WorldWideScience

Sample records for delays belgian nuclear

  1. The Belgian nuclear research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.

    2001-01-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre is almost exclusively devoted to nuclear R and D and services and is able to generate 50% of its resources (out of 75 million Euro) by contract work and services. The main areas of research include nuclear reactor safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. The high flux reactor BR2 is extensively used to test fuel and structural materials. PWR-plant BR3 is devoted to the scientific analysis of decommissioning problems. The Centre has a strong programme on the applications of radioisotopes and radiation in medicine and industry. The centre has plans to develop an accelerator driven spallation neutron source for various applications. It has initiated programmes to disseminate correct information on issues of nuclear energy production and non-energy nuclear applications to different target groups. It has strong linkages with the IAEA, OECD-NEA and the Euratom. (author)

  2. The Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.; D'Haeseleer, W.; Giot, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: BNEN, the Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network has been created in 2001 by five Belgian universities and the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) as a joint effort to maintain and further develop a high quality programme in nuclear engineering in Belgium. In a country where a substantial part of electricity generation will remain of nuclear origin for a number of years, there is a need for well educated and well trained engineers in this area. Public authorities, regulators and industry brought their support to this initiative. In the framework of the new architecture of higher education in Europe, the English name for this 60 ECTS programme is 'Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering'. To be admitted to this programme, students must already hold a university degree in engineering or equivalent. Linked with university research, benefiting from the human resources and infrastructure of SCK-CEN, encouraged and supported by the partners of the nuclear sector, this programme should be offered not only to Belgian students, but also more widely throughout Europe and the world. The master programme is a demanding programme where students with different high level backgrounds in engineering have to go through highly theoretical subjects like neutron physics, fluid flow and heat transfer modelling, and apply them to reactor design, nuclear safety and plant operation and control. At a more interdisciplinary level, the programme includes some important chapters of material science, with a particular interest for the fuel cycle. Radiation protection belongs also to the backbone of the programme. All the subjects are taught by academics appointed by the partner universities, whereas the practical exercises and laboratory sessions are supervised by researchers of SCK-CEN. The final thesis offers an opportunity for internship in industry or in a research laboratory. More information: http://www.sckcen.be/BNEN. (author)

  3. History of the Belgian nuclear power controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laes, E.

    2009-01-01

    Partly because nuclear energy technology continues to provoke profound controversy, the Flemish institute for technology assessment (viWTA) took the initiative to order a study aimed at mapping out the historical dynamics of the societal debate on nuclear energy. This study was carried out by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN, under the research programme PISA) together with the Free university of Brussels (VUB, research group MEKO) in 2004. In 2007, the report was updated and published by Acco (Leuven) under the title Kernenergie (on)besproken. This study had three main objectives: 1) to discuss the societal debate on nuclear energy in Belgium in relation to major events (Chernobyl, TMI, etc.); 2) to elucidate the role of social actors in the controversy on both a national and international level and 3) to discuss possible alternatives for a better structuring of the debate in the future, building on existing approaches

  4. The Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network: Your way to the European Master in Nuclear Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.; D'haeseleer, W.; Giot, M.

    2004-01-01

    BNEN, the Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network has been created in 2001 by five Belgian universities and the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN) as a joint effort to maintain and further develop a high quality programme in nuclear engineering in Belgium. More information: http://www.sckcen.be/BNEN. (author)

  5. Inventory of nuclear liabilities - The Belgian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minon, Jean-Paul

    2003-01-01

    Like all countries that use radioactive materials for producing electricity or for other peaceful purposes, Belgium is faced with an important challenge: the safe management of all these materials, in both the short and long term. Of course there is a price to pay for this management, which in accordance with the ethical principle of inter-generational fairness should be borne mainly by the current generations. However, it is possible that when the moment has come, the financial resources to cover the costs of decommissioning and remediation of these installations, prove to be insufficient or even completely non-existent: this then results in a nuclear liability. This kind of situation can have several causes, such as an underestimation of the actual costs by the operator or the owner of the nuclear installation or by the holder or the owner of the radioactive materials, negligence, transfer of ownership of the nuclear installation or the nuclear site without transfer of the corresponding provisions, a reduction in the operating time, a bankruptcy as well as ignorance. Because it wishes to avoid the occurrence of new nuclear liabilities, the Belgian legislator, by virtue of article 9 of the programme law of 12.12.97, charged ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, with collecting all the elements that are necessary in order to examine to which degree the decommissioning and remediation costs can be actually covered when the time comes. ONDRAF/NIRAS was specifically charged with ascertaining all facts of a technical and financial nature which should enable the minister responsible for energy to verify whether every operator or owner of a nuclear installation and every holder or owner of radioactive materials have provided in time for the requisite financial resources to cover the future costs of decommissioning and remediation. This evaluation of course also serves to enable the government to take the necessary

  6. Open Access to the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, S.

    2005-01-01

    Under the name of the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network, five Belgian universities, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Universiteit Gent, Universite de Liege, Vrije Universiteit Brussel have established in 2002, in collaboration with the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, a common Belgian Interuniversity Programme of the third cycle leading to the academic degree of Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering. Under the lead of the SCK-CEN a project to use and share the acquired experience of the Consortium BNEN - in order to support the realization of a common European Education Programme in Nuclear Engineering - has been accepted by the European Commission for funding under the EU's Sixth Research Framework Programme.The project wants to contribute actively to the development of a more harmonised approach for education in nuclear sciences and engineering in Europe. It brings the European higher Education Area closer to realization and helps to safeguard the necessary competence and expertise for the continued safe use of nuclear energy and other uses of radiation in industry and medicine in Europe. The project foresees input and participation from stakeholders from different countries of the enlarged European Union (EU-25) and will therefore contribute to the integration of the new member states into the European Research Area and thus to the enlargement of Europe. The set-up of the project foresees an active role for female experts with the intention to reinforce the place and role of women in science

  7. Belgian nuclear forum - launching the public debate on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclere, Robert; Van Landeghem, Yves

    2010-01-01

    In the past decades, public opinion on nuclear power was dominated by a 'sleeping', indifferent majority. Nothing moved until (a minority of) opponents began to stir. Their activism strongly contrasted with the low-profile attitude of the nuclear players and pushed a considerable part of the indifferent majority towards a more negative attitude. A 2007 opinion poll (IFOP) confirmed this trend. The poll also revealed a major lack of objective and factual information. Incorrect and incomplete arguments tended to demonize nuclear energy, and 'nuclear' became a brand polarizing public opinion. This had a negative impact on decision-makers and culminated in the Belgian phase-out law of 2003. Based on the opinion poll, the members of the Belgian Nuclear Forum decided to launch a public information campaign, which they would jointly finance, with these goals: - In 3 to 4 years time, create greater public awareness on energy matters and move public opinion towards a more positive attitude. - Gain recognition of nuclear energy's legitimate place in the mix, and of the importance of peaceful nuclear applications. - Attract attention to the Belgian know-how and the importance of the industry on the scientific and economical level. - Optimize conditions for important nuclear issues such as long-term operation of NPPs, new nuclear research projects (MYRRHA),.. A 'push-pull' approach was adopted: push communication to the public (campaign) to pull (involve) decision-makers and get nuclear back on the political agenda. The Forum also opted for a sustained, long-term effort based on public campaigning, public relations and public affairs. Considering its long-time absence from the public debate, the Forum and its agency Saatchi and Saatchi agreed upon the following principles to underpin the campaign: - No 'pro-campaign'; that would be highly unrealistic and have a negative effect; - No taboos: bring up both the pros and cons; - No emotions: bring reason into a mainly emotional

  8. The actual practice of air cleaning in Belgian nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, W.R. [PEGO, Mol (Belgium)

    1995-02-01

    With 60% of its power generation from nuclear stations Belgium has 7 nuclear power stations in operation with a total capacity of 5.4 MWe. Enriched uranium is imported and converted to fuel assemblies. The actinides of reprocessed fuel are recycled as MOX fuel. A main waste conditioning operation has been performed in the PAMELA vitrifier. The actual practice of nuclear air cleaning in the Belgian PWR station DOEL-4 and in the PAMELA -vitrification plant for high level liquid waste is reviewed.

  9. Belgian nuclear forum - launching the public debate on nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclere, Robert [Belgian Nuclear Forum, Gulledelle, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Van Landeghem, Yves [Saatchi and Saatchi Belgium, Avenue Rogier, 1030 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    In the past decades, public opinion on nuclear power was dominated by a 'sleeping', indifferent majority. Nothing moved until (a minority of) opponents began to stir. Their activism strongly contrasted with the low-profile attitude of the nuclear players and pushed a considerable part of the indifferent majority towards a more negative attitude. A 2007 opinion poll (IFOP) confirmed this trend. The poll also revealed a major lack of objective and factual information. Incorrect and incomplete arguments tended to demonize nuclear energy, and 'nuclear' became a brand polarizing public opinion. This had a negative impact on decision-makers and culminated in the Belgian phase-out law of 2003. Based on the opinion poll, the members of the Belgian Nuclear Forum decided to launch a public information campaign, which they would jointly finance, with these goals: - In 3 to 4 years time, create greater public awareness on energy matters and move public opinion towards a more positive attitude. - Gain recognition of nuclear energy's legitimate place in the mix, and of the importance of peaceful nuclear applications. - Attract attention to the Belgian know-how and the importance of the industry on the scientific and economical level. - Optimize conditions for important nuclear issues such as long-term operation of NPPs, new nuclear research projects (MYRRHA),.. A 'push-pull' approach was adopted: push communication to the public (campaign) to pull (involve) decision-makers and get nuclear back on the political agenda. The Forum also opted for a sustained, long-term effort based on public campaigning, public relations and public affairs. Considering its long-time absence from the public debate, the Forum and its agency Saatchi and Saatchi agreed upon the following principles to underpin the campaign: - No 'pro-campaign'; that would be highly unrealistic and have a negative effect; - No taboos: bring up both the pros and cons; - No

  10. Operating experience with diesel generators in Belgian nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merny, R. [Association Vincotte, Avenue du Roi 157, B-1060 Bruxelles/Brussels (Belgium)

    1986-02-15

    Various problems have occurred on the diesel generators in the Belgian nuclear power plants, independently of the D.G. manufacturer or from the operating crew. Furthermore no individual part of the D.G. can be incriminated as being the main cause of the incidents. The incidents reported in this paper are chosen because of the importance for the safety or for the long repair period. The unavailability of a D.G. can only be detected by periodic tests and controls. Combined with a good preventive maintenance, the risks of incidents can be reduced. (author)

  11. Operating experience with diesel generators in Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merny, R.

    1986-01-01

    Various problems have occurred on the diesel generators in the Belgian nuclear power plants, independently of the D.G. manufacturer or from the operating crew. Furthermore no individual part of the D.G. can be incriminated as being the main cause of the incidents. The incidents reported in this paper are chosen because of the importance for the safety or for the long repair period. The unavailability of a D.G. can only be detected by periodic tests and controls. Combined with a good preventive maintenance, the risks of incidents can be reduced. (author)

  12. The Belgian nuclear higher education network: the evolution of an academic programme in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkvens, T.; Coeck, M.

    2014-01-01

    The master-after-master in nuclear engineering provided by the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network (BNEN) is a one-year, 60 ECTS programme which combines the expertise of six Belgian universities and SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, which participates through its Academy for Nuclear Science and Technology. It was created in close collaboration with representatives of academia, research centres, industry and other nuclear stakeholders. The BNEN consortium Due to its modular programme, BNEN is accessible for both full-time students (mainly young engineering graduates) as well as young professionals already employed in the nuclear industry. The programme is offered in English to facilitate the participation of international students. One of the important aspects of the BNEN programme is the fact that exercises and hands-on sessions in the specialised laboratories of SCK.CEN complement the theoretical classes to bring the students into contact with all facets of nuclear energy. Several of SCK.CEN's researchers provide valuable contributions to the programme through seminars and practical exercises. From their daily practices and responsibilities they give an expert view on the subjects that are being taught. In 2012, in the framework of an official accreditation process all aspects of the BNEN programme were audited by an international visitation panel. The most important outcome of this process is the current reform of the academic programme, which will be implemented in the academic year 2014-2015, taking into account the recommendations by the visitation panel. In this paper, the history of the BNEN programme will be discussed, the new BNEN programme will be presented as well as the process that has led to its implementation. (authors)

  13. How does the average Belgian view nuclear technology? Barometer assesses knowledge and risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcanu, C.; Perko, T.

    2011-01-01

    Irrespective of the choices made in the future, questions about nuclear safety, radiation protection and waste management will always be of topical interest. SCK-CEN has consciously opted for social research on risk perception, sustainable development, and communication. SCK-CEN founded the Barometer in 2002 in order to keep both feet firmly planted in society: a regular, large-scale survey amongst the Belgian population on radiation and nuclear technology. The findings of the third edition were published in 2010.

  14. Waste disposal[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-07-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure.

  15. Reactor pressure vessel steels[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van De Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaouuadi, R.

    1998-07-01

    Research and development activities related to reactor pressure vessel steels during 1997 are reported. The objectives of activities of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN in this domain are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate a methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use.

  16. Predicting the environmental risks of radioactive discharges from Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.; Sweeck, L.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Wannijn, J.; Van Hees, M.; Camps, J.; Olyslaegers, G.; Miliche, C.; Lance, B.

    2013-01-01

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed to evaluate the impact on non-human biota from liquid and atmospheric radioactive discharges by the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) of Doel and Tihange. For both sites, characterisation of the source term and wildlife population around the NPPs was provided, whereupon the selection of reference organisms and the general approach taken for the environmental risk assessment was established. A deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems was performed using the ERICA assessment tool and applying the ERICA screening value of 10 μGy h −1 . The study was performed for the radioactive discharge limits and for the actual releases (maxima and averages over the period 1999–2008 or 2000–2009). It is concluded that the current discharge limits for the Belgian NPPs considered do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment and that the actual discharges, which are a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment. -- Highlights: • Impact of radioactive discharges by the Belgian NPPs of Doel and Tihange on wildlife was evaluated. • Deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems performed with the ERICA tool. • NPP discharge limits do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment. • Actual discharges, a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment

  17. 1997 Scientific Report[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govaerts, P

    1998-07-01

    The 1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN describes progress achieved in nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. In the field of nuclear research, the main projects concern the behaviour of high-burnup and MOX fuel, the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels, the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals, and irradiation effects on materials of fusion reactors. In the field of radioactive waste management, progress in the following domains is reported: the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in a clay formation, the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the study of alternative waste-processing techniques. For radiation protection and safeguards, the main activities reported on are in the field of site and environmental restoration, emergency planning and response and scientific support to national and international programmes.

  18. The energy sources and nuclear energy - The point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenraet, Christian

    2000-01-01

    The problems related to the environment are reported regularly to the public by means of the newspapers, on radio and television. The story is the product of a journalistic process and in general does not bear much resemblance to the original event. The rate and type of reportage depend not only on the body of data available to the journalist but on the information sources the journalist chosen to use. The same story is reported in a positive or negative way. Finally people are overwhelmed by contradictory information and became uncertain or frightened. In order to provide the general public with objective information about nuclear energy in particular and to made a statement about the position of the Belgian Catholic Church concerning this matter, the results of the study were published in Dutch under the form of a book with the title 'The Energy Sources and Nuclear Energy - Comparative analysis and ethical thoughts written the same author. Thia paper is a short survey of the results of the study and to present the point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church in the energy debate

  19. Health effects[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of epidemiology , performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study. For radiobiology, the main objectives are: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phase of its development, (2) to assess the genetic risks of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation, (3) to elucidate the mechanisms by which damage to the brain and mental retardation are caused in man after prenatal irradiation. The main achievements in these domains for 1997 are presented.

  20. Qualification of non-destructive examination for belgian nuclear reactor pressure vessel inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couplet, D.; Francoise, T.

    2001-01-01

    In Service Inspection (ISI) participates to the assessment of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Integrity. The performance of Non Destructive Examination (NDE) techniques must be demonstrated according to predefined objectives. The qualification process is essential to trust the reliability of the information provided by NDE. In Belgian Nuclear Power Plants, the qualification was conducted through a collaboration between the vendor and a technical group from the Electricity Utility. The important facts of this qualification will be presented: - the detailed definition of the inspection and qualifications objectives, based on a combination of the ASME code and the European Methodology for Qualification; - the systematic verification of the NDE performance and limitations, for each ISI objective, through an adequate combination of tests on blocks and technical justification; - the continuous improvement of the NDE procedure; - the feedback and the lessons learnt from site experience; - the necessary multi-disciplinary approach (NDE, degradation mechanisms, structural integrity)

  1. Predicting the environmental risks of radioactive discharges from Belgian nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, H; Sweeck, L; Vives I Batlle, J; Wannijn, J; Van Hees, M; Camps, J; Olyslaegers, G; Miliche, C; Lance, B

    2013-12-01

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed to evaluate the impact on non-human biota from liquid and atmospheric radioactive discharges by the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) of Doel and Tihange. For both sites, characterisation of the source term and wildlife population around the NPPs was provided, whereupon the selection of reference organisms and the general approach taken for the environmental risk assessment was established. A deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems was performed using the ERICA assessment tool and applying the ERICA screening value of 10 μGy h(-1). The study was performed for the radioactive discharge limits and for the actual releases (maxima and averages over the period 1999-2008 or 2000-2009). It is concluded that the current discharge limits for the Belgian NPPs considered do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment and that the actual discharges, which are a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Safety culture in a Belgian nuclear research centre from a social science point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fucks, I.; Hardeman, F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is the result of a reflection within the framework of a Ph.D. research at SCK-CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre) in collaboration with the University of Liege. The starting point of the work was the 'safety culture' model presented in the IAEA report 75-INSAG-4. This model is applied to the working organization of the SCK-CEN, also considering the safety culture as an open concept given its multi dimensionality. The methodology is based on three methods: observations, focus groups and interviews. The fieldwork was limited to two main installations: a research reactor, and a dismantling site. The preliminary findings are based on the data resulting from 4 Focus Groups. The most prominent components of a safety culture and the multiplicity of safety cultures in a large organization such as SCK-CEN will be discussed. (author)

  3. Transposition of the SQUG methodology to the Belgian NPP(nuclear power station)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detroux, P.; Aelbrecht, D.; Naisse, J.C.; Greer, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The units of a Belgian Nuclear PowerStation had to be seismically reassessed after ten years of operation because the seismic requirements were upgraded from 0.1g to 0.17g free field ground acceleration. Seismic requalification of the active equipment was a critical problem as the current classical methods were too conservative and their application would have lead to unacceptable replacement or reinforcement of a lot of equipment. The approach based on the use of past experience of seismic behavior of non nuclear equipment was chosen; this methodology was developed by the Seismic Qualification Utility Group (SQUG); a group of U.S. utilities and had to be transposed to the Belgian N.P.P. This transposition is described in this paper. It affects different aspects of the methodology. First, the impact of specific requests of the Safety Authorities on the elaboration of the Safe Shutdown Equipment List (SSEL) shall be examined. Then it is explained why the tedious work of specific relay screening was avoided by taking advantage of initial design features for both Instrumentation and Control (I and C) and Electrical power distribution system; the impact on the Electrical SSEL is also described. Afterwards, it is presented how it was possible to conduct a specific existing seismic qualification at 0.1 g free field ground acceleration. Finally, the resolution of specific important problems that arose from the application of the SQUG methodology, is presented such as the definition of the grade level and the conservatism of the classical Amplified Floor Spectra (criterion 1), the calculation of the nozzle loads on mechanical equipment connected to long unbraced piping and the transfer of these loads to the anchorage. (author)

  4. Training Activities to Maintain Competences in Nuclear Safety and Security: A Case Study of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesteloot, N.; Clarijs, T.; Coeck, M.; Vermeersch, F.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK•CEN, is one of the largest research centers in Belgium. More than 700 employees advance research into nuclear energy and ionizing radiation for civilian use, and develop nuclear technologies for socially valuable purposes. Next to independent fundamental and applied research SCK-CEN provides advice, training, services and products. This paper describes the general approach towards the continuous professional development of all SCK-CEN personnel. The objective of these training activities is to maintain and increase the required competences, in order to optimize the output and the wellbeing on the work floor. Given the nature of the SCK-CEN activities, special attention is given to themes like radiation protection, security and industrial safety. A combination of classical face-to-face training, e-learning and on-the-job training is offered during the onboarding and further career path of an SCK-CEN employee. (author

  5. Doses of radioiodine administered for hyperthyroidism: a sampling of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur Dejonckheere, Marianne; Glinoer, Daniel; Verelst, Jean; Sand, Alain; Ham, Hamphrey

    2005-01-01

    Full text: While radioiodine (RI) is a well established treatment for hyperthyroidism, there is no consensus regarding the administration of fixed or calculated doses. Guidelines from scientific societies do not specify the preferable approach, nor the parameters to be used in order to calculate the latter. Therefore, the doses might, for the same patient, be different with regard to the chosen procedure. This study was undertaken to assess the variability of RI amounts administered in Belgium in various cases of hyperthyroidism. 21 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians issued from different departments and universities participated into the study. They received a file with clinical and biological data, iodine turnover rate, scintigraphic images and calculated thyroid surfaces from 10 patients (8 females, 2 males), 30-77 yrs suffering from hyperthyroidism of various etiologies: 7 patients had clinically overt hyperthyroidism and 3 subclinical hyperthyroidism; 7 patients had toxic goiters of various size (Graves' disease), 2 multi nodular goiter and 1 toxic nodule. None suffered from cardiac anomalies or ophthalmopathy. Participants were asked to define the amount of RI they would give in each case. Answers were received during a 8-week period. Analysing data from case 1 to case 10, the ranges of the proposed doses varied between 8 and 22 milli Curies (mCi) (sd : 2.4 - 6.07). Considering all the patients, the proposed doses varied between 2 mCi and 25 mCi. Analysing answers among the 21 participants, mean proposed doses varied between 4.5 and 17.3 mCi (sd: 0.69 - 7.99). Conclusion: These results demonstrate a wide variability among nuclear medicine physicians in the proposed RI doses and confirm that in Belgium there is no uniformity in the procedure used to determine the amount of RI to administer for various causes of hyperthyroidism. This emphasizes the notion that the determination of the amount of RI to be administered remains a matter of debate. (author)

  6. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur, M.; Ham, H.; Sand, A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation protection is of major importance in pregnant and breast feeding women. This work was undertaken to assess the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast feeding women. A questionnaire was sent to 201 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians; 82 answers (41 %) were received. 51 % of the responding physicians agree to perform lung perfusion scan during pregnancy provided a reduced dose is administered, 33% refuse to perform it during first three months and 24% refuse to perform it for pregnancies older than three months. For the Tc-99m ventilation scan 79% and 66% refuse to perform it before and after first three months. Better agreement was observed for other Tc-99m scintigraphies or tests using other radionuclides. In breast feeding women 89% agree to perform Tc-99m tests provided a breast feeding break; however, the duration of this break appears variable. The need for obtaining a written informed consent appears controversial. Given the variability of the attitudes of nuclear medicine physicians, official guidelines for nuclear medicine diagnostic tests during pregnancy is needed. (authors)

  7. Nuclear size and cell division delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced division delay has been linked to damage at the nuclear envelope. Further, cells in G 2 phase are drastically arrested by high LET radiation such that single particles traversing cell nuclei may produce measurable division delay. A modest effort was initiated using two related cell lines of different size, near-diploid cells and near-tetraploid cells of Chinese hamster origin, to compare their sensitivity for radiation-induced division delay. If the nuclear surface is the critical target, then a larger nuclear cross-section presented to an alpha-particle beam should exhibit delay induced by a lesser particle fluence. Preliminary estimates of the extent of delay in asynchronous cultures following low doses of gamma-irradiation or of alpha-irradiation were made by in-situ observation of the time of onset of mitosis and by fixation and staining of cultures to determine the mitotic index as a function of time after irradiation. The basic approach to evaluating division delay will be to use Colecemid to accumulate mitotic cells over a period of time

  8. Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    According to the available information at the IAEA PRIS (Power Reactor Information System) at the end of 1998 there were more than 40 nuclear power plant projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules showed large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Taking into account the number of projects with several years delay in their original schedules, it was considered useful to identify the subject areas where exchange of experience among Member States would be mutually beneficial in identification of problems and development of guidance for successful management of the completion of these delayed projects. A joint programme of the IAEA Departments of Nuclear Energy (Nuclear Power Engineering Section) and Technical Co-operation (Europe Section, with additional support from the Latin America and West Asia Sections) was set up during the period 1997-1998. The specific aim of the programme was to provide assistance in the management of delayed nuclear power plants regarding measures to maintain readiness for resuming the project implementation schedule when the conditions permit. The integration of IAEA interdepartmental resources enabled the participation of 53 experts from 14 Member States resulting in a wider exchange of experience and dissemination of guidance. Under the framework of the joint programme, senior managers directly responsible for delayed nuclear power plant projects identified several issues or problem areas that needed to be addressed and guidance on management be provided. A work plan for the development of several working documents, addressing the different issues, was established. Subsequently these documents were merged into a single one to produce the present publication. This publication provides information and practical examples on necessary management actions to preserve

  9. Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    According to the available information at the IAEA PRIS (Power Reactor Information System) at the end of 1998 there were more than 40 nuclear power plant projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules showed large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Taking into account the number of projects with several years delay in their original schedules, it was considered useful to identify the subject areas where exchange of experience among Member States would be mutually beneficial in identification of problems and development of guidance for successful management of the completion of these delayed projects. A joint programme of the IAEA Departments of Nuclear Energy (Nuclear Power Engineering Section) and Technical Co-operation (Europe Section, with additional support from the Latin America and West Asia Sections) was set up during the period 1997-1998. The specific aim of the programme was to provide assistance in the management of delayed nuclear power plants regarding measures to maintain readiness for resuming the project implementation schedule when the conditions permit. The integration of IAEA interdepartmental resources enabled the participation of 53 experts from 14 Member States resulting in a wider exchange of experience and dissemination of guidance. Under the framework of the joint programme, senior managers directly responsible for delayed nuclear power plant projects identified several issues or problem areas that needed to be addressed and guidance on management be provided. A work plan for the development of several working documents, addressing the different issues, was established. Subsequently these documents were merged into a single one to produce the present publication. This publication provides information and practical examples on necessary management actions to preserve

  10. Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA assists the management of organizations responsible for Nuclear Power Plant Projects with significant delays with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. Several Member States have Nuclear Power Plant Projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules shows large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Solving the special difficulties related with a delayed NPP project is problematic and dependent on the particular country situation. However it is not regarded as an isolated national problem but as a significant issue with a number of difficulties shared by several Member States. The IAEA collects information and supports the management of delayed NPP projects by identifying main common issues, gathering available experience and addressing specific needs. On this background the IAEA is in the position to provide unique impartial assistance based upon best international practices. This enables Member States to maintain readiness for resuming the project construction when the conditions permit and to strengthen management's abilities for the completion of the project. The IAEA's service is tailored to the needs and requirements of the requesting organization, implemented on-site by international experts and addresses areas such as project control measures, human resources, updating to technological and regulatory requirements, project data, nuclear safety review, physical protection and nuclear security and preparation to resume project construction and operation

  11. Belgian national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthe, J.

    1998-01-01

    Status of Belgian nuclear power plants includes licensing, in-service inspection programs, state of electrical equipment and predictive maintenance. In terms of life management of NPPs degradation phenomena affect the design life of each component. Combination of in-service inspection, periodic testing, specific measurements, qualification test and overall experience supports maintenance programs and enable repairs and replacements in due time. These programs are part of continuous safety assessments performed. Managing NPP life encompasses technical aspects for safe and reliable operation and economical aspects. The approach of Belgian authorities resulted in high availability, competitive cost and reasonable long-term perspectives

  12. The Belgian experience on the backfitting and safety upgrading of old operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brognon, T.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology for backfitting and safety upgrading during the reevaluation of the Belgian NPP's: first generation (Doel-1, Doel-2, Tihange-1) and second generation plants (Doel-3, Doel-4, Tihange-2 and Tihange-3). A list of essential safety subjects and topics is given. The experience has proved the feasibility of a safety upgrading of operating NPP without injury to its availability, the benefit of a close cooperation between owner, engineering company and safety authorities throughout the project. A global approach to solving numerous specific deficiencies along with the optimization of the investments regarding the safety improvement of the NPP is suggested. Further increase of the know-how will be achieved through the present Belgian programme along with similar activities abroad. (R.I.)

  13. Information Sources as Explanatory Variables for the Belgian Health-Related Risk Perception of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyncke, Bart; Perko, Tanja; Van Gorp, Baldwin

    2017-03-01

    The media play an important role in risk communication, providing information about accidents, both nearby and far away. Each media source has its own presentation style, which could influence how the audience perceives the presented risk. This study investigates the explanatory power of 12 information sources (traditional media, new media, social media, and interpersonal communication) for the perceived risk posed by radiation released from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant on respondents' own health and that of the population in general. The analysis controlled for attitude toward nuclear energy, gender, education, satisfaction with the media coverage, and duration of attention paid to the coverage. The study uses a large empirical data set from a public opinion survey, which is representative for the Belgian population with respect to six sociodemographic variables. Results show that three information sources are significant regressors of perceived health-related risk of the nuclear accident: television, interpersonal communication, and the category of miscellaneous online sources. More favorable attitudes toward nuclear power, longer attention to the coverage, and higher satisfaction with the provided information lead to lower risk perception. Taken together, the results suggest that the media can indeed have a modest influence on how the audience perceives a risk. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Economic aspects related to the shallow land disposal of nuclear waste: The Belgian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunsch, P.L.; Zaccai, H.; Miegroet, J. van

    1993-01-01

    The Belgian concept for shallow land disposal of low-level short-lived waste is approaching maturity. The paper presents its main design features, the construction and operating phases, and the economics of the project. The conclusion is that this concept is economically interesting when compared to the geological option. The financial approach adopted by Belgium is presented. Pros and cons of timely operation are discussed. Although it may look economically attractive to adopt a slow pace in implementing the concept, the paper shows that deferring decisions would be a risky attitude, in contradiction with fairness to future consumers. Such a conclusion derives from economic and financial arguments, considering that cost uncertainties, especially in the front-end, and financial management risk might be of overwhelming importance

  15. Belgian class II nuclear facilities such as irradiators and accelerators. Regulatory Body attention points and operating experience feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minne, Etienne; Peters, Christelle; Mommaert, Chantal; Kennes, Christian; Cortenbosch, Geert; Schmitz, Frederic; Haesendonck, Michel van [Bel V, Brussels (Belgium); Carlier, Pascal; Schrayen, Virginie; Wertelaers, An [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to present the Regulatory Body attention points and the operating experience feedback from Belgian ''class IIA'' facilities such as industrial and research irradiators, bulk radionuclides producers and conditioners. Reinforcement of the nuclear safety and radiation protection has been promoted by the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) since 2009. This paper is clearly a continuation of the former paper [1] presenting the evolution in the regulatory framework relative to the creation of Bel V, the subsidiary of the FANC, and to the new ''class IIA'' covering heavy installations such as those mentioned above. Some lessons learnt are extracted from the operating experience feedback based on the events declared to the authorities. Even though a real willingness to meet the new safety requirements is observed among the ''class IIA'' licensees, promoting the safety culture, the nuclear safety and radiation protection remains an endless challenge for the Regulatory Body.

  16. Ageing management of baffle former bolts in Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somville, F.; Gerard, R.; Bosch, R.W.; Bertolis, D.; Vissers, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Pressurized Water Reactors internals support the reactor core, distribute the coolant flow through the core, and guide and protect the rod control cluster assemblies and in-core instrumentation. The baffle-to-former bolts are used in Pressurized Water Reactors to attach the baffle plates to the former plates in the reactor vessel lower internals. The resulting structure forms a boundary for the flow of coolant and provides lateral support to the fuel assemblies. Some edge bolts are also present, assembling together the baffle plates. After an operating time of the order of 120.000 hours, some bolts exhibit cracking at the junction of the head and the shank of the bolt. Examinations of failed bolts have made it possible to identify the cause of cracking as irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Up to now, baffle bolt cracking has been detected in units older than 15 years, where the baffle bolts are not cooled (no holes in the former to allow a water flow on the bolt shank). In Belgium, the concerned units are Tihange 1 and Doel 1-2. The paper summarizes the experience with baffle bolts cracking in Belgian units and the strategy implemented to mitigate this problem, consisting of structural integrity analyses, baffle bolts inspections and replacement, and research programs in the field of IASCC, including examinations of highly irradiated replaced bolts. (authors)

  17. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; Ruddle, David G.; Wagoner, Jeffrey L.; Myers, Katherine B. L.; Emer, Dudley F.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Chipman, Veraun D.

    2016-03-01

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. We observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be an indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates.

  18. The SCK-CEN Barometer 2011 - Perception and attitudes towards nuclear technologies in the Belgian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcanu, C.; Perko, T.; Schroeder, J.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of the SCK-CEN Barometer was established in May-June 2011. It continued the historical follow-up of topics such as risk perception and confidence in authorities, and addressed a number of issues in detail, among which: attitude towards nuclear technologies, confidence in the management of nuclear technologies, stakeholder participation, the accident at Fukushima and the management of high level radioactive waste. This report presents a general overview of the results.

  19. 27 September 1991-Royal Order establishing an emergency plan for nuclear risks on Belgian territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This emergency plan is to serve as guidance for the protection measures to be taken whenever necessary. It establishes the duties of the different services and bodies, in accordance with their responsibilities under the national laws and regulations. The plan, which describes the general organisation, must be supplemented by intervention plans at the different action levels: by the provincial authorities, the communal authorities and the various services and institutions concerned. This plan mainly concerns large nuclear installations and transport of nuclear fuels and radioactive materials; however, lower risks from other activities are also covered. (NEA)

  20. Education and Training possibilities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeck, M.

    2007-01-01

    Thanks to its thorough experience in the field of peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology SCK-CEN has garnered a reputation as an outstanding centre of not only research, but also education and training (E and T). The E and T activities at SCK-CEN cover a. o. reactor physics, reactor operation, reactor engineering, radiation protection, decommissioning and waste management. Our courses are directed to the nuclear industry, the medical and the non-nuclear industry, national and international policy organizations, the academic world and the general public. E and T programs are also organized in cooperation with universities, technical universities, nuclear power plants and public and private health services. In addition, the SCK-CEN is involved in international E and T research networks and programs such as ENETRAP, EUTERP, EUNDETRAF, CETRAD, BNEN and ENEN. Next to courses, SCK-CEN also offers students the possibility to perform their research work at our laboratories. Final-year students and Ph.D. candidates can enter a programme defined by an SCK-CEN mentor, in close collaboration with a university promotor. Post-docs are mainly recruited in specialised research domains that reflect the priority programmes and R and D topics of our institute

  1. Siting of nuclear power plants on artificial islands: the Belgian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    The building of nuclear stations on the national territory involves reticences of an ecological nature which have induced technicians to consider other siting facilities. The creation of artificial islands, in particular nuclear stations, is therefore suggested. In the present state of the law of the sea, such construction gives rise to some intricate legal problems and leads to consideration of every notion, from the territorial sea to the exclusive economic zone. Especially regarding Belgium, the problem is to know where the legal competence for these facilities will lie. After analysis, it has been estimated that regional bodies have no specific powers in this regard and that no norm with a restricted territorial scope may be applied. (Auth) [fr

  2. Ageing Management of the reactor internals in Belgian nuclear units in view of Long Term Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, R.; Bertolis, D.; Vissers, S.

    2012-01-01

    The reactor internals support the reactor core, distribute the coolant flow through the core, and guide and protect the rod control cluster assemblies and in-core instrumentation. Their integrity must be guaranteed in all operating and accident conditions. They are exposed to specific degradation mechanisms linked to the intense neutron irradiation, like Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) or potentially void swelling, in addition to more classical mechanisms like fatigue, wear and stress corrosion cracking. A rigorous follow-up of in-service degradation and an effective ageing management is therefore of crucial importance and contributes to the safe and economical operation of nuclear PWR units. (author)

  3. The role of delay in the dynamics of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svitra, D.; Bucys, K.

    1999-01-01

    The stability of nuclear reactors based on nonlinear models of reactor dynamics including the action of delayed neutrons is analysed. The point model of reactor dynamics with the system of seven nonlinear simple differential equations was changed to the system of two nonlinear differential equations including the action of delay. The method of the theory of bifurcations for nonlinear differential equations with delay is used. (author)

  4. Delayed effects of nuclear and chemical weapons in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienstbier, Z.

    1984-01-01

    Delayed radiation effects are discussed of the use of nuclear and chemical weapons (defoliants and herbicides). Attention is drawn to the development of delayed malignities in exposed subjects and their pathophysiologic causes are explained. The only prevention of these effects is to prohibit the use of weapons of mass destruction. (author)

  5. Chemical operational experiences in the Belgian nuclear power plants of Doel and Tihange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roofthooft, R.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear program in Belgium started in 1962 with the commissioning of a small reactor BR3 and continued with Chooz, Doel and Tihange. This report gives a survey of the chemical experiences in Doal and Tihange. All these units are of the PWR type constructed by Westinghouse. The chemical specifications for the secondary circuit are very severe and difficult to maintain without condensate polishing system for units such as Doel 1 and 2, cooled with estuary brackish water. The condensate polishing system of Doel is described and the main results are given. The big problem of this station has been the behaviour of the condenser tubes. After 1 and 2 years of operation severe corrosion developed and a retubing became necessary. In the steam generators of Doel and Tihange deposits of a few cm are found. The denting problem has also started. Tihange has worked nearly one year with a leak in one of the steam generators. The blow down was treated on ion exchangers. The fuel elements have had a good behaviour especially in Doel 1. During shut down periods for refuelling H 2 O 2 is injected in the primary circuit. This gives a quick release of corrosion products. The activity of 58 Co increases to about 0,4 Ci/m 3 . A precoat filter with pulverised resins gives a good decontamination factor in this case. The liquid waste treatment of Doel has been modified in order to cope with the quantities of effluents. In Tihange it has been necessary to decontaminate a primary pump. This has been done with Turco products. Very good results have been obtained. (orig.) [de

  6. Effects of delaying the operation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.J.; Rainey, J.A.; Tepel, R.C.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1983-12-01

    This report documents a study of an actual 24-month nuclear power plant licensing delay. A representative utility was chosen for examination. The research was oriented toward determination of the licensing delay's impact on the utility's operating results, ratepayers, and security issues. The methodology utilized to estimate those impacts involved the recursive interaction of a generation costing program to estimate replacement fuel costs and a financial regulatory model to concomitantly determine the impact on the utility, its ratepayers and security issues. The latter model was executed under six alternate scenarios: (1) no delay in the plant's operation; (2) a 24-month delay; (3) a 24-month delay but further assuming all replacement power was generated by coal-fired plants; (4) a 24-month delay assuming all replacement power from oil-fired plants; (5) no delay but assuming the capital cost of the plant was twice as large; and (6) a 24-month delay with the capital cost of the plant twice as large. Three primary conclusions were made. First, under all scenarios, a 24-month delay in operation of the plant has an adverse impact on the utility's internal generation of funds. Second, although electricity rates are not appreciably affected by the delay, the direction of electricity price changes is contingent on the source of fuel used for replacement power. Finally, a 24-month delay has an adverse impact on the indicators used to evaluate the financial soundness of the utility in all cases under consideration

  7. Proceedings of the specialists' meeting on delayed neutron nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katakura, Jun-ichi

    1999-07-01

    This report is the Proceedings of the Specialists' Meeting on Delayed Neutron Nuclear Data. The meeting was held on January 28-29, 1999, at the Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute with the participation of thirty specialists, who are evaluators, theorist, experimentalists. Although the fraction of the delayed neutron is no more than 1% in the total neutrons emitted in the fission process, it plays an important roll in the control of fission reactor. In the meeting, the following topics were reported: the present status of delayed neutron data in the major evaluated data libraries, measurements of effective delayed neutron fraction using FCA (Fast Critical Assembly) and TCA (Tank-type Critical Assembly) and their analyses, sensitivity analysis for fast reactor, measurements of delayed neutron emission from actinides and so on. As another topics, delayed neutron in transmutation system and fission yield data were also presented. Free discussion was held on the future activity of delayed neutron data evaluation. The discussion was helpful for the future activity of the delayed neutron working group of JNDC aiming to the evaluation of delayed neutron data for JENDL-3.3. The 15 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. Pressure Vessel Steel Research: Belgian Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Walle, E.; Fabry, A.; Ait Abderrahim, H.; Chaouadi, R.; D'hondt, P.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Van Ransbeeck, T.; Gerard, R.

    1994-03-01

    A review of the Belgian research activities on Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels (RPVS) and on related Neutron Dosimetry Aspects is presented. Born out of the surveillance programmes of the Belgian nuclear power plants, this research has lead to the development of material saving techniques, like reconstitution and miniaturization, and to improved neutron dosimetry techniques. A physically- justified RPVS fracture toughness indexation methodology, supported by micro-mechanistic modelling, is based on the elaborate use of the instrumented Charpy impact signal. Computational tools for neutron dosimetry allow to reduce the uncertainties on surveillance capsule fluences significantly

  9. Pressure Vessel Steel Research: Belgian Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E; Fabry, A; Ait Abderrahim, H; Chaouadi, R; D` hondt, P; Puzzolante, J L; Van de Velde, J; Van Ransbeeck, T [Centre d` Etude de l` Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Gerard, R [TRACTEBEL, Brussels (Belgium)

    1994-03-01

    A review of the Belgian research activities on Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels (RPVS) and on related Neutron Dosimetry Aspects is presented. Born out of the surveillance programmes of the Belgian nuclear power plants, this research has lead to the development of material saving techniques, like reconstitution and miniaturization, and to improved neutron dosimetry techniques. A physically- justified RPVS fracture toughness indexation methodology, supported by micro-mechanistic modelling, is based on the elaborate use of the instrumented Charpy impact signal. Computational tools for neutron dosimetry allow to reduce the uncertainties on surveillance capsule fluences significantly.

  10. Delayed photoneutrons of the of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Quang Huy; Ha Van Thong; Vu Hai Long; Ngo Phu Khang; Nguyen Nhi Dien; Pham Van Lam; Huynh Dong Phuong; Luong Ba Vien; Le Vinh Vinh

    1994-01-01

    Time spectrum of delayed neutrons of the Dalat nuclear research reactor is measured and analyzed. It corresponds to a shut-down neutron fluxes of about 10 5 /10 8 n/cm 2 /sec after 100 hours continuous reactor operation at steady power level of 500 kW. Data processing of experimental time neutron spectrum gives 16 exponents, of which 10, resulting from photoneutrons due to (γ,n) reactions on beryllium used inside the reactor core, are obtained by using successive exponential stripping fitting method. For the Dalat reactor, the effective delayed photoneutron fraction relative to the total effective delayed neutron fraction is β B e eff =0.49%β eff for a beryllium weight relative to U 235 fuel of m B e/m U = 8.5. This result is acceptable in comparison to those obtained for other Be-U 235 media. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Effective combination of DIC, AE, and UPV nondestructive techniques on a scaled model of the Belgian nuclear waste container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Sokratis N.; Areias, Lou; Pyl, Lincy; Vantomme, John; Van Marcke, Philippe; Coppens, Erik; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.

    2015-03-01

    Protecting the environment and future generations against the potential hazards arising from high-level and heat emitting radioactive waste is a worldwide concern. Following this direction, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials has come up with the reference design which considers the geological disposal of the waste in purely indurated clay. In this design the wastes are first post-conditioned in massive concrete structures called Supercontainers before being transported to the underground repositories. The Supercontainers are cylindrical structures which consist of four engineering barriers that from the inner to the outer surface are namely: the overpack, the filler, the concrete buffer and possibly the envelope. The overpack, which is made of carbon steel, is the place where the vitrified wastes and spent fuel are stored. The buffer, which is made of concrete, creates a highly alkaline environment ensuring slow and uniform overpack corrosion as well as radiological shielding. In order to evaluate the feasibility to construct such Supercontainers two scaled models have so far been designed and tested. The first scaled model indicated crack formation on the surface of the concrete buffer but the absence of a crack detection and monitoring system precluded defining the exact time of crack initiation, as well as the origin, the penetration depth, the crack path and the propagation history. For this reason, the second scaled model test was performed to obtain further insight by answering to the aforementioned questions using the Digital Image Correlation, Acoustic Emission and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity nondestructive testing techniques.

  12. Delayed photoneutrons of the of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huy, Ngo Quang [Centre for Nuclear Technique Application, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Thong, Ha Van; Long, Vu Hai; Khang, Ngo Phu; Dien, Nguyen Nhi; Lam, Pham Van; Phuong, Huynh Dong; Vien, Luong Ba; Vinh, Le Vinh [Nuclear Research Inst., Da Lat (Viet Nam)

    1994-10-01

    Time spectrum of delayed neutrons of the Dalat nuclear research reactor is measured and analyzed. It corresponds to a shut-down neutron fluxes of about 10{sup 5}/10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}/sec after 100 hours continuous reactor operation at steady power level of 500 kW. Data processing of experimental time neutron spectrum gives 16 exponents, of which 10, resulting from photoneutrons due to ({gamma},n) reactions on beryllium used inside the reactor core, are obtained by using successive exponential stripping fitting method. For the Dalat reactor, the effective delayed photoneutron fraction relative to the total effective delayed neutron fraction is {beta}{sup B}e{sub eff}=0.49%{beta}{sub eff} for a beryllium weight relative to U{sup 235} fuel of m{sub B}e/m{sub U} = 8.5. This result is acceptable in comparison to those obtained for other Be-U{sup 235} media. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Initiatives of the Belgian SCK•CEN Academy to attract young talent in nuclear research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeck, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Our aim: • Explain/refresh basics of radioactivity; • Discuss several examples of nuclear applications → In nuclear, medical, non-nuclear industry, daily life, … • Present research activities of SCK•CEN, justify why nuclear research is important, how does it contribute to well-being of society in general; • Discuss with teachers how the standard education programs can integrate a pluralistic approach to complex technical issues such as applications of radioactivity. Conclusions: • Focus on knowledge, understanding, skills, attitudes, … and show “real-life” situations = added value; • Mention the whole picture: → ALL application fields, ALL issues; • Motivate to choose for scientific or technical studies can be one aim, but equally (or more) important: discuss risks and benefits of nuclear applications in general, develop an open and critical mind in order to gain more insight in multi-facetted issues such as risks and benefits of radioactivity and nuclear technology, and contribute in serene way to the societal debate; • Contribution to critical-intellectual nuclear capacities for society

  14. Belgian Firms Visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Fifteen Belgian firms visited CERN last 2 and 3 April to present their know-how. Industrial sectors ranging from precision machining to electrical engineering and electronics were represented. And for the first time, companies from the Flemish and Brussels regions of the country joined their Walloon compatriots, who have come to CERN before. The visit was organised by Mr J.-M. Warêgne, economic and commercial attaché at the Belgian permanent mission for the French-speaking region, Mr J. Van de Vondel, his opposite number for the Flemish region, and Mrs E. Solowianiuk, economic and commercial counsellor at the Belgian permanent mission for the Brussels-Capital region.

  15. Nuclear biomedical and hospital waste management at the University of Brussels (VUB): optimization in the Belgian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.; Covens, P.

    2002-01-01

    Low level nuclear waste (LLW) from biomedical research laboratories and from hospitals has specific characteristics, requiring a different management than the LLW from nuclear energy. Biomedical waste generally does not contain emitters and essentially consists of short-lived β/γ-emitters and a range of pure β-emitters, which are difficult to measure. Except for 3 H and 1 4C , the radionuclides found in biomedical waste have half-lives less then 100 days and hence do not require nuclear disposal. Limited quantities of accelerator activation products (mainly 6 5Z n and 6 0C o) and compact sealed sources of 6 0C o, 1 37C s, 2 26R a and 1 92I r form the only exceptions. National nuclear waste agencies typically do not have a specific policy for treatment and disposal of this type of LLW. In 2001 new price increases were announced for specific categories of this waste. They were implemented by NIRAS/ONDRAF early 2002. The major universities and academic hospitals expressed concern. The Health Council has considered the problem and has recently recommended to the authorities a set of measures to prevent non authorised liberation of this waste. Moreover non-nuclear waste companies have noticed a considerable growing inventory of radioactivity in incoming waste transports before treatment. A variety of radionuclides and activities were found in a diversity of origins from municipal waste over medical waste to industrial waste. Dismantling of accelerators and their shielding could add considerable amounts of waste. Due to the escalating costs and the lack of acceptance of near-surface disposal facilities, the university of Brussels (VUB) and its hospital, have developed a successful on-site waste decay storage program in collaboration with Canberra Europe, which is discussed hereafter

  16. On evaluated nuclear data for beta-delayed gamma rays following of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mencarini, Leonardo de H.; Caldeira, Alexandre D., E-mail: mencarini@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: alexdc@ieav.cta.b [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a new type of information available in ENDF is discussed. During a consistency check of the evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0 performed at the Nuclear Data Subdivision of the Institute for Advanced Studies, the size of the files for some materials drew the attention of one of the authors. Almost 94 % of all available information for these special nuclear materials is used to represent the beta-delayed gamma rays following fission. This is the first time this information is included in an ENDF version. (author)

  17. On evaluated nuclear data for beta-delayed gamma rays following of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mencarini, Leonardo de H.; Caldeira, Alexandre D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new type of information available in ENDF is discussed. During a consistency check of the evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0 performed at the Nuclear Data Subdivision of the Institute for Advanced Studies, the size of the files for some materials drew the attention of one of the authors. Almost 94 % of all available information for these special nuclear materials is used to represent the beta-delayed gamma rays following fission. This is the first time this information is included in an ENDF version. (author)

  18. Decay Spectroscopy for Nuclear Astrophysics: {beta}-delayed Proton Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trache, L.; Simmons, E.; Spiridon, A.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Tribble, R. E. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Saastamoinen, A.; Jokinen, A.; Aysto, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla (Finland); Davinson, T.; Woods, P. J. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Pollacco, E.; Kebbiri, M. [CEA/IRFU Saclay (France); Pascovici, G. [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany)

    2011-11-30

    Decay spectroscopy is one of the oldest indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics. We have developed at TAMU techniques to measure beta- and beta-delayed proton decay of sd-shell, proton-rich nuclei. The short-lived radioactive species are produced in-flight, separated, then slowed down (from about 40 MeV/u) and implanted in the middle of very thin Si detectors. These allowed us to measure protons with energies as low as 200 keV from nuclei with lifetimes of 100 ms or less. At the same time we measure gamma-rays up to 8 MeV with high resolution HPGe detectors. We have studied the decay of {sup 23}Al, {sup 27}P, {sup 31}Cl, all important for understanding explosive H-burning in novae. The technique has shown a remarkable selectivity to beta-delayed charged-particle emission and works even at radioactive beam rates of a few pps. The states populated are resonances for the radiative proton capture reactions {sup 22}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 23}Mg(crucial for the depletion of {sup 22}Na in novae), {sup 26m}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si and {sup 30}P(p,{gamma}){sup 31}S(bottleneck in novae and XRB burning), respectively. More recently we have radically improved the technique using a gas based detector we call AstroBox.

