed train acting on CTS enlarges concrete microcracks, leading to water penetrating into concrete easily in moist and rainy environment. In the process of water ingression, alkali-silica reaction (ASR and delayed ettringite formation (DEF take place, hence resulting in CTS cracking and premature deterioration.

  5. A Novel Approach to Limit Chemical Deterioration of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Fillets: Coating with Electrospun Nanofibers as Characterized by Molecular, Thermal, and Microstructural Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Zafer; Sengor, Gulgun F Unal; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2017-05-01

    Coating of sea bream fillets with thymol loaded chitosan based electrospun nanofibers (TLCN) and chitosan based nanafibers (CN) has been presented a novel approach to delay chemical deterioration. We assessed CN and TLCN with respect of scanting of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), trimethylamine (TMA), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) deterioration during cold storage condition. Electrospinning process was applied to obtain TLCN and CN. Both of nanofibers obtained from biopolymer and bioactive material were cylindrical, smooth, beadless. Thermal, molecular, zeta potential (ZP), and surface properties of the groups were investigated, revealing that CN indicated molecular interactions with thymol in nanofibers, reduce in physical properties of these structures, thermal decomposition (an alteration in mass of CN and TLCN at temperatures below 190 °C, corresponding to 20.53% and 19.97%, respectively) and also dispersion stabilities (ζ potential) of CN and TLCN were determined 33.68 ± 3.35 and 21.85 ± 1.96 mV, respectively. TVBN and TMA stability analyses demonstrated that CN and TLCN were both effective in delaying chemical deterioration of fish fillets, furthermore TLCN was more effective against chemical deterioration. TBA analyses results of fish fillets indicated that CN and TLCN delayed rancidity in fish meat as compared to control group samples. The presented study results suggested that coating of the sea bream fillets with CN and TLCN would be a promising approach to delay the chemical deterioration of fish fillets. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Digital time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.

  7. Delayed Sequence Intubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weingart, Scott D; Trueger, N Seth; Wong, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    assessed. RESULTS: A total of 62 patients were enrolled: 19 patients required delayed sequence intubation to allow nonrebreather mask, 39 patients required it to allow NIPPV, and 4 patients required it for nasogastric tube placement. Saturations increased from a mean of 89.9% before delayed sequence...

  8. Replenishment policy for non-instantaneous deteriorating items in a two storage facilities under inflationary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra K. Jaggi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates an inventory model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items under inflationary conditions with partially backlogged shortages. In today’s market structure consumers are looking for goods for which there is a delay in deterioration. At the same time, the consumers’ willingness to wait has been decreased over time, which leads to lost sales. Moreover in financial decision-making, the effects of inflation and time value of money cannot be oblivious to an inventory system. In this scenario, managing inventory of goods remains a challenging task for the decision makers, who may also have to rent warehouse under different prevailing factors such as, bulk discount, limited space in the retail outlet, or increasing inflation rates. With a focus on reduction of costs and increasing customer service, warehouse decision models are crucial for an organization’s profitability. Hence a mathematical model has been developed in the view of above scenario, in order to determine the optimal policy for the decision maker, by minimizing the present worth of total cost. The optimization procedure has been illustrated by a numerical example and detailed sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution has been performed to showcase the effect of various parameters. Managerial implications has also been presented to aid the decision making process.

  9. Optimal pricing and marketing planning for deteriorating items.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Moosavi Tabatabaei

    Full Text Available Optimal pricing and marketing planning plays an essential role in production decisions on deteriorating items. This paper presents a mathematical model for a three-level supply chain, which includes one producer, one distributor and one retailer. The proposed study considers the production of a deteriorating item where demand is influenced by price, marketing expenditure, quality of product and after-sales service expenditures. The proposed model is formulated as a geometric programming with 5 degrees of difficulty and the problem is solved using the recent advances in optimization techniques. The study is supported by several numerical examples and sensitivity analysis is performed to analyze the effects of the changes in different parameters on the optimal solution. The preliminary results indicate that with the change in parameters influencing on demand, inventory holding, inventory deteriorating and set-up costs change and also significantly affect total revenue.

  10. Application of Artificial Intelligence for Bridge Deterioration Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhang; Wu, Yangyang; Sun, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    The deterministic bridge deterioration model updating problem is well established in bridge management, while the traditional methods and approaches for this problem require manual intervention. An artificial-intelligence-based approach was presented to self-updated parameters of the bridge deterioration model in this paper. When new information and data are collected, a posterior distribution was constructed to describe the integrated result of historical information and the new gained information according to Bayesian theorem, which was used to update model parameters. This AI-based approach is applied to the case of updating parameters of bridge deterioration model, which is the data collected from bridges of 12 districts in Shanghai from 2004 to 2013, and the results showed that it is an accurate, effective, and satisfactory approach to deal with the problem of the parameter updating without manual intervention. PMID:26601121

  11. Optimal pricing and marketing planning for deteriorating items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza; Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Makui, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Optimal pricing and marketing planning plays an essential role in production decisions on deteriorating items. This paper presents a mathematical model for a three-level supply chain, which includes one producer, one distributor and one retailer. The proposed study considers the production of a deteriorating item where demand is influenced by price, marketing expenditure, quality of product and after-sales service expenditures. The proposed model is formulated as a geometric programming with 5 degrees of difficulty and the problem is solved using the recent advances in optimization techniques. The study is supported by several numerical examples and sensitivity analysis is performed to analyze the effects of the changes in different parameters on the optimal solution. The preliminary results indicate that with the change in parameters influencing on demand, inventory holding, inventory deteriorating and set-up costs change and also significantly affect total revenue.

  12. Optimal dynamic pricing and replenishment policies for deteriorating items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Marketing strategies and proper inventory replenishment policies are often incorporated by enterprises to stimulate demand and maximize profit. The aim of this paper is to represent an integrated model for dynamic pricing and inventory control of deteriorating items. To reflect the dynamic characteristic of the problem, the selling price is defined as a time-dependent function of the initial selling price and the discount rate. In this regard, the price is exponentially discounted to compensate negative impact of the deterioration. The planning horizon is assumed to be infinite and the deterioration rate is time-dependent. In addition to price, the demand rate is dependent on advertisement as a powerful marketing tool. Several theoretical results and an iterative solution algorithm are developed to provide the optimal solution. Finally, to show validity of the model and illustrate the solution procedure, numerical results are presented.

  13. Application of Artificial Intelligence for Bridge Deterioration Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhang; Wu, Yangyang; Li, Li; Sun, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    The deterministic bridge deterioration model updating problem is well established in bridge management, while the traditional methods and approaches for this problem require manual intervention. An artificial-intelligence-based approach was presented to self-updated parameters of the bridge deterioration model in this paper. When new information and data are collected, a posterior distribution was constructed to describe the integrated result of historical information and the new gained information according to Bayesian theorem, which was used to update model parameters. This AI-based approach is applied to the case of updating parameters of bridge deterioration model, which is the data collected from bridges of 12 districts in Shanghai from 2004 to 2013, and the results showed that it is an accurate, effective, and satisfactory approach to deal with the problem of the parameter updating without manual intervention.

  14. Bundle Pricing Decisions for Fresh Products with Quality Deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Fang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available How to sell fresh products quickly to decrease the storage cost and to meet customer quality requirement is of vital importance in the food supply chain. Bundling fresh products is an efficient strategy to promote sales and reduce storage pressure of retailers. In this paper, we consider the bundle pricing decisions for homogeneous fresh products with quality deterioration. The value of fresh products with quality deterioration is approximated as an exponential function based on which customer’s reservation prices are calculated. A nonlinear mixed integer programming model is used to formulate the bundle pricing problem for fresh products. By adding auxiliary decision variables, this model is converted into a mixed integer linear program. Numerical experiments and sensitive analysis are conducted to provide managerial insights for bundling fresh products with quality deterioration.

  15. Optimal pricing and marketing planning for deteriorating items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza; Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Makui, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Optimal pricing and marketing planning plays an essential role in production decisions on deteriorating items. This paper presents a mathematical model for a three-level supply chain, which includes one producer, one distributor and one retailer. The proposed study considers the production of a deteriorating item where demand is influenced by price, marketing expenditure, quality of product and after-sales service expenditures. The proposed model is formulated as a geometric programming with 5 degrees of difficulty and the problem is solved using the recent advances in optimization techniques. The study is supported by several numerical examples and sensitivity analysis is performed to analyze the effects of the changes in different parameters on the optimal solution. The preliminary results indicate that with the change in parameters influencing on demand, inventory holding, inventory deteriorating and set-up costs change and also significantly affect total revenue. PMID:28306750

  16. Using the ABCDE approach to assess the deteriorating patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Duncan; Bowden, Tracey

    2017-11-29

    Patients who deteriorate without recognition or timely interventions are at risk of critical care admission and increased morbidity or mortality. This article outlines the systematic ABCDE (airway, breathing, circulation, disability, exposure) approach to patient assessment, which enables healthcare practitioners to identify and respond to life-threatening conditions in order of priority. The patient's vital signs should be measured as part of the ABCDE assessment and recorded using a track and trigger tool to enhance recognition of physiological abnormalities that signal deterioration. To optimise communication and escalation of deteriorating patients, healthcare practitioners should report ABCDE assessment findings using a structured communication tool. ©2017 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  17. Application of Artificial Intelligence for Bridge Deterioration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The deterministic bridge deterioration model updating problem is well established in bridge management, while the traditional methods and approaches for this problem require manual intervention. An artificial-intelligence-based approach was presented to self-updated parameters of the bridge deterioration model in this paper. When new information and data are collected, a posterior distribution was constructed to describe the integrated result of historical information and the new gained information according to Bayesian theorem, which was used to update model parameters. This AI-based approach is applied to the case of updating parameters of bridge deterioration model, which is the data collected from bridges of 12 districts in Shanghai from 2004 to 2013, and the results showed that it is an accurate, effective, and satisfactory approach to deal with the problem of the parameter updating without manual intervention.

  18. American Dream Delayed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Miller, Robert A.

    This paper investigates the delay in homeownership and a subsequent reduction in homeownership rate observed over the past decades. We focus on the delay in giving birth to children and increased labor market participation as contributing factors to homeownership dynamics for prime-age female hou......, fertility decisions and labor supply alternatives faced by the individuals over different stages of the life cycle. The delays in giving birth and buying first home arise endogenously.......This paper investigates the delay in homeownership and a subsequent reduction in homeownership rate observed over the past decades. We focus on the delay in giving birth to children and increased labor market participation as contributing factors to homeownership dynamics for prime-age female...

  19. The enhancement of the deteriorated South African bond options market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coert Frederik Erasmus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available nvestments, especially those in the bond market, carry a level of risk. Risks in the bond market can be mitigated by transacting in option contracts. In the developing South African economy, trading activity of over-the-counter (OTC bond options decreased significantly. Possible deteriorating factors and interventions to enhance OTC bond options were investigated in this research. Experts in the OTC bond option market were surveyed and the quantitative data collected was analysed with descriptive statistical methods. Results indicated that three factors were positively identified as deteriorating factors in the OTC bond option market and that five different interventions were possible to possible enhance this market.

  20. A production inventory model with deteriorating items and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items with shortages is developed. A number of structural properties of the inventory system are studied analytically. The formulae for the optimal average system cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time are derived when the deterioration rate is very small. Numerical examples are taken to illustrate the procedure of finding the optimal total inventory cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to demonstrate the effects of changing parameter values on the optimal solution of the system.

  1. Paediatric early warning systems for detecting and responding to clinical deterioration in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Veronica; Matthews, Anne; MacDonell, Rachel; Fitzsimons, John

    2017-03-13

    To systematically review the available evidence on paediatric early warning systems (PEWS) for use in acute paediatric healthcare settings for the detection of, and timely response to, clinical deterioration in children. The electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched systematically from inception up to August 2016. Eligible studies had to refer to PEWS, inclusive of rapid response systems and teams. Outcomes had to be specific to the identification of and/or response to clinical deterioration in children (including neonates) in paediatric hospital settings (including emergency departments). 2 review authors independently completed the screening and selection process, the quality appraisal of the retrieved evidence and data extraction; with a third reviewer resolving any discrepancies, as required. Results were narratively synthesised. From a total screening of 2742 papers, 90 papers, of varied designs, were identified as eligible for inclusion in the review. Findings revealed that PEWS are extensively used internationally in paediatric inpatient hospital settings. However, robust empirical evidence on which PEWS is most effective was limited. The studies examined did however highlight some evidence of positive directional trends in improving clinical and process-based outcomes for clinically deteriorating children. Favourable outcomes were also identified for enhanced multidisciplinary team work, communication and confidence in recognising, reporting and making decisions about child clinical deterioration. Despite many studies reporting on the complexity and multifaceted nature of PEWS, no evidence was sourced which examined PEWS as a complex healthcare intervention. Future research needs to investigate PEWS as a complex multifaceted sociotechnical system that is embedded in a wider safety culture influenced by many organisational and human factors. PEWS should be embraced as a part of a larger multifaceted safety framework that

  2. Application of particle swarm optimisation for solving deteriorating inventory model with fluctuating demand and controllable deterioration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ren; Dye, Chung-Yuan

    2013-06-01

    In most of the inventory models in the literature, the deterioration rate of goods is viewed as an exogenous variable, which is not subject to control. In the real market, the retailer can reduce the deterioration rate of product by making effective capital investment in storehouse equipments. In this study, we formulate a deteriorating inventory model with time-varying demand by allowing preservation technology cost as a decision variable in conjunction with replacement policy. The objective is to find the optimal replenishment and preservation technology investment strategies while minimising the total cost over the planning horizon. For any given feasible replenishment scheme, we first prove that the optimal preservation technology investment strategy not only exists but is also unique. Then, a particle swarm optimisation is coded and used to solve the nonlinear programming problem by employing the properties derived from this article. Some numerical examples are used to illustrate the features of the proposed model.

  3. Delayed power analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, L.A.; Azarov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Time dependent core power behavior in a nuclear reactor is described with well-known neutron kinetics equations. At the same time, two portions are distinguished in energy released from uranium nuclei fission; one released directly at fission and another delayed (residual) portion produced during radioactive decay of fission products. While prompt power is definitely described with kinetics equations, the delayed power presentation still remains outstanding. Since in operation the delayed power part is relatively small (about 6%) operation, it can be neglected for small reactivity disturbances assuming that entire power obeys neutron kinetics equations. In case of a high negative reactivity rapidly inserted in core (e.g. reactor scram initiation) the prompt and delayed components can be calculated separately with practically no impact on each other, employing kinetics equations for prompt power and known approximation formulas for delayed portion, named residual in this specific case. Under substantial disturbances the prompt component in the dynamic process becomes commensurable with delayed portion, thus making necessary to take into account their cross impact. A system of differential equations to describe time-dependent behavior of delayed power is presented. Specific NPP analysis shows a way to significantly simplify the task formulation. (author)

  4. Influence of water quality deterioration on blood profile of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, H. M.; Samir, Y. M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of water quality deterioration on the haematological indices and blood profile of cultured fish, which was most frequently used in pathophy-siological investigations in fish reared in the ponds and tanks culture conditions, compared with normal healthy fish in natural water (White Nile River). The results showed that water quality characteristics of experimental tanks level of NH 4 , NH 3 , NO 3 and NO 2 concentration significantly (p 4 , NH 3 , NO 3 and NO 2 ) with moderate regression factors. Relationship between RBC, and water quality characteristics was positive and with very low regression factors. (Author)

  5. Microbial deterioration of surface paint coatings. | Ogbulie | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial and fungal species associated with the normal and deteriorated painted surface in Owerri, Imo State were isolated and identified. The bacteria genera isolated were Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter and Streptomces, whereas the fungal genera isolated were Rhizopus, ...

  6. Inhibition of Growth of Fungi Isolated From Deteriorating Melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of extracts of Punica granatum and Cymbopogon citratus on Aspergillus nivale, Rhizopus stolonifer , Mucor mucido and Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from deteriorating melon seed using radial growth technique. Phytochemical screening revealed that extracts the plants ...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention of...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) All applications and other information... Resources, Division of Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local...

  9. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 from... “Guideline on Air Quality Models (Revised)” or other models approved by EPA. [42 FR 22869, May 5, 1977, as...

  10. Maintenance Models for Systems subject to Measurable Deterioration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Nicolai (Robin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractComplex engineering systems such as bridges, roads, flood defence structures, and power pylons play an important role in our society. Unfortunately such systems are subject to deterioration, meaning that in course of time their condition falls from higher to lower, and possibly even to

  11. Inhibition of Growth of Fungi Isolated From Deteriorating Melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Abstract. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of extracts of Punica granatum and. Cymbopogon citratus on Aspergillus nivale, Rhizopus stolonifer , Mucor mucido and. Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from deteriorating melon seed using radial growth technique. Phytochemical screening revealed that extracts the ...

  12. Bio-deterioration of breadfruit (Artocarpus Communis) in storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bio-deterioration of breadfruit in storage and its effects on the nutrient composition of the fruit was investigated at Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Freshly dropped fruits were stored under laboratory conditions for a period of 9 days. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Mycovellosiella fulva, ...

  13. Catalyst deterioration over the lifetime of small utility engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Nicholas J; Reisel, John R

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, the deterioration of catalysts in small, four-stroke, spark-ignition engines is described. The laboratory testing performed followed a proven test method that mimics the lifetime of a small air-cooled utility engine operating under normal field conditions. The engines used were single-cylinder, 6.5-hp, side-valve engines. These engines have a nominal 125-hr lifetime. The effectiveness of the catalysts was determined by testing exhaust emissions before and after the catalyst to determine the catalyst's efficiency. This was done several times during the lifetime of the engines to determine the deterioration in the performance of the catalysts at lowering pollutant emissions. Additional testing was performed on the catalysts to determine wear patterns, contamination, and recoverable activity. The results indicate that considerable catalyst deterioration is occurring over the lifetime of the engine. The results reveal that soot buildup, poisons, and active surface loss appear to be the contributing factors to the deterioration. These results were determined after analyzing the exhaust emissions data, scanning electron microscope results analysis, and the impact of regeneration attempts. An ANOVA statistical analysis was performed, and it was determined that the emissions are also impacted, to some degree, by time and the engine itself.

  14. Optimal time policy for deteriorating items of two-warehouse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We consider the problem of a two-warehouse inventory system under the effect of stock dependent demand. There are two warehouses to store the goods in which the first is rented warehouse and the second is own warehouse that deteriorates with two different rates. The aim of this study is to determine the optimal order ...

  15. Perceived Visual Deterioration among a Selected Group of Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the perceived visual deterioration and the determinants among selected dental surgeons in Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of Resident doctors attending the Revision course of Faculty of Dental Surgery of the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, ...

  16. Optimal time policy for deteriorating items of two-warehouse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... goods in which the first is rented warehouse and the second is own warehouse that deteriorates with two different rates. The aim of this study is to determine the optimal order quantity to maximize the profit of the projected model. Finally, some numerical examples and sensitivity analysis of parameters are made to validate ...

  17. Effectiveness of respiratory rates in determining clinical deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Rikke Rishøj; Larsen, Palle; Håkonsen, Sasa Jul

    2016-01-01

    Review question/objective: The objective of this systematic review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of manually measuring respiratory rates for 60 s or less in detecting clinical deterioration of inpatients. More specifically, the review...

  18. Clinical challenge: Deteriorating liver function in TB and HIV co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and ask them to describe the approach that they would take if they saw the case in their local hospital setting. In our first edition, a patient with deteriorating liver function is presented by Prof. Francois Venter and Dr Ntsakisi Masingi, and then discussed by Dr Sarah Stacey in Johannesburg and Dr Sarah Fidler in London.

  19. Microbial deterioration of stored water for users supplied by stand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two forms of water service delivery in peri-urban settlements in the eThekwini municipal region are communal stand-pipes and household ground-tanks. Water from these sources requires storage prior to use. Previous studies have shown that water quality tends to deteriorate during storage. This study was conducted ...

  20. A fast ethanol assay to detect seed deterioration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kodde, J.; Buckley, W.T.; Groot, de C.C.; Retiere, M.; Víquez Zamora, A.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    The most common way to test seed quality is to use a simple and reliable but time- and space-consuming germination test. In this paper we present a fast and simple method to analyse cabbage seed deterioration by measuring ethanol production from partially imbibed seeds. The method uses a modified

  1. Optimization of Weibull deteriorating items inventory model under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we have discussed the development of an inventory model when the deterioration rate of the item follows Weibull two parameter distributions under the effect of selling price and time dependent demand, since, not only the selling price, but also the time is a crucial factor to enhance the demand in the market as ...

  2. The impact of water quality deterioration on macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multimetric approach, using 21 metrics representing five categories — abundance, composition, richness, diversity and biotic indices — was applied to investigate the impacts of water quality deterioration on macro - invertebrate communities in the Swartkops River. Macroinvertebrates were sampled seasonally between ...

  3. Reducing post-harvest physiological deterioration in cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava roots are notable for their short shelf-life due to post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD). PPD is initiated by mechanical damage, which typically occurs during harvesting and progresses from the proximal site of damage to the distal end, making the roots unpalatable within 72h. The short shelf-life severely ...

  4. Delayed puberty in boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In most cases, delayed puberty is simply a matter of growth changes beginning later than usual, sometimes ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  5. Delayed puberty in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with too little body fat, gaining a bit of weight may help trigger puberty. If delayed puberty is caused by a disease or an eating disorder, treating the cause may help puberty to develop normally. If puberty ...

  6. Vernier Delay Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    This module will accept differential ECL pulses from the auxiliary rear panel or NIM level pulses from the front panel. The pulses are produced at the output with a fixed delay that is software programmable in steps of 0.1 ns over the range of 0.1 to 10.5 ns. Multiple outputs are available at the front panel. Minimum delay through the module is 9 ns.

  7. Choice and reinforcement delay

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, G. David; Marr, M. Jackson

    1980-01-01

    Previous studies of choice between two delayed reinforcers have indicated that the relative immediacy of the reinforcer is a major determinant of the relative frequency of responding. Parallel studies of choice between two interresponse times have found exceptions to this generality. The present study looked at the choice by pigeons between two delays, one of which was always four times longer than the other, but whose absolute durations were varied across conditions. The results indicated th...

  8. Delayed epidural hematoma after mild head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danilo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traumatic delayed epidural hematoma (DEH can be defined as insignificant or not seen on the initial CT scan performed after a trauma but seen on the subsequent CT scan as a “massive” epidural bleeding. Case report. We presented two cases of traumatic DEH after mild head injury. Both patients were conscious and without neurological deficit on the admission. Initial CT scan did not reveal intracranial hematoma. Repeated CT scan, that was performed after neurological deterioration, revealed epidural hematoma in both cases. The patients were operated with a favorable surgical outcome. Conclusion. Traumatic DEH could occur in the patients with head injuries who were conscious on the admission with a normal initial CT scan finding. Early detection of DEH and an urgent surgical evacuation were essential for a good outcome.

  9. The role of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polysaccharides in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots under postharvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the role of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), polysaccharides, and protein contents associated with the early events of postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava roots. Increases in APX and GPX activity, as well as total protein contents occurred from 3 to 5 days of storage and were correlated with the delay of PPD. Cassava samples stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) highlighted the presence of starch and cellulose. Degradation of starch granules during PPD was also detected. Slight metachromatic reaction with toluidine blue is indicative of increasing of acidic polysaccharides and may play an important role in PPD delay. Principal component analysis (PCA) classified samples according to their levels of enzymatic activity based on the decision tree model which showed GPX and total protein amounts to be correlated with PPD. The Oriental (ORI) cultivar was more susceptible to PPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An EOQ model of time quadratic and inventory dependent demand for deteriorated items with partially backlogged shortages under trade credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pushpinder; Mishra, Nitin Kumar; Singh, Vikramjeet; Saxena, Seema

    2017-07-01

    In this paper a single buyer, single supplier inventory model with time quadratic and stock dependent demand for a finite planning horizon has been studied. Single deteriorating item which suffers shortage, with partial backlogging and some lost sales is considered. Model is divided into two scenarios, one with non permissible delay in payment and other with permissible delay in payment. Latter is called, centralized system, where supplier offers trade credit to retailer. In the centralized system cost saving is shared amongst the two. The objective is to study the difference in minimum costs borne by retailer and supplier, under two scenarios including the above mentioned parameters. To obtain optimal solution of the problem the model is solved analytically. Numerical example and a comparative study are then discussed supported by sensitivity analysis of each parameter.

  11. Different CT perfusion algorithms in the detection of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Charlotte H P; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Vos, Pieter C; Bennink, Edwin; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Velthuis, Birgitta K; van der Schaaf, Irene C

    2015-05-01

    Tracer delay-sensitive perfusion algorithms in CT perfusion (CTP) result in an overestimation of the extent of ischemia in thromboembolic stroke. In diagnosing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), delayed arrival of contrast due to vasospasm may also overestimate the extent of ischemia. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of tracer delay-sensitive and tracer delay-insensitive algorithms for detecting DCI. From a prospectively collected series of aSAH patients admitted between 2007-2011, we included patients with any clinical deterioration other than rebleeding within 21 days after SAH who underwent NCCT/CTP/CTA imaging. Causes of clinical deterioration were categorized into DCI and no DCI. CTP maps were calculated with tracer delay-sensitive and tracer delay-insensitive algorithms and were visually assessed for the presence of perfusion deficits by two independent observers with different levels of experience. The diagnostic value of both algorithms was calculated for both observers. Seventy-one patients were included. For the experienced observer, the positive predictive values (PPVs) were 0.67 for the delay-sensitive and 0.66 for the delay-insensitive algorithm, and the negative predictive values (NPVs) were 0.73 and 0.74. For the less experienced observer, PPVs were 0.60 for both algorithms, and NPVs were 0.66 for the delay-sensitive and 0.63 for the delay-insensitive algorithm. Test characteristics are comparable for tracer delay-sensitive and tracer delay-insensitive algorithms for the visual assessment of CTP in diagnosing DCI. This indicates that both algorithms can be used for this purpose.

  12. Macroscopical morphology of deterioration of the stone in the Cathedral of Baeza, Jaen (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcalde, M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The main factors of deterioration that affect the Cathedral of Baeza are of a natural origin, basically thermic and hydraulic. Two types of calcarenite were employed in the construction of the major part of this building: one 'franca" of medium porosity and another "viva" harder and more compact, both extracted from the quarries in the area. The most frequent mechanisms of deterioration are those bound to crystallization-dissolution and hydration-dehydration of salts, as well as freezing inside the pores. Façade-by-façade description of the deterioration indicators is provided; the most common ones tend to be fissures, grain disgregations and disjunctions.

    Los principales factores de alteración que afectan a la Catedral de Baeza son de origen natural, fundamentalmente de tipo térmico e hidráulico. Para la construcción se han empleado en su mayor parte dos tipos de calcarenita, una franca de porosidad media y otra más dura y compacta procedentes de canteras de la zona. Los mecanismos de alteración más frecuentes son los ligados a la cristalización-disolución e hidratación-deshidratación de sales, así como a los de heladicidad en interior de los poros. Se hace una descripción por fachadas de los indicadores de alteración, siendo los más frecuentes las fisuras, arenizaciones y disyunciones.

  13. Environmental and deteriorating state analyses of the watershed Riacho do Tronco, Boa Vista, PB, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronildo Alcântara Pereira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes, from the subdivision of the watershed of Riacho do Tronco in eight sub-watersheds, to diagnose their potential for land use and occupation, determine the areas of conflicts in land use and the level of environmental deterioration of the watershed as a whole, to support planning and the consequent reduction of the expansion of desertification. Based on GIS analysis and field work, the environmental parameters that allowed the establishment of the roughness coefficient of each sub-watershed were calculated, following the methodology proposed by Rocha (1997 for the classification of the natural potential use of each watershed. The results showed that four sub-watersheds are suitable for agriculture, three for livestock and reforestation and one for reforestation only. It was also possible to diagnose land use and occupation of each one and to determine land use conflicts. This represented by inappropriate use of soil considering the natural vocation of some sub-watershed, as well as the occurrence of bare soil and mining activities that occur in some sub-watersheds. Thus, from the analysis of conflict in land use, areas to be afforested, availability for or intense use of agricultural lands and the estimate of areas where correct management practices have to be implemented, it was observed that the watershed of Riacho do Tronco has 42.7% of its area in deteriorated stage. Therefore, the high level of environmental deterioration is evident, with consequent risk of desertification. In addition, considering that this area is located in the Brazilian semi-arid region with economic activities practiced without conservation concerns, it is necessary that the government and organized society foster sustainable principles in the economic activities in this watershed.