  19. A quality control exercise of radionuclide calibrators among Belgian hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reher, D.F.G.; Merlo, P.

    1990-01-01

    On the initiative of the Belgian Association of Hospital Physicists, eleven Belgian hospitals participated in a quality control of radionuclide calibrators conducted in collaboration with the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements of the Commission of the European Communities. For practical reasons the nuclide 57 Co was chosen. The results from 20 different radionuclide calibrators show a fair agreement with a similar comparison carried out in 1980 in the UK. (orig.)

  20. Arrangement between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the Belgian Government for Exchange of Technical Information in Regulatory Matters and in Cooperation in Safety Research and in Standards Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Arrangement was concluded on 6 June 1978 between the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Belgian Government for exchange of technical information in regulatory matters and in co-operation in safety research and in standards development. Both Parties agree to exchange, as available, technical information related to the regulation of safety and the environmental impact of designated nuclear energy facilities and to safety research of designated types of nuclear facilities. As regards co-operation in safety research, the execution of joint programmes and projects under which activities are divided between the two Parties will be agreed on a case by case basis. The Parties further agree to co-operate in the development of regulatory standards applicable to the designated nuclear facilities. The Arrangement is valid for 5 years and may be extended. (NEA) [fr

  1. Measurement of delayed neutron-emitting fission products in nuclear reactor coolant water during reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The method covers the detection and measurement of delayed neutron-emitting fission products contained in nuclear reactor coolant water while the reactor is operating. The method is limited to the measurement of the delayed neutron-emitting bromine isotope of mass 87 and the delayed neutron-emitting iodine isotope of mass 137. The other delayed neutron-emitting fission products cannot be accurately distinguished from nitrogen 17, which is formed under some reactor conditions by neutron irradiation of the coolant water molecules. The method includes a description of significance, measurement variables, interferences, apparatus, sampling, calibration, standardization, sample measurement procedures, system efficiency determination, calculations, and precision

  2. Economical and industrial impact of nuclear power stations construction in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrique, J.; Klees, P.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief introduction the paper analyses the employment in the Belgian nuclear sector with regard to construction, the operation, the engineering of nuclear power plants as well as fuel reprocessing. In the economical section a comparison of the kWh cost of different sources is presented as well as the seasibility of this cost to the raw material price. The future installation of nuclear power plants is discussed and the impact of its delay on the Belgian economy by an absence of decision is analyzed. (AF)

  3. On the combination of delayed neutron and delayed gamma techniques for fission rate measurement in nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, G.; Jordan, K. A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, 5232 (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Novel techniques to measure newly induced fissions in spent fuel after re-irradiation at low power have been developed and tested at the Proteus zero-power research reactor. The two techniques are based on the detection of high energy gamma-rays emitted by short-lived fission products and delayed neutrons. The two techniques relate the measured signals to the total fission rate, the isotopic composition of the fuel, and nuclear data. They can be combined to derive better estimates on each of these parameters. This has potential for improvement in many areas. Spent fuel characterisation and safeguard applications can benefit from these techniques for non-destructive assay of plutonium content. Another application of choice is the reduction of uncertainties on nuclear data. As a first application of the combination of the delayed neutron and gamma measurement techniques, this paper shows how to reduce the uncertainties on the relative abundances of the longest delayed neutron group for thermal fissions in {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu and fast fissions in {sup 238}U. The proposed experiments are easily achievable in zero-power research reactors using fresh UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel and do not require fast extraction systems. The relative uncertainties (1{sigma}) on the relative abundances are expected to be reduced from 13% to 4%, 16% to 5%, and 38% to 12% for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu, respectively. (authors)

  4. EC initiatives promise mixed blessings: a Belgian utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraix, J.

    1992-01-01

    The potential effects on nuclear power of European Community initiatives are analysed from the viewpoint of a Belgian utility. The initiatives fall under the three broad headings of: East-West co-operation; completing the internal market; and carbon dioxide emission. (Author)

  5. Introduction of mixed oxide fuel elements in the belgian cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlier, A.F.; Hollasky, N.A.

    1994-01-01

    The important amount of plutonium recovered from the reprocessing of spent fuel on the one hand, the national and international experience of the use of mixed oxide UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel in power reactors on the other hand, have led Belgian utilities to decide the introduction of Mixed-Oxide fuel in Doel unit 3 and Tihange unit 2 cores. The 'MOX' project has shown that it was possible without reducing safety or requiring modifications of the plant equipment. It has been approved by the Belgian 'Nuclear Safety Commission'. (authors). 1 tab., 2 figs

  6. Response to 'Decades of delay in nuclear waste disposal - a failure to communicate'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, S.

    2014-01-01

    In a recent opinion piece on the delay of nuclear waste disposal, Mr. H. Tammemagi asserts that it is important for a nuclear community to include in the Canadian public discourse the presence of natural radiation, comparisons between radioactive and non-radioactive wastes, and nuclear medicine. It is to the first two that I respond to, with the view that the lessons learnt from Japan have merit for addressing the issues in the Canadian context. (author)

  7. Digital image correlation, acoustic emission and ultrasonic pulse velocity for the detection of cracks in the concrete buffer of the Belgian nuclear supercontainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliopoulos, Sokratis; Tsangouri, Eleni; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; Pyl, Lincy; Areias, Lou; Vrije Univ., Brussels

    2014-01-01

    The long term management of high-level and heat emitting radioactive waste is a worldwide concern, as it directly influences the environment and future generations. To address this issue, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials has come up with the conceptual design of a massive concrete structure called Supercontainer. The feasibility to construct these structures is being evaluated through a number of scaled models that are tested using classical as well as state of the art measurement techniques. In the current paper, the results obtained from the simultaneous application of the Digital Image Correlation (DIC), the Acoustic Emission (AE) and the Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) nondestructive testing techniques on the second scaled model for the detection and monitoring of cracks will be presented.

  8. Two Belgian University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huylebrouck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bevacizumab (BEV, a humanized immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody that inhibits VEGF has demonstrated activity against recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG in phase II clinical trials. Patients and Methods. Data were collected from patients with recurrent HGG who initiated treatment with BEV outside a clinical trial protocol at two Belgian university hospitals. Results. 19 patients (11 M/8 F were administered a total of 138 cycles of BEV (median 4, range 1–31. Tumor response assessment by MRI was available for 15 patients; 2 complete responses and 3 partial responses for an objective response rate of 26% for the intent to treat population were observed on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images; significant regressions on T2/FLAIR were documented in 10 out of 15 patients (67%. A reduced uptake on PET was documented in 3 out of 4 evaluable patients. The six-month progression-free survival was 21% (95% CI 2.7–39.5. Two patients had an ongoing tumor response and remained free from progression after 12 months of BEV treatment. Conclusions. The activity and tolerability of BEV were comparable to results from previous prospective phase II trials. Reduced uptake on PET suggests a metabolic response in addition to an antiangiogenic effect in some cases with favorable clinical outcome.

  9. Proceedings of the specialists' meeting on delayed neutron nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katakura, Jun-ichi [ed.] [Japanese Nuclear Data Committee, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    This report is the Proceedings of the Specialists' Meeting on Delayed Neutron Nuclear Data. The meeting was held on January 28-29, 1999, at the Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute with the participation of thirty specialists, who are evaluators, theorist, experimentalists. Although the fraction of the delayed neutron is no more than 1% in the total neutrons emitted in the fission process, it plays an important roll in the control of fission reactor. In the meeting, the following topics were reported: the present status of delayed neutron data in the major evaluated data libraries, measurements of effective delayed neutron fraction using FCA (Fast Critical Assembly) and TCA (Tank-type Critical Assembly) and their analyses, sensitivity analysis for fast reactor, measurements of delayed neutron emission from actinides and so on. As another topics, delayed neutron in transmutation system and fission yield data were also presented. Free discussion was held on the future activity of delayed neutron data evaluation. The discussion was helpful for the future activity of the delayed neutron working group of JNDC aiming to the evaluation of delayed neutron data for JENDL-3.3. The 15 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Delays in nuclear power plant construction. Volume II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.E.; Larew, R.E.; Borcherding, J.D.; Okes, S.R. Jr.; Rad, P.F.

    1977-01-01

    The report identifies barriers to shortening nuclear power plant construction schedules and recommends research efforts which should minimize or eliminate the identified barriers. The identified barriers include (1) Design and Construction Interfacing Problems; (2) Problems Relating to the Selection and Use of Permanent Materials and Construction Methods; (3) Construction Coordination and Communication Problems; and (4) Problems Associated with Manpower Availability and Productivity

  11. Delays in nuclear power plant construction. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report identifies barriers to shortening nuclear power plant construction schedules and recommends research efforts which should minimize or eliminate the identified barriers. The identified barriers include: (1) Design and Construction Interfacing Problems; (2) Problems Relating to the Selection and Use of Permanent Materials and Construction Methods; (3) Construction Coordination and Communication Problems; and (4) Problems Associated with Manpower Availability and Productivity

  12. A brief history of the ''Delayed'' discovery of nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1989-08-01

    This year marks the Fiftieth Anniversary of the discovery of Nuclear Fission. In the early 1930's, the neutron was discovered, followed by the discovery of artificial radioactivity and then the use of the neutron to produce artificial radioactivity. The first experiments resulting in the fission of uranium took place in 1934. A paper which speculated on fission as an explanation was almost immediately published, yet no one took it seriously not even the author herself. Why did it take an additional five years before anyone realized what had occurred? This is an abnormally long time in a period when discoveries, particularly in nuclear physics, seemed to be almost a daily occurrence. The events which led up to the discovery are recounted, with an attempt made to put them into their historical perspective. The role played by Mendeleev's Periodic Table, the role of the natural radioactive decay chain of uranium, the discovery of protactinium, the apparent discovery of masurium (technetium) and a speculation on the reason why Irene Curie may have missed the discovery of nuclear fission will all be discussed. 43 refs

  13. Abundant natural gas delays nuclear decision for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasser, P.J.B.

    1978-01-01

    The energy situation in the Netherlands is discussed. A decrease in natural gas reserves and a rise in energy demand will mean a relative decline in the share of natural gas in the economy. The share of primary energy sources in total energy consumption and the development of electricity consumption are shown. Two scenarios for future energy supply are worked out, one assuming cumulative growth and the other considering the case of gradual stabilization. Possible ways of meeting future demand are illustrated and factors to be considered in making a choice, such as the role of nuclear power, are indicated. (UK)

  14. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1998-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1997 to September 1998 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described.

  15. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1999-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described.

  16. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    1999-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described

  17. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    1998-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1997 to September 1998 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described

  18. The inherent advantages of delayed dismantling of decommissioning nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liederman, J.M.; Saroudis, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies in Canada pertaining to the decommissioning of the CANDU 600 MW(e) reactor have led to the development of the option of a ''static state'' condition. This alternative is based on judging risk and benefit to society considering the greatly reduced potential radiation exposure to personnel after 30 to 80 years have elapsed, following the final shutdown of the reactor. After approximately 80 to 120 years have elapsed, the decay in all systems and components (with the exception of the reactor assembly) would be such that radiation fields would be at background levels producing an environment that would be acceptable for Stage 3 decommissiong. This philosophy is based on the current engineering judgement that: - All systems, components, and structures which were associated with the nuclear processes and are radioactive, can be put into a static or storage state, and a containment function maintained at low cost for prolonged periods of between 80 to 120 years. - Between 80 to 120 years after shutdown, most of the radioactivity, except for some long lived radionuclides in the reactor vessel itself and its vault, will have naturally decayed to near releasable limits without any external intervention. - There is a lower overall risk to society in this approach, than dismantling and transporting radioactive materials prematurely. This philosophy is developed taking into consideration radiation protection, financial and risk assessment issues. The Canadian concept of dry storage of spent fuel is part of this philosophy and may be of interest to decommissioned nuclear plants of other types. 4 tables, 5 graphs

  19. Estimating the cost of delaying a nuclear power plant: methodology and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.J.; Tepel, R.C.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of an actual 24-month nuclear power plant licensing delay under alternate assumptions about regulatory practice, sources of replacement power, and the cost of the plant. The analysis focuses on both the delay period and periods subsequent to the delay. The methodology utilized to simulate the impacts involved the recursive interaction of a generation-costing program to estimate fuel-replacement costs and a financial regulatory model to concomitantly determine the impact on the utility, its ratepayers, and security issues. The results indicate that a licensing delay has an adverse impact on the utility's internal generation of funds and financial indicators used to evaluate financial soundness. The direction of impact on electricity rates is contingent on the source of fuel used for replacement power. 5 references, 5 tables

  20. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.; Bogaerts, W.; Decreton, M.; Biver, E.; Coenen, S.; Benoit, Ph.; Coheur, L.; Deboodt, P.; Andreev, D.

    1996-09-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described

  1. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moons, F.; Bogaerts, W.; Decreton, M.; Biver, E.; Coenen, S.; Benoit, Ph.; Coheur, L.; Deboodt, P.; Andreev, D.

    1996-09-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described.

  2. Final disposal of high-level radioactive waste and/or long-living nuclear waste in a clay formation in the Belgian-Dutch border region; Definitieve berging van hoogradioactief en/of langlevend kernafval in een kleiformatie in de Belgisch-Nederlandse grensstreek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyns, W.

    2010-10-15

    Recently, the Belgian organization NIRAS presented its 'Draft Waste Plan'. In this plan NIRAS chooses clay as the reference option for final geological disposal of high-level radioactive and/or long-living nuclear waste (b and C waste). The author presents an overview of the current state of affairs in scientific research on underground storage of radioactive waste in Belgian clay layers. [Dutch] Recent presenteerde het Belgische NIRAS het 'Ontwerp Afvalplan'. In dit plan kiest NIRAS als referentieoptie voor definitieve geologische berging van hoogradioactief en/of langlevend kernafval (B- en C-afval) in klei. De auteur geeft een overzicht van de stand van zaken van wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar ondergrondse opslag van radioactief afval in Belgische kleilagen.

  3. Belgian national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthe, J.

    1995-01-01

    At last IWG-LMNPP meeting, the approach on nuclear power plant life management in Belgium was presented. The present report focuses on results of in-service monitoring of major equipment, specifically reactor internals, reactor top-head penetrations and steam generators. Status of major backfitting on steam generators and balance of plant is developed as well as developments in the field of thermal stratification and qualification of ultrasonic inspection methods and personnel for in-service inspection. (author). (Abstract only)

  4. Nuclear nonproliferation: Concerns with US delays in accepting foregin research reactors' spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    One key US nonproliferation goal is to discourage use of highly enriched uranium fuel (HEU), which can be used to make nuclear bombs, in civilian nuclear programs worldwide. DOE's Off-Site Fuels Policy for taking back spent HEU from foreign research reactors was allowed to expire due to environmental reasons. This report provides information on the effects of delays in renewing the Off-Site Fuels Policy on US nonproliferation goals and programs (specifically the reduced enrichment program), DOE's efforts to renew the fuels policy, and the price to be charged to the operators of foreign reactors for DOE's activities in taking back spent fuel

  5. An economic analysis of the effects of regulatory delay on nuclear power plant construction. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, M.T.; Walsh, M.D.

    1980-08-01

    In order to evaluate the impact that any government regulation has on society, an accurate measure of the costs imposed by the regulation is essential. Current government estimates of the cost of pollution control legislation have failed to include the costs of project delays that firms may experience when complying with such standards. Clearly, if these delays are the direct result of such legislation their costs should be included for a proper evaluation. The purpose of this report is to define and measure the true impact that construction deals have on the total project costs of a specific industry. The Nuclear Power Industry has been chosen to illustrate the problem. First, the industry is examined in terms of its economic and physical environment. A model is then developed to deal with the costs involved in the construction of a typical nuclear plant. The model is tested by regressing time and cost data of 31 completed plants to determine the impact that unanticipated delays have had on total project costs. These results indicate that such delays would increase the total project costs of a typical 1,000 mw plant by .8 percent per month in the initial stage of the project and 1.1 percent per month after actual construction begins

  6. Factors Causing Delay of Modification Projects at Koeberg Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntoyanto, S.

    2017-01-01

    Modification project delays could lead to: disrupting the maintenance shutdown (outage) projects' schedule, affecting electricity capacity of the national grid., possible load-shedding restricting electricity supply to domestic, commercial, and industrial consumers; and detrimental consequences to the country's economic activities. To address proficiency of a project manager by improving: Understanding of the organizational processes, High-level technical knowledge of a nuclear power plant technology

  7. Investigation of public exposure resulted from the radioiodine delay tank facility of nuclear medicine department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd, E-mail: mfahmi@usm.my; Ali, Abdul Muhaimin Mat; Abdullah, Reduan; Idris, Abdullah Waidi [School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The study is carried out to assess the exposure rate that could contribute to public exposure in a radioiodine ward delay tank facility of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). The exposure rate at several locations including the delay tank room, doorway and at the public walking route was measured using Victoreen 415P-RYR survey meter. The radioactive level of the {sup 131}I waste was measured using Captus 3000 well counting system. The results showed that exposure rate and total count of the delay tank sample increased when the radioiodine ward was fully occupied with patient and reduced when the ward was vacant. Occupancy of radioiodine ward for two consecutive weeks had dramatically increased the exposure rate around the delay tank and radioactive level of {sup 131}I waste. The highest exposure rate and radioactive level was recorded when the ward was occupied for two consecutive weeks with 177.00 µR/h and 58.36 kcpm respectively. The exposure rate decreased 15.76 % when the door of the delay tank room was closed. The exposure rate at public walking route decreased between 15.58 % and 36.92 % as the distance increased between 1 and 3 m.

  8. Emergency plan belgian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clymans, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster prompted authorities in Belgium to carry out a comprehensive review of all emergency plans and, in particular, those designed specifically for nuclear accidents. This review was aimed at determining what type of plans existed and to what extent such plans were operational. This paper sets out to present a broad overview of different aspects of this problem: organization of public emergency plans, co-ordination of operations, merits and demerits of centralization as opposed to decentralization, planning zones, obligation to release information to the public and relations with the media, and finally the international dimension to the problem. The author expresses the hope that the latter area will inspire practical suggestions [fr

  9. Legal claims against Belgian reactors?; Rechtsmittel gegen belgische Reaktoren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian [CONLAR Consulting on Nuclear Law and Regulation, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The Belgian reactors Tihange 2 and Doel 3 have been restarted in November 2015 after the problem of hydrogen flakes in the reactor pressure vessels had been investigated. The permission to restart has been the object both of critical statements by the German Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMUB) and of lawsuits filed with Belgian law courts by a group of German municipalities led by the city of Aachen and by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia. According to a general principle of the law of nations, a state is not permitted to operate installations near its border, which cause significant environmental damage in a neighbouring state. However, it is not quite clear how this principle applies to the issue of potential accidents of nuclear power plants. According to the author, a tangible threat of an accident is required; mere doubts and concerns about the extent of safety margins are not sufficient.

  10. A Belgian Approach to Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Cheryl W.

    The paper reviews Belgian philosophy toward the education of learning disabled students and cites the differences between American behaviorally-oriented theory and Belgian emphasis on identifying the underlying causes of the disability. Academic methods observed in Belgium (including psychodrama and perceptual motor training) are discussed and are…

  11. The delay function in finite difference models for nuclear channels thermo-hydraulic transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agazzi, A.

    1977-01-01

    The study of the thermo-hydraulic transients in a nuclear reactor core often requires a bi- or tri-dimensional mathematical simulation of a reactor channel. The equations involved are generally solved by means of finite-difference methods. The determination of the spatial mesh-width and the time interval is strongly conditioned by the necessity of a good accuracy in the description of the delay function which defines the transfer of thermal perturbations along the cooling channel. In this paper the effects of both space and time discretization on the delay function are considered and for the classical cases of inlet temperature step and ramp universal functions and diagrams are given in order to make possible the determination of optimal spatial mesh-width and time interval, once the requested accuracy of the model is fixed in advance

  12. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mozin, Vladimir [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Campbell, Luke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hunt, Alan W. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Reedy, Edward T. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Seipel, Heather A. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Modeling capabilities were added to an existing framework and codes were adapted as needed for analyzing experiments and assessing application-specific assay concepts including simulation of measurements over many short irradiation/spectroscopy cycles. The code package was benchmarked against the data collected at the IAC for small targets and assembly-scale data collected at LANL. A study of delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy for nuclear safeguards was performed for a variety of assemblies in the extensive NGSI spent fuel library. The modeling results indicate that delayed gamma-ray responses can be collected from spent fuel assemblies with statistical quality sufficient for analyzing their isotopic composition using a 1011 n/s neutron generator and COTS detector instrumentation.

  13. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Campbell, Luke; Favalli, Andrea; Hunt, Alan W.; Reedy, Edward T.E.; Seipel, Heather

    2015-01-01

    High-energy, beta-delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy is a potential, non-destructive assay techniques for the independent verification of declared quantities of special nuclear materials at key stages of the fuel cycle and for directly assaying nuclear material inventories for spent fuel handling, interim storage, reprocessing facilities, repository sites, and final disposal. Other potential applications include determination of MOX fuel composition, characterization of nuclear waste packages, and challenges in homeland security and arms control verification. Experimental measurements were performed to evaluate fission fragment yields, to test methods for determining isotopic fractions, and to benchmark the modeling code package. Experimental measurement campaigns were carried out at the IAC using a photo-neutron source and at OSU using a thermal neutron beam from the TRIGA reactor to characterize the emission of high-energy delayed gamma rays from 235 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Pu targets following neutron induced fission. Data were collected for pure and combined targets for several irradiation/spectroscopy cycle times ranging from 10/10 seconds to 15/30 minutes.The delayed gamma-ray signature of 241 Pu, a significant fissile constituent in spent fuel, was measured and compared to 239 Pu. The 241 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios varied between 0.5 and 1.2 for ten prominent lines in the 2700-3600 keV energy range. Such significant differences in relative peak intensities make it possible to determine relative fractions of these isotopes in a mixed sample. A method for determining fission product yields by fitting the energy and time dependence of the delayed gamma-ray emission was developed and demonstrated on a limited 235 U data set. De-convolution methods for determining fissile fractions were developed and tested on the experimental data. The use of high count-rate LaBr 3 detectors was investigated as a potential alternative to HPGe detectors. Modeling capabilities were added to an

  14. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mozin, Vladimir [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Campbell, Luke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hunt, Alan W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reedy, Edward T.E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Seipel, Heather [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    High-­energy, beta-delayed gamma-­ray spectroscopy is a potential, non-­destructive assay techniques for the independent verification of declared quantities of special nuclear materials at key stages of the fuel cycle and for directly assaying nuclear material inventories for spent fuel handling, interim storage, reprocessing facilities, repository sites, and final disposal. Other potential applications include determination of MOX fuel composition, characterization of nuclear waste packages, and challenges in homeland security and arms control verification. Experimental measurements were performed to evaluate fission fragment yields, to test methods for determining isotopic fractions, and to benchmark the modeling code package. Experimental measurement campaigns were carried out at the IAC using a photo-­neutron source and at OSU using a thermal neutron beam from the TRIGA reactor to characterize the emission of high-­energy delayed gamma rays from 235U, 239Pu, and 241Pu targets following neutron induced fission. Data were collected for pure and combined targets for several irradiation/spectroscopy cycle times ranging from 10/10 seconds to 15/30 minutes.The delayed gamma-ray signature of 241Pu, a significant fissile constituent in spent fuel, was measured and compared to 239Pu. The 241Pu/239Pu ratios varied between 0.5 and 1.2 for ten prominent lines in the 2700-­3600 keV energy range. Such significant differences in relative peak intensities make it possible to determine relative fractions of these isotopes in a mixed sample. A method for determining fission product yields by fitting the energy and time dependence of the delayed gamma-­ray emission was developed and demonstrated on a limited 235U data set. De-­convolution methods for determining fissile fractions were developed and tested on the experimental data. The use of high count-­rate LaBr3 detectors

  15. Trajectory-tracking control of underwater inspection robot for nuclear reactor internals using Time Delay Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joon-Young; Cho, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jae-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the trajectory control problem of an underwater inspection robot for nuclear reactor internals. From the viewpoint of control engineering, the trajectory control of the underwater robot is a difficult task due to its nonlinear dynamics, which includes various hydraulic forces such as buoyancy and hydrodynamic damping, the difference between the centres of gravity and buoyancy, and disturbances from a tether cable. To solve such problems, we applied Time Delay Control to the underwater robot. This control law has a very simple structure not requiring nonlinear plant dynamics, and was proven to be highly robust against nonlinearities, uncertainties and disturbances. We confirmed its effectiveness through experiments.

  16. New Statute of the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN), copy of Act No. 1429, amended by Act No. 1145 and Act No. 5652, respectively published in the annexes of the Belgian Official Gazette of 28 March 1963, 3 March 1966 and 17 September 1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The Statute of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (CEN) lays down the objects of the Centre which consist of undertaking research on the applications of nuclear energy, promoting scientific and technical studies of such applications, carrying out advanced technological research on other topics in the country's scientific and technological programmes; and at the public authorities' request co-ordinating such research by all means available to it. The CEN is run by a Board of Directors selected by representatives of the nuclear industry, scientific and university circles as well as by the Government. The Statute also provides for the rules of procedure of the Board as well as for the Centre's budget and management under the responsibility of a Director General appointed by the Board. Finally, the CEN is declared as being an establishment created in the public interest, and any amendment to its Statute must obtain the prior approval of the King. (NEA) [fr

  17. Response to 'Decades of delay in nuclear waste disposal - a failure to communicate'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaki, S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    In a recent opinion piece on the delay of nuclear waste disposal, Mr. H. Tammemagi asserts that it is important for a nuclear community to include in the Canadian public discourse the presence of natural radiation, comparisons between radioactive and non-radioactive wastes, and nuclear medicine. It is to the first two that I respond to, with the view that the lessons learnt from Japan have merit for addressing the issues in the Canadian context. (author)

  18. Survey of the natural radiation of Belgian territory as determined by different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deworm, J.P.; Slegers, W.; Gillard, J.; Flemal, J.M.; Culst, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of the environmental exposure to natural radiation was performed by the Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology and the Nuclear Research Centre in Mol. The aim of the study was the estimation of the external doses from natural radioactivity received by the Belgian population and the setting up on a map of the territory of natural exposure rates measured using different methods. (author)

  19. Dryout delay in loss-of-coolant incidents in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belda, W.

    1975-01-01

    The maximum credible accident (MCA) as a result of a fault in the system is assumed to be the rupture of a pipe in the primary circuit. During the outflow process following the rupture - called blowdown - it is possible that the internals of a reactor pressure vessel are exposed to extreme mechanical and thermal stresses. The fuel rods in the core, the Zircaloy cladding tubes of which can be heated up by lack of coolant to inadmissibly high temperatures, are particularly at risk. In case of the cladding tubes being damaged, radioactive substances are released. If they escape from the outer containment, this would lead to pressures on the immediate and more distant vicinity of the nuclear pover plant. In order to eliminate the factors of uncertainty when calculating the overall blowdown process in advance, it is necessary to have a relationship valid for the instationary circumstances to work out the burnout delay which is of decisive importance for the post-incident cooling phase of the reactor. The aim of this investigation, therefore, is to develop, with the aid of a suitable model, a method of calculating the burnout delay. (orig./TK) [de

  20. Delayed behaviour of concrete in nuclear power plant containment: analysis and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, L.

    1995-02-01

    The containment of French nuclear power plant of the 1300 and 1400 MWe PWR type are made of prestressed concrete and their delayed behaviour is systematically monitored by a very complete instrumentation. In an accidental phase, the tightness of the 1.2 m thick structure, dimensioned to withstand an internal absolute pressure of 0.5 MPa depends mainly on the residual prestress of concrete. But surveillance devices reveal substantial differences from one site to another, from which the regulation calculation models cannot make satisfactory allowance. For the purpose of improving the management of the population of power stations, EDF in 1992 initiated a large study aimed at predicting the true creep behaviour of the containments already built. This study, more material oriented, includes numerous shrinkage and creep tests on reconstructed concrete in laboratory as well as on cement paste and aggregate. The main results are presented in part one. In the second part, we consider the different delayed strains of concrete one by one. A precise analysis of the physico-chemical phenomena at the origin of the delayed behaviours, leads us to propose a practical modelling of concrete in an overall equivalent continuous material approach. Secondly, the few parameters of the model are determined on the experimental results. In order to do so, two particular finite element programs in CESAR-LCPC have been developed. The first one permits to take into account the non linear diffusion of humidity in concrete as a function of temperature. The diffusion coefficient D(C) (C = water content) is fitted on the loss of weight tests as a function of time. The second step is a creep calculation; first, the program reads back the temperature and humidity results of the previous computations and then calculates the different delayed strains in time. For basic creep, we have chosen a viscoelastic model function of temperature and humidity. The numerical scheme uses the principle of

  1. Delay consequencies in the construction time-schedule of nuclear power plants in relation to its safety and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recalde, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    An important delay in the construction time-schedule of a Nuclear Power Plant affects its safety and quality. This mainly occurs as a consequence of four reasons: discontinuity of the personnel working for the project; discontinuities of project suppliers; new safety and quality concepts; long-term storage. This work analyses each of the above reasons so as to foresee countermeasures to garantee the non deterioration of a Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  2. From pralines to multinationals: The economic history of Belgian chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Garrone, Maria; Pieters, Hannah; Swinnen, Johan F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Belgium is associated with high-quality chocolate products and Belgian companies play an important role in cocoa processing. However, in historical perspective the global success and reputation of Belgian chocolate is a relatively recent phenomenon. Especially since the 1980s exports of "Belgian chocolates" have grown exponentially. We document the growth of the sector and discuss its determinants. Today, the very concept of "Belgian chocolate" faces challenges, as successful companies have b...

  3. Detection of special nuclear material from delayed neutron emission induced by a dual-particle monoenergetic source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I., E-mail: ijov@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2016-06-27

    Detection of unique signatures of special nuclear materials is critical for their interdiction in a variety of nuclear security and nonproliferation scenarios. We report on the observation of delayed neutrons from fission of uranium induced in dual-particle active interrogation based on the {sup 11}B(d,n γ){sup 12}C nuclear reaction. Majority of the fissions are attributed to fast fission induced by the incident quasi-monoenergetic neutrons. A Li-doped glass–polymer composite scintillation neutron detector, which displays excellent neutron/γ discrimination at low energies, was used in the measurements, along with a recoil-based liquid scintillation detector. Time-dependent buildup and decay of delayed neutron emission from {sup 238}U were measured between the interrogating beam pulses and after the interrogating beam was turned off, respectively. Characteristic buildup and decay time profiles were compared to the common parametrization into six delayed neutron groups, finding a good agreement between the measurement and nuclear data. This method is promising for detecting fissile and fissionable materials in cargo scanning applications and can be readily integrated with transmission radiography using low-energy nuclear reaction sources.

  4. Delayed fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    Delayed fission is a nuclear decay process that couples {beta} decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes {beta} decay and thereby populates excited states in the daughter. If these states are of energies comparable to or greater than the fission barrier of the daughter, then fission may compete with other decay modes of the excited states in the daughter. In this paper, mechanism and some experiments of the delayed fission will be discussed. (author)

  5. Ogura-CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) causes delayed expression of many nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiangshu; Kim, Wan Kyu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Hur, Yoonkang

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the mechanism regulating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis using floral bud transcriptome analyses of Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage and its maintainer line in B. rapa 300-K oligomeric probe (Br300K) microarrays. Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage produced few and infertile pollen grains on indehiscent anthers. Compared to the maintainer line, CMS plants had shorter filaments and plant growth, and delayed flowering and pollen development. In microarray analysis, 4646 genes showed different expression, depending on floral bud size, between Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line. We found 108 and 62 genes specifically expressed in Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line, respectively. Ogura-CMS line-specific genes included stress-related, redox-related, and B. rapa novel genes. In the maintainer line, genes related to pollen coat and germination were specifically expressed in floral buds longer than 3mm, suggesting insufficient expression of these genes in Ogura-CMS is directly related to dysfunctional pollen. In addition, many nuclear genes associated with auxin response, ATP synthesis, pollen development and stress response had delayed expression in Ogura-CMS plants compared to the maintainer line, which is consistent with the delay in growth and development of Ogura-CMS plants. Delayed expression may reduce pollen grain production and/or cause sterility, implying that mitochondrial, retrograde signaling delays nuclear gene expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Economic evaluation of reprocessing - Indicative Belgian position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the final Working Group 4 report, forms part of the overall economic evaluation of reprocessing. The indicative national position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for Belgium is presented. Other factors which influence the Belgian viewpoint and which are not included on the phase diagram are given

  7. Performance communication of the Belgian railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Galetzka, Mirjam; Seydel, E.R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into performance communication from an important public service, i.e. the Belgian Railway, towards its employees (internal) and stakeholders (external). Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative research approach was taken in the form of

  8. UCTM2: An updated User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrion, O., E-mail: olivier.bourrion@lpsc.in2p3.fr; Boyer, B.; Derome, L.; Pignol, G.

    2016-06-11

    We developed a highly integrated and versatile electronic module to equip small nuclear physics experiments and lab teaching classes: the User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics (UCTM). It is configurable through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and provides a large number of possible trigger conditions without any Hardware Description Language (HDL) required knowledge. This new version significantly enhances the previous capabilities by providing two additional features: signal digitization and time measurements. The design, performances and a typical application are presented.

  9. Glutathione-deficient Plasmodium berghei parasites exhibit growth delay and nuclear DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padín-Irizarry, Vivian; Colón-Lorenzo, Emilee E; Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Castro, María Del R; González-Méndez, Ricardo; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette; Serrano, Adelfa E

    2016-06-01

    Plasmodium parasites are exposed to endogenous and exogenous oxidative stress during their complex life cycle. To minimize oxidative damage, the parasites use glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin (Trx) as primary antioxidants. We previously showed that disruption of the Plasmodium berghei gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (pbggcs-ko) or the glutathione reductase (pbgr-ko) genes resulted in a significant reduction of GSH in intraerythrocytic stages, and a defect in growth in the pbggcs-ko parasites. In this report, time course experiments of parasite intraerythrocytic development and morphological studies showed a growth delay during the ring to schizont progression. Morphological analysis shows a significant reduction in size (diameter) of trophozoites and schizonts with increased number of cytoplasmic vacuoles in the pbggcs-ko parasites in comparison to the wild type (WT). Furthermore, the pbggcs-ko mutants exhibited an impaired response to oxidative stress and increased levels of nuclear DNA (nDNA) damage. Reduced GSH levels did not result in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage or protein carbonylations in neither pbggcs-ko nor pbgr-ko parasites. In addition, the pbggcs-ko mutant parasites showed an increase in mRNA expression of genes involved in oxidative stress detoxification and DNA synthesis, suggesting a potential compensatory mechanism to allow for parasite proliferation. These results reveal that low GSH levels affect parasite development through the impairment of oxidative stress reduction systems and damage to the nDNA. Our studies provide new insights into the role of the GSH antioxidant system in the intraerythrocytic development of Plasmodium parasites, with potential translation into novel pharmacological interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Delayed neutrons as a probe of nuclear charge distribution in fission of heavy nuclei by neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Isaev, S G; Piksaikin, V M; Roshchenko, V A

    2001-01-01

    A method of the determination of cumulative yields of delayed neutron precursors is developed. This method is based on the iterative least-square procedure applied to delayed neutron decay curves measured after irradiation of sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U sample by thermal neutrons. Obtained cumulative yields in turns were used for deriving the values of the most probable charge in low-energy fission of the above-mentioned nucleus.

  11. Delayed neutrons as a probe of nuclear charge distribution in fission of heavy nuclei by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, S.G.; Piksaikin, V.M.; Kazakov, L.E.; Roshchenko, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    A method of the determination of cumulative yields of delayed neutron precursors is developed. This method is based on the iterative least-square procedure applied to delayed neutron decay curves measured after irradiation of 235 U sample by thermal neutrons. Obtained cumulative yields in turns were used for deriving the values of the most probable charge in low-energy fission of the above-mentioned nucleus. (author)

  12. Belgian guidelines for economic evaluations: second edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Nancy; Neyt, Mattias; Van De Sande, Stefaan; Cleemput, Irina

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to present the updated methodological guidelines for economic evaluations of healthcare interventions (drugs, medical devices, and other interventions) in Belgium. The update of the guidelines was performed by three Belgian health economists following feedback from users of the former guidelines and personal experience. The updated guidelines were discussed with a multidisciplinary team consisting of other health economists, assessors of reimbursement request files, representatives of Belgian databases and representatives of the drugs and medical devices industry. The final document was validated by three external validators that were not involved in the previous discussions. The guidelines give methodological guidance for the following components of an economic evaluation: literature review, perspective of the evaluation, definition of the target population, choice of the comparator, analytic technique and study design, calculation of costs, valuation of outcomes, definition of the time horizon, modeling, handling uncertainty and discounting. We present a reference case that can be considered as the minimal requirement for Belgian economic evaluations of health interventions. These guidelines will improve the methodological quality, transparency and uniformity of the economic evaluations performed in Belgium. The guidelines will also provide support to the researchers and assessors performing or evaluating economic evaluations.

  13. Time Delay for the Initiation of an Emergency Shutdown at the Peruvian Nuclear Reactor RP-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramon, A.; Ovalle, E.; Canaza, D.; Salazar, A.; Zapata, A.; Felix, J.; Arrieta, R.; Vela, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show the measurement of the time delay for the initiation of an emergency shutdown state at the RP-10 Reactor. This time delay is the one corresponding to the delay between the detection of a signal of any fixed limit and the start of a protective action to get the reactor in a safety state. The experimental method used is based on monitoring two signals in an oscilloscope, one signal is the elected initiate event and the other is the de-energizing of electromagnets of the security bars. The time delay for each safety and control rods, was measured for seven energizing current values in a range of 36 - 52 mA. The results showed that the minimum value is (84 ± 1.26) ms and the maximum is (108 ± 1.60) ms. In all cases it is noted that, the delay time is less than the limit values prefixed down in the reactor safety report. (authors)

  14. Delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy with lanthanum bromide detector for non-destructive assay of nuclear material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, Andrea; Iliev, Metodi; Ianakiev, Kiril; Hunt, Alan W.; Ludewigt, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    High-energy delayed γ-ray spectroscopy is a potential technique for directly assaying spent fuel assemblies and achieving the safeguards goal of quantifying nuclear material inventories for spent fuel handling, interim storage, reprocessing facilities, repository sites, and final disposal. Requirements for the γ-ray detection system, up to ∼6 MeV, can be summarized as follows: high efficiency at high γ-ray energies, high energy resolution, good linearity between γ-ray energy and output signal amplitude, ability to operate at very high count rates, and ease of use in industrial environments such as nuclear facilities. High Purity Germanium Detectors (HPGe) are the state of the art and provide excellent energy resolution but are limited in their count rate capability. Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3) scintillation detectors offer significantly higher count rate capabilities at lower energy resolution. Thus, LaBr3 detectors may be an effective alternative for nuclear spent-fuel applications, where count-rate capability is a requirement. This paper documents the measured performance of a 2" (length) × 2" (diameter) of LaBr3 scintillation detector system, coupled to a negatively biased PMT and a tapered active high voltage divider, with count-rates up to ∼3 Mcps. An experimental methodology was developed that uses the average current from the PMT's anode and a dual source method to characterize the detector system at specific very high count rate values. Delayed γ-ray spectra were acquired with the LaBr3 detector system at the Idaho Accelerator Center, Idaho State University, where samples of ∼3g of 235U were irradiated with moderated neutrons from a photo-neutron source. Results of the spectroscopy characterization and analysis of the delayed γ-ray spectra acquired indicate the possible use of LaBr3 scintillation detectors when high count rate capability may outweigh the lower energy resolution.

  15. Estimation of delayed neutron emission probability by using the gross theory of nuclear β-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Takahiro

    1999-01-01

    The delayed neutron emission probabilities (P n -values) of fission products are necessary in the study of reactor physics; e.g. in the calculation of total delayed neutron yields and in the summation calculation of decay heat. In this report, the P n -values estimated by the gross theory for some fission products are compared with experiment, and it is found that, on the average, the semi-gross theory somewhat underestimates the experimental P n -values. A modification of the β-decay strength function is briefly discussed to get more reasonable P n -values. (author)

  16. Proposal for Analysis of the Safeguarded Nuclear Materials 235U and 239Pu by Delayed Neutrons Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mongy, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces, describes and initiates a very sensitive and rapid non-destructive technique to be used for analysis of the safeguarded nuclear materials 235 U and 239 Pu. The technique is based on fission of the nuclear material by neutrons and then measuring the delayed neutrons produced from the neutron rich fission products. By this technique, fissile isotope content ( 235 U) can be determined in the presence of the other fissile (e.g. 239 Pu) or fertile isotopes (e.g. 238 U) in fresh and spent fuel. The time consumed for analysis of bulk materials by this technique is only 4 minutes. The method is also used for analysis of uranium in rock, sediment, soil, meteorites, lunar, biological, urine, archaeological, zircon sand and seawater samples. The method enables uranium in a sample to be measured without respect to its oxidation state, organic and inorganic elements

  17. Core Power Control of the fast nuclear reactors with estimation of the delayed neutron precursor density using Sliding Mode method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansarifar, G.R.; Nasrabadi, M.N.; Hassanvand, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a S.M.C. system based on the S.M.O for control of a fast reactor power. • A S.M.O has been developed to estimate the density of delayed neutron precursor. • The stability analysis has been given by means Lyapunov approach. • The control system is guaranteed to be stable within a large range. • The comparison between S.M.C. and the conventional PID controller has been done. - Abstract: In this paper, a nonlinear controller using sliding mode method which is a robust nonlinear controller is designed to control a fast nuclear reactor. The reactor core is simulated based on the point kinetics equations and one delayed neutron group. Considering the limitations of the delayed neutron precursor density measurement, a sliding mode observer is designed to estimate it and finally a sliding mode control based on the sliding mode observer is presented. The stability analysis is given by means Lyapunov approach, thus the control system is guaranteed to be stable within a large range. Sliding Mode Control (SMC) is one of the robust and nonlinear methods which have several advantages such as robustness against matched external disturbances and parameter uncertainties. The employed method is easy to implement in practical applications and moreover, the sliding mode control exhibits the desired dynamic properties during the entire output-tracking process independent of perturbations. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller in terms of performance, robustness and stability.

  18. Measurement of the natural radiation of the Belgian territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, J.; Flemal, J.M.; Deworm, J.P.; Slegers, W.

    1989-01-01

    A measurement campaign of natural occuring radionuclides was set up on the Belgian territory in order to assess the doses received by the Belgian population. The results of the measurements are published together with a map of natural occuring radionuclides and exposure rates. (L.D.C.)

  19. Risk-return of Belgian SRI funds

    OpenAIRE

    Van Liedekerke, Luc; De Moor, Lieven; Vanwalleghem, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the risk-return profile of Belgian SRI funds versus conventional investment funds. We apply a four-factor conditional Carhart model to establish whether there are significant differences in risk-return profile between an SRI portfolio and a conventional portfolio and test for learning effects in SRI funds. We show that there is no difference in risk-return profile between SRI and conventional funds. If return is not the problem, then what is it that limits the development of an SRI...

  20. Euthanasia: a "kit" sold in Belgian pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    (1) In France, legislation adopted in 2005 recognises the right of dying patients to refuse further treatment, and the right of physicians to ease their suffering with treatments that, due to adverse effects, may shorten their life. Measures deliberately aimed at hastening death are forbidden. (2) In Belgium, medical euthanasia was decriminalised in 2002, and can now be carried out either in hospital or at home. Nearly 20 cases of euthanasia are reported per month in Belgium. (3) A Belgian pharmacy chain now markets a "euthanasia kit".

  1. Advantages and disadvantages of the Belgian not-only-fault system for medical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersteegen, Tom; Marneffe, Wim; Vandijck, Dominique

    2017-02-01

    In 2010, the Belgian compensation system for medical incidents was reformed, in order to overcome some important deficiencies of court procedures. This resulted in a not-only-fault compensation system, following the establishment of the Fund for Medical Accidents (FMA). This paper seeks to clarify the main advantages and disadvantages of this reform. After all, the legislator paid little attention to the impact on physicians, who also seem to be insufficiently informed. However, currently the FMA experiences a significant delay in processing compensation requests. The true effects of the not-only-fault system for patients and physicians as well as for health care quality therefore still remain unclear today.

  2. Annx IV. Delayed nuclear power plant project management experience Cernavoda 2 NPP, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Cernavoda Unit 2 NPP work was originally started in 1982 with work coming to a halt in 1989, and a preservation program implemented in 1991 while work continued on Unit 1. In 1995 attention turned to the completion of Unit 2 and status verification reports were commissioned. Work proceeded, as funds were available, up until 2002 when an interim contract was signed. Subsequently a Contract Completion Effective Date (CCED) was signed in March 2003 with completion duration of 48 months. A project schedule is a necessity for any project whether it is a new build or a restart to a delayed project. There are 5 major elements that are included in all CANDU project schedules, Engineering, Procurement, Construction, Commissioning and the conversion from Construction to Commissioning. The Engineering schedule of deliverables was not fully defined at CCED. Design changes defined prior to CCED were not fully defined and the scope of work associated with these only became known during the actual construction program. A significant number of new design changes were introduced after CCED, which compounded the impact to the construction program. All projects require their budgets to be built up within a defined structure. Delayed projects are no different from other projects in that respect. The standard Work Brakout Structure (WBS), which is applicable to most CANDU projects, is equally applicable for a delayed project. On Cernavoda Unit 2 we used a Budget Breakdown Structure, which was a combination of a traditional WBS and an Organization Structure. This structure was adopted in order to have consistency with the structure, which had been used prior to the delay on the project and also it was a requirement of the three party agreements with funding from different sources and in different currencies. All major construction projects normally carry a contingency allowance for undefined work and a risk allowance for the possibility of major changes. Delayed projects require

  3. Nuclear medicine methods in the field of studying the mechanisms of delayed phase of myocardial preconditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuxia

    2001-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning is the intrinsic and most potently myocardial protection. Its mechanism is the foundation of rational therapeutic application. Nowadays there are some theories about delayed phase of preconditioning such as nitric oxide hypothesis, free radical mechanisms, protective protein synthesis and opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. By incorporation 3 H-leucine, using liquid scintillation counter, the authors know there was protective protein synthesis during preconditioning. SPECT could study the characteristics of preconditioned myocardium in vivo, and PET might further show the metabolism, energy consumption and its relationship to myocardium dysfunction

  4. Delays help German utilities maintain self-financing ratios. [Financing nuclear power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, G [Dresden Bank, AG (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-05-01

    Estimates of electricity consumption have been substantially reduced and nuclear plant is now expected to be 22% of total generating capacity in 1985 instead of the earlier forecast of 36%. The decline in the ordering of new plant has benefited the financial position of the electricity utilities and the expected fall in self-financing ratios has not occurred.

  5. Delays in nuclear power plant construction. Progress report, September 15, 1976--September 14, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.E.; Larew, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    This report identifies barriers to shortening nuclear power plant construction schedules and recommends research efforts that should minimize or eliminate the identified barriers. The identified barriers include: (1) design and construction interfacing problems; (2) problems relating to the selection and use of permanent materials and construction methods; (3) construction coordination and communication problems; and (4) problems associated with manpower availability and productivity;

  6. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mozin, Vladimir [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Campbell, Luke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hunt, Alan W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Reedy, Edward T.E. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Seipel, Heather A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-09-28

    This project has been a collaborative effort of researchers from four National Laboratories, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Idaho State University’s (ISU) Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC). Experimental measurements at the Oregon State University (OSU) were also supported. The research included two key components, a strong experimental campaign to characterize the delayed gamma-ray signatures of the isotopes of interests and of combined targets, and a closely linked modeling effort to assess system designs and applications. Experimental measurements were performed to evaluate fission fragment yields, to test methods for determining isotopic fractions, and to benchmark the modeling code package. Detailed signature knowledge is essential for analyzing the capabilities of the delayed gamma technique, optimizing measurement parameters, and specifying neutron source and gamma-ray detection system requirements. The research was divided into three tasks: experimental measurements, characterization of fission yields, and development of analysis methods (task 1), modeling in support of experiment design and analysis and for the assessment of applications (task 2), and high-rate gamma-ray detector studies (task 3).

  7. Last developments in the Belgian disposal programme for low and intermediate short-lived waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyazis, Jean-Paul

    2006-01-01

    After an historical reminder of the several phases of the Belgian program for the disposal of low and medium level short-lived waste since the creation of ONDRAF/NIRAS and the bad results obtained in the 90's by using a pure technical approach, the presentation will explain the main lines of the new methodology developed, as a consequence of the government decision of 16 January 1998 in ONDRAF/NIRAS to improve local acceptance for the disposal project. The way local partnerships were created with four nuclear municipalities under the form of a non-profit organization with a clear mission, the functioning, on a voluntary base, of the different partnerships during four to six years and the concrete results obtained until now using this very innovative method will be addressed. The last developments of the Belgian program for the disposal of low and medium level and short-lived waste will be presented, including the recent and very important decision of the Belgian government of 23 June 2006 to dispose of the low and medium active short-lived waste in a surface disposal installation on the territory of the municipality Dessel. (author)

  8. Decay spectroscopy for nuclear astrophysics: β- and β-delayed proton decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trache, L.; Banu, A.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Simmons, E.; Spiridon, A.; Tribble, R. E.; Saastamoinen, A.; Jokinen, A.; Äysto, J.; Davinson, T.; Lotay, G.; Woods, P. J.; Pollacco, E.

    2012-02-01

    In several radiative proton capture reactions important in novae and XRBs, the resonant parts play the capital role. We use decay spectroscopy techniques to find these resonances and study their properties. We have developed techniques to measure beta- and beta-delayed proton decay of sd-shell, proton-rich nuclei produced and separated with the MARS recoil spectrometer of Texas A&M University. The short-lived radioactive species are produced in-flight, separated, then slowed down (from about 40 MeV/u) and implanted in the middle of very thin Si detectors. This allows us to measure protons with energies as low as 200 keV from nuclei with lifetimes of 100 ms or less. At the same time we measure gamma-rays up to 8 MeV with high resolution HPGe detectors. We have studied the decay of 23Al, 27P, 31Cl, all important for understanding explosive H-burning in novae. The technique has shown a remarkable selectivity to beta-delayed charged-particle emission and works even at radioactive beam rates of a few pps. The states populated are resonances for the radiative proton capture reactions 22Na(p,γ)23Mg (crucial for the depletion of 22Na in novae), 26mAl(p,γ)27Si and 30P(p,γ)31S (bottleneck in novae and XRB burning), respectively. Lastly, results with a new detector that allowed us to measure down to about 80 keV proton energy are announced.

  9. Decay spectroscopy for nuclear astrophysics: β- and β-delayed proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trache, L; Banu, A; Hardy, J C; Iacob, V E; McCleskey, M; Roeder, B T; Simmons, E; Spiridon, A; Tribble, R E; Saastamoinen, A; Jokinen, A; Äysto, J; Davinson, T; Lotay, G; Woods, P J; Pollacco, E

    2012-01-01

    In several radiative proton capture reactions important in novae and XRBs, the resonant parts play the capital role. We use decay spectroscopy techniques to find these resonances and study their properties. We have developed techniques to measure beta- and beta-delayed proton decay of sd-shell, proton-rich nuclei produced and separated with the MARS recoil spectrometer of Texas A and M University. The short-lived radioactive species are produced in-flight, separated, then slowed down (from about 40 MeV/u) and implanted in the middle of very thin Si detectors. This allows us to measure protons with energies as low as 200 keV from nuclei with lifetimes of 100 ms or less. At the same time we measure gamma-rays up to 8 MeV with high resolution HPGe detectors. We have studied the decay of 23 Al, 27 P, 31 Cl, all important for understanding explosive H-burning in novae. The technique has shown a remarkable selectivity to beta-delayed charged-particle emission and works even at radioactive beam rates of a few pps. The states populated are resonances for the radiative proton capture reactions 22 Na(p,γ) 23 Mg (crucial for the depletion of 22 Na in novae), 26m Al(p,γ) 27 Si and 30 P(p,γ) 31 S (bottleneck in novae and XRB burning), respectively. Lastly, results with a new detector that allowed us to measure down to about 80 keV proton energy are announced.

  10. A brief history of the Delayed'' discovery of nuclear fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E.

    1989-08-01

    This year marks the Fiftieth Anniversary of the discovery of Nuclear Fission. In the early 1930's, the neutron was discovered, followed by the discovery of artificial radioactivity and then the use of the neutron to produce artificial radioactivity. The first experiments resulting in the fission of uranium took place in 1934. A paper which speculated on fission as an explanation was almost immediately published, yet no one took it seriously not even the author herself. Why did it take an additional five years before anyone realized what had occurred This is an abnormally long time in a period when discoveries, particularly in nuclear physics, seemed to be almost a daily occurrence. The events which led up to the discovery are recounted, with an attempt made to put them into their historical perspective. The role played by Mendeleev's Periodic Table, the role of the natural radioactive decay chain of uranium, the discovery of protactinium, the apparent discovery of masurium (technetium) and a speculation on the reason why Irene Curie may have missed the discovery of nuclear fission will all be discussed. 43 refs.

  11. Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Fredholm, Merete

    2009-01-01

    and deceased) were ascertained through a telephone interview using a standardised questionnaire regarding seizure history and phenomenology. Living dogs were invited to a detailed clinical evaluation. Litters more than five years of age, or where epilepsy was present in all offspring before the age of five......, were included in the calculations of inheritance. results: Out of 199 family members, 66 dogs suffered from epilepsy. The prevalence of epilepsy in the family was 33%. Fifty-five dogs experienced focal seizures with or without secondary generalisation, while four dogs experienced primary generalised...... seizures. In seven dogs, seizures could not be classified. The mode of inheritance of epilepsy was simple Mendelian. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study identified that the Belgian shepherd suffers from genetically transmitted focal epilepsy. The seizure phenomenology expressed by family members have...

  12. Suppression of postmitochondrial signaling and delayed response to UV-induced nuclear apoptosis in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasai, Kaori; Yajima, Hirohiko; Suzuki, Fumio

    2002-01-01

    Activation of postmitochondrial pathways by UV irradiation was examined using mouse lymphoma 3SB and human leukemic Jurkat cells and two human carcinoma cell lines (HeLa and MCF-7). Exposure of 3SB and Jurkat cells resulted in large amounts of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) being released into the cytosol, and a clear laddering pattern of DNA fragments was observed within 3 h of incubation after irradiation. Simultaneously, activation of caspase-9 and its downstream caspases was detected. HeLa and MCF-7 cells also showed extensive release of mitochondrial factors and caspase-9 activation at 4 to 6 h after exposure, but apoptotic nuclear changes appeared much later. Compared with 3SB and Jurkat cells, these carcinoma cell lines exhibited reduced activation of caspase-9-like proteolytic activity by UV radiation, and levels of caspase-3-like activity in HeLa cells were extremely low, similar to those in caspase-3-deficient MCF-7 cells. These results suggest that the delayed response to UV-induced nuclear apoptosis in HeLa cells is due to a reduced activation of the caspase cascade downstream of cytochrome c release and suppression of caspase-3 activity. (author)

  13. The attitudes of Belgian adolescents towards peers with disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities

  14. The Health Risks of Belgian Illicit Indoor Cannabis Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Wouter; Cuypers, Eva; Bonneure, Arne-Jan; Gotink, Joachim; Stassen, Mirna; Tytgat, Jan; Van Damme, Patrick

    2018-04-10

    We assessed the prevalence of potential health hazards to intervention staff and cannabis growers in Belgian indoor cannabis plantations. Surface mold swab samples were taken at 16 Belgian indoor plantations contained mostly Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. However, their precise health impact on intervention staff and illicit growers is unclear as no molds spore concentrations were measured. Atmospheric gas monitoring in the studied cannabis plantations did not reveal dangerous toxic substances. Health symptoms were reported by 60% of 221 surveyed police, but could not be linked to specific plantation characteristics. We conclude that Belgian indoor cannabis plantations pose a potential health threat to growers and intervention staff. AS there are currently no clear safety guidelines for seizure and dismantling of Belgian indoor cannabis plantations, we recommend first responders to follow strict safety rules when entering the growth rooms, which include wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Modeling of delayed strains of concrete under biaxial loadings. Application to the reactor containment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benboudjema, F.

    2002-12-01

    The prediction of delayed strains is of crucial importance for durability and long-term serviceability of concrete structures (bridges, containment vessels of nuclear power plants, etc.). Indeed, creep and shrinkage cause cracking, losses of pre-stress and redistribution of stresses, and also, rarely, the ruin of the structure. The objective of this work is to develop numerical tools, able to predict the long-term behavior of concrete structures. Thus, a new hydro mechanical model is developed, including the description of drying, shrinkage, creep and cracking phenomena for concrete as a non-saturated porous medium. The modeling of drying shrinkage is based on an unified approach of creep and shrinkage. Basic and drying creep models are based on relevant chemo-physical mechanisms, which occur at different scales of the cement paste. The basic creep is explicitly related to the micro-diffusion of the adsorbed water between inter-hydrates and intra-hydrates and the capillary pores, and the sliding of the C-S-H gel at the nano-porosity level. The drying creep is induced by the micro-diffusion of the adsorbed water at different scales of the porosity, under the simultaneous effects of drying and mechanical loadings. Drying shrinkage is, therefore, assumed to result from the elastic and delayed response of the solid skeleton, submitted to both capillary and disjoining pressures. Furthermore, the cracking behavior of concrete is described by an orthotropic elastoplastic damage model. The coupling between all these phenomena is performed by using effective stresses which account for both external applied stresses and pore pressures. This model has been incorporated into a finite element code. The analysis of the long-term behavior is also performed on concrete specimens and prestressed concrete structures submitted to simultaneous drying and mechanical loadings. (author)

  16. Study of the Nuclear Structure of 39P Using Beta-Delayed Gamma Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abromeit, Brittany; NSCL Experiment E14063 Team Team

    2016-03-01

    Investigation of nuclei with neutron and proton imbalance is at the forefront of nuclear physics research today. This is driven by the fact that the structure in these regimes may vary with that seen near the valley of stability. With eight neutrons more than the stable isotope of phosphorous, 39P is a neutron-rich exotic nucleus that has very limited information on it: previous studies of 39P produce only three known energy levels and gamma rays. The fragmentation of a 48Ca primary beam on a 564mg/cm2 thick Be target at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) was used to produce exotic 39Si. Using the NSCL Beta Counting System (BCS), consisting of a thick planner germanium double-sided strip detector (GeDSSD) and 16 High-purity germanium detectors in an array, SeGA, the beta-gamma coincidences from the decay of 39Si to 39P were analyzed. The resulting level scheme of 39P, including over 12 new gamma rays and energy states, confirmation of the previously measured half-life, and first-time logft values will be presented. This work was supported by the NSF under Grant No. 1401574.

  17. Study of risk of developing a delayed ettringite formation and its consequences in concrete of nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Shamaa, M.

    2012-01-01

    Delayed ettringite formation (DEF) in concrete structures is a pathology that can develop when special conditions on the concrete composition, the thermal conditions at the young age and the environment are met. This phenomenon provokes swelling of the material and cracking in the structure. It affects two types of concrete: the concrete heat-treated and the concrete cast in place in massive parts. Although many studies were done before in order to better understand this pathology, the DEF is still not well known. This is due to its complex mechanism, the influential parameters and its consequences on microscopic and structural scales. For that purpose, the thesis work was designed in order to better understand this pathology. Experimental studies were done to evaluate the impact of certain factors during the reaction, by focusing on nuclear application. An important part of this study was dedicated to assess the risk of DEF development in a nuclear power plant, and to understand how this pathology affects the mechanical characteristics and transfer properties of the concrete. Then, we have studied the impact of the hygrometry on the development of DEF. This has lead to identify a relation between environmental humidity and swelling. We have also examined the role of alkali leaching. A follow up study of the transfer properties was also done and was confronted to the observed swelling. Finally, we were interested in the characterization of the aggregates effect on the kinetics and the amplitude of DEF swelling. So, we have examined the parameters related to the size and the volume fraction of granular inclusions. Furthermore, an application of a mesoscopic numerical modeling of swelling is proposed. (author)

  18. Mechanical degradation processes: The Belgian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafaille, J.P.; Hennart, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Design life is merely used in Belgium as a requirement in the 'Design Specification' of some components subjected to known degradation processes, such as stress induced fatigue, embrittlement (irradiation or other), various types of corrosion, wear, erosion, thermal aging (electrical insulation, ...), etc. Design life is in no way directly related to the duration of the plant operation. In that sense design life for the Belgian NPP components includes the values of 20, 30 and 40 years. The oldest plant (20 years design life) has been decommissioned in 1991. The most recent units (40 years design life) have still a good time to go. The intermediate units (30 years design life) started around 1975. Consequently components of these plants need be looked at to determine whether or not deteriorations have occurred. The paper presents the various known mechanical degradation processes and how they affect various components. Emphasis is laid on prevention, mitigation or repair measures that have been or are being taken to avoid that the 'Equipment design life' be the limiting factor in the duration of the plant operation. (author)

  19. Antimicrobial use in Belgian broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoons, Davy; Dewulf, Jeroen; Smet, Annemieke; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc; Martel, An; Catry, Boudewijn; Butaye, Patrick; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2012-08-01

    The use of antimicrobials in production animals has become a worldwide concern in the face of rising resistance levels in commensal, pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria. In the years 2007 and 2008 antimicrobial consumption records were collected during two non consecutive production cycles in 32 randomly selected Belgian broiler farms. Antimicrobials were used in 48 of the 64 monitored production cycles, 7 farms did not use any antimicrobials in both production cycles, 2 farms only administered antimicrobials in one of the two production cycles, the other 23 farms applied antimicrobial treatment in both production cycles. For the quantification of antimicrobial drug use, the treatment incidences (TI) based on the defined daily doses (the dose as it should be applied: DDD) and used daily doses (the actual dose applied: UDD) were calculated. A mean antimicrobial treatment incidence per 1000 animals of 131.8 (standard deviation 126.8) animals treated daily with one DDD and 121.4 (SD 106.7) animals treated daily with one UDD was found. The most frequently used compounds were amoxicillin, tylosin and trimethoprim-sulphonamide with a mean TI(UDD) of 37.9, 34.8, and 21.7, respectively. The ratio of the UDD/DDD gives an estimate on correctness of dosing. Tylosin was underdosed in most of the administrations whereas amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulphonamide were slightly overdosed in the average flock. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. SCK-CEN 2006 barometer on risk perception of the Belgian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, B.

    2009-01-01

    Starting with 2000, the expert group Society and Policy Support carries out research on various aspects of risk governance. Measuring several risk perception items at regular intervals with the Belgian population is an important part of this research. SCK-CEN has organised a first risk perception barometer in 2002 and a second one in 2006. The 2006 barometer is based on 1063 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, with a duration of approximately 35 minutes. The large scale of the survey ensures that general trends can be detected and allows specific and detailed analysis on subgroups of the population. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain a sample representative for the Belgian 18+ population (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), several questions were included assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. A series of questions on risk perception, confidence in authorities and specific nuclear topics were repeated in 2006 and constitute a fixed core, allowing comparison over time in Belgium, as well as with the results from the IRSN French barometer. In addition, a number of topics such as acceptance of legal norms and management options for radioactively contaminated milk, energy, nuclear waste and the perception of the Chernobyl accident were covered in detail in the 2006 edition of the SCK-CEN barometer

  1. Accidental release of iodine 131 by the IRE of the Fleurus site: return on experience by the Belgian safety authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Sonck, M.; Degueldre, D.

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the activities of the IRE, the Belgian National Institute of Radio-elements, i.e. the production of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, this report describes the process and chemical reaction which caused an accidental release of iodine 131. It analyzes the causes of this incident, and how the incident has been managed by the Belgian safety authority. It discusses the first assessment of radiological consequences, describes how the incident has been managed at the federal level, and how population and media have been informed. It discusses the actual radiological consequences through measurements performed on grass and vegetables (graphs and maps indicate contamination levels and contaminated areas), and through the assessment of exposure of adults and children by different ways. Lessons learned are then discussed

  2. Security and Privacy Improvements for the Belgian eID Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Pieter; Lapon, Jorn; de Decker, Bart; Naessens, Vincent; Verslype, Kristof

    The Belgian Electronic Identity Card enables Belgian citizens to prove their identity digitally and to sign electronic documents. At the end of 2009, every Belgian citizen older than 12 years will have such an eID card. In the future, usage of the eID card may be mandatory. However, irresponsible use of the card may cause harm to individuals.

  3. Different compositions of pharmaceuticals in Dutch and Belgian rivers explained by consumption patterns and treatment efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laak, ter T.L.; Kooij, P.J.F.; Tolkamp, H.; Hofman, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, 43 pharmaceuticals and 18 transformation products were studied in the river Meuse at the Belgian-Dutch border and four tributaries of the river Meuse in the southern part of the Netherlands. The tributaries originate from Belgian, Dutch and mixed Dutch and Belgian catchments.

  4. Protection of nuclear power plants against external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinet, P.; Roch, R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology of the safety design of nuclear power plants against external events with particular emphasis of the Belgian Plants. The site analysis and potential hazards evaluation are explained. The different designs incorporating various combinations of reinforced structures and dedicated systems are analysed. The particular lay-out and systems of the Belgian Plants are explained. (author)

  5. Limits in the application of the Belgian Act of 10 April 1971 to industrial accidents due to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafontaine, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyses Belgian legislation applicable to industrial accidents. These are sudden occurrences which provoke bodily injury the causes of which are exterior to the body of the injured person. Accute irradiation is covered by this definition and the victim will also benefit from presumptive evidence. However compensation for stochastic sub-acute injuries from ionizing radiation, in the framework of insurance law, may be open to dispute given the definition of an industrial accident, the short prescription period and the burden of proof required for compensation of delayed injuries (NEA) [fr

  6. A CO2-strategy for BTC [Belgian Development Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, J. [Prospect C and S, Brussels (Belgium); Hanekamp, E. [Partners for Innovation, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    The CO2 footprint is determined the CO2 strategy is developed for the Belgian Technical Cooperation (BTC). BTC is the Belgian agency for development cooperation, and finances development projects in 23 partner countries. The CO2 footprint covered BTC's activities in 2007 in all their offices worldwide. Footprint and strategy were finalised and adopted by the Executive Board at the end of 2008. Meanwhile, the BTC began with the introduction of the proposed strategy. Partners for Innovation and Prospect were asked to support the introduction of the strategy and to determine the CO2 footprint of 2008.

  7. Piping design and analysis: Comparison between the Belgian applications of French and American rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoust, P.H.; Geraets, L.H.; Lafaille, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    In the process of a feasibility study of a new nuclear power plant in Belgium, the French and American rules for piping design have been compared. The Belgian method rests on the American nuclear set of rules and uses the ASME code. French rules were initially based on the American rules (1978). Subsequent individual development led to a differentiation of the rules. Presently the mechanical part of the French rules is mainly contained in the RCC-P ('Regles de Conception et de Construction relatives aux Procedes') and the RCC-M ('Regles de Conception et de Construction des Materiels Mecaniques'). This paper compares the piping design rules from a general point of view; examples of applications allow to identify benefits or drawbacks of the use of ASME or RCCM codes. (orig.)

  8. Piping design and analysis: comparison between the Belgian applications of French and American rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoust, Ph.; Geraets, L.H.; Lafaille, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    In the process of a feasibility study of a new nuclear power plant in Belgium, the French and American rules for piping design have been compared. The Belgian method rests on the American nuclear set of rules and uses the ASME code. French rules were initially based on the American rules (1978). Subsequent individual development led to a differentiation of the rules. Presently, the mechanical part of the French rules is mainly contained in the RCCP ('Regles de Conception et de Construction relatives aux Procedes') and the RCCM ('Regles de Conception et de Construction des materiels Mecaniques'). This paper compares the piping design rules from a general point of view; examples of applications allow benefits or drawbacks of the use of ASME or RCCM codes to identified. (author)

  9. Methods used to seismically upgrade. The safety related components of Belgian plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafaille, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Belgian nuclear power amounts to about 6,000 MW, generated by seven plants that started operation as early as 1967. The latest plant started in 1985. Some of these plants were designed with no seismic requirements whatsoever. Even for those that had seismic requirements at the design stage, seismic demand was raised after design had been frozen (late during construction or at the 10 years revision). As a consequence all the plants had to undergo, to a variable extent, a seismic reevaluation and/or backfitting. Civil structures were concerned as well as electro-mechanical equipment and piping systems. The present paper deals with the mechanical aspect of the problem (equipment and piping). In order to minimize hardware modifications, advanced analytical techniques were used throughout the process, starting with the elaboration of a site specific spectrum, and using a full soil-structure interaction in order to get as 'realistic' as possible floor response spectra. In some instances, non linear elasto-plastic time history analysis was performed on piping-systems in order to qualify them without hardware modifications. In other cases a 'Load Coefficient Method' was used. Sometimes stresses or displacements taken from the original stress reports and scaled by comparison of applicable spectra, allowed to assess the seismic validity of the system under investigation. Seismic acceptability of installed active equipment is more difficult to demonstrate, as this is usually done by testing. This problem is a generic issue in the US, identified under the label USI-A-46 (Unresolved Safety Issue). It is treated by. a group of Utilities (SQUG = Seismic Qualification Utilities Group). The Belgian Utility is member of that group since 1985. The application of this program is starting in the US. SQUG methodology has been applied to three Belgian plants starting in 1988 and is now completed. The required fixes are being implemented. Experience gained in the process has been applied

  10. A federal audit of the Belgian radiotherapy departments in breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houtte, Paul van; Bourgois, Nicolas; Renard, Francoise; Huget, Philippe; D'hoore, William; Scalliet, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Belgian Federal College of Radiotherapy carried out an external audit of breast cancer patient documentation in the 26 Belgian radiotherapy centres. The objective was to assess compliance with the recommendations regarding minimal requirements for documentation of radiotherapy prescription and administration. All centres volunteered to take part in this audit. Methods: Two experienced radiation oncologists site-visited the departments over a 6 month period (Sept. 2003-Feb. 2004), with a list of items to be verified, including details on the surgery, the pathological report, details on systemic treatments, details on the radiotherapy prescription (and consistency with therapeutic guidelines) and delay surgery/radiotherapy. Findings: Three hundred and eighty-nine patients files were reviewed, for a total of 399 breast cancers (10 patients with bilateral cancer). Mean age was 57.8 y (range 29-96). Breast conservative surgery (BCS) was used in 71%; radical mastectomy in 29%. A complete pathological report was present in all files but 2 (99.5% conformity). 5.2% were treated for DCIS, 61.6% for pT1, 28.2% for pT2 and 5% for pT3-4. Data regarding resection margins were specified to be free in 76.2%, tangential in 12% (within 2 mm) and positive for DCIS in 3.8% or invasive cancer in 1.5% (no information, on margins in 6.5%). The pT stage was always specified, and consistent with the macroscopic and microscopic findings. Hormonal receptors were routinely assessed (94.7%), as well as Her2neu (87.4%). Axillary surgery was carried out in 92%, either by sentinel node biopsy or by complete clearance, in which case the median number of nodes analysed was 12 for all centres together (7-17). All radiotherapy prescriptions were in line with evidence-based standards of therapy (i.e., irradiation of breast after BCS or after mamectomy (in case of pN+), but one. The mean delay between surgery and radiotherapy was 5.5 weeks (SD 11days). Conclusion: There was a high

  11. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Aeken, K.; Turcanu, C.; Bombaerts, G.; Carle, B.; Hardeman, F.

    2007-01-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  12. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aeken, K.; Turcanu, C.; Bombaerts, G.; Carle, B.; Hardeman, F.

    2007-01-15

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  13. The Belgian regulatory framework for NORM industries : test-case of a phosphate production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepin, Stephane; Dehandschutter, Boris; Poffijn, Andre; Michel Sonck

    2008-01-01

    According to the Belgian radiation protection regulatory framework, some categories of NORM industries must register to the competent Belgian radiation protection authority (FANC, Federal Agency for Nuclear Control). The facilities must provide a set of information which allows the authority to assess the radiological impact of the industrial activity on the workers, the population and the environment. If the dose exceeds or is likely to exceed 1 mSv/y, corrective measures have to be implemented. FANC has issued a methodology in order to define more precisely the data needed to evaluate the radiological impact. The methodology lists also the exposure pathways which have to be taken into account and the relevant parameters for the evaluation of the doses. The case of a phosphate production plant is discussed in more details: although the exposure of the workers in the production process as such is rather limited, the specific activity of some residues (calcium fluoride sludge) reaches around 10 kBq/kg of Ra-226. This sludge is disposed off in a specific landfill for which a program of radiological monitoring has been implemented. It includes periodic measurements of dose rate and radon concentration on the landfill. (author)

  14. Management and storage of nuclear fuel from Belgian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    1996-01-01

    Experiences and problems with the storage of irradiated fuel at research reactors in Belgium are described. In particular, interim storage problems exist for spent fuel elements at the BR2 and the shut down BR3 reactors in Mol. (author). 1 ref

  15. Experience with titanium condensers in Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laire, C.; Graeve, R. de; Comptdaer, Y.; Gilbert, P.

    2006-01-01

    At Tihange, one unit is equipped with a replaced condenser in titanium, although the cooling water is less aggressive compared to Doel. At some units, small leaks have occurred during service and the causes of these leaks could be related to the following mechanisms: Steam droplet erosion at the tube outer surface; inspections with eddy current and a visual inspection have drastically reduced the occurrence of small leaks at the Tihange 1 unit. Mechanical wear due to foreign objects blocking the tube entrance on the raw water side. Small debris coming from the cooling tower has generated wear and this type of degradation has resulted in the installation of protective short sleeves at one unit (Doel 4). After 8 years of operation with these sleeves, the absence of degradation was verified on pulled tubes. Despite the aggressive water, no corrosion under the sleeves has occurred, and erosion behind the sleeves - possibly due to local turbulence - has not been observed. This experience confirms the excellent corrosion resistance of titanium. The paper summarizes the results of the different inspections and investigations on pulled tubes. (orig.)

  16. Decomposing dynamic profit inefficiency of Belgian dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ang, Frederic; Lansink, Alfons Oude

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces a nonparametric framework for analysing dynamic profit inefficiency and applies this to a sample of Belgian, specialised dairy farms from 1996 to 2008. Profit inefficiency is decomposed into technical and allocative inefficiency. The paper also decomposes profit inefficiency

  17. Positioning and role of public relations in large Belgian organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, B. van; Pauwels, L.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the position and role of public relations in the hierarchical structure of Belgian organizations of at least 50 employees. Empirical data was collected from a web survey (n = 750) to find out to what extent principles of excellence in public relations are applied in Belgium. The

  18. Will Dutch Become Flemish? Autonomous Developments in Belgian Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Hans; Kissine, Mikhail; Tops, Evie; van der Harst, Sander; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a series of studies of standard Dutch pronunciation in Belgium and the Netherlands is presented. The research is based on two speech corpora: a diachronic corpus of radio speech (1935-1995) and a synchronic corpus of Belgian and Netherlandic standard Dutch from different regions at the turn of the millennium. It is shown that two…

  19. RISCOM Applied to the Belgian Partnership Model: More and Deeper Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombaerts, Gunter; Bovy, Michel; Laes, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Technology participation is not a new concept. It has been applied in different settings in different countries. In this article, we report a comparing analysis of the RISCOM model in Sweden and the Belgian partnership model for low and intermediate short-lived nuclear waste. After a brief description of the partnerships and the RISCOM model, we apply the latter to the first and come to recommendations for the partnership model. The strength of the partnership approach is at the community level. In one of the villages, up to one percent of the population was motivated to discuss at least once a month for four years the nuts and bolts of the repository concept. The stress on the community level and the lack of a guardian includes a weakness as well. First of all, if communities come into competition, the inter-community discussions can start resembling local politics and can become less transparent. Local actors are concerned actors but actors at the national level are concerned as well. The local decisions influence how the waste will be transported. The local decisions also determine an extra cost of electricity. We therefore recommend a broad (in terms of territory) public debate on the participation experiments preceding and concluding the local participation process in which this local process maintains an important position. The conclusions of our comparative analysis are: (1) The guardian of the process at the national level is missing. Since the Belgian nuclear regulator plays a controlling role after the process, we recommend a technology assessment institute at the federal level. (2) We state that stretching in the partnership model can happen more profoundly and recommend a 'counter institute' at the European level. The role of non-participative actors should be valued. (3) Recursion levels can be taken as a point of departure for discussion about the problem framing. If people accept them, there is no problem. If people clearly mention issues that are

  20. RISCOM Applied to the Belgian Partnership Model: More and Deeper Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombaerts, Gunter; Bovy, Michel; Laes, Erik [SCKCEN, Mol (Belgium). PISA

    2006-09-15

    Technology participation is not a new concept. It has been applied in different settings in different countries. In this article, we report a comparing analysis of the RISCOM model in Sweden and the Belgian partnership model for low and intermediate short-lived nuclear waste. After a brief description of the partnerships and the RISCOM model, we apply the latter to the first and come to recommendations for the partnership model. The strength of the partnership approach is at the community level. In one of the villages, up to one percent of the population was motivated to discuss at least once a month for four years the nuts and bolts of the repository concept. The stress on the community level and the lack of a guardian includes a weakness as well. First of all, if communities come into competition, the inter-community discussions can start resembling local politics and can become less transparent. Local actors are concerned actors but actors at the national level are concerned as well. The local decisions influence how the waste will be transported. The local decisions also determine an extra cost of electricity. We therefore recommend a broad (in terms of territory) public debate on the participation experiments preceding and concluding the local participation process in which this local process maintains an important position. The conclusions of our comparative analysis are: (1) The guardian of the process at the national level is missing. Since the Belgian nuclear regulator plays a controlling role after the process, we recommend a technology assessment institute at the federal level. (2) We state that stretching in the partnership model can happen more profoundly and recommend a 'counter institute' at the European level. The role of non-participative actors should be valued. (3) Recursion levels can be taken as a point of departure for discussion about the problem framing. If people accept them, there is no problem. If people clearly mention issues

  1. Study of Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission by Neutron-Rich Nuclei and Analysis of the Nuclear Reaction Mechanism responsible for the Yields of these Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the nuclear mechanisms used for the production of nuclei far from stability, the projectile fragmentation process has recently proved its efficiency. However, at Fermi energies, one has to take into account some collective and relaxation effects which drastically modify the production cross-sections. The spectroscopic study of very neutron-rich nuclei is very dependent of these production rates. A study of beta-delayed neutron emission which leads to new measurements of half-lives and neutron delayed emission probabilities is achieved with a liquid scintillator detector. The results which are then compared to different theories are of interest for the understanding of natural production of heavy elements (r processus) [fr

  2. Allocation of responsibilities between central and local authorities concerning nuclear power plant licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltzer, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines Belgian regulations on licences to construct and operate nuclear power plants in the context of implementation of the 1980 Act concerning regionalisation. It also reviews the relevant nuclear legislation in certain other countries. (NEA) [fr

  3. Media content analysis of the Fukushima accident in two Belgian newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Geenen, D.; Mamane, N.; Van Rooy, L.

    2011-01-01

    In case of a nuclear accident, the media play a major role in communicating with the public. It is therefore crucial to know what messages are the media delivering in a nuclear emergency and how do they frame the event. Analysing the media reporting on the Fukushima nuclear accident can benefit nuclear emergency management in two major aspects. On the one hand, such analysis shows how to deliver risk messages effectively through the media and on the other hand, it brings insights into the information that has to be communicated by the emergency managers to the mass media. The media analysis of the nuclear accident in Fukushima reported here was done by means of discourse and content analysis. The coding method followed explicit rules of coding and enabled large quantities of data to be categorized. The newspapers included in the analysis were the Belgian newspapers Le Soir (French language) and De Standaard (Dutch language). The media news were obtained from press clippings by Media data base at University Antwerp - MEDIARGUS for the period between 11th of March to 11th of May, 2011.

  4. Recent developments of and future prospects for nuclear power plant instrumentation and control in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naisse, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The production of electricity in Belgium is covered for almost 70% by seven nuclear power plants all of pressurized water reactor type. Four major topics are representative of the evolution of nuclear power production in Belgium: The suspentions of the studies for the new Belgian PWR unit (DOEL 5), the commissioning of the simulators in DOEL and TIHANGE, the revamping of the oldest nuclear units, the studies of new storage installations for radioactive waste. The delay imposed on the construction of DOEL 5 will allow to go further into the examination of the implications arising from the new technologies in I and C. The use modern I and C systems for modifications in existing plants will allow a better estimation of their advantages and disadvantages. (author)

  5. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Hondt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development programme on nuclear fuel at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. The objective of this programme is to enhance the quantitative prediction of the operational limits of nuclear fuel and to assess the behaviour of fuel under incidental and accidental conditions. Progress is described in different domains including the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel, thermal conductivity, basic physical phenomena, post-irradiation examination for fuel performance assessment, and conceptual studies of incidental and accidental fuel experiments

  6. The Mandate System for the Belgian Public Prosecution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno BROUCKER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The law of 22 December 1998 introduced the mandate system for the heads of the Public Prosecution offices, which were appointed permanent before that. Theoretically, such a system needs to enhance, within the organization, effectiveness, efficiency, responsabilisation, and goal-orientation. However, the mandate system within the Belgian Public Prosecution was introduced prematurely, for dubious reasons and in a precipitate manner. In the current situation, the position of the mandate holder is uncertain, with a bounded autonomy and a low wage increase. Moreover, it remains impossible to intervene in the policy of appointed heads of office (during their mandate, the efficiency and effectiveness is only increased in some prosecution offices and a contract containing actual management responsibilities is absent. In sum: there is a large gap between the theoretical principles of mandate systems and the way it is introduced in the Belgian Public Prosecution.

  7. Iron microbial communities in Belgian Frasnian carbonate mounds

    OpenAIRE

    Boulvain, F.; De Ridder, C.; Mamet, B.; Preat, A.; Gillan, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Belgian Frasnian carbonate mounds occur in three stratigraphic levels in an overall backstepping succession. Petit-Mont and Arche Members form the famous red and grey “marble” exploited for ornamental stone since Roman times. The evolution and distribution of the facies in the mounds is thought to be associated with ecologic evolution and relative sea-level fluctuations. Iron oxides exist in five forms in the Frasnian mounds; four are undoubtedly endobiotic organized structures: (1) micro...

  8. Dynamic Profit Inefficiency: A DEA Application to Belgian Dairy Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, Frederic; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2014-01-01

    Using a nonparametric framework, we analyze dynamic profit inefficiency for a sample of Belgian, specialized dairy farms from 1996–2008. Profit inefficiency is decomposed into contributions of output, input, and investment. Moreover, we identify the contributions of technical and allocative inefficiency in each input and output. The results suggest substantial profit inefficiency under the current dairy-quota system, mainly driven by an average underproduction of approximately 50 percent and ...

  9. Estimation of the furan contamination across the Belgian food chain

    OpenAIRE

    Scholl , Georges; Scippo , Marie-Louise; Eppe , Gauthier; De Pauw , Edwin; Saegerman , Claude

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The current paper provides the estimate of the furan content in Belgian foods. The objective of the study was to achieve the best food chain coverage with a restrictive number of samples (n=496). The geographic distribution, the different market chains and labels, but also the consumption frequencies were taken into account for the sampling plan construction. Weighting factors on contamination levels, consumption frequency and diversity of food items were applied to set ...

  10. The Odd One Out? Revisiting the Belgian Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cor Wagenaar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael Ryckewaert publication Building the Economic Backbone of the Belgian Welfare State. Infrastructure, planning and architecture 1945-1973 describes the evolution of the welfare state and Belgium, more specifically its spatial characteristics. This by now historical socio-political model had decidedly collectivist traits, culminating in the provision of social security networks and a vast expansion of the public domain. If collectivism was one of the key elements of the welfare state, the absence of centralized planning appears to make the Belgian variant somewhat problematic.Whereas in countries like the Netherlands, Germany and France, modernism became the house style of the welfare state, thanks to the massive investments in public housing, this did not happen in Belgium. Here, the De Taeye Act of 1948 sponsored the construction of individual, detached houses; not surprisingly, most clients preferred traditional architecture and refrained from modern experiments. Industrial parks, office buildings and shops, on the other hand, developed into the cornerstones of Belgian modern architecture after 1945. Both the low-density sprawl and the industrial parks depend heavily on the use of the car, which was accommodated by the construction of a network of highways.

  11. The retention of radioactive noble gases in nuclear power stations by means of activated charcoal delay systems. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1970s off-gas systems using activated charcoal have been used in BWRs and PWRs to minimize the release of radioactive noble gases and the resultant exposure of the environment. In practice, the power-related noble gas emission rate achieved is 1-10 Ci/MWa in the case of BWRs and 0.1-1 Ci/MWa for PWRs. The systems are relatively simple in design and operators state that they are easy and cheap to run. The activated charcoal used shows no signs of becoming spent and, if protected from humidity, retains its full efficiency. On the basis of the information to hand it has never been necessary to replace it. Experience to date suggests that a charge of activated charcoal can last the life of the facility as a whole. All knowledge and experience gained so far indicate that off-gas systems using activated delay systems for BWR facilities are indispensable and must therefore be considered an integral part of such facilities. Capital expenditure amounts to approximately 1% of the total cost and should, therefore, not be unacceptable. In PWRs off-gas systems using pressure vessels as delay trains are in competition with off-gas systems based on activated charcoal delay systems. The activated charcoal systems have proved themselves and their use, which involves capital expenditure equivalent to approximately of 0.5% to the overall cost, can be recommended without reservation

  12. Belgian experience with radiation technologies for sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet, H.; Dardenne, P.; Herier, A.

    1998-01-01

    Belgium pioneered in non energetic applications of nuclear science. In 1970, the National Institute for Radioisotopes (IRE) was founded on the ground of the experience acquired at the CEN/SCK, for developing nuclear techniques oriented to the well-being of population. In 1978 IRE started operation of 2 γ-irradiation units with a 2.25 million Ci Co 60 , source having a capacity for sterilization of more than 100 m 3 of product per day. this installation is currently operated by Griffith-Mediris (Group Griffith Micro Science) and has accumulated 20 years of experience for irradiation of foodstuffs, medical appliances and pharmaceuticals. In 1986, IRE was producing radioisotopes from accelerators and joined UCL for founding Ion Beam Applications (IBA) company which shortly became the world leader for design and delivery of cyclotrons. More recently, on the basis of French CEA patent, IBA developed the Rhodotron, an e-beam accelerator, with an X-ray option, which is now facing commercial success i area of ionization of food and medical appliances. IRE developed also expertise for the back-end of these activities i.e. final disposal of radioactive sealed source and dismantling of the installations. (author)

  13. Geological disposal in the Belgian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heremans, R.H.; Baetsle, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    The way of studying the high-level and α-bearing waste burial problem can vary from one country to another. In Belgium, if the electronuclear power represents about 60% of the total electricity production, the installed capacity is however limited to 5500 MWe. Furthermore, Belgium is a small country, densely populated, and its geology does not allow a large choice of underground formations acceptable for safe waste disposal. In 1974, site specific investigations were started on a 700 hectares area in the NE part of the country where Belgium's main nuclear research center and some nuclear fuel cycle facilities are located. The formation considered is a tertiary age clay layer underlying the Mol-Dessel area. Study and research works were organized in the frame of successive five year programs. The main objectives of the research are presented. After 10 years of intensive field, laboratory and desk work the obtained results allowed to start of the drafting of Preliminary Safety and Feasibility report in view of the construction of a demonstration facility. The project was performed by the CEN/SCK in the frame of shared financing contracts with the CEC and ONDRAF/NIRAS

  14. Quad precision delay generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shanti; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.; Marballi, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    A Quad Precision Delay Generator delays a digital edge by a programmed amount of time, varying from nanoseconds to microseconds. The output of this generator has an amplitude of the order of tens of volts and rise time of the order of nanoseconds. This was specifically designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements of the plasma focus experiments. Plasma focus is a laboratory device for producing and studying nuclear fusion reactions in hot deuterium plasma. 3 figs

  15. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Schroeder, J.; Carle, B.

    2010-02-15

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  16. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Schroeder, J.; Carle, B.

    2010-01-01

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  17. Pitfalls on the way towards the acceptance of a disposal site of LLW in a densely populated country. The Belgian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, E.; Decamps, F.

    2000-01-01

    Until the international moratorium of 1983, Belgium relied on sea disposal for its low-level waste. Since then, ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian waste management agency, has launched studies to look for land-based solutions. These studies, which are still on-going, have gone through various phases. The sometimes harsh reactions in public opinion and the recommendations of independent experts, however, progressively led ONDRAF/NIRAS to question its work methodology. January 16, 1998 was a milestone in Belgian's nuclear waste management. On that day, the Belgian federal government opted for a final, or potentially final, solution for the long-term management of short-lived, low-level radioactive waste, a solution that also had to be progressive, flexible, and reversible. At the same time, the government entrusted new missions to ONDRAF/NIRAS in particular that of developing methods to enable the integration of final repository project proposals at the local level and restricted the number of potential sites for final disposal to the four already existing nuclear sites in Belgium and to possibly interested local districts. The government's decision of January 16, 1998, forced ONDRAF/NIRAS to change its strategy. It set up a new work programme and worked out an innovative methodology. This new methodology aims to generate, at the level of the interested towns and villages, draft projects for a final repository supported by a wide public consensus. (author)

  18. BNAIC 2008 : Proceedings of BNAIC 2008, the twentieth Belgian-Dutch Artificial Intelligence Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Pantic, Maja; Poel, Mannes; Hondorp, Hendri

    2008-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 20th edition of the Belgian-Netherlands Conference on Artificial Intelligence. The conference was organized by the Human Media Interaction group of the University of Twente. As usual, the conference was under the auspices of the Belgian-Dutch Association for

  19. Differences between Belgian and Brazilian group A Streptococcus epidemiologic landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Robert Smeesters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus (GAS clinical and molecular epidemiology varies with location and time. These differences are not or are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively studied the epidemiology of GAS infections among children in outpatient hospital clinics in Brussels (Belgium and Brasília (Brazil. Clinical questionnaires were filled out and microbiological sampling was performed. GAS isolates were emm-typed according to the Center for Disease Control protocol. emm pattern was predicted for each isolate. 334 GAS isolates were recovered from 706 children. Skin infections were frequent in Brasília (48% of the GAS infections, whereas pharyngitis were predominant (88% in Brussels. The mean age of children with GAS pharyngitis in Brussels was lower than in Brasília (65/92 months, p<0.001. emm-typing revealed striking differences between Brazilian and Belgian GAS isolates. While 20 distinct emm-types were identified among 200 Belgian isolates, 48 were found among 128 Brazilian isolates. Belgian isolates belong mainly to emm pattern A-C (55% and E (42.5% while emm pattern E (51.5% and D (36% were predominant in Brasília. In Brasília, emm pattern D isolates were recovered from 18.5% of the pharyngitis, although this emm pattern is supposed to have a skin tropism. By contrast, A-C pattern isolates were infrequently recovered in a region where rheumatic fever is still highly prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiologic features of GAS from a pediatric population were very different in an industrialised country and a low incomes region, not only in term of clinical presentation, but also in terms of genetic diversity and distribution of emm patterns. These differences should be taken into account for designing treatment guidelines and vaccine strategies.

  20. Impact of a VAP bundle in Belgian intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadot, Laurent; Huyghens, Luc; De Jaeger, Annick; Bourgeois, Marc; Biarent, Dominique; Higuet, Adeline; de Decker, Koen; Vander Laenen, Margot; Oosterlynck, Baudewijn; Ferdinande, Patrick; Reper, Pascal; Brimioulle, Serge; Van Cromphaut, Sophie; De Clety, Stéphane Clement; Sottiaux, Thierry; Damas, Pierre

    2018-05-21

    In order to decrease the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in Belgium, a national campaign for implementing a VAP bundle involving assessment of sedation, cuff pressure control, oral care with chlorhexidine and semirecumbent position, was launched in 2011-2012. This report will document the impact of this campaign. On 1 day, once a year from 2010 till 2016, except in 2012, Belgian ICUs were questioned about their ventilated patients. For each of these, data about the application of the bundle and the possible treatment for VAP were recorded. Between 36.6 and 54.8% of the 120 Belgian ICUs participated in the successive surveys. While the characteristics of ventilated patients remained similar throughout the years, the percentage of ventilated patients and especially the duration of ventilation significantly decreased before and after the national VAP bundle campaign. Ventilator care also profoundly changed: Controlling cuff pressure, head positioning above 30° were obtained in more than 90% of cases. Oral care was more frequently performed within a day, using more concentrated solutions of chlorhexidine. Subglottic suctioning also was used but in only 24.7% of the cases in the last years. Regarding the prevalence of VAP, it significantly decreased from 28% of ventilated patients in 2010 to 10.1% in 2016 (p ≤ 0.0001). Although a causal relationship cannot be inferred from these data, the successive surveys revealed a potential impact of the VAP bundle campaign on both the respiratory care of ventilated patients and the prevalence of VAP in Belgian ICUs encouraging them to follow the guidelines.

  1. Delayed neutrons in ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, T.

    1988-01-01

    Delayed neutron analysis carried out at the Australian Nuclear Scientific and Technology Organization facilities, provides a fast, high sensitivity, low cost, reliable method, particularly suitable for large batches of samples, and for non destructive analysis of a range of materials. While its main use has been in uranium exploration, other applications include archeological investigations, agriculture, oceanography and biology

  2. Nuclear Chemistry and Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevelde, L.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of research activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in the field of nuclear analytical techniques are summarized. Major efforts in 1999 went to a project on the qualification of radioanalytical routines for the determination of alpha-emitting nuclides in conditioned radioactive waste; the ARIANE project; and the provision of radiochemical and chemical analytical services to internal and external clients

  3. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and feed on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widely distributed plant toxins with species dependent hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, genotoxic and pneumotoxic risks. In a recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion, only two data sets from one European country were received for honey, while one feed data set was included. No data are available for food or feed samples from the Belgian market. We developed an LC-MS/MS method, which allowed the detection and quantification of 16 PAs in a broad range of matrices in the sub ng g(-1) range. The method was validated in milk, honey and hay and applied to honey, tea (Camellia sinensis), scented tea, herbal tea, milk and feed samples bought on the Belgian market. The results confirmed that tea, scented tea, herbal tea and honey are important food sources of pyrrolizidine alkaloid contamination in Belgium. Furthermore, we detected PAs in 4 of 63 commercial milk samples. A high incidence rate of PAs in lucerne (alfalfa)-based horse feed and in rabbit feed was detected, while bird feed samples were less contaminated. We report for the first time the presence of monocrotaline, intermedine, lycopsamine, heliotrine and echimidine in cat food.

  4. Genetic parameters for chronic progressive lymphedema in Belgian Draught Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyser, K; Janssens, S; Peeters, L M; Foqué, N; Gasthuys, F; Oosterlinck, M; Buys, N

    2014-12-01

    Genetic parameters for chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL)-associated traits in Belgian Draught Horses were estimated, using a multitrait animal model. Clinical scores of CPL in the four limbs/horse (CPLclin ), skinfold thickness and hair samples (hair diameter) were studied. Due to CPLclin uncertainty in younger horses (progressive CPL character), a restricted data set (D_3+) was formed, excluding records from horses under 3 years from the complete data set (D_full). Age, gender, coat colour and limb hair pigmentation were included as fixed, permanent environment and date of recording as random effects. Higher CPLclin certainty (D_3+) increased heritability coefficients of, and genetic correlations between traits, with CPLclin heritabilities (SE) for the respective data sets: 0.11 (0.06) and 0.26 (0.05). A large proportion of the CPLclin variance was attributed to the permanent environmental effect in D_full, but less in D_3+. Date of recording explained a proportion of variance from 0.09 ± 0.03 to 0.61 ± 0.08. Additive genetic correlations between CPLclin and both skinfold thickness and hair diameter showed the latter two traits cannot be used as a direct diagnostic aid for CPL. Due to the relatively low heritability of CPLclin , selection should focus on estimated breeding values (from repeated clinical examinations) to reduce CPL occurrence in the Belgian Draught Horse. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Delayed power analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, L.A.; Azarov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Time dependent core power behavior in a nuclear reactor is described with well-known neutron kinetics equations. At the same time, two portions are distinguished in energy released from uranium nuclei fission; one released directly at fission and another delayed (residual) portion produced during radioactive decay of fission products. While prompt power is definitely described with kinetics equations, the delayed power presentation still remains outstanding. Since in operation the delayed power part is relatively small (about 6%) operation, it can be neglected for small reactivity disturbances assuming that entire power obeys neutron kinetics equations. In case of a high negative reactivity rapidly inserted in core (e.g. reactor scram initiation) the prompt and delayed components can be calculated separately with practically no impact on each other, employing kinetics equations for prompt power and known approximation formulas for delayed portion, named residual in this specific case. Under substantial disturbances the prompt component in the dynamic process becomes commensurable with delayed portion, thus making necessary to take into account their cross impact. A system of differential equations to describe time-dependent behavior of delayed power is presented. Specific NPP analysis shows a way to significantly simplify the task formulation. (author)

  6. Integration of gamma measuring equipment into an Agusta A109BA helicopter of the Belgian Armed Forces for use in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridaens, J.

    2007-01-01

    In case of a nuclear emergency, accidental releases of radioactive material might cause large scale environmental contamination. After the emergency has been brought under control, and the radioactive releases have settled on the ground, it is essential to map as quickly as possible the extent of the contaminated area and to evaluate the severity of the contamination. Airborne gamma measurements are known to be an effective means for quickly and safely mapping and evaluating large scale contaminations of gamma-emitting radio nuclides. We wanted to integrate gamma measuring equipment, based on a NaI detector, into an Agusta A109BA helicopter of the Belgian armed forces. This was done within the framework of ''Aid to the Nation'', a special program developed by the Belgian Armed Forces for facilitating cooperation between the armed forces and civilian organisations, for projects that are to the benefit of the Belgian Nation. Working in this framework, we also want to develop the necessary procedures that will allow quick and efficient deployment of the measuring capability in case of an emergency

  7. Act of 20 July 1978 establishing provisions enabling the International Atomic Energy Agency to undertake inspections and verifications on Belgian territory, in implementation of the International Agreement of 5 April 1973 made in application of 1 and 4 paragraphs of Article III of the Treaty of 1 July 1968 on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), Belgium concluded a safeguards agreement with the IAEA which enables the latter to verify the fulfilment of the obligations assumed by Belgium in accordance with the NPT, with a view to preventing diversion of nuclear energy from peaceful uses to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. All non-nuclear weapon States party to the NPT enter into such agreements. (NEA) [fr

  8. Vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Julien

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate serum vitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations are associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover and bone loss, which increase fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate serum 25(OHD concentrations in postmenopausal Belgian women. Opinions with regard to the definition of vitamin D deficiency and adequate vitamin D status vary widely and there are no clear international agreements on what constitute adequate concentrations of vitamin D. Methods Assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and parathyroid hormone was performed in 1195 Belgian postmenopausal women aged over 50 years. Main analysis has been performed in the whole study population and according to the previous use of vitamin D and calcium supplements. Four cut-offs of 25(OHD inadequacy were fixed : Results Mean (SD age of the patients was 76.9 (7.5 years, body mass index was 25.7 (4.5 kg/m2. Concentrations of 25(OHD were 52.5 (21.4 nmol/L. In the whole study population, the prevalence of 25(OHD inadequacy was 91.3 %, 87.5 %, 43.1 % and 15.9% when considering cut-offs of 80, 75, 50 and 30 nmol/L, respectively. Women who used vitamin D supplements, alone or combined with calcium supplements, had higher concentrations of 25(OHD than non-users. Significant inverse correlations were found between age/serum PTH and serum 25(OHD (r = -0.23/r = -0.31 and also between age/serum PTH and femoral neck BMD (r = -0.29/r = -0.15. There is a significant positive relation between age and PTH (r = 0.16, serum 25(OHD and femoral neck BMD (r = 0.07. (P Vitamin D concentrations varied with the season of sampling but did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09. Conclusion This study points out a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women, even among subjects receiving vitamin D supplements.

  9. The Quality of Work in the Belgian Service Voucher System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousaid, Sarah; Huegaerts, Kelly; Bosmans, Kim; Julià, Mireia; Benach, Joan; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Several European countries implemented initiatives to boost the growth of the domestic cleaning sector. Few studies investigated the quality of work in these initiatives, although effects on workers' health and on social health inequalities can be expected. This study contributes to the scant research on this subject, by investigating the quality of work in the Belgian service voucher system - a subsidized system for domestic work. The applied research methodology includes a qualitative content analysis of parliamentary debates, legislation and previous research about the service voucher system and of 40 in-depth interviews with service voucher workers. The study shows that the legal framework that regulates the system must be further enhanced in order to improve the quality of work in the service voucher system. In addition, the actors involved must be better controlled, and sanctioned in case of non-compliance with legislation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. RECRUITING OLDER VOLUNTEERS: FINDINGS FROM THE BELGIAN AGEING STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah DURY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a significant body of work concerning voluntary work, hardly any attention is given to volunteering of older individuals. Moreover, the potential volunteers among older adults is even less examined. Next to volunteering among olde r adults, the neighbou rhood becomes more salient when people age and this due to their more intense use and time spent in the neighbourhood. In response to these lacunae, the main purpose of this contribution is to examine the impact of subjective neighbourhood features on the recruitment potential for volunteering among older people. This study uses data collected from the Belgian Ageing Studies. 59.977 adults aged sixty and over living self-reliantly in 127 Flemish municipalities in Belgium participated in this study. A binary logistic regression is ap plied to analyse the key va riables characterizing potential volunteers. Our findings stress the need for recognizing the crucial importance of the locality when recruiting older adults for volunteer activities.