  14. Effect of delayed processing on nutrient composition, pH and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish are a nutrient rich food but highly perishable due to its high water activity, protein content, neutral pH and presence of autolytic enzymes. This explains why fresh fish quality deteriorates rapidly if not properly stored after catch such as use of low temperature. The implication is that delayed processing of fresh fish ...

  15. Investigation of the internal stresses caused by delayed ettringite formation in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Delayed ettringite formation (DEF) in concrete has been identified in recent as a significant cause of deterioration in : some of the reinforced concrete infrastructure in Texas. This report is part of a research project, TxDOT project : 5218, to inv...

  16. Time delays prior to movement alter the drawing kinematics of elderly adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, DH; Van Gemmert, AWA; Adler, CH; Bekkering, H; Stelmach, GE

    Position sense has been found to decay as a function of the time delay the limb remains in a static position prior to movement onset. Position sense has also been found to deteriorate as a function of aging, with increased reliance on vision by the elderly. This study investigated whether the

  17. Time delays prior to movement alter the drawing kinematics of elderly adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, D.H.; Gemmert, A.W.A. van; Adler, C.H.; Bekkering, H.; Stelmach, G.E.

    2003-01-01

    Position sense has been found to decay as a function of the time delay the limb remains in a static position prior to movement onset. Position sense has also been found to deteriorate as a function of aging, with increased reliance on vision by the elderly. This study investigated whether the

  18. The Organization of Delayed Second Language Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin-Ianziti, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    The present study uses a conversation analytic framework to examine the organization of a type of classroom talk: the delayed correction sequence. Such talk occurs when teacher and students interactively correct errors after the students have completed a communicative activity. This study investigates naturally occurring instances of correction…

  19. Seed deterioration in flooded agricultural fields during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, C.O.; Twedt, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    We determined rate of seed deterioration for 3 crops (corn, rice, and soybean) and 8 weeds commonly found in agricultural fields and moist-soil management units in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). The weeds were broadleaf signalgrass (Brachiaria platyphylla), junglerice barnyardgrass (Echinochloa colonum), morningglory (Ipomoea sp.), panic grass (Panicum sp.), bull paspalum (Paspalum boscianum), red rice (Oryza sativa), hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), and bristlegrass (Setaria sp.). Weed seeds, except morningglory, deteriorated slower than corn and soybean, whereas rice decomposed slower than all weed seeds except red rice and bull paspalum. For land managers desiring to provide plant food for wintering waterfowl, rice is clearly the most persistent small grain crop in the MAV. Persistence of weed seeds under flooded conditions throughout winter makes them a cost-effective alternative to traditional crops on land managed for waterfowl.

  20. Tension Pneumocephalus with Diplegia and Deterioration of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Prüss

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tension pneumocephalus results from intracranial air under pressure as a rare complication after head injury or craniofacial surgery. A 58-year-old man underwent ethmoid sinus surgery and subsequently developed rapidly progressive global headache, restlessness, diplegia with sensory loss, and deterioration of the conscious level. A head CT demonstrated extensive pneumocephalus with gross compression of the brain. The frontal retention of air caused widening of the interhemispheric fissure leading to a peaked appearance of the frontal poles, referred to as the ‘Mount Fuji sign’. Surgical revision of a dural air leak resulted in rapid improvement and full clinical resolution. Early diagnosis of tension pneumocephalus and emergent surgical treatment are crucial to prevent life-threatening deterioration.

  1. Tension pneumocephalus with diplegia and deterioration of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüss, Harald; Klingebiel, Randolf; Endres, Matthias

    2011-02-14

    Tension pneumocephalus results from intracranial air under pressure as a rare complication after head injury or craniofacial surgery. A 58-year-old man underwent ethmoid sinus surgery and subsequently developed rapidly progressive global headache, restlessness, diplegia with sensory loss, and deterioration of the conscious level. A head CT demonstrated extensive pneumocephalus with gross compression of the brain. The frontal retention of air caused widening of the interhemispheric fissure leading to a peaked appearance of the frontal poles, referred to as the 'Mount Fuji sign'. Surgical revision of a dural air leak resulted in rapid improvement and full clinical resolution. Early diagnosis of tension pneumocephalus and emergent surgical treatment are crucial to prevent life-threatening deterioration.

  2. Optimal control of decoupling point with deteriorating items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to develop a dynamic model to simultaneously determine the optimal position of the decoupling point and the optimal path of the production rate as well as the inventory level in a supply chain. With the objective to minimize the total cost of the deviation from the target setting, the closed forms of the optimal solution are derived over a finite planning horizon with deterioration rate under time-varying demand rate.Design/methodology/approach: The Pontryagin's Maximum Principle is employed to explore the optimal position of decoupling point and the optimal production and inventory rate for the proposed dynamic models. The performances of parameters are illustrated through analytical and numerical approaches.Findings: The results denote that the optimal production rate and inventory level are closely related to the target setting which are highly dependent on production policy; meanwhile the optimal decoupling point is exist and unique with the fluctuating of deteriorating rate and product life cycle. The further analyses through both mathematic and numerical approaches indicate that the shorten of product life cycle shifts the optimal decoupling point forward to the end customer meanwhile a backward shifting appears when the deterioration rate increase.Research limitations/implications: There is no shortage allowed and the replacement policy is not taken into account.Practical implications: Solutions derived from this study of the optimal production-inventory plan and decoupling point are instructive for operation decision making. The obtained knowledge about the performance of different parameters is critical to deteriorating supply chains management.Originality/value: Many previous models of the production-inventory problem are only focused on the cost. The paper introduces the decoupling point control into the production and inventory problem such that a critical element-customer demand, can be taken into

  3. Risk-Based Decision Making for Deterioration Processes Using POMDP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for risk-based decision making for maintenance of deteriorating components, based on the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). Unlike most methods, the decision polices do not need to be stationary and can vary according to seasons and near the end...... of the lifetime. The approach is demonstrated through two examples, and the total expected costs are similar to those of another efficient method....

  4. Seed wintering and deterioration characteristics between weedy and cultivated rice

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Jung-Sun; Chung, Nam-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Incidences of weedy rice continuously occurred in paddy fields because its shattering seeds were able to over-winter. In this research, the seed deterioration of weedy rice was investigated compared with cultivated rice, and the wintering characteristics of these two types of rice were investigated with the field wintering test, freezing resistance test, and accelerated aging test. Results For the wintering test, the seeds of weedy rice were placed on the soil surface of a paddy wi...

  5. Quantifying reinforced concrete bridge deck deterioration using ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Nicole Marie

    Bridge decks are deteriorating at an alarming rate due to corrosion of the reinforcing steel, requiring billions of dollars to repair and replace them. Furthermore, the techniques used to assess the decks don't provide enough quantitative information. In recent years, ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been used to quantify deterioration by comparing the rebar reflection amplitudes to technologies serving as ground truth, because there is not an available amplitude threshold to distinguish healthy from corroded areas using only GPR. The goal of this research is to understand the relationship between GPR and deck deterioration, and develop a model to determine deterioration quantities with GPR alone. The beginning of this research determines that not only is the relationship between GPR and rebar corrosion stronger than the relationship between GPR and delaminations, but that the two are exceptionally correlated (90.2% and 86.6%). Next, multiple bridge decks were assessed with GPR and half-cell potential (HCP). Statistical parameters like the mean and skewness were computed for the GPR amplitudes of each deck, and coupled with actual corrosion quantities based on the HCP measurements to form a future bridge deck model that can be used to assess any deck with GPR alone. Finally, in order to understand exactly which component of rebar corrosion (rust, cracking or chloride) attenuates the GPR data, computational modeling was carried out to isolate each variable. The results indicate that chloride is the major contributor to the rebar reflection attenuation, and that computational modeling can be used to accurately simulate GPR attenuation due to chloride.

  6. Radon - natural health threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, Anthony

    1985-01-01

    Natural sources of radiation attract little attention, yet a survey has found radon gas in buildings at levels which put the occupants at some risk. The author wants safety standards set without undue delay. (author)

  7. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Studies of complications following reconstructive surgery with implants among women with breast cancer are needed. As the, to our knowledge, first prospective long-term study we evaluated the occurrence of complications following delayed breast reconstruction separately for one- and two......-stage procedures. From the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast, which has prospectively registered data for women undergoing breast implantations since 1999, we identified 559 women without a history of radiation therapy undergoing 592 delayed breast reconstructions following breast cancer during...... of reoperation was significantly higher following the one-stage procedure. For both procedures, the majority of reoperations were due to asymmetry or displacement of the implant. In conclusion, non-radiated one- and two-stage delayed breast implant reconstructions are associated with substantial risks...

  8. Film with anthocyanins as an indicator of chilled pork deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Baptista Golasz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An indicator can be defined as a substance which indicates the presence or absence of another substance or the degree of a certain reaction through characteristic changes, especially color. Therefore, the aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of a bio-based film with anthocyanin as an indicator of chilled pork deterioration. A film made of cassava starch, glycerol, and grape anthocyanins was prepared using the casting technique. Pork loin samples were put in Petri dishes containing an anthocyanin film on the bottom and stored at 4 ºC. Psychrotrophic microorganism count and the pH of the pork loin samples were analyzed for a 14 day- period. At the same time, the films were subjected to colorimetric analysis using D65 illuminant and the CIELAB system. Chroma and hue angle data for these films were evaluated by Anova and Dunnett's test. An increase in the microbial population and in the pH was observed over the storage period as result of pork deterioration. Color changes were also identified in the film. However, only at the beginning of the storage period was it possible to establish a correlation between film color and pork deterioration. The shelf life end-point could not be clearly detected by the film.

  9. Radiation deterioration of several aromatic polymers under oxidative conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasuga, Tsuneo; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1987-01-01

    Radiation-induced oxidative irradiation effects (with γ-rays under oxygen pressure) or poly(aryl sulphones) (U-PS and PES), poly(aryl ester) (U-Polymer), poly(aryl amide) (A-Film) and poly(aryl ether ether ketone) (PEEK) have been studied based on changes in tensile properties. The deterioration dose estimated from the decrease in the elongation at break was as low as one-fifth to one-tenth of that in high-dose-rate electron-beam irradiation, but the order of radiation resistance of the polymers did not differ from that in electron-beam irradiation, i.e. PEEK > A-Film > U-Polymer > U-PS > PES. The radiation stability of aromatic units under oxidative conditions was estimated from a comparison of the radiation resistance of the polymers themselves and their chemical structures. The following order was obtained: diphenyl ether, diphenyl ketone > aromatic amide>> bisphenol A > diphenyl sulphone. The deterioration mechanism of PEEK under oxidative irradiation was studied by measuring dynamic viscoelastic properties. It was concluded that deterioration in mechanical properties under oxidative irradiation was brought about by chain scission only. (author)

  10. Deterioration pattern of six biodegradable, potentially low-environmental impact mulches in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M; González-Mora, Sara; Villena, Jaime; Campos, Juan A; Moreno, Carmen

    2017-09-15

    Polyethylene plastic mulches are widely used in agriculture due to the countless advantages they have. However, the environmental problems associated with their use have led us to look for alternative mulch materials which degrade naturally and quickly, impact the environment less and function satisfactorily. To this end, biodegradable plastics and paper mulches are being used, but aspects related to their degradation should be studied more in-depth. This work provides the deterioration pattern of six biodegradable mulch materials (i.e. vegetable starch, polylactic acid plastic films or paper mulches) in horticultural crop in the edaphoclimatic conditions of Central Spain in two situations: over the lifetime of the mulches and after being incorporated into the soil. In the first situation, the deterioration levels were evaluated by recording the puncture resistance, weight and area covered in the above-soil and the in-soil part, and after soil incorporation by the number of fragments, their surfaces and weight. In the above-soil part, biodegradable plastics experienced further deterioration, particularly with no crop, while the paper mulch remained practically intact. However, the in-soil paper experienced complete and rapid degradation. At 200 days after soil incorporation, mulch residues were scarce, with the environmental effects it entails. These findings offer practical implications regarding the type of crop. The measurement of the surface covered, rather than the weight, was shown to be a more reliable indicator of the degradation of mulches. Furthermore, visual estimation was found to underestimate the functionality of mulches in comparison to that of the measurement of the surface covered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Delayed photon selfinterference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel', A.R.; Moiseev, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Delayed photon selfinterference on a sample containing resonant two-level atoms is considered when the difference in the lengths in two optical paths exceeds the photon 'length'. It is shown that a reading pulse of the electromagnetic field can induce photon echo

  12. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  13. Estimating Delays In ASIC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gary; Nesheiwat, Jeffrey; Su, Ling

    1994-01-01

    Verification is important aspect of process of designing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Design must not only be functionally accurate, but must also maintain correct timing. IFA, Intelligent Front Annotation program, assists in verifying timing of ASIC early in design process. This program speeds design-and-verification cycle by estimating delays before layouts completed. Written in C language.

  14. Delays of Interconnected Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorger, U.; Suchanecki, Z.

    2011-07-01

    A rigorous approach to flows of particles in networks is presented. Under the assumption of independence of the transversal flows the asymptotic distributions of inter-delay times between particles are shown to be log-normal. In the case of dependent transversal traffic the ARCH and GARCH time series models, as well as martingale approach, have been applied.

  15. Plasmas for Transition Delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotsonis, M.; Boon, P.; Veldhuis, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigation of the properties of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) actuators aimed at transition delay techniques. A wide range of geometrical configurations are tested as well as several electrical operational conditions. For the majority of the measurements

  16. Double Hopf bifurcation in delay differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouane Qesmi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the computation of elements of double Hopf bifurcation for retarded functional differential equations (FDEs with parameters. We present an efficient method for computing, simultaneously, the coefficients of center manifolds and normal forms, in terms of the original FDEs, associated with the double Hopf singularity up to an arbitrary order. Finally, we apply our results to a nonlinear model with periodic delay. This shows the applicability of the methodology in the study of delay models arising in either natural or technological problems.

  17. Design Of A Laboratory Set-up For Evaluating Structural Strength Of Deteriorated Concrete Sewer Pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanic, N.; Salet, T.; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2014-01-01

    The principle of structural behaviour of buried concrete pipes is fairly understood, except for how material deterioration affects structural behaviour and performance. Consequently, information on the structural behaviour of deteriorated sewer pipes will contribute to better understanding of the

  18. Molluscan subfossil assemblages reveal the long-term deterioration of coral reef environments in Caribbean Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Katie L; Leonard-Pingel, Jill S; Rodríguez, Félix; Jackson, Jeremy B C

    2015-07-15

    Caribbean reef corals have declined sharply since the 1980s, but the lack of prior baseline data has hindered identification of drivers of change. To assess anthropogenic change in reef environments over the past century, we tracked the composition of subfossil assemblages of bivalve and gastropod mollusks excavated from pits below lagoonal and offshore reefs in Bocas del Toro, Panama. The higher prevalence of (a) infaunal suspension-feeding bivalves and herbivorous and omnivorous gastropods in lagoons and (b) epifaunal and suspension-feeding bivalves and carnivorous and suspension-feeding gastropods offshore reflected the greater influence of land-based nutrients/sediments within lagoons. Temporal changes indicated deteriorating environmental conditions pre-1960 in lagoons and post-1960 offshore, with offshore communities becoming more similar to lagoonal ones since 1960. Relative abundances of dominant bivalve species tracked those of their coral hosts, revealing broader ecosystem effects of coral community change. The nature and timing of changes implicate land-based runoff in reef deterioration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  20. Predicting Future Deterioration of Hydraulic Steel Structures with Markov Chain and Multivariate Samples of Statistical Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Riveros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined effects of several complex phenomena cause the deterioration of elements of steel hydraulic structures on the nation’s lock systems: loss of protective systems, corrosion, cracking and fatigue, impacts, and overloads. This paper presents examples of deterioration of steel hydraulic structures. A method for predicting future deterioration based on current conditions is also presented. This paper also includes a procedure for developing deterioration curves when condition state data is available.

  1. Development of Improved Mechanistic Deterioration Models for Flexible Pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Ertman, Hans Larsen

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a pilot study in Denmark with the main objective of developing improved mechanistic deterioration models for flexible pavements based on an accelerated full scale test on an instrumented pavement in the Danish Road Tessting Machine. The study was the first in "International...... Pavement Subgrade Performance Study" sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), USA. The paper describes in detail the data analysis and the resulting models for rutting, roughness, and a model for the plastic strain in the subgrade.The reader will get an understanding of the work needed...

  2. Mine water quality deterioration due to acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdeep

    1987-03-01

    Water quality deterioration due to acid mine drainage is of concern in the northeastern coalfield of India as the water in this area is severely polluted. The mine drainage water emanating from various collieries are highly acidic in character and contain high hardness, sulphate, total dissolved solids and iron coupled with low pH values—which further results in contamination of trace (heavy) metals at significant levels. Trace metals are highly toxic and undesirable and are injurious to human health. These acidic waters are also typically hard in character because of iron sulphate content rather than common Ca-Mg bicarbonate type hardness.

  3. Deterioration of plasticized PVC components in Apollo spacesuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne; Schnell, Ulrich; Young, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    in the Life Support System, used to transport air and water to the astronaut, and in the Liquid Cooling Garment, used to cool the wearer of the spacesuit, exhibited high levels of deterioration. Tubing was unacceptably discoloured, tacky to the touch and surfaces were obscured by crystals. Visual examination......, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and Low-Vacuum scanning electron microscopy suggested that discolouration was a result of dehydrochlorination of the PVC polymer, tackiness was caused by migration of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) plasticizer to surfaces, and phthalic acid crystals formed...

  4. Deterioration of hearing in a cochlear implantee with relapsing polychondritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrizia, Mancini; Giuseppe, Attanasio; Marika, Viccaro; Roberto, Filipo

    2011-06-01

    We report on a rare case of cochlear implantation in a patient affected by relapsing polychondritis (RP), which over time induced cochlear fibrosis/ossification and deterioration of previously excellent hearing performance. The clinical course was determined by CT scan, electrophysiology, and speech perception data. We conclude that RP is a severe autoimmune connective disorder that can cause profound sensorineural hearing loss. Cochlear implantation in these patients can provide excellent performance. Continuation of therapy may improve prognosis, but relapses involving inner ear structures can determine fibrosis/ossification of the modiolus and interfere with cochlear implant use.

  5. Cognitive Deterioration in Adults with Down Syndrome: Effects on the Individual, Caregivers, and Service Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chris; Crayton, Lissa; Holland, Anthony; Hall, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (n=49) were assigned to three groups: those showing cognitive deterioration, those comparable in age, and those not showing cognitive deterioration but younger. Those experiencing cognitive deterioration were less likely to receive day services, had more impoverished life experiences, and required more support.…

  6. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

  7. Adverse events and deterioration reported by participants in the PACE trial of therapies for chronic fatigue syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougall, Dominic; Johnson, Anthony; Goldsmith, Kimberley; Sharpe, Michael; Angus, Brian; Chalder, Trudie; White, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adverse events (AEs) are health related events, reported by participants in clinical trials. We describe AEs in the PACE trial of treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and baseline characteristics associated with them. Methods AEs were recorded on three occasions over one year in 641 participants. We compared the numbers and nature of AEs between treatment arms of specialist medical care (SMC) alone, or SMC supplemented by adaptive pacing therapy (APT), cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) or graded exercise therapy (GET). We examined associations with baseline measures by binary logistic regression analyses, and compared the proportions of participants who deteriorated by clinically important amounts. Results Serious adverse events and reactions were infrequent. Non-serious adverse events were common; the median (quartiles) number was 4 (2, 8) per participant, with no significant differences between treatments (P = .47). A greater number of NSAEs were associated with recruitment centre, and baseline physical symptom count, body mass index, and depressive disorder. Physical function deteriorated in 39 (25%) participants after APT, 15 (9%) after CBT, 18 (11%) after GET, and 28 (18%) after SMC (P < .001), with no significant differences in worsening fatigue. Conclusions The numbers of adverse events did not differ significantly between trial treatments, but physical deterioration occurred most often after APT. The reporting of non-serious adverse events may reflect the nature of the illness rather than the effect of treatments. Differences between centres suggest that both standardisation of ascertainment methods and training are important when collecting adverse event data. PMID:24913337

  8. Ataxia telangiectasia: presentation and diagnostic delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Rebecca; Pasalodos, Sara; Suri, Mohnish; Bush, Andy; Bhatt, Jayesh M

    2017-04-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare progressive, multisystem genetic disease. Families of children with ultra-rare diseases often experience significant diagnostic delays. We reviewed the diagnostic process for A-T in order to identify causes of delay in an attempt to facilitate earlier identification of A-T in the future. A retrospective case note review of 79 children at the National Paediatric A-T clinic seen since May 2009. Data were collected on the nature and age of initial symptoms, the age at first presentation, measurement of alpha feto-protein (AFP) and age of genetic diagnostic confirmation. At presentation, 71 children (90%) had ataxia. The median presentation delay (from first parental concern to presentation) was 8 months (range 0-118 months), and the median diagnostic delay (genetic confirmation of diagnosis) was 12 months (range 1-109 months). There are significant delays in presentation and diagnostic confirmation of A-T. A greater awareness of A-T and early measurement of AFP may help to improve this. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Tardily accelerated neurologic deterioration in two-step thallium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Nishiyama, Shuhei; Takeshita, Takayuki; Tateyama, Maki; Takeda, Atsushi; Aoki, Masashi

    2016-12-01

    Thallium intoxication was reported in cases with accidental ingestion, suicide attempt, and criminal adulteration. Reported cases were mostly one-time ingestion, therefore, the clinical course of divisional ingestion has not been fully known. Here, we report a case with two-step thallium intoxication manifesting as tardily accelerated neurologic deterioration. A 16-year-old adolescent was cryptically poisoned with thallium sulfate twice at an interval of 52days. After the first ingestion, neurologic symptoms including visual loss, myalgia, and weakness in legs developed about 40days after the development of acute gastrointestinal symptoms and alopecia. After the second ingestion, neurologic symptoms deteriorated rapidly and severely without gastrointestinal or cutaneous symptoms. Brain magnetic resonance imaging exhibited bilateral optic nerve atrophy. Nerve conduction studies revealed severe peripheral neuropathies in legs. Thallium intoxication was confirmed by an increase in urine thallium egestion. Most of the neurologic manifestations ameliorated in two years, but the visual loss persisted. The source of thallium ingestion was unraveled afterward because a murder suspect in another homicidal assault confessed the forepast adulteration. This discriminating clinical course may be attributable to the cumulative neurotoxicity due to the longer washout-time of thallium in the nervous system than other organs. It is noteworthy that the divisional thallium intoxication may manifest as progressive optic and peripheral neuropathy without gastrointestinal or cutaneous symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial deterioration of Mayan stone buildings at Uxmal, Yucatan, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega-Morales, O.; Guezennec, J.; Hernandez D, G.; Jozsa, P.; Sand, W.; Crassous, P.

    1998-01-01

    The microbial communities associated to Uxmal Mayan monuments (Yucatan, Mexico) and their role in stone deterioration were preliminary characterized by chemical, biochemical, microbiological, microscopical and surface analysis methods under two climatic seasons (1997). The organic matter and organic carbon and nitrogen were in the range of those reported for other stone buildings, indicating that oligo trophic conditions prevail at Uxmal. Quantitative differences in microbial biomass was higher at indoor section were the organic matter content was the highest and micro-environmental conditions (availability of water and protection to direct sunlight) are more suitable for microbial growth. The microbiological analysis underestimated the microbial biomass, as revealed by biochemical approaches. Nitrate and nitrite-oxidizing, metilotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria and fungi were detected in most surfaces. The heterotrophic bacteria were the most abundant microbial group (microbiological data). However, the chlorophyll profiles and Scanning Electron Microscopy showed that the microalgae are the most abundant colonizers in Uxmal stone buildings. EDAX analysis showed that the most surfaces were covered by an organic layer (cells and exo polymers). Gypsum was found in few samples. The large photo trophic biomass seems to play a role in stone bio deterioration by supporting growth of heterotrophic microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) which are known to produce organic acids leading to calcite dissolution and cations chelation. Further studies are being carried out in order to determine the role of exo polysaccharides which are thought to play a role in chemical degradation of limestone substrates in Uxmal. (Author)

  11. Deteriorating ischaemic stroke. cytokines, soluble cytokine receptors, ferritin, systemic blood pressure, body temperature, blood glucose, diabetes, stroke severity, and CT infarction-volume as predictors of deteriorating ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne; Boysen, Gudrun; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth

    2002-01-01

    Although the causes of neurological deterioration in acute cerebral infarction have not yet been identified, many variables have been associated with deterioration. The aim of this study was to investigate deteriorating ischaemic stroke....

  12. Exercise training prevents the deterioration in the arterial baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity in chronic heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groehs, Raphaela V; Toschi-Dias, Edgar; Antunes-Correa, Ligia M; Trevizan, Patrícia F; Rondon, Maria Urbana P B; Oliveira, Patrícia; Alves, Maria J N N; Almeida, Dirceu R; Middlekauff, Holly R; Negrão, Carlos E

    2015-05-01

    Arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (ABRMSNA) is impaired in chronic systolic heart failure (CHF). The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that exercise training would improve the gain and reduce the time delay of ABRMSNA in CHF patients. Twenty-six CHF patients, New York Heart Association Functional Class II-III, EF ≤ 40%, peak V̇o2 ≤ 20 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) were divided into two groups: untrained (UT, n = 13, 57 ± 3 years) and exercise trained (ET, n = 13, 49 ± 3 years). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was directly recorded by microneurography technique. Arterial pressure was measured on a beat-to-beat basis. Time series of MSNA and systolic arterial pressure were analyzed by autoregressive spectral analysis. The gain and time delay of ABRMSNA was obtained by bivariate autoregressive analysis. Exercise training was performed on a cycle ergometer at moderate intensity, three 60-min sessions per week for 16 wk. Baseline MSNA, gain and time delay of ABRMSNA, and low frequency of MSNA (LFMSNA) to high-frequency ratio (HFMSNA) (LFMSNA/HFMSNA) were similar between groups. ET significantly decreased MSNA. MSNA was unchanged in the UT patients. The gain and time delay of ABRMSNA were unchanged in the ET patients. In contrast, the gain of ABRMSNA was significantly reduced [3.5 ± 0.7 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2, arbitrary units (au)/mmHg, P = 0.04] and the time delay of ABRMSNA was significantly increased (4.6 ± 0.8 vs. 7.9 ± 1.0 s, P = 0.05) in the UT patients. LFMSNA-to-HFMSNA ratio tended to be lower in the ET patients (P training prevents the deterioration of ABRMSNA in CHF patients. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Delayed Speech or Language Development KidsHealth / For Parents / Delayed Speech ... their child is right on schedule. How Are Speech and Language Different? Speech is the verbal expression ...

  14. Inhibiting the deterioration of plasticized poly (vinyl chloride)-a museum perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    materials in museums. Environments included a closed flask, freezer, with silica gel, activated carbon and Ageless ® oxygen absorber, at high relative humidity, on glass and in polyethylene bags. In addition, two naturally aged ‘objects’, also plasticized with DEHP and exhibiting deterioration, were......Plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has been one of the most economically and technically important synthetic materials since the 1950s . Proportions of plasticizer in commercial PVC formulations range from 15% to 50% by weight. Examples of these various formulations are present in many...... international museum collections, in the form of protective clothing and footwear, inflatable furniture, cable insulation, toys, medical tubing and sculpture. Most plasticized PVC formulations are designed to function for less than 10 years; this is a concern to museums where all collections should be preserved...

  15. The Deterioration Mechanism of Diester Aero Lubricating Oil at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of aero lubricating oil at high temperatures was accelerated by using a specific device simulating the operating conditions of engines, where the deterioration mechanism was obtained. Structures of the deteriorated lubricating oils were analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. From the results, it can be concluded that deterioration of aero lubricating oil at high temperatures was composed of thermal pyrolysis, oxidation, and polymerization, with the generation of a variety of products, such as alcohols, aldehydes, acids, and esters, which caused the deterioration of physicochemical properties of the aero lubricating oil.

  16. Health effects of natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Arsić Danijela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards have a number of adverse effects - they affect the life and health of humans and the survival of other living beings, destroy material goods and deteriorate socio-economic conditions of life. Without neglecting the impact of natural hazards lower intensity, in this paper emphasis is placed on natural hazards with the strongest effects for human health, that is to natural disasters. It covered the impact of various natural disasters on mortality and morbidity during and immediately after natural disasters, including earthquakes, floods and drought, which is to characterize on the Republic of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  17. Pravcice Rock Arch (Bohemian Switzerland National Park, Czech Republic) deterioration due to natural and anthropogenic weathering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vařilová, Z.; Přikryl, R.; Cílek, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 63, 7/8 (2011), s. 1861-1878 ISSN 1866-6280 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0676 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Upper Cretaceous sandstone * rock arch * Bohemian Cretaceous basin * weathering processes * mineralogy of efflorescence * water soluble salts chemistry Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.059, year: 2011

  18. Delayed Macular Hole Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Distelmaier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The presented case raises questions regarding the favorable scheduling of planned postoperative care and the ideal observation interval to decide for reoperations in macular hole surgery. Furthermore a discussion about the use of short- and long-acting gas tamponades in macular hole surgery is encouraged. Methods: We present an interventional case report and a short review of the pertinent literature. Results: We report a case of spontaneous delayed macular hole closure after vitreoretinal surgery had been performed initially without the expected success. A 73-year-old male Caucasian patient presented at our clinic with a stage 2 macular hole in his left eye. He underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling with a 20% C2F6-gas tamponade. Sixteen days after the procedure, an OCT scan revealed a persistent stage 2 macular hole, and the patient was scheduled for reoperation. Surprisingly, at the date of planned surgery, which was another 11 days later, the macular hole had resolved spontaneously without any further intervention. Conclusions: So far no common opinion exists regarding the use of short- or long-acting gas in macular hole surgery. Our case of delayed macular hole closure after complete resorption of the gas tamponade raises questions about the need and duration of strict prone positioning after surgery. Furthermore short-acting gas might be as efficient as long-acting gas. We suggest to wait with a second intervention at least 4 weeks after the initial surgery, since a delayed macular hole closure is possible.

  19. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asif; Ali, Rajab; Yaqoob, M Yousuf; Saleem, Omema

    2007-07-01

    Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a rare sensory-motor distal axonopathy, which usually occur after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticide. The clinical picture is characterized by the distal paresis in lower limb associated with sensory symptoms. Electrodiagnostic studies show a motor axonal neuropathy. This case occurred in a 14 years old girl who developed cramping pain in both calves associated with lower limbs paresis 6 weeks after accidental organophosphate poisoning. After another week, she also developed weakness in both hands. Electrophysiological study was characterized by an axonal polyneuropathy pattern. Patient improved upon oral multivitamin therapy and physiotherapy.

  20. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... of radiation therapy was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of reoperation after both 1-stage (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and 2-stage (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) procedures. Reconstruction failure was highest (13.2%) in the 2-stage procedures with a history of radiation therapy. Breast...

  1. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    period of delay can potentially be attributed to several events falling within both parties' spheres of responsibility, commonly termed concurrent delay, is rarely regulated in construction contracts in spite of its common occurrence. This book analyses both the theoretical foundations and the practical......Delay is one of the issues most frequently encountered in today’s construction industry; it causes significant economic damage to all parties involved. Construction contracts, standard and bespoke, almost invariably consider delay from a perspective of single liability. If the event causing...... solutions to the issue of concurrent delay in a comparative perspective between common and civil law systems, with an emphasis on Danish and English law....

  2. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  3. Patient delay in cancer studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sand; Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no validated way of measuring the prevalence and duration of patient delay, and we do not know how people perceive and define the time intervals they are asked to report in patient delay studies. This lack of a validated measure hampers research in patient delay...... as symptoms related to a specific cancer diagnosis is embedded within a social and cultural context. We therefore cannot assume that respondents define delay periods in identical ways. SUMMARY: In order to improve the validity of patient delay studies, it is suggested that research be strengthened on three...

  4. A condition-based maintenance policy for stochastically deteriorating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grall, A.; Berenguer, C.; Dieulle, L.

    2002-01-01

    We focus on the analytical modeling of a condition-based inspection/replacement policy for a stochastically and continuously deteriorating single-unit system. We consider both the replacement threshold and the inspection schedule as decision variables for this maintenance problem and we propose to implement the maintenance policy using a multi-level control-limit rule. In order to assess the performance of the proposed maintenance policy and to minimize the long run expected maintenance cost per unit time, a mathematical model for the maintained system cost is derived, supported by the existence of a stationary law for the maintained system state. Numerical experiments illustrate the performance of the proposed policy and confirm that the maintenance cost rate on an infinite horizon can be minimized by a joint optimization of the maintenance structure thresholds, or equivalently by a joint optimization of a system replacement threshold and the aperiodic inspection schedule

  5. Managing dual warehouses with an incentive policy for deteriorating items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wang, Kung-Jeng; Lin, Yu-Siang

    2016-02-01

    Distributors in a supply chain usually limit their own warehouse in finite capacity for cost reduction and excess stock is held in a rent warehouse. In this study, we examine inventory control for deteriorating items in a two-warehouse setting. Assuming that there is an incentive offered by a rent warehouse that allows the rental fee to decrease over time, the objective of this study is to maximise the joint profit of the manufacturer and the distributor. An optimisation procedure is developed to derive the optimal joint economic lot size policy. Several criteria are identified to select the most appropriate warehouse configuration and inventory policy on the basis of storage duration of materials in a rent warehouse. Sensitivity analysis is done to examine the results of model robustness. The proposed model enables a manufacturer with a channel distributor to coordinate the use of alternative warehouses, and to maximise the joint profit of the manufacturer and the distributor.

  6. Deterioration of polymethyl methacrylate dentures in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hiroshi; Suenaga, Hanako; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Osamu; Sasaki, Keiichi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-made prostheses used in the oral cavity were evaluated by multimodal assessment in order to elucidate the biodeterioration of PMMA. In used dentures (UD), the micro-Vickers hardness of the polished denture surface and denture basal surface was lower than that of the torn surface (p<0.05), whereas the shaved surface approximately 100 µm from the polished surface showed a similar value to the torn surface. By contrast, there were no differences among these surfaces in new resin (NR). The volatile content of UD was higher than that of NR (p<0.05). Component analysis by ATR-FTIR showed specific spectra (1,700-1,400 cm(-1)) only in UD. This study revealed that PMMA deteriorated during long-term use in the oral cavity in terms of hardness and volatile content with component alteration, and suggests the involvement of biodeterioration, possibly due to saliva and oral microbiota.

  7. [Infant feeding practices and deterioration of breastfeeding in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Cosío, Teresita; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia; González-Castell, Luz Dinorah; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Ángel

    2013-01-01

    To present data on infant and young child feeding practices (IYCFP) in Mexico from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012) to support the development of public policy. Women 12-49y and children <2y. Indicators of IYCFP suggested by WHO were analyzed by geographic, socioeconomic, participation in food programs and health insurance variables. Median duration of breast-feeding: 10.2mo and 14.4% with exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) <6m. Breastfeeding deteriorated in most vulnerable groups. Decline in EBF<6m 2006-2012 was explained by increases in consumption of formula and other milks (4%) and water (4%). Three-quarters (74%) of 6-11mo infants had minimum food diversity, and it was lower in the most vulnerable. Complementary feeding improved but breastfeeding declined in Mexico. Promotion actions must be integral, coordinated, financed and evaluated, with Federal government leadership and should include the participation of various stakeholders.

  8. Oxidative flavour deterioration of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Frankel, E.N.

    2003-01-01

    -% of n-3 fatty acids) and one with cod liver oil (26 wt-% of n-3 fatty acids). The effect of added calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) on oxidation was also investigated. Emulsions based on cod liver oil with a slightly elevated peroxide value (1.5 meq/kg) oxidised significantly faster......The oxidative deterioration of milk emulsions supplemented with 1.5 wt-% fish oil was investigated by sensory evaluation and by determining the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products after cold storage. Two types of milk emulsions were produced, one with a highly unsaturated tuna oil (38 wt...... than the tuna oil emulsions, having a lower initial peroxide value (0.1 meq/kg). In the tuna oil emulsions the fishy off-flavour could not be detected throughout the storage period. Addition of 5-50 ppm EDTA significantly reduced the development of volatile oxidation products in the cod liver oil...

  9. Robust anger: recognition of deteriorated dynamic bodily emotion expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visch, Valentijn T; Goudbeek, Martijn B; Mortillaro, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, the robustness of anger recognition of bodily expressions is tested. In the first study, video recordings of an actor expressing four distinct emotions (anger, despair, fear, and joy) were structurally manipulated as to image impairment and body segmentation. The results show that anger recognition is more robust than other emotions to image impairment and to body segmentation. Moreover, the study showed that arms expressing anger were more robustly recognised than arms expressing other emotions. Study 2 added face blurring as a variable to the bodily expressions and showed that it decreased accurate emotion recognition-but more for recognition of joy and despair than for anger and fear. In sum, the paper indicates the robustness of anger recognition in multileveled deteriorated bodily expressions.

  10. Natural History and Factors Associated with Early and Delayed Mortality in HIV-Infected Patients Treated of Tuberculosis under Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course Strategy: A Prospective Cohort Study in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Alvarez-Uria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the impressive global results of DOTS in India, the effectiveness of DOTS for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients is not well known. This is an observational prospective cohort study performed in Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study included 1000 DOTS antituberculosis treatment (ATT episodes and 840 person-years. CD4 lymphocyte count was below 200 cells/mm3 in 77% of the cases, and 21% were retreatments. Two thirds were presented with extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis was tuberculous meningitis followed by pleuritis, abdominal tuberculosis, and lymphadenitis. Cumulative incidence of mortality was 16%, 26%, 39%, and 46% at 1, 3, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Factors associated with three-month (early mortality were being homeless, having low CD4+ lymphocyte count, having tuberculous meningitis, belonging to a socially disadvantaged community, having more than 35 years, and being on an antiretroviral therapy at the moment of initiating the ATT. Factors associated with delayed mortality were having low CD4+ lymphocyte count, belonging to a socially disadvantaged community, receiving a category II ATT because of a previous episode of ATT and having acid fast bacilli in sputum before the ATT initiation. These findings indicate that there is an urgent need to improve the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in India.

  11. Cognitive Deterioration in Moderate and Severe Hypobaric Hypoxia Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jeremy M A; Shender, Barry S; Chauvin, Daren; Dart, Todd S; Fischer, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    Hypoxia continues to present risks in military aviation. Hypoxia symptoms include sensory and cognitive effects; of these, it is important to identify which components of operator performance are most vulnerable to hypoxia-induced decline in order to determine which sensory modality is most effective for alerting an impaired aviator of an imminent hypoxic episode. A study was performed in a hypobaric chamber to characterize deterioration of cognitive performance under moderate (MH) and severe (SH) hypoxia conditions, culminating in subjects' inability to perform tasks. Subjects operated a synthetic workstation, performing multiple simultaneous tasks during hypobaric exposures equivalent to 5486 m (18,000 ft) MH and 7620 m (25,000 ft) SH ascents. Performance was compared across baseline, altitude exposure, and recovery periods within MH vs. SH altitude profiles. Ascents lasted until at least one of a list of termination criteria was met, at which point the chamber was returned to ground level pressure and the subject resumed workstation performance during recovery. SH conditions generated greater deficits than MH conditions, and these more severe effects hastened the termination of exposures (5 vs. 18 min mean duration, respectively). Workstation performance collapsed rapidly on SH exposure, with Mathematics and Auditory Monitoring tasks proving vulnerable to breakdown. In MH exposures, these tasks exhibited impaired accuracy (declining 11% and 9%, respectively) and speed, with declines in Auditory Monitoring lingering into recovery. The relative robustness of memory and visual monitoring vs. the vulnerability of mathematical and auditory processing suggest that care should be taken designing purely auditory cockpit hypoxia warning alerts.Beer JMA, Shender BS, Chauvin D, Dart TS, Fischer J. Cognitive deterioration in moderate and severe hypobaric hypoxia conditions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):617-626.

  12. Rock as a construction material: durability, deterioration and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esbert, Rosa M.ª

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available The different aspects related to the deterioration and conservation of stone, used as a construction material, are reviewed in this article. The petrographical characteristics and physical properties which control the durability of stone material are stated. The importance of the voids and the properties more directly linked to the up-taking and transfer of humidity through the stone are pointed out. Regarding to the deterioration processes, the role of water, soluble salts and atmospheric pollutants upon the different alteration mechanisms of the building stones is emphasized. Finally, the steps related to the stone conservation, and the methods and products more currently employed to that aim are revised.

    Se compendian los distintos aspectos relacionados con el deterioro y la conservación de la piedra utilizada como material de edificación. Se revisan las características petrográficas y propiedades físicas que controlan la durabilidad de los materiales pétreos, resaltando la importancia de los espacios vacíos y de aquellas propiedades más directamente relacionadas con la captación y transferencia de humedad por el interior de la piedra. En cuanto a los procesos de deterioro se destaca el papel del agua, de las sales solubles y de los contaminantes atmosféricos en los diversos mecanismos de alteración desarrollados en la piedra de edificación. Finalmente se plantean las diversas fases relacionadas con la conservación de la piedra, y se revisan los métodos y productos más empleados en la actualidad para tal fin.

  13. Non-deteriorating time domain numerical algorithms for Maxwell's electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropavlovsky, S.; Tsynkov, S.

    2017-05-01

    The Huygens' principle and lacunae can help construct efficient far-field closures for the numerical simulation of unsteady waves propagating over unbounded regions. Those closures can be either standalone or combined with other techniques for the treatment of artificial outer boundaries. A standalone lacunae-based closure can be thought of as a special artificial boundary condition (ABC) that is provably free from any error associated with the domain truncation. If combined with a different type of ABC or a perfectly matched layer (PML), a lacunae-based approach can help remove any long-time deterioration (e.g., instability) that arises at the outer boundary regardless of why it occurs in the first place. A specific difficulty associated with Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism is that in general their solutions do not have classical lacunae and rather have quasi-lacunae. Unlike in the classical case, the field inside the quasi-lacunae is not zero; instead, there is an electrostatic solution driven by the electric charges that accumulate over time. In our previous work [23], we have shown that quasi-lacunae can also be used for building the far-field closures. However, for achieving a provably non-deteriorating performance over arbitrarily long time intervals, the accumulated charges need to be known ahead of time. The main contribution of the current paper is that we remove this limitation and modify the algorithm in such a way that one can rather avoid the accumulation of charge all together. Accordingly, the field inside the quasi-lacunae becomes equal to zero, which facilitates obtaining the temporally uniform error estimates as in the case of classical lacunae. The performance of the modified algorithm is corroborated by a series of numerical simulations. The range of problems that the new method can address includes important combined formulations, for which the interior subproblem may be non-Huygens', and only the exterior subproblem, i.e., the far

  14. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2016-08-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency.

  15. Use of Just in Time Maintenance of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Structures based on Real Historical Data Deterioration Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Tair A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the backbone of any developed economy. Concrete can suffer from a large number of deleterious effects including physical, chemical and biological causes. Large owning bridge structures organizations are facing very serious questions when asking for maintenance budgets. The questions range from needing to justify the need for the work, its urgency, to also have to predict or show the consequences of delayed rehabilitation of a particular structure. There is therefore a need for a probabilistic model that can estimate the range of service lives of bridge populations and also the likelihood of level of deteriorations it can reached for every incremental time interval. A model was developed for such estimation based on statistical data from actual inspection records of a large reinforced concrete bridge portfolio. The method used both deterministic and stochastic methods to predict the service life of a bridge, using these service lives in combination with the just in time (JIT principle of management would enable maintenance managers to justify the need for action and the budgets needed, to intervene at the optimum time in the life of the structure and that of the deterioration. The paper will report on the model which is based on a large database of deterioration records of concrete bridges covering a period of over 60 years and include data from over 400 bridge structures. The paper will also illustrate how the service life model was developed and how these service lives combined with the JIT can be used to effectively allocate resources and use them to keep a major infrastructure asset moving with little disruption to the transport system and its users.

  16. Laryngeal sensation and pharyngeal delay time after (chemo)radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ozawa, Kikuko; Hiramatsu, Mariko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishio, Naoki; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between changes in laryngeal sensation and initiation of swallowing reflex or swallowing function before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital. Thirteen patients who received (chemo)radiotherapy for treatment of laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer were included. Laryngeal sensation was evaluated at the tip of the epiglottis before and 1, 3 months, and 1 year after (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy was performed at the same time. Quantitative determinations included changes in laryngeal sensation, computed analysis of pharyngeal delay time, the distance and velocity of hyoid bone movement during the phase of hyoid excursion, and pharyngeal residue rate (the proportion of the bolus that was left as residue in the pharynx at the first swallow). Laryngeal sensation significantly deteriorated 1 month after (chemo)radiotherapy, but there was a tendency to return to pretreatment levels 1 year after treatment. Neither pharyngeal delay time nor displacement of the hyoid bone changed significantly before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean velocity of hyoid bone movement and the amount of stasis in the pharynx at the first swallow before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. After (chemo)radiotherapy, laryngeal sensation deteriorated. But, in this study, videofluoroscopy showed that swallowing reflex and function were maintained.

  17. An integrated production inventory model of deteriorating items subject to random machine breakdown with a stochastic repair time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh Trung Luong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In a continuous manufacturing environment where production and consumption occur simultaneously, one of the biggest challenges is the efficient management of production and inventory system. In order to manage the integrated production inventory system economically it is necessary to identify the optimal production time and the optimal production reorder point that either maximize the profit or minimize the cost. In addition, during production the process has to go through some natural phenomena like random breakdown of machine, deterioration of product over time, uncertainty in repair time that eventually create the possibility of shortage. In this situation, efficient management of inventory & production is crucial. This paper addresses the situation where a perishable (deteriorated product is manufactured and consumed simultaneously, the demand of this product is stable over the time, machine that produce the product also face random failure and the time to repair this machine is also uncertain. In order to describe this scenario more appropriately, the continuously reviewed Economic Production Quantity (EPQ model is considered in this research work. The main goal is to identify the optimal production uptime and the production reorder point that ultimately minimize the expected value of total cost consisting of machine setup, deterioration, inventory holding, shortage and corrective maintenance cost.

  18. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1984-08-07

    Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.

  19. Transfer delay audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alraqi, S; Coughlan, R

    2007-05-01

    The purpose was to determine the average transfer time taken for acute patients to arrive to the medical unit from the time of referral by an A/E officer. We included the first 200 consecutive patients with completed records. 86 were men and 114 women, aged between 14 and 96 years. Transfer time was calculated as the difference from the time of referral by the A/E officer in UCHG to the time of arrival to the medical unit in MPH. The average transfer time for all patients was 91.5 minutes. The longest was in the second (17:00-24:00) interval with a mean of 105 minutes. 26.5% of patients arrived later than 2 hours after referral. Our findings confirm the existence of unacceptably long transfer time for a significant number of patients. Causes for this delay should be searched for to help find and implement solutions.

  20. Delay tolerant networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Longxiang; Luan, Tom H

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents emerging and promising communication methods for network reliability via delay tolerant networks (DTNs). Different from traditional networks, DTNs possess unique features, such as long latency and unstable network topology. As a result, DTNs can be widely applied to critical applications, such as space communications, disaster rescue, and battlefield communications. The brief provides a complete investigation of DTNs and their current applications, from an overview to the latest development in the area. The core issue of data forward in DTNs is tackled, including the importance of social characteristics, which is an essential feature if the mobile devices are used for human communication. Security and privacy issues in DTNs are discussed, and future work is also discussed.

  1. Macroscopical morphology of deterioration of the stone in the Cathedral of Seville, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcalde, M.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The lithotype mainly used in the construction of the Cathedral of Seville is the calcarenite from Puerto de Santa f/laria followed by the limestone from Espera. The primordial extrinsecal factor of deterioration is the atmospherical contamination, mainly sulphur oxides and smoke, within a humid environment. From both factors, the porose stone of a carbonated nature and the acid environment, we can deduce that the principal mechanism of deterioration is the chemical attack; the most important indicators of deterioration that have been found are the deposits and arenizations. In a "grosso modo" valoration we can say that the stone of structural employment is well conserved in its majority while the ornamental stone is degraded at 80%. Half the cresting is in a state of ruin and 20% of the tips have been removed or will have to be in the near future.

    El litotipo mayoritariamente empleado en la construcción de la Catedral de Sevilla es la calcarenita del Puerto de Santa María seguida de la caliza de Espera. El factor extrínseco de alteración primordial es la contaminación atmosférica, principalmente óxidos de azufre y humos, en ambiente húmedo. De ambos factores, piedra porosa de naturaleza carbonatada y medio ambiente ácido, puede deducirse que el principal mecanismo de alteración es el ataque químico y se ha encontrado que los indicadores de alteración más importantes son los depósitos y las arenizaciones. En una valoración a grosso modo puede decirse que la piedra de uso estructural se encuentra bien conservada en su mayor parte, y la ornamental degradada en un 80%. La mitad de las cresterías se encuentran en estado de ruina y un 20% de los remates han sido retirados o habrán de serlo próximamente.

  2. Evaluating the Rate of Stone Art Deterioration in Wadi Maghara and Wadi Mukattab, Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed HEMEDA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the key reasons for the status of Wadi Maghara and Wadi Mukattab as World Heritage Sites is the abundance of stone art present there. Unfortunately, in time, much of the stone art heritage in the two archaeological sites was lost, due to natural stone weathering processes, to static and dynamic actions and lately, due to the lack of preservation measures and to the action of people. That fragile art heritage is non-renewable and, therefore, it requires specialized management. Several stone facades in Wadi Maghara have embossed inscriptions of early rulers of Egypt, that document their expeditions to mine precious minerals, primarily turquoise and copper, that were found in the area. Wadi Mukattab (south of Wadi Maghara is the valley of inscriptions. Over a distance of 3 km along this valley inscriptions can be found on the mountain rocks that have mostly been made by Nabateans (2nd and 3rd Century but also by others, such as pilgrims, soldiers, merchants, throughout the centuries. In our case study, inscriptions from specific study areas were analyzed by using SEM, polarizing microscope, XRD, SEM with EDX, DTA-TGA, Grain Size Distribution, Pore Media Characterization and some stone samples were tested in the stone mechanics laboratory, to determine the physical and mechanical characteristics of the stone with carved inscriptions. Digital photographs were taken, with Geographic Information Systems software. Older images were compared with more recent ones and in order to classify and quantify the amount of deterioration that occurred over time. Various methodologies were applied to classify the images, and it was found that manual digitizing provided the best means for quantifying the amount of deterioration. Results showed that the damage was primarily caused due to the instability of stone structures, because of the extensive jointing and rock fall gravity, due to dynamic actions and the granular disaggregation of the stone surface. The

  3. Mitotic delay of irradiated cells and its connection with quantity of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobachevskij, P.N.; Fominykh, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    The study is dedicated to development of mathematical approach to interpret radiation-induced mitosic delay. An assumption is made that mitotic delay is conditioned by discrete injuries distributed in cells according to stochasticity of interaction of radiation and target substance. It is supposed to consider the problem on injuries nature causing mitotic delay and to use the developed method for accounting the effect of radiation-induced mitotic delay on registered chromosomal aberration yield. 10 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. Evaluation of Seismic Behaviors of Partially Deteriorated Reinforced Concrete Circular Columns Retrofitted with CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of the concrete strength in some regions of reinforced concrete (RC columns in practice may weaken the seismic behaviors of columns. Its effects on RC columns should be well understood. This paper aims to investigate the influences of deteriorated segment on the seismic behaviors of partially deteriorated RC columns and attempts to recover the seismic behaviors of partially deteriorated columns with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP composites. A finite element analysis was carried out to simulate the seismic behaviors of CFRP-confined partially deteriorated RC columns. The numerical results were verified by the laboratory tests of six specimens. Based on the finite element results, the failure location of partially deteriorated columns in an earthquake was predicted, and the effectiveness of CFRP retrofitted on partially deteriorated columns was evaluated.

  5. Location Estimation using Delayed Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Nørgård, Peter Magnus

    1998-01-01

    When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new techn...... technique to a sensor fusion system for estimating the location of an autonomous guided vehicle. The system fuses encoder and vision measurements in an extended Kalman filter. Results from experiments in a real environment are reported......When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new...

  6. Analysing deterioration of marble stones exposed to underwater conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Álvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Bethencourt, Manuel; Freire-Lista, David; Fort, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The peculiar conditions of the marine environment make the conservation of underwater archaeological sites an extremely complex procedure. This is due to the fact that the prevailing conditions in this environment promote the development of deterioration phenomena in submerged artefacts through the synergistic action of physical, chemical and biological factors. The objective of the present investigation was to determine how petrophysical properties of cultural heritage materials can be affected by being exposed to the specific underwater conditions of the sea bottom, and so, to evaluate how this can affect, in a long term, in their durability and evolution when they part of an archaeological site. For this purpose, two types of marble (the Italian Carrara and the Spanish Macael) were subjected to an experiment consisting of exposing stone materials for one and a half year to underwater conditions. The experimental test was located in an archaeological site in the Bay of Cadiz (southern Spain), Bajo del Chapitel (recognized as Cultural Interest), which includes remains of shipwrecks from different periods. In this site, samples were submerged to 12 m depth and placed in the sea bottom simulating the different positions in which underwater archaeological objects can be found (fully exposed, half buried and covered). Petrophysical characterisation involved determination of the apparent and bulk densities, water saturation (maximum water content a material may contain), open porosity (porosity accessible to water), chromatic parameters and ultrasonic velocity. Before measuring, samples were subjected to mechanical cleaning (in those samples with biological colonization) and to removal of salt deposits. Results showed significant differences in these petrophysical properties after underwater submersion, which were directly related to the type of underwater exposure condition. Comparative analysis of petrophysical properties, like the one conducted in this study

  7. Delayed Posthypoxic Leukoencephalopathy: Improvement with Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin King

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Delayed posthypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPHL may result from a variety of hypoxic insults, including respiratory depression from an opiate overdose. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism of DPHL remains uncertain. We describe a patient with a typical case of DPHL who responded clinically to antioxidant treatment. Methods: Clinical, serological, and radiographic investigations were undertaken in the evaluation of the patient. Results: A 63-year-old man developed altered mental status 10 days following recovery from an opiate overdose and aspiration pneumonia that required intubation. The clinical course and brain imaging were consistent with DPHL. Initiation of antioxidant therapy with vitamin E, vitamin C, B-complex vitamins, and coenzyme Q10 coincided with the prompt reversal of clinical deterioration. Conclusions: The potential therapeutic effect of antioxidants on DPHL needs to be explored in future cases. If this relationship indeed holds true, it would be consistent with the hypothesis that formation of reactive oxygen species during reperfusion plays a role in the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  8. Control systems with network delay

    OpenAIRE

    Şabanoviç, Asif; Sabanovic, Asif; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Yashiro, Daisuke; Acer, Merve; Ş.-Behliloviç, Nadira; S.-Behlilovic, Nadira

    2009-01-01

    In this paper motion control systems with delay in measurement and control channels are discussed and a new structure of the observer-predictor is proposed. The feature of the proposed system is enforcement of the convergence in both the estimation and the prediction of the plant output in the presence of the variable, unknown delay in both measurement and in the control channels. The estimation is based on the available data – undelayed control input, the delayed measurement of position o...

  9. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay

  10. Modeling delay in genetic networks: from delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R; Josić, Krešimir; Ott, William

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  11. The effects of an enhanced simulation programme on medical students? confidence responding to clinical deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    Hogg, George; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical deterioration in adult hospital patients is an identified issue in healthcare practice globally. Teaching medical students to recognise and respond to the deteriorating patient is crucial if we are to address the issue in an effective way. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an enhanced simulation exercise known as RADAR (Recognising Acute Deterioration: Active Response), on medical students? confidence. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted; the in...

  12. PO02 - Clinical profile of children admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit due to acute clinical deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Aagaard, Hanne; Olesen, Hanne Vebert

    2016-01-01

    , an understanding of the nature of illness is important to patient safety. PURPOSE: This study described the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcomes of children who experience unplanned admission to a PICU due to clinical deterioration. METHODS: A registry retrospective descriptive study describing...... and exploring life-threatening situations leading to unexpected transfers to PICU in hospitalised children. The study includes all paediatric departments in the Central Denmark Region. PERSPECTIVE: This study will provide knowledge to assist the research efforts to identify and improve the management...

  13. PRECISION TIME-DELAY CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creveling, R.

    1959-03-17

    A tine-delay circuit which produces a delay time in d. The circuit a capacitor, an te back resistance, connected serially with the anode of the diode going to ground. At the start of the time delay a negative stepfunction is applied to the series circuit and initiates a half-cycle transient oscillatory voltage terminated by a transient oscillatory voltage of substantially higher frequency. The output of the delay circuit is taken at the junction of the inductor and diode where a sudden voltage rise appears after the initiation of the higher frequency transient oscillations.