  11. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community.

  12. Belgian Workshop (November 2003) - Executive Summary and International Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The fourth workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste Management and enriched fissile materials. The central theme of the workshop was 'Dealing with interests, values and knowledge in managing risk' within the Belgian context of local partnerships for the long term management of low-level, short-lived radioactive waste. The four-day workshop started with a half-day session in Brussels giving a general introduction on the Belgian context and the local partnership methodology. This was followed by community visits to three local partnerships, PaLoFF in Fleurus-Farciennes, MONA in Mol, and STOLA in Dessel. After the visits, the workshop continued with two full-day sessions in Brussels. One hundred and nineteen registered participants, representing 13 countries, attended the workshop or participated in the community visits. About two thirds were Belgian stakeholders; the remainder came from FSC member organisations. The participants included representatives of municipal governments, civil society organisations, government agencies, industrial companies, the media, and international organisations as well as private citizens, consultants and academics. The four-day meeting was structured as follows: Day 1 morning was devoted to introductory presentations. Information was given on the general radioactive waste management context in Belgium. Regarding the management of LLW, and in particular the search for a disposal facility site, the workshop heard about the local partnership methodology developed by university researchers of the University of Antwerp and the Fondation Universitaire Luxembourgeoise (FUL). These partnerships between the potential host municipalities and the radwaste agency have the mission to develop an integrated facility proposal adapted to local conditions. Community visits took place on Day 1 afternoon and Day 2. Visits offered an opportunity for

  13. Treatment adherence in multiple sclerosis: a survey of Belgian neurologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decoo D

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny Decoo,1 Mathieu Vokaer2 1Department of Neurology and Neurorehab, AZ Alma, Sijsele, Belgium; 2Multiple Sclerosis Clinic, Edith Cavell Hospital, CHIREC group, Brussels, Belgium Background: Poor treatment adherence is common among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. This survey evaluated neurologists’ perception of treatment adherence among MS patients.Materials and methods: This questionnaire-based survey of Belgian neurologists treating MS patients was conducted between June and July 2014. Face-to-face interviews with the neurologists were based on a semistructured questionnaire containing questions regarding the perception of the treatment-adherence level.Results: A total of 41 neurologists participated in the survey. Of these, 88% indicated frequent discussions about treatment adherence as beneficial for treatment efficacy. The mean time spent on the treatment-adherence discussion during the initial consultation was 11 minutes, with 24% of doctors spending 5 minutes and 24% of doctors spending 10 minutes discussing this issue. The majority of neurologists (56% perceived the adherence level in MS as good, and 12% perceived it as excellent. The majority of neurologists (64% indicated intolerance as a main cause of poor adherence, and all neurologists reported insufficient efficacy as a consequence of nonadherence. The importance of adherence in the neurologists’ practice was evaluated on a scale of 1–10, with 1= “not very important” and 10= “very important”: 44% of doctors indicated a score of 10, and the mean score was 9.0.Conclusion: Belgian neurologists consider treatment adherence in MS as essential for the benefits of therapies. However, although neurologists are aware of the consequences of nonadherence, they generally spend limited time discussing the importance of treatment adherence with their patients. Keywords: multiple sclerosis, treatment adherence, physician survey

  14. Delayed Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, it is due to a combination of physical and psychological concerns. Psychological causes of delayed ejaculation include: Depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions Relationship problems due to stress, poor communication ...

  15. Delayed growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; Growth delay Images Toddler development References Cooke DW, Divall SA, Radovick S. Normal and aberrant growth in children. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, ...

  16. Study and development of a method allowing the identification of actinides inside nuclear waste packages, by active neutron or photon interrogation and delayed gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrel, F.

    2007-10-01

    An accurate estimation of the alpha-activity of a nuclear waste package is necessary to select the best mode of storage. The main purpose of this work is to develop a non-destructive active method, based on the fission process and allowing the identification of actinides ( 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu). These three elements are the main alpha emitters contained inside a package. Our technique is based on the detection of delayed gammas emitted by fission products. These latter are created by irradiation with the help of a neutron or photon beam. Performances of this method have been investigated after an Active Photon or Neutron Interrogation (INA or IPA). Three main objectives were fixed in the framework of this thesis. First, we measured many yields of photofission products to compensate the lack of data in the literature. Then, we studied experimental performances of this method to identify a given actinide ( 239 Pu in fission, 235 U in photofission) present in an irradiated mixture. Finally, we assessed the application of this technique on different mock-up packages for both types of interrogation (118 l mock-up package containing EVA in fission, 220 l mock-up package with a wall of concrete in photofission). (author)

  17. Assessment of doses received by the Belgian population due to the Chernobyl releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govaerts, P.; Fieuw, G.; Deworm, J.P.; Zeevaert, Th.

    1986-01-01

    The consequences of the exposure during the first year and beyond the first year after the Chernobyl accident in terms of radiation effects on the Belgian population are discussed as well as some uncertainties in these evaluations. (A.F.)

  18. Empty pledges: A content analysis comparing Belgian and Dutch child-targeting food websites

    OpenAIRE

    Neyens, Evy; Smits, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the EU Pledge, the food industry has vowed to retain from unhealthy food promotion to children under the age of twelve. Nonetheless, food brands increasingly lure children to branded websites packed with unhealthy food and beverage advertising. This study first explores the prevalence of online marketing strategies on 49 Belgian and Dutch child-targeting food websites. Second, it examines the nutrient content of the advertised foods. Third, it scrutinizes whether Belgian and Du...

  19. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Fiems, Leo O.; De Boever, Johan L.; Vanacker, José M.; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Double-muscled Belgian Blue animals are extremely lean, characterized by a deviant muscle fiber type with more fast-glycolytic fibers, compared to non-double-muscled animals. This fiber type may result in lower maintenance energy requirements. On the other hand, lean meat animals mostly have a higher rate of protein turnover, which requires more energy for maintenance. Therefore, maintenance requirements of Belgian Blue cows were investigated based on a zero body weight gain. T...

  20. Cooking up a culinary identity for Belgium. Gastrolinguistics in two Belgian cookbooks (19th century).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parys, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    The notion of cookbooks as socio-historic markers in a society is generally accepted within food studies. As both representations and prescriptions of food practices, perceived habits and attitudes towards food, they represent a certain identity for their readers. This paper investigates the nature of the identity that Belgian cookbooks constructed through their rhetoric. An important part of this study is to explore how and to what extent explicit reference to Belgium was made. To this end recipe titles/labels and recipe comments used in two leading bourgeois cookbooks from nineteenth-century Belgium were subjected to a quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The analysis showed that clear attention was paid to national culinary preferences. In terms of a domestic culinary corpus, it became apparent that both the Dutch and French editions of these cookbooks promoted dishes that were ascribed a Belgian origin. Internationality, however, was also an important building block of Belgian culinary identity. It was part of the desire of Belgian bourgeoisie to connect with an international elite. It fit into the 'search for sophistication', which was also expressed through the high representation of the more costly meats and sweet dishes. In addition, other references associated with bourgeois norms and values, such as family, convenience and frugality, were additional building blocks of Belgian culinary identity. Other issues such as tradition, innovation and health, were also matters of concerns to these Belgian cookbooks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of combined delayed neutron and differential die-away prompt neutron signal detection for characterization of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Pauline; Tobin, Stephen J.; Croft, Stephen; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, M.; Lee, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has funded multiple laboratories and universities to develop a means to accurately quantify the Plutonium (Pu) mass in spent nuclear fuel assemblies and ways to also detect potential diversion of fuel pins. Delayed Neutron (DN) counting provides a signature somewhat more sensitive to 235 U than Pu while Differential Die-Away (DDA) is complementary in that it has greater sensitivity to Pu. The two methods can, with care, be combined into a single instrument which also provides passive neutron information. Individually the techniques cannot robustly quantify the Pu content but coupled together the information content in the signatures enables Pu quantification separate to the total fissile content. The challenge of merging DN and DDA, prompt neutron (PN) signal, capabilities in the same design is the focus of this paper. Other possibilities also suggest themselves, such as a direct measurement of the reactivity (multiplication) by either the boost in signal obtained during the active interrogation itself or by the extension of the die-away profile. In an early study, conceptual designs have been modeled using a neutron detector comprising fission chambers or 3He proportional counters and a ∼14 MeV neutron Deuterium-Tritium (DT) generator as the interrogation source. Modeling was performed using the radiation transport code Monte Carlo N-Particles eXtended (MCNPX). Building on this foundation, the present paper quantifies the capability of a new design using an array of 3 He detectors together with fission chambers to optimize both DN and PN detections and active characterization, respectively. This new design was created in order to minimize fission in 238 U (a nuisance DN emitter), to use a realistic neutron generator, to reduce the cost and to achieve near spatial interrogation and detection of the DN and PN, important for detection of diversion, all within the constraints of

  2. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanmarcke, H.; Paridaens, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    The Belgian phosphate industry processes huge amounts of phosphate ore (1.5 to 2 Mton/year) for a wide range of applications, the most important being the production of phosphoric acid, fertilizers and cattle food. Marine phosphate ores show high specific activities of the natural uranium decay series (usually indicated by Ra-226) (e.g. 1200 to 1500 Bq/kg for Moroccan ore). Ores of magmatic origin generally contain less of the uranium and more of the thorium decay series (up to 500 Bq/kg). These radionuclides turn up in by-products, residues or product streams depending on the processing method and the acid used for the acidulation of the phosphate rock. Sulfuric acid is the most widely used, but also hydrochloric acid and nitric acid are applied in Belgium. For Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, we already have a clear idea of the production processes and waste streams. The five Flemish phosphate plants, from 1920 to 2000, handled 54 million ton of phosphate ore containing 65 TBq of radium-226 and 2.7 TBq of thorium- 232. The total surface area of the phosphogypsum and calcium fluoride sludge deposits amounts to almost 300 ha. There is also environmental contamination along two small rivers receiving the waste waters of the hydrochloric production process: the Winterbeek (> 200 ha) and the Grote Laak (12 ha). The data on the impact of the phosphate industry in the Walloon provinces in Belgium is less complete. A large plant produced in 2004 0.8 Mton of phosphogypsum, valorizing about 70 % of the gypsum in building materials (plaster, cement), in fertilizers, and in other products such as paper. The remainder was stored on a local disposal site. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry on the local population will be discussed. At present most contaminated areas are still recognizable as waste deposits and inaccessible to the population. However as gypsum deposits and other contaminated areas quickly blend in with the landscape, it is

  3. Developmental delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  4. Variability of patient safety culture in Belgian acute hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlayen, Annemie; Schrooten, Ward; Wami, Welcome; Aerts, Marc; Barrado, Leandro Garcia; Claes, Neree; Hellings, Johan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to measure differences in safety culture perceptions within Belgian acute hospitals and to examine variability based on language, work area, staff position, and work experience. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was distributed to hospitals participating in the national quality and safety program (2007-2009). Hospitals were invited to participate in a comparative study. Data of 47,136 respondents from 89 acute hospitals were used for quantitative analysis. Percentages of positive response were calculated on 12 dimensions. Generalized estimating equations models were fitted to explore differences in safety culture. Handoffs and transitions, staffing, and management support for patient safety were considered as major problem areas. Dutch-speaking hospitals had higher odds of positive perceptions for most dimensions in comparison with French-speaking hospitals. Safety culture scores were more positive for respondents working in pediatrics, psychiatry, and rehabilitation compared with the emergency department, operating theater, and multiple hospital units. We found an important gap in safety culture perceptions between leaders and assistants within disciplines. Administration and middle management had lower perceptions toward patient safety. Respondents working less than 1 year in the current hospital had more positive safety culture perceptions in comparison with all other respondents. Large comparative databases provide the opportunity to identify distinct high and low scoring groups. In our study, language, work area, and profession were identified as important safety culture predictors. Years of experience in the hospital had only a small effect on safety culture perceptions.

  5. Estimation of furan contamination across the Belgian food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, G; Scippo, M-L; De Pauw, E; Eppe, G; Saegerman, C

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an estimate of the furan content of Belgian foods. The objective of the study was to achieve the best food chain coverage with a restricted number of samples (n = 496). The geographic distribution, different market chains and labels, and consumption frequencies were taken into account in the construction of the sampling plan. Weighting factors such as contamination levels, consumption frequency and the diversity of food items were applied to set up the model. The very low detection capabilities (CC(β)) of the analytical methods used (sub-ppb) allowed reporting of 78.2% of the overall dataset above CC(β) and, in particular, 96.7% for the baby food category. The highest furan levels were found in powdered roasted bean coffee (1912 µg kg(-1)) with a mean of 756 µg kg(-1) for this category. Prepared meat, pasta and rice, breakfast cereals, soups, and baby food also showed high mean furan contents ranging from 16 to 43 µg kg(-1). Comparisons with contamination surveys carried out in other countries pointed out differences for the same food group and therefore contamination levels are related to the geographical origin of food items.

  6. Terminal patients in Belgian nursing homes: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Kutten, Betty; Keirse, Emmanuel; Vanden Berghe, Paul; Beguin, Claire; Desmedt, Marianne; Deveugele, Myriam; Léonard, Christian; Paulus, Dominique; Menten, Johan

    2013-06-01

    Policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the costs of treating terminal patients. This study was done to measure the costs of treating terminal patients during the final month of life in a sample of Belgian nursing homes from the health care payer perspective. Also, this study compares the costs of palliative care with those of usual care. This multicenter, retrospective cohort study enrolled terminal patients from a representative sample of nursing homes. Health care costs included fixed nursing home costs, medical fees, pharmacy charges, other charges, and eventual hospitalization costs. Data sources consisted of accountancy and invoice data. The analysis calculated costs per patient during the final month of life at 2007/2008 prices. Nineteen nursing homes participated in the study, generating a total of 181 patients. Total mean nursing home costs amounted to 3,243 € per patient during the final month of life. Total mean nursing home costs per patient of 3,822 € for patients receiving usual care were higher than costs of 2,456 € for patients receiving palliative care (p = 0.068). Higher costs of usual care were driven by higher hospitalization costs (p < 0.001). This study suggests that palliative care models in nursing homes need to be supported because such care models appear to be less expensive than usual care and because such care models are likely to better reflect the needs of terminal patients.

  7. Severe polysaccharide storage myopathy in Belgian and Percheron draught horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, B A; Credille, K M; Lavoie, J P; Fatone, S; Guard, C; Cummings, J F; Cooper, B J

    1997-05-01

    A severe myopathy leading to death or euthanasia was identified in 4 Belgian and 4 Percheron draught horses age 2-21 years. Clinical signs ranged from overt weakness and muscle atrophy in 2 horses age 2 and 3 years, to recumbency with inability to rise in 6 horses age 4-21 years. In 5 horses there was mild to severe increases in muscle enzyme levels. Clinical diagnoses included equine motor neuron disease (2 horses), post anaesthetic myopathy (2 horses), exertional myopathy (2 horses), myopathy due to unknown (one horse), and equine protozoal myelitis (one horse). Characteristic histopathology of muscle from affected horses was the presence of excessive complex polysaccharide and/or glycogen, revealed by periodic acid-Schiff staining in all cases and by electron microscopy in one case. Evaluation of frozen section histochemistry performed on 2 cases indicated that affected fibres were Type 2 glycolytic fibres. Subsarcolemmal and intracytoplasmic vacuoles were most prominent in 3 horses age 2-4 years, and excessive glycogen, with little or no complex polysaccharide, was the primary compound stored in affected muscle in these young horses. Myopathic changes, including fibre size variation, fibre hypertrophy, internal nuclei, and interstitial fat infiltration, were most prominent in 5 horses age 6-21 years, and the accumulation of complex polysaccharide appeared to increase with age. Mild to moderate segmental myofibre necrosis was present in all cases.

  8. The usefulness of Belgian formulae in third molar-based age assessment of Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Biyas; Acharya, Ashith B; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G

    2013-03-10

    The third molars are one of few useful predictors for assessing the degree of maturity in adolescence and young adulthood. It has application in age estimation in the age group of 14-23 years, in general, and in juvenile/adult status prediction, in particular. Using a 10-stage grading of third molars, Gunst et al. developed regression formulae on a large sample of Belgians (n=2513) for estimating age. Their research has been recommended as a 'reference study' in age estimation guidelines. The present study has ventured to determine if estimating age in Indians using the Belgian formulae produced results comparable to those reported in the Belgian study; in addition, this study attempts to determine if the same formulae predicted juvenile/adult status (age aged between 14 and 23 years. The OPGs included a mix of one, two, three and four third molars. In total, 916 teeth were assessed using the same 10-stage grading. Age in each OPG was estimated by applying the relevant Belgian regression formulae (regression formulae are available for one, two, three and four third molars). To determine if the formulae produced age estimates comparable to those in the Belgian study, the percentage of Indian subjects whose actual age fell within the 68% confidence interval (CI) (calculated from the ± 1 S.D. value available for each Belgian formula) was ascertained. If ≥ 68% of Indian subjects' age fell inside this interval, it indicates that the Belgian formulae are applicable in Indians. To assess the suitability of the Belgian formulae in predicting juvenile/adult status in Indians, the accuracy of the age estimation per se was not considered, rather, the number of correct age predictions only was noted. Overall, ≈ 74% of Indian subjects' actual age fell within the 68% CI; with regards to the Belgian formulae being able to correctly predict juvenile/adult status, 78% of all subjects were categorized to the correct age group (age estimation per se of Indians; however, the

  9. Contamination levels observed on the Belgian territory subsequent to the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoof, J van [State University of Ghent, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gent (Belgium); Maghuin-Rogister, G [Universite de Liege, Brussels (Belgium)

    1986-07-01

    Contaminated air masses reached the Belgian territory from the South during the night of the first to the second of May. At this stage however the origin of this contamination was already identified through earlier observations over the Scandinavian area and the subsequent message about the reactor accident at the Chernobyl site. Later on radioactive clouds were also detected over the central part of Europe, demonstrating the persistent nature of the emissions from the damaged reactor. Consequently the influence on the Belgian territory was not unexpected. The authorities called on the SCK/CEN at Mol, and the IRE at Fleurus to assist the IHE at Brussels in collecting the necessary data for judging the radiological situation in our country. The KMI/IRM at Brussels was involved for the follow-up of meteorological conditions and analysis of the trajectories of contaminated air masses. Early detection possibilities for the arrival of contaminated air were provided by the continuous environmental monitoring apparatus for ambient {gamma}-dose rate or for {beta} activity of airborne dust, available at nuclear institutions and nuclear power plants. On detection of enhanced air radioactivity, the sampling period of routine air dust samplers was significantly shortened to allow for the hour to hour renewal of data for gross {beta} activity as a general indication of the evolution of the air contamination. {gamma}-spectrometric analysis of those filters provided the necessary data for the estimation of the dose equivalent due to inhalation. Ground deposition data at the location of the participating institutions were obtained by daily analysis of the radioactivity contents of a water container collecting both dust and rainwater. Field gamma spectrometry was used later on at a number of other locations, to estimate the integrated ground deposition of radioactivity and its distribution over the country. As the grazing season was just started or was about to be started in the

  10. Contamination levels observed on the Belgian territory subsequent to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoof, J. van; Maghuin-Rogister, G.

    1986-01-01

    Contaminated air masses reached the Belgian territory from the South during the night of the first to the second of May. At this stage however the origin of this contamination was already identified through earlier observations over the Scandinavian area and the subsequent message about the reactor accident at the Chernobyl site. Later on radioactive clouds were also detected over the central part of Europe, demonstrating the persistent nature of the emissions from the damaged reactor. Consequently the influence on the Belgian territory was not unexpected. The authorities called on the SCK/CEN at Mol, and the IRE at Fleurus to assist the IHE at Brussels in collecting the necessary data for judging the radiological situation in our country. The KMI/IRM at Brussels was involved for the follow-up of meteorological conditions and analysis of the trajectories of contaminated air masses. Early detection possibilities for the arrival of contaminated air were provided by the continuous environmental monitoring apparatus for ambient γ-dose rate or for Β activity of airborne dust, available at nuclear institutions and nuclear power plants. On detection of enhanced air radioactivity, the sampling period of routine air dust samplers was significantly shortened to allow for the hour to hour renewal of data for gross Β activity as a general indication of the evolution of the air contamination. γ-spectrometric analysis of those filters provided the necessary data for the estimation of the dose equivalent due to inhalation. Ground deposition data at the location of the participating institutions were obtained by daily analysis of the radioactivity contents of a water container collecting both dust and rainwater. Field gamma spectrometry was used later on at a number of other locations, to estimate the integrated ground deposition of radioactivity and its distribution over the country. As the grazing season was just started or was about to be started in the following days for

  11. Nuclear engineering in Belgium and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaube, M.

    1992-01-01

    The new facilities for the treatment and storage of radioactive waste in Mol/Dessel are described. In 1985 - 1990 the Doel-1 and Doel-2 nuclear power stations were fitted with new safety systems. These are presented briefly as is Belgian work for Poland (assessment of the Zarnowiec Project) and Taiwan (data bank system for radioactive waste). 2 figs

  12. Outlooks of nuclear power in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaumotte, A.

    1976-01-01

    The final report of the assessment commission for nuclear power is discussed. The pattern of Belgian demand for the next decade growing rates is examined with a particular focus on the economics, safety, pollution, uranium resources and enrichment, reprocessing and waste disposal. (A.F.)

  13. Emergence of bovine ehrlichiosis in Belgian cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Hugues; Ramery, Eve; O'Grady, Luke; Sandersen, Charlotte; Rollin, Frédéric

    2011-06-01

    Bovine ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The disease can also be transmitted to humans. Outbreaks in cattle have been described in many European countries. In Belgium, infections caused by A. phagocytophilum have been reported in humans and dogs; however, this paper details the first report of ehrlichiosis in cattle herds in Belgium. The first case described was in a dairy herd located in eastern Belgium. Clinical signs included hyperthermia, polypnea, and swelling of the limbs. The other case was diagnosed in a second, mixed purpose herd in western Belgium. Within the second herd, all of the affected animals came from the same pasture. All animals in that pasture showed recurrent hyperthermia, and some also showed signs of mastitis and late-term abortions. Blood smears and serology revealed the presence of A. phagocytophilum in the majority of animals with pyrexia. Furthermore, the presence of leptospirosis, Neospora caninum, and Q fever antibodies was tested by serological analysis, but all results were negative. Paired serology for Adenovirus, BHV-4, BHV-1, BVD, PI3, and RSV-B did not show any significant seroconversion. Milk samples from cows affected by mastitis revealed minor pathogens. Fecal testing for the presence of Dictyocaulus viviparus in the first herd was negative. Recurrent pyrexia in pastured cattle is a non-specific sign, and can be related to several different pathogens. Bovine ehrlichiosis is transmitted by the tick species Ixodes ricinus which is known to be present throughout Belgium. Belgian practitioners should include ehrlichiosis in their differential diagnosis when confronted with pastured cattle suffering from recurrent pyrexia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial prescribing behaviour in dogs and cats by Belgian veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleven, Alexia; Sarrazin, Steven; de Rooster, Hilde; Paepe, Dominique; Van der Meeren, Sofie; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2018-03-17

    The objective of this study is to survey general prescribing behaviour by Belgian companion animal veterinarians and to assess agreement of these practices with current treatment guidelines. Therefore an online survey was administered with five realistic and frequently occurring first-line cases to primary-care veterinary practitioners. For each case a predefined pattern of questions were asked about whether or not they would prescribe antimicrobials, if they would prescribe a non-antimicrobial treatment and if they would perform additional diagnostic steps. The responses were compared with recommendations in national guidelines and recent literature. The overall most prescribed antimicrobials were potentiated amoxicillin (43.0 per cent), fluoroquinolones (14.7 per cent), third-generation and fourth-generation cephalosporins (10.9 per cent) and tetracyclines (10.9 per cent). Only 48.3 per cent of the veterinarians complied with the guidelines in nearly all of the clinical scenarios (ie, prescribing antimicrobials when indicated, not prescribing antimicrobials when it is not indicated). Moreover, when prescribing highest priority critically important antimicrobials, susceptibility testing on bacterial cultures was performed in only 12.4 per cent of the prescriptions. The results showed that the prescribing behaviour of antimicrobial compounds by primary-care veterinary practitioners in dogs and cats is often not in agreement with national guidelines. Focus in improvement of this prescribing behaviour should be on performing the appropriate diagnostic steps and decreasing the use of highest priority critically important antimicrobials. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Physical fitness of elite Belgian soccer players by player position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Jan; Vaeyens, Roel; Steyaert, Adelheid; Vanden Bossche, Luc; Bourgois, Jan

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an insight into the physical and physiological profile of elite Belgian soccer players with specific regard to the player's position on the field. The sample consisted of 289 adult players from 6 different first division teams. The players were divided into 5 subgroups (goalkeepers, center backs, full backs, midfielders, and strikers) according to their self-reported best position on the field. The subjects performed anaerobic (10-m sprint, 5 × 10-m shuttle run [SR], squat jump [SJ], and countermovement jump [CMJ]) and aerobic (incremental running protocol) laboratory tests. The strikers had significantly shorter sprinting times (5-, 5- to 10-m time, and SR) compared with the midfielders, center backs, and goalkeepers, whereas the full backs were also significantly faster compared with the goalkeepers and the center backs. The goalkeepers and the center backs displayed higher jumping heights (total mean SJ = 40.7 ± 4.6 cm and CMJ = 43.1 ± 4.9 cm) compared with the other 3 positions, whereas the strikers also jumped higher than the full backs and the midfielders did. Regarding the aerobic performance, both full backs and the midfielders (61.2 ± 2.7 and 60.4 ± 2.8 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1), respectively) had a higher VO2max compared with the strikers, center backs, and goalkeepers (56.8 ± 3.1, 55.6 ± 3.5, and 52.1 ± 5.0 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1), respectively). From this study, it could be concluded that players in different positions have different physiological characteristics. The results of this study might provide useful insights for individualized conditional training programs for soccer players. Aside from the predominant technical and tactical skills, a physical profile that is well adjusted to the position on the field might enhance game performance.

  16. Water holding capacity of meat from rabbits (Belgian Giant breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Tărnăuceanu Frunză

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Meat science has always been most interested in practical applications and macroscopic effects of internal/external factors in relation to water holding capacity (WHC. Research has been motivated by technological and sensory aspects, both finally linked to economic benefits. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of gender and different muscle groups from rabbits on WHC of their meat. Determining WHC was carried out by compression of the meat over filter paper between two plates. The biological material was collected from 56 Belgian Giant breed rabbits (25 males and 31 females. Aged 11-12 months, the rabbits had an average body weight of 11.5 kg. Measurements were performed on the muscles Longissimus dorsi (LD, Psoas major (PM and Semimembranosus (SM 24 hours after slaughter. The percentage of WHC was calculated as ratio (per cent of weight of released water to intact meat. WHC for females, in LD, had an average value of 8%, in PM it had an average value of 9.31%, and in SM it had an average value of 12.91%. For males, WHC in LD was 7.6%, in PM 8.23% and in SM 11.43%. The average value for WHC was higher for females than for males. Regarding the statistical significance of differences by gender, distinct significant differences for SM and very significant differences for PM were recorded. For PM, a higher average value of WHC is probably due to the smaller diameter of muscle fibres and also to water higher percentage of them.

  17. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guessan, E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy products using the guidelines provided by the European food safety standards. Method. The samples were collected within the framework of the self-checking regulation. In accordance with the European Regulation EC 2073/2005, microbiological analyses were performed to detect and count Enterobacteriaceae, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results. Even when results met the microbiological safety standards, hygienic indicator microorganisms like E. coli and S. aureus exceeded the defined limits in 35% and 4% of butter and cheese samples, respectively. Unsatisfactory levels observed for soft cheeses remained higher (10% and 2% for S. aureus and L. monocytogenes respectively than those observed for pressed cheeses (3% and 1% and fresh cheeses (3% and 0% (P ≥ 0.05. Furthermore, the percentages of samples outside legal limits were not significantly higher in the summer months than in winter months for all mentioned bacteria. Conclusions. This survey showed that most farm dairy products investigated were microbiologically safe. However, high levels of hygiene indicators (e.g., E. coli in some products, like butter, remind us of applying good hygienic practices at every stage of the dairy production process to ensure consumer safety.

  18. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    . The underlying reasons for the large variation in the age at pubertal onset are not fully established; however, nutritional status and socioeconomic and environmental factors are known to be influencing, and a significant amount of influencing genetic factors have also been identified. The challenges...... optimal in discriminating especially CDGP from HH. Management of the delayed puberty depends on the etiology. For boys with CDGP an observational period will often reveal imminent puberty. If puberty is not progressing spontaneously, sex steroid replacement is effective in stimulating the development...

  19. The nuclear challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillon, L.

    1979-01-01

    Information is given about the world-wide energy resources, with a particular accent on the part delivered by nuclear power plants. General trends of energetic needs and consumption and the participation of actually used energy sources are outlined. All the aspects of nuclear power production are considered: the fission and fusion process, the fuel cycle and a short description is given of the different reactor types. The pollution and contamination due to different energy sources, the effects of nuclear radiation on man and environment and the risk of accidents due to different human activities or natural events is reviewed. The Three Mile Island accident is analysed. The author analyses the economical aspects of the development of nuclear power plants, the cost of the electricity production and the Belgian and French nuclear programmes. A short reference to the non-proliferation treaty and possible diversion of nuclear materials is given. Finally the social implications of nuclear energy developments are reviewed. (MDC)

  20. The impact of gendered friendship patterns on the prevalence of homophobia among belgian late adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc

    2011-06-01

    In order to assess the determinants of homophobia among Belgian adolescents, a shortened version of the Homophobia scale (Wright et al., 1999) was included in a representative survey among Belgian adolescents (n = 4,870). Principal component analysis demonstrated that the scale was one-dimensional and internally coherent. The results showed that homophobia is still widespread among Belgian adolescents, despite various legal reforms in the country aiming to combat discrimination of gay women and men. A multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that boys, ethnic minorities, individuals with high levels of ethnocentrism and an instrumental worldview, Muslim minorities, and those with low levels of associational involvement scored significantly higher on the scale. While among boys an extensive friendship network was associated with higher levels of homophobia, the opposite phenomenon was found among girls. We discuss the possible relation between notions of masculinity within predominantly male adolescent friendship networks and social support for homophobia.

  1. Emerging contaminants in Belgian marine waters: single toxicant and mixture risks of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Michiel; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Wille, Klaas; Janssen, Colin R

    2013-06-15

    Knowledge on the effects of pharmaceuticals on aquatic marine ecosystems is limited. The aim of this study was therefore to establish the effect thresholds of pharmaceutical compounds occurring in the Belgian marine environment for the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and subsequently perform an environmental risk assessment for these substances. Additionally, a screening-level risk assessment was performed for the pharmaceutical mixtures. No immediate risk for acute toxic effects of these compounds on P. tricornutum were apparent at the concentrations observed in the Belgian marine environment. In two Belgian coastal harbours however, a potential chronic risk was observed for the β-blocker propranolol. No additional risks arising from the exposure to mixtures of pharmaceuticals present in the sampling area could be detected. However, as risk characterization ratios for mixtures of up to 0.5 were observed, mixture effects could emerge should more compounds be taken into account. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. From nuclear installation to greenfield site. SCK-CEN develops a new measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses a new measurement method that has been developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN in conjunction with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. This measurement technique is based on on-site gamma ray spectrometry in combination with modelling and is employed for directing the flow of demolition materials in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities.

  3. Liability for the nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, M.; Govaerts, P.; Malbrain, C.; Veuchelen, L.; Spriet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a cooperative research project on the juridical aspects of nuclear risk (criminal, civil and administrative aspects), according to the Belgian and Dutch laws, are presented. In this multi-disciplinary project also attention is paid to the economic impacts and positive-scientific aspects of the nuclear risk regarding radioactive waste problems and nuclear accidents. The liability for and the decision-making regarding the site selection of nuclear power plants is dealt with as well. 9 figs., 23 tabs., 198 refs

  4. Attitude of a group of Belgian stakeholders towards proposed agricultural countermeasures after a radioactive contamination: synthesis of the discussions within the Belgian EC-FARMING group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Hardeman, F.; Pauwels, O.; Bernaerts, M.; Carle, B.; Sombre, L.

    2005-01-01

    In the case of radioactive contamination of the environment with an impact on the food chain, the remediation strategy will not only be based on scientific knowledge and technical experience, but will also be dictated by peculiarities of the country. These characteristics include the agro-industrial structure, the local and international economical contexts and the political configuration including the distribution of responsibilities and competencies. This paper identifies and illustrates the most relevant characteristics of the Belgian agricultural system and political environment; it also describes the past experience with food chain contamination, which is expected to influence the attitude of Belgian stakeholders, who would be involved in the setting up of countermeasure strategies for maintaining agricultural production and food safety. The picture drawn explains why several countermeasures aiming to reduce the contamination in food products, although scientifically sound and technically feasible, are hardly acceptable or even not acceptable at all, to the stakeholders

  5. Nuclear Chemistry and Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevelde, L.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of R and D at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in the field of nuclear chemistry and analytical techniques are summarized. Major achievement in 2001 included the completion of a project on the measurement of critical radionuclides in reactor waste fluxes (the ARIANE project), the radiochemical characterisation of beryllium material originating from the second matrix of the BR2 reactor as well as to a the organisation of a workshop on the analysis of thorium and its isotopes in workplace materials

  6. Antibiotic use and resistance in animals: Belgian initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeseleire, Els; De Graef, Evelyne; Rasschaert, Geertrui; De Mulder, Thijs; Van den Meersche, Tina; Van Coillie, Els; Dewulf, Jeroen; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2016-05-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics in animals is causing concerns about the growing risk for development and the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic consumption is higher in animals than in humans as reported in a joint publication of EFSA (European Food Safety Agency), ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), and EMA (European Medicines Agency) using data from 2011 and 2012. Both in humans and animals, positive associations between the consumption of antibiotics and resistant bacteria are observed. Responsible use of antibiotics in humans and animals should therefore be promoted. In this paper some general aspects of antibiotic resistance such as microbiological versus clinical resistance, intrinsic versus acquired resistance, resistance mechanisms, and transfer of resistance are briefly introduced. In 2012, the Belgian Center of Expertise on Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance in Animals (AMCRA) was founded. Its mission is to collect and analyze all data related to antibiotic use and resistance in animals in Belgium and to communicate these findings in a neutral and objective manner. One of AMCRA's 10 objectives is a 50% reduction in antibiotic consumption in veterinary medicine in Belgium by 2020. The aim of this paper is to report on the achievements of this national project. The Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO, Merelbeke-Melle), in collaboration with Ghent University, is currently working on three nationally funded projects on antibiotic resistance in animal husbandry. In the first project, an in vitro model is used to study the influence of low antibiotic concentrations due to carry-over after production and usage of medicated feed on the development of resistance in the pig gut. Part of that project is to develop a quantitative risk assessment model. A second project focuses on tracking excreted antibiotics used in pig rearing and their influence on the development of antibiotic resistance in pig

  7. The use of pesticides in Belgian illicit indoor cannabis plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Eva; Vanhove, Wouter; Gotink, Joachim; Bonneure, Arne; Van Damme, Patrick; Tytgat, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis spp.) use and cultivation continue to increase in many (European) countries. The illicit indoor cannabis plantations that supply Belgian and European cannabis markets create problems and concerns about health and safety of intervention staff, dismantling companies, the direct environment of cannabis plantations and, eventually, of cannabis users. Main risks may come from pesticide residues on plants, cultivation infrastructure and materials; left-over plant growth-promoting substances; mycotoxins from fungal pathogens on harvested plants; and/or high levels of cannabinoids in cannabis plant parts for consumption. In the present research, we report on pesticides found in illicit indoor cannabis plantations in Belgium. EN15662 QuEChERS extraction method and LC-MS/MS analysis were used to identify pesticides in indoor cannabis plantations and thus to evaluate the hazards associated with the use, cultivation and removal of cannabis plants in plantations as well as with dismantling activities in the cultivation rooms. We found pesticides in 64.3% of 72 cannabis plant samples and in 65.2% of 46 carbon filter cloth samples. Overall, 19 pesticides belonging to different chemical classes were identified. We found o-phenylphenol, bifenazate, cypermethrin, imidacloprid, propamocarb, propiconazole and tebuconazole, which is consistent with the commonly reported pesticides from literature. In only a few cases, pesticides found in bottles with a commercial label, were also identified in plant or stagnant water samples collected from the growth rooms where the bottles had been collected. We further revealed that, even though most pesticides have a low volatility, they could be detected from the carbon filters hanging at the ceiling of cultivation rooms. As a result, it is likely that pesticides also prevail in the plantation atmosphere during and after cultivation. The risk of inhaling the latter pesticides increases when plants sprayed with pesticides are

  8. ENEN - European Nuclear Educational Network Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Regge, P.

    2006-01-01

    After the pioneering initiative of BNEN, the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network, other countries, e.g. Italy, United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland, etc., created their own pool of education. At the European level the ENEN Association (European Nuclear Education Network) is a sustainable product generated by an FP5 project. The main objective of the ENEN Association is the preservation and the further development of higher nuclear education and expertise. This objective is realized through the co-operation between European universities, involved in education and research in the nuclear engineering field, nuclear research centres and nuclear industry

  9. Contribution of VPS35 genetic variability to LBD in the Flanders-Belgian population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraeten, Aline; Wauters, Eline; Crosiers, David; Meeus, Bram; Corsmit, Ellen; Elinck, Ellen; Mattheijssens, Maria; Peeters, Karin; Cras, Patrick; Pickut, Barbara; Vandenberghe, Rik; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Theuns, Jessie

    VPS35 was recently identified as a novel autosomal dominant gene for Parkinson disease. In this study, we aimed to determine the contribution of simple and complex VPS35 variations to the genetic etiology of the spectrum of Lewy body disorders (LBD) in a Flanders-Belgian patient cohort (n = 677). We

  10. Performance Measurement in Belgian Hospitals : a state-of-the-art

    OpenAIRE

    Van Caillie, Didier; Rouhana, Rima; Santin, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This communication proposes a global state-of-the-art around the central question : "How is performance measured and controlled in Belgian hospitals. As a first step in a global research project dedicated to the use of Balanced ScoreCard in publics hospitals around the world, it is essentially focused on global economic aspects and on major macroeconomic statistics.

  11. Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, G.; Bruffaerts, R.; Nock, M.K.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Witteman, C.L.M.; Mortier, P.; Demyttenaere, K.; Claes, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines: (1) the prevalence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among Dutch and Belgian adolescents, (2) the associations between Big Five personality traits and NSSI engagement/versatility (i.e., number of NSSI methods), and (3) whether these associations are mediated by

  12. Proceedings of the 9th Dutch-Belgian Information Retrieval Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aly, Robin; Hauff, C.; den Hamer, Ida; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Huibers, Theo W.C.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    Welcome to the 9th Dutch-Belgian Information Retrieval Workshop (DIR). I very well remember the DIR workshop in 2001 that was also organized in Twente. It took place exactly one day before my PhD defense, to give us the opportunity to have one of the PhD committee members, Stephen Robertson, as the

  13. Cultural differences in complex addition: efficient Chinese versus adaptive Belgians and Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbo, Ineke; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

    2009-11-01

    In the present study, the authors tested the effects of working-memory load on math problem solving in 3 different cultures: Flemish-speaking Belgians, English-speaking Canadians, and Chinese-speaking Chinese currently living in Canada. Participants solved complex addition problems (e.g., 58 + 76) in no-load and working-memory load conditions, in which either the central executive or the phonological loop was loaded. The authors used the choice/no-choice method to obtain unbiased measures of strategy selection and strategy efficiency. The Chinese participants were faster than the Belgians, who were faster and more accurate than the Canadians. The Chinese also required fewer working-memory resources than did the Belgians and Canadians. However, the Chinese chose less adaptively from the available strategies than did the Belgians and Canadians. These cultural differences in math problem solving are likely the result of different instructional approaches during elementary school (practice and training in Asian countries vs. exploration and flexibility in non-Asian countries), differences in the number language, and informal cultural norms and standards. The relevance of being adaptive is discussed as well as the implications of the results in regards to the strategy choice and discovery simulation model of strategy selection (J. Shrager & R. S. Siegler, 1998).

  14. Where is the Frame? : Victims and Intruders in the Belgian Press Coverage of the Asylum Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, B. van

    2005-01-01

    In this article an empirically oriented conceptualization of frames is developed, using the issue of asylum and illegal immigration in the Belgian press as a test case. The methodological focus of this study is on the question of how these frames can be detected in the coverage. How can they be

  15. Clonal expansion of the Belgian Phytophthora ramorum populations based on new microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Vercauteren; I. De Dobbelaere; N. J. Grünwald; P. Bonants; E. Van Bockstaele; M. Maes; K. Heungens

    2010-01-01

    Co-existence of both mating types A1 and A2 within the EU1 lineage of Phytophthora ramorum has only been observed in Belgium, which begs the question whether sexual reproduction is occurring. A collection of 411 Belgian P. ramorum isolates was established during a 7-year survey. Our main objectives were genetic characterization of this population to test for sexual...

  16. The labelling and reporting of euthanasia by Belgian physicians: a study of hypothetical cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, T.; Cohen, J.; Bilsen, J.; van Wesemael, Y.; Rurup, M.L.; Deliens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Belgium legalized euthanasia in 2002. Physicians must report each euthanasia case to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee. This study examines which end-of-life decisions (ELDs) Belgian physicians label 'euthanasia', which ELDs they think should be reported and the physician

  17. Speaking Turkish in Belgian primary schools: teacher beliefs versus effective consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ağırdağ, O.; Jordens, K.; Van Houtte, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, we explore teachers’ beliefs concerning the use of the Turkish language by Turkish children in Belgian primary schools, and we compare these findings with the effective consequences of language maintenance. The qualitative analyses revealed that teachers have very

  18. Dust suppression in Belgian coal mines. Situation at the beginning of 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preat, B; Vanstraelen, M

    1978-01-01

    Gives a general view of dust control in Belgian mines. Statistical data are presented in tables. Prior spraying, wet cutting, and water infusion and pneumatic drills with sprays are used; in some cases, two or more of these techniques are used together in the same face. (In French and In Dutch)

  19. Comparing Compositional Effects in Two Education Systems: The Case of the Belgian Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhier, Julien; Martin, Émilie

    2014-01-01

    The Belgian educational field includes separate educational systems reflecting the division of the country into linguistic communities. Even if the French-speaking and the Dutch-speaking communities keep sharing important similarities in terms of funding rules and structures, they present a huge gap between their respective pupils' achievement.…

  20. The role of the sickness funds in the Belgian health care market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Nonneman (Nonneman); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis article reviews some of the salient features of the Belgian health care finance and delivery system. Special attention is paid to the role played by the third-party payers, i.e. the Health Insurance Associations (HIAs) in administering the compulsory national health insurance

  1. Development of clinical pharmacy in Belgian hospitals through pilot projects funded by the government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, A; Spinewine, A; Spriet, I; Steurbaut, S; Tulkens, P; Hecq, J D; Willems, L; Robays, H; Dhoore, M; Yaras, H; Vanden Bremt, I; Haelterman, M

    2018-04-30

    Objectives The goal is to develop clinical pharmacy in the Belgian hospitals to improve drug efficacy and to reduce drug-related problems. Methods From 2007 to 2014, financial support was provided by the Belgian federal government for the development of clinical pharmacy in Belgian hospitals. This project was guided by a national Advisory Working Group. Each funded hospital was obliged to describe yearly its clinical pharmacy activities. Results In 2007, 20 pharmacists were funded in 28 pilot hospitals; this number was doubled in 2009 to 40 pharmacists over 54 institutions, representing more than half of all acute Belgian hospitals. Most projects (72%) considered patient-related activities, whereas some projects (28%) had a hospital-wide approach. The projects targeted patients at admission (30%), during hospital stay (52%) or at discharge (18%). During hospital stay, actions were mainly focused on geriatric patients (20%), surgical patients (15%), and oncology patients (9%). Experiences, methods, and tools were shared during meetings and workshops. Structure, process, and outcome indicators were reported and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats were described. The yearly reports revealed that the hospital board was engaged in the project in 87% of the cases, and developed a vision on clinical pharmacy in 75% of the hospitals. In 2014, the pilot phase was replaced by structural financing for clinical pharmacy in all acute Belgian hospitals. Conclusion The pilot projects in clinical pharmacy funded by the federal government provided a unique opportunity to launch clinical pharmacy activities on a broad scale in Belgium. The results of the pilot projects showed clear implementation through case reports, time registrations, and indicators. Tools for clinical pharmacy activities were developed to overcome identified barriers. The engagement of hospital boards and the results of clinical pharmacy activities persuaded the government to start structural

  2. Quality Assurance in Nuclear Fuel Research at the Laboratory of High- and Medium-level Activity at SCK-CEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannen, L.; Gys, A.; Verwerft, M

    1999-10-01

    Quality assurance in nuclear fuel research demands specific calibration and validation methodologies. Indeed the analytical experiments in hot-cells on highly radioactive objects are non-standard and many times unique. The standards and validation methods developed for and applied to the main nuclear fuel research experiments in the hot laboratories of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are outlined.

  3. Quality Assurance in Nuclear Fuel Research at the Laboratory of High- and Medium-level Activity at SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannen, L.; Gys, A.; Verwerft, M.

    1999-10-01

    Quality assurance in nuclear fuel research demands specific calibration and validation methodologies. Indeed the analytical experiments in hot-cells on highly radioactive objects are non-standard and many times unique. The standards and validation methods developed for and applied to the main nuclear fuel research experiments in the hot laboratories of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are outlined

  4. The Belgian approach and status on the radiological surveillance of radioactive substances in metal scrap and non-radioactive waste and the financing of orphan sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeckeveldt, Marnix; Preter, Peter De; Michiels, Jan; Pepin, Stephane; Schrauben, Manfred; Wertelaers, An

    2007-01-01

    Numerous facilities in the non-nuclear sector in Belgium (e.g. in the non-radioactive waste processing and management sector and in the metal recycling sector) have been equipped with measuring ports for detecting radioactive substances. These measuring ports prevent radioactive sources or radioactive contamination from ending up in the material fluxes treated by the sectors concerned. They thus play an important part in the protection of the workers and the people living in the neighbourhood of the facilities, as well as in the protection of the population and the environment in general. In 2006, Belgium's federal nuclear control agency (FANC/AFCN) drew up guidelines for the operators of non-nuclear facilities with a measuring port for detecting radioactive substances. These guidelines describe the steps to be followed by the operators when the port's alarm goes off. Following the publication of the European guideline 2003/122/EURATOM of 22 December 2003 on the control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources, a procedure has been drawn up by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian National Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, to identify the responsible to cover the costs relating to the further management of detected sealed sources and if not found to declare the sealed source as an orphan source. In this latter case and from mid-2006 the insolvency fund managed by ONDRAF/NIRAS covers the cost of radioactive waste management. At the request of the Belgian government, a financing proposal for the management of unsealed orphan sources as radioactive waste was also established by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS. This proposal applies the same approach as for sealed sources and thus the financing of unsealed orphan sources will also be covered by the insolvency fund. (authors)

  5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  6. Delayed hydride cracking in zirconium alloys in pressure tube nuclear reactors. Final report of a coordinated research project 1998-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    This report describes all of the research work undertaken as part of the IAEA coordinated research project on hydrogen and hydride induced degradation of the mechanical and physical properties of zirconium based alloys, and includes a review of the state of the art in understanding crack propagation by Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC), and details of the experimental procedures that have produced the most consistent set of DHC rates reported in an international round-robin exercise to this date. It was concluded that 1) the techniques for performing measurements of the rate of delayed hydride cracking in zirconium alloys have been transferred from the host laboratory to other countries; 2) by following a strict procedure, a very consistent set of values of crack velocity were obtained by both individual laboratories and between the different laboratories; 3) the results over a wide range of test temperatures from materials with various microstructures fitted into the current theoretical framework for delayed hydride cracking; 4) an inter-laboratory comparison of hydrogen analysis revealed the importance of calibration and led to improvements in measurement in the participating laboratories and 5) the success of the CRP in achieving its goals has led to the initiation of some national programmes

  7. Third national inventory of nuclear liabilities - main findings, lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantarella, Jacques; Roger, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    The safe management of a country's radioactive substances in both the short and the long term implies a cost to its present society and necessitates financial resources to cover these costs. Once they are needed, these financial resources may prove to be insufficient or even completely lacking, leading to a nuclear liability. By virtue of article 9 of the Belgian law of 12 December 1997, the Belgian Government wishes to avoid the occurrence of such nuclear liabilities. This law charges ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials with the mission to draw up a register of the localisation and the state of all nuclear sites and all sites containing radioactive substances, to estimate the costs of their decommissioning and remediation, to evaluate the existence and adequacy of the provisions for financing these future or current operations and to update the resulting inventory of nuclear liabilities on a five-yearly basis. This paper outlines the methodology put in place by ONDRAF/NIRAS to accomplish this assignment and highlights some of the results of this third inventory. It then focuses on the main recommendations ONDRAF/NIRAS made to the Belgian Government on the field of avoiding potential nuclear liabilities. (authors)

  8. Radioiodine removal in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Technical means are reviewed available for the retention of radioiodine in nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing plants, its immobilization, storage, and disposal. The removal of iodine species from gaseous effluents of nuclear power plants using impregnated activated charcoal is dealt with. Various scrubbing techniques for trapping iodine from the head-end and dissolver off-gases are discussed as well as solid adsorbents for iodine which may be used to clean up other gaseous streams. Current practices and activities for radioiodine treatment and management in Belgian, Dutch, Swedish, USSR and UK nuclear installations are presented

  9. Analytical applications for delayed neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical formulations that describe the time dependence of neutron populations in nuclear materials contain delayed-neutron dependent terms. These terms are important because the delayed neutrons, even though their yields in fission are small, permit control of the fission chain reaction process. Analytical applications that use delayed neutrons range from simple problems that can be solved with the point reactor kinetics equations to complex problems that can only be solved with large codes that couple fluid calculations with the neutron dynamics. Reactor safety codes, such as SIMMER, model transients of the entire reactor core using coupled space-time neutronics and comprehensive thermal-fluid dynamics. Nondestructive delayed-neutron assay instruments are designed and modeled using a three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code. Calculations on high-burnup spent fuels and other materials that contain a mix of uranium and plutonium isotopes require accurate and complete information on the delayed-neutron periods, yields, and energy spectra. A continuing need exists for delayed-neutron parameters for all the fissioning isotopes

  10. Technical experience of the Belgian regulatory body regarding shielded cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortenbosch, G.; Degreef, G.; Noterman, N.; Mommaert, C.; Smidts, O.; Hasendonck, M. van; Drymael, H.; Schmitz, F.; Kennes, C.; Carlier, P.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation protection and nuclear safety are of paramount importance when operating shielded cells in hot labs and using remote handling tools. Therefore, various aspects should be ensured throughout the lifecycle of nuclear installations disposing of such type of equipment. The presented aspects are the results of the regulatory body experience with this kind of installations (licensing, operations, operating experience, events). This paper will deal with safety considerations such as filtration, fire protection, shielding, ventilation, waste management, separation of the product fluxes, leak tightness, introduction of equipment, interlocks, failsafe components, piloting software, monitoring and education/training. (orig.)

  11. Delayed puberty in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexual development - girls; Pubertal delay - girls; Constitutional delayed puberty ... In most cases of delayed puberty, growth changes just begin later than usual, sometimes called a late bloomer. Once puberty begins, it progresses normally. This pattern runs ...

  12. Delayed Puberty (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Delayed Puberty KidsHealth / For Teens / Delayed Puberty What's in this ... wonder if there's anything wrong. What Is Delayed Puberty? Puberty is the time when your body grows ...

  13. Unrestricted re-use of decommissioned nuclear laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelissen, R; Noynaert, L; Harnie, S; Marien, J

    1996-09-18

    A decommissioning strategy was developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN. In this strategy decommissioning works are limited to the radioactive parts of the nuclear installation. After obtaining an attestation for unrestricted reuse of the building after removal of all radioactivity, the building can be used for new industrial purposes outside the nuclear field. The decommissioning activities according to this strategy have been applied in four buildings. The results are described.

  14. The mud deposits and the high turbidity in the Belgian-Dutch coastal zone, Southern Bight of the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Fettweis, M.; Van den Eynde, D.

    2003-01-01

    The suspended sediment processes and the mudfields found in the Belgian/Dutch coastal area (Southern North Sea) are discussed by presenting an integrated data-modelling approach of the suspended sediment transport along the Belgian-Dutch coast, using a fine-grid coupled 2D hydrodynamic and sediment transport model and existing field and literature data. These mudfields and turbidity maxima are situated in a well-mixed, highly energetic hydrodynamic environment. In the past the occurrence of t...

  15. An analysis of the public perception of flood risk on the Belgian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellens, Wim; Zaalberg, Ruud; Neutens, Tijs; Vanneuville, Wouter; De Maeyer, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, perception of flood risks has become an important topic to policy makers concerned with risk management and safety issues. Knowledge of the public risk perception is considered a crucial aspect in modern flood risk management as it steers the development of effective and efficient flood mitigation strategies. This study aimed at gaining insight into the perception of flood risks along the Belgian coast. Given the importance of the tourism industry on the Belgian coast, the survey considered both inhabitants and residential tourists. Based on actual expert's risk assessments, a high and a low risk area were selected for the study. Risk perception was assessed on the basis of scaled items regarding storm surges and coastal flood risks. In addition, various personal and residence characteristics were measured. Using multiple regression analysis, risk perception was found to be primarily influenced by actual flood risk estimates, age, gender, and experience with previous flood hazards. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. The influence of a smoking ban on the profitability of Belgian restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schoenmaker, Sofie; Van Cauwenberge, Philippe; Vander Bauwhede, Heidi

    2013-05-01

    To examine whether the nationwide smoking ban, imposed in 2007, had an impact on the profitability of Belgian restaurants. Objective financial reporting data on 1613 restaurants were analysed with return on assets as the outcome measure. The data were collected from the Belfirst database and cover the period 2004-2009. To assess the impact of the smoking ban, a differences-in-differences estimation method was used, with bars serving as the control group. The regression model was estimated, while controlling for firm-specific characteristics and unobserved firm-level heterogeneity. The variable of interest is the interaction between the smoking ban dummy and the dummy for the treatment group. The coefficient of this variable is insignificant. The adoption of the nationwide smoking ban did not affect the profitability of Belgian restaurants.

  17. Application of American and French rules for the next belgian PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roch, M.; Cavaco, A.

    1987-01-01

    The licensing practice in Belgium is evolving from the precedent compliance with the USNRC rules (as applied to the 4 last Belgian PWRs) to a more sophisticated approach applied to the next Belgian PWR (N8), which incorporates a mixed compliance with the USNRC or with French rules, depending on the equipment, the structure or the system considered. In this paper, we present the approach concerning the licensing rules applicable to N8. The following aspects are covered: rules applicable to the NSSS; rules applicable to the BOP (codes of design for systems and structures); rules applicable to the equipment (code of construction for mechanical and electrical components); impact on the lay-out of the plant. Some examples of application of this methodology are given. (author)

  18. SAFIR-2 and the Belgian methodological R and D programme on deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preter, Peter de

    2002-01-01

    Peter de Preter (NIRAS/ONDRAF, Belgium) provided an overview of the Belgian programme of research and development on deep disposal. The planned submission in December 2001 of SAFIR 2 (the second Safety Assessment and Feasibility Interim Report) would mark an important milestone, as the report would inform a decision by the Belgian government on the nature of future research. An independent committee of scientists established by NIRAS/ONDRAF had reviewed a draft version of the report. The committee was generally in agreement with the technical R and D priorities proposed in the report but suggested that there should be more integration of technical and societal aspects. The committee also recommended that a future research programme should compare the option of deep disposal with other strategies for long-term management of radioactive wastes. It was suggested that a strategic environmental assessment might provide an appropriate mechanism for comparing alternative management strategies, and would enable societal dimensions also to be addressed

  19. Use of Information, Product Innovation and Financial Performance on Belgian Glasshouse Holdings

    OpenAIRE

    Taragola, Nicole; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Van Lierde, Dirk

    2002-01-01

    In order to meet the changing needs and preferences of consumers it will be important for Belgian glasshouse growers to change from a production-driven to a customer-driven strategy. More than ever, use of information and product innovation become critical factors in the changing competitive environment. The aim of the research is to analyse the relationship between business and managerial characteristics, use of information sources, product innovation and financial performance of the firm. T...

  20. An analysis of Belgian Cannabis Social Clubs' supply practices: A shapeshifting model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardal, Mafalda

    2018-04-13

    Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are associations of cannabis users that collectively organize the cultivation and distribution of cannabis. As this middle ground supply model has been active in Belgium for over a decade, this paper aims to examine CSCs' supply practices, noting any shifts from previously reported features of the model. We draw on interviews with directors of seven currently active Belgian CSCs (n = 21) and their cannabis growers (n = 23). This data was complemented by additional fieldwork, as well as a review of CSCs' key internal documents. Most Belgian CSCs are formally registered non-profit associations. One of the Belgian CSCs has developed a structure of sub-divisions and regional chapters. The Belgian CSCs supply cannabis to members only, and in some cases only medical users are admitted. CSCs rely on in-house growers, ensuring supply in a cooperative and closed-circuit way, despite changes to the distribution methods The associations are relatively small-scale and non-commercially driven. The introduction of formal quality control practices remains challenging. As the CSC model is often included in discussions about cannabis policy, but remains in most cases driven by self-regulatory efforts, it is important to take stock of how CSCs' supply function has been implemented in practice - as doing so will improve our understanding of the model and of the wider range of cannabis 'supply architectures'. This paper highlights the continuity and changes in CSC practices, noting the emergence of several different variants of the CSC model, which are classified in a first CSC typology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Invasive Aspergillus niger complex infections in a Belgian tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, E; Maertens, J; Meersseman, P; Saegeman, V; Dupont, L; Lagrou, K

    2014-05-01

    The incidence of invasive infections caused by the Aspergillus niger species complex was 0.043 cases/10 000 patient-days in a Belgian university hospital (2005-2011). Molecular typing was performed on six available A. niger complex isolates involved in invasive disease from 2010 to 2011, revealing A. tubingensis, which has higher triazole minimal inhibitory concentrations, in five out of six cases. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  2. Shaba II: The French and Belgian Intervention in Zaire in 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    morning. By 0500, the sun was climbing. Some of the foreigners were awake and preparing breakfast. Some looking out their doors found the streets...project and was equipped with its own aircraft. With two DC-3s, one Piper Aztec , and two Bell 206 helicopters, the company was already considering an...flew in to compliment the French and Belgians on the operation. Taken to visit the massacre site in the new town, the shocked dictator gasped, "My God

  3. Generic atorvastatin, the Belgian statin market and the cost-effectiveness of statin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Sinnaeve, Peter R

    2013-02-01

    This study examines how the market entry of generic atorvastatin influences the Belgian statin market and the cost-effectiveness of statin therapy. Using IMS Health data, the Belgian 2000-2011 statin market was analyzed in terms of total expenditure, annual price of statin treatment, and patient numbers. A simulation analysis projected statin market shares from 2012 to 2015 following market entry of generic atorvastatin. This analysis was based on three scenarios regarding the number of patients taking specific statins. Savings associated with an atorvastatin price reduction of 50-70 % were calculated. A literature review of economic evaluations assessed the cost-effectiveness of generic atorvastatin. Statin expenditure increased from €113 million in 2000 to €285 million in 2011 due to higher expenditure on atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Although the number of patients treated with simvastatin increased by nearly 800 %, the resulting increase in expenditure was partially offset by price reductions. Atorvastatin is projected to become the dominant product in the Belgian statin market (market share of 47-66 % by 2015). Annual savings would attain €108.6-€153.7 million for a 50 % reduction in the atorvastatin price and €152.0-€215.2 million for a 70 % price reduction. The literature suggests that generic atorvastatin is cost-effective as compared to simvastatin. The limited evidence about the cost-effectiveness of rosuvastatin as compared with generic atorvastatin is inconclusive. Generic atorvastatin is cost-effective as compared to simvastatin, is projected to become the dominant product in the Belgian statin market and is expected to generate substantial savings to health care payers.

  4. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, Leo O.; De Boever, Johan L.; Vanacker, José M.; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Double-muscled Belgian Blue animals are extremely lean, characterized by a deviant muscle fiber type with more fast-glycolytic fibers, compared to non-double-muscled animals. This fiber type may result in lower maintenance energy requirements. On the other hand, lean meat animals mostly have a higher rate of protein turnover, which requires more energy for maintenance. Therefore, maintenance requirements of Belgian Blue cows were investigated based on a zero body weight gain. This technique showed that maintenance energy requirements of double-muscled Belgian Blue beef cows were close to the mean requirements of cows of other beef genotypes. Abstract Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW0.75/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature. PMID:26479139

  5. Lifting off towards Open Government: a report from the EU Belgian Presidency Conference

    OpenAIRE

    BROSTER David; MISURACA GIANLUCA; BACIGALUPO Margherita

    2011-01-01

    This article summarises the main messages from the Lift off towards Open Government Conference, held on 15-16 December 2010, organised by the Belgian Presidency of the EU Council. It aims to disseminate these messages to the research and practitioner communities and to contribute to the current policy debate on the prospects of e-Government, now being shaped and implemented on local, regional, national and pan-European levels. First, the article outlines the progress of the EU discourse on e-...

  6. Generations and intention to leave current job : Belgian nurses in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, Nele

    2016-01-01

    This master thesis aims to identify work-related factors making Belgian nurses consider leaving their job voluntary and to compare the work-related factors across different generations. The purpose of this master thesis has a descriptive nature of research. The research approach chosen is a deductive approach and the research design chosen is a quantitative research design. Cluster sampling in combination with simple random sampling was used as sampling technique. 128 nurses were surveyed fro...

  7. Antibodies to elastin peptides in sera of Belgian Draught horses with chronic progressive lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brantegem, L; de Cock, H E V; Affolter, V K; Duchateau, L; Hoogewijs, M K; Govaere, J; Ferraro, G L; Ducatelle, R

    2007-09-01

    Chronic progressive lymphoedema (CPL) is a recently recognised disease of the lymphatic system characterised by lesions in the skin of the lower legs in several draught horse breeds, including the Belgian Draught hourse. Clinical signs slowly progress and result in severe disfigurement of the limbs. Ideally, supportive treatment should be started early in the disease process. However early diagnosis and monitoring progression of CPL is still a challenge. Elastin changes, characterised by morphological alterations as well as increased desmosine levels, in the skin of the distal limbs of horses affected with CPL are probably associated with a marked release of elastin degradation products, which elicit production of circulating anti-elastin antibodies (AEAbs) in the serum. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum AEAbs may document elastin breakdown. An ELISA technique was used to evaluate levels of AEAbs in sera of 97 affected Belgian Draught horses that were clinically healthy except for possible skin lesions, associated with CPL in their distal limbs. The horses were divided into 5 groups according to the severity of these skin lesions: normal horses (Group 1, n = 36), horses with mild lesions (Group 2, n = 43), horses with moderate lesions (Group 3, n = 8), horses with severe lesions (Group 4, n = 10) and, as a control, healthy Warmblood horses, unaffected by the disease (Group 5, n = 83). Horses with clinical signs of CPL had significantly higher AEAb levels compared to clinically normal Belgian Draught horses and to healthy Warmblood horses. These levels correlated with severity of lesions. CPL in draught horses is associated with an increase of serum AEAbs. Evaluation of serum levels of AEAbs by ELISA might be a useful diagnostic aid for CPL. Pathological degradation of elastic fibres, resulting in deficient support of the distal lymphatics, is proposed as a contributing factor for CPL in Belgian Draught horses.

  8. Determination of contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Vanermen, Guido; Servaes, Kelly; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Fierens, Tine

    2014-10-01

    As numerous studies have indicated that food ingestion is the most important exposure pathway to several phthalates, this study aimed to determine possible contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market. To do this, concentrations of eight phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) were determined in 591 foods and 30 packaging materials. In general, the four most prominent phthalates in Belgian food products were DEHP, DiBP, DnBP and BBP. Special attention was given to the origin of these phthalates in bread, since high phthalate concentrations (especially DEHP) were determined in this frequently consumed food product. Phthalates seemed to occur in Belgian bread samples due to the use of contaminated ingredients (i.e. use of contaminated flour) as well as due to migration from phthalate containing contact materials used during production (e.g. coated baking trays). Also the results of the conducted concentration profiles of apple, bread, salami and two cheese types revealed the important role of processing - and not packaging - on phthalate contents in foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Need for clinical guidelines for chronic periodontitis in general and specialized Belgian practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyn, Jan; Thevissen, Eric; Reners, Michèle; Rompen, Eric; Klinge, Björn; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    As the prevalence of periodontitis is more than 40 % in the adult Belgian population, periodontists are clearly understaffed to treat this disease in all patients. Therefore, it seems logic that mild forms of chronic periodontitis are treated by the general practitioner especially because Belgium lacks dental hygienists. Important prerequisites for organizing periodontal care as such relate to the general practitioner who should use the same techniques, have comparable communicative skills to motivate patients and create a similar amount of time for periodontal treatment as the specialist. After all, the patient has the right to qualitative treatment regardless of the level of education of the care provider. In order to guarantee this in general practice as much as possible, there is a need for clinical guidelines developed by specialists. These guidelines should not only support the general practitioner in treating disease; above all, they should assist the dentist in periodontal diagnosis. Hitherto, periodontal screening by general dentists seems to be infrequently performed even though reimbursement of the Dutch Periodontal Screening Index is implemented in the Belgian healthcare security system. In this manuscript possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed. Apart from the need for guidelines in general practice, guidelines for surgical treatment seem compulsory to uniform treatment protocols in specialized practice. Extreme variation in the recommendation of surgery among Belgian specialists calls for consensus statements.

  10. Microbial diversity and metabolite composition of Belgian red-brown acidic ales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauwaert, Isabel; Roels, Sanne P; Van Nieuwerburg, Filip; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-03-16

    Belgian red-brown acidic ales are sour and alcoholic fermented beers, which are produced by mixed-culture fermentation and blending. The brews are aged in oak barrels for about two years, after which mature beer is blended with young, non-aged beer to obtain the end-products. The present study evaluated the microbial community diversity of Belgian red-brown acidic ales at the end of the maturation phase of three subsequent brews of three different breweries. The microbial diversity was compared with the metabolite composition of the brews at the end of the maturation phase. Therefore, mature brew samples were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (bacteria) and the internal transcribed spacer region (yeasts) and a broad range of metabolites was quantified. The most important microbial species present in the Belgian red-brown acidic ales investigated were Pediococcus damnosus, Dekkera bruxellensis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus. In addition, this culture-independent analysis revealed operational taxonomic units that were assigned to an unclassified fungal community member, Candida, and Lactobacillus. The main metabolites present in the brew samples were L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid, and ethanol, whereas acetic acid was produced in lower quantities. The most prevailing aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate, which might be of impact on the aroma of the end-products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Air crew exposure on board of long-haul flights of the Belgian airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, F.; Poffijn, A.

    2000-01-01

    New European radiation protection recommendations state that measures need to be taken for flight crew members whose annual radiation exposure exceeds 1 mSv. This will be the case for flight crew members who accumulate most of their flying hours on long-haul flights. The Recommendations for the Implementation of the Basic Safety Standards Directive states that for annual exposure levels between 1 and 6 mSv individual dose estimates should be obtained, whereas for annual exposures exceeding 6 mSv, which might rarely occur, record keeping with appropriate medical surveillance is recommended. To establish the exposure level of Belgian air crews, radiation measurements were performed on board of a total of 44 long-haul flights of the Belgian airlines. The contribution of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (photons, electrons, protons) was assessed by using TLD-700H detectors. The exposure to high-LET radiation (mostly neutrons) was measured with bubble detectors. Results were compared to calculations with an adapted version of the computer code CARI. For the low-LET radiation the calculations were found to be in good agreement with the measurements. The measurements of the neutron dose were consistently lower than the calculations. With the current flight schedules used by the Belgian airlines, air crew members are unlikely to receive annual doses exceeding 4 mSv. (author)

  12. Torness delay is storing up trouble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavenagh, Andrew.

    1994-01-01

    A recent decision by the Scottish Office to delay planning permission for the construction of a 50 million dry store for spent nuclear fuel at Torness Power Station is proving frustrating and inexplicable to many in the nuclear industry. The possible reasons for this apparent about face in government policy on spent fuel management are debated and the economic ramifications of the decision for British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), if the store were to go ahead, are outlined. (UK)

  13. Speech and Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OTC Relief for Diarrhea Home Diseases and Conditions Speech and Language Delay Condition Speech and Language Delay Share Print Table of Contents1. ... Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is a speech and language delay? A speech and language delay ...

  14. World Health Organization on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A report published by the World Health Organization in cooperation with, and at the instigation of, the Belgian authorities, is summarised. The report was prepared by an international multidisciplinary working group, and concentrated on the somatic and genetic risks from ionising radiation, the environmental effects of nuclear power from the mining of uranium to the disposal of waste and the probability and consequences of accidents, sabotage and theft of nuclear materials. In general positive to nuclear power, the report nevertheless recommends for RESEARCH AND EVALUATION IN SEVERAL SECTORS: The duties of the authorities in providing full and open information on the consequences of the exploitation of nuclear power are emphasised. (JIW)

  15. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  16. Site characterisation program at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, G.E.R.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental restoration is of importance. In Belgium, there is primarily a need for restoring radioactively contaminated sites and the need for assessing the radiological impact of waste disposal or discharges. Participation in international programmes is necessary for keeping in touch with important developments. SCK-CEN has been performing site characterisation for more than twenty years within the framework of its statutory mission, but also within the framework of international programmes aiming to improve the safety of contaminated sites and the environment in general. The paper presents the most important activities which has been performed in the following fields during the period covered by the RCM. (author)

  17. Environmental restoration[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmaercke, H.

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of the research activities in the field of environmental restoration are: (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharges; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. The main achievements for 1997 are given.

  18. Overview of the Belgian programme for the surveillance of the territory and the implications of the international recommendations or directives on the monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombre, L.; Lambotte, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Royal Decree of 20 th July has entrusted the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) with the task of controlling the territorial radioactivity and the doses received by the population. Within this agenda, a monitoring programme has been developed over many years, in order to follow the main potential exposure pathways of the population. In practice, several potential vectors of contamination are controlled: air (and rain), surface water (including sediments and biota), soils around nuclear installations, food chain, drinking water etc. To carry out such work, the FANC has collaborated with public or private reputable organisations: The Centre of Nuclear Energy Studies of Mol, The National Institute of Radionuclides of Fleurus, and The Louis Pasteur Public Health Institute of Brussels. A synthesis of this monitoring programme will be presented and the most important deductions will be pointed out. For many years, the tendency has been for tighter control of artificial and natural radioactivity in the environment. This has been achieved by increasingly stringent regulations, regarding environmental monitoring efforts, from international organisations (EC, OSPAR, IAEA). In this context, the FANC in Belgium, is involved in a process that will lead to the adaptation of the Belgian monitoring programme. Different aspects of these adaptations and of their consequences will be presented for illustrative purposes

  19. Contribution from Belgium - Belgian contribution to the PWG1 Generic Study on Undetected Failures of Safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincke, Marc

    1997-01-01

    In the frame of its participation to the PWG 1 generic study on 'Undetected Failures of Safety Systems', AVN performed a search of such cases among the Belgian plants, using the proposed criterion: to find significant events where equipment remained inoperable, or would have been unable to fulfil correctly its safety function for an extended period of time until their condition was discovered. An extended period of time means one cycle duration or several test interval periods at least; if unknown, it has to be estimated w.r.t. plant lifetime. Note that non safety systems preventing safety systems to perform their function are to be included. As a first information source, a screening of AVN's DIANE (Domestic Information about Nuclear Events) database, for undetected failures of safety systems was performed. This database is used to store and retrieve information on a selection of events which have occurred in the Belgian NPPs since 1985. The sources of information are the incident reports which AVN receives from the utilities, completed with the reports of our inspectors on site. The coding system used within this database is based on the IRS Coding Manual. This coding system does not always allow for an easy retrieval of events related to a specific subject. In addition the DIANE-coding system does not allow for direct retrieval of undetected failures. In a first step, the following systems were scanned: reactor coolant system, reactor heat removal system, emergency core cooling system, chemical and volume control, containment spray, main and auxiliary feedwater, component cooling water, control rod drives. For each system, records were selected by examining their title. Careful reading of the 64 reports selected this way finally led to two cases compatible with the criteria. The decennial revision studies formed a second set of information sources. An inquiry to AVN's engineers responsible for the decennial revision projects allowed to

  20. Modeling of delayed strains of concrete under biaxial loadings. Application to the reactor containment of nuclear power plants; Modelisation des deformations differees du beton sous sollicitations biaxiales. application aux enceintes de confinement de batiments reacteurs des centrales nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benboudjema, F

    2002-12-15

    The prediction of delayed strains is of crucial importance for durability and long-term serviceability of concrete structures (bridges, containment vessels of nuclear power plants, etc.). Indeed, creep and shrinkage cause cracking, losses of pre-stress and redistribution of stresses, and also, rarely, the ruin of the structure. The objective of this work is to develop numerical tools, able to predict the long-term behavior of concrete structures. Thus, a new hydro mechanical model is developed, including the description of drying, shrinkage, creep and cracking phenomena for concrete as a non-saturated porous medium. The modeling of drying shrinkage is based on an unified approach of creep and shrinkage. Basic and drying creep models are based on relevant chemo-physical mechanisms, which occur at different scales of the cement paste. The basic creep is explicitly related to the micro-diffusion of the adsorbed water between inter-hydrates and intra-hydrates and the capillary pores, and the sliding of the C-S-H gel at the nano-porosity level. The drying creep is induced by the micro-diffusion of the adsorbed water at different scales of the porosity, under the simultaneous effects of drying and mechanical loadings. Drying shrinkage is, therefore, assumed to result from the elastic and delayed response of the solid skeleton, submitted to both capillary and disjoining pressures. Furthermore, the cracking behavior of concrete is described by an orthotropic elastoplastic damage model. The coupling between all these phenomena is performed by using effective stresses which account for both external applied stresses and pore pressures. This model has been incorporated into a finite element code. The analysis of the long-term behavior is also performed on concrete specimens and prestressed concrete structures submitted to simultaneous drying and mechanical loadings. (author)

  1. UAVs and Control Delays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Vries, S. C

    2005-01-01

    .... Delays of about 250-300 ms often lead to unacceptable airplane handling qualities. Techniques such as filtering and predictive displays may extend the range of acceptable delays up to about 400 ms...

  2. Delayed puberty in boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007695.htm Delayed puberty in boys To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delayed puberty in boys is when puberty does not begin ...

  3. Delayed Orgasm and Anorgasmia

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Lawrence C.; Mulhall, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies; which include: medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation and psychological etiologies, amongst others. Unfortunately, ...

  4. Individual and environmental correlates of objectively measured sedentary time in Dutch and Belgian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke van Nassau

    Full Text Available As the detrimental health effects of sedentary behaviour are well established, insight into the individual and environmental factors that influence adults' sedentary behaviour is needed. Most studies to date rely on self-reported measures of sedentary time. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine individual and environmental correlates of objectively measured sedentary time in Dutch and Belgian adults. Between March and August 2014, Belgian (n = 133 and Dutch (n = 223 adults, recruited as sub-sample of the SPOTLIGHT survey, wore an ActiGraph accelerometer to provide objectively measured sedentary and moderate to vigorous physical activity time. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic (country of residence, age, gender and educational level, lifestyle (sleep, smoking, sugar-containing beverage consumption, alcohol intake, health (body mass index, self-rated health, work (employment status and type of work, happiness, physical environmental (owning a car, number of screens, socioeconomic status and residential density and social environmental factors (social network, social cohesion. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed that Belgian participants had a lower odds of being sedentary for at least 9 hours per day compared to Dutch participants. Women, older participants and those meeting the WHO recommendation for physical activity were also less likely to sit for 9 hours or more per day. Participants doing (heavy manual work or being in education, homemaker, unemployed had lower odds of being sedentary for at least 9 hours per day compared to participants with a sitting job. Those with a higher self-reported social network also had lower odds for sedentary time. No associations between physical and other social environmental characteristics and sedentary time were found. Our findings add to the growing evidence of factors associated with prolonged sedentary time in adults. These findings may

  5. A Blend of Romanism and Germanism: Experimental Science Instruction in Belgian State Secondary Education, 1880-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onghena, Sofie

    2013-04-01

    A case study of secondary experimental science instruction in Belgium demonstrates the importance of cross-national communication in the study of science education. Belgian secondary science education in the years 1880-1914 had a clear internationalist dimension. French and German influences turn out to have been essential, stimulated by the fact that Belgium, as a result of its geographical position, considered itself as the centre of scientific relations between France and Germany, and as actually strengthened by its linguistic and cultural dualism in this regard. This pursuit of internationalist nationalism also affected the configuration of chemistry and physics as experimental courses at Belgian Royal State Schools, although the years preceding WWI are usually characterized as a period of rising nationalism in science, with countries such as Germany and France as prominent actors. To what extent did France and Germany influence Belgian debates on science education, science teachers' training, the use of textbooks, and the instalment of school laboratories and teaching collections?

  6. Artificial intelligence in nuclear reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Ruan; Benitez-Read, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of four real fuzzy control applications at the MIT research reactor in the US, the FUGEN heavy water reactor in Japan, the BR1 research reactor in Belgium, and a TRIGA Mark III reactor in Mexico will be examined through a SWOT analysis (strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats). Special attention will be paid to the current cooperation between the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK·CEN) and the Mexican Nuclear Centre (ININ) on AI-based intelligent control for nuclear reactor operation under the partial support of the National Council for Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACYT). (authors)

  7. Determining the marketing mix for a start-up travel agency aimed at the Belgian market

    OpenAIRE

    Hanák, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This thesis suggests a marketing mix consisting of 4 P's for a start-up travel agency. It created a product according to the quantitative research, n=140, and a qualitative research on the Belgian market. It includes the price of the product according to a competitor analysis, price expectation of the segment and a calculation of all costs connected with providing the service. It suggests also a promotion strategy aimed at the target audience and describes the place in terms point of sale ded...

  8. Contamination levels observed on the Belgian territory subsequent to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottens, E.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of the data from different laboratories concerning the fallout on the Belgian territory following the Chernobyl emissions is presented. The evolution of the particulate air activity at ground level, the integrated fallout captured in water, the deposition on soil surface directly for different localities in Belgium are given. The grass contamination, the milk contamination from individual farms, the concentration levels on leafy vegetables, surface waters and water basins and the contamination of meat during the month of May are presented. (A.F.)

  9. Part-time Work, Wages and Productivity:Evidence from Belgian Matched Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Garnero, Andrea; Kampelmann, Stephan; Rycx, François

    2013-01-01

    The authors use matched employer-employee panel data on Belgian private-sector firms to estimate the relationship between wage/productivity differentials and the firm’s labor composition in terms of part-time and sex. Findings suggest that the groups of women and part-timers generate employer rents, but also that the origin of these rents differs (relatively lower wages for women, relatively higher productivity for part-timers). Interactions between gender and part-time suggest that the posit...

  10. Dust control in Belgian coal mines. Position at the beginning of 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preat, B; Vanstraelen, M

    1975-01-01

    A general view is given of dust control in Belgian coal mines at the beginning of 1975. The statistical data received from the mines are presented in tabular form. The length and the output of coal faces treated by the classical methods of pre-spraying of the wall, wet cutting, water infusion and wet pneumatic picks are given separately; in some cases two or more of these techniques are used together on the same coalface. The number of rock headings in which different methods of dust control are used is also given.

  11. Assessing the Risk of K-loss within the Belgian TSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, B.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Organisations lose knowledge. Considering knowledge as a valuable asset, attention must be paid to the risk of losing it. The contribution of this paper is to propose a model—the knowledge critical grid (KCG)—that aims at assessing the risk of knowledge loss. Applied within the Belgian TSO, this model focuses on community-of-practices and network issues. Grounded on five knowledge issues, the KCG intends to assess the knowledge volatility and vulnerability levels of an organisation and define the best relevant knowledge management actions. (author).

  12. Biodiversity of a wreck from the Belgian Continental Shelf: monitoring using scientific diving: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Massin, Cl.; Norro, A.; Mallefet, J.

    2002-01-01

    Scientific diving from aboard the r/v Belgica has been employed to carry out a preliminary study of the macrofauna living on a wreck (the Birkenfels) located on the Belgian Continental Shelf (BCS). The study revealed an extremely rich sessile and slow moving fauna (at least 40 species), 3 jellyfish species and 8 fish species. The presence of at least 51 species represents a biodiversity of macrofauna on the wreck that is much higher than that found in nearly all known surrounding soft bottorn...

  13. Application of the CALUX bioassay for epidemiological study. Analyses of Belgian human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouwe, N. van; Debacker, N.; Sasse, A. [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels (BE)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The CALUX bioassay is a promising screening method for the detection of dioxin-like compounds. The observed good sensitivity, low number of false negative results as well as the good correlations with the GC-HRMS TEQ-values in case of feed and food analyses allow this method to climb in the first assessment methods' scale. The low amount of sample needed in addition to those latest advantages suggest that the CALUX bioassay could be a good screening method for epidemiological studies. The Belgian epidemiological study concerning the possible effect of the dioxin incident on the body burden of the Belgian population was an opportunity to test this method in comparison to the gold reference one: the GC-HRMS. The first part of this abstract presents epidemiological parameters (sensibility, specificity,) of the CALUX bioassay using CALUX TEQ-values as estimators of the TEQ-values of the 17 PCDD/Fs. The second part examines epidemiological determinants observed for CALUX and GCHRMS TEQ-values.

  14. All-Cause Mortality Among Belgian Military Radar Operators: A 40-Year Controlled Longitudinal Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrave, Etienne; Autier, Philippe; Grivegnee, Andre-Robert; Zizi, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that exposure to radiofrequency/microwaves radiations could be associated with greater health hazards and higher mortality. Methods: The all-cause mortality of 27,671 Belgian militaries who served from 1963 until 1994 in battalions equipped with radars for anti-aircraft defence was studied over the period 1968-2003. End of the seventies, technical modifications brought to the shielding of the micro-wave generators resulted in a reduction in irradiations. A control group was formed by 16,128 militaries who served during the same period in the same military area but who were never exposed to radars. Administrative procedures for identifying militaries and their vital status were equivalent in the radar and the control groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in the radar battalions was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.95-1.16) in professional militaries, and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.75-0.85) in conscripts. In professional militaries no difference in mortality was found according to duration (less than, or five years or more) or to period of service (before 1978 or after 1977). Conclusions: During a 40-year period of observation, we found no increase in all-cause mortality in Belgian militaries who were in close contact with radar equipments of anti-aircraft defence battalions

  15. Intake of bisphenol A from canned beverages and foods on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, Tinne; Apelbaum, Tali Zipora; Goeyens, Leo; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2010-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a contaminant which may be present in the coating of cans, was determined in 45 canned beverages and 21 canned food items from the Belgian market. Beverages had an average BPA concentration of 1.0 ng/ml, while canned foods had a higher average concentration of 40.3 ng/g. The amount of BPA present in food items was dependent on the type of can and sterilisation conditions rather than the type of food. For example, BPA was not detected in non-canned beverages (canned food items had a very low average concentration of 0.46 ng/g. Using detailed information from the Belgian food consumption survey, the BPA intake of adults through canned foods and beverages was estimated to be 1.05 µg/day or 0.015 µg/kg body weight/day (assuming an average adult weight of 70 kg). Intake assessments, based on urinary metabolite concentrations from the literature, resulted in slightly higher BPA intakes (range 0.028-0.059 µg/kg body weight/day). This suggests that sources other than canned foods and beverages contribute to BPA exposure in humans.

  16. Occupational stress, work-home interference and burnout among Belgian veterinary practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansez I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been few formal studies on stress in veterinary surgeons and, in the rare studies available, stress is not examined jointly through the levels of job strain and job engagement, the sources of stress in the issue of work environment and the work-home interference. The authors' goal in this study was to analyse job engagement, job strain, burnout, work-home interference and job stress factors among 216 Belgian veterinary surgeons. Rural practice was compared to small animal and mixed activity. The mean job strain and job engagement level in veterinary surgeons was not higher than what we found in other working populations. However, 15.6% of the group were found to be suffering from high burnout. Rural practitioners had a lower level of job engagement than small animal veterinary surgeons. These small animal practitioners had a lower level of job strain than the mixed practitioners. The level of burnout did not differ significantly across the three types of activity. In comparison to other Belgian and Dutch workers, veterinary surgeons perceived more negative work-home interference. Bovine and mixed practitioners were the most concerned with this problem. The two most important sources of stress reported by bovine practitioners were relations to farmers and working time management (including emergencies and availability.

  17. Contribution of the Belgian hospital physicists association to quality assurance in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoornaert, M.Th.; Vynckier, S.; Dam, J. van; Bouiller, A.

    1997-01-01

    In 1987, the Belgian Hospital Physicists Association (BHPA) has started a program in order to uniformize the dosimetry in the Belgian radiotherapy centres. Several initiatives were taken: a) Dosimetry, of photon beams: Endorsement of the Dutch dosimetry, code of practice (NCS) (1), calibration of ionisation chambers in a common laboratory (Laboratory for standard dosimetry, RUG), on site visits where, besides mechanical checks of simulators and radiation units, absorbed dose was measured at different locations in a water phantom. Since 1987, a total of 23 centres were visited involving 18 simulators, 17 cobalt units and 22 linear accelerators with 33 photon beams. The energy of those photon beams ranged from 4 to 25 MeV (2). b) Dosimetry of electron beams: Endorsement of the Dutch dosimetry code of practice (3), calibration of several parallel plate chambers following the recommendations of the IAEA (4) and the NCS, on site visits for local measurements in electron beams. This program started last year. three centres were visited with a total of 23 energies ranging from 4.5 to 21 MeV. c) Elaboration of procedures and common reporting form for daily quality control will be published. (author)

  18. Preventive Care Use among the Belgian Elderly Population: Does Socio-Economic Status Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hoeck

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the association between influenza and pneumococcus vaccination and blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement by Belgian elderly respondents (≥65 years and socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and socio-economic status (SES. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on 4,544 non-institutionalized elderly participants of the Belgian Health Interview Surveys 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the independent effect of socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and SES on the four preventive services. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, region, survey year, living situation, risk factors (body mass index, smoking status, physical activity and health status (self-assessed health and longstanding illness lower educated elderly were significantly less likely to report a blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement. For instance, elderly participants with no degree or only primary education were less likely to have had a cholesterol and blood sugar measurement compared with those with higher education. Pneumococcus vaccination was not related to educational level, but lower income groups were more likely to have had a pneumococcus immunization. Influenza vaccination was not significantly related to SES. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to promote cholesterol and blood sugar measurement for lower SE groups, and pneumococcus immunization for the entire elderly population. Influenza immunization seems to be equally spread among different SE groups.

  19. Different Regional Approaches to Cultural diversity Interpreting the Belgian Cultural Diversity Policy Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Adam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Belgium, the authority over cultural diversity policies resulting from immigration has been devolved from the central state to the regions since 1970. Consequently, Flanders and Francophone Belgium have progressively developed divergent policy tools. By describing the divergent evolution of Francophone and Flemish cultural diversity policies, our paper demonstrates the existence of a “Belgian Cultural Diversity Paradox”, namely the existence of more multicultural minority rights in the region that has most experienced electoral success by an extreme-right anti-immigrant party (Flanders, and a more colour blind and radical secular approach in the region where anti-immigrant politicization is barely a factor (Francophone Belgium. This finding is counter-intuitive because an important strand of immigrant policy research has emphasized the relationship between the politicization of immigration and restrictive immigrant citizenship rights. Our paper demonstrates that the different degrees of politicization of immigration in Flanders and Francophone Belgium cannot fully account for divergent cultural diversity policies. By insisting on the historical path dependency of the linguistic and religious cleavages in Belgium and their overlap, this paper offers an addendum to the politicization approach. The historical linguistic and religious differences of the Belgian regions clearly mediate the impact of the politicization of immigration on both sides of the linguistic border.

  20. Reforming the Belgian market for orthotic braces: what can we learn from the international experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; De Coster, Sandra; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Guillaume, Paul; Depoorter, Antony; Van den Steen, Dirk; Van de Sande, Stefaan; Debruyne, Hans; Ramaekers, Dirk; Lona, Murielle

    2008-05-01

    This article aims to review regulation governing outpatient orthotic braces (neck, wrist and knee braces) in France, the Netherlands and Sweden with a view to reforming the Belgian market. Information about the regulatory framework was derived from an analysis of legal texts and a survey completed by national experts. Strategies to keep down prices include public procurement in Sweden, maximum prices in France, and exclusion of expensive braces from reimbursement in the Netherlands. Reimbursement is linked to a medical indication or a chronic condition in France, the Netherlands and Sweden. To gain reimbursement, the cost-effectiveness of orthotic braces needs to be demonstrated in France and the Netherlands. Orthotic braces tend to be initially prescribed by a specialist physician and distributed by orthotists, medical equipment shops and/or community pharmacies. Extensive government intervention exists in the outpatient orthotic brace market in the countries studied. Our recommendations to reform the Belgian market for prefabricated orthotic braces are to separate reimbursement for service provision from reimbursement for braces; to set prices by means of a tendering process or an international price comparison; and to make reimbursement conditional on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of braces.

  1. Drawing on international experience to reform the Belgian market for ostomy appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Van den Steen, Dirk; Vanleene, Veerle; De Maré, Luc; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Debruyne, Hans; Ramaekers, Dirk

    2007-02-01

    This article aims to review the regulatory framework governing the Belgian ostomy appliance market in the light of the experience of Denmark, France, the Netherlands and Ontario (Canada) with regulation of ostomy appliances. Information about the regulatory framework was derived from the international literature, analysis of legal texts and a survey completed by national experts. The comparative analysis revealed that these countries have adopted varying approaches towards regulating their domestic ostomy appliance market. Strategies to keep down prices include public procurement in Denmark, maximum prices in France and exclusion of expensive appliances from reimbursement in the Netherlands. To contain public expenditure on ostomy appliances, consumption patterns are monitored in the Netherlands, the quantity of reimbursed appliances is limited in Belgium and public reimbursement is restricted in Ontario. Ostomy appliances are generally distributed by community pharmacies and medical equipment shops. In countries that emphasise home care delivery such as Denmark, domiciliary distributors dominate the market to the detriment of community pharmacies which do not seem to be able to offer this service at a competitive price. An avenue for reforming the Belgian ostomy appliance market is proposed which valorizes the role of ostomy care nurses in guiding the choice of ostomy appliances. Furthermore, it is recommended that a competitive tendering process determines the price of ostomy appliances, that reimbursement for service provision by distributors is separated from reimbursement of appliances, and that patients receive a fixed grant from the third-party payer to buy ostomy appliances.

  2. Occupational stress, work-home interference and burnout among Belgian veterinary practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansez, I; Schins, F; Rollin, F

    2008-04-01

    There have been few formal studies on stress in veterinary surgeons and, in the rare studies available, stress is not examined jointly through the levels of job strain and job engagement, the sources of stress in the issue of work environment and the work-home interference. The authors' goal in this study was to analyse job engagement, job strain, burnout, work-home interference and job stress factors among 216 Belgian veterinary surgeons. Rural practice was compared to small animal and mixed activity. The mean job strain and job engagement level in veterinary surgeons was not higher than what we found in other working populations. However, 15.6% of the group were found to be suffering from high burnout. Rural practitioners had a lower level of job engagement than small animal veterinary surgeons. These small animal practitioners had a lower level of job strain than the mixed practitioners. The level of burnout did not differ significantly across the three types of activity. In comparison to other Belgian and Dutch workers, veterinary surgeons perceived more negative work-home interference. Bovine and mixed practitioners were the most concerned with this problem. The two most important sources of stress reported by bovine practitioners were relations to farmers and working time management (including emergencies and availability).

  3. Agglomeration of a comprehensive model for the wind-driven sand transport at the Belgian Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strypsteen, Glenn; Rauwoens, Pieter

    2016-04-01

    Although a lot of research has been done in the area of Aeolian transport, it is only during the last years that attention has been drawn to Aeolian transport in coastal areas. In these areas, the physical processes are more complex, due to a large number of transport limiting parameters. In this PhD-project, which is now in its early stage, a model will be developed which relates the wind-driven sand transport at the Belgian coast with physical parameters such as the wind speed, humidity and grain size of the sand, and the slope of beach and dune surface. For the first time, the interaction between beach and dune dynamics is studied at the Belgian coast. The Belgian coastline is only 67km long, but densely populated and therefore subject to coastal protection and safety. The coast mostly consists of sandy beaches and dikes. Although, still 33km of dunes exist, whose dynamics are far less understood. The overall research approach consists of three pathways: (i) field measurements, (ii) physical model tests, and (iii) numerical simulations. Firstly and most importantly, several field campaigns will provide accurate data of meteo-marine conditions, morphology, and sand transport events on a wide beach at the Belgian Coastline. The experimental set-up consists of a monitoring station, which will provide time series of vegetation cover, shoreline position, fetch distances, surficial moisture content, wind speed and direction and transport processes. The horizontal and vertical variability of the event scale Aeolian sand transport is analyzed with 8 MWAC sand traps. Two saltiphones register the intensity and variations of grain impacts over time. Two meteo-masts, each with four anemometers and one wind vane, provide quantitative measurements of the wind flow at different locations on the beach. Surficial moisture is measured with a moisture sensor. The topography measurements are typically done with laser techniques. To start, two sites are selected for measurement

  4. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: Skin Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: Skin Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Reaction and Cellular Immune Responses. ... The tuberculin skin test (TST) and peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs) culture were conducted using PPD. The cytokines were measured using commercial kits. Results: The mean TST was 24.6 ±8.0 ...

  5. The use of portable equipment for the activity concentration index determination of building materials: method validation and survey of building materials on the Belgian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stals, M.; Verhoeven, S.; Bruggeman, M.; Pellens, V.; Schroeyers, W.; Schreurs, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Euratom BSS requires that in the near future (2015) the building materials for application in dwellings or buildings such as offices or workshops are screened for NORM nuclides. The screening tool is the activity concentration index (ACI). Therefore it is expected that a large number of building materials will be screened for NORM and thus require ACI determination. Nowadays, the proposed standard for determination of building material ACI is a laboratory analyses technique with high purity germanium spectrometry and 21 days equilibrium delay. In this paper, the B-NORM method for determination of building material ACI is assessed as a faster method that can be performed on-site, alternative to the aforementioned standard method. The B-NORM method utilizes a LaBr 3 (Ce) scintillation probe to obtain the spectral data. Commercially available software was applied to comprehensively take into account the factors determining the counting efficiency. The ACI was determined by interpreting the gamma spectrum from 226 Ra and its progeny; 232 Th progeny and 40 K. In order to assess the accuracy of the B-NORM method, a large selection of samples was analyzed by a certified laboratory and the results were compared with the B-NORM results. The results obtained with the B-NORM method were in good correlation with the results obtained by the certified laboratory, indicating that the B-NORM method is an appropriate screening method to assess building material ACI. The B-NORM method was applied to analyze more than 120 building materials on the Belgian market. No building materials that exceed the proposed reference level of 1 mSv/year were encountered. -- Highlights: • Many building materials will have to be tested for NORM activity concentrations. • An on-site NORM analysis method has been developed and validated. • Over 120 building materials on the Belgian market have been analyzed with this method. • The Euratom BSS reference level of 1 mSv/year excess dose will

  6. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lawrence C; Mulhall, John P

    2015-11-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies, which include medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation, and psychological etiologies. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors with regard to computerisation of the Dutch and the Belgian national general practitioner sentinel networks: a comparative analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweikardt, C.; Casteren, V. van; Verheij, R.A.; Coppieters, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A general practitioner (GP) sentinel network observes a sample of the population by supplying reports on the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of specific diseases and on procedures in primary health care. In the 1970s, the Dutch and the Belgian national GP sentinel networks

  8. In search of the creation of news frames in Flemish newspapers: The case of the Belgian ‘Syria warriors’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesman, J.L.J.; Berbers, A.; d'Haenens, L.; Van Gorp, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the framing construction of Flemish newspaper journalists regarding the so-called ‘Syria-warriors’. When the Syrian conflict developed, the rebels against the Assad regim were joined by young muslims from Western European countries. Figures of the number of Belgian fighters

  9. Estimating internal pelvic sizes using external body measurements in the double-muscled Belgian Bleu beef breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coopman, F.; Smet, S.; Gengler, N.; Haegeman, A.; Jacobs, K.; Poucke, van M.; Laevens, H.; Zeveren, van A.; Groen, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    In the double-muscled (DM) Belgian Blue beef (BBB) breed, caesarean section (CS) is being applied systematically as a management tool to prevent dystocia. As a matter of fact, CS is the only possible way of calving in the breed. High birth weight and a relatively small pelvic area are the main

  10. The Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, Marc Verwilghen, with CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Michel Blanc

    2005-01-01

    Marc Verwilghen, Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, came to CERN on 8 April 2005, where he visited the CMS assembly hall and underground cavern, as well as the hall where the LHC superconducting magnets are being tested.

  11. Assessing fundamental motor skills in Belgian children aged 3-8 years highlights differences to US reference sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardid, Farid; Huyben, Floris; Lenoir, Matthieu; Seghers, Jan; De Martelaer, Kristine; Goodway, Jacqueline D; Deconinck, Frederik J A

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to understand the fundamental motor skills (FMS) of Belgian children using the process-oriented Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition (TGMD-2) and to investigate the suitability of using the United States (USA) test norms in Belgium. FMS were assessed using the TGMD-2. Gender, age and motor performance were examined in 1614 Belgian children aged 3-8 years (52.1% boys) and compared with the US reference sample. More proficient FMS performance was found with increasing age, from 3 to 6 years for locomotor skills and 3 to 7 years for object control skills. Gender differences were observed in object control skills, with boys performing better than girls. In general, Belgian children had lower levels of motor competence than the US reference sample, specifically for object control skills. The score distribution of the Belgian sample was skewed, with 37.4% scoring below average and only 6.9% scoring above average. This study supported the usefulness of the TGMD-2 as a process-oriented instrument to measure gross motor development in early childhood in Belgium. However, it also demonstrated that caution is warranted when using the US reference norms. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Economics of nuclear electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, G.

    1997-01-01

    On the sites of Tihange and Doel in Belgium, a total of seven nuclear generating units with an aggregate installed power of 5807 MWe are operated. Construction of another unit at Doel was postponed indefinitely in 1988 after the Chernobyl accident. Electrabel holds a 25% interest in the Chooz B-1 and B-2 nuclear generating units under construction in France near the Belgian border. In terms of gross installed nuclear generating capacity worldwide, Belgium holds twelfth place; when ranked according to the contribution to public electricity supply, the country holds third place with a 57% share. Before decisions are taken about future nuclear power plants, above all the fuel costs of gas-fired cogeneration plants and the capital costs of nuclear power plants must be weighed. Current evaluation of all costs shows the use of nuclear power for electricity generation to be ten percent more expensive than that of natural gas. However, those responsible in the power supply industry feel that this short-term competitive situation is only one factor out of many others, such as safety issues, diversification in sourcing and deliveries, climatic influences, and employment. The development and construction of advanced reactors will result in the desired cost reduction and lead to a new era of nuclear power, also in Europe. (orig.) [de

  13. Liability for the nuclear risk; Aansprakelijkheid voor het nucleaire risico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, M. [ed.] [Rijksuniversiteit Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands); Govaerts, P.; Malbrain, C.; Veuchelen, L. [Centre d`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Spriet, B. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium). Inst. voor Strafrecht; Heldeweg, M.; Hertogs, M.; Van Maanen, G.; De Roos, T.; Seerden, R. [Maastrichts Europees Instituut voor Transnationaal Rechtswetenschappelijk Onderzoek METRO, Rijksuniversiteit Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    1993-12-31

    Results of a cooperative research project on the juridical aspects of nuclear risk (criminal, civil and administrative aspects), according to the Belgian and Dutch laws, are presented. In this multi-disciplinary project also attention is paid to the economic impacts and positive-scientific aspects of the nuclear risk regarding radioactive waste problems and nuclear accidents. The liability for and the decision-making regarding the site selection of nuclear power plants is dealt with as well. 9 figs., 23 tabs., 198 refs.