  14. Systematic of delayed neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, S.G.; Piksaikin, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental studies of the energy dependence of the delayed neutron (DN) parameters for various fission systems has shown that the behaviour of a some combination of delayed neutron parameters has a similar features. On the basis of this findings the systematics of delayed neutron experimental data for thorium, uranium, plutonium and americium isotopes have been investigated with the purpose to find a correlation of DN parameters with characteristics of fissioning system as well as a correlation between the delayed neutron parameters themselves. It was presented the preliminary results which were obtained during study the physics interpretation of the results [ru

  15. Time Delay of CGM Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773

  16. A Realistic Digital Deteriorating Patient to Foster Emergency Decision-Making Skills in Medical Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Emmanuel G.; Wiseman, Jeffrey; Naismith, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Deteriorating Patient Activity (DPA) is a real-life educational simulation that prepares medical students to effectively approach emergency situations through a role play where their instructor plays the role of a patient whose state is rapidly deteriorating. Although proven engaging and effe......The Deteriorating Patient Activity (DPA) is a real-life educational simulation that prepares medical students to effectively approach emergency situations through a role play where their instructor plays the role of a patient whose state is rapidly deteriorating. Although proven engaging...

  17. ASR DIAGNOSIS BY PETROGRAPHIC INVESTIGATION AND EVALUATION OF MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF ASR DETERIORATED PRETENSIONED PC BEAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Jun; Yamada, Kazuo; Kaneda, Kazuo; Iraha, Shigeo; Oshiro, Takeshi

    ASR diagnosis and evaluation of load carrying capacity have been performed on the pre-tensioned PC beam which was cut out of a national high way bridge. The bridge was replaced lately after 25years service due to ASR deterioration. Comprehensive investigations such as crack measurement, material strength test, petrographic investigation, beam bending test have been performed on the deteriorated beam. Cracks have been observed on all sides and the appearance has been classified as severe deterioration grade. Petrographic investigation concluded that the reacted mineral was mainly reactive cristobalite contained in andesite of fine aggregates and EPMA investigation found that the reaction seemed to be the final stage. The late expansive ASR has been superimposed by cryptocrystalline quartz in coarse aggregates and it is still in progress. Deteriorated concrete cores with no visual crack have reduced only 10% of compressive strength compared with design strength, but significant loss has been observed on the elastic modulus. The static bending load test on the deteriorated test beam showed 95% of design load capacity indicating that the visual deterioration on surfaces has affected slight damages at this moment. But loss of bending rigidity has been appeared on the deteriorated beam .after bending cracks have started. This comprehensive study including the petrographic diagnosis and the appraisal on mechanical performance of the deteriorated beam conclude that there is a possibility of ASR deterioration in progress and further loss of mechanical performance though the beam had some margin for loading capacity at this moment.

  18. Multi-Physics and Multi-Scale Deterioration Modelling of Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Stang, Henrik; Lepech, M.

    2016-01-01

    Deterioration of reinforced concrete infrastructure such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings represents one of the major challenges currently facing developed countries. While engineering tools and methods for structural modelling and design of new reinforced concrete infrastructure are mature......, methods and tools for modelling decades-long deterioration and maintenance are much less developed. In this paper, a multi-physics and multi-scale modelling approach for structural deterioration of reinforced concrete components due to reinforcement corrosion is presented. The multi-disciplinary modelling...... approach includes physical, chemical, electrochemical, and fracture mechanical processes at the material and meso-scale, which are further coupled with mechanical deterioration processes at the structural scale....

  19. Monitoring the Deterioration of Stone at Mindener MUSEUM'S Lapidarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomaska, G.

    2013-07-01

    Mindener Museum's Lapidarium incorporates a collection of stone work like reliefs, sculptures and inscriptions from different time epochs as advices of the city's history. These gems must be protected against environmental influences and deterioration. In advance of the measures a 3D reconstruction and detailed documentation has to be taken. The framework to establish hard- and software must match the museum's infrastructure. Two major question will be answered. Are low-cost scanning devices like depth cameras and digital of the shelf cameras suitable for the data acquisition? Does the functionality of open source and freeware covers the demand on investigation and analysis in this application? The working chain described in this contribution covers the structure from motion method and the reconstruction with RGB-D cameras. Mesh processing such as cleaning, smoothing, poisson surface reconstruction and texturing will be accomplished with MeshLab. Data acquisition and modelling continues in structure analysis. Therefore the focus lies as well on latest software developments related to 3D printing technologies. Repairing and finishing of meshes is a task for MeshMixer. Netfabb as a tool for positioning, dimensioning and slicing enables virtual handling of the items. On the Sketchfab web site one can publish and share 3D objects with integration into web pages supported by WebGL. Finally if a prototype is needed, the mesh can be uploaded to a 3D printing device provided by an online service.

  20. Theoretical and numerical study of heat transfer deterioration in HPLWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palko, D.; Anglart, H.

    2007-01-01

    A numerical investigation of the Heat Transfer Deterioration (HTD) phenomena is performed using the low-Re k - ω turbulence model. Steady state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved together with equations for the transport of enthalpy and turbulence. Equations are solved for the supercritical water flow at different pressures, using water properties from the standard IAPWS tables. All cases are extensively validated against experimental data. The influence of buoyancy on the HTD is demonstrated for different mass flow rates in the heated pipes. Numerical results prove that the RANS low-Re turbulence modeling approach is fully capable to simulate the heat transfer in pipes with the water flow at supercritical pressures. A study of buoyancy influence shows that for the low mass flow rates of coolant, the influence of buoyancy forces on the heat transfer in heated pipes is significant. For the high flow rates, buoyancy influence could be neglected and there are clearly other mechanisms causing the decrease in heat transfer at high coolant flow rates. (author)

  1. A damage mechanics based approach to structural deterioration and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattcharya, B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1998-02-01

    Structural deterioration often occurs without perceptible manifestation. Continuum damage mechanics defines structural damage in terms of the material microstructure, and relates the damage variable to the macroscopic strength or stiffness of the structure. This enables one to predict the state of damage prior to the initiation of a macroscopic flaw, and allows one to estimate residual strength/service life of an existing structure. The accumulation of damage is a dissipative process that is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Partial differential equations for damage growth in terms of the Helmholtz free energy are derived from fundamental thermodynamical conditions. Closed-form solutions to the equations are obtained under uniaxial loading for ductile deformation damage as a function of plastic strain, for creep damage as a function of time, and for fatigue damage as function of number of cycles. The proposed damage growth model is extended into the stochastic domain by considering fluctuations in the free energy, and closed-form solutions of the resulting stochastic differential equation are obtained in each of the three cases mentioned above. A reliability analysis of a ring-stiffened cylindrical steel shell subjected to corrosion, accidental pressure, and temperature is performed

  2. AIR QUALITY DETERIORATION IN TEHRAN DUE TO MOTORCYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafiepour and H. Kamalan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Since there is a rise of motorcycles population as well as other motor vehicles, it seems that air Pollution deterioration should be studied as one of its environmental impacts. The main objective of this study was to develop a number of scenarios in order to determine the amount of Tehran's air pollution attributable to motorcycles and select the best and the most probable case to be recommended for implementation. The first step was to collect data such as the number of active motorcycles, daily traffic volume, average traveling speed and actual emission factors. For this purpose, a detailed questionnaire was designed to be completed by field surveys and measurements. The collected data were compared with traffic volume data, manufacturing statistics and the latest production capacity forecast in this field. Finally, with this data and emission factors for each type of motorcycle, an emissions inventory model was chosen to provide annual emissions from motorcycles in Tehran in different scenarios. The results showed that in 2002, there has been about 450'000 active motorcycles (4-stroke 58%, 2-stroke 28%, and moped 14% with average speed of 40 km/h and average mileage of 110 km/d. Five scenarios were developed. The best scenario was "Changing all motorcycles to 4-strokes under EU-97 standard" which would result in reduction of NMVOC by 75%, CO by 35% and PM10 by 88%.

  3. MONITORING THE DETERIORATION OF STONE AT MINDENER MUSEUM'S LAPIDARIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pomaska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mindener Museum's Lapidarium incorporates a collection of stone work like reliefs, sculptures and inscriptions from different time epochs as advices of the city's history. These gems must be protected against environmental influences and deterioration. In advance of the measures a 3D reconstruction and detailed documentation has to be taken. The framework to establish hard- and software must match the museum's infrastructure. Two major question will be answered. Are low-cost scanning devices like depth cameras and digital of the shelf cameras suitable for the data acquisition? Does the functionality of open source and freeware covers the demand on investigation and analysis in this application? The working chain described in this contribution covers the structure from motion method and the reconstruction with RGB-D cameras. Mesh processing such as cleaning, smoothing, poisson surface reconstruction and texturing will be accomplished with MeshLab. Data acquisition and modelling continues in structure analysis. Therefore the focus lies as well on latest software developments related to 3D printing technologies. Repairing and finishing of meshes is a task for MeshMixer. Netfabb as a tool for positioning, dimensioning and slicing enables virtual handling of the items. On the Sketchfab web site one can publish and share 3D objects with integration into web pages supported by WebGL. Finally if a prototype is needed, the mesh can be uploaded to a 3D printing device provided by an online service.

  4. A damage mechanics based approach to structural deterioration and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattcharya, B.; Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1998-02-01

    Structural deterioration often occurs without perceptible manifestation. Continuum damage mechanics defines structural damage in terms of the material microstructure, and relates the damage variable to the macroscopic strength or stiffness of the structure. This enables one to predict the state of damage prior to the initiation of a macroscopic flaw, and allows one to estimate residual strength/service life of an existing structure. The accumulation of damage is a dissipative process that is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Partial differential equations for damage growth in terms of the Helmholtz free energy are derived from fundamental thermodynamical conditions. Closed-form solutions to the equations are obtained under uniaxial loading for ductile deformation damage as a function of plastic strain, for creep damage as a function of time, and for fatigue damage as function of number of cycles. The proposed damage growth model is extended into the stochastic domain by considering fluctuations in the free energy, and closed-form solutions of the resulting stochastic differential equation are obtained in each of the three cases mentioned above. A reliability analysis of a ring-stiffened cylindrical steel shell subjected to corrosion, accidental pressure, and temperature is performed.

  5. Situation awareness in undergraduate nursing students managing simulated patient deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Missen, Karen; Cooper, Simon; Bogossian, Fiona; Bucknall, Tracey; Cant, Robyn

    2014-06-01

    Nursing work often occurs in complex and potentially hazardous settings. Awareness of patient and practice environments is an imperative for nurses in practice. To explore nursing students' situation awareness while engaging in simulated patient deterioration scenarios. The educational process of FIRST(2)ACT was the model for the nurse intervention. Situation awareness was measured quantitatively using the Situation Awareness Global Assessment tool. Four domains were measured: physiological perception (patient parameters), global perception (surroundings), comprehension (interpretation of information), and projection (forecasting outcomes). Clinical laboratories at each of three participating universities. Ninety-seven nursing students from three Australian universities. Between March and July 2012, students participated in three video-recorded simulation events, in which a trained actor played patient roles and groups of three students worked as teams. To measure situation awareness, following the simulation each team leader was taken to a separate room and asked to report on a question set regarding the patient's vital signs, bedside setting and medical diagnosis. Overall, situation awareness was low (41%). Of the four domains, physiological perceptions scored the lowest (26%) and projection the highest (59%). Final year nursing students may not have well developed situation awareness skills, especially when dealing with these types of scenarios. Education providers need to consider ways to assist students to fully develop this attribute. Findings suggest that this is an aspect of undergraduate nursing education that requires significant consideration by curriculum developers. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Health condition and residual life of deteriorating technical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinertsen, Rune

    1997-12-31

    Many offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea approach the end of their useful life. The same is true of many power plants and technical systems in general. This thesis describes the theory and improves the methods for the determination of the health condition and residual life of technical systems. Rather than developing new methods it discusses new ways of using existing statistical methods. The main contributions are: (1) A survey of the literature of diagnosis, prediction and life extension for deteriorating technical systems, (2) A discussion of some consequences of selecting the wrong life model, (3) A description of problems related to the determination of mean residual life of non-repairable technical systems, (4) Presentation of the concept of `technical health` to describe the soundness of a system exposed to failure mechanisms, (5) A model for predicting the technical health and residual life of a corroding system, (6) Recommends requirements and methods for using expert knowledge in safety and reliability analysis, (7) A general inspection strategy for system fault diagnosis by using Shannon entropy, (8) Points out weaknesses and strengths of risk measures used in the offshore industry today. 237 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Control method for light deterioration of amorphous solar cell. 2. Temperature effect method; Amorphous taiyo denchi no hikari rekka yokuseiho. 2. Ondo kokaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, H.; Itsumi, J.; Sano, N. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Experimental studies have been carried out on suppressing early deterioration in amorphous silicon solar cells. The amorphous silicon solar cell is characterized by deterioration due to light irradiation and restoration due to temperature rise. An exposure experiment was performed under three conditions: installation in natural environment, installation with rear side of the solar cells covered with an insulating material, and installation with rear side of the solar cells covered with warming elements and an insulating material. Tests were made on suppressing progress of the early deterioration caused by temperature conditions. As a result, the efficiency in the natural condition was found to decrease as largely as 32% in an open circuit condition and 58% in a short circuit condition. The efficiency reduction rate was smaller in the open circuit condition when the insulation material was installed, but in the short circuit condition, resistance characteristics caused by rain water and electrolytic corrosion were exhibited. For the case with warming elements installed, the reduction in the efficiency was more remarkable, contrary to the expectation. The cause was determined that water existing between the rear side and the warming elements was warmed up, accelerating the electrolytic action, and resulting in deterioration advanced over a wide area in the rear side. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Delayed reactions to reusable protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontén, Ann; Dubnika, Inese

    2009-04-01

    The materials in plastic protective gloves are thought to cause less contact allergy than rubber gloves. Our aim was to estimate the frequency of delayed reactions to different types of reusable protective gloves among dermatitis patients. 2 x 2 cm pieces of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gloves, nitrile gloves, and natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves were tested as is in consecutive dermatitis patients tested with the baseline series. Among 658 patients, 6 patients reacted to PVC gloves and 6 patients to the NRL gloves. None reacted to both these types of gloves. Five of six patients with reactions to rubber gloves reacted to thiuram mix in the baseline series. Delayed reactions to reusable PVC gloves may be as common as to reusable NRL gloves. In contrast to most reactions to the NRL glove, the reactions to the PVC glove had no obvious association with reactions to any allergen(s) in the baseline series.

  9. Delay in the diagnosis of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Pilegaard

    This PhD thesis is based on the project "Cancer in general practice" conducted from 2004 to 2005 in the County of Aarhus, Denmark. The thesis is based on four articles and focuses on delay in the diagnosis of cancer in an established cohort of newly diagnosed cancer patients. The composite nature...... reports that old age, patient symptom reactions in the form of active seeking of information and support, as well as the active supportive behaviour of partners were important predictors of short patient delays, while patient tendencies to respond to threatening stimuli with emotional control and avoidant....... It is concluded that the study design may, to some extent, have given rise to selection and information bias and a risk of confounding, which, however, was largely accounted for in the analyses. We found a wide generalizability, although differences in health care systems regarding financing, degree...

  10. Application of delayed neutron counting at CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caijin Xiao; Yonggang Yao; Xiangchun Jin; Long Hua; Pingsheng Wang; Bangfa Ni

    2017-01-01

    Delayed neutron counting (DNC) was applied in quantitative determination of 235 U/ 238 U, quantitative determination of 235 U and 239 Pu in 235 U- 239 Pu co-existing samples at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). In this work, natural uranium, enriched uranium and their mixtures were used in the determinations of 235 U/ 238 U ratios. The results indicated that delayed neuron counting combined with neutron activation analysis(NAA) and k 0 -NAA for the measurement of gamma rays emitted by 239 U decay is suitable for fast determination 235 U/ 238 U ratio. In addition, the contents of 235 U and 239 Pu in 235 U- 239 Pu co-existing samples can also be determined respectively. (author)

  11. EOQ Model for Deteriorating Items with exponential time dependent Demand Rate under inflation when Supplier Credit Linked to Order Quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Prakash Tripathi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In paper (2004 Chang studied an inventory model under a situation in which the supplier provides the purchaser with a permissible delay of payments if the purchaser orders a large quantity. Tripathi (2011 also studied an inventory model with time dependent demand rate under which the supplier provides the purchaser with a permissible delay in payments. This paper is motivated by Chang (2004 and Tripathi (2011 paper extending their model for exponential time dependent demand rate. This study develops an inventory model under which the vendor provides the purchaser with a credit period; if the purchaser orders large quantity. In this chapter, demand rate is taken as exponential time dependent. Shortages are not allowed and effect of the inflation rate has been discussed. We establish an inventory model for deteriorating items if the order quantity is greater than or equal to a predetermined quantity. We then obtain optimal solution for finding optimal order quantity, optimal cycle time and optimal total relevant cost. Numerical examples are given for all different cases. Sensitivity of the variation of different parameters on the optimal solution is also discussed. Mathematica 7 software is used for finding numerical examples.

  12. High resolution digital delay timer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  13. System delays in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    we notice a discrepancy in incidence rates between various ethnic/race .... Thailand. 180. 2. 3. 5 to diagnosis NOT treatment‡. This study. South Africa 45. -. 2.5. 3. 1.25. 3. -. 10. *Total delay refers to totals for available datasets and not necessarily mean delay to treatment/surgery commencement. †Montella et al. presented ...

  14. Magnetic bearing optical delay line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Kamphues, F.G.; Fouss, B.; Henrioulle, K.; Hogenhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    TNO TPD, in close cooperation with Micromega-Dynamics and Dutch Space, has developed an advanced Optical Delay Line (ODL) for use in PRIMA, GENIE and other ground based interferometers. The delay line design is modular and flexible, which makes scaling for other applications a relatively easy task.

  15. #FakeNobelDelayReasons

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Tuesday’s hour-long delay of the Nobel Prize in Physics announcement was (and still is) quite the cause for speculation. But on the Twittersphere, it was simply the catalyst for some fantastic puns, so-bad-they're-good physics jokes and other shenanigans. Here are some of our favourite #FakeNobelDelayReasons.    

  16. Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market. (technical design note)

  17. The effectiveness of virtual simulation in improving student nurses' knowledge and performance during patient deterioration: A pre and post test design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg Sapiano, Alexis; Sammut, Roberta; Trapani, Josef

    2018-03-01

    Preparing nursing students to perform competently in complex emergency situations, such as during rapid patient deterioration, is challenging. Students' active engagement in such scenarios cannot be ensured, due to the unexpected nature of such infrequent events. Many students may consequently not experience and integrate the management of patient deterioration into their knowledge and practical competency by the end of their studies, making them unprepared to manage such situations as practicing nurses. This study investigated the effectiveness of virtual simulation in improving performance during rapid patient deterioration. To investigate the effectiveness of virtual simulation in improving student nurses' knowledge and performance during rapid patient deterioration. A pre- and post-test design was used. Nursing students at a university in Malta were invited to participate in a virtual simulation program named FIRST 2 ACTWeb™, using their own computer devices. A total of 166 (response rate=50%) second and third year diploma and degree nursing students participated in the study. The simulation included three scenarios (Cardiac-Shock-Respiratory) portraying deteriorating patients. Performance feedback was provided at the end of each scenario. Students completed pre- and post-scenario knowledge tests and performance during each scenario was recorded automatically on a database. Findings showed a significant improvement in the students' post-scenario knowledge (z=-6.506, psimulation as an effective learning tool for pre-registration nursing students in different programs. Simulation improves both knowledge about and performance during patient deterioration. Virtual simulation of rare events should be a key component of undergraduate nurse education, to prepare students to manage complex situations as practicing nurses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Project delay analysis of HRSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvianita; Novega, A. S.; Rosyid, D. M.; Suntoyo

    2017-08-01

    Completion of HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) fabrication project sometimes is not sufficient with the targeted time written on the contract. The delay on fabrication process can cause some disadvantages for fabricator, including forfeit payment, delay on HRSG construction process up until HRSG trials delay. In this paper, the author is using semi quantitative on HRSG pressure part fabrication delay with configuration plant 1 GT (Gas Turbine) + 1 HRSG + 1 STG (Steam Turbine Generator) using bow-tie analysis method. Bow-tie analysis method is a combination from FTA (Fault tree analysis) and ETA (Event tree analysis) to develop the risk matrix of HRSG. The result from FTA analysis is use as a threat for preventive measure. The result from ETA analysis is use as impact from fabrication delay.

  19. Delay discounting of different commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Terrell, Heather K; Derenne, Adam

    2010-01-01

    When outcomes are delayed, their value is decreased. Delay discounting is a much-studied topic because it is correlated with certain disorders (e.g., pathological gambling). The present study attempts to determine how people would delay discount a number of different commodities, ranging from money to dating partners to federal education legislation. Participants completed delay discounting tasks pertaining to 5 different commodities, with a different set of 5 commodities for 2 groups. Results showed that different commodities were often discounted differently. Both data sets were also subjected to factor analysis. A 2-factor solution was found for both, suggesting that there are multiple "domains" of commodities. This finding is of interest because it suggests that measuring delay discounting for one commodity within a particular domain of commodities will be predictive of how people discount other commodities within that domain but will not be predictive of how they discount commodities within another domain.

  20. Clinical deterioration after sildenafil cessation in patients with pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Keogh

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Anne M Keogh, Andrew Jabbour, Christopher S Hayward, Peter S MacdonaldHeart Lung Transplant Unit, St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: Sildenafil is a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5. Its chronic administration has been shown to improve exercise capacity, World Health Organization functional class, and haemodynamics in patients with symptomatic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. There is however, no data describing the clinical consequences of sudden cessation of sildenafil treatment. In this series, 9 patients with NYHA Class II–IV PAH who were stable on 2 months of sildenafil monotherapy, had their sildenafil ceased to accommodate a 2-week washout period, required for enrollment in research involving an endothelin receptor antagonist. Six minute walk distance (SMWD and clinical assessments were performed before cessation of sildenafil, and again 2 weeks later. Over the course of this 2-week washout period, 6 of the 9 patients reported increased breathlessness and fatigue, 1 of these was hospitalized with worsening right heart failure. The SMWD fell in 6 patients, with falls of greater than 100 m recorded in 4 patients. This was accompanied by a worsening of NYHA Class from 2.5 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.1 (mean ± SEM, p = 0.01. These data indicate that sudden cessation of sildenafil monotherapy, in patients with PAH, carries with it a significant and unpredictable risk of rapid clinical deterioration. We recommend that if sildenafil needs to be ceased, it would be more prudent to consider concurrent vasodilator therapy before the gradual cessation of sildenafil.Keywords: sildenafil, pulmonary hypertension, phosphodiesterase inhibitor

  1. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Toshiko; Miyamoto, Kazuto; Beppu, Hirokuni; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Katsuhiro

    1981-01-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author)

  2. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Beppu, H.; Hirose, K.; Yamada, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author).

  3. Macroscopical morphology of deterioration of the stone in the Cathedral of Cádiz, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcalde, M.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Two factors have determined the actual deterioration state of the Cathedral of Cádiz, one is natural and the other is anthropogenic. On one hand, the presence of salts conditioned by atmospherical environment and saline solutions of the rising damp; on the other hand, the vicissitudes suffered by the temple during its construction, having been unprotected for long periods of time both internally and externally the bad use of the building and the little maintenance carried out on it. The crystallization and dissolution, and salt hydratation and dehydratation mechanisms have provoked serious deteriorations in the foreign lithotypes: spalling in compact limestones, chipping and pulverizations in marbles; the autochthonous “ostionera", well-balanced in the medium, presents a good state of conservation. The interior of the Cathedral, contrary to the normal, is much more degraded than the exterior.

    Dos son los factores de alteración que han determinado el estado actual de alteración de la Catedral de Cádiz, uno natural y otro antropogénico. Por una parte la presencia de sales, condicionada tanto por el ambiente atmosférico como por la ascensión capilar desde el subsuelo de soluciones salinas; por otra, las vicisitudes sufridas por el templo durante su construcción, desprotegido del medio largos períodos de tiempo tanto interior como exteriormente, el mal uso del mismo y las escasas actuaciones de mantenimiento. Los mecanismos de aumento de volumen en capilares e intersticios ligados a la cristalización y disolución, e hidratación y deshidratación de sales, han provocado graves alteraciones en los litotipos foráneos, siendo los indicadores de alteración más típicos en esta Catedral las fragmentaciones en las calizas compactas, disyunciones y pulverizaciones en los mármoles, y eflorescencias de forma general; la autóctona ostionera, en buen equilibrio con el medio, presenta un buen estado de conservación. El interior de la

  4. Heritage stones and their deterioration in rock-cut monuments in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod K.

    2017-04-01

    India is dotted with thousands of rock- cut monuments of considerable antiquity having artwork of global importance. It is evident from the location of many of these monuments that knowledge of viable selection of site, geotechnical considerations and amenability to sculptures' chisel was vital for construction of rock-cut monuments and sculptures. These rock-cut structures also represent significant achievements of geotechnical and structural engineering and craftsmanship of contemporary period. The paper deals with some of the sites where natural rock-mass exposures were used to hew the monuments and highlight the deterioration owing to geological and climatic conditions. The Kailash temple in Ellora and Ajanta rock-cut caves are among the greatest architectural feats which owe their grandeur to amenability and consistency of basalt of Deccan Volcanic Province from which it is hewn. The Kailash Temple was created through a single, huge top-down excavation 100 feet deep down into the volcanic basaltic cliff rock. These ancient rock cut structures are amazing achievements of structural engineering and craftsmanship. The lava flows are nearly horizontal, competent rock medium facilitated the chiseling for the sculptures. The deterioration of these basalts are seen where the amygdule, vesicles and opening in rock discontinuity had the medium of construction or excavation. The monolithic rock- cut monuments of Mahabalipuram temples are constructed in the form of rathas or chriot and adjoining caves by excavating solid charnockite/granites. The large rock exposures are excavated and cut to perfection with wall decorations and sculptured art. The charnockites are the strongest and the most durable rock, yet quite amenable to fine dressing. These monolithic monuments in charnockite and are cut out of the hillock. The 7th Century monuments now exhibit somewhat rough surface probably due to weathering effect of salt laden winds from the sea side and alteration of feldspars

  5. Deterioration of wood from live and dead Alaska yellow-cedar in contact with soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Hennon; Bessie Woodward; Patricia Lebow

    2007-01-01

    The deterioration of heartwood from live and dead Alaska yellow-cedar trees was evaluated by exposing ministakes in soils at field sites in Alaska and Mississippi for 2 and 4 year intervals. Southern yellow pine sapwood served as a control. The vastly greater deterioration, as measured by weight loss, in Mississippi compared to Alaska (60 and 10 percent after 4 years,...

  6. On Rotor-Blade Deterioration and Pressure Losses in a Gas-Turbine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blade deterioration and pressure losses in a gas-turbine plant. This was achieved ... Rotor-blade deterioration result in 1.2 percent drop in pressure ratio across the compressor, with a corresponding drop in isentropic efficiency from 0.83 to 0.72.

  7. Ultrasonic measurements of undamaged concrete layer thickness in a deteriorated concrete structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demcenko, A.; Visser, Roy; Akkerman, Remko

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic wave propagation in deteriorated concrete structures was studied numerically and experimentally. Ultrasonic single-side access immersion pulse-echo and diffuse field measurements were performed in deteriorated concrete structures at 0.5 MHz center frequency. Numerically and experimentally

  8. 76 FR 31241 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Program; Massachusetts; Announcing Delegation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Deterioration (PSD) Program; Massachusetts; Announcing Delegation Agreement Between EPA and Massachusetts... authority to implement and enforce the Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program to the... at the Office of Ecosystem Protection, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA New England Regional...

  9. 40 CFR 90.118 - Certification procedure-service accumulation and usage of deterioration factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification procedure-service accumulation and usage of deterioration factors. 90.118 Section 90.118 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... procedure—service accumulation and usage of deterioration factors. (a)(1) The test engine must be operated...