  14. Medical Orders: Catholic and Protestant Missionary Medicine in the Belgian Congo 1880-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokhieng Au

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The history of religious missions and the provisioning of western medical care in the region that was known as the Congo Free State and later the Belgian Congo reveals the complicated dynamics between competing religious missions vis à vis the Belgian colonial state. This essay highlights divisions between identities and purposes of different religious groups in medical care provisioning, focusing on the divide between the Catholic and Protestant churches. Because most Protestant missions in the Congo were American or British, the medical care provided by the Protestant church was outside of, and sometimes at odds with, the Belgian colonial state until the 1920s. In contrast, the Catholic Church served in an auxiliary role in the colonial state’s medical infrastructure. This was not an ideal situation, leading Catholic leaders to attempt to rework the church’s role in medical provisioning. Ultimately, mission, medicine, and empire were not always comfortable bedfellows. Medische Orders: katholieke en protestantse missiegeneeskunde in de Belgische Congo 1880-1940De geschiedenis van de religieuze missies en het voorzien in westerse medische gezondheidszorg in de Congo Vrijstaat – later de Belgische Congo – onthult de ingewikkelde dynamiek tussen de concurrerende religieuze missies vis à vis de Belgische koloniale staat. Dit artikel belicht verschillende religieuze groepen die medische zorg verleenden in deze regio en hun verdeeldheid inzake identiteiten en doelen. Hierbij wordt vooral gefocust op de tweedracht tussen de katholieke en protestantse kerk. Omdat de meeste protestantse missies die in de Congo gevestigd waren uit Amerika of Engeland kwamen, werd de medische zorg die zij verstrekten vaak buiten de Belgische koloniale staat om geleverd en leefden staat en protestantse kerk tot in de jaren 1920 soms op gespannen voet met elkaar. Dit staat in sterk contrast tot de katholieke kerk die wat betreft medische infrastructuur juist een

  15. American Dream Delayed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Miller, Robert A.

    This paper investigates the delay in homeownership and a subsequent reduction in homeownership rate observed over the past decades. We focus on the delay in giving birth to children and increased labor market participation as contributing factors to homeownership dynamics for prime-age female hou...

  16. Analysis of results from delay studies of isol-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudstam, G.

    1980-01-01

    The delay between production and measurement is an important effect in ISOL-experiments aiming at the determination of nuclear reaction yields. The present report discusses methods to correct for decay losses caused by the delay in the target - ion source system of the isotope separator. (author)

  17. Computerized system of team make-up and work allocation in the Belgian Zolder mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustanowicz, M.

    1979-01-01

    System of work allocation introduced in 1974 in the Zolder Coal Mine (NV Kempense Steenkolenmijnen) in Belgium is evaluated. The system is based on an IBM 370/158 computer. An information management system supervises the programing work. There are approximately 30 programs. Absenteeism in the Belgian coal mines is generally high at approximately 24% and some months as high as 40%. Therefore, introducing a computerized system of work allocation and team make-up was advantageous. Operation of the system is described on the levels of foreman, engineers and director of the mine. Advantages of the system are numerous. It enables optimization of team make-up and work allocation, shortens the time of allocation of work by a foreman, increases efficiency of foremen's work and provides the director with the means and information necessary for efficient decision making in improving the productivity of the mine. (5 refs.) (In Polish)

  18. Predicting mortality and incident immobility in older Belgian men by characteristics related to sarcopenia and frailty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, C; Goemaere, S; De Buyser, S

    2018-01-01

    and bone mineral density scores were the most important predictors. INTRODUCTION: Machine learning principles were used to predict 5-year mortality and 3-year incident severe immobility in a population of older men by frailty and sarcopenia characteristics. METHODS: Using prospective data from 1997 on 264......There is an increasing awareness of sarcopenia in older people. We applied machine learning principles to predict mortality and incident immobility in older Belgian men through sarcopenia and frailty characteristics. Mortality could be predicted with good accuracy. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D...... the most important predictors of immobility. Sarcopenia assessed by lean mass estimates was relevant to mortality prediction but not immobility prediction. CONCLUSIONS: Using advanced statistical models and a machine learning approach 5-year mortality can be predicted with good accuracy using a Bayesian...

  19. The Belgian initiative G1000. A feasible model of deliberative cyber democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tejedor Fuentes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, after five hundred days without any stable form of government, a group of Belgian citizens from a wide range of social backgrounds launched a citizenship summit called 'G1000'. The aim of the event was to create citizen involvement in politics by stimulating participants to take part in debates about social issues and by applying innovative techniques of deliberative democracy. In order to verify whether the model mentioned meets the criteria of an “online democratic-deliberative” experiment, this article carried out a quantitative analysis of the G1000 based on the work of Fishkin, Chadwick and Habermas. According to the majority of authors who have contributed to the topic, including the spokesperson and organizer of the event, Vincent Jacquet the results demonstrate that the G1000 summit is, in fact, a genuine democratic-deliberative initiative.

  20. Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance in Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale strains from Belgian broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, L A; De Herdt, P; Haesebrouck, F

    2001-06-01

    Establishing the antibiotic sensitivity of the avian respiratory pathogen Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is difficult because of the organism's complex growth requirements and the unusually frequent occurrence of resistance. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 10 antibiotics were determined for 45 strains of O. rhinotracheale from Belgian broiler chickens collected from 45 farms between 1995 and 1998. They were compared with the type strain, which was isolated from a turkey, and a strain isolated from a rook. All the broiler strains were resistant to lincomycin and to the beta-lactams ampicillin and ceftiofur. Less than 10% of the strains were sensitive to the macrolides tylosin and spiramycin, tilmicosin and flumequine. A few strains were sensitive to enrofloxacin and doxycycline. All strains were sensitive to tiamulin.

  1. A Romanian – Belgian Comparison on Work Related Stereotypes and Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Truţa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the larger context of controversies on West-European – East-European countries differences, the present paper analyzes a more specific intercultural difference that may have its roots in the dominating values of a West-European society vs. an East-European one. We refer mainly at the differences between the Romanian and the Belgian culture regarding the way individuals from the two countries see work, the way they relate to work, their beliefs and stereotypes regarding work, and their work related behaviours. The paper tries to outline the fact that the cultural differences on work related stereotypes and behaviours surpass the existing similarities that are a result of the multiple influences both societies were subject of.

  2. COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS OF OPERATING THEATRE PLANNING: APPLICATION IN BELGIAN HOSPITAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sondes CHAABANE; Nadine MESKENS; Alain GUINET; Marius LAURENT

    2008-01-01

    Operating Theatre is the centre of the hospital management's efforts. It constitutes the most expensive sector with more than 10% of the intended operating budget of the hospital. To reduce the costs while maintaining a good quality of care, one of the solutions is to improve the existent planning and scheduling methods by improving the services and surgical specialty coordination or finding the best estimation of surgical case durations. The other solution is to construct an effective surgical case plan and schedule. The operating theatre planning and scheduling is the two important steps, which aim to make a surgical case programming with an objective of obtaining a realizable and efficient surgical case schedule. This paper focuses on the first step, the operating theatre planning problem. Two planning methods are introduced and compared. Real data of a Belgian university hospital "Tivoli" are used for the experiments.

  3. Sustainability of Global and Local Food Value Chains: An Empirical Comparison of Peruvian and Belgian Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Schwarz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of food value chains is an increasing concern for consumers, food companies and policy-makers. Global food chains are often perceived to be less sustainable than local food chains. Yet, thorough food chain analyses and comparisons of different food chains across sustainability dimensions are rare. In this article we analyze the local Belgian and global Peruvian asparagus value chains and explore their sustainability performance. A range of indicators linked to environmental, economic and social impacts is calculated to analyze the contribution of the supply chains to economic development, resource use, labor relations, distribution of added value and governance issues. Our findings suggest that none of the two supply chains performs invariably better and that there are trade-offs among and between sustainability dimensions. Whereas the global chain uses water and other inputs more intensively and generates more employment per unit of land and higher yields, the local chain generates more revenue per unit of land.

  4. Reciprocity and depressive symptoms in Belgian workers: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Bart; Clays, Els; Janssens, Heidi; De Bacquer, Dirk; Casini, Annalisa; Kittel, France; Braeckman, Lutgart

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the multidimensional association between reciprocity at work and depressive symptoms. Data from the Belgian BELSTRESS survey (32 companies; N = 24,402) were analyzed. Multilevel statistical procedures were used to account for company-level associations while controlling for individual-level associations. Different dimensions of individual reciprocity were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. On the company level, only vertical emotional reciprocity was negatively associated (β = -4.660; SE = 1.117) independently from individual reciprocity (β = -0.557; SE = 0.042). Complex interactions were found such that workplace reciprocity (1) may not uniformly benefit individuals and (2) related differently to depressive symptoms, depending on occupational group. This study extends the existing literature with evidence on the multidimensional, contextual, and cross-level interaction associations of reciprocity as a key aspect of social capital on depressive symptoms.

  5. Congomania in Academia. Recent Historical Research on the Belgian Colonial Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Kiangu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Congo has recently been the subject of much academic research. This article discusses the major trends and developments. It primarily focuses on the Congo crisis of 1960, which was commemorated in 2010 and has been inquired into by many historians, including American, British and Russian ones. A comparison of their conclusions reveals that Flanders has largely come to terms with its colonial past, but that the French-speaking community has a more problematic memory. Belgian academia, by contrast, has left the old controversies about Leopold II and Lumumba behind and embarked on the path of new imperial history. It approaches the Congolese past from new angles and with new paradigms, such as reciprocity, science, exhibition, representation, etc. Congolese academia suffers from the economic problems of the country, but has managed to produce a number of studies, focusing mainly on regions, religion, and resistance. Strikingly, Congolese historians have little criticism of the colonial era.

  6. Risk assessment for furan contamination through the food chain in Belgian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Georges; Huybrechts, Inge; Humblet, Marie-France; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Pauw, Edwin; Eppe, Gauthier; Saegerman, Claude

    2012-08-01

    Young, old, pregnant and immuno-compromised persons are of great concern for risk assessors as they represent the sub-populations most at risk. The present paper focuses on risk assessment linked to furan exposure in children. Only the Belgian population was considered because individual contamination and consumption data that are required for accurate risk assessment were available for Belgian children only. Two risk assessment approaches, the so-called deterministic and probabilistic, were applied and the results were compared for the estimation of daily intake. A significant difference between the average Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) was underlined between the deterministic (419 ng kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) day⁻¹) and the probabilistic (583 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹) approaches, which results from the mathematical treatment of the null consumption and contamination data. The risk was characterised by two ways: (1) the classical approach by comparison of the EDI to a reference dose (RfD(chronic-oral)) and (2) the most recent approach, namely the Margin of Exposure (MoE) approach. Both reached similar conclusions: the risk level is not of a major concern, but is neither negligible. In the first approach, only 2.7 or 6.6% (respectively in the deterministic and in the probabilistic way) of the studied population presented an EDI above the RfD(chronic-oral). In the second approach, the percentage of children displaying a MoE above 10,000 and below 100 is 3-0% and 20-0.01% in the deterministic and probabilistic modes, respectively. In addition, children were compared to adults and significant differences between the contamination patterns were highlighted. While major contamination was linked to coffee consumption in adults (55%), no item predominantly contributed to the contamination in children. The most important were soups (19%), dairy products (17%), pasta and rice (11%), fruit and potatoes (9% each).

  7. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality. © 2016 Poultry

  8. Neutron delayed choice experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Delayed choice experiments for neutrons can help extend the interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena. They may also rule out alternative explanations which static interference experiments allow. A simple example of a feasible neutron test is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  9. Quad nanosecond delay module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.; Hunter, J.B.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1986-04-01

    Four nanosecond (ns) delay units have been designed to fit in a single-width NIM module. This module is particularly suited for use in conjunction with quad constant fraction timing discriminators (CFTDs) since it has four delay units that can be placed adjacent to the four units of the CFTD. A series of different length cables connected via DIP toggle switches provide delays of 0.60 ns in 4 ns increments. Thus, the CFTD delay can be optimized for pulses of different rise times from approx.10-100 ns. Design work for the PC board and silkscreening of the front panel were done with the MacDraw program on the Apple Mackintosh computer and printed with the Lasewriter printer. 6 refs

  10. Delayed rule following

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative even...

  11. Vernier Delay Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    This module will accept differential ECL pulses from the auxiliary rear panel or NIM level pulses from the front panel. The pulses are produced at the output with a fixed delay that is software programmable in steps of 0.1 ns over the range of 0.1 to 10.5 ns. Multiple outputs are available at the front panel. Minimum delay through the module is 9 ns

  12. Modelling delays in pharmacokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Z.H.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Linear system analysis has come to form the backbone of pharmacokinetics. Natural systems usually involve time delays, thus models incorporating them would be an order closer approximation to the real world compared to those that do not. Delays may be modelled in several ways. The approach considered in this study is to have a discrete-time delay dependent rate with the delay respresenting the duration between the entry of a drug into a compartment and its release in some form (may be as a metabolite) from the compartment. Such a delay may be because of one or more of several physiological reasons, like, formation of a reservoir, slow metabolism, or receptor binding. The mathematical structure this gives rise to is a system of delay-differential equations. Examples are given of simple one and two compartment systems with drugs like bumetanide, carbamazepine, and quinolone-caffeine interaction. In these examples generally a good fit is obtained and the suggested models form a good approximation. 21 refs., 6 figs

  13. Sharing of responsibilities between central and local authorities with regard to the licensing of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltzer, P.

    1986-01-01

    With regard to sharing of responsibility in the field of nuclear licensing between central and local authorities, the Belgian State has entered into a new phase of regionalisation since the enactment of the law of August 8, 1980. This might entail a conflict of competence in case of the licensing of nuclear power plants. A general survey of foreign legislations seems to indicate that a similar risk also exists in other countries. (CW) [de

  14. From the nuclear world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    This document gathers pieces of information concerning nuclear industry worldwide. The most relevant are the following ones. China has announced the construction between 2020 and 2025 of the biggest particle accelerator in the world. The Finn government has agreed with the project of a spent fuel storage center, it was the last administrative step before the launching of the construction works. The quality of the steel of the pressure vessel of the Olkiluoto EPR has been assessed by the Finn nuclear safety authority (STUK). The French nuclear safety authority (ASN) has launched a test program for assessing the resistance of the pressure vessel of the Flamanville EPR as a consequence of the recent discovery of defects in the composition of the steel. A robot called SX1 has been designed to measure radiation in a continuous way by strolling about in a nuclear facility. As a consequence of a tense relationship with Russia, the Turkish government has stopped the construction (by Rosatom) of the Akkuyu nuclear plant. The Belgian government and the Electrabel company have signed an agreement for a 10 year extension of the operating life of the Doel 1 and 2 reactors. Chinese authorities have approved the construction of 4 new third generation reactors. (A.C.)

  15. Mediation in the Belgian health care sector: analysis of a particular issue--the material scope of application of mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derèse, Marie-Noëlle

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, the material scope of application of mediation regulated in the Belgian Act of August 22nd, 2002 on Patient's Rights will be discussed in detail. In accordance with this Act, a mediator only has the competence to handle patients' complaints concerning the medical and care aspects of patients' rights, such as complaints relating to informed consent, access to medical files, etc. In practice, it has been observed that issues relating to administrative matters also give rise to complaints and that some patients do not know with whom they should lodge such complaints. Some clarification is necessary for a clear and proper complaints procedure that works. One possible solution is the creation of a single institution that would be in charge of handling both kinds of complaints. Such a solution has to be enacted in accordance with Belgian federalism.

  16. Towards a PSA harmonization French-Belgian comparison of the level 1 PSA for two similar PWR types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, P.; Corenwinder, F.; Lanore, J.M.; Gryffroy, D.; Gelder, P. de; Hulsmans, M.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of the cooperation between French and Belgian regulatory authorities, a PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) comparison exercise has been carried out for several years. This comparison deals with two PSA level 1 studies for internal events, performed for both power and shutdown states: the French PSA of the 900 MWe-series PWR, and the Belgian PSA of the Tihange 1 PWR, which both concern PWRs with a similar Framatome design. The purpose of this paper is to describe the PSA comparison methodology and to present, in a qualitative way, an overview of the insights obtained up to now. It also shows that such an 'a posteriori' benchmark exercise turns out to be a step towards PSA harmonization, and gives more confidence in the results of plant specific PSA when used for applications like precursor analysis or evaluations of importance to safety. (authors)

  17. Medical applications in a nuclear research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.; Eggermont, G.

    2001-01-01

    In these days of public aversion to nuclear power, it can be important to point at the medical applications of ionising radiation. Not only the general public, but also the authorities and research centres have to be aware of these medical applications, which are not without risk for public health. Now that funding for nuclear research is declining, an opening to the medical world can give new opportunities to a nuclear research centre. A lot of research could be done where the tools developed for the nuclear power world are very useful. Even new applications for the research reactors like BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) can be envisaged for the near future. In this contribution an overview will be given of the different techniques used in the medical world with ionising radiation. The specific example of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre will be given where the mission statement was changed to include a certain number of medical research topics. (authors)

  18. The hardness of the nuclear option in the Netherlands. A study on the occurrence of an abused technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vugt, F.

    2004-01-01

    The central theme in this master's thesis is the tension between attempts aimed at phasing out the nuclear option and the resistance of the implied sociotechnical structures to this fundamental change. Nuclear option is the choice of a particular country for the generation of electricity by means of nuclear fission. This study is inspired by an empirical question: why is the intention of certain countries to phase out the nuclear option so difficult to realize. This intention is constantly the object of debate. This is shown by the delay of the planned decommissioning of the Barsebaeck-plant in Sweden, the statements of the director of Electrabel (the company that manages the Belgian nuclear plants) that the plants will not be closed on the dates that were dictated by the Belgian government and by the fact that the Borssele-plant in the Netherlands is still up and running despite a parliamentary decree dictating the closure of the plant on 31st of December 2003. Did policymakers responsible for the decision to phase out make a mistake concerning the constructability of reality? Why is it so difficult to change the technological status quo? What factors play a role in this resistance? These questions form the core of this study. To answer these questions use is made of the theoretical work of Anique Hommels. In her doctoral thesis (Unbuilding Cities: Obduracy in Urban Sociotechnical Change) she poses similar questions in relation to urban structures. Why are certain urban structures so hard to change? This resistance to change is expressed in the notion of obduracy. Hommels identifies four causations of this obduracy, which she expresses in four theoretical categories: (1) material obduracy, (2) obduracy caused by dominant ways of thinking, (3) obduracy as constituted by embeddedness, and (4) obduracy explained by persistent traditions. These notions are derived from the interdisciplinary research field of Science Technology and Society studies (STS). In this report

  19. Euthanasia embedded in palliative care. Responses to essentialistic criticisms of the Belgian model of integral end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheim, Jan L; Raus, Kasper

    2017-08-01

    The Belgian model of 'integral' end-of-life care consists of universal access to palliative care (PC) and legally regulated euthanasia. As a first worldwide, the Flemish PC organisation has embedded euthanasia in its practice. However, some critics have declared the Belgian-model concepts of 'integral PC' and 'palliative futility' to fundamentally contradict the essence of PC. This article analyses the various essentialistic arguments for the incompatibility of euthanasia and PC. The empirical evidence from the euthanasia-permissive Benelux countries shows that since legalisation, carefulness (of decision making) at the end of life has improved and there have been no significant adverse 'slippery slope' effects. It is problematic that some critics disregard the empirical evidence as epistemologically irrelevant in a normative ethical debate. Next, rejecting euthanasia because its prevention was a founding principle of PC ignores historical developments. Further, critics' ethical positions depart from the PC tenet of patient centeredness by prioritising caregivers' values over patients' values. Also, many critics' canonical adherence to the WHO definition of PC, which has intention as the ethical criterion is objectionable. A rejection of the Belgian model on doctrinal grounds also has nefarious practical consequences such as the marginalisation of PC in euthanasia-permissive countries, the continuation of clandestine practices and problematic palliative sedation until death. In conclusion, major flaws of essentialistic arguments against the Belgian model include the disregard of empirical evidence, appeals to canonical and questionable definitions, prioritisation of caregiver perspectives over those of patients and rejection of a plurality of respectable views on decision making at the end of life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Level of zinc in the Belgian calamine-bearing lichens: Stereocaulon nanodes Tuck f tyroliense (nyl. ) M. Lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maquinay, A; Lamb, I M; Lambinon, J; Ramaut, J L

    1961-01-01

    It has been shown that Stereocaulon nanodes, a lichen species native to Belgian calamine-bearing soils takes up zinc and in some cases accumulates it in the thallus. This lichen, growing on a substrate slag with 700 p.p.m. of zinc may contain up to 3300 p.p.m. This abnormally high content as compared with the usual plant tolerance for this element does not seem to disturb its metabolism. 3 references, 4 tables.

  1. Structural and functional biological assessment of aggregate dredging intensity on the Belgian part of the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    De Backer, A.; Hillewaert, H.; Van Hoey, G.; Wittoeck, J.; Hostens, K.

    2014-01-01

    Marine aggregate dredging in the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS) is restricted to four dedicated concession zones. Within these zones, there are areas under different dredging pressure, but with the advantage that these are situated within a similar habitat (cfr. similar sediment characteristics) . As such, this study assessed how different degrees of dredging pressure executed on a similar sandy habitat affect the benthic ecosystem. Possible responses of the macrobenthos on the dredging...

  2. Culture-Based Methods and Molecular Tools for Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus Detection in a Belgian University Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Montesinos, I.; Argudín, M. A.; Hites, M.; Ahajjam, F.; Dodémont, M.; Dagyaran, C.; Bakkali, M.; Etienne, I.; Jacobs, F.; Knoop, C.; Patteet, S.; Lagrou, K.

    2017-01-01

    Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is an increasing worldwide problem with major clinical implications. Surveillance is warranted to guide clinicians to provide optimal treatment to patients. To investigate azole resistance in clinical Aspergillus isolates in our institution, a Belgian university hospital, we conducted a laboratory-based surveillance between June 2015 and October 2016. Two different approaches were used: a prospective culture-based surveillance using VIPcheck on unselected...

  3. Influence of Geographical Origin and Flour Type on Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Traditional Belgian Sourdoughs▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the tr...

  4. Improved Emergency Preparedness For Management Of The Food chain Via Stakeholder Involvement: Belgian and European Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardeman, Frank; Carle, Benny [SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Turcanu, Catrinel [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Av. F. Roosevelt 50, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Christian [FANC, Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Ravensteinstraat 36, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    Initiatives involving stakeholder engagement have gained increasing importance in sustainable decision making for many risk-related issues. This paper describes a Belgian experience within a European context related to food management options in the event of a radioactive contamination of the food chain. Under the auspices of the European Commission's 5. Framework Programme, the F.A.R.M.I.N.G. (F.A.R.M.I.N.G. 2000) project (co-ordinated by H.P.A.) a stakeholder network was established in a number of European countries, following a successful approach originally adopted in the UK. In a comparable approach, national working groups were thus established in Belgium, Finland, France and Greece in order to organise stakeholder panels and to discuss the outcomes of scientific and technical research related to management options for the food chain. The results of these panels were exchanged between participating Member States and on a wider international basis at the W.I.S.D.O.M.2. workshop in 2003. The F.A.R.M.I.N.G. project had many achievements and there were also several important lessons learned for Belgium (Vandecasteele et al., 2005): Firstly, many stakeholders showed a real interest in tackling problems relating to food chain contamination; Secondly, the Belgian agricultural system is very intensive and technically and economically optimised, making many of the options envisaged difficult to implement; thirdly, the applicability of management options is also limited by political and legal issues (e.g. competencies, environmental legislation), operational constraints (e.g. waste treatment, supplies of materials), societal and ethical aspects (e.g. milk disposal to sea, animal welfare), and economics (e.g. who pays the intervention cost?); fourthly, there is a now a greater awareness of these problems in both the food production sector and among the experts involved in emergency management; Fifthly, increased attention is now given in Belgium to the medium and

  5. Improved Emergency Preparedness For Management Of The Food chain Via Stakeholder Involvement: Belgian and European Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, Frank; Carle, Benny; Turcanu, Catrinel; Vandecasteele, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Initiatives involving stakeholder engagement have gained increasing importance in sustainable decision making for many risk-related issues. This paper describes a Belgian experience within a European context related to food management options in the event of a radioactive contamination of the food chain. Under the auspices of the European Commission's 5. Framework Programme, the F.A.R.M.I.N.G. (F.A.R.M.I.N.G. 2000) project (co-ordinated by H.P.A.) a stakeholder network was established in a number of European countries, following a successful approach originally adopted in the UK. In a comparable approach, national working groups were thus established in Belgium, Finland, France and Greece in order to organise stakeholder panels and to discuss the outcomes of scientific and technical research related to management options for the food chain. The results of these panels were exchanged between participating Member States and on a wider international basis at the W.I.S.D.O.M.2. workshop in 2003. The F.A.R.M.I.N.G. project had many achievements and there were also several important lessons learned for Belgium (Vandecasteele et al., 2005): Firstly, many stakeholders showed a real interest in tackling problems relating to food chain contamination; Secondly, the Belgian agricultural system is very intensive and technically and economically optimised, making many of the options envisaged difficult to implement; thirdly, the applicability of management options is also limited by political and legal issues (e.g. competencies, environmental legislation), operational constraints (e.g. waste treatment, supplies of materials), societal and ethical aspects (e.g. milk disposal to sea, animal welfare), and economics (e.g. who pays the intervention cost?); fourthly, there is a now a greater awareness of these problems in both the food production sector and among the experts involved in emergency management; Fifthly, increased attention is now given in Belgium to the medium and long

  6. Comparison of composition and quality traits of meat from young finishing bulls from Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, C; Clinquart, A; Hocquette, J F; Cabaraux, J F; Dufrasne, I; Istasse, L; Hornick, J L

    2006-11-01

    Thirty-six young finishing bulls from three breeds (Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus) were fattened over five months with finishing diets based either on sugar-beet pulp or on cereals. Nutritional quality traits of meat - fat content and fatty acid composition with emphasis on the n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids - along with some organoleptic quality traits were measured. The Belgian Blue bulls had the lowest intramuscular fat content associated with lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid contents. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content did not differ to a large extent between the breeds, the Aberdeen Angus bulls showing slightly higher values. Relative to energy intake, the overall contribution of meat to the n-3 fatty acid recommended intake was small, whatever the breed. By contrast, the contribution of meat to daily fat intake was of greater importance, especially for the Aberdeen Angus bulls. The quality traits of meat varied also according to the breed: compared to the Aberdeen Angus, the Belgian Blue bull meat had the stablest colour, the highest drip and the lowest cooking losses. The meat of Limousin bulls had intermediate characteristics for all the parameters.

  7. Psychometric properties of the Belgian coach version of the coach-athlete relationship questionnaire (CART-Q).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduck, A-L; Jowett, S

    2010-10-01

    The study examined the psychometric properties of the Belgian coach version of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q). The questionnaire includes three dimensions (Closeness, Commitment, and Complementarity) in a model that intends to measure the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. Belgian coaches (n=144) of athletes who performed at various competition levels in such sports as football, basketball, and volleyball responded to the CART-Q and to the Leadership Scale for Sport (LSS). A confirmatory factor analysis proved to be slightly more satisfactory for a three-order factor model, compared with a hierarchical first-order factor model. The three factors showed acceptable internal consistency scores. Moreover, functional associations between the three factors and coach leadership behaviors were found offering support to the instrument's concurrent validity. The findings support previous validation studies and verify the psychometric properties of the CART-Q applied to Belgian coaches of team sports. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Modelling water and {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest - Model for {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Gielen, Sienke [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    A simplified, 1-D soil-groundwater-vegetation model to represent the cycling of water and of {sup 36}Cl in a Belgian Scots pine forest is presented and discussed. The model contains a soil column with layers of different (but uniform) field capacity and soil porosity, which are penetrated by tree roots. Flow through porous media is assumed to circulate according to Darcy and Philips laws, using empirical soil hydraulic properties without recourse to Richards' equation. The vegetation is represented by means of a compartment model including simplified representation of sap flow, translocation and litterfall in relation to different parts of the tree. The water table height is variable according to the balance between precipitation, capillary rise, solar radiation, plant uptake and evapotranspiration. The influence of local fluvial sources of water can also be evaluated in a simplified way as a losing/gaining stream input to the soil column. Time dependent data on temperature, solar irradiation, rainfall, crop coefficient and leaf area index (LAI) are used as input to the model in order to calculate evapotranspiration and a simplified approach to foliar interception. The chlorine flux follows the water flux in both soil and the trees, using retardation in soil and experimentally measured translocation factors within the plant. The chlorine flux is optimised and validated with recourse to a previous {sup 36}Cl compartment model. Although considered to be a relatively simple model, initial results suggest a reasonable consistency between previously published water balance and field measurements in a Scots pine stand from the vicinity of Mol, Belgium. The mean soil water content is predicted to be around 25%, the plant water is stored in the order roots > plant above roots > leaf surfaces, water table height below ground fluctuates between 2.1 and 2.6 m compared with a measured water table height of 1.8 - 20 m and pine transpiration is less than 1.2 mm/d compared

  9. Prevalence and correlates of poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in Belgian truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeckman, Lutgart; Verpraet, Rini; Van Risseghem, Marleen; Pevernagie, Dirk; De Bacquer, Dirk

    2011-03-01

    Sleepiness and sleep complaints are common among professional drivers. Sleepiness is a considerable problem not only because it affects the drivers' well-being, but also because of the consequences for performance and safety. Assessment of the (self-reported) prevalence and research into the risk factors are thus an important health issue and are also indispensable to prevent productivity loss and work-related accidents and injuries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe sleeping, driving, and health characteristics of Belgian truck drivers and to determine occupational and individual factors associated with poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. Cross-sectional data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Berlin Questionnaire (BQ). The mean (SD) age of the 476 studied truck drivers was 42.7 (10.2) yrs and the mean (SD) body mass index was 27.3 (5.1) kg/m(2). Approximately 47% declared that they drove >50 h/wk and found their work schedule unrealistic. The mean (SD) PSQI score was 4.45 (2.7); poor quality of sleep (PSQI >5) was found in 27.2%. The mean (SD) ESS score was 6.79 (4.17); 18% had a score >10. The BQ indicated that 21.5% had a higher risk on obstructive sleep apnea. In multiple logistic regression analysis, low educational level (odds ratio [OR] 1.86), current smoking (OR 1.75), unrealistic work schedule (OR 1.75), and risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OR 2.97) were found to be independent correlates of daytime sleepiness. Poor sleep quality was significantly associated with poor self-perceived health (OR 1.95), unrealistic work schedule (OR 2.85), low job satisfaction (OR 1.91), and less driving experience (OR 1.73). These results show that poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were prevalent in Belgian truck drivers. Taking into account that several significant correlates with respect to these sleep problems were identified

  10. Sustainable employability for older workers: an explorative survey of belgian companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Mathieu; Kuipers, Yoline; Vriesacker, Bart; Peeters, Ilse; Mortelmans, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) is developing an online e-guide, which will provide tips and practical information for each EU country (in their national language(s)) on ageing and occupational health and safety. The e-guide will be launched in 2016 as part of the EU-OSHA campaign on Healthy Workplaces for all ages. The e-guide will present evidence, tools and practical examples of how companies can take action and effectively promote sustainable employability. As part of the development of the e-guide, a cross-sectional study was conducted to survey Belgian employers in April 2015 to determine their specific needs concerning older workers' occupational health and safety issues. Researchers from Milieu Ltd. (Brussels, Belgium), the consultancy company coordinating the e-guide project, and Mensura Occupational Health Services (Brussels, Belgium) developed a 13-item questionnaire. The survey addressed the needs and importance given to sustainable employability of older workers in Belgian companies and evaluated corporate knowledge regarding relevant national policies. The questionnaire was distributed electronically to the management of 22,084 private-sector companies affiliated with Mensura. Ten percent (n = 2133) of recipients opened the e-mail, and 37 % (n = 790) of these completed the questionnaire. In 89 % of the responding companies, sustainable employability of workers aged ≥55 years plays an important role; 70 % have no active sustainable employability policy/initiative; 18 % experience difficulties promoting sustainable employability; and 86 % indicate no need for support to promote sustainable employability. Respondents noted the following health complaints among workers aged ≥55 years: work-related health problems (31 %), stress (26 %), work agreements/type of work (17 %), work/life balance (15 %), and career development and/or training (9 %). Topics concerning health and well-being of workers aged ≥55

  11. Thyroidectomy over a quarter of a century in the Belgian Ardennes: a retrospective study of 1207 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, G

    2008-01-01

    represented 2.8%. After 1986, 921 patients underwent thyroid surgery and 64 cancers were found (7%). The cases of the three youngest whose thyroid cancer appeared after 1986 should also be noted. They were aged 13, 14 and 19 in April 1986 and had developed cancer 13 to 15 years after the Chernobyl accident. It can be said that a meticulous surgical technique followed by an experienced surgeon who continually repeats the same procedures can reduce the number of postoperative complications in thyroid surgery and that the link between cancer of the thyroid in the Belgian population after 1986 and radiation exposure caused by the radioactive cloud released by the explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear plant is still open for debate. Nothing is certain and the numbers of thyroid cancers should continue to be documented in the coming years especially for patients aged less than 10 year old in April 1986.

  12. Optimal Joint Expected Delay Forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Xu; Xin Feng; Wen Jun Yang; Ru Chuan Wang; Bing Qing Han

    2013-01-01

    Multicopy forwarding schemes have been employed in delay tolerant network (DTN) to improve the delivery delay and delivery rate. Much effort has been focused on reducing the routing cost while retaining high performance. This paper aims to provide an optimal joint expected delay forwarding (OJEDF) protocol which minimizes the expected delay while satisfying a certain constant on the number of forwardings per message. We propose a comprehensive forwarding metric called joint expected delay (JE...

  13. New approach to design and performance assessment of delay lines for radioactive rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmova, L.; Dvorak, Z.; Cejnar, F.

    1981-01-01

    The evaluation and analysis are discussed of the dynamic adsorption of rare gases in the delay lines of nuclear power plants. The method of statistical momenta was used for deriving relations for the calculation of penetration curves of radioactive isotopes of rare gases through a delay line. Relations were also derived for the calculation of the capacity of delay line adsorption beds for both continuous and discontinuous operation. The procedures for the design and the derivation of the function of delay lines take into account the actual conditions of delay line operation in nuclear power plants. (author)

  14. Unwanted Behaviors and Nuisance Behaviors Among Neighbors in a Belgian Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaux, Emilie; Groenen, Anne; Uzieblo, Katarzyna

    2015-06-30

    Unwanted behaviors between (ex-)intimates have been extensively studied, while those behaviors within other contexts such as neighbors have received much less scientific consideration. Research indicates that residents are likely to encounter problem behaviors from their neighbors. Besides the lack of clarity in the conceptualization of problem behaviors among neighbors, little is known on which types of behaviors characterize neighbor problems. In this study, the occurrence of two types of problem behaviors encountered by neighbors was explored within a Belgian community sample: unwanted behaviors such as threats and neighbor nuisance issues such as noise nuisance. By clearly distinguishing those two types of behaviors, this study aimed at contributing to the conceptualization of neighbor problems. Next, the coping strategies used to deal with the neighbor problems were investigated. Our results indicated that unwanted behaviors were more frequently encountered by residents compared with nuisance problems. Four out of 10 respondents reported both unwanted pursuit behavior and nuisance problems. It was especially unlikely to encounter nuisance problems in isolation of unwanted pursuit behaviors. While different coping styles (avoiding the neighbor, confronting the neighbor, and enlisting help from others) were equally used by the stalked participants, none of them was perceived as being more effective in reducing the stalking behaviors. Strikingly, despite being aware of specialized help services such as community mediation services, only a very small subgroup enlisted this kind of professional help. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Belgian coca-cola-related outbreak: intoxication, mass sociogenic illness, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, A; Van Loock, F; Demarest, S; Van der Heyden, J; Jans, B; Van Oyen, H

    2002-01-15

    An epidemic of health complaints occurred in five Belgian schools in June 1999. A qualitative investigation described the scenario. The role of soft drinks was assessed by using a case-control study. Cases were students complaining of headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, or trembling. Controls were students present at school on the day of the outbreak but not taken ill. An analysis was performed separately for school A, where the outbreak started, and was pooled for schools B-E. In school A, the attack rate (13.2%) was higher than in schools B-E (3.6%, relative risk = 3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.5, 5.3). Exclusive consumption of regular Coca-Cola (school A: odds ratio (OR) = 29.7, 95% CI: 1.32, 663.6; schools B-E: OR = 7.3, 95% CI: 2.9, 18.0) and low mental health score (school A: OR = 16.1, 95% CI: 1.3, 201.9; schools B-E: OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5, 6.6) were independently associated with the illness. In schools B-E, consumption of Fanta, consumption of Coca-Cola light, and female gender were also associated with the illness. It seems reasonable to attribute the first cases of illness in school A to regular Coca-Cola consumption. However, mass sociogenic illness could explain the majority of the other cases.

  16. Lessons Learned from a Five-year Evaluation of the Belgian Safety Culture Oversight Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Belgian Regulatory Body has implemented a Safety Culture oversight process since 2010. In a nutshell, this process is based on field observations provided by inspectors or safety analysts during any contact with a licencee (inspections, meetings, phone calls, etc). These observations are recorded within an observation (excel) sheet—aiming at describing factual and contextual issues — and are linked to IAEA Safety Culture attributes. It should be stressed that the purpose of the process is not to give a comprehensive view of a licencee safety culture but to address findings that require attention or action on the part of a licencee. In other words, gathering safety culture observations aims at identifying cultural, organizational or behavioural issues in order to feed a regulatory response to potential problems. Safety Culture Observations (SCO) are then fully integrated in routine inspection activities and must be seen as an input of the overall oversight process. As a result, the assessment of the SCO is inserted within the yearly safety evaluation report performed by Bel V and transmitted to the licencee. However, observing safety culture is not a natural approach for engineers. Guidance, training and coaching must be provided in order to open up safety dimensions to be captured. In other words, a SCO process requires a continuous support in order to promote a holistic and systemic view of safety.

  17. Advertisements in French and Belgian ‘Little Reviews’, 1890–1930: Visual Techniques and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Védrine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the 1880s and the 1920s, advertising proved fundamental to art and literature reviews since it fostered a new link between visual and consumerist culture. This article is based on fin de siècle and avant-garde magazines read in dialogue. It samples French and Belgian magazines illustrating innovations to 1880s periodicals and 1920s modernist magazines. The paper highlights the use of visual techniques in advertisements (page design, typography, etc. that strengthen aesthetic and political stances. Advertising rhetoric masks aesthetic manifestos but also social and political agenda, revealed by visual displays of text. Publicity is also an important medium for poetic experimentation, embedded in ordinary advertising design already in the 1890s. Its subversive use informs new means of artistic expression, considered avant-garde innovations (collage, cadavre exquis, or typographic combinations. Advertising later represents new modernist stances within avant-garde magazines. Surrealism and Dada exploited publicity to promote their revolutionary aesthetic. In the 1920s, advertising being increasingly professionalized, specific designers used new visual means, strengthened artistic exchanges, and gradually erased the division between art and commercial culture in magazines. Thus modernism became part of a visual culture resonant with consumer commodities. Advertising ultimately exemplifies an interesting change in periodicals’ patterns, across literature and art reviews to the mainstream press, through posters, and decorative or architectural designs.

  18. Levels of contamination for various pollutants present in Belgian human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouwe, N. Van; Goeyens, L. [Scientific Inst. of Public Health, Brussels (Belgium); Covaci, A. [Toxicological Center, Univ. of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Belgium); Kannan, K. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Gordon, J.; Chu, A. [Xenobiotic Detection System Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Eppe, G.; Pauw, E. De [Center of Analysis of residues in Traces (CART), Univ. of Liege (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    During the last century, numerous compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), were banned because of their bioaccumulative and toxic properties, while other compounds, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), appeared on the market and consequently in the environment. The experiences gained from accidents involving PBBs, PCBs or PCDD/Fs are useful to conduct scientific investigations focused on preventing similar catastrophies with the newly introduced compounds. Several studies have reported potential increase in the concentration of PBDEs in food and wildlife. Monitoring the levels of toxic chemicals is therefore useful to understand the exposure pathways, sources and trends. The aim of the paper is to present actual contamination's levels of various pollutants in human plasma from Belgium. Several classes of pollutants, such PCDD/Fs, PCBs and OCPs were determined in 20 human plasmas. In addition, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and related fluorochemicals, which are of current concern, were measured. Although anticipated, concentrations of PBDEs in the same samples were not yet determined. Through this study, a good approximation of the contamination level in Belgian human is given, allowing thus comparison with concentrations observed in other countries.

  19. Safety or efficiency?: strategies and conflicting interests in Belgian road-safety policy, 1920-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Donald

    2015-04-01

    After World War I, automobile ownership became a mass phenomenon in Belgium, as in most other industrialized countries. Unfortunately, road-casualty figures soon followed. By the mid-1930s, traffic accidents had become the main cause of accidental deaths. There was clearly a need for a renewed road-safety policy. Public authorities in Belgium, however, were suspiciously reluctant to take new measures. While there was a public outcry for more severe regulation of motorized traffic and several MPs backed bills to this effect, motoring associations lobbied against traffic legislation reforms. In order to understand the Belgian government's hesitation, this article looks at the key strategies of the actors involved in the decision-making process concerning traffic policy. Such strategies included, among others: the creation of detailed traffic-accident statistics, revision of traffic legislation, and support for mass traffic-education campaigns. Eventually, public officials stepped in and created a new technocratic traffic regime in the 1930s, yet their prime concern was not road-user safety, but the efficiency of traffic streams.

  20. Social security status and mortality in Belgian and Spanish male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Xavier; Vanroelen, Christophe; Deboosere, Patrick; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-01-01

    To assess differences in mortality rates between social security statuses in two independent samples of Belgian and Spanish male workers. Study of two retrospective cohorts (Belgium, n=23,607; Spain, n=44,385) of 50-60 year old male employees with 4 years of follow-up. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Mortality for subjects with permanent disability was higher than for the employed, for both Belgium [MRR=4.56 (95% CI: 2.88-7.21)] and Spain [MRR=7.15 (95% CI: 5.37-9.51)]. For the unemployed/early retirees, mortality was higher in Spain [MRR=1.64 (95% CI: 1.24-2.17)] than in Belgium [MRR=0.88 (95% CI: 0.46-1.71)]. MRR differences between Belgium and Spain for unemployed workers could be partly explained because of differences between the two social security systems. Future studies should further explore mortality differences between countries with different social security systems. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. [Belgian medical houses: a post-68 accident or an enduring mode of organization?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drielsma, Pierre

    2009-03-29

    The names of health houses vary from one country to another and according to the specific organizational history of healthcare provision. Yet their current mode of organization and the type of services which they make available to the public largely tend to converge. One of their shared objectives is for health houses to constitute "a first line" of health and healthcare provision, amidst a general crisis of general medical practice but also among paramedical workers. Past and current experience in Belgium indicates that it is possible to ?make users happy' and to facilitate access to quality healthcare services for the most underprivileged sectors of the population. Recent studies argue that certain group practices may prove to be efficient, especially in terms of medical prescriptions. Defining the most appropriate mode of remuneration is a central issue, and while capitation is not altogether flawless, it appears to have enabled the adoption of a wide range of "virtuous" practices resulting in a harmonious whole that ensures high standards of healthcare provision. Belgian medical houses also reflect the preferences of young healthcare professionals. In Belgium, 20% of GPs under the age of thirty currently work in these organizations. If different causes are liable to have the same effects, it is because the GP profession is in crisis and is undergoing profound and significant changes, but also because multidisciplinary houses are the least unsatisfactory solution for overcoming current difficulties.

  2. Network inter-connectivity and capacity reservation behaviour: an investigation of the Belgian gas transmission network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuijpers, Ch.; Woitrin, D.

    2009-01-01

    Lack of cross-border integration explains largely why natural gas markets remain basically national in scope, with levels of concentration similarly high as when the liberalization process commenced. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the upstream/downstream capacity of the Belgian natural gas transmission network which is highly interconnected with adjacent networks and fosters important transit activities. It is shown that the tendency to a better market coupling still suffers from important mismatches of capacity provisions on both sides of cross-border interconnections. Moreover, shippers use gas transmission networks more and more from a commercial portfolio perspective which goes beyond the traditional security of supply purpose of network designs. Capacity booking rates appear to be significantly higher than the underlying physical gas flows. From these findings, the paper contributes to a better understanding of the market barrier created by contractual congestion at cross-border interconnection points. The paper argues that contractual congestion is a symptom of suboptimal cooperation of adjacent network operators and lack of effective mechanisms to bring booked but non-used capacity back to the market, rather than an indicator for an overall need to increase investment budgets. (authors)

  3. Online communication predicts Belgian adolescents' initiation of romantic and sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbosch, Laura; Beyens, Ine; Vangeel, Laurens; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Online communication is associated with offline romantic and sexual activity among college students. Yet, it is unknown whether online communication is associated with the initiation of romantic and sexual activity among adolescents. This two-wave panel study investigated whether chatting, visiting dating websites, and visiting erotic contact websites predicted adolescents' initiation of romantic and sexual activity. We analyzed two-wave panel data from 1163 Belgian adolescents who participated in the MORES Study. We investigated the longitudinal impact of online communication on the initiation of romantic relationships and sexual intercourse using logistic regression analyses. The odds ratios of initiating a romantic relationship among romantically inexperienced adolescents who frequently used chat rooms, dating websites, or erotic contact websites were two to three times larger than those of non-users. Among sexually inexperienced adolescents who frequently used chat rooms, dating websites, or erotic contact websites, the odds ratios of initiating sexual intercourse were two to five times larger than that among non-users, even after a number of other relevant factors were introduced. This is the first study to demonstrate that online communication predicts the initiation of offline sexual and romantic activity as early as adolescence. Practitioners and parents need to consider the role of online communication in adolescents' developing sexuality. • Adolescents increasingly communicate online with peers. • Online communication predicts romantic and sexual activity among college students. What is New: • Online communication predicts adolescents' offline romantic activity over time. • Online communication predicts adolescents' offline sexual activity over time.

  4. Carcass and meat quality in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; De Campeneere, S; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M

    2003-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality of 37 bulls and 91 cows of the Belgian Blue breed (double-muscled type) were compared. Age at slaughter averaged 648±73 and 1820±689 days, respectively. Both groups of cattle were finished on maize silage supplemented with concentrate, and were slaughtered at about 750 kg live weight. Females had a lower (P=0.004) cold carcass weight (469.7 kg) in comparison with bulls (500.8 kg), due to a reduced dressing percentage (63.8 vs. 66.6; P M. longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle (2.3 vs. 1.1%; P <0.001) were higher for females than for males. The LT of cows was darker (lower L* and higher a*-value; P <0.001), had a better waterholding capacity (P⩽0.063) and was slightly more tender (P=0.120) than the LT of bulls. Increasing parity reduced dressing percentage and increased LT lightness (L*-value) in cows. Several carcass (SEUROP-grading, composition, LT-area) and meat quality traits (protein and fat contents, drip and cooking losses, a*-value) were better correlated with carcass weight than parity. It is concluded that meat quality of the aged LT of cows is not negatively affected by age, while some carcass quality traits decreased with advancing age. Carcass quality traits adjusted for age at slaughter were better for bulls, but LT meat quality characteristics were at least as good for females as for males.

  5. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo O. Fiems

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW. They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW0.75/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10. Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001, although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature.

  6. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, Leo O; De Boever, Johan L; Vanacker, José M; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-02-13

    Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW(0.75)/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature.

  7. Risk factors for ceftiofur resistance in Escherichia coli from Belgian broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoons, D; Haesebrouck, F; Smet, A; Herman, L; Heyndrickx, M; Martel, A; Catry, B; Berge, A C; Butaye, P; Dewulf, J

    2011-05-01

    A cross-sectional study on 32 different Belgian broiler farms was performed in 2007 and 2008 to identify risk factors for ceftiofur resistance in Escherichia coli. On each farm, one E. coli colony was isolated from 30 random birds. Following susceptibility testing of 14 antimicrobials, an on-farm questionnaire was used to obtain information on risk factors. Using a multilevel logistic regression model two factors were identified at the animal level: resistance to amoxicillin and to trimethoprim-sulfonamide. On the farm level, besides antimicrobial use, seven management factors were found to be associated with the occurrence of ceftiofur resistance in E. coli from broilers: poor hygienic condition of the medicinal treatment reservoir, no acidification of drinking water, more than three feed changes during the production cycle, hatchery of origin, breed, litter material used, and treatment with amoxicillin. This study confirms that not only on-farm antimicrobial therapy, but also management- and hatchery-related factors influence the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance.

  8. PCBs and OCPs in marine species from the Belgian North Sea and the Western Scheldt Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorspoels, S.; Covaci, A.; Maervoet, J.; Schepens, P. [Antwerp Univ., Wilrijk (Belgium). Toxicological Centre

    2004-09-15

    The use and/or production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and lindane ({gamma}-HCH) have been banned in most developed countries since the 1970's. Despite this measure, these compounds are among the most prevalent environmental pollutants and they can be found in various environmental compartments, both biotic and abiotic. Their widespread presence is due to their extremely persistant and lipophilic nature, resulting in enrichment throughout the food chain. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can interfere with normal physiology and biochemistry3, resulting in adverse effects in various organisms, including starfish, shrimp, crabs, and fish4. Because humans readily consume seafood, such as shrimp, crab and various fish species, these organisms are of great scientific value to estimate the possible exposure to PCBs and OCPs through marine food sources. The area studied in this investigation covered both commercial fishing grounds (Belgian North Sea - BNS) and a recreational fishing area (Western Scheldt Estuary - SE). The drainage basin of the SE covers a very densely populated and highly industrialised region, causing a high level of pollution in the SE. In this work, PCBs and OCPs were determined in benthic invertebrates and different fish species from both BNS and SE in order to evaluate trends in levels, congener distribution, and geographical variation.

  9. An assessment of personality disorders with the Five-Factor Model among Belgian inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Many international studies report a high prevalence of personality disorders among inmates on the basis of (semi)-structured diagnostic interviews. The present study proposes a self-reported evaluation of personality disorders using the NEO PI-R. The sample consists of 244 male and 18 female inmates (N=262) who were psychologically assessed. The analysis of the five psychological domains shows that the French-speaking Belgian inmates are as stable, as extroverted, more closed, more agreeable and more conscientious than the normative sample. The NEO PI-R facets are also analyzed. The mean Cohen's d (.26) is small. Two personality disorders have medium effect sizes: obsessive compulsive personality disorder (high) and histrionic personality (low). Small effect sizes exist for antisocial personality (low), psychopathy (low), narcissistic personality (low), schizoid personality (high) and borderline personality (low). In our view, the context of the assessment can partially explain these results but not entirely. The results do not confirm previous studies and question the high rates of psychiatric prevalence in prison. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Why Collaborative Care for Depressed Patients is so Difficult: A Belgian Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Van den Broeck

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although current guidelines recommend collaborative care for severely depressed patients, few patients get adequate treatment. In this study we aimed to identify the thresholds for interdisciplinary collaboration amongst practitioners when treating severely depressed patients. In addition, we aimed to identify specific and feasible steps that may add to improved collaboration amongst first and second level Belgian health care providers when treating depressed patients. In two standard focus groups (n = 8; n = 12, general practitioners and psychiatrists first outlined current practice and its shortcomings. In a next phase, the same participants were gathered in nominal groups to identify and prioritise steps that could give rise to improved collaboration. Thematic analyses were performed. Though some barriers for interdisciplinary collaboration may seem easy to overcome, participants stressed the importance of certain boundary conditions on a macro- (e.g., financing of care, secure communication technology and meso-level (e.g., support for first level practitioner. Findings are discussed against the background of frameworks on collaboration in healthcare and recent developments in mental health care.