  10. Cranial CT, Lumbar Puncture, and Clinical Deterioration in Bacterial Meningitis: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costerus, Joost M; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Sprengers, Marieke E S; Roosendaal, Stefan D; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2018-03-07

    It is unclear how often lumbar puncture (LP) is complicated by cerebral herniation in patients with bacterial meningitis and whether cranial CT can be used to identify patients at risk for herniation. We performed a nationwide prospective cohort study of patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis from 2006 to 2014 and identified patients with clinical deterioration possibly caused by LP. For systematic evaluation of contraindications for LP on cranial CT, these patients were matched to patients in the cohort without deterioration. Four experts, blinded for outcome, scored cranial CT results for contraindications for LP. A Fleiss' generalized Kappa for this assessment was determined. Of 1533 episodes, 47 (3.1%) had deterioration possibly caused by LP. Two patients deteriorated within 1 hour after LP (0.1%). In 43 of 47 patients with deterioration cranial CT was performed prior to LP, so CT results were matched with 43 patients without deterioration. The interrater reliability of assessment of contraindications for LP on cranial CT was moderate (Fleiss' generalized Kappa 0.47). A contraindication for LP was reported by all 4 raters in 6 patients with deterioration (14%) and in 5 without deterioration (11%). LP can be performed safely in the large majority of patients with bacterial meningitis, as it is only very rarely complicated by cerebral herniation. Cranial CT can be considered a screening method for contraindications for LP, but the interrater reliability of this assessment is moderate.

  11. Do Work Characteristics Predict Health Deterioration Among Employees with Chronic Diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, A. de; Boot, C.R.L.; Sewdas, R.; Scharn, M.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Beek, A.J. van der

    2017-01-01

    Purpose In our ageing workforce, the increasing numbers of employees with chronic diseases are encouraged to prolong their working lives. It is important to prevent health deterioration in this vulnerable group. This study aims to investigate whether work characteristics predict health deterioration

  12. Immediate and delayed hypersensitivity to systemic corticosteroids: 2 case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Lauren; Pratt, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Both immediate, type I reactions and delayed hypersensitivity, type IV reactions to systemic corticosteroid preparations have been reported. Type I reactions are rare, with delayed hypersensitivity reactions being slightly more common. A 33-year-old woman presented repeatedly to the emergency department with asthma attacks. She developed pruritus and hives approximately 30 minutes after the administration of parenteral corticosteroids. Her respiratory status deteriorated approximately 6 hours after she received the corticosteroids. An acute eczematous dermatitis on her face, neck, and upper body appeared 24 hours after administration of the corticosteroids. The dermatitis peaked at 72 hours. Intradermal testing to Solu-Medrol, Solu-Cortef, prednisone, and Decadron confirmed a type I, anaphylactoid reaction. The dermatitis that presented 24 hours after administration of the parenteral corticosteroids is consistent clinically with a type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction to the corticosteroids. A second patient, a 51-year-old woman, developed urticarial lesions that lasted approximately 30 minutes, immediately after intralesional triamcinolone injections for keloid scars. Intradermal testing was performed. She showed a positive reaction to triamcinolone confirming a type I allergy to this steroid. It is important to consider an allergy to corticosteroids in patients with worsening anaphylactic symptoms after administration of systemic corticosteroids.

  13. Deterioration of ancient metallic elements taken from Toledo cathedral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño González, Juan Guillermo

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction of Toledo Cathedral spanned a period of more than 200 years and was influenced by many different trends and criteria, reflected in the wide range of styles it accommodates (basically Mudéjar and Gothic, with Flemish, baroque and renaissance elements. Over the centuries it has undergone numerous restorations, also according to different criteria. The cathedral is situated in an environment of low aggressivity, in terms of atmospheric contamination, but the passage of time has taken its toll on many structural, architectural and artistic elements. During recent restoration work several metallic elements, which have been exposed for many years or even centuries to the inclemencies of the Toledo climate, were taken in order to analyse their composition and deterioration. The techniques used have been Scanning Electron Microscopy with X-Ray Microprobe (SEM/EDAX, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. The elements considered are a piece of roofing lead, a lead slate clamp, a piece of stained glass window leading, and an iron nail.

    La Catedral de Toledo se edificó en un período de más de 200 años, bajo numerosos criterios de construcción que se reflejan en la multiplicidad de estilos que alberga (entre mudéjar y gótico, con aportaciones flamencas, barrocas y renacentistas. A través de los siglos, ha sido objeto de numerosas restauraciones, también bajo distintos criterios. La catedral está ubicada en un ambiente poco agresivo, en cuanto a corrosión atmosférica se refiere. Sin embargo, el discurrir de tantos años no deja de hacer mella en los diversos elementos estructurales, arquitectónicos y artísticos que la componen. En recientes restauraciones se obtuvieron algunos elementos metálicos que han estado expuestos, por muchos años, siglos inclusive, a las inclemencias del clima toledano, con el propósito de analizar su composición y deterioro, empleando las técnicas de Microscopio

  14. Fractional delayed damped Mathieu equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbahi, Afshin; Haeri, Mohammad; Nazari, Morad; Butcher, Eric A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper investigates the dynamical behaviour of the fractional delayed damped Mathieu equation. This system includes three different phenomena (fractional order, time delay, parametric resonance). The method of harmonic balance is employed to achieve approximate expressions for the transition curves in the parameter plane. The n = 0 and n = 1 transition curves (both lower and higher order approximations) are obtained. The dependencies of these curves on the system parameters and fractional orders are determined. Previous results for the transition curves reported for the damped Mathieu equation, delayed second-order oscillator, and fractional Mathieu equation are confirmed as special cases of the results for the current system.

  15. PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James; Della Valle, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M sun , or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

  16. Ergodic Interference Alignment with Delayed Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Myung Gil; Choi, Wan

    2013-01-01

    We propose new ergodic interference alignment techniques for $K$-user interference channels with delayed feedback. Two delayed feedback scenarios are considered -- delayed channel information at transmitter (CIT) and delayed output feedback. It is proved that the proposed techniques achieve total $2K/(K+2)$ DoF which is higher than that by the retrospective interference alignment for the delayed feedback scenarios.

  17. Revisiting the concept of environmental Kuznets curve in period of energy disaster and deteriorating income: Empirical evidence from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the position of the Japanese environmental Kuznets curve in period of natural disaster and deteriorating income following the recent Fukushima energy crisis. The study aim to establish whether the EKC exist in period of energy disaster and deteriorating income. To ensure this, data from 1961 to 2012 was used while the Zivot-Andrew structural break test, the ARDL bounds test were applied, and these were validated using the innovation accounting test. The finding of the study established the existence of inverted-U shape, suggesting the presence of EKC despite the deteriorating income of the country. With the discovery of the existence of EKC in this study despite the dwindling productivity and revenue in Japan, this study challenged the EKC hypothesis and all existing studies on EKC, by establishing that natural disasters are in themselves strong causative agents for the EKC to unfold and it is immaterial whether the economic fortunes of a country is increasing or decreasing. The study further discovered energy consumption to be the major contributor of environmental degradation in Japan, while exports declines CO 2 emissions, but imports adds to environmental degradation. On the growth prospects of the Japanese economy after the crisis, the study discovered how energy consumption, exports, and imports contribute 33.55%, 1.027% and 7.126% to the country's economic growth respectively; in return a minimum of 16.24%, 23.89% and 44.18% of CO 2 emissions was discovered. The study proposed policy instruments that will help in realizing a balanced environment amidst efficient energy consumption and environmental management among others. - Highlights: •EKC exist in Japan in spite of the country's energy disaster and deteriorating income. •Energy consumption was found to be the major contributor to environmental degradation. •Energy disasters are in themselves agents for the EKC to unfold immaterial of fortunes. •Economic growth

  18. Using remotely sensed imagery to monitor savanna rangeland deterioration through woody plant proliferation: a case study from communal and biodiversity conservation rangeland sites in Mokopane, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Munyati, C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 Environ Monit Assess (2011) 176:293?311 Using remotely sensed imagery to monitor savanna rangeland deterioration through woody plant proliferation: a case study from communal and biodiversity conservation rangeland sites in Mokopane, South Africa... Christopher Munyati Ecosystems Earth Observation Research Group, Natural Resources and the Environment Unit, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), P.O. Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa, e-mail: cmunyati@csir.co.za, chrismunyati...

  19. Visual prediction: psychophysics and neurophysiology of compensation for time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhawan, Romi

    2008-04-01

    A necessary consequence of the nature of neural transmission systems is that as change in the physical state of a time-varying event takes place, delays produce error between the instantaneous registered state and the external state. Another source of delay is the transmission of internal motor commands to muscles and the inertia of the musculoskeletal system. How does the central nervous system compensate for these pervasive delays? Although it has been argued that delay compensation occurs late in the motor planning stages, even the earliest visual processes, such as phototransduction, contribute significantly to delays. I argue that compensation is not an exclusive property of the motor system, but rather, is a pervasive feature of the central nervous system (CNS) organization. Although the motor planning system may contain a highly flexible compensation mechanism, accounting not just for delays but also variability in delays (e.g., those resulting from variations in luminance contrast, internal body temperature, muscle fatigue, etc.), visual mechanisms also contribute to compensation. Previous suggestions of this notion of "visual prediction" led to a lively debate producing re-examination of previous arguments, new analyses, and review of the experiments presented here. Understanding visual prediction will inform our theories of sensory processes and visual perception, and will impact our notion of visual awareness.

  20. Progressive speech deterioration and dysphagia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, J P; Hartman, D E

    1979-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative neurologic disease having both upper and lower motor neuron signs and symptoms. When the speech musculature is involved, a mixed dysarthria and dysphagia usually result. In a 49-year-old man with ALS, dysarthria and dysphagia progressed from mild to severe forms over 17 months. Eleven months after the patient first experienced symptoms, neurologic examination showed fasciculations of the extremities and tongue, limb weakness, and hyperreflexia of the limbs and velopharyngeal mechanism. Tongue strength was one-fourth that of normal. Lingual alternate motions rates for consonant-vowel syllables were also reduced. To enhance lingual strength and swallowing, a tongue-strengthening program was developed for use with articulation training; to augment velopharyngeal function, a palatal lift was fitted; and to increase extremity strength, physical therapy was initiated. Six months after the initial neurologic examination, medical and speech reevaluation showed progressive weakness of the body parts affected initially; continued decline in tongue strength and lingual alternate motion rate; hypoactive reflex activity, indicative of progressive involvement of the lower motor neuron system; and continued deterioration of articulation and phonation owing to the progressive nature of the disease.

  1. A Collaborative Strategy for a Three Echelon Supply Chain with Ramp Type Demand, Deterioration and Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A supply chain system has been investigated in which a single manufacturer procures raw materials from a single supplier, processes them to produce finished products, and then delivers the products to a single retailer. The customer's demand rate is assumed to be time-sensitive in nature (ramp type that allows two-phase variation in the demand and production rate. Our adoption of ramp type demand reflects a real market demand for a newly launched product. Shortages are allowed with partial backlogging of demand (only for the retailer, i.e. the rest represent lost sales. The effects of inflation of the cost parameters and deterioration are also considered separately. We show that the total cost function is convex. Using this convexity, a simple algorithm is presented to determine the optimal order quantity and optimal cycle time for the total cost function. The results are discussed with numerical examples and particular cases of the model discussed briefly. A sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to the parameters of the system is carried out. (original abstract

  2. Fractional variational principles with delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Abdeljawad, Thabet Maaraba; Jarad, Fahd

    2008-01-01

    The fractional variational principles within Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives in the presence of delay are analyzed. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are obtained and one example is analyzed in detail

  3. Linear rotary optical delay lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerboukha, Hichem; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2016-03-01

    We present a semi-analytical solution for the design of a high-speed rotary optical delay line that use a combination of two rotating curvilinear reflectors. We demonstrate that it is possible to design an infinite variety of the optical delay lines featuring linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle. This is achieved via shape optimization of the rotating reflector surfaces. Moreover, a convenient spatial separation of the incoming and outgoing beams is possible. For the sake of example, we present blades that fit into a circle of 10cm diameter. Finally, a prototype of a rotary delay line is fabricated using CNC machining, and its optical properties are characterized.

  4. Delays and networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl

    2016-01-01

    This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  5. Climate models with delay differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Andrew; Krauskopf, Bernd; Postlethwaite, Claire M.

    2017-11-01

    A fundamental challenge in mathematical modelling is to find a model that embodies the essential underlying physics of a system, while at the same time being simple enough to allow for mathematical analysis. Delay differential equations (DDEs) can often assist in this goal because, in some cases, only the delayed effects of complex processes need to be described and not the processes themselves. This is true for some climate systems, whose dynamics are driven in part by delayed feedback loops associated with transport times of mass or energy from one location of the globe to another. The infinite-dimensional nature of DDEs allows them to be sufficiently complex to reproduce realistic dynamics accurately with a small number of variables and parameters. In this paper, we review how DDEs have been used to model climate systems at a conceptual level. Most studies of DDE climate models have focused on gaining insights into either the global energy balance or the fundamental workings of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) system. For example, studies of DDEs have led to proposed mechanisms for the interannual oscillations in sea-surface temperature that is characteristic of ENSO, the irregular behaviour that makes ENSO difficult to forecast and the tendency of El Niño events to occur near Christmas. We also discuss the tools used to analyse such DDE models. In particular, the recent development of continuation software for DDEs makes it possible to explore large regions of parameter space in an efficient manner in order to provide a "global picture" of the possible dynamics. We also point out some directions for future research, including the incorporation of non-constant delays, which we believe could improve the descriptive power of DDE climate models.

  6. Macroscópical morphology of deterioration of the stone in the Cathedral of Almería/Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcalde, M.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing winds in the area, associated with an important rising damp are the main natural factors of deterioration that affect the Cathedral of Almería. Certain unfortunate maintenance Jobs carried out as well as the bombardments and machine-gunning on the building during the Civil War can be indicated as anthropogenical factors of deterioration. The only lithotype used in the construction is a dolomitic limestone of high porosity from quarries near the city. The increase in volume in capillaries and interstices, related whith the presence of salts, and the dissolution, due to the great solubility of the natural magnesium salts which can produce dedolomitization of the stone, are the main deterioration mechanisms. This leads to indicators of deterioration with a typical morphology consisting of openings in all its manifestations (pitting, alveolar erosions and craters especially on the high and low parts of the building where the wind and humidity, respectively, are more intense. The anthropogenical deterioration also has the shape of openings, such as the impact of bullets and obuses on the Southern facade and the grooves made for electric cables throughout the building. Diverse restorations have introduced tensions in the materials which have led to decohesions at different degrees (disaggregations, disintegrations and grain disgregations in the interior of the temple and cloister. The building is in a state of deterioration of a certain significance which essentially affects its esthetics. The speed in the degrading process observed in some areas calls for action for its maintenance.

    Los vientos reinantes en la zona, asociados a una importante humedad ascendente, son los principales factores naturales de alteración que afectan a la Catedral de Almería. Pueden señalarse como factores antropogénicos de alteración ciertas desafortunadas labores de mantenimiento llevadas a cabo, así como, aunque con carácter episódico, los

  7. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  8. Analytical applications for delayed neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical formulations that describe the time dependence of neutron populations in nuclear materials contain delayed-neutron dependent terms. These terms are important because the delayed neutrons, even though their yields in fission are small, permit control of the fission chain reaction process. Analytical applications that use delayed neutrons range from simple problems that can be solved with the point reactor kinetics equations to complex problems that can only be solved with large codes that couple fluid calculations with the neutron dynamics. Reactor safety codes, such as SIMMER, model transients of the entire reactor core using coupled space-time neutronics and comprehensive thermal-fluid dynamics. Nondestructive delayed-neutron assay instruments are designed and modeled using a three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code. Calculations on high-burnup spent fuels and other materials that contain a mix of uranium and plutonium isotopes require accurate and complete information on the delayed-neutron periods, yields, and energy spectra. A continuing need exists for delayed-neutron parameters for all the fissioning isotopes

  9. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents Page Content ... situation or repeats scripts from TV Delays in language Delays in language are the most common types ...

  11. Field analysis of the deterioration after some years of use of four insect-proof screens utilized in Mediterranean greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. López-Martínez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The installation of insect-proof screens on greenhouse vents is one of the principal methods of protection against harmful insects for crops. Their main disadvantage lies on their negative effects on natural ventilation and greenhouse microclimate, which have been the focus of studies by several authors. However, few works have analysed the effect of accumulated dust and dirt on these screens. The present study has analysed four anti-insect screens, comparing their geometric characteristics before installation and after three to four years of use. Two negative effects have been observed and quantified: deterioration of the threads that make up the screen and reduction of porosity due to accumulated dirt in the pores. This deterioration over time gives leads to a mean increase in thread diameter of 3.1%, as well to a mean decrease in the pore size of 6.2% and 2.3% in the weft (Lpx and the warp (Lpy, respectively. In fact, the insect-proof screen porosity (φ decreased due to the deterioration of the threads by an average of 6.5%, in addition to an average 20.3% reduction due to the accumulation of dirt in the pores, making a total reduction in porosity of 26.8%. This decrease in porosity leads to lower greenhouse ventilation rates, and is therefore detrimental for the greenhouse microclimate. Consequently, it is recommended that insect-proof screens in arid areas such as Almería (Spain, with abundant dust suspended in the atmosphere, be washed monthly using water sprayed at high pressure.

  12. Influence of nuclear glasses composition on their liability to deterioration; Influence de la composition des verres nucleaires sur leur alterabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovena, I.

    1995-09-29

    This contributes to the study of the nuclear glasses composition influence on their liability to deterioration. The methodology of the experimental research used has lead to define between the thirty oxides which form the reference glass light water, six oxides of interest. For each of these oxides, a composition variation area has been defined. A matrix of twenty glass compositions has then been defined. The preparation of materials of these compositions has sometimes lead to materials weakly heterogeneous which have been characterized before deterioration. This study has been completed by those of three glasses in a composition variation area narrower of the light water nuclear glass : the R7T7 and two glasses at limits having respectively an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees Celsius theoretically maximum and minimum. Some deterioration parameters in pure water have been experimentally measured on the twenty three glasses : 1) an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees (Vo{sub 1}00) Celsius and another one at 90 degrees Celsius (Vo{sub 9}0) 2) a dissolution velocity in conditions near the saturation at 90 degrees Celsius 3) an apparent solubility of glass based on the ortho silicic acid activity 4) the evolution of the dissolution kinetics at 90 degrees Celsius in sub-saturated medium towards saturated medium 5) the alteration films nature developed at the glasses surface during these last alteration tests. Some thermodynamic and structural models have been studied in order to predict Vo{sub 9}0 and Vo{sub 1}00. The dissolution kinetic law developed from reference glass dissolution results has been studied with the calculation code LIXIVER. It has not been able to be used for most of the glasses compositions studied. As a consequence, the glasses dissolution control by a surface reaction which are itself controlled by the only dissolved silica is an hypothesis which is not verified for the greater part of the glasses. (O.L.). refs., figs., tabs.

  13. Current practices related to family presence during acute deterioration in adult emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngson, Megan J; Currey, Judy; Considine, Julie

    2017-11-01

    To explore the characteristics of and interactions between clinicians, patients and family members during management of the deteriorating adult patient in the emergency department. Previous research into family presence during resuscitation has identified many positive outcomes when families are included. However, over the last three decades the epidemiology of acute clinical deterioration has changed, with a decrease in in-hospital cardiac arrests and an increase in acute clinical deterioration. Despite the decrease in cardiac arrests, research related to family presence continues to focus on care during resuscitation rather than care during acute deterioration. Descriptive exploratory study using nonparticipatory observation. Five clinical deterioration episodes were observed within a 50-bed, urban, Australian emergency department. Field notes were taken using a semistructured tool to allow for thematic analysis. Presence, roles and engagement describe the interactions between clinicians, family members and patients while family are present during a patient's episode of deterioration. Presence was classified as no presence, physical presence and therapeutic presence. Clinicians and family members moved through primary, secondary and tertiary roles during patients' deterioration episode. Engagement was observed to be superficial or deep. There was a complex interplay between presence, roles and engagement with each influencing which form the other could take. Current practices of managing family during episodes of acute deterioration are complex and multifaceted. There is fluid interplay between presence, roles and engagement during a patient's episode of deterioration. This study will contribute to best practice, provide a strong foundation for clinician education and present opportunities for future research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Concerning the deterioration of furniture: factors in decay and preventive conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordóñez Goded, Cristina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines some of the principle factors in the deterioration of furniture (lighting, relative humidity, temperature, biodegradation and the human element and presents the type of maintenance work that can be carried out for their preservation denominated “preventive conservation.” These methods, while not eliminating the natural ageing of furniture, at least manage to slow down the decay of their constituent materials. Among the most important are the maintenance of optimal environmental conditions in the place where the works are located, their periodical inspection to check for possible biological infestation and their cleaning at regular intervals.

    Tras una exposición sobre algunos de los principales factores de deterioro del mobiliario (iluminación, humedad relativa, temperatura, biodegradación y elemento humano, este artículo refiere brevemente al conjunto de intervenciones de mantenimiento que pueden llevarse a cabo de cara a su preservación, denominadas “de conservación preventiva”. Se habla de labores que, si bien no evitan el natural envejecimiento de los muebles, sí pueden retardar la degradación de sus materiales constitutivos. Entre ellas podríamos destacar el mantenimiento de unas condiciones ambientales óptimas del lugar en el que se encuentran ubicadas las obras, la revisión periódica de éstas con el fin de comprobar si existe o no infestación biológica, la limpieza regular de las mismas, etc.

  15. Consistency of Flashbulb Memories of September 11 over Long Delays: Implications for Consolidation and Wrong Time Slice Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Mirani, Jennifer; Schlagman, Simone; Foley, Kerry; Kornbrot, Diana E.

    2009-01-01

    The consistency of flashbulb memories over long delays provides a test of theories of memory for highly emotional events. This study used September 11, 2001 as the target event, with test-retest delays of 2 and 3 years. The nature and consistency of flashbulb memories were examined as a function of delay between the target event and an initial…

  16. A prediction model for uniaxial compressive strength of deteriorated pyroclastic rocks due to freeze-thaw cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, İsmail; Fener, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    Either directly or indirectly, building stone is exposed to diverse atmospheric interactions depending on the seasonal conditions. Due to those interactions, objects of historic and cultural heritage, as well as modern buildings, partially or completely deteriorate. Among processes involved in rock deterioration, the freeze-thaw (F-T) cycle is one of the most important. Even though pyroclastic rocks have been used as building stone worldwide due to their easy workability, they are the building stone most affected by the F-T cycle. A historical region in Central Anatolia, Turkey, Cappadoia encompasses exceptional natural wonders characterized by fairy chimneys and unique historical and cultural heritage. Human-created caves, places of worship and houses have been dug into the pyroclastic rocks, which have in turn been used in architectural construction as building stone. Using 10 pyroclastic rock samples collected from Cappadocia, we determined the rock's index-mechanical properties to develop a statistical model for estimating percentage loss of uniaxial compressive strength a critical parameter of F-T cycle's important value. We used dry density (ρd), ultrasonic velocity (Vp), point load strengths (IS(50)), and slake-durability test indexes (Id4) values of unweathered rocks in our model, which is highly reliable (R2 = 0.84) for predetermination of percentage loss of uniaxial compressive strengths of pyroclastic rocks without requiring any F-T tests.

  17. Comparative study of deterioration forms on nearby granitic bridges from an urban setting in the NW Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Antonio, J. S.; Pereira, M. F. C.; Rocha, C. S. A.; Puente, I.; Figueiredo, C.

    2016-12-01

    Stone coatings, biological colonization, efflorescence and detachments are frequent on granitic surfaces of our cultural heritage infrastructure. In order to find the different origins for each deterioration form, this paper studies and compares several coatings, efflorescence and flakes found on granitic surfaces of bridges from different ages built in the same area (Ourense in NW Iberian Peninsula at 90 km from the sea) under the same environmental and traffic conditions. The most recent bridge was the New Bridge built in the beginning of 20th century and the oldest one was the Roman Bridge with the 1st century AD foundations but its current structure was built in 17th century. The New Bridge has exhibited a greater variety of deterioration forms such as black crusts, carbonate crusts, efflorescence and biological colonization. On the Roman Bridge, black crusts, efflorescence to a greater extent, and flakes associated with salt crystallization processes have been identified. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy studies were carried out in order to establish their composition, and optical and electronic microscopies and X-ray microtomography were used to study their morphologies. As a result, anthropogenic factors (industrial activities, traffic pollution and fertilizers) are considered to be the main contributors to crusts, efflorescence and flake formation on both studied substrates (granite ashlars and mortars). To a lesser extent, natural factors (marine influence and bird droppings) should be taken into account.

  18. Application of Legendre spectral-collocation method to delay differential and stochastic delay differential equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sami Ullah; Ali, Ishtiaq

    2018-03-01

    Explicit solutions to delay differential equation (DDE) and stochastic delay differential equation (SDDE) can rarely be obtained, therefore numerical methods are adopted to solve these DDE and SDDE. While on the other hand due to unstable nature of both DDE and SDDE numerical solutions are also not straight forward and required more attention. In this study, we derive an efficient numerical scheme for DDE and SDDE based on Legendre spectral-collocation method, which proved to be numerical methods that can significantly speed up the computation. The method transforms the given differential equation into a matrix equation by means of Legendre collocation points which correspond to a system of algebraic equations with unknown Legendre coefficients. The efficiency of the proposed method is confirmed by some numerical examples. We found that our numerical technique has a very good agreement with other methods with less computational effort.

  19. Rock Pore Structure as Main Reason of Rock Deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrášik Martin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Crashed or dimensional rocks have been used as natural construction material, decoration stone or as material for artistic sculptures. Especially old historical towns not only in Slovakia have had experiences with use of stones for construction purposes for centuries. The whole buildings were made from dimensional stone, like sandstone, limestone or rhyolite. Pavements were made especially from basalt, andesite, rhyolite or granite. Also the most common modern construction material - concrete includes large amounts of crashed rock, especially limestone, dolostone and andesite.

  20. Provider delay in the diagnosis and initiation of definitive treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the extent and nature of provider delay in breast cancer management at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Design: Retrospective descriptive study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital breast clinic. Subjects: Records of 500 patients were reviewed over a four year period. Result: Out of the 500 patient ...

  1. Simulation cobweb model of price formation with delayed supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatsenko Roman Nikolaevich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a simulation cobweb model of price formation with delayed supply. It considers cases with absence and availability of random factors. Randomness is presented in the model as a concept of games with nature with the use of Markov chains. The article studies activity of the retail link in the described environment.

  2. Delayed presentation of breast cancer patients | Otieno | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the extent and nature of delayed presentation of patients treated for breast cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) which is a tertiary, teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Results: A total of 166 patients were recruited into the study. The mean ...

  3. Developmental delay of infants and young children with and without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry • September 2011. 298 ... 1Institute for Child, Youth and Family Studies, Hugenote College, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa. 2Centre for ... Objective: To describe the extent and nature of developmental delay at different stages in childhood in a community in South. Africa ...

  4. Methodology of homogeneous and non-homogeneous Markov Chains for modeling bridge element deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Bridge management is an important activity of transportation agencies in the US : and in many other countries. A critical aspect of bridge management is to reliably predict : the deterioration of bridge structures, so that appropriate or optimal acti...

  5. Biodegradable Microparticles for Simultaneous Detection of Counterfeit and Deteriorated Edible Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehor, Ivan; van Vreeswijk, Sophie; Vermonden, Tina; Hennink, Wim E.; Kegel, Willem K.; Eral, Huseyin Burak

    2017-01-01

    In an era of globalized trade relations where food and pharmaceutical products cross borders effortlessly, consumers face counterfeit and deteriorated products at elevated rates. This paper presents multifunctional, biodegradable hydrogel microparticles that can provide information on the

  6. Final Amendments to Delegation of Authority Provisions in the Prevention of Significant Deterioration Permitting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    finalized amendments to the New Source Review (NSR) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permitting program that will allow the EPA to delegate administration of the program to interested and qualified tribal agencies.

  7. Conclusions from the investigation of deterioration of joints in concrete pavements : intrans project reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Premature deterioration of concrete at the joints in concrete pavements and parking lots has been reported across the northern : states. The distress may first appear as shadowing when microcracking near the joints traps water, or as cracks parallel ...

  8. Evaluation of deterioration of structural concrete due to chloride intrusion and other damaging mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Kentucky's bridges continue to age and experience distress. The intrusion of chlorides into : concrete remains the primary mechanism for deterioration. It leads to reinforcing steel corrosion : that damages the adjoining concrete structure. This stud...

  9. Assessment Of The Deterioration Degree Of Airfield Pavement Functional Constituents Made Of Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barszcz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic feature of the approach to the analysis of the airfield pavement deterioration degree as outlined in this paper is the fact that not only existing deteriorations are taken into account of but also already completed historical repairs. This approach enables determination of resources needed to conduct repairs and setting up reasonable schedules of future overhauls. The proposed index of the pavement deterioration degree, calculated on the basis of measured deficiencies and past repairs, makes it possible to assess the technical condition of the airfield pavement in a comprehensive manner. The key information indispensable to evaluate the degree of deterioration of the airfield pavement surface includes data which can be acquired from already completed stocktaking inventories. The stocktaking process is based on the catalogue of deficiencies typical for airfield pavements and the rules for stocktaking measurements.