  11. Epidemiology of infective endocarditis in a large Belgian non-referral hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poesen, K; Pottel, H; Colaert, J; De Niel, C

    2014-06-01

    Guidelines for diagnosis of infective endocarditis are largely based upon epidemiological studies in referral hospitals. Referral bias, however, might impair the validity of guidelines in non-referral hospitals. Recent studies in non-referral care centres on infective endocarditis are sparse. We conducted a retrospective epidemiological study on infective endocarditis in a large non-referral hospital in a Belgian city (Kortrijk). The medical record system was searched for all cases tagged with a putative diagnosis of infective endocarditis in the period 2003-2010. The cases that fulfilled the modified Duke criteria for probable or definite infective endocarditis were included. Compared to referral centres, an older population with infective endocarditis, and fewer predisposing cardiac factors and catheter-related infective endocarditis is seen in our population. Our patients have fewer prosthetic valve endocarditis as well as fewer staphylococcal endocarditis. Our patients undergo less surgery, although mortality rate seems to be highly comparable with referral centres, with nosocomial infective endocarditis as an independent predictor of mortality. The present study suggests that characteristics of infective endocarditis as well as associative factors might differ among non-referral hospitals and referral hospitals.

  12. Radar rainfall estimation of stratiform winter precipitation in the Belgian Ardennes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2011-02-01

    Radars are known for their ability to obtain a wealth of information about spatial storm field characteristics. Unfortunately, rainfall estimates obtained by this instrument are known to be affected by multiple sources of error. Especially for stratiform precipitation systems, the quality of radar rainfall estimates starts to decrease at relatively close ranges. In the current study, the hydrological potential of weather radar is analyzed during a winter half-year for the hilly region of the Belgian Ardennes. A correction algorithm is proposed which corrects the radar data for errors related to attenuation, ground clutter, anomalous propagation, the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR), and advection. No final bias correction with respect to rain gauge data was implemented because such an adjustment would not add to a better understanding of the quality of the radar data. The impact of the different corrections is assessed using rainfall information sampled by 42 hourly rain gauges. The largest improvement in the quality of the radar data is obtained by correcting for ground clutter. The impact of VPR correction and advection depends on the spatial variability and velocity of the precipitation system. Overall during the winter period, the radar underestimates the amount of precipitation as compared to the rain gauges. Remaining differences between both instruments can be attributed to spatial and temporal variability in the type of precipitation, which has not been taken into account.

  13. French Adaptation of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory in a Belgian French-Speaking Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stéphanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Loas, Gwenolé

    2016-01-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the most widely used self-report scale to assess the construct of narcissism, especially in its grandiosity expression. Over the years, several factor models have been proposed in order to improve the understanding of the multidimensional aspect of this construct. The available data are heterogeneous, suggesting one to at least seven factors. In this study, we propose a French adaptation of the NPI submitted to a sample of Belgian French-speaking students ( n = 942). We performed a principal component analysis on a tetrachoric correlation matrix to explore its factor structure. Unlike previous studies, our study shows that a first factor explains the largest part of the variance. Internal consistency is excellent and we reproduced the sex differences reported when using the original scale. Correlations with social desirability are taken into account in the interpretation of our results. Altogether, the results of this study support a unidimensional structure for the NPI using the total score as a self-report measure of the Narcissistic Personality Disorder in its grandiose form. Future studies including confirmatory factor analysis and gender invariance measurement are also discussed.

  14. The role of the sickness funds in the Belgian health care market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonneman, W; van Doorslaer, E

    1994-11-01

    This article reviews some of the salient features of the Belgian health care finance and delivery system. Special attention is paid to the role played by the third-party payers, i.e. the Health Insurance Associations (HIAs) in administering the compulsory national health insurance program. It is shown how, despite extensive government regulation, the markets for GP, specialist and hospital services exhibit fierce competition of the non-price variety. Next, the paper considers the three problems perceived to be the most pressing ones at present: (i) the problem of raising sufficient revenues to cover the public share of health expenditures; (ii) the (related) cost containment problem; and (iii) the problem of ensuring efficiency through appropriate incentive mechanisms. Finally, two recently proposed options for reform are discussed and complemented with a third proposal based on the ideas of regulated competition. It is concluded that strengthening the role of the third-party payers remains crucial in any attempt to reshape the system to make it efficient and affordable while keeping it equitable.

  15. Evolution of marine storminess in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van den Eynde

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe storms have affected European coast lines in the past but knowledge on changes in storminess for the last decades is still sparse. Climate change is assumed to be a main driving factor with the potential to induce changes on the intensity, duration and frequency of powerful marine storms, including a long-term influence on peak wind speeds, surges and waves. It is, therefore, important to investigate whether in the last decades changes in the magnitude of storms, their duration and frequency could be observed. Understanding trends in storminess in the last decades will help to better prepare coastal managers for future events, taking into account potential changes on storm occurrence and magnitude to improve planning of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The purpose of this study was to focus on the evolution of extreme wind conditions, wave height and storm surge levels in the North Sea Region, especially in the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS. Based on the analysis performed it is concluded that no clear trend can be observed for the occurrence of significant increasing extreme wind speeds over the BPNS. Furthermore, one can conclude that not enough scientific evidence is available to support scenarios with increased wave height or storminess.

  16. How does a Belgian health care provider deal with a request for emergency contraception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peremans, Lieve; Verhoeven, Veronique; Philips, Hilde; Denekens, Joke; Van Royen, Paul

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate how Belgian health care providers deal with a request for emergency contraception. In 2002-2003 we conducted 12 focus groups with pharmacists, general practitioners and school physicians. A skilled moderator accompanied by an observer conducted the focus groups using a semi-structured screenplay. All these health care providers agree with the free access to emergency contraception (EC), but experience considerable frustration with regard to the practical aspects and the legal framework. General practitioners (GPs) claim to spend a lot of time on requests for EC and they are concerned about the quality of the counselling provided in pharmacies. Pharmacists are creative when giving counselling in the pharmacy, but there is, nevertheless, a problem with a lack of privacy. School physicians are frustrated that there is no legal possibility to respond to a request for EC when they feel they are ideally placed to advise adolescents. The over-the-counter sale of EC offers women better access, but many barriers still interfere with optimal care. Pharmacists experience a lack of skills to communicate with adolescents and a lack of privacy to give counselling. GPs have good intentions, but are confronted with a lack of willingness on the part of the patients and also financial barriers. School physicians want more possibilities to help adolescents.

  17. Spatial and temporal trends in alcohol consumption in Belgian cities: A wastewater-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaerts, Tim; Covaci, Adrian; Kinyua, Juliet; Neels, Hugo; van Nuijs, Alexander L N

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, scientific evidence has emerged that wastewater-based epidemiology can deliver complementary information concerning the use of different substances of abuse. In this study, the potential of wastewater-based epidemiology in monitoring spatial and temporal trends in alcohol consumption in different populations in Belgium has been examined. Concentrations of ethyl sulphate, a minor Phase-II metabolite of ethanol, in 163 influent wastewater samples from eight wastewater treatment plants in Belgium in the period 2013-2015 were measured with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and used to estimate alcohol consumption. The highest levels of alcohol consumption were detected in the metropoles Antwerp and Brussels compared to smaller villages. Annual variations were detected, with a higher alcohol consumption measured in 2013 compared with 2014. The weekly pattern showed a clear week and weekend difference in alcohol use, with intermediate levels on Monday and Friday. The results were extrapolated and a use of 5.6L pure alcohol per year per inhabitant aged 15+ has been estimated in Belgium. The comparison with available information on drinking habits of the Belgian population further demonstrated the usefulness of the wastewater-based epidemiology approach. This is the largest wastewater-based epidemiology study monitoring alcohol consumption to date, demonstrating that objective and quick information on spatio-temporal trends in alcohol consumption on a local and (inter)national scale can be obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Balancing selection on CDH2 may be related to the behavioral features of the Belgian Malinois.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Cao

    Full Text Available The Belgian Malinois (BM is an excellent working dog that typically shows a circling behavior when placed in a confined space. Moreover, individuals showing moderate running in circles (one kind of obsessive compulsive behavior in confined spaces typically show better work performance compared to those without the circling behavior or to those with a serious circling behavior (which can be defined as an obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. To determine whether the candidate gene CDH2, Cadherin 2, which is associated with OCD in the Doberman pinscher breed of dogs and in humans, was linked with this behavioral character in the BM, population genetic analyses were performed on a BM population and a natural population of the Chinese indigenous dog (CID. Many genetic signals of balancing selection were detected for one specific region of the CDH2 gene, which suggests that a genomic block, which is included in the CDH2 gene, experienced balancing selection in the BM, and that the CDH2 gene might be associated with the behavioral characteristics of the BM dog (a balance between circling behavior and work performance. Moreover one specific variant, G63913941A, which creates a predicted transcription factor-binding site, may be the key mutation in the CDH2 gene affecting the behavior of BMs by allowing the binding of a transcription factor and increasing CDH2 expression.

  19. NEK1 genetic variability in a Belgian cohort of ALS and ALS-FTD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung Phuoc; Van Mossevelde, Sara; Dillen, Lubina; De Bleecker, Jan L; Moisse, Matthieu; Van Damme, Philip; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; van der Zee, Julie

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the genetic impact of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk gene never in mitosis gene a-related kinase 1 (NEK1) in a Belgian cohort of 278 patients with ALS (n = 245) or ALS with frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD, n = 33) and 609 control individuals. We identified 2 ALS patients carrying a loss-of-function (LOF) mutation, p.Leu854Tyrfs*2 and p.Tyr871Valfs*17, that was absent in the control group. A third LOF variant p.Ser1036* was present in 2 sibs with familial ALS but also in an unrelated control person. Missense variants were common in both patients (3.6%) and controls (3.0%). The missense variant, p.Arg261His, which was previously associated with ALS risk, was detected with a minor allele frequency of 0.90% in patients compared to 0.33% in controls. Taken together, NEK1 LOF variants accounted for 1.1% of patients, although interpretation of pathogenicity and penetrance is complicated by the observation of occasional LOF variants in unaffected individuals (0.16%). Furthermore, enrichment of additional ALS gene mutations was observed in NEK1 carriers, suggestive of a "second hit" model were NEK1 variants may modify disease presentation of driving mutations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing delay discounting in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Delay discounting (also intertemporal choice or impulsive choice) is the process by which delayed outcomes, such as delayed food delivery, are valued less than the same outcomes delivered immediately or with a shorter delay. This process is of interest because many psychopathologies, including substance dependence, pathological gambling, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder, are characterized by heightened levels of delay discounting. Some of these disorders are herit...

  1. Estimating Delays In ASIC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gary; Nesheiwat, Jeffrey; Su, Ling

    1994-01-01

    Verification is important aspect of process of designing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Design must not only be functionally accurate, but must also maintain correct timing. IFA, Intelligent Front Annotation program, assists in verifying timing of ASIC early in design process. This program speeds design-and-verification cycle by estimating delays before layouts completed. Written in C language.

  2. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  3. Improved Delayed-Neutron Spectroscopy Using Trapped Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Eric

    2018-04-24

    The neutrons emitted following the  decay of fission fragments (known as delayed neutrons because they are emitted after fission on a timescale of the -decay half-lives) play a crucial role in reactor performance and control. Reviews of delayed-neutron properties highlight the need for high-quality data for a wide variety of delayed-neutron emitters to better understand the timedependence and energy spectrum of the neutrons as these properties are essential for a detailed understanding of reactor kinetics needed for reactor safety and to understand the behavior of these reactors under various accident and component-failure scenarios. For fast breeder reactors, criticality calculations require accurate delayed-neutron energy spectra and approximations that are acceptable for light-water reactors such as assuming the delayed-neutron and fission-neutron energy spectra are identical are not acceptable and improved -delayed neutron data is needed for safety and accident analyses for these reactors. With improved nuclear data, the delayedneutrons flux and energy spectrum could be calculated from the contributions from individual isotopes and therefore could be accurately modeled for any fuel-cycle concept, actinide mix, or irradiation history. High-quality -delayed neutron measurements are also critical to constrain modern nuclear-structure calculations and empirical models that predict the decay properties for nuclei for which no data exists and improve the accuracy and flexibility of the existing empirical descriptions of delayed neutrons from fission such as the six-group representation

  4. Nuclear energy and nuclear technology in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, P.

    1975-01-01

    The energy crisis, high fuel costs and slow progress in the development of alternative energy sources, e.g. solar energy have given further impetus to nuclear power generation. The Swiss nuclear energy programme is discussed and details are given of nuclear station in operation, under construction, in the project stage and of Swiss participation in foreign nuclear stations. Reference is made to the difficulties, delays and resulting cost increases caused by local and regional opposition to nuclear power stations. The significant contributions made by Swiss industry and Swiss consulting engineers are discussed. (P.G.R.)

  5. Analysis of the Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Austrian and Belgian Wheat Germplasm within a Regional Context Based on DArT Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Esawi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop genetic diversity and structure provides valuable information needed to broaden the narrow genetic base as well as to enhance the breeding and conservation strategies of crops. In this study, 95 Austrian and Belgian wheat cultivars maintained at the Centre for Genetic Resources (CGN in the Netherlands were characterised using 1052 diversity array technology (DArT markers to evaluate their genetic diversity, relationships and population structure. The rarefacted allelic richness recorded in the Austrian and Belgian breeding pools (A25 = 1.396 and 1.341, respectively indicated that the Austrian germplasm contained a higher genetic diversity than the Belgian pool. The expected heterozygosity (HE values of the Austrian and Belgian pools were 0.411 and 0.375, respectively. Moreover, the values of the polymorphic information content (PIC of the Austrian and Belgian pools were 0.337 and 0.298, respectively. Neighbour-joining tree divided each of the Austrian and Belgian germplasm pools into two genetically distinct groups. The structure analyses of the Austrian and Belgian pools were in a complete concordance with their neighbour-joining trees. Furthermore, the 95 cultivars were compared to 618 wheat genotypes from nine European countries based on a total of 141 common DArT markers in order to place the Austrian and Belgian wheat germplasm in a wider European context. The rarefacted allelic richness (A10 varied from 1.224 (Denmark to 1.397 (Austria. Cluster and principal coordinates (PCoA analyses divided the wheat genotypes of the nine European countries into two main clusters. The first cluster comprised the Northern and Western European wheat genotypes, whereas the second included the Central European cultivars. The structure analysis of the 618 European wheat genotypes was in a complete concordance with the results of cluster and PCoA analyses. Interestingly, a highly significant difference was recorded between regions (26.53%. In

  6. Delayed neutrons in liquid metal spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridikas, D.; Bokov, P.; David, J.C.; Dore, D.; Giacri, M.L.; Van Lauwe, A.; Plukiene, R.; Plukis, A.; Ignatiev, S.; Pankratov, D.

    2003-01-01

    The next generation spallation neutron sources, neutrino factories or RIB production facilities currently being designed and constructed around the world will increase the average proton beam power on target by a few orders of magnitude. Increased proton beam power results in target thermal hydraulic issues leading to new target designs, very often based on flowing liquid metal targets such as Hg, Pb, Pb-Bi. Radioactive nuclides produced in liquid metal targets are transported into hot cells, past electronics, into pumps with radiation sensitive components, etc. Besides the considerable amount of photon activity in the irradiated liquid metal, a significant amount of the delayed neutron precursor activity can be accumulated in the target fluid. The transit time from the front of a liquid metal target into areas, where delayed neutrons may be important, can be as short as a few seconds, well within one half-life of many delayed neutron precursors. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the total neutron flux (including delayed neutrons) as a function of time and determine if delayed neutrons contribute significantly to the dose rate. In this study the multi-particle transport code MCNPX combined with the material evolution program CINDER'90 will be used to evaluate the delayed neutron flux and spectra. The following scientific issues will be addressed in this paper: - Modeling of a typical geometry of the liquid metal spallation target; - Predictions of the prompt neutron fluxes, fission fragment and spallation product distributions; - Comparison of the above parameters with existing experimental data; - Time-dependent calculations of delayed neutron precursors; - Neutron flux estimates due to the prompt and delayed neutron emission; - Proposal of an experimental program to measure delayed neutron spectra from high energy spallation-fission reactions. The results of this study should be directly applicable in the design study of the European MegaPie (1 MW

  7. Topological Acoustic Delay Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Wei, Qi; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Topological protected wave engineering in artificially structured media is at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research that is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogues of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation with strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to backscattering. Earlier fabrications of topological insulators are characterized by an unreconfigurable geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful devices. Here we establish topologically protected sound in reconfigurable phononic crystals that can be switched on and off simply by rotating its three-legged "atoms" without altering the lattice structure. In particular, we engineer robust phase delay defects that take advantage of the ultrabroadband reflection-free sound propagation. Such topological delay lines serve as a paradigm in compact acoustic devices, interconnects, and electroacoustic integrated circuits.

  8. Delayed traumatic intracranial hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Hiroki

    1984-01-01

    CT was performed serially within 24 hours after head injury in 64 patients having Glasgow Coma Scale of 14 or less or cranial fracture shown on roentgenogram. Delayed traumatic extradural hematoma was observed within 7-12 hours after head injury in 6 cases (9.4%). This was prominent in the frontal and occipital regions (67%). Good recovery was seen in 83.3%. Delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma was observed within 6-24 hours after head injury in 17 cases (26.6%). This higher incidence was related to contre coup injury. Conservative treatment was possible in 14 of the 17 patients (82.4%), showing good recovery in 70%. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

  10. Nuclear Posture Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    REVIEW margin for further delay in recapitalizing the physical infrastructure needed to produce strategic materials and components for U.S. nuclear... REVIEW 2018 This page left intentionally blank REVIEW NUCLEAR POSTURE REVIEW FEBRUARY 2018...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE This page left intentionally blank REVIEW CONTENTS SECRETARY’S PREFACE

  11. Active living neighborhoods: is neighborhood walkability a key element for Belgian adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, Femke; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Sallis, James F; Cardon, Greet

    2012-01-04

    In adult research, neighborhood walkability has been acknowledged as an important construct among the built environmental correlates of physical activity. Research into this association has only recently been extended to adolescents and the current empirical evidence is not consistent. This study investigated whether neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with physical activity among Belgian adolescents and whether the association between neighborhood walkability and physical activity is moderated by neighborhood SES and gender. In Ghent (Belgium), 32 neighborhoods were selected based on GIS-based walkability and SES derived from census data. In total, 637 adolescents (aged 13-15 year, 49.6% male) participated in the study. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. To analyze the associations between neighborhood walkability, neighborhood SES and individual physical activity, multivariate multi-level regression analyses were conducted. Only in low-SES neighborhoods, neighborhood walkability was positively associated with accelerometer-based moderate to vigorous physical activity and the average activity level expressed in counts/minute. For active transport to and from school, cycling for transport during leisure time and sport during leisure time no association with neighborhood walkability nor, with neighborhood SES was found. For walking for transport during leisure time a negative association with neighborhood SES was found. Gender did not moderate the associations of neighborhood walkability and SES with adolescent physical activity. Neighborhood walkability was related to accelerometer-based physical activity only among adolescent boys and girls living in low-SES neighborhoods. The relation of built environment to adolescent physical activity may depend on the context.

  12. Active living neighborhoods: is neighborhood walkability a key element for Belgian adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Meester Femke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult research, neighborhood walkability has been acknowledged as an important construct among the built environmental correlates of physical activity. Research into this association has only recently been extended to adolescents and the current empirical evidence is not consistent. This study investigated whether neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES are associated with physical activity among Belgian adolescents and whether the association between neighborhood walkability and physical activity is moderated by neighborhood SES and gender. Methods In Ghent (Belgium, 32 neighborhoods were selected based on GIS-based walkability and SES derived from census data. In total, 637 adolescents (aged 13-15 year, 49.6% male participated in the study. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. To analyze the associations between neighborhood walkability, neighborhood SES and individual physical activity, multivariate multi-level regression analyses were conducted. Results Only in low-SES neighborhoods, neighborhood walkability was positively associated with accelerometer-based moderate to vigorous physical activity and the average activity level expressed in counts/minute. For active transport to and from school, cycling for transport during leisure time and sport during leisure time no association with neighborhood walkability nor, with neighborhood SES was found. For walking for transport during leisure time a negative association with neighborhood SES was found. Gender did not moderate the associations of neighborhood walkability and SES with adolescent physical activity. Conclusions Neighborhood walkability was related to accelerometer-based physical activity only among adolescent boys and girls living in low-SES neighborhoods. The relation of built environment to adolescent physical activity may depend on the context.

  13. Earthquakes as collapse precursors at the Han-sur-Lesse Cave in the Belgian Ardennes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelbeeck, Thierry; Quinif, Yves; Verheyden, Sophie; Vanneste, Kris; Knuts, Elisabeth

    2018-05-01

    Collapse activation is an ongoing process in the evolution of karstic networks related to the weakening of cave vaults. Because collapses are infrequent, few have been directly observed, making it challenging to evaluate the role of external processes in their initiation and triggering. Here, we study the two most recent collapses in the Dôme chamber of the Han-sur-Lesse Cave (Belgian Ardenne) that occurred on or shortly after 3rd December 1828 and between the 13th and 14th of March 1984. Because of the low probability that the two earthquakes that generated the strongest ground motions in Han-sur-Lesse since 1800, on 23rd February 1828 (Mw = 5.1 in Central Belgium) and 8th November 1983 (Mw = 4.8 in Liège) occurred by coincidence less than one year before these collapses, we suggest that the collapses are related to these earthquakes. We argue that the earthquakes accelerated the cave vault instability, leading to the collapses by the action of other factors weakening the host rock. In particular, the 1828 collapse was likely triggered by a smaller Mw = 4.2 nearby earthquake. The 1984 collapse followed two months of heavy rainfall that would have increased water infiltration and pressure in the rock mass favoring destabilization of the cave ceiling. Lamina counting of a stalagmite growing on the 1828 debris dates the collapse at 1826 ± 9 CE, demonstrating the possibility of dating previous collapses with a few years of uncertainty. Furthermore, our study opens new perspectives for studying collapses and their chronology both in the Han-sur-Lesse Cave and in other karstic networks. We suggest that earthquake activity could play a stronger role than previously thought in initiating cave collapses.

  14. Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekens, G; Bruffaerts, R; Nock, M K; Van de Ven, M; Witteman, C; Mortier, P; Demyttenaere, K; Claes, L

    2015-09-01

    This study examines: (1) the prevalence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among Dutch and Belgian adolescents, (2) the associations between Big Five personality traits and NSSI engagement/versatility (i.e., number of NSSI methods), and (3) whether these associations are mediated by perceived stress and coping. A total of 946 Flemish (46%) and Dutch (54%) non-institutionalized adolescents (Mean age=15.52; SD=1.34, 44% females) were surveyed. Measures included the NSSI subscale of the Self-Harm-Inventory, the Dutch Quick Big Five Personality questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Utrecht Coping List for Adolescents. Examination of zero-order correlations was used to reveal associations, and hierarchical regression analysis was used to reveal potential mediators which were further examined within parallel mediation models by using a bootstrapping-corrected procedure. Lifetime prevalence of NSSI was 24.31%. Neuroticism; perceived stress; and distractive, avoidant, depressive, and emotional coping were positively associated with NSSI engagement, whereas Agreeableness, Conscientiousness; and active, social, and optimistic coping were negatively associated with NSSI engagement. Observed relationships between personality traits and NSSI engagement were consistently explained by perceived stress and depressive coping. A higher versatility of NSSI was not associated with any Big Five personality trait, but was associated with higher scores on perceived stress and depressive coping and with lower scores on active and optimistic coping. Our study suggests that a specific personality constellation is associated with NSSI engagement via high stress levels and a typical depressive reaction pattern to handle stressful life events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Correction of self-reported BMI based on objective measurements: a Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieskens, S; Demarest, S; Bel, S; De Ridder, K; Tafforeau, J

    2018-01-01

    Based on successive Health Interview Surveys (HIS), it has been demonstrated that also in Belgium obesity, measured by means of a self-reported body mass index (BMI in kg/m 2 ), is a growing public health problem that needs to be monitored as accurately as possible. Studies have shown that a self-reported BMI can be biased. Consequently, if the aim is to rely on a self-reported BMI, adjustment is recommended. Data on measured and self-reported BMI, derived from the Belgian Food Consumption Survey (FCS) 2014 offers the opportunity to do so. The HIS and FCS are cross-sectional surveys based on representative population samples. This study focused on adults aged 18-64 years (sample HIS = 6545 and FCS = 1213). Measured and self-reported BMI collected in FCS were used to assess possible misreporting. Using FCS data, correction factors (measured BMI/self-reported BMI) were calculated in function of a combination of background variables (region, gender, educational level and age group). Individual self-reported BMI of the HIS 2013 were then multiplied with the corresponding correction factors to produce a corrected BMI-classification. When compared with the measured BMI, the self-reported BMI in the FCS was underestimated (mean 0.97 kg/m 2 ). 28% of the obese people underestimated their BMI. After applying the correction factors, the prevalence of obesity based on HIS data significantly increased (from 13% based on the original HIS data to 17% based on the corrected HIS data) and approximated the measured one derived from the FCS data. Since self-reported calculations of BMI are underestimated, it is recommended to adjust them to obtain accurate estimates which are important for decision making.

  16. Sampling, prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on two Belgian pig farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Dewaele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the spread of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on two Belgian pig farms. Pigs of different ages (from farrowing to slaughter age and sows as well as the barn environment were screened extensively on two occasions three months apart. A subset of MRSA isolates was tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and was further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Ninety-five percent and 77% of the tested pigs on farm A and farm B, respectively, were colonized with MRSA. MRSA positive animals were detected in all age categories sampled on each sampling day. Piglets were already colonized in the farrowing unit with the same or other MRSA strains than their mother. The prevalence of MRSA colonized pigs increased significantly after weaning and decreased during the fattening period. Pigs carried MRSA mainly in the nares, followed by the perineum and skin and to a lesser degree the rectum. A pig could be contaminated or colonized with different MRSA strains at the same time. The barn environment was also found to be contaminated with different MRSA strains, including the air inlet and outlet. All isolates tested on both farms were resistant to both tetracycline and trimethoprim, while they were susceptible to rifampicin, mupirocin and linezolid. There was a significant difference in resistance prevalence between the two farms for the antibiotics gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, tylosin, lincomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Furthermore, several antibiotic resistance profiles were observed within one farm. This study clearly indicates that several MRSA strains circulate on one farm, from the nursery unit to the fattening unit. This is important to consider when attempts are made to remediate these farms.

  17. Laboratory corrosion tests on candidate high-level waste container materials: Results from the Belgian programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druyts, F.; Kursten, B.; Iseghem, P. Van

    2004-01-01

    The Belgian SAFIR-2 concept foresees the geological disposal of conditioned high-level radioactive waste in stainless steel containers and overpacks placed in a concrete gallery backfilled with Boom clay or a bentonite-type backfill. In addition to earlier in situ experiments, we used a laboratory approach to investigate the corrosion properties of selected stainless steels in Boom clay and bentonite environments. In the SAFIR-2 concept, AISI 316L hMo is the main candidate overpack material. As an alternative, we also investigated the higher alloyed stainless steel UHB 904L. Our study focused on localised corrosion and in particular pitting. We used cyclic potentiodynamic polarisation measurements to determine the pit nucleation potential E NP and the protection potential E PP . The evolution of the corrosion potential with time was determined by monitoring the open circuit potential in synthetic clay-water over extended periods. In this paper we present and discuss some results from our laboratory programme, focusing on long-term interactions between the stainless steel overpack and the backfill materials. We describe in particular the influence of chloride and thio-sulphate ions on the pitting corrosion behaviour. The results show that, under geochemical conditions typical for geological disposal, i.e. [Cl-] ∼ 30 mg/L for a Boom clay backfill and [Cl-] ∼ 90 mg/L for a bentonite backfill, neither AISI 316L hMo nor UHB 904L is expected to present pitting problems. An important factor in the long-term prediction of the corrosion behaviour however, is the robustness of the model for the evolution of the geochemistry of the backfill. Indeed, at chloride levels higher than 1000 mg/L, we predict pitting corrosion for AISI 316L hMo. (authors)

  18. Does legal physician-assisted dying impede development of palliative care? The Belgian and Benelux experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambaere, Kenneth; Bernheim, Jan L

    2015-08-01

    In 2002, physician-assisted dying was legally regulated in the Netherlands and Belgium, followed in 2009 by Luxembourg. An internationally frequently expressed concern is that such legislation could stunt the development of palliative care (PC) and erode its culture. To study this, we describe changes in PC development 2005-2012 in the permissive Benelux countries and compare them with non-permissive countries. Focusing on the seven European countries with the highest development of PC, which include the three euthanasia-permissive and four non-permissive countries, we compared the structural service indicators for 2005 and 2012 from successive editions of the European Atlas of Palliative Care. As an indicator for output delivery of services to patients, we collected the amounts of governmental funding of PC 2002-2011 in Belgium, the only country where we could find these data. The rate of increase in the number of structural PC provisions among the compared countries was the highest in the Netherlands and Luxembourg, while Belgium stayed on a par with the UK, the benchmark country. Belgian government expenditure for PC doubled between 2002 and 2011. Basic PC expanded much more than endowment-restricted specialised PC. The hypothesis that legal regulation of physician-assisted dying slows development of PC is not supported by the Benelux experience. On the contrary, regulation appears to have promoted the expansion of PC. Continued monitoring of both permissive and non-permissive countries, preferably also including indicators of quantity and quality of delivered care, is needed to evaluate longer-term effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Effect of cull potatoes in the diet for finishing Belgian Blue double-muscled cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M; De Brabander, D L

    2013-01-01

    The use of culled potatoes was investigated in Belgian Blue double-muscled finishing cows, confined in tie stalls. The control diet (Treatment 1) consisted of concentrate and maize silage (50/50 on a dry matter (DM) basis). Potatoes either replaced 60% maize silage (Treatment 2) or 60% concentrate (Treatment 3). Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. They were fed ad libitum. Approximately 18 kg potatoes were fed daily in Treatments 2 and 3. Daily gain was not significantly altered; it decreased from 1.09 kg (Treatment 1) to 1.04 kg (Treatment 2) or increased to 1.20 kg (Treatment 3), although potatoes stimulated DM intake by 5% to 8% (P < 0.05). Feed conversion was unaffected in comparison with the control diet, when expressed in terms of DM, but energy efficiency (MJ/kg live weight gain) was substantially lower for Treatment 2 compared with Treatment 1 (89.9 v. 79.0; P = 0.046). Carcass weight, grading and composition were not affected by treatments, but potatoes increased dressing percentage (P = 0.009). Treatment had no significant effect on meat quality parameters. However, potatoes (Treatments 2 and 3) tended to decrease moisture content (P = 0.090) and tended to increase drip loss (P = 0.059) compared with Treatment 1. Because of a better animal performance and a lower feed cost, it is most appropriate to use potatoes as a replacement for concentrate. Feeding large amounts of potatoes besides concentrate may have an adverse effect on the fibrousness of the diet, resulting in a tendency (-5%) for a reduced daily gain and a lower energy efficiency (P < 0.05).

  20. Neuropsychiatric Inventory data in a Belgian sample of elderly persons with and without dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squelard GP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gilles P Squelard,1 Pierre A Missotten,1 Louis Paquay,2 Jan A De Lepeleire,2 Frank JVM Buntinx,2 Ovide Fontaine,1 Stephane R Adam,1 Michel JD Ylieff11Clinical Psychology of Ageing, Qualidem Research Project, University of Liège (ULg, Liège, Belgium; 2KU Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leuven, BelgiumBackground/aims: This study assesses and compares prevalence of psychological and behavioral symptoms in a Belgian sample of people with and without dementia.Methods: A total of 228 persons older than 65 years with dementia and a group of 64 non-demented persons were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI in 2004.Results: Within the group without dementia, the most frequent symptoms were depression, agitation, and irritability. Within the group with dementia, the most common symptoms were depression, irritability, apathy, and agitation. Prevalence of delusions (P < 0.05, hallucinations (P < 0.05, anxiety (P < 0.05, agitation (P < 0.05, apathy (P < 0.01, aberrant motor behavior (P < 0.01, and eating disorders (P < 0.05 were significantly higher in the group with dementia.Conclusion: Depression, elation, irritability, disinhibition, and sleeping disorders are not specific to dementia. Agitation, apathy, anxiety, and delusions are more frequent in dementia but were not specific to the dementia group because their prevalence rates were close to 10% in the group without dementia. Hallucinations, aberrant motor behavior, and eating disorders are specific to dementia. The distinction between specific and nonspecific symptoms may be useful for etiological research on biological, psychological, and environmental factors.Keywords: behavior, behavior disorders, epidemiology, dementia, psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychiatry

  1. Implementation of a quality improvement initiative in Belgian diabetic foot clinics: feasibility and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggen, Kris; Van Acker, Kristien; Beele, Hilde; Dumont, Isabelle; Félix, Patricia; Lauwers, Patrick; Lavens, Astrid; Matricali, Giovanni A; Randon, Caren; Weber, Eric; Van Casteren, Viviane; Nobels, Frank

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to describe the implementation and initial results of an audit-feedback quality improvement initiative in Belgian diabetic foot clinics. Using self-developed software and questionnaires, diabetic foot clinics collected data in 2005, 2008 and 2011, covering characteristics, history and ulcer severity, management and outcome of the first 52 patients presenting with a Wagner grade ≥ 2 diabetic foot ulcer or acute neuropathic osteoarthropathy that year. Quality improvement was encouraged by meetings and by anonymous benchmarking of diabetic foot clinics. The first audit-feedback cycle was a pilot study. Subsequent audits, with a modified methodology, had increasing rates of participation and data completeness. Over 85% of diabetic foot clinics participated and 3372 unique patients were sampled between 2005 and 2011 (3312 with a diabetic foot ulcer and 111 with acute neuropathic osteoarthropathy). Median age was 70 years, median diabetes duration was 14 years and 64% were men. Of all diabetic foot ulcers, 51% were plantar and 29% were both ischaemic and deeply infected. Ulcer healing rate at 6 months significantly increased from 49% to 54% between 2008 and 2011. Management of diabetic foot ulcers varied between diabetic foot clinics: 88% of plantar mid-foot ulcers were off-loaded (P10-P90: 64-100%), and 42% of ischaemic limbs were revascularized (P10-P90: 22-69%) in 2011. A unique, nationwide quality improvement initiative was established among diabetic foot clinics, covering ulcer healing, lower limb amputation and many other aspects of diabetic foot care. Data completeness increased, thanks in part to questionnaire revision. Benchmarking remains challenging, given the many possible indicators and limited sample size. The optimized questionnaire allows future quality of care monitoring in diabetic foot clinics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. New psychoactive substances in oral fluid of French and Belgian drivers in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeval, Camille; Wille, Sarah Maria Richarda; Nachon-Phanithavong, Mélodie; Samyn, Nele; Allorge, Delphine; Gaulier, Jean-Michel

    2018-04-06

    Driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) is a worldwide problem with potentially major judiciary and life-threatening consequences. Up to now, only classical drugs of abuse (DOA) are tested for DUID detection. A challenging issue for drafting up-dated international drug policies is to take into account the recent and expanding new psychoactive substances (NPS) market. NPS consist in various narcotic or psychotropic drugs, most of them having a "legal" status, that replicate chemical structures and/or pharmacological effects of classical DOA. Although it is obvious that NPS can lead to impaired driving, the prevalence of NPS use in a DUID context is unknown since the applied roadside screening tests are not yet adapted for these compounds. Between January and December 2016, a total of 391 oral fluid specimens were obtained from used roadside immunochemical test devices for DOA (Drugwipe-5S ® device). These specimens were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and high resolution mass spectrometry. NPS (mainly cathinone derivatives) were detected in 33 out of the 391 oral fluid samples. This NPS positivity rate of 8.4% in oral fluid of drivers who were submitted to a roadside drug testing in 2016 in France and in Belgium is comparable to the available blood data (NPS positivity rate of 7%) observed in 2015 in similar populations. Our results demonstrate the reality of driving after NPS use in French and Belgian drivers who were submitted to a roadside DOA test. As there is a lack of on-site detection methods to screen for NPS, the detection of NPS in a rapid and cost-effective DUID detection strategy is currently impossible. The expanding use of NPS, notably by drivers as reported here, and the inability of currently used drug detection tests, should be urgently addressed by road safety and law enforcement authorities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The worldwide nuclear industry and its markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2000-06-01

    The world nuclear industry has entered a phase of low activity since the beginning of the 90's. The opening of electricity markets to competition, the reserve of part of the public opinion with respect to nuclear energy and the competition of other power production sources explain the lack of dynamism of nuclear markets. In this context of uncertainties, the nuclear sector has started a re-structuration in depth with new strategic trends which will be decisive for the perenniality of the nuclear industry. The front-end of the fuel cycle is disturbed by production over-capacities which lead to strong tensions on prices. The veering of the German and Belgian policies has had strong impacts on the spent fuels reprocessing activity and the reactor construction activity is in decline in Europe and in the US. On the other hand, services are developing with the extension of the service life of nuclear plants and the waste management and dismantling markets are emerging. The main stakes that the occidental nuclear actors have to face today are: improving the competitiveness of nuclear industry, mastering the management of long-living radioactive wastes, proving the safeness of nuclear power, countering the arrival of Asian competitors. In front of these stakes, the nuclear actors have to take initiatives such as: concentration, vertical integration, technological innovation, communication, diversification etc.. This study examines the overall segments of the world nuclear industry. It comprises also a behaviour and strategy analysis of 13 major actors of this sector. (J.S.)

  4. Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-04-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

  5. Belgian experience in applying the open-quotes leak-before-breakclose quotes concept to the primary loop piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O.

    1997-01-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the open-quote two cutsclose quotes technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of nurses on pressure ulcer prevention: a cross-sectional multicenter study in Belgian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeckman, Dimitri; Defloor, Tom; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Vanderwee, Katrien

    2011-09-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for pressure ulcer prevention have been developed and promoted by authoritative organizations. However, nonadherence to these guidelines is frequently reported. Negative attitudes and lack of knowledge may act as barriers to using guidelines in clinical practice. To study the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about pressure ulcer prevention in Belgian hospitals and to explore the correlation between knowledge, attitudes, and the application of adequate prevention. A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed in a random sample of 14 Belgian hospitals, representing 207 wards. Out of that group, 94 wards were randomly selected (2105 patients). Clinical observations were performed to assess the adequacy of pressure ulcer prevention and pressure ulcer prevalence. From each participating ward, a random selection of at least five nurses completed an extensively validated knowledge and attitude instrument. In total, 553 nurses participated. A logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the correlation between knowledge, attitudes, and the application of adequate prevention. Pressure ulcer prevalence (Category I-IV) was 13.5% (284/2105). Approximately 30% (625/2105) of the patients were at risk (Bradenscore pressure ulcer). Only 13.9% (87/625) of these patients received fully adequate prevention whilst in bed and when seated. The mean knowledge and attitude scores were 49.7% and 71.3%, respectively. The application of adequate prevention on a nursing ward was significantly correlated with the attitudes of the nurses (OR = 3.07, p = .05). No independent correlation was found between knowledge and the application of adequate prevention (OR = 0.75, p = .71). Knowledge of nurses in Belgian hospitals about the prevention of pressure ulcers is inadequate. The attitudes of nurses toward pressure ulcers are significantly correlated with the application of adequate prevention. No correlation was found between knowledge and the

  7. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 4. Description of a Belgian scenario for PWR waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crustin, J.; Glibert, R.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the description of a management route for PWR waste relying to a certain extent on Belgian practices in this particular area. This description, which aims at providing input data for subsequent cost evaluation, includes all management steps which are usually implemented for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes from their production up to the interim storage of the final waste products. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  8. Delayed child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jo-Ann; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    To provide an overview of delayed child-bearing and to describe the implications for women and health care providers. Delayed child-bearing, which has increased greatly in recent decades, is associated with an increased risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcome. This guideline provides information that will optimize the counselling and care of Canadian women with respect to their reproductive choices. Maternal age is the most important determinant of fertility, and obstetric and perinatal risks increase with maternal age. Many women are unaware of the success rates or limitations of assisted reproductive technology and of the increased medical risks of delayed child-bearing, including multiple births, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and Caesarean section. This guideline provides a framework to address these issues. Studies published between 2000 and August 2010 were retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library using appropriate key words (delayed child-bearing, deferred pregnancy, maternal age, assisted reproductive technology, infertility, and multiple births) and MeSH terms (maternal age, reproductive behaviour, fertility). The Internet was also searched using similar key words, and national and international medical specialty societies were searched for clinical practice guidelines and position statements. Data were extracted based on the aims, sample, authors, year, and results. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Women who delay child-bearing are at increased risk of infertility. Prospective parents, especially women, should know that their fecundity and fertility begin to decline significantly after 32 years of age. Prospective parents should know that assisted reproductive technologies cannot guarantee a live birth or completely

  9. Delaying information search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we examined factors that may temporarily attenuate information search. People are generally curious and dislike uncertainty, which typically encourages them to look for relevant information. Despite these strong forces that promote information search, people sometimes deliberately delay obtaining valuable information. We find they may do so when they are concerned that the information might interfere with future pleasurable activities. Interestingly, the decision to search or to postpone searching for information is influenced not only by the value and importance of the information itself but also by well-being maintenance goals related to possible detrimental effects that negative knowledge may have on unrelated future plans.

  10. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  11. What next steps in nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.

    1991-01-01

    Following the political changes in Czechoslovakia in the late 1989, preparation of a new energy policy began in the second half of 1990. The principles of this new policy include an increase in the share of electricity in the energy balance, based on an increase in the contribution of nuclear power plants. This new nuclear policy should be oriented to the use of state-of-the-art technologies from world's foremost manufacturers such as Framatome, Siemens-KWU, ABB - Combustion Engineering, Mitsubishi and Westinghouse. In February 1991, companies associated in a consortium, viz. the Czech Power Company, the Slovak Power Company, the Czechoslovak Uranium Industry and Energoprojekt, sent the world manufacturers a preliminary invitation of tenders. The bids are now being evaluated by the Belgian company Belgatom and by the Czechoslovak company Energoprojekt. The completion of the feasibility study is conditional on the decision concerning the siting of a new nuclear power plant. (Z.S.). 1 tab

  12. Delayed rule following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D R

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [S(D)], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the S(D). The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects.

  13. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C.; Lapresle, J.

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. γEG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed [fr

  14. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C; Lapresle, J [Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. ..gamma..EG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed.

  15. Possibility of disposing of conditioned nuclear waste in deep-lying clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonne, A.; Heremans, R.; Vandenberghe, N.

    1980-01-01

    Among the host rock types suitable for final disposal of nuclear waste, argillaceous formations display distinct advantages and disadvantages. In the present paper some of them will be examined. In order to render conceivable the possibilities for disposing of radwastes into a plastic clay formation, some main items of the Belgian R and D-programme in that matter will be discussed (site and rock investigation, conceptual design and feasibility, and risk analysis). (Auth.)

  16. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Trumpff

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4–6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45–15 mIU/L. Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration—a surrogate marker for MID—was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10–15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children.

  17. Estimation of chemical carcass composition from 8th rib characteristics with Belgian blue double-muscled bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campeneere, S; Fiems, L O; Van de Voorde, G; Vanacker, J M; Boucque, C V; Demeyer, D I

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics from the 8th rib cut: chemical composition, tissue composition after dissection, specific gravity (SG) and m. longissimus thoracis (LT) composition, collected on 17 Belgian Blue double-muscled fattening bulls were used to generate equations for predicting chemical carcass composition. Carcass composition was best predicted from chemical analysis of the 8th rib cut and the empty body weight (EBW) of the bull. Carcass chemical fat content (CCF, kg) was predicted from the 8th rib cut fat content (ether extract, 8RF, kg) by the following regression: CCF=1.94+27.37 8RF (R(2)=0.957, RSD =9.89%). A higher coefficient was found for carcass water (CCW, kg) predicted from 8RF and EBW: CCW=-2.26+0.28 EBW-34.28 8RF (R(2)=0.997, RSD=1.48%). No parameter was found to improve the prediction of CCP from EBW solely: CCP=-0.86+0.08 EBW (R(2) =0.992, RSD=2.61%). Prediction equations based solely on LT composition had low R(2) values of between 0.38 and 0.67, whereas no significant equations were found using SG. However, equations based on EBW had R(2) values between 0.78 and 0.99. Chemical components of the 8th rib cut in combination with EBW are most useful in predicting the chemical composition of the carcass of Belgian-Blue double-muscled bulls.

  18. Shell Shock and the Kloppe: war neuroses amongst British and Belgian troops during and after the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Fiona; Van Everbroeck, Christine

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War combatants of all armies were prey to nervous disorders or psychological breakdown. These war neuroses were a response to the highly-industrialised nature of the warfare as well as to the fatigue engendered over four years of intense conflict. Yet while fear and mental breakdown were universal, national responses varied. A comparison of British and Belgian shell shock indicates that men suffered in very similar ways but that symptoms met with rather different responses: in Britain treatment and diagnostic regimes stressed the importance of class difference and shell shock was often linked to cowardice. These issues were not of overriding importance in the Belgian army. In the longer term shell shock became, and remained, a topic of political and social concern in Britain whereas in Belgium men suffering from kloppe (extreme fear) tended to be forgotten and the topic has not excited much popular interest or scholarly attention. Yet despite these differences one overarching theme remains clear, namely that despite the extensive experience of war neuroses during and after the First World War, there still remains a fierce stigma about the mental wounds of war.

  19. Treatment patterns in moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis: results from a Belgian cross-sectional study (DISCOVER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Julien; Ghislain, Pierre-Dominique; Lambert, Jo; Cauwe, Bénédicte; Van den Enden, Maria

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate current treatment patterns and achievement of treatment goals in Belgian patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. This cross-sectional observational study (DISCOVER) was conducted in 2011 - 2012 in Belgian dermatology centers. Patient data were collected during a single visit and included information on psoriasis management and severity (PASI and DLQI). Treatment success was defined according to the current European consensus treatment goal algorithm. Of the 556 patients included in the study, 38.1% reported no current treatment or only topicals, 34.2% were being treated with traditional systemics and/or phototherapy, and 29.5% with biologics. Methotrexate (11.7%) was the most commonly prescribed traditional systemic and adalimumab (14.2%) was the most commonly prescribed biologic agent at the time of the study. The percentage of patients achieving treatment goals was significantly higher in biologic-treated patients (73.1%) compared to those using traditional systemics (50.6%), phototherapy (41.1%), or no treatment/only topicals (20.9%; p psoriasis in the DISCOVER study were undertreated despite the severity of their disease. Undertreatment of psoriasis remains a problem in Belgium and more effective educational strategies are needed to ensure the best treatment outcome for these patients. [Formula: see text].

  20. Influence of geographical origin and flour type on diversity of lactic acid bacteria in traditional Belgian sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2007-10-01

    A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the traditional sourdoughs was characterized by bacteriological culture in combination with genotypic identification methods, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene sequence analysis. LAB from Belgian sourdoughs belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Enterococcus, with the heterofermentative species Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis as the most frequently isolated taxa. Statistical analysis of the identification data indicated that the microbial composition of the sourdoughs is mainly affected by the bakery environment rather than the flour type (wheat, rye, spelt, or a mixture of these) used. In conclusion, the polyphasic approach, based on rapid genotypic screening and high-resolution, sequence-dependent identification, proved to be a powerful tool for studying the LAB diversity in traditional fermented foods such as sourdough.

  1. Influence of Geographical Origin and Flour Type on Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Traditional Belgian Sourdoughs▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the traditional sourdoughs was characterized by bacteriological culture in combination with genotypic identification methods, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene sequence analysis. LAB from Belgian sourdoughs belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Enterococcus, with the heterofermentative species Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis as the most frequently isolated taxa. Statistical analysis of the identification data indicated that the microbial composition of the sourdoughs is mainly affected by the bakery environment rather than the flour type (wheat, rye, spelt, or a mixture of these) used. In conclusion, the polyphasic approach, based on rapid genotypic screening and high-resolution, sequence-dependent identification, proved to be a powerful tool for studying the LAB diversity in traditional fermented foods such as sourdough. PMID:17675431

  2. Analysis of the particular spill characteristics observed by the Belgian aerial surveillance program during the Tricolor incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation described the Tricolor oil spill incident, the remote sensing equipment used to monitor the spill, the observed spill characteristics and the flight data assessment. The spill occurred on December 14, 2002 following a collision between the carrier Tricolor and the container vessel Kariba in French waters in the Zone of Joint Responsibility, close to the Belgian and English borders. The Tricolor sank and 3 more vessels collided with the wreck in the five weeks following the collision, spilling several 100 tons of mostly heavy fuel oil into the sea. The remote sensing equipment aboard Belgian surveillance aircraft noted that freshly spilled oil formed a network of widespread dark oil trails surrounded by light oil fractions. The spill volumes were estimated to be high because of the large extent of the polluted area. Nine months following the spill, the emulsified oil trails had a density close to that of seawater. It was assumed that a cold and thick emulsion had formed and became trapped inside the wreck. Upon release, the emulsion could submerse and resurface. The incident demonstrated that early stage oil sample analysis could help interpret slick behaviour by means of remote sensing. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  3. Denials and Delays of Radioactive Material Shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2011-01-01

    delays of shipments of radioactive materials forms an important issue today. Radioactive materials need to be transported using all modes of transport for use in different applications such as public health, industry, research and production of nuclear power. The transport of radioactive materials is governed by national and international regulations, which are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (TS-R-1). These regulations ensure high standards of safety. Recently there were increasing numbers of instances of denials and delays of shipments of radioactive materials even when complying with the regulations. The denials and delays can result in difficulties to patients and others who rely on products sterilized by radiation. Therefore there is an urgent need for a universally accepted approach to solve this problem. In response, the IAEA has formed an International Steering Committee (ISC) on denials and delays of radioactive materials. Also, it designate the National Focal Points (NFP) representative to help the ISC members and the IAEA by informing about denial operations and how they can help. The Steering Committee developed and adopted an action plan which includes the action to be taken. This plan is based on: Awareness, Training, Communication, Lobbying for marketing, Economic and Harmonization among member states. It is important to work within the mandate of the ISC and in the line of action plan on denials and delays. It identified the following network members such as: National Focal Points, Regional Coordinators, National Committee, National Representative for different modes of transport and similar bodies, Carriers, Producers and Suppliers, Different civil societies, NGO's, Ministry of transport and others.