  10. Usefulness of Bronchial Thermoplasty for Patients with a Deteriorating Lung Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Daisuke; Ando, Chihiro; Nakasuka, Takamasa; Iwamoto, Yoshitaka; Sato, Ken; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Shibayama, Takuo; Yonei, Toshiro; Sato, Toshio

    2018-01-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty is a novel procedure for patients with severe asthma showing a stable lung function. We herein report two cases with a deteriorating lung function. The lung function tended to improve in one case, while the other case discontinued mepolizumab medication after the procedure. Treatment was performed safely under general anesthesia in both cases. The use of bronchial thermoplasty may therefore be useful for the treatment of patients with a deteriorating lung function.

  11. Hospital in the Home nurses' recognition and response to clinical deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Erika; Currey, Judy; Considine, Julie

    2017-09-19

    To obtain an understanding of how Hospital in the Home (HITH) nurses recognise and respond to clinical deterioration in patients receiving care at home or in their usual place of residence. Recognising and responding to clinical deterioration is an international safety priority and a key nursing responsibility. Despite an increase in care delivery in home environments, how HITH nurses recognise and respond to clinical deterioration is not yet fully understood. A prospective, descriptive exploratory design was used. A survey containing questions related to participant characteristics and 10 patient scenarios was used to collect data from 47 nurses employed in the HITH units of three major health services in Melbourne, Australia. The 10 scenarios reflected typical HITH patients and included medical history and clinical assessment findings (respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, conscious state and pain score). The three major findings from this study were that: (i) nurse and patient characteristics influenced HITH nurses' assessment decisions; (ii) the cues used by HITH nurses to recognise clinical deterioration varied according to the clinical context; and (iii) although HITH nurses work in an autonomous role, they engage in collaborative practice when responding to clinical deterioration. Hospital in the Home nurses play a fundamental role in patient assessment, and the context in which they recognise and respond to deterioration is markedly different to that of hospital nurses. The assessment, measurement and interpretation of clinical data are a nursing responsibility that is crucial to early recognition and response to clinical deterioration. The capacity of HITH services to care for increasing numbers of patients in their home environment, and to promptly recognise and respond to clinical deterioration should it occur, is fundamental to safety within the healthcare system. Hospital in the Home nurses are integral to a

  12. A review of educational strategies to improve nurses' roles in recognizing and responding to deteriorating patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, S Y; Scherpbier, A; Klainin-Yobas, P; Rethans, J-J

    2011-09-01

    Physiological instability leading to clinical deterioration often precedes cardiopulmonary arrest. Nurses, who have the most frequent patient contact and responsibility for ongoing monitoring of patients, play a crucial role in recognizing and responding to clinical deterioration. The importance of education in supporting such a role has been addressed in numerous studies. This study aimed to identify nurses' educational needs and explore educational strategies to enhance their ability in recognizing and managing wards with deteriorating patients. A literature search from databases (2000-2010) was undertaken to include papers that identified the educational needs of ward nurses and existing educational programmes related to the care of deteriorating patients. Twenty-six papers were included in this review. Findings identified the educational need to empower nurses with the appropriate knowledge and skills in recognizing, reporting and responding to patient deterioration. The review of existing educational programmes and their outcomes identified valuable teaching information and strategies, and areas that could be improved in meeting nurses' educational needs. The review has highlighted important aspects of patient safety in clinical deterioration that could be further addressed by educational strategies targeting the role of ward nurses. These strategies include: utilizing clinical decision-making models to develop nurses' decision making skills; developing a standardized tool for systematic nursing assessment and management of clinical deterioration; incorporating training in clinical deterioration as a core competence of pre-registered nursing education; providing vital signs training to nursing assistants; and conducting more rigorous studies to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational programmes. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Do Work Characteristics Predict Health Deterioration Among Employees with Chronic Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wind, Astrid; Boot, Cécile R L; Sewdas, Ranu; Scharn, Micky; van den Heuvel, Swenne G; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-06-29

    Purpose In our ageing workforce, the increasing numbers of employees with chronic diseases are encouraged to prolong their working lives. It is important to prevent health deterioration in this vulnerable group. This study aims to investigate whether work characteristics predict health deterioration over a 3-year period among employees with (1) chronic diseases, and, more specifically, (2) musculoskeletal and psychological disorders. Methods The study population consisted of 5600 employees aged 45-64 years with a chronic disease, who participated in the Dutch Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM). Information on work characteristics was derived from the baseline questionnaire. Health deterioration was defined as a decrease in general health (SF-12) between baseline and follow-up (1-3 years). Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate prediction of health deterioration by work characteristics. Subgroup analyses were performed for employees with musculoskeletal and psychological disorders. Results At follow-up, 19.2% of the employees reported health deterioration (N = 1075). Higher social support of colleagues or supervisor predicted health deterioration in the crude analyses in the total group, and the groups with either musculoskeletal or psychological disorders (ORs 1.11-1.42). This effect was not found anymore in the adjusted analyses. The other work characteristics did not predict health deterioration in any group. Conclusions This study did not support our hypothesis that work characteristics predict health deterioration among employees with chronic diseases. As our study population succeeded continuing employment to 45 years and beyond, it was probably a relatively healthy selection of employees.

  14. Engineering aspects and time effects of rapid deterioration of sandstone in the tropical environment of Sabah, Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tating, F.F.; Hack, H.R.G.K.; Jetten, V.G.

    2013-01-01

    Cut slopes in rock masses start to deteriorate directly after excavation due to stress relief and weathering. The deterioration is a time dependent process that depends on the local climate and the rock mass including its history, and the environment. The amount of deterioration per time unit (‘the

  15. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  16. DIFFERENTIAL PATTERNS OF PREMORBID SOCIAL AND ACADEMIC DETERIORATION IN DEFICIT AND NONDEFICIT SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Allen, Daniel N.; Miski, Pinar; Buchanan, Robert W.; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Carpenter, William T.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that social dysfunction is associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia during the chronic phase of illness. However, it is unclear whether social abnormalities exist during the premorbid phase in people who later develop schizophrenia with prominent negative symptoms, or whether social functioning becomes progressively worse in these individuals from childhood to late adolescence. The current study examined differences in academic and social premorbid functioning in people with schizophrenia meeting criteria for deficit (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms) (DS: n=74) and non-deficit forms of schizophrenia (ND: n=271). Premorbid social and academic functioning was assessed for childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence developmental periods on the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS). Results indicated that both DS and ND participants showed deterioration in social and academic functioning from childhood to late adolescence. However, while ND schizophrenia demonstrated greater deterioration of academic compared to social premorbid functioning from childhood to late adolescence, the DS group exhibited comparable deterioration across both premorbid domains, with more severe social deterioration than the ND group. Findings suggest that people with DS show poorer social premorbid adjustment than those with ND as early as childhood, and are particularly susceptible to accelerated deterioration as the onset of schizophrenia becomes imminent. Thus, poor premorbid social adjustment and significant social deterioration from childhood to adolescence may be a hallmark feature of people who later go on to develop prominent negative symptoms and a unique marker for the DS subtype of schizophrenia. PMID:22130110

  17. Evaluation and Investigation of the Delay in VoIP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Janata

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused mainly on the delay problems, which considerably influence the final quality of connections in VoIP (Voice over IP networks. The paper provides a detailed exploration of the nature and mechanisms of the delay. The main purpose of the investigation was an attempt to formulate a mathematical model of delay in the VoIP network and its subsequent analysis by laboratory data.

  18. Time delay in quantum scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tee, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    As is well known, the knowledge of the scattering cross section and its angular dependence, as a function of energy, is insufficient to determine the phase shifts uniquely. This led Eisenbud and Wigner to propose the measurement of the scattering lifetime or time delay as an additional independent datum. A rigorous time-dependent study of time delay within the framework of Hilbert space formalism is presented. Specifically, Martin's theory of time delay and the validity of the Eisenbud-Wigner time delay formula are extended to spherically symmetric potentials satisfying the asymptotic fall-off rate V(r) → O(r/sup -2-epsilon/). This extension is obtained by use of a maximal estimate of the rate of convergence of the asymptotic condition and the elimination of Martin's requirement that the scattering operator S be three times differentiable with respect to the free-particle Hamiltonian H 0 . Also presented are related results on the total time a quantum particle spends inside some bounded regions in position space. It is then proved that any two free particles having identical distributions of energy and angular momentum take exactly identical expectation values for the transit time across an arbitrary spherical region centered at the origin in position space. Ways to extend this result to nonfree Hamiltonians are indicated. Finally, the relationship between the position operator and the Eisenbud-Wigner time delay operator is examined. It is shown that the usual method of calculating time delay based on the classical analysis of the position operator is not exact

  19. Stochastic modelling of train delays and delay propagation in stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, J.

    2006-01-01

    A trade-off exists between efficiently utilizing the capacity of railway networks and improving the reliability and punctuality of train operations. This dissertation presents a new analytical probability model based on blocking time theory which estimates the knock-on delays of trains caused by

  20. Reliability and life-cycle analysis of deteriorating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Silva, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This book compiles and critically discusses modern engineering system degradation models and their impact on engineering decisions. In particular, the authors focus on modeling the uncertain nature of degradation considering both conceptual discussions and formal mathematical formulations. It also describes the basics concepts and the various modeling aspects of life-cycle analysis (LCA).  It highlights the role of degradation in LCA and defines optimum design and operation parameters. Given the relationship between operational decisions and the performance of the system’s condition over time, maintenance models are also discussed. The concepts and models presented have applications in a large variety of engineering fields such as Civil, Environmental, Industrial, Electrical and Mechanical engineering. However, special emphasis is given to problems related to large infrastructure systems. The book is intended to be used both as a reference resource for researchers and practitioners and as an academic text ...

  1. Mean, covariance, and effective dimension of stochastic distributed delay dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    René, Alexandre; Longtin, André

    2017-11-01

    Dynamical models are often required to incorporate both delays and noise. However, the inherently infinite-dimensional nature of delay equations makes formal solutions to stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs) challenging. Here, we present an approach, similar in spirit to the analysis of functional differential equations, but based on finite-dimensional matrix operators. This results in a method for obtaining both transient and stationary solutions that is directly amenable to computation, and applicable to first order differential systems with either discrete or distributed delays. With fewer assumptions on the system's parameters than other current solution methods and no need to be near a bifurcation, we decompose the solution to a linear SDDE with arbitrary distributed delays into natural modes, in effect the eigenfunctions of the differential operator, and show that relatively few modes can suffice to approximate the probability density of solutions. Thus, we are led to conclude that noise makes these SDDEs effectively low dimensional, which opens the possibility of practical definitions of probability densities over their solution space.

  2. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time. ...

  3. Effects of hydrogen induced delay fracture on high-strength steel plate of automobile and the improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengzhu Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Delay fracture is an environmental embrittlement occurring when materials, environment and stress interact with each other and also a form of hydrogen induced material deterioration. It is a leading factor inhibiting the further improvement of strength of steel and iron material. Hence this study analyzed the improved low-carbon Mn-B type ultra-high strength steel plate (1500 MPa which were processed by conventional heat treatment and heating forming technique and explored the effects of tempering temperature and heating forming technique on the performance of hydrogen induced delay fracture, which provides a reference for the actual application of such kind of steel plate.

  4. Impact of On-street Parking on Urban Arterial Performance: A Quantitative Study on Travel Speed and Capacity Deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiarto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion has been a serious social and technical problem since the early year’s rapid motorization in Banda Aceh, Aceh Province of Indonesia. Urban arterial performance becomes the crucial concerns of many traffic engineers. Arterial performances were analyzed using oblique cumulative plots and breakdown method. The approaches are time series treatment between cumulative vehicles arrival versus time contracted from data recorded by video cameras. Investigations were conducted during both morning and evening peak hours on three regular weekdays for observing saturation condition in order to observe the maximum capacity under prevailing conditions. This study examined the impact of presence on-street parking on deterioration both travel speed and capacity. It found that capacity diminished slightly 10-13% (275-368vph compared to the pre-breakdown condition. Likewise, during the breakdown, speed dropped about 13-19% (3-5kph controlled by pre-breakdown as well. The simulation software so called VISSIM 5.30 was governed to estimate the measurement of effectiveness (MOEs by removing on-street parking from a site of study. The MOEs reveal that removing on-street parking able to reduce average delay approximately 12 sec/veh (32% and increase speed about 5kph (24%.

  5. Marble Deterioration and Climate: Examples from the Schlossbrücke Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirskawetz, S.; Siegesmund, S.; Weise, F.; Rieffel, Y.; Plagge, R.

    2012-04-01

    Protective structures for works of art or antique artefacts have a long architectural tradition and have been known in Germany since the 19th century. The effect of such covers on the microclimate around artworks of natural stone, and hence, their protective capability are insufficiently documented and understood. In 2007, an inter-disciplinary model project and part of a pilot study coordinated by the Berlin State Office for the Protection of Monuments was planned with the aim of developing an innovative winter covering system for marble statuaries located on the Schlossbrücke in Berlin. Such a system would need to fulfil the various requirements for structural stability, aesthetics, climate and practical use. This applied research represents the first complex scientific study of the sustainability of a winter covering system. A climate monitoring system was designed to create a dense database for the numerical prediction of the effect of protective systems, and to compare the given climate conditions to the known factors influencing the marble deterioration. Based on these findings a prototype of an innovative shelter was designed and tested. The project shows, that beside a temporary covering regular inspection and maintenance combined with regular cleaning ensures an effective and sustainable protection of marble sculptures. Such a maintenance program is the precondition for preserving the sculptures of the Schlossbrücke as a historical ensemble. Important scientific results of the project are transferable to similar objects of Carrara marble. The results throw a new light on the conventional protection of such objects and leads to a discussion on the necessity of an all-season protection.

  6. Eye Movement Control in Scene Viewing and Reading: Evidence from the Stimulus Onset Delay Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Steven G.; Nuthmann, Antje; Henderson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used the stimulus onset delay paradigm to investigate eye movement control in reading and in scene viewing in a within-participants design. Short onset delays (0, 25, 50, 200, and 350 ms) were chosen to simulate the type of natural processing difficulty encountered in reading and scene viewing. Fixation duration increased…

  7. Can too strong female choice deteriorate male ornamentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Lesley J.; Kokko, Hanna

    2004-01-01

    Competition for limited resources can have fundamental implications for population dynamics. However, the effects of resource depletion have rarely been discussed in the context of sexual selection, even though mate choice typically favours males who outperform others in securing access to some limited resource. Here, we develop a model to investigate the question of resource competition as a form of male-male competition in the context of male sexual displays. We phrase our model in terms of male bowerbirds either searching for or stealing resources (ornamental objects) valued by females, and compare the model findings with published studies of time allocation to various activities in different species of bowerbirds. The basic idea of the model, however, extends to cases where the resource is used less directly for the development of sexual ornamentation, such as males excluding others' access to food. We show that if males compete for resources used in sexual displays, intense female preference for high-quality displays can lead to poorer prospects for efficient choice by females. This is because males benefit from excluding others' access to resources used in displays, damaging the overall efficiency of resource use in the population, and the accuracy with which females can judge male ability to gain such resources. The evolution of female choice may therefore have a self-limiting nature when it poses a selection pressure on male resource acquisition. PMID:15306306

  8. The Influence of Combustion-derived pollutants on limestone deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, J.B.; Montgomery, Melanie; Thompson, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The wet deposition of combustion-derived atmospheric pollutant species, on to freshly cut or diesel-smoked Portland and Monks Park limestone and marble samples, was carried out in a laboratory 'wetting and drying' salt spray chamber for 84 days. Along with the effect of CO2-equilibrated de......-ionized water at pH 5.5, for clean-rain base-line data, the relative effects of the Cl-, SO42- and NO3- components (5.2, 8.6 and 3.0 mg 1(-1) respectively) of an artificial acid-rain solution were studied. Using spray run-off solution rates of 0.2 mi cm(-2), day(-1) and pH values of 5.5 and 3.8, the work...... limestones, respectively. Thus the water and hydrogen ion loading effects are significant, as well as the limestone type, but the nature of the anion is not, under the given wetting and drying regime. Further work showed that the increased resistance of marble over that of limestone, to calcium loss...

  9. Can too strong female choice deteriorate male ornamentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Lesley J; Kokko, Hanna

    2004-08-07

    Competition for limited resources can have fundamental implications for population dynamics. However, the effects of resource depletion have rarely been discussed in the context of sexual selection, even though mate choice typically favours males who outperform others in securing access to some limited resource. Here, we develop a model to investigate the question of resource competition as a form of male-male competition in the context of male sexual displays. We phrase our model in terms of male bowerbirds either searching for or stealing resources (ornamental objects) valued by females, and compare the model findings with published studies of time allocation to various activities in different species of bowerbirds. The basic idea of the model, however, extends to cases where the resource is used less directly for the development of sexual ornamentation, such as males excluding others' access to food. We show that if males compete for resources used in sexual displays, intense female preference for high-quality displays can lead to poorer prospects for efficient choice by females. This is because males benefit from excluding others' access to resources used in displays, damaging the overall efficiency of resource use in the population, and the accuracy with which females can judge male ability to gain such resources. The evolution of female choice may therefore have a self-limiting nature when it poses a selection pressure on male resource acquisition. Copyright 2004 The Royal Society

  10. The influence of combustion derived pollutants on limestone deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, JB; Montgomery, Melanie; Thompson, GE

    1996-01-01

    10(-4) mu g cm(-2) s(-1), the pollutants were assessed individually and in various combinations, along with ozone as oxidant, at 84% RH with dry or water-wetted surfaces. The degradation was followed by analysis of exposed stone, for Cl-, SO42- and NO3-, and of run-off solution for Ca2+, in addition......% reaction (mass transport control) and V-D values of 2.2 and 5.3 mm s(-1), at 84% RH and on wetted surfaces, respectively. The reactivity of SO2 rose from 2.5 to 35%, and V-D from 1 to 2.9 mm s(-1), from conditions of 84% RH to those with the presence of water, NO2 and O-3. Similarly, the reactivity of NO2......, chemical constitution and transfer, smoke particle size distribution should also be considered in any possible action on limestone. Concerning naturally exposed samples, non-wetted surface reaction products tended to reduce the attack of pollutants, but had no resisting effect when wetted....

  11. Following butter flavour deterioration with an acoustic wave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Cláudia R B S; Gomes, M Teresa S R

    2012-09-15

    Off-flavours develop naturally in butter and the process is accelerated by heat. An acoustic wave sensor was used to detect the aroma compounds evolved from heated butter and the results have shown that registered marked changes were coincident to odour changes detected by sensory analysis. The flavour compounds have also been analysed by GC/MS for identification. The response of the sensor was fully characterized in terms of the sensitivity to each of the identified compounds, and sensitivities of the system SPME/sensor were compared with the sensitivities of the system SPME/GC/MS. It was found that the sensor analytical system was more sensitive to methylketones than to fatty acids. The SPME/GC/MS system also showed the highest sensitivity to 2-heptanone, followed by 2-nonanone, but third place was occupied by undecanone and butanoic acid, to which the sensor showed moderate sensitivity. 2-heptanone was found to be an appropriate model compound to follow odour changes till the 500 h, and the lower sensitivity of the sensor to butanoic acid showed to be a positive characteristic, as saturation was prevented, and other more subtle changes in the flavour could be perceived. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. EAMJ Delayed April 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-04-04

    Apr 4, 2010 ... and Director, Kenyatta National Hospital, P.O. Box 19961-00202, Nairobi, Kenya, S.K. Kimende, MBChB, MMed (Surg.) Lecturer, Department of Surgery, ... For purposes of management, breast cancer is clinically divided into early .... delays inherent in out healthcare systems (18,19). Indeed, one of the most ...

  13. Early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nightingale, S.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Cartlidge, N.E.F.; Newcastle upon Tyne Univ.

    1982-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman developed an early-delayed rhombencephalopathy 7 weeks after completing a course of radiotherapy to a glomus jugulare tumour. The clinical features, comprising nystagmus, skew strabismus, unilateral facial weakness, dysarthria and ataxia, are compared with four previously reported patients with this syndrome. (author)

  14. Advanced optical delay line demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Kamphues, F.G.; Fouss, B.; Henrioulle, K.; Hogenhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    TNO TPD, in cooperation with Micromega-Dynamics and Dutch Space, has designed an advanced Optical Delay Line (ODL) for use in future ground based and space interferometry missions. The work is performed under NIVR contract in preparation for GENIE and DARWIN. Using the ESO PRIMA DDL requirements as

  15. Diagnostic Delay in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbaek, Karen; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Primdahl, Jette

    2016-01-01

    to approach their general practitioner (GP) with joint pain, and also how GPs respond to patients' complaints. METHODS: The study was based on qualitative data collected using 11 semi-structured individual interviews. RESULTS: When symptoms were obvious to patients, there was a shorter delay between symptom...

  16. Livermore blasted for project delay

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    In a 12 page report issued last week, a review committee set up by the University of California has concluded that mismanagement and poor planning are to blame for significant cost overruns and delays in the construction of NIF, the worlds largest laser (1 page).

  17. Weather delay costs to trucking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Estimates of the nations freight sector of transportation range to upwards of $600 billion of total gross domestic product with 70 percent of total value and 60 percent of total weight moving by truck. Weather-related delays can add significantly ...

  18. Another definition for time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.

    1980-01-01

    Time delay is defined by geometrical considerations which work in classical as well as in quantum mechanics, and its connection with the S-matrix and the virial is proven for potentials with V(x vector) and x vector V(x vector) vanishing as rsup(-1-epsilon) for r -> infinity. (Author)

  19. Early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nightingale, S.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Cartlidge, N.E.F. (Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (UK); Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (UK). Newcastle General Hospital)

    1982-03-01

    A 37-year-old woman developed an early-delayed rhombencephalopathy 7 weeks after completing a course of radiotherapy to a glomus jugulare tumour. The clinical features, comprising nystagmus, skew strabismus, unilateral facial weakness, dysarthria and ataxia, are compared with four previously reported patients with this syndrome.

  20. Delayed School Entry in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997 Uganda has seen a large increase in school enrolment. Despite this increased enrolment, universal education has remained elusive. Many children enrol in school, but not at the recommended age, and they drop out before completing school. This article focuses on one of these problems--delayed school entry. What household factors are…

  1. Providing delay guarantees in Bluetooth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ait Yaiz, R.; Heijenk, Geert; Titsworth, F.

    2003-01-01

    Bluetooth polling, also referred to as Bluetooth MAC scheduling or intra-piconet scheduling, is the mechanism that schedules the traffic between the participants in a Bluetooth network. Hence, this mechanism is highly determining with respect to the delay packets experience in a Bluetooth network.

  2. The impact of in-hospital nutritional status deterioration on treatment outcome of adult gastroenterological patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roganović Branka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In the current literature, data on impact of intrahospital changes in patients’ nutritional status on the treatment outcome are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nutritional status deterioration and the treatment outcome among hospitalized gastroenterological patients. Methods. In 650 adult gastroenterological patients nutritional status on admission and at discharge was evaluated using the 6 nutritional status assessment parameters: body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-upper arm muscle circumference, serum albumin concentration, lymphocyte count and unintentional weight loss. The influence on treatment outcome was tested for the nutritional status on admission, nutritional status at discharge and intrahospital nutritional status deterioration. Results. The incidence of favorable outcome in the non-undernourished and undernourished patients on admission was in the range 93.4-97.3% and 81.2- 91.2%, respectively. The incidence of favorable outcome in the non-undernourished and undernourished patients at discharge was in the range 94-97.4% and 80.8-88.1%, respectively. Favorable outcomes were obtained in 95.6-98.9% of the patients without nutritional status deterioration and in 87.1-90.3% of the patients with nutritional status deterioration. Intrahospital nutritional status deterioration significantly influenced the outcome, no matter what assessment parameter had been used (p < 0.001 for all the applied parameters. Furthermore, only the deterioration of nutritional status was found to be an independent predictor of treatment outcome (multivariate analysis Forwald Wald, p £ 0.001; relative risk (RR = 0.104-0.350; confidence intervals (CI = 0.037-0.186/0.297-0.657. Conclusion. Deterioration of nutritional status is an independent predictor of adverse outcome.

  3. Electrocardiogram classification using delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2013-06-01

    Time series analysis with nonlinear delay differential equations (DDEs) reveals nonlinear as well as spectral properties of the underlying dynamical system. Here, global DDE models were used to analyze 5 min data segments of electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings in order to capture distinguishing features for different heart conditions such as normal heart beat, congestive heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. The number of terms and delays in the model as well as the order of nonlinearity of the model have to be selected that are the most discriminative. The DDE model form that best separates the three classes of data was chosen by exhaustive search up to third order polynomials. Such an approach can provide deep insight into the nature of the data since linear terms of a DDE correspond to the main time-scales in the signal and the nonlinear terms in the DDE are related to nonlinear couplings between the harmonic signal parts. The DDEs were able to detect atrial fibrillation with an accuracy of 72%, congestive heart failure with an accuracy of 88%, and normal heart beat with an accuracy of 97% from 5 min of ECG, a much shorter time interval than required to achieve comparable performance with other methods.

  4. Analysis of a first-order delay differential-delay equation containing two delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, C.; Vallée, R.; Delisle, C.

    1989-09-01

    An experimental and numerical analysis of the behavior of a two-delay differential equation is presented. It is shown that much of the system's behavior can be related to the stability behavior of the underlying linearized modes. A new phenomenon, mode crossing, is explored.

  5. The Prediction of Deterioration of Nutritional Status during Chemoradiation Therapy in Patients with Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, Sofia C M; Witvliet-van Nierop, Jill E; Ottens-Oussoren, Karen; van der Peet, Donald L; de van der Schueren, Marian A E

    2018-01-01

    Patients with esophageal cancer are at high risk of developing malnutrition during neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT), which in turn is associated with postoperative morbidity. The aim of the study is to explore whether parameters of a complete pre-treatment nutritional status may predict deterioration of nutritional status during CRT in patients with esophageal cancer. In this prospective cohort study, 101 patients with esophageal cancer treated with CRT were included. Data of patient characteristics, tumor classification, performance score, %weight change, body mass index, fat (free) mass index, phase angle, handgrip strength, energy- and protein intake, and use of (additional) dietary supplements were collected. A prediction model was constructed to identify predictive parameters for deterioration in nutritional status (defined as weight loss of >5% and/or decline in fat free mass of ≥1.4 kg) during CRT. Nutritional status deteriorated in 49 patients (49%) during CRT. The only predictor for deterioration in nutritional status was fat free mass index (OR 1.21 (90% CI: 1.03 - 1.42)). Patients with a higher fat free mass index are at increased risk of deterioration in nutrition status during CRT. Results suggest that all patients should be carefully supervised during CRT, regardless of their nutritional status before start of CRT.

  6. Novel transport delay problem solutions for gas plant inlet pressure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A.R. AboShady

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of transferring the natural gas from the gas well to the gas separation plant encountered some delay time depending on the distance between this well and the factory, the cross section of the transport line, the geometry of this transport line, the well pressure and others. To control the factory inlet pressure by controlling the choke valve existing at the well head, the delay time makes the traditional control systems to fail. In this framework we aim to solve this problem by presenting a novel controller design and delay modeling technique. The presented technique is compared to the previous control system design and delay approximation techniques.

  7. Gene expression patterns regulating the seed metabolism in relation to deterioration/ageing of primed mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satyendra Nath; Maheshwari, Ankita; Sharma, Chitra; Shukla, Nidhi

    2018-03-01

    We are proposing mechanisms to account for the loss of viability (seed deterioration/ageing) and enhancement in seed quality (post-storage priming treatment). In order to understand the regulatory mechanism of these traits, we conducted controlled deterioration (CD) test for up to 8 d using primed mung bean seeds and examined how CD effects the expression of many genes, regulating the seed metabolism in relation to CD and priming. Germination declined progressively with increased duration of CD, and the priming treatment completely/partially reversed the inhibition depending on the duration of CD. The loss of germination capacity by CD was accompanied by a reduction in total RNA content and RNA integrity, indicating that RNA quantity and quality impacts seed longevity. Expression analysis revealed that biosynthesis genes of GA, ethylene, ABA and ROS-scavenging enzymes were differentially affected in response to duration of CD and priming, suggesting coordinately regulated mechanisms for controlling the germination capacity of seeds by modifying the permeability characteristics of biological membranes and activities of different enzymes. ABA genes were highly expressed when germination was delayed and inhibited by CD. Whereas, GA and ethylene genes were more highly expressed when germination was enhanced and permitted by priming under similar conditions. GSTI, a well characterized enzyme family involved in stress tolerance, was expressed in primed seeds over the period of CD, suggesting an additional protection against deterioration. The results are discussed in light of understanding the mechanisms underlying longevity/priming which are important issues economically and ecologically. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Macroscopical morphology of deterioration of the stone used in the cathedral whole of Granada/Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcalde, M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The main factors of deterioration that affect the Cathedral Whole of Granada are one of natural thermic origin due to the low temperatures during the winters and the higher thermic oscillations and those of anthropogenical origin: fundamentally the oxidation of metallic elements and atmospheric pollution due to burnt products. For this reason, the more important deterioration mechanisms are the freezing ones due to the expansion produced in the water retained inside the pores and microcracks, fundamentally in the architectonic elements with high expositional surface and in their shady orientation; the main indicators produced are fissuring and spalling. In this way, a lot of elements of Santa Pudia stone located in the Royal Chapel crenellations have disappeared and the rest are very deteriorated. The more compact Sierra Elvira stone used on the upper zone of the cornices has also been affected by the freezing mechanism, which starts with the microcracks produced by differential dilatations due to the thermic oscillations which made the water access easy. The iron corrosion and later expansion of the oxidation products has provoked the cracking and fissuring of many ornamental elements like balls, pinnacles, etc, and this situation has obliged their dismantling on the upper zones due to the danger to the public. The mechanisms of dissolution, crystallization cycles and Chemical action have led to abundant material loosening in the form of grain disgregations overcoats on the higher humidity zones, and formation of hollows (pitting, alveolar erosion, striations in the zones more exposed to the winds. This situation is generalized in the lower zones of the monument, except on the main facade, and in the parapets and lower zones of the cornices. The grain disgregations are more important when biological crusts or unburned deposits exist, the latter being of major abundance on the surfaces near the Gran Vía and in its orientation. It is necessary

  9. Delay Tolerance in Underwater Wireless Communications: A Routing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdar Hussain Bouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to terrestrial networks, underwater wireless networks (UWNs also aid several critical tasks including coastal surveillance, underwater pollution detection, and other maritime applications. Currently, once underwater sensor nodes are deployed at different levels of the sea, it is nearly impossible or very expensive to reconfigure the hardware, for example, battery. Taking this issue into account, considerable amount of research has been carried out to ensure minimum energy costs and reliable communication between underwater nodes and base stations. As a result, several different network protocols were proposed for UWN, including MAC, PHY, transport, and routing. Recently, a new paradigm was introduced claiming that the intermittent nature of acoustic channel and signal resulted in designing delay tolerant routing schemes for the UWN, known as an underwater delay tolerant network. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of underwater routing protocols with emphasis on the limitations, challenges, and future open issues in the context of delay tolerant network routing.

  10. Air congestion delay: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alberto Pamplona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a literature review of the air congestion delay and its costs. Air congestion is a worldwide problem. Its existence brings costs for airlines and discomfort for passengers. With the increasing demand for air transport, the study of air congestion has attracted the attention of many researchers around the world. The cause for the delays is erroneously attributed only to the lack of infrastructure investments. The literature review shows that other factors such as population growth, increasing standards of living, lack of operational planning and environmental issues exercise decisive influence. Several studies have been conducted in order to analyze and propose solutions to this problem that affects society as a whole.

  11. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  12. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  13. Reconfigurable Reduced Delay Universal Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Mohit Tyagi,; Samender Singh,; Kavita Khare

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel architecture for least latency universal adder using pipeline and parallel computing technique. The proposed architecture implemented in reconfigurable technology as arun time reconfigurable unit. The proposed 32-bit Universal adder design and compared with previously proposed adder designs in terms of area and delay after synthesis targeting on 4vfx60ff672-12 Xilinxvirtex-4 FPGA and have high hardware resource sharing up to 42% for the binary and BCD arithmetic ...

  14. [Determinants of induced abortion delay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Pérez, Glòria; Espelt, Albert; Salvador, Joaquin; Borrell, Carme

    2009-01-01

    In induced abortion, the method, the risk of complications and the economic cost of the abortion are determined by gestational age. The aim of this study was to describe the determinants of induced abortion delay until the second trimester of pregnancy in Barcelona. We performed a cross-sectional study of induced abortions due to the physical or mental health of the woman (Barcelona, 2004-2005; N=9,175). The city's induced abortion register provided data on gestational age at abortion (dependent variable), educational level, age, cohabitation with the partner, number of children previous abortions, and type of center. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated with log-binomial regression models. A total of 7.7% of induced abortions were second-trimester abortions and 99.3% were performed in private centers. Compared with women with a university education, those with primary education or less had an aPR of 1.8 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.4-2.2) of delaying the abortion until the second trimester. A higher proportion of second-trimester abortions were also recorded in women aged less than 18 years old (aPR=2.6; 95%CI: 2.0-3.4), women not cohabiting with their partners (aRP=1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6) and in public centers (aPR=2.8; 95% CI: 2.2-3.7). No differences were found in induced abortion delay among women with previous abortions and those without. Induced abortion delay until the second trimester of pregnancy was associated with low educational level, young ages, not cohabiting with a partner, and public centers. This study demonstrates the existence of socioeconomic inequalities in access conditions to abortion services.

  15. Assembly delay line pulse generators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    Assembly of six of the ten delay line pulse generators that will power the ten kicker magnet modules. One modulator part contains two pulse generators. Capacitors, inductances, and voltage dividers are in the oil tank on the left. Triggered high-pressure spark gap switches are on the platforms on the right. High voltage pulse cables to the kicker magnet emerge under the spark gaps. In the centre background are the assembled master gaps.

  16. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    OpenAIRE

    Thiruchelvam, Nirosshan; Randhawa, Jaskirat; Sadiek, Happy; Kistangari, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  17. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosshan Thiruchelvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  18. ATLAS calibration delay chip study

    CERN Document Server

    Massol, N

    2003-01-01

    The delay chip is an ASIC developed to precisely adjust signals within the range of 0-24ns in steps of 1ns. In this note, we report the study of the characteristics of this chip like the linearity and the jitter. We describe the influence of temperature and supply voltage on its behavior. Finally, we study its dependency due to the variations in process on a whole production.

  19. ESTIMATION OF SOYBEAN SEED (Glycine max L. Merr DETERIORATION DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Noviana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ing the behavior and deterioration of soybean seed and to predict seed viability during storage in controlled conditions. The experiment used completely randomized design with two levels of variety which nested in storage period with four replications. Two varieties were Dering-1 and Detam 2 that storage in controlled condition at temperature of 19 up to 22 °C and 64 up to 67 percent of relative humidity for six months. The seeds were evaluated for moisture content, protein, peroxide value, electrical conductivity and seed viability. During the deterioration the moisture content, peroxide, electrical conductivity increased while protein content and germination declined. Deterioration model of soybeans can be used to predict the decline of soybean seeds during the controlled storage.

  20. Research on Deterioration Mechanism of Concrete Materials in an Actual Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cause for deterioration of the concrete structure located in severe environment has been explored both in field and in laboratory. Serious cracking and spalling appeared upon surface of the concrete structure soon after the structure was put into service. Both alkali-aggregate reaction and freeze-thaw cycles may result in similar macro visible cracking and spalling. The possibility of alkali-aggregate reaction was excluded by both field survey and lab examination such as chemical analysis, petrographic analysis, and determination of alkali reactivity of aggregates. According to results of freeze-thaw cycles, impermeability testing, and microstructure analysis, it is deduced that the severe environmental conditions plus the relatively inferior frost resistance cause the deterioration of concrete. Usage of air entraining admixture can improve frost resistance and impermeability. Furthermore, new approaches to mitigate the deterioration of concrete used in severe environmental condition are discussed.

  1. Quantification of the Value of Structural Health Monitoring Information for Fatigue Deteriorating Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Schneider, Ronald; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2015-01-01

    life cycle performance, the integrity management and the structural risks. The relevance and precision of SHM information for the reduction of the structural system risks and the expected cost of the structural integrity management throughout the life cycle constitutes the value of SHM......This paper addresses the quantification of the value of structural health monitoring (SHM) before its implementation for structural systems on the basis of its Value of Information (VoI). The value of SHM is calculated utilizing the Bayesian pre-posterior decision analysis modelling the structural...... and is quantified with this framework. The approach is focused on fatigue deteriorating structural steel systems for which a continuous resistance deterioration formulation is introduced. In a case study, the value of SHM for load monitoring is calculated for a Daniels system subjected to fatigue deterioration...

  2. Predictive maintenance policy for a gradually deteriorating system subject to stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deloux, E.; Castanier, B.; Berenguer, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a predictive maintenance policy for a continuously deteriorating system subject to stress. We consider a system with two failure mechanisms which are, respectively, due to an excessive deterioration level and a shock. To optimize the maintenance policy of the system, an approach combining statistical process control (SPC) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) is proposed. CBM policy is used to inspect and replace the system according to the observed deterioration level. SPC is used to monitor the stress covariate. In order to assess the performance of the proposed maintenance policy and to minimize the long-run expected maintenance cost per unit of time, a mathematical model for the maintained system cost is derived. Analysis based on numerical results are conducted to highlight the properties of the proposed maintenance policy in respect to the different maintenance parameters

  3. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  4. The impact of in-hospital nutritional status deterioration on treatment outcome of adult gastroenterological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roganović, Branka; Perić, Saša; Janković, Snežana R

    2016-08-01

    In the current literature, data on impact of intrahospital changes in patients’ nutritional status on the treatment outcome are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nutritional status deterioration and the treatment outcome among hospitalized gastroenterological patients. In 650 adult gastroenterological patients nutritional status on admission and at discharge was evaluated using the 6 nutritional status assessment parameters: body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-upper arm muscle circumference, serum albumin concentration, lymphocyte count and unintentional weight loss. The influence on treatment outcome was tested for the nutritional status on admission, nutritional status at discharge and intrahospital nutritional status deterioration. The incidence of favorable outcome in the non-undernourished and undernourished patients on admission was in the range 93.4-97.3% and 81.2- 91.2%, respectively. The incidence of favorable outcome in the non-undernourished and undernourished patients at discharge was in the range 94-97.4% and 80.8-88.1%, respectively. Favorable outcomes were obtained in 95.6-98.9% of the patients without nutritional status deterioration and in 87.1-90.3% of the patients with nutritional status deterioration. Intrahospital nutritional status deterioration significantly influenced the outcome, no matter what assessment parameter had been used (p nutritional status was found to be an independent predictor of treatment outcome (multivariate analysis Forwald Wald, p £ 0.001; relative risk (RR) = 0.104-0.350; confidence intervals (CI) = 0.037-0.186/0.297-0.657). Deterioration of nutritional status is an independent predictor of adverse outcome.

  5. Risk-based replacement strategies for redundant deteriorating reinforced concrete pipe networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adey, B.; Bernard, O.; Gerard, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an example of how predictive models of the deterioration of reinforced concrete pipes and the consequences of failure can be used to develop risk-based replacement strategies for redundant reinforced concrete pipe networks. It also shows how an accurate deterioration prediction can lead to a reduction of agency costs, and illustrates the limitation of the incremental intervention step algorithm. The main conclusion is that the use of predictive models, such as those developed by Oxand S.A., in the determination of replacement strategies for redundant reinforced concrete pipe networks can lead to a significant reduction in overall costs for the owner of the structure. (author)

  6. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [freeze drying methods for space flight food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Methods are reported by which freeze dried foods of improved quality will be produced. The applicability of theories of flavor retention has been demonstrated for a number of food polymers, both proteins and polysacchardies. Studies on the formation of structures during freeze drying have been continued for emulsified systems. Deterioration of organoleptic quality of freeze dried foods due to high temperature heating has been evaluated and improved procedures developed. The influence of water activity and high temperature on retention of model flavor materials and browning deterioration has been evaluated for model systems and food materials.

  7. Identical parallel machine scheduling with nonlinear deterioration and multiple rate modifying activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Öztürkoğlu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on identical parallel machine scheduling of jobs with deteriorating processing times and rate-modifying activities. We consider non linearly increasing processing times of jobs based on their position assignment. Rate modifying activities are also considered to recover the increase in processing times of jobs due to deterioration. We also propose heuristics algorithms that rely on ant colony optimization and simulated annealing algorithms to solve the problem with multiple RMAs in a reasonable amount of time. Finally, we show that ant colony optimization algorithm generates close optimal solutions and superior results than simulated annealing algorithm.

  8. Delay in Presentation, Diagnosis, and Treatment for Breast Cancer Patients in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Helalah, Ahmad Munir; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Al-Hanaqtah, Mo'tasem; Da'na, Moh'd; Al-Omari, Asim; Mubaidin, Rasmi

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer, and one of the leading causes of death for females in Jordan and many countries in the world. Studies have shown that delay in symptoms presentation, diagnosis or treatment would result in poor prognosis. There has been no published study from Jordan on delays in patient presentation, delays in diagnosis, or delays in treatment. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess these important quality indicators aiming to improve prognosis for breast cancer patients in Jordan. This project was a cross-sectional study on female breast cancer patients in Jordan. The total number of participants was 327. The proportion of patients with presentation delay, diagnosis delay, and treatment delay was 32.2%, 49.1%, or 32.4%, respectively. The main reported reasons for delay in presentation were ignorance of the nature of the problem (65.6%), limited/lack of knowledge that symptoms were suggestive of cancer diagnosis (16.7%), and misdiagnosis (16.7%). Predictors of delay and mean time for presentation, diagnosis, and treatment were identified. Our results reveal that breast cancer patients in Jordan are experiencing delays in presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. This could justify the advanced stages at diagnosis and poor outcomes for breast cancer patients in Jordan. We recommend revising the current early detection and down-staging programs in Jordan. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Synchronization in networks with heterogeneous coupling delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Andreas; Radons, Günter; Bachrathy, Dániel; Orosz, Gábor

    2018-01-01

    Synchronization in networks of identical oscillators with heterogeneous coupling delays is studied. A decomposition of the network dynamics is obtained by block diagonalizing a newly introduced adjacency lag operator which contains the topology of the network as well as the corresponding coupling delays. This generalizes the master stability function approach, which was developed for homogenous delays. As a result the network dynamics can be analyzed by delay differential equations with distributed delay, where different delay distributions emerge for different network modes. Frequency domain methods are used for the stability analysis of synchronized equilibria and synchronized periodic orbits. As an example, the synchronization behavior in a system of delay-coupled Hodgkin-Huxley neurons is investigated. It is shown that the parameter regions where synchronized periodic spiking is unstable expand when increasing the delay heterogeneity.

  10. Dynamic Cournot Duopoly Game with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Elsadany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The delay Cournot duopoly game is studied. Dynamical behaviors of the game are studied. Equilibrium points and their stability are studied. The results show that the delayed system has the same Nash equilibrium point and the delay can increase the local stability region.

  11. Synchronization analysis of coloured delayed networks under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper investigates synchronization of coloured delayed networks under decentralized pinning intermittent control. To begin with, the time delays are taken into account in the coloured networks. In addition, we propose a decentralized pinning intermittent control for coloured delayed networks, which is different from that ...

  12. BOLD delay times using group delay in sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloigner, Julie; Vu, Chau; Bush, Adam; Borzage, Matt; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Lepore, Natasha; Wood, John

    2016-03-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder that effects red blood cells, which can lead to vasoocclusion, ischemia and infarct. This disease often results in neurological damage and strokes, leading to morbidity and mortality. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique for measuring and mapping the brain activity. Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals contain also information about the neurovascular coupling, vascular reactivity, oxygenation and blood propagation. Temporal relationship between BOLD fluctuations in different parts of the brain provides also a mean to investigate the blood delay information. We used the induced desaturation as a label to profile transit times through different brain areas, reflecting oxygen utilization of tissue. In this study, we aimed to compare blood flow propagation delay times between these patients and healthy subjects in areas vascularized by anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In a group comparison analysis with control subjects, BOLD changes in these areas were found to be almost simultaneous and shorter in the SCD patients, because of their increased brain blood flow. Secondly, the analysis of a patient with a stenosis on the anterior cerebral artery indicated that signal of the area vascularized by this artery lagged the MCA signal. These findings suggest that sickle cell disease causes blood propagation modifications, and that these changes could be used as a biomarker of vascular damage.

  13. Delayed response task performance as a function of age in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, H S; Call, J; Sajuthi, D

    2014-01-01

    We compared delayed response task performance in young, middle-aged, and old cynomolgus monkeys using three memory tests that have been used with non-human primates. Eighteen cynomolgus monkeys-6 young (4-9 years), 6 middle-aged (10-19 years), and 6 old (above 20 years)-were tested. In general......, the old monkeys scored significantly worse than did the animals in the two other age groups. Longer delays between stimulus presentation and response increased the performance differences between the old and younger monkeys. The old monkeys in particular showed signs of impaired visuo-spatial memory...... and deteriorated memory consolidation and executive functioning. These results add to the body of evidence supporting the utility of Macaca fascicularis in studies of cognition and as a potential translational model for age-associated memory impairment/dementia-related disorders....

  14. Paradoxical Deterioration During Anti-Tuberculous Therapy in Non-HIV-Infected Patients with Pleural Tuberculosis: A Pragmatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Corral-Gudino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of paradoxical deterioration. A male patient diagnosed with pleural tuberculosis, but who was not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, experienced clinical deterioration 3 weeks after the initiation of anti-tuberculous treatment. After other diagnoses were ruled out, a paradoxical response to treatment was established and the patient was started on systemic corticosteroids. Paradoxical response to treatment should be considered in patients with clinical deterioration after they start on anti-tuberculous treatment.

  15. Molecular markers reliably predict post-harvest deterioration of fresh-cut lettuce in modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Ivan; Hayes, Ryan J; Truco, Maria-Jose; Michelmore, Richard W; Antonise, Rudie; Massoudi, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Fresh-cut lettuce is popular, but highly perishable product. Genetic studies of two bi-parental populations derived from crossing parents with rapid and slow rates of deterioration showed that the deterioration rate is a heritable trait (broad spectrum heritability, H 2 of 0.56-0.87). The major genetic determinant of the deterioration rate in both populations was the quantitative trait locus (QTL), qSL4 , located on linkage group 4. This QTL explained 40-74% of the total phenotypic variation of the trait in the two populations. Saturating the qSL4 region with single-nucleotide (SNP) markers allowed detection of six haplotypes in a set of 16 lettuce accessions with different rates of deterioration. Three of the haplotypes were always associated with very rapid rates of deterioration, while the other three haplotypes were associated with slow rates of deterioration. Two SNPs located 53 bp apart were sufficient to separate the 16 accessions into two groups with different rates of deterioration. The accuracy of markers-trait association was subsequently tested on 350 plants from seven F 2 families that originated from crossing parents with different rates of deterioration. The H 2 of deterioration rate in these seven families ranged from 0.64 to 0.90. The SNP-based analysis accurately identified individuals with rapid, intermediate, and slow rates of deterioration in each family. Intermediate rate of deterioration was found in individuals having heterozygous alleles at qSL4 , indicating an additive effect of the alleles. The assay can be used for fast, accurate, and reliable identification of deterioration rate after processing for salad.

  16. Successive lag synchronization on dynamical networks with communication delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-Jian, Zhang; Ai-Ju, Wei; Ke-Zan, Li

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, successive lag synchronization (SLS) on a dynamical network with communication delay is investigated. In order to achieve SLS on the dynamical network with communication delay, we design linear feedback control and adaptive control, respectively. By using the Lyapunov function method, we obtain some sufficient conditions for global stability of SLS. To verify these results, some numerical examples are further presented. This work may find potential applications in consensus of multi-agent systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61004101), the Natural Science Foundation Program of Guangxi Province, China (Grant No. 2015GXNSFBB139002), the Graduate Innovation Project of Guilin University of Electronic Technology, China (Grant No. GDYCSZ201472), and the Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Data Analysis and Computation, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, China.

  17. Reactor shutdown delays medical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A longer-than-expected maintenance shutdown of the Canadian nuclear reactor that produces North America's entire supply of molybdenum-99 - from which the radioactive isotopes technetium-99 and iodine-131 are made - caused delays to the diagnosis and treatment of thousands of seriously ill patients last month. Technetium-99 is a key component of nuclear-medicine scans, while iodine-131 is used to treat cancer and other diseases of the thyroid. Production eventually resumed, but only after the Canadian government had overruled the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which was still concerned about the reactor's safety.

  18. Identification of a novel group of bacteria in sludge from a deteriorated biological phosphorus removal reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard; Liu, Wen-Tso; Filipe, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The microbial diversity of a deteriorated biological phosphorus removal reactor was investigated by methods not requiring direct cultivation. The reactor was fed with media containing acetate and high levels of phosphate (P/C weight ratio, 8:100) but failed to completely remove phosphate...

  19. Aquifer pre-oxidation using permanganate to mitigate water quality deterioration during aquifer storage recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, E.A.; Hartog, N.; van Breukelen, B.M.; Stuijfzand, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality deterioration is a common occurrence that may limit the recovery of injected water during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) operations. This limitation is often induced by the oxidation of the reduced aquifer components by the oxygenated injection water. This study explores the

  20. Bio-deterioration of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas lam) in storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The biodeterioration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was investigated at Port. Harcourt, south southern Nigeria. Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer,. Botryodiplodia theobroma and Penicillium sp. were found to be associated with deteriorating sweet potato tubers and used for ...

  1. Predictable progressive Doppler deterioration in IUGR: does it really exist?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, Julia

    2013-12-01

    An objective of the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in IUGR (PORTO) study was to evaluate multivessel Doppler changes in a large cohort of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) fetuses to establish whether a predictable progressive sequence of Doppler deterioration exists and to correlate these Doppler findings with respective perinatal outcomes.

  2. 40 CFR 1045.245 - How do I determine deterioration factors from exhaust durability testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Certifying Engine Families § 1045.245 How do I determine deterioration factors... measure emissions from the emission-data engine at a low-hour test point and the end of the useful life...

  3. A model for determining condition-based maintenance policies for deteriorating multi-component systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hontelez, J.A.M.; Wijnmalen, D.J.D.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss a method to determine strategies for preventive maintenance of systems consisting of gradually deteriorating components. A model has been developed to compute not only the range of conditions inducing a repair action, but also inspection moments based on the last known condition value so

  4. Deterioration rates of blowndown timber and potential problems associated with product recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Aho; James M. Cahill

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes published reports of deterioration and product recovery studies conducted on dead timber. Decay rates experienced in blowndown timber are presented for western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), Douglasfir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), and...

  5. Recognition and assessment of resident' deterioration in the nursing home setting: a critical ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laging, Bridget; Kenny, Amanda; Bauer, Michael; Nay, Rhonda

    2018-02-03

    To explore the recognition and assessment of resident deterioration in the nursing home setting. There is a dearth of research exploring how nurses and personal-care-assistants manage a deteriorating nursing home resident. Critical ethnography. Observation and semi-structured interviews with 66 participants (residents, family, nurses, personal-care-assistants and general practitioners) in two Australian nursing homes. The study has been reported in accordance with the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines. The value of nursing assessment is poorly recognized in the nursing home setting. A lack of clarity regarding the importance of nursing assessments associated with resident care has contributed to a decreasing presence of registered nurses and an increasing reliance on personal-care-assistants who had inadequate skills and knowledge to recognize signs of deterioration. Registered nurses experienced limited organizational support for autonomous decision-making and were often expected to undertake protocol-driven decisions that contributed to potentially avoidable hospital transfers. Nurses need to demonstrate the importance of assessment, in association with day-to-day resident care, and demand standardized, regulated, educational preparation of an appropriate workforce who are competent in undertaking this role. Workforce structures that enhance familiarity between nursing home staff and residents could result in improved resident outcomes. The value of nursing assessment, in guiding decisions at the point of resident deterioration, warrants further consideration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Pre-harvest deterioration of Sour sop (Annona muricata) at Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The etiology of pre-harvest deterioration of Soursop (Annona muricata) fruit in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria and the effects on its nutrient composition was investigated. Four fungal pathogens including Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were found associated with the ...

  7. Severe carotid stenosis and impaired cerebral hemodynamics can influence cognitive deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Perozzi, Cecilia; Altamura, Claudia; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Luzzi, Simona; Bartolini, Marco; Provinciali, Leandro; Silvestrini, Mauro

    2013-06-04

    To evaluate whether severe carotid stenosis and related hemodynamics impairment may increase the risk of cognitive deterioration in asymptomatic subjects. A total of 210 subjects with unilateral asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis and 109 healthy controls were included and prospectively evaluated for a 36-month period. At entry, demographics, vascular risk profile, and pharmacologic treatments were defined. Cerebral hemodynamics was assessed by transcranial Doppler-based breath-holding index (BHI) test. Cognitive status was evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at entry and at the end of the follow-up period. Cognitive deterioration was defined as a decrease in the MMSE score of 3 points or more during the overall follow-up period. Subjects with carotid stenosis showed an increased probability of developing cognitive deterioration compared with the group without stenosis (odds ratio [OR] 4.16 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.89-9.11]; p < 0.001). The presence of an impaired BHI ipsilateral to the stenosis was associated with an increased incidence of reduction in cognitive performance (OR 14.66 [95% CI 7.51-28.59]; p < 0.001). Our findings show that the presence of a severe carotid stenosis influences cognitive deterioration over a 36-month period in asymptomatic subjects. An associated hemodynamic impairment significantly increases the risk. Evaluation of functional consequences of carotid stenosis may offer the opportunity to select a group with an increased risk of developing cognitive impairment from subjects with asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis.

  8. Deterioration Mechanisms and Durability of Sprayed Concrete for Rock Support in Tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagelia, P.

    2011-01-01

    Steel fibre reinforced sprayed concretes used for rock support in tunnels are subjected to variable and complex exposure conditions. Structurally weakened concretes (5 to 35 years old) were investigated with respect to deterioration mechanisms, sources of aggressive agents and related engineering

  9. Impact of oral contraceptive pill use on premenstrual mood: predictors of improvement and deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hadine; Cohen, Lee S; Harlow, Bernard L

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate risk factors for the deterioration and improvement of premenstrual mood disturbance with oral contraceptive pill use. Predictors of the deleterious and beneficial effects of oral contraceptive pill use on premenstrual mood were analyzed with the use of logistic regression in a nested case-control study within a community-based cohort of 976 premenopausal women in Massachusetts. Of 658 women who were using oral contraceptive pills, 16.3% of the women reported oral contraceptive pill-related premenstrual mood deterioration, and 12.3% of the women reported premenstrual mood improvement. In adjusted models, previous depression was the only significant predictor of mood deterioration (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.8); early-onset premenstrual mood disturbance and dysmenorrhea were significant predictors of oral contraceptive pill-related mood improvement (odds ratio, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.9-5.2] and odds ratio, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.4-3.9], respectively). Oral contraceptive pills do not influence premenstrual mood in most women. Premenstrual mood is most likely to deteriorate in women with a history of depression and to improve in women with early-onset premenstrual mood disturbance or dysmenorrhea.

  10. The role of job alienation in work ability deterioration and unhealthy ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerino, D.; Conway, P.M.; van der Heijden, Beatrice; van der Schoot, E.; Pokorski, J.; Estryn-Behar, M.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Costa, G.; Goedhart, W.J.A.; Ilmarinen, J.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to illustrate how, within the nursing profession, work ability can be deteriorated by a job alienation mechanism which acts differently according to age. From the total number of nurses participating in the NEXT Study, a sample of 27,146 nurses was selected. In

  11. Inhibiting the deterioration of plasticised poly (vinyl chloride) in museum collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2003-01-01

    Plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) is found in museum collections as three dimensional objects and as packaging materials. Many PVC materials deteriorate within 25 years of acquisition. Migration and chemical breakdown of plasticizer, accompanied by dehydrochlorination of the polymer are the...

  12. Bio-deterioration of sweet potato ( ipomoea batatas lam ) in storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodeterioration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was investigated at Port Harcourt, south southern Nigeria. Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Botryodiplodia theobroma and Penicillium sp. were found to be associated with deteriorating sweet potato tubers and used for inoculation of fresh ...

  13. Production and Maintenance Planning for a Deteriorating System with Operation-Dependent Defectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rivera-Gómez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides new insights to the area of sustainable manufacturing systems at analyzing the novel paradigm of integrated production logistics, quality, and maintenance design. For this purpose, we investigate the optimal production and repair/major maintenance switching strategy of an unreliable deteriorating manufacturing system. The effects of the deterioration process are mainly observed on the failure intensity and on the quality of the parts produced, where the rate of defectives depends on the production rate. When unplanned failures occur, either a minimal repair or a major maintenance could be conducted. The integration of availability and quality deterioration led us to propose a new stochastic dynamic programming model where optimality conditions are derived through the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations. The model defined the joint production and repair/major maintenance switching strategies minimizing the total cost over an infinite planning horizon. In the results, the influence of the deterioration process were evident in both the production and maintenances control parameters. A numerical example and an extensive sensitivity analysis were conducted to illustrate the usefulness of the results. Finally, the proposed control policy was compared with alternative strategies based on common assumptions of the literature in order to illustrate its efficiency.

  14. Minimum expected cost-oriented optimal maintenance planning for deteriorating structures: application to concrete bridge decks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, Allen C.; Frangopol, Dan M

    2001-09-01

    Civil engineering structures are designed to serve the public and often must perform safely for decades. No matter how well they are designed, all civil engineering structures will deteriorate over time and lifetime maintenance expenses represent a substantial portion of the total lifetime cost of most structures. It is difficult to make a reliable prediction of this cost when the future is unknown and structural deterioration and behavior are assumed from a mathematical model or previous experience. An optimal maintenance program is the key to making appropriate decisions at the right time to minimize cost and maintain an appropriate level of safety. This study proposes a probabilistic framework for optimizing the timing and the type of maintenance over the expected useful life of a deteriorating structure. A decision tree analysis is used to develop an optimum lifetime maintenance plan which is updated as inspections occur and more data is available. An estimate which predicts cost and behavior over many years must be refined and reoptimized as new information becomes available. This methodology is illustrated using a half-cell potential test to evaluate a deteriorating concrete bridge deck. The study includes the expected life of the structure, the expected damage level of the structure, costs of inspection and specific repairs, interest rates, the capability of the test equipment to detect a flaw, and the management approach of the owner towards making repairs.

  15. 76 FR 10894 - Notice of Issuance of Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Federal Operating Permits to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kaushal Gupta, Environmental Engineer, EPA, Region 5, 77 West Jackson... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [MN90; FRL-9272-2] Notice of Issuance of Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Federal Operating Permits to Grand Casino Hinckley AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  16. Identification of concrete deteriorating minerals by polarizing and scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregerova, Miroslava; Vsiansky, Dalibor

    2009-01-01

    The deterioration of concrete represents one of the most serious problems of civil engineering worldwide. Besides other processes, deterioration of concrete consists of sulfate attack and carbonation. Sulfate attack results in the formation of gypsum, ettringite and thaumasite in hardened concrete. Products of sulfate attack may cause a loss of material strength and a risk of collapse of the concrete constructions. The authors focused especially on the microscopical research of sulfate attack. Concrete samples were taken from the Charles Bridge in Prague, Czech Republic. A succession of degrading mineral formation was suggested. Microscope methods represent a new approach to solving the deterioration problems. They enable evaluation of the state of concrete constructions and in cooperation with hydro-geochemistry, mathematics and statistics permit prediction of the durability of a structure. Considering the number of concrete constructions and their age, research of concrete deterioration has an increasing importance. The results obtained can also be useful for future construction, because they identify the risk factors associated with formation of minerals known to degrade structures.

  17. Difference of clinical course between cases with bone union and those with delayed union following osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hiroyuki; Hoshino, Masatoshi; Tsujio, Tadao; Terai, Hidetomi; Namikawa, Takashi; Kato, Minori; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Akinobu; Takayama, Kazushi; Takahashi, Shinji; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-12-28

    In this prospective multicenter study of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs), delayed union of OVF at 6-month follow-up caused prolonged pain, QOL impairment, ADL impairment, cognitive status deterioration, and vertebral collapse progression. Delayed union following osteoporotic vertebral fracture displayed as an intravertebral cleft on plain X-rays was reported to be a factor for prolonged severe pain. However, the difference of clinical course between bone union and delayed union cases still remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify how OVF delayed union following conventional conservative treatment influences the clinical course with a prospective multicenter study. A total of 324 OVF patients from 25 institutes in Osaka, Japan, were included in the study. At the 6-month follow-up after initial visit to each institute, the patients were classified into bone union and delayed union groups based on plain X-ray findings. The outcome assessments included a VAS for back pain, SF-36 for quality of life (QOL), severity of bed-ridden state for activities of daily living (ADL), MMSE for cognitive functions, and degree of vertebral collapse on plain X-rays. Overall, 280 patients were included into the union group and 44 into the delayed union group. The VAS score at 6 months was significantly worse in the delayed union group (p = 0.01). The scores for the SF-36 scales of physical functioning and bodily pain at 6 months were significantly lower in the delayed union group (p = 0.019, p = 0.01, respectively). The percentage of nearly or completely bed-ridden patients was significantly higher in the delayed union group. The percentage of newly developed cognitive impairment was significantly higher in the delayed union group (p = 0.02). Progression of vertebral collapse during the 6-month follow-up was more pronounced in the delayed union group (p union following OVF causes prolonged pain, QOL impairment, ADL impairment, cognitive

  18. Delayed Radiation-Induced Vasculitic Leukoencephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Philipp J. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Park, Henry S. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Knisely, Jonathan P.S. [Department of Radiation Medicine, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, New York (United States); Chiang, Veronica L. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Vortmeyer, Alexander O., E-mail: alexander.vortmeyer@yale.edu [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Recently, single-fraction, high-dosed focused radiation therapy such as that administered by Gamma Knife radiosurgery has been used increasingly for the treatment of metastatic brain cancer. Radiation therapy to the brain can cause delayed leukoencephalopathy, which carries its own significant morbidity and mortality. While radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy is known to be clinically different from that following fractionated radiation, pathological differences are not well characterized. In this study, we aimed to integrate novel radiographic and histopathologic observations to gain a conceptual understanding of radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy. Methods and Materials: We examined resected tissues of 10 patients treated at Yale New Haven Hospital between January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2010, for brain metastases that had been previously treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery, who subsequently required surgical management of a symptomatic regrowing lesion. None of the patients showed pathological evidence of tumor recurrence. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging data for each of the 10 patients were then studied retrospectively. Results: We provide evidence to show that radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy may present as an advancing process that extends beyond the original high-dose radiation field. Neuropathologic examination of the resected tissue revealed traditionally known leukoencephalopathic changes including demyelination, coagulation necrosis, and vascular sclerosis. Unexpectedly, small and medium-sized vessels revealed transmural T-cell infiltration indicative of active vasculitis. Conclusions: We propose that the presence of a vasculitic component in association with radiation-induced leukoencephalopathy may facilitate the progressive nature of the condition. It may also explain the resemblance of delayed leukoencephalopathy with recurring tumor on virtually all imaging modalities used for posttreatment follow-up.

  19. Acute postoperative neurological deterioration associated with surgery for ruptured intracranial aneurysm: incidence, predictors, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, Kelly B; Todd, Michael M; Bayman, Emine O; Torner, James C

    2012-06-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) results in significant morbidity and mortality, even among patients who reach medical attention in good neurological condition. Many patients have neurological decline in the perioperative period, which contributes to long-term outcomes. The focus of this study is to characterize the incidence of, characteristics predictive of, and outcomes associated with acute postoperative neurological deterioration in patients undergoing surgery for ruptured intracranial aneurysm. The Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysm Surgery Trial (IHAST) was a multicenter randomized clinical trial that enrolled 1001 patients and assesssed the efficacy of hypothermia as neuroprotection during surgery to secure a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. All patients had a radiographically confirmed SAH, were classified as World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) Grade I-III immediately prior to surgery, and underwent surgery to secure the ruptured aneurysm within 14 days of SAH. Neurological assessment with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was performed preoperatively, at 24 and 72 hours postoperatively, and at time of discharge. The primary outcome variable was a dichotomized scoring based on an IHAST version of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) in which a score of 1 represents a good outcome and a score > 1 a poor outcome, as assessed at 90-days' follow-up. Data from IHAST were analyzed for occurrence of a postoperative neurological deterioration. Preoperative and intraoperative variables were assessed for associations with occurrence of postoperative neurological deterioration. Differences in baseline, intraoperative, and postoperative variables and in outcomes between patients with and without postoperative neurological deterioration were compared with Fisher exact tests. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare variables reported as means. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for covariates associated with occurrence

  20. Delay Variation Model with Two Service Queues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Rezac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay in VoIP technology is very unpleasant issue and therefore a voice packets prioritization must be ensured. To maintain the high call quality a maximum information delivery time from the sender to the recipient is set to 150 ms. This paper focuses on the design of a mathematical model of end-to-end delay of a VoIP connection, in particular on a delay variation. It describes all partial delay components and mechanisms, their generation, facilities and mathematical formulations. A new approach to the delay variation model is presented and its validation has been done by experimention.

  1. Fuzzy delay model based fault simulator for crosstalk delay fault test ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a fuzzy delay model based crosstalk delay fault simulator is proposed. As design trends move towards nanometer technologies, more number of new parameters affects the delay of the component. Fuzzy delay models are ideal for modelling the uncertainty found in the design and manufacturing steps.

  2. Is deterioration of IQ a feature of first episode psychosis and how can we measure it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jennifer A; Wiffen, Benjamin D R; Reichenberg, Abraham; Aas, Monica; Falcone, M Aurora; Russo, Manuela; Sood, Poonam Gardner; Taylor, Heather; David, Anthony S

    2012-05-01

    Estimates of pre-morbid IQ are widely used to measure the trajectory of cognitive function and decline in people with schizophrenia. This study examined the usefulness of two indices of decline to identify cognitive subtypes in first episode psychosis, and to determine the specificity of non-IQ neuropsychological impairments in this population. Neuropsychological data were collected from 118 first episode psychosis patients and compared to 118 epidemiologically matched controls. The National Adult Reading Test (NART) and the Information subtest of the WAIS-III were compared as indicators of crystallised intelligence or 'pre-morbid IQ'. Measurement of NART minus current full scale IQ (FSIQ) (where 10 points discrepancy is the decline criterion) did not reveal a large group of individuals with 'deteriorating' IQ patterns. Using the Information subtest and the same decline criteria, a 'deteriorating' patient group emerged (36%) but was matched by a larger 'deteriorating' control group (45%). The 'deteriorating' patient group performed at a low IQ level for tasks that loaded highly on performance ability but a relatively high level for tasks measuring verbal skills. Verbal memory discriminated patients from controls better than IQ. Compared to controls, patients showed large selective impairments of verbal episodic memory (effect size, d=1.4) These data suggest that in first episode populations, caution should be exercised in inferring deterioration of IQ from discrepancies between reading-based and other IQ tests. Rather, sub-groups of patients and controls do show greater verbal aptitude in comparison to performance skills. Memory is generally impaired in first episode patients regardless of IQ. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nocturnal bladder emptying: a simple technique for reversing urinary tract deterioration in children with neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, Stephen A; Gigax, Michael R; Jayanthi, Venkata R

    2005-10-01

    In this preliminary study we sought to determine the effect of instituting nocturnal bladder emptying (NBE) in children with neurogenic (NGB) or nonneurogenic neurogenic bladder (NNGNGB) in whom urinary tract deterioration developed despite optimal daytime clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) and urotropic medications. We hypothesize that a syndrome of nocturnal overdistention of the bladder (SNOB) can cause urinary tract deterioration through increased nighttime storage pressures manifested by recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI), worsening incontinence, hydronephrosis and/or decreasing bladder compliance and capacity, and may be reversed by NBE. A total of 19 children with NGB (17) or NNGNGB (2) who displayed urinary tract deterioration while on CIC and urotropic medications were started on NBE. Of the patients 15 used a continuously draining nighttime catheter while 4 had scheduled awakenings during the night to perform CIC. The primary indications for NBE were recurrent symptomatic UTI in 5, new or progressive hydronephrosis in 7, and decreasing bladder capacity and compliance in 7. At a mean followup of 23 months 15 (79%) patients showed improvement or complete resolution of 1 or more signs or symptoms of hydronephrosis (7), increase in bladder capacity (5), recurrent UTI (6) and worsening incontinence (3). The remaining 4 patients had no response to NBE. No adverse effects were observed with 10 hours or less of nightly indwelling catheter time. Patients with NGB or NNGNGB on idealized daytime programs of CIC and urotropic drugs may have high intravesical pressures and experience urological deterioration because of an unrecognized SNOB. NBE is a simple technique for treating this condition and reversing the pathophysiological changes. The observation that NBE alone may increase bladder compliance and capacity sufficient to avoid bladder augmentation suggests that development of decreased bladder compliance and capacity in children with NGB may not

  4. Multiuser Delay-Tracking CDMA Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zha Wei

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose to integrate delay tracking into a successive interference cancellation (SIC code division multiple access (CDMA multiuser detector. Delay-robust SIC was initially proposed for CDMA multiuser detection when there exist time delay estimation errors. When the delay error is small, the true user signature vector can be approximately expanded around the estimated time delay as a linear combination of an estimated signature vector and an error vector. The amplitude of the error signal can be recursively estimated and cancelled in the multistage SIC iterations by using the tentative feedback decisions. Since the relative amplitude of the error signal provides information about the delay error, we propose the application of error signal feedback to improve the delay estimation. In a sliding window implementation, the delay-robust SIC is used to track multiple time varying user delays. For constant or slowly varying channels, a soft-decision function can be used to improve the delay-robust SIC. For fast fading channels, a linear decision function is used. Delay-tracking results for both rectangular chip pulses and band-limited chip pulses are shown.

  5. Synthetic and natural antioxidants: food quality protectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, A.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of food lipid components, known as oxidative rancidity is one of the major deteriorative and quality-affecting reactions. Oxidative rancidity is initiated by oxygen free-radicals or by the reaction of molecular oxygen with pre-formed organic free-radicals from polyunsaturated fatty acids composing fats and oils. Oxidation may be prevented or delayed by antioxidants, these substances being organic molecules of either synthetic or natural origin which can scavenge the oxygen free-radicals involved in fatty acid oxidation. Synthetic antioxidants are the most popular and widely used antioxidants, however concerns about it safe to both human and animal health is encouraging research on substances from natural origin showing antioxidant properties. Few natural antioxidants have been proved to be effective when compared to synthetic products in the same experimental conditions. This work summarizes the main characteristics of the most important synthetic antioxidants, also discuss the principal characteristics of four natural antioxidants, comparing the advantages and disadvantages of using natural products compared to synthetic ones, and sight the future for natural products with antioxidant activity.

    La oxidación de los componentes lípidos de un alimento, conocida como rancidez oxidativa, es una de las reacciones que deteriora y afecta en forma más importante la calidad de un producto. La rancidez oxidativa es iniciada por radicales libres del oxígeno o por el ataque del oxígeno molecular a radicales libres pre-formados en los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados que forman las grasas y aceites. La oxidación puede ser prevenida o retrasada por los antioxidantes, sustancias orgánicas de origen sintético o natural que actúan como atrapadores de los radicales libres del oxígeno involucrados en la oxidación de los ácidos grasos. Los antioxidantes sintéticos son los más populares y ampliamente utilizados, sin embargo existe

  6. PRECISION TIME-DELAY GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, B.J.; Peckham, V.D.

    1959-06-16

    A precision time-delay generator circuit with low jitter is described. The first thyratron has a series resonant circuit and a diode which is connected to the second thyratron. The first thyratron is triggered at the begin-ning of a time delay and a capacitor is discharged through the first thyratron and the diode, thereby, triggering the second thyratron. (T.R.H.) l6l9O The instrument described can measure pressures between sea level and 300,000 ft. The pressure- sensing transducer of the instrument is a small cylindrical tube with a thin foil of titanium-tritium fastened around the inside of the tube. Output is a digital signal which can be used for storage or telemetering more conveniently than an analog signal. (W.D.M.) l6l9l An experimental study was made on rolling contacts in the temperature range of 550 to 1000 deg F. Variables such as material composition, hardness, and operating conditions were investigated in a rolling test stand. Ball bearing tests were run to determine the effect of design parameters, bearing materials, lubricants, and operating conditions. (auth)

  7. Cross delay line sensor characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Israel J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Remelius, Dennis K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tiee, Joe J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buck, Steven E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whittemore, Stephen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shirey, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 10{sup 6}) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.

  8. Delayed auditory feedback and aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, F; Vrtunski, P B; Kim, Y; Mack, J L

    1978-06-01

    The effect of Delayed Auditory Feedback (DAF) was evaluated in three groups of subjects: 10 normal controls, 10 non-fluent aphasics, and 10 fluent aphasics. Speec production tasks consisted of (1) repeating sound and words; (2) naming objects; (3) producing sentences from given stimulus words; (4) answering questions; (5) reciting nursery rhymes; and (6) reading. Two delays were used, 180 and 360 msec. Two independent judges rated patients' responses for changes in intensity, duration, and quality of speech. Inter-judge reliability was considered satisfactory. Contrary to some previous reports, all subjects, including all the fluent aphasics, showed some DAF effect. Fluent aphasics, however, showed a significantly smaller DAF effect than non-fluent aphasics. Patient with conduction aphasia appeared to be the least impaired. Overall DAF effect was greater with 180 msec. than with 360 msec. The largest DAF effect occurred during answering question, followed by repeating, reading, nursery rhymes, sentence production, and naming, in that order. Repetition of a complex word produced a greater DAF effect than repetition of a simple sound. Finally, we found a differential effect of DAF on the three measures used in the study. We hypothesize that DAF effects result from changes in two separate monitoring systems. One systems is related to changes in the intensity of speech and does not appear to be affected by aphasia. The other is responsible for duration and qualitative changes in speech and is differentially affected in relation to pathology producing aphasia.

  9. Delayed coker fractionator advanced control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaisinghani, R.; Minter, B. (ABB SIMCON Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Tica, A.; Puglesi, A.; Ojeda, R. (Yacimentos Petroliferos Fiscales, Mendoza (Argentina))

    1993-08-01

    In a delayed coking process, as coke drum switches are made, rapid changes occur in both the fractionator feed rate and composition. With conventional control, it is not unusual to see long transient behavior of large swings in both quality and flowrates of coker gas oils. This can extract a heavy economic toll, not only in coker operation, but in the operation of downstream units as the upset is propagated. An advanced process control application (APC) was recently implemented on the coker fractionator at the Yacimentos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF), Lujan de Cuyo Refinery, in Mendoza, Argentina. This coker fractionator control design was unique as it handled two different operating objectives: control of product qualities via tower temperature profile during normal operation and control of gas oil product flow ratio during drum switch. This combination of control objectives in one multivariable predictive control program was achieved by including special logic to decouple the individual tuning requirements. Also, additional logic was included to unambiguously detect and identify drum switch and drum steam out as discrete events within 30 seconds of their actual occurrence. These discrete events were then used as disturbance variables to minimize fractionator transient behavior. As a performance measure, the overhead temperature was controlled within 2 C to 2.5 C of its target, gas oil flows were stabilized during drum switches and steam generation via pump around was maximized. Overall, implementing advanced control for the delayed coker fractionator resulted in substantial benefits from product quality control, product flow control and minimized energy consumption.

  10. Reasons for diagnostic delay in gynecological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Mai Partridge; Christensen, René dePont Christensen; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Aim The primary aim of this study was to identify and describe different delay types in women with gynecologic cancer, and to analyze the relationship between diagnostic delay and a number of characteristics for patients, cancers and the health care system. Setting A cohort study of women newly......) and The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD). 161 women were included; ovarian cancer: 63, endometrial cancer: 50, cervical cancer: 34 and vulvar cancer: 14. Outcome measures were different delay types counted in days and the influence of four clinical important variables: Presence of alarm symptoms, age...... (≤ or > 60 years), performance of gynecological examination by the GP and notification of cancer suspicion on first referral from GP’s on the diagnostic delay (short delay ≤90 days and long delay >90 days). Results Across cancer type a median total delay of 101 days was observed. The 10% of women...

  11. Large Deviations for Gaussian Diffusions with Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azencott, Robert; Geiger, Brett; Ott, William

    2018-01-01

    Dynamical systems driven by nonlinear delay SDEs with small noise can exhibit important rare events on long timescales. When there is no delay, classical large deviations theory quantifies rare events such as escapes from metastable fixed points. Near such fixed points, one can approximate nonlinear delay SDEs by linear delay SDEs. Here, we develop a fully explicit large deviations framework for (necessarily Gaussian) processes X_t driven by linear delay SDEs with small diffusion coefficients. Our approach enables fast numerical computation of the action functional controlling rare events for X_t and of the most likely paths transiting from X_0 = p to X_T=q. Via linear noise local approximations, we can then compute most likely routes of escape from metastable states for nonlinear delay SDEs. We apply our methodology to the detailed dynamics of a genetic regulatory circuit, namely the co-repressive toggle switch, which may be described by a nonlinear chemical Langevin SDE with delay.

  12. Asymptotic Delay Analysis for Cross-Layer Delay-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jacquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the evaluation of the delay distribution via analytical means in IEEE 802.11 wireless ad hoc networks. We show that the asymptotic delay distribution can be expressed as a power law. Based on the latter result, we present a cross-layer delay estimation protocol and we derive new delay-distribution-based routing algorithms, which are well adapted to the QoS requirements of real-time multimedia applications. In fact, multimedia services are not sensitive to average delays, but rather to the asymptotic delay distributions. Indeed, video streaming applications drop frames when they are received beyond a delay threshold, determined by the buffer size. Although delay-distribution-based routing is an NP-hard problem, we show that it can be solved in polynomial time when the delay threshold is large, because of the asymptotic power law distribution of the link delays.

  13. Inventory model with cash flow oriented and time-dependent holding cost under permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an inventory model for determining an optimal ordering policy for non-deteriorating items and time-dependent holding cost with delayed payments permitted by the supplier under inflation and time-discounting. The discounted cash flows approach is applied to study the problem analysis. Mathematical models have been derived under two different situations i.e. case I: The permissible delay period is less than cycle time for settling the account and case II: The permissible delay period is greater than or equal to cycle time for settling the account. An algorithm is used to obtain minimum total present value of the costs over the time horizon H. Finally, numerical example and sensitivity analysis demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal cycle time and optimal payment time for an item so that annual total relevant cost is minimized.

  14. MPEG-4 low-delay general audio coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporer, Thomas; Grill, Bernhard; Herre, Juergen

    2001-07-01

    Traditionally, speech coding for communication purposes and perceptual audio coding have been separate worlds. On one hand, speech coders provide acceptable speech quality at very low data rates and low delays which are suitable for two-way communication applications, such as Voice over IP (VoIP) or teleconferencing. Due to the underlying coding paradigm, however, such coders do not perform well for non-speech signals (e.g.~music and environmental noise). Furthermore, the sound quality and naturalness is severely limited by the fact that most coders are working in narrow-band mode, i.e. with a bandwidth below 4 kHz. On the other hand, perceptual audio codecs provide excellent subjective audio quality for a broad range of signals including speech at bit rates down to 16 kbit/s. The delay of such a coder/decoder chain, however, usually exceeds 200 ms at very low data rates and in this way is not acceptable for interactive two-way communication. This paper describes a coding scheme which is designed to combine the advantages of perceptual audio coding with the low delay necessary for two-way communication. The codec was standardized within MPEG-4 Version 2 Audio under the work item ``Low Delay Audio Coding'' and is derived from the ISO/MPEG-2/4 Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) algorithm. The algorithm provides modes operating at algorithmic delay as low as 20 ms and is equipped to handle all full-bandwidth high-quality audio signals, both in monophonic, stereophonic and even multi-channel format. Despite of the low algorithmic delay, the codec delivers better audio quality than MPEG-1 Layer-3 (MP3) at the same bit rate. The paper also addresses issues pertaining to the integration of the coder into H.32x and SDP applications.

  15. Deterioration study of a material for encapsulation of radioactive wastes, the Portland cement, by heterotrophic microorganisms isolated from natural media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfettini, J.

    1989-01-01

    Soils and geologic formations selected for storage of radioactive waste storage contain microflora (nitrifying and sulfoxidizing bacteria, heterotrophic microorganisms) that can corrode cement through acidic metabolism products. Nutriments required for their development are also found in these biotopes. Corrosine effects of organic acids produced by heterotrophic microorganisms are: mass decrease, leaching (especially Ca), dissolution of portlandite crystals Ca (OH) 2 , increase of porosity and decrease of flexural strength. Excretion of corrosive organic acids by bacteria is promoted by high temperature and basic pH. Acidification by fungi requires also a high temperature but an acidic pH [fr

  16. Transformation of collagen into gelatine in historical leather and parchment caused by natural deterioration and moist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, René

    2012-01-01

    stability of fibres by heating in water. Eight major characteristic morphological breakdown features have been identified as typical and representative for historical parchments. In most cases, one or more of these characteristics of damage are present to various degrees in a fibre sample and often...... of characterisation of the fibres in dry state or in water at room temperature as well as by measurement of the shrinkage activity. Furthermore, experiments and observations of historical objects, especially parchment documents which have been exposed to active conservation and restoration treatments, have revealed...

  17. Limits and Dynamics of Stochastic Neuronal Networks with Random Heterogeneous Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    Realistic networks display heterogeneous transmission delays. We analyze here the limits of large stochastic multi-populations networks with stochastic coupling and random interconnection delays. We show that depending on the nature of the delays distributions, a quenched or averaged propagation of chaos takes place in these networks, and that the network equations converge towards a delayed McKean-Vlasov equation with distributed delays. Our approach is mostly fitted to neuroscience applications. We instantiate in particular a classical neuronal model, the Wilson and Cowan system, and show that the obtained limit equations have Gaussian solutions whose mean and standard deviation satisfy a closed set of coupled delay differential equations in which the distribution of delays and the noise levels appear as parameters. This allows to uncover precisely the effects of noise, delays and coupling on the dynamics of such heterogeneous networks, in particular their role in the emergence of synchronized oscillations. We show in several examples that not only the averaged delay, but also the dispersion, govern the dynamics of such networks.

  18. Managing and avoiding delay in operating theatres: a qualitative, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Vaughan J G; Bryant, Melanie J; Villanueva, Elmer V; Kitto, Simon C

    2013-02-01

    A range of strategies have been proposed to identify and address operating theatre delays, including preoperative checklists, post-delay audits and staff education. These strategies provide a useful starting point in addressing delay, but their effectiveness can be increased through more detailed consideration of sources of surgical delay. A qualitative, observational study was conducted at two Australian hospitals, one a metropolitan site and the other a regional hospital. Thirty surgeries were observed involving general, vascular and orthopaedic procedures which ranged in time from 20 minutes to almost 4 hours. Approximately 40 hours of observations were conducted in total. The research findings suggest that there are two key challenges involved in addressing operating theatre delays: unanticipated problems in the clinical condition of patients, and the capacity of surgeons to regulate their own time. These challenges create unavoidable delays due to the contingencies of surgical work and competing demands on surgeons' time. The results also found that surgical staff play a critical role in averting and anticipating delays. Differences in professional authority are significant in influencing how operating theatre time is managed. Strategies aimed at addressing operating theatre delays are unlikely to achieve their desired aims without a more detailed understanding of medical decision making and work practices, and the intra- as well as inter-professional hierarchies underpinning them. While the nature of surgical work poses some challenges for measures designed to address delays, it is also necessary to focus on surgical practice in devising workable solutions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Moderate-severe traumatic brain injury causes delayed loss of white matter integrity: evidence of fornix deterioration in the chronic stage of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Areeba; Crawley, Adrian; Mikulis, David; Moscovitch, Morris; Colella, Brenda; Green, Robin

    2013-01-01

    To examine structural integrity loss in the fornix from 5-30 months after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) using diffusion tensor imaging. MRIs were prospectively undertaken in 29 adults with moderate and severe TBI at two time points. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated for the fornix (column/body, right crux and left crux) at 5 and 30 months post-injury. Paired t-tests revealed significant FA reductions with large effect sizes across time in the column/body, p fornix plays a critical role in memory, this may be a contributing factor to the poor clinical outcomes observed in these patients.

  20. Delayed response in ipilimumab therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ahmed; Faulhaber, Peter; Phillips, Tycel; Koon, Henry

    2014-03-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a deadly disease with a 5-year survival rate lower than 20%. In 2011, ipilimumab, a fully humanized antibody that binds to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration based on improved survival in a pivotal trial. CTLA4 is a molecule on cytotoxic T-lymphocytes that plays a critical role in attenuating immune responses. Ipilimumab blocks the binding of B7, the ligand of CTLA4, thereby blocking the activation of CTLA4 and sustaining antitumor immune responses. The time course to response can be variable with immunotherapeutics. We report on a patient who experienced a considerable delay before responding to ipilimumab.