  4. The association between objective walkability, neighborhood socio-economic status, and physical activity in Belgian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Sara; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Cardon, Greet

    2014-08-23

    Objective walkability is an important correlate of adults' physical activity. Studies investigating the relation between walkability and children's physical activity are scarce. However, in order to develop effective environmental interventions, a profound investigation of this relation is needed in all age groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between objective walkability and different domains of children's physical activity, and to investigate the moderating effect of neighborhood socio-economic status in this relation. Data were collected between December 2011 and May 2013 as part of the Belgian Environmental Physical Activity Study in children. Children (9-12 years old; n = 606) were recruited from 18 elementary schools in Ghent (Belgium). Children together with one of their parents completed the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. Children's neighborhood walkability was calculated using geographical information systems. Multilevel cross-classified modeling was used to determine the relationship between children's PA and objectively measured walkability and the moderating effect of neighborhood SES in this relation. In low SES neighborhoods walkability was positively related to walking for transportation during leisure time (β = 0.381 ± 0.124; 95% CI = 0.138, 0.624) and was negatively related to sports during leisure time (β = -0.245 ± 0.121; 95% CI = -0.482, -0.008). In high socio-economic status neighborhoods, walkability was unrelated to children's physical activity. No relations of neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socio-economic status with cycling during leisure time, active commuting to school and objectively measured moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity were found. No univocal relation between neighborhood walkability and physical activity was found in 9-12 year old children. Results from international adult studies

  5. HIV positive asylum seekers receiving the order to leave the Belgian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeester, Remy; Legrand, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    In a human rights based approach, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has recently released a resolution about migrants and refugees and the fight against HIV (1). It states that "an HIV positive migrant should never be expelled when it is clear that he will not receive adequate health care and assistance in the country to which he is being sent back. To do otherwise would amount to a death sentence for that person." Nevertheless, in Belgium, for the last 2 years, none of the HIV-infected migrants in care in the AIDS Reference Centers (ARC) received the right to stay in Belgium for medical reasons. We identified all HIV-infected asylum seekers in care between 1 July 2012 and 1 July 2014 in the ARC of Charleroi, Belgium, and we analyzed their medical and social files. Among the 302 patients in active follow up in our ARC, 45 HIV positive asylum seekers were in care during the last 2 years. Male/female ratio was 0/96. Mean age was 35 years. Countries of origin and reasons for migration are detailed in the Table 1. 18% (8/45) knew their seropositivity before arriving in Europe. All the patients introduced an asylum request, 29 (64%) have received a negative answer and an order to leave the territory, 4 (9%) were regularized for non-medical reasons (see Table 1), 4 (9%) are waiting for an answer and for 8 (18%) outcome is unknown due to lost follow up (LFU). 31 (69%) patients have also introduced a request to stay for medical reasons: 18 (58%) have received a refusal, 7 (23%) are still waiting for an answer, and 6 (19%) are LFU. Only 23 (51%) patients are still in care in our ARC on 1 July 2014 (see Table 1). The immigration office bases its decisions on availability of the treatment in the country even if accessible only to a limited number of patients. Decisions taken by the Belgian authorities for the last two years concerning HIV-infected asylum seekers do not guarantee the continuity of care of those patients and push them towards illegality. Such

  6. "Belgian black and red marbles" as potential candidates for Global Heritage Stone Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourneur, Francis; Pereira, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    The Paleozoic substrate of South Belgium is rich in compact limestones, able to take a good polished finishing and to be used as "marbles". Among them, the black and red varieties were and still are of special importance, intensively exploited and largely exported, almost worldwide. The pure black marbles were extracted mostly from Frasnian (Upper Devonian) and Viséan (Lower Carboniferous) strata, in many localities like Namur, Dinant, Theux and Basècles. Today only the Frasnian variety is still exploited in a spectacular underground quarry in Golzinne, close to the town of Gembloux. These black marbles, already known in Antiquity, were exported since the Middle Age, first in Western Europe, then, from the 19th c., at a larger scale, almost worldwide. Among their most frequent uses figured of course funeral objects, like the epitaph of the Pope Adrian the 1st, offered by Charlemagne and preserved in the St-Pieter basilica in Rom. Another famous reference is the tombs of the Dukes of Burgundy in Dijon, with white crystalline marble and alabaster. The red marbles are limestones from reefal origin, forming mudmounds more or less rich in fossils of Late Frasnian (Late Devonian) age. They show a strong variability in colors, from dark red to light pinkish grey, and in texture, with many sedimentary structures and/or tectonic veins. The outcrops are non-stratified, which allows extraction of large blocks, for example for high columns. Known in the Roman time, they were intensively exploited since at least the 16th c. During the 19th and beginning of 20th c., more than hundred quarries were active in South Belgium, from Rance at West to Chaudfontaine at East, around Philippeville and Rochefort. They were largely used both in civil and religious buildings, mostly for inside decoration, for examples as altars or fireplaces. Among the most symbolic places, the Belgian red marbles were massively employed in Versailles, like in the famous "Galerie des Glaces". But many

  7. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phase 4 and 5)[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P.; Dekeyser, J.; Van der Auwera, J.

    1998-07-01

    The extensive refurbishment of the BR-2 materials testing reactor should allow another 10 to 15years of continued operation. The refurbishment programme is required in order to comply with modern safety standards, to enhance the reliability of operation, and to compensate for the ageing of the installations of a facility that has reached about 35 years of intensive service. The main objectives and achievements of phase 4 and 5 are described.

  8. Installation of a Plasmatron at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre and its Use for Plasma-Wall Interaction Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uytdenhouwen, I.; Schuurmans, J.; Decreton, M.; Massaut, V.; Oost, G. van

    2008-01-01

    In JET and ITER, the first wall will be covered by beryllium and a full or partial W divertor will be common. In DEMO, only high-Z, low erosion material such as tungsten will be present as a plasma facing material. In present day tokamaks, the very high fluence/low temperature plasma cannot be obtained. Important key issues to be resolved according to plasma wall interaction studies are the tritium retention, dust production, resilience to large steady-state fluences, transient loads, surface erosion, material redeposition and neutron damage. Some linear plasma simulators come close to the very high fluences expected in ITER and DEMO such as PSI -2; PISCES-B; NAGDIS-II and pilot-PSI. In future the larger device MAGNUM-PSI will have even higher fluences and lower temperatures for large scale components. The plasmatron facility VISION I to be installed in Mol, will have the capability to investigate mixed materials (with beryllium/tritium contaminations) and in the long term neutron activated samples. The ETHEL plasmatron VISION I from JRC-Ispra was transferred to SCKCEN (Mol, Belgium) recently. The equipment is meant to study plasma-wall interaction, in particular the interaction with hydrogen isotopes. The facility is capable to produce relatively cold self-sustained volumetric plasmas with a high plasma flux density at the target of about 10 20 -10 21 ions/m 2 .s. The plasmatron has a volume of 18 litres, a target diameter of ∼25 cm and modular ion energies in the range of 20-500 eV

  9. Performing better nuclear emergency management exercises in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohier, A.

    2006-01-01

    The recently revised Royal Decree of 17 October 2003 (the Belgian Monitor of 22 November 2003) stipulating the nuclear emergency plan for radiological risks on the Belgian territory aims at reducing the impact of a radiological or nuclear accident to the population. It describes the organisation, tasks and necessary interactions between the different participating entities at the federal, provincial and communal level. It also foresees that each major nuclear installation holds regularly exercises with the different off-site entities to test and improve the response procedures. Under contract with the Ministry of Interior, and in consortium with AVN and IRE, SCK-CEN has been assigned as co-ordinator for the improvement of the methodology for emergency exercises, and to apply this for the 2005 exercises of the nuclear installations of Doel and Tihange. The main objective of this project is to define a methodology allowing to conduct exercises in a more efficient way. The methodology is based on the IAEA EPR-EXERCISE (2005) publication. This should in turn (1) allow the principal actors to train the different aspects of a nuclear crisis, (2) allow easier detection of deficiencies in the emergency plan and its application, and (3) result in the necessary corrective actions to improve future responses to crises

  10. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  11. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... of radiation therapy was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of reoperation after both 1-stage (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and 2-stage (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) procedures. Reconstruction failure was highest (13.2%) in the 2-stage procedures with a history of radiation therapy. Breast...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  12. Delay tolerant networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Longxiang; Luan, Tom H

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents emerging and promising communication methods for network reliability via delay tolerant networks (DTNs). Different from traditional networks, DTNs possess unique features, such as long latency and unstable network topology. As a result, DTNs can be widely applied to critical applications, such as space communications, disaster rescue, and battlefield communications. The brief provides a complete investigation of DTNs and their current applications, from an overview to the latest development in the area. The core issue of data forward in DTNs is tackled, including the importance of social characteristics, which is an essential feature if the mobile devices are used for human communication. Security and privacy issues in DTNs are discussed, and future work is also discussed.

  13. 28 April 1986: Royal Order determining the certificate of financial security for the carriage of nuclear substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this Royal Order is to ensure that financial security certificates given by the nuclear operators liable to carriers of nuclear substances conform to the conditions set out in Article 4(c) of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the field of Nuclear Energy. This is a requirement under the Belgian Act of 22nd July 1985 on Third Party Liability in the field of Nuclear Energy. The Annex to the Order contains a model certificate reproducing the type of information required in accordance with the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  14. Generalisability of the results of the Dutch-Belgian randomised controlled lung cancer CT screening trial (NELSON) : Does self-selection play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aalst, C. M.; van Iersel, C. A.; van Klaveren, R. J.; Frenken, F. J. M.; Fracheboud, J.; Otto, S. J.; de Jong, P. A.; Oudkerk, M.; de Koning, H. J.

    The degree of self-selection in the Dutch-Belgian randomised controlled lung cancer screening trial (NELSON) was determined to assess the generalisability of the study results. 335,441 (mainly) men born in 1928-1953 received a questionnaire. Of the respondents (32%), eligible subjects were invited

  15. The news is in the frame: A journalist-centered approach to the frame-building process of the Belgian Syria fighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesman, J.L.J.; Berbers, A.; d'Haenens, L.; Van Gorp, B.

    2017-01-01

    This article seeks to understand the genesis of frame-building based on the early coverage of the Belgian Syria fighters in the four leading newspapers in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium. For a period of 6 weeks, a frame analysis of news stories was linked to reconstruction interviews

  16. A Nonsense Mutation in FAM161A Is a Recurrent Founder Allele in Dutch and Belgian Individuals With Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schil, Kristof; Klevering, B. Jeroen; Leroy, Bart P.; Pott, Jan Willem R.; Bandah-Rozenfeld, Dikla; Zonneveld-Vrieling, Marijke N.; Sharon, Dror; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Cremers, Frans P. M.; De Baere, Elfride; Collin, Rob W. J.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh

    PURPOSE. To identify mutations in FAM161A underlying autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) in the Dutch and Belgian populations and to investigate whether common FAM161A-associated phenotypic features could be identified. METHODS. Homozygosity mapping, amplification-refractory mutation

  17. Comparison of external morphological traits of newborns to inner morpholical traits of the dam in the double-muscled Belgian Blue Beef breed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coopman, F.; Gengler, N.; Groen, A.F.; Smet, de S.; Zeveren, van A.

    2004-01-01

    In the double-muscled (DM) Belgian Blue Beef (BBB) breed, caesarean section (CS) is used as a routine management tool to prevent dystocia. This practice is criticized on animal welfare grounds. With unassisted (natural) births, difficulties arise because of disproportion between the sizes of the

  18. The Exchange Program of the Belgian American Educational Foundation 1920-1940 : An Institutional Perspective on Persona Formation (1920-1940)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huistra, P.A.; Wils, Kaat

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose an institutional perspective on persona formation. Not unlike individual scientists, institutions such as funding bodies took an active interest in shaping the scientific persona. As a case in point, we discuss the Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF) that sent

  19. Roads to Success in the Belgian French Community's Higher Education System: Predictors of Dropout and Degree Completion at the Université Libre De Bruxelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Ortiz, Elena; Dehon, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the factors that influence both dropout and (4-year) degree completion throughout university by applying the set of discrete-time methods for competing risks in event history analysis, as described in Scott and Kennedy (2005). In the French-speaking Belgian community, participation rates are very high given that higher…

  20. Do managerial incentives drive cost behavior? Evidence about the role of the zero earnings benchmark for labor cost behavior in Belgian private firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierynck, B.; Landsman, W.R.; Renders, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of managerial incentives to meet or beat the zero earnings benchmark on labor cost behavior of private Belgian firms. We posit that relative to managers of firms reporting healthy profits, managers meeting or beating the zero earnings benchmark will increase

  1. Location Estimation using Delayed Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Nørgård, Peter Magnus

    1998-01-01

    When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new techn...... technique to a sensor fusion system for estimating the location of an autonomous guided vehicle. The system fuses encoder and vision measurements in an extended Kalman filter. Results from experiments in a real environment are reported...

  2. Modeling delay in genetic networks: from delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R; Josić, Krešimir; Ott, William

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  3. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Bennett, Matthew R. [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77204, USA and Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Josić, Krešimir [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  4. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay

  5. Nuclear Radiation and the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... told to evacuate? Nuclear releases are unpredictable and traffic jams are likely to delay speedy evacuation. People ... patient information section on the American Thyroid Association ® website at www.thyroid.org .

  6. Systematic of delayed neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, S.G.; Piksaikin, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental studies of the energy dependence of the delayed neutron (DN) parameters for various fission systems has shown that the behaviour of a some combination of delayed neutron parameters has a similar features. On the basis of this findings the systematics of delayed neutron experimental data for thorium, uranium, plutonium and americium isotopes have been investigated with the purpose to find a correlation of DN parameters with characteristics of fissioning system as well as a correlation between the delayed neutron parameters themselves. It was presented the preliminary results which were obtained during study the physics interpretation of the results [ru

  7. Time Delay of CGM Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773

  8. Study of calculated and measured time dependent delayed neutron yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    Time-dependent delayed neutron emission is of interest in reactor design, reactor dynamics, and nuclear physics studies. The delayed neutrons from neutron-induced fission of 232 U, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 241 Am, /sup 242m/Am, 245 Cm, and 249 Cf were studied for the first time. The delayed neutron emission from 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu, and 242 Pu were measured as well. The data were used to develop an empirical expression for the total delayed neutron yield. The expression gives accurate results for a large variety of nuclides from 232 Th to 252 Cf. The data measuring the decay of delayed neutrons with time were used to derive another empirical expression predicting the delayed neutron emission with time. It was found that nuclides with similar mass-to-charge ratios have similar decay patterns. Thus the relative decay pattern of one nuclide can be established by any measured nuclide with a similar mass-to-charge ratio. A simple fission product yield model was developed and applied to delayed neutron precursors. It accurately predicts observed yield and decay characteristics. In conclusion, it is possible to not only estimate the total delayed neutron yield for a given nuclide but the time-dependent nature of the delayed neutrons as well. Reactors utilizing recycled fuel or burning actinides are likely to have inventories of fissioning nuclides that have not been studied until now. The delayed neutrons from these nuclides can now be incorporated so that their influence on the stability and control of reactors can be delineated. 8 figures, 39 tables

  9. Species diversity and metabolic impact of the microbiota are low in spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages with an added starter culture of Staphylococcus carnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, M; Myter, N; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2012-04-01

    Quality of fermented sausages is affected by acidifying lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and colour- and flavour-promoting coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), whether or not used as starter culture. Artisan fermented sausages are often perceived as superior to industrial variants, partially because of the specific microbiota due to spontaneous acidification, which may be considered as an artisan characteristic. Therefore, two kinds of spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages were prepared (Belgian-type salami and Boulogne sausage), but with addition of a Staphylococcus carnosus culture. The Belgian-type salami was made from pork and beef, whereas the Boulogne sausage contained pork and horse meat. In all cases, Lactobacillus sakei was the dominant LAB species present on the raw materials and during fermentation, whereas enterococci remained present in the background. Enterobacteriaceae vanished after fermentation. The CNS species diversity on the raw materials was large and differed between the pork, beef, and horse meat. Nevertheless, this species diversity was annihilated during fermentation by the added S. carnosus culture. The volatiles fraction was mainly composed of aldehydes that originated from lipid oxidation and spices-derived compounds. Aromatic compounds that are typically associated to CNS activity, such as end-products from the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids, were not present in the Belgian-type salami and only marginally present in the Boulogne sausage. In conclusion, spontaneous acidification of Belgian-type fermented sausages leads to dominance of L. sakei and is no guarantee for bacterial contribution to the aroma profile when S. carnosus is added as a starter culture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The title of our session, Nuclear Risk Versus Other Power Options, is provocative. It is also a title with different meanings to different people. To the utility chief executive officer, nuclear power is a high-risk financial undertaking because of political and economic barriers to cost recovery. To the utility dispatcher, it is a high-risk future power source since plant completion and start-up dates can be delayed for very long times due to uncertain legal and political issues. To the environmentalist, concerned about global effects such as greenhouse and acid rain, nuclear power is a relatively low risk energy source. To the financial people, nuclear power is a cash cow turned sour because of uncertainties as to what new plants will cost and whether they will even be allowed to operate. The statistics on risk are known and the results of probability risk assessment calculations of risks are known. The challenge is not to make nuclear power safer, it is already one of the safest, if not the safest, source of power currently available. The challenge is to find a way to communicate this to the public

  11. Mutations in Splicing Factor Genes Are a Major Cause of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa in Belgian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Frauke; Roels, Dimitri; De Jaegere, Sarah; Flipts, Helena; De Zaeytijd, Julie; Walraedt, Sophie; Claes, Charlotte; Fransen, Erik; Van Camp, Guy; Depasse, Fanny; Casteels, Ingele; de Ravel, Thomy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) is characterized by an extensive genetic heterogeneity, implicating 27 genes, which account for 50 to 70% of cases. Here 86 Belgian probands with possible adRP underwent genetic testing to unravel the molecular basis and to assess the contribution of the genes underlying their condition. Methods Mutation detection methods evolved over the past ten years, including mutation specific methods (APEX chip analysis), linkage analysis, gene panel analysis (Sanger sequencing, targeted next-generation sequencing or whole exome sequencing), high-resolution copy number screening (customized microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization). Identified variants were classified following American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommendations. Results Molecular genetic screening revealed mutations in 48/86 cases (56%). In total, 17 novel pathogenic mutations were identified: four missense mutations in RHO, five frameshift mutations in RP1, six mutations in genes encoding spliceosome components (SNRNP200, PRPF8, and PRPF31), one frameshift mutation in PRPH2, and one frameshift mutation in TOPORS. The proportion of RHO mutations in our cohort (14%) is higher than reported in a French adRP population (10.3%), but lower than reported elsewhere (16.5–30%). The prevalence of RP1 mutations (10.5%) is comparable to other populations (3.5%-10%). The mutation frequency in genes encoding splicing factors is unexpectedly high (altogether 19.8%), with PRPF31 the second most prevalent mutated gene (10.5%). PRPH2 mutations were found in 4.7% of the Belgian cohort. Two families (2.3%) have the recurrent NR2E3 mutation p.(Gly56Arg). The prevalence of the recurrent PROM1 mutation p.(Arg373Cys) was higher than anticipated (3.5%). Conclusions Overall, we identified mutations in 48 of 86 Belgian adRP cases (56%), with the highest prevalence in RHO (14%), RP1 (10.5%) and PRPF31 (10.5%). Finally, we expanded the molecular

  12. MONSTER: a TOF Spectrometer for beta-delayed Neutron Spetroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, T; Castilla, J; Garcia, A R; Marin, J; Martinez, G; Mendoza, E; Santos, C; Tera, F; Jordan, M D; Rubio, B; Tain, J L; Bhattacharya, C; Banerjee, K; Bhattacharya, S; Roy, P; Meena, J K; Kundu, S; Mukherjee, G; Ghosh, T K; Rana, T K; Pandey, R; Saxena, A; Behera, B; Penttila, H; Jokinen, A; Rinta-Antila, S; Guerrero, C; Ovejero, M C; Villamarin, D; Agramunt, J; Algora, A

    2014-01-01

    Beta-delayed neutron (DN) data, including emission probabilities, P-n, and energy spectrum, play an important role in our understanding of nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear technologies. A MOdular Neutron time-of-flight SpectromeTER (MONSTER) is being built for the measurement of the neutron energy spectra and branching ratios. The TOF spectrometer will consist of one hundred liquid scintillator cells covering a significant solid angle. The MONSTER design has been optimized by using Monte Carlo (MC) techniques. The response function of the MONSTER cell has been characterized with mono-energetic neutron beams and compared to dedicated MC simulations.

  13. Effect of supplementation on the performance of grazing Belgian Blue double-muscled heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M

    2013-11-01

    Six experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of a feed supplement on the performance of grazing Belgian Blue double-muscled (BBDM) heifers with an initial weight and age of 195 ± 43 kg and 190 ± 52 days. Treatments included were: Exp. 1: supplementation with beet pulp (BP): 2 kg/day per head v. ad libitum intake; Exp. 2: supplementation ad libitum with BP v. a mixture of BP and soybean meal (SBM; BP/SBM ratio of 80/20; FW (fresh weight) basis); Exp. 3: supplementation with 4 kg/day per head of a mixture of BP/SBM (80/20; FW basis) v. BP/formaldehyde-treated SBM (BP/FSBM); Exp. 4: supplementation with 4 kg/day per head of a mixture with a similar protein content (125 g DVE per kg dry matter (DM)), consisting of 80/20 BP/SBM v. 92/8 BP/FSBM; Exp. 5: supplementation with 3 kg/day per head of a mixture of BP/SBM (80/20; FW basis) v. BP/DDGS (dried distillers grains and solubles; 70/30, FW basis); and Exp. 6: supplementation with 3 kg/day per head of 80/20 BP/SBM v. maize silage (MS) and SBM, on the basis of a similar protein concentration in the DM as the 80/20 BP/SBM supplement, and fed at a similar amount of DM as in the BP/SBM group. Supplementing BP ad libitum did not affect daily gain (0.54 v. 0.48 kg) and partial feed conversion (3.62 kg on average) compared with 2 kg/day. Supplying SBM besides BP increased growth rate compared with BP (0.87 v. 0.62 kg/day; P 0.10), but blood urea levels were reduced by FSBM (P < 0.05). DDGS tended to increase growth rate (0.77 v. 0.59 kg/day; P < 0.10) compared with BP/SBM, without effect on partial feed conversion. Replacing BP by MS did not affect daily gain, but partial feed conversion tended to be higher (3.21 v. 3.60 kg/kg body weight (BW) gain; P = 0.062). Increasing the supplement (80/20 BP/SBM) level from 3 to 4 kg daily, corresponding to 1.02% and 1.18% of the mean BW, respectively, resulted in a tendency (P = 0.121) for an increased growth rate. Grazing BBDM heifers of <1 year of age necessitate extra

  14. The impact of occupational hazards and traumatic events among Belgian emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somville, Francis J; De Gucht, Véronique; Maes, Stan

    2016-04-27

    Emergency Physicians (EPs) are regularly confronted with work related traumatic events and hectic work conditions. Several studies mention a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychosomatic complaints in EP. The main objective of this study is to examine the contribution of demographics, traumatic events, life events, the occurrence of occupational hazards and social support to post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), psychological distress, fatigue, somatic complaints and job satisfaction in Emergency Physicians. For this study questionnaires were distributed to Belgian Emergency Physicians, These include, as determinants socio-demographic characteristics, traumatic events, life events, the occurrence of physical hazards, occurrences of violence, occurrence of situations that increase the risk of burnout and social support by supervisors and colleagues (LQWQ-Med), and as outcomes PTSS (IES), psychological distress (BSI), somatic complaints (PHQ 15), perceived fatigue (CIS20 R) and job satisfaction (LQWQ-MD). The response rate was 52.3 %. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the determinants and each of the outcomes. Emergency Physicians are particularly vulnerable to post-traumatic and chronic stress consequences due to repetitive exposure to work related traumatic incidents such as serious injuries or death of a child/adolescent. One out of three Emergency Physicians met sub-clinical levels of anxiety and 14.5 % met a clinical level of PTSD, short for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Levels of fatigue were high but not directly related to traumatic events and occupational hazards. Social support from colleagues was found to have a beneficial effect on these complaints. Job satisfaction seems to have a protective factor. All of these not only affect the Emergency Physicians themselves, but can also have an adverse impact on patient care. EPs are, according to our and other studies

  15. BeTemper: thermal characterisation of the Belgian subsoil for shallow geothermal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitclerc, Estelle; Dusar, Michiel; Declercq, Pierre-Yves; Vanbrabant, Yves

    2015-04-01

    -ray Diffraction equipment, while the EDS (Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and EBSD (Electron BackScattered Diffraction) modules is applied in order to evaluate the chemical and micro-textural content. Special attention is given to lithologies having a variable λ values to assess the influence of porosity and/or minor mineralogical phases on the heat transfer. The sample selection is conducted in order to be representative of the various lithologies composing the Belgian subsoil, taking into account their mineralogical composition, petrological texture along with their degree of alteration. A special emphasis is given to densely populated areas (eg. Sambre & Meuse valleys and large cities of Flanders). with the highest geothermal demands. Petitclerc, E., Dusar, M., Declercq, P-Y., Hoes, H., Laenen, B., Dagrain,F., Vanbrabant, Y., 2013. Overview and perspectives on shallow geothermal energy in Belgium. Proceedings SG6-12, EGC2013, Pisa, June 2013. Popov, Y., Bayuk, I., Parshin, A., Miklashevskiy, D., Novikov, S., Chekhonin, E., 2012. New methods and instruments for determination of reservoir thermal properties. Thirty-Seventh Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 30 - February 1, 2012. SGP-TR-194. Popov, Y., Pribnow, D.F.C., Sass, J.H, Williams, C., Burkhardt, H., 1999. Characterization of rock thermal conductivity by high-resolution optical scanning. Geothermics 28, pp 253-276.

  16. Strategic choices in the Belgian Supercontainer design and its treatment in a safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Geet, Maarten; Weetjens, Eef

    2012-01-01

    Maarten Van Geet of Ondraf/Niras discussed various aspects relating to the selection of a supercontainer disposal concept for HLW and spent fuel disposal, including an OPC concrete buffer. The previous Belgian reference disposal concept was briefly described, and it was noted that several assessments and reviews of that concept had raised questions over its feasibility, operational safety, and ability to provide containment of the wastes throughout the thermal phase, i.e., the period when temperatures in the repository will be significantly above the ambient temperature of the host rock because of radioactive decay of the wastes. In light of these findings, Ondraf/Niras worked through a process of multi-criteria options appraisal (Figure 10) with the aim of coming to a new reference concept with better characteristics. Three main types of disposal concept were considered: A supercontainer design, in which the overpack would be emplaced in the disposal gallery as an integrated unit including a cementitious buffer. The buffer would provide radiological shielding. - A borehole design, in which the overpack would be emplaced in a borehole perpendicular to the disposal gallery. - A sleeve design, in which the overpack would be emplaced in a metal sleeve that would be emplaced in the disposal gallery prior to the overpack. In the latter two concepts, separate measures would be needed to provide radiation shielding during waste transport and handling. Several broad assessment criteria were considered; engineered robustness, host-rock perturbation, intrinsic robustness (of materials characterisation and modelling), ease of demonstration, technical operation, flexibility, and financial feasibility. The result of scoring the different design options against these criteria and various sub-criteria led to the selection of the supercontainer concept as the current reference concept and design. Key reasons for this selection included: - The requirement for watertight containment

  17. A Belgian survey on the diagnosis of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cataldo D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Didier Cataldo,1 Jean-Louis Corhay,1 Eric Derom,2 Renaud Louis,1 Eric Marchand,3,4 Alain Michils,5 Vincent Ninane,6 Rudi Peché,7 Charles Pilette,8 Walter Vincken,9 Wim Janssens10 1Department of Respiratory Diseases, CHU Liège, University of Liège, Liège, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, CHU – UCL – Namur, Université catholique de Louvain, Yvoir, 4Molecular Physiology Research Unit (URPhyM-NARILIS, Laboratory of General Physiology, University of Namur, Namur, 5Chest Department, Erasme University Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, 6Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Saint-Pierre, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, 7Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Vésale, Montigny-le-Tilleul, 8Department of Respiratory Medicine, Cliniques universitaires St Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, 9Respiratory Division, University Hospital Brussels (UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, 10Department of Respiratory Diseases, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Introduction: Patients with chronic airway disease may present features of both asthma and COPD, commonly referred to as asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS. Recommendations on their diagnosis are diffuse and inconsistent. This survey aimed to identify consensus on criteria for diagnosing ACOS.Methods: A Belgian expert panel developed a survey on ACOS diagnosis, which was completed by 87 pulmonologists. Answers chosen by ≥70% of survey respondents were considered as useful criteria for ACOS diagnosis. The two most frequently selected answers were considered as major criteria, others as minor criteria. The expert panel proposed a minimal requirement of two major criteria and one minor criterion for ACOS diagnosis. Respondents were also asked which criteria are important for considering inhaled corticosteroids prescription in a

  18. Managing Nuclear Knowledge: a challenge for SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruyssen, M.-L.

    2005-01-01

    All innovation in nuclear science and nuclear technology for either power or non-power applications relies on knowledge. Preserving and enhancing nuclear knowledge accumulated in the past has become a timely subject of strategic importance. In recent years, political, economical and societal trends urged the need for an efficient management of nuclear knowledge. Foremost, the Belgian government has decided to phase-out nuclear power plants. Privatisation and deregulation rules of the energy market in the European Union drives the nuclear industry to compete in the immediate and near term with other sources of electrical energy. This might result in a reduction of work force and budgets allocated to research and development. These two decisions have as a side effect that fewer young people are attracted by studying nuclear science and nuclear engineering, making the issue of the replacement of the aging nuclear workforce even worse. This changing environment requires therefore the pro-active retention and preservation of our comprehensive nuclear knowledge base and the sustainment of our nuclear education and training efforts. SCK-CEN's initiatives concerning preserving and sharing Nuclear Knowledge and sustaining nuclear education and training are discussed

  19. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  20. #FakeNobelDelayReasons

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Tuesday’s hour-long delay of the Nobel Prize in Physics announcement was (and still is) quite the cause for speculation. But on the Twittersphere, it was simply the catalyst for some fantastic puns, so-bad-they're-good physics jokes and other shenanigans. Here are some of our favourite #FakeNobelDelayReasons.    

  1. Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market. (technical design note)

  2. Deterministic calculation of the effective delayed neutron fraction without using the adjoint neutron flux - 299

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.; Aliberti, G.; Zhong, Z.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Routkovskaya, C.; Serafimovich, I.

    2010-01-01

    In 1997, Bretscher calculated the effective delayed neutron fraction by the k-ratio method. The Bretscher's approach is based on calculating the multiplication factor of a nuclear reactor core with and without the contribution of delayed neutrons. The multiplication factor set by the delayed neutrons (the delayed multiplication factor) is obtained as the difference between the total and the prompt multiplication factors. Bretscher evaluated the effective delayed neutron fraction as the ratio between the delayed and total multiplication factors (therefore the method is often referred to as k-ratio method). In the present work, the k-ratio method is applied by deterministic nuclear codes. The ENDF/B nuclear data library of the fuel isotopes ( 238 U and 238 U) have been processed by the NJOY code with and without the delayed neutron data to prepare multigroup WIMSD nuclear data libraries for the DRAGON code. The DRAGON code has been used for preparing the PARTISN macroscopic cross sections. This calculation methodology has been applied to the YALINA-Thermal assembly of Belarus. The assembly has been modeled and analyzed using PARTISN code with 69 energy groups and 60 different material zones. The deterministic and Monte Carlo results for the effective delayed neutron fraction obtained by the k-ratio method agree very well. The results also agree with the values obtained by using the adjoint flux. (authors)

  3. Cross-cultural differences in lay attitudes and utilisation of antibiotics in a Belgian and a Dutch city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschepper, Reginald; Vander Stichele, Robert H; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M

    Cultural differences are probably an important factor in the considerable variation in antibiotic use between countries. The objective of this study was to explore local cultural differences in the lay perspective on coping with URTD and using antibiotics. We interviewed 30 persons in a Dutch and a Belgian city. Twenty-one were interviewed a second time after 3 months. Between the first and second interview, they noted in a diary all URTD episodes experienced by themselves and their family members (N=69) and how they coped with them. The Dutch participants labelled most URTD episodes as "common cold" or "flu". The Flemish participants labelled most of their URTD episodes as "bronchitis" and used more antibiotics. Four categories of antibiotic users could be distinguished. Participants with a Protestant background were more sceptical about medicines than those with a Catholic background. A thorough understanding of the cultural context is necessary to design effective campaigns to promote rational antibiotic use.

  4. Daredevils and early birds: Belgian pioneers in automobile racing and aerial sports during the belle époque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameye, Thomas; Gils, Bieke; Delheye, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    During the belle époque, Belgium was a trend-setting nation in many domains, including motorised sports. Belgian automobile racers and pilots shattered world records and became international stars. Striking was the shift in sports. Indeed, around 1896, sporting members of the leisure class stepped from the bicycle into the automobile and, around 1908, from the automobile into the airplane. Although these motorised sports were extremely expensive, this article shows that sportsmen and sportswomen from the working class could achieve upward social mobility through their performances. The achievements of these motorised pioneers had a major impact and wide-ranging significance. They laid the foundations for the expansion of the automobile industry and the emergence of civilian and military aviation.

  5. Belgian Contribution to the IAEA CRP-IV Programme on Assuring Structural Integrity of Reactor Pressure Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Walle, E.; Chaouadi, R.; Scibetta, M.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Fabry, A.; Van de Velde, J.

    1997-10-01

    This report contains the actual status of the Belgian contribution to the IAEA CRP-IV program. Besides Charpy-V impact tests on as-received CRP-IV JRQ-specimens, fracture toughness tests were performed on two geometries: PCCV-specimens and CRB-specimens. The Charpy-V impact results correspond very well with the as-received CRP-III results. The fracture toughness data are also very consistent with identical tests recently performed on remaining as-received CRP-III material. Irradiated broken Charpy-V samples were reconstituted and tested in PCCV-mode. This was done in order to investigate the evolution of the ASME-curve versus the evolution of the mastercurve with irradiation. Initial results were reported. A new CHIVAS-irradiation in the CALLISTO-loop of the BR-2-reactor to support this investigation, is under preparation

  6. Stigma, Social Structure, and the Biomedical Framework: Exploring the Stigma Experiences of Inpatient Service Users in Two Belgian Psychiatric Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercu, Charlotte; Bracke, Piet

    2017-07-01

    The study discusses the stigma experiences of service users in mental health care, within the debate on the role of the biomedical framework for mental health care and power relations in society. Interview data of inpatient users ( n = 42) and care providers ( n = 43) from two Belgian psychiatric hospitals were analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach: Findings offer insight into how stigma experiences are affected by social structure. Stigma seemed to be related to the relation between care providers and service users their social position. The concept "mental health literacy" is used to frame this finding. In paying attention to the specific cultural and normative context, which influences the relationship between mental health literacy and stigma, it is further possible to cast some light on the meaning of the biomedical model for the construction and maintenance of power relations in mental health care and broader society.

  7. Genetic association study of WNT10B polymorphisms with BMD and adiposity parameters in Danish and Belgian males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Camp, Jasmijn K; Beckers, Sigri; Zegers, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    . The second population, called SIBLOS, includes 922 Belgian men (34 ± 5 years old) and contains siblings selected from over 500 families. Four tagSNPs (rs833840, rs833841, rs10875902 and rs4018511) that capture variation of ten SNPs (MAF > 5 %) in a 15.2 kb region spanning the WNT10B gene and its flanking...... a previously shown negative effect on BMD. No significant associations were observed in the SIBLOS population. In the present study, no association between WNT10B polymorphisms and adiposity parameters was found. However, our results clearly illustrate a role for WNT10B variants in determining human BMD...

  8. Project delay analysis of HRSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvianita; Novega, A. S.; Rosyid, D. M.; Suntoyo

    2017-08-01

    Completion of HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) fabrication project sometimes is not sufficient with the targeted time written on the contract. The delay on fabrication process can cause some disadvantages for fabricator, including forfeit payment, delay on HRSG construction process up until HRSG trials delay. In this paper, the author is using semi quantitative on HRSG pressure part fabrication delay with configuration plant 1 GT (Gas Turbine) + 1 HRSG + 1 STG (Steam Turbine Generator) using bow-tie analysis method. Bow-tie analysis method is a combination from FTA (Fault tree analysis) and ETA (Event tree analysis) to develop the risk matrix of HRSG. The result from FTA analysis is use as a threat for preventive measure. The result from ETA analysis is use as impact from fabrication delay.

  9. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Privacy Act of 1974 restricts both the type of information on private individuals that federal agencies may maintain in their records and the conditions under which such information may be disclosed. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which must approve DOE plans to build a nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada, requires a quality assurance program to guarantee that studies of the site are done by qualified employees. Under such a program, the training and qualifications of DOE and contractor employees would be verified. This report reviews DOE's efforts to identify and resolve the implications of the Privacy Act for DOE's quality assurance program and how the delay in resolving Privacy Act issues may have affected preliminary work on the Yucca Mountain project

  10. Presence and mechanisms of acquired antimicrobial resistance in Belgian Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates belonging to different clonal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahu, M; Pasmans, F; Vranckx, K; De Pauw, N; Vande Maele, L; Vyt, Philip; Vandersmissen, Tamara; Martel, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2017-08-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is an economically important disease for which antimicrobial treatment still occupies an important place to control outbreaks. However, acquired antimicrobial resistance is increasingly observed in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. In this study, the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of six antimicrobial compounds for 30 recent Belgian B. hyodysenteriae isolates were determined using a broth microdilution method. In addition, relevant regions of the 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA and the L3 protein encoding genes were sequenced to reveal mutations associated with acquired resistance. Finally, a phylogeny was reconstructed using minimal spanning tree analysis of multi locus sequence typing of the isolates. For lincomycin, doxycycline, tylosin and tylvalosin, at least 70% of the isolates did not belong to the wild-type population and were considered to have acquired resistance. For valnemulin and tiamulin, this was over 50%. In all isolates with acquired resistance to doxycycline, the G1058C mutation was present in their 16S rRNA gene. All isolates showing acquired resistance to lincomycin and both macrolides displayed the A2058T mutation in their 23S rRNA gene. Other mutations in this gene and the N148S mutation in the L3 protein were present in both wild-type isolates and isolates considered to have acquired resistance. Multi locus sequence analysis revealed a previously undescribed clonal complex, with 4 novel sequence types in which the majority of isolates showed acquired resistance to all tested antimicrobial products. In conclusion, acquired antimicrobial resistance is widespread among Belgian B. hyodysenteriae isolates. The emergence of multi-resistant clonal complexes can pose a threat to swine industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Taxonomic structure and stability of the bacterial community in belgian sourdough ecosystems as assessed by culture and population fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2008-04-01

    A total of 39 traditional sourdoughs were sampled at 11 bakeries located throughout Belgium which were visited twice with a 1-year interval. The taxonomic structure and stability of the bacterial communities occurring in these traditional sourdoughs were assessed using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 1,194 potential lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates were tentatively grouped and identified by repetitive element sequence-based PCR, followed by sequence-based identification using 16S rRNA and pheS genes from a selection of genotypically unique LAB isolates. In parallel, all samples were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of V3-16S rRNA gene amplicons. In addition, extensive metabolite target analysis of more than 100 different compounds was performed. Both culturing and DGGE analysis showed that the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis dominated the LAB population of Belgian type I sourdoughs. In addition, DGGE band sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of Acetobacter sp. and a member of the Erwinia/Enterobacter/Pantoea group in some samples. Overall, the culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches each exhibited intrinsic limitations in assessing bacterial LAB diversity in Belgian sourdoughs. Irrespective of the LAB biodiversity, a large majority of the sugar and amino acid metabolites were detected in all sourdough samples. Principal component-based analysis of biodiversity and metabolic data revealed only little variation among the two samples of the sourdoughs produced at the same bakery. The rare cases of instability observed could generally be linked with variations in technological parameters or differences in detection capacity between culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Within a sampling interval of 1 year, this study reinforces previous observations that the bakery environment

  12. Taxonomic Structure and Stability of the Bacterial Community in Belgian Sourdough Ecosystems as Assessed by Culture and Population Fingerprinting▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2008-01-01

    A total of 39 traditional sourdoughs were sampled at 11 bakeries located throughout Belgium which were visited twice with a 1-year interval. The taxonomic structure and stability of the bacterial communities occurring in these traditional sourdoughs were assessed using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 1,194 potential lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates were tentatively grouped and identified by repetitive element sequence-based PCR, followed by sequence-based identification using 16S rRNA and pheS genes from a selection of genotypically unique LAB isolates. In parallel, all samples were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of V3-16S rRNA gene amplicons. In addition, extensive metabolite target analysis of more than 100 different compounds was performed. Both culturing and DGGE analysis showed that the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis dominated the LAB population of Belgian type I sourdoughs. In addition, DGGE band sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of Acetobacter sp. and a member of the Erwinia/Enterobacter/Pantoea group in some samples. Overall, the culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches each exhibited intrinsic limitations in assessing bacterial LAB diversity in Belgian sourdoughs. Irrespective of the LAB biodiversity, a large majority of the sugar and amino acid metabolites were detected in all sourdough samples. Principal component-based analysis of biodiversity and metabolic data revealed only little variation among the two samples of the sourdoughs produced at the same bakery. The rare cases of instability observed could generally be linked with variations in technological parameters or differences in detection capacity between culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Within a sampling interval of 1 year, this study reinforces previous observations that the bakery environment

  13. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Beppu, H.; Hirose, K.; Yamada, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author).

  14. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Toshiko; Miyamoto, Kazuto; Beppu, Hirokuni; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Katsuhiro

    1981-01-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author)

  15. Reduction of the radioactive waste volume from Belgian NPP: Reality, costs and goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, P.; Lemmens, A.; Mannaerts, K.

    2001-01-01

    The growing awareness of the existence of waste generated by human activities and its environmental impact is one of the critical events of the late twentieth century. All industrial activities produce waste and nuclear industry is no exception. But nuclear power plants produce smaller amount of waste that makes it possible to treat it with particular care. This paper describes the reduction in the amount of waste, the consequences this has had on the associated costs and the action taken to control the development of both objectives. (author)

  16. Systeme de fautes et correction phonetique par la methode verbo-tonale des francophones belges qui apprenent l'espagnol (Phonetic Correction and the Verbo-tonal Method for Teaching Spanish to French-speaking Belgians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento Padilla, Jose

    1974-01-01

    Describes experiments in the field of phonetic correction. Several techniques used at the University of Mons for teaching Spanish pronunciation to French-speaking Belgians are explained. (Text is in French.) (PMP)

  17. Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-08-26

    We report measurements of energy-dependent photoionization delays between the two outermost valence shells of N_{2}O and H_{2}O. The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N_{2}O, whereas the delays in H_{2}O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N_{2}O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to ∼110 as. The unstructured continua of H_{2}O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible.

  18. Elementary calculation of the shutdown delay of a pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvon, J.

    1949-04-01

    This study analyzes theoretically the progress of the shutdown of a nuclear pile (reactor) when a cadmium rod is introduced instantaneously. For simplification reasons, the environment of the pile is considered as homogenous and only thermal neutrons are considered (delayed neutrons are neglected). Calculation is made first for a plane configuration (plane vessel, plane multiplier without reflector, and plane multiplier with reflector), and then for a cylindrical configuration (multiplier without reflector, multiplier with infinitely thick reflector, finite cylindrical piles without reflector and with reflector). The self-sustain conditions are calculated for each case and the multiplication length and the shutdown delay are deduced. (J.S.)

  19. Numerical modelling and hydrochemical characterisation of a fresh-water lens in the Belgian coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.

    2002-05-01

    The distribution of fresh and salt water in coastal aquifers is influenced by many processes. The influence of aquifer heterogeneity and human interference such as land reclamation is illustrated in the Belgian coastal plain where, around A.D. 1200, the reclamation of a tidally influenced environment was completed. The aquifer, which was filled with salt water, was thereafter freshened. The areal distribution of peat, clay, silt and sand influences the general flow and distribution of fresh and salt water along with the drainage pattern and results in the development of fresh-water lenses. The water quality in and around the fresh-water lenses below an inverted tidal channel ridge is surveyed. The hydrochemical evolution of the fresh water lens is reconstructed, pointing to cation exchange, solution of calcite and the oxidation of organic material as the major chemical reactions. The formation and evolution of the fresh water lens is modelled using a two-dimensional density-dependent solute transport model and the sensitivity of drainage and conductivities are studied. Drainage level mainly influences the depth of the fresh-water lens, whereas the time of formation is mainly influenced by conductivity. Résumé. La répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée dans les aquifères littoraux est influencée par de nombreux mécanismes. L'influence de l'hétérogénéité de l'aquifère et des interférences anthropiques telles que la mise en valeur des terres est illustrée par la plaine côtière belge où, depuis l'an 1200, on a mis en valeur un environnement soumis aux marées. L'aquifère, qui contenait de l'eau salée, contient maintenant de l'eau douce. La distribution spatiale de tourbe, d'argile, de silt et de sable joue un rôle dans l'écoulement général et dans la répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée le long du réseau de drainage et produit des lentilles d'eau douce. La qualité de l'eau dans et autour des lentilles d'eau douce sous une lev

  20. Delays and networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl

    2016-01-01

    This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  1. Linear rotary optical delay lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerboukha, Hichem; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2016-03-01

    We present a semi-analytical solution for the design of a high-speed rotary optical delay line that use a combination of two rotating curvilinear reflectors. We demonstrate that it is possible to design an infinite variety of the optical delay lines featuring linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle. This is achieved via shape optimization of the rotating reflector surfaces. Moreover, a convenient spatial separation of the incoming and outgoing beams is possible. For the sake of example, we present blades that fit into a circle of 10cm diameter. Finally, a prototype of a rotary delay line is fabricated using CNC machining, and its optical properties are characterized.

  2. Biological effects of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, H.

    1983-01-01

    Prompt and delayed biological effects of nuclear weapons are discussed. The response to excess pressure on man is estimated, the acute radiation syndrome caused by different radiation doses and cancerogenous and genetic effects are described. Medical care after a nuclear explosion would be difficult and imperfect. (M.J.)

  3. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  4. Delayed neutron yield from fast neutron induced fission of 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piksaikin, V.M.; Kazakov, L.E.; Isaev, S.G.; Roshchenko, V.A.; Goverdovski, A.A.; Tertytchnyi, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    The measurements of the total delayed neutron yield from fast neutron induced fission of 238 U were made. The experimental method based on the periodic irradiation of the fissionable sample by neutrons from a suitable nuclear reaction had been employed. The preliminary results on the energy dependence of the total delayed neutron yield from fission of 238 U are obtained. According to the comparison of experimental data with our prediction based on correlation properties of delayed neutron characteristics, it is concluded that the value of the total delayed neutron yield near the threshold of (n,f) reaction is not a constant. (author)

  5. Delayed luminescence in a multiparameter approach to evaluation and reduction of radiobiological risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Rosaria; Cammarata, Francesco Paolo; Minafra, Luigi; Marchese, Valentina; Russo, Giorgio; Manti, Lorenzo; Musumeci, Francesco; Scordino, Agata

    2017-07-01

    In the framework of the research project ETHICS "Pre-clinical experimental and theoretical studies to improve treatment and protection by charged particles" funded by the National Nuclear Physics Institute, Italy, we studied the phenomenon called delayed luminescence emitted by non-tumorigenic breast epithelial MCF10A cell line after proton irradiation at different doses (0.5, 2, 6, 9 Gy). The aim is to found possible correlations between delayed luminescence and in vitro damaging induced by ion irradiation. The first results of this research show that the delayed luminescence kinetics is proton dose dependent. An interesting correlation between delayed luminescence and clonogenic potential was observed.

  6. Delayed effects of low level acute irradiation and chronic environmental radioactive contamination on DNA lymphocytes of people living in Dolon, a settlement located in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenal, C.; Legue, F.; Nourgalieva, K. [UMR CNRS 6553 ' Ecobio' , Equipe Radiations Environnement Adaptation. Universite de RENNES 1, Campus de Beaulieu, Bat 14, RENNES Cedex F 35042 (France)

    2006-10-01

    During 42 years several hundred nuclear tests were performed by the former USSR at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS, Kazakhstan), of which more than 100 were done in the atmosphere. We report here the late genetic damage of external exposure to radiation and environmental radioactive contamination in people living in Dolon, a small settlement situated in the vicinity of the STS. The comet assay was applied on DNA lymphocytes of 20 exposed women and 32 non-exposed women living at 500 km from the STS. We observed a statistically significant difference between the exposed and control groups for mean tail moment (MTM) and DNA% in the tail. The mean values of all comet assay parameters (MTM, DNA% in the tail and score) were higher in the group of women born before 1949 as compared to those born after 1950, which could reflect an effect of external irradiation in 1949 due to the most contaminating explosion. These results suggest that people exposed 50 years ago to relatively small doses of external irradiation and/or still living in an environment contaminated by small amounts of long life radionuclides, still present DNA damage which is in agreement with other cytogenetical studies performed at the same site, on the same population. (author)

  7. Delayed effects of low level acute irradiation and chronic environmental radioactive contamination on DNA lymphocytes of people living in Dolon, a settlement located in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (Kazakhstan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenal, C.; Legue, F.; Nourgalieva, K.

    2006-01-01

    During 42 years several hundred nuclear tests were performed by the former USSR at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS, Kazakhstan), of which more than 100 were done in the atmosphere. We report here the late genetic damage of external exposure to radiation and environmental radioactive contamination in people living in Dolon, a small settlement situated in the vicinity of the STS. The comet assay was applied on DNA lymphocytes of 20 exposed women and 32 non-exposed women living at 500 km from the STS. We observed a statistically significant difference between the exposed and control groups for mean tail moment (MTM) and DNA% in the tail. The mean values of all comet assay parameters (MTM, DNA% in the tail and score) were higher in the group of women born before 1949 as compared to those born after 1950, which could reflect an effect of external irradiation in 1949 due to the most contaminating explosion. These results suggest that people exposed 50 years ago to relatively small doses of external irradiation and/or still living in an environment contaminated by small amounts of long life radionuclides, still present DNA damage which is in agreement with other cytogenetical studies performed at the same site, on the same population

  8. Culture-general and -specific associations of attachment avoidance and anxiety with perceived parental warmth and psychological control among Turk and Belgian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H

    2010-10-01

    Both the adolescent peer attachment and perceived parenting style literatures emphasize the role of the quality of the parent-child relationship in children's healthy adjustment beyond the family, but few studies have investigated links between adolescents' peer attachment and perceptions of parenting. We investigate relations of adolescents' perceptions of warmth and psychological control from parents with avoidance and anxiety in attachment to close friends in two contrasting cultures. Altogether, 262 Turk and 263 Belgian youth between 14 and 18 years of age participated. Cross-culturally, attachment avoidance was negatively related to maternal warmth, and attachment anxiety positively related to maternal and paternal control and negatively to paternal warmth. Beyond these general relations, attachment avoidance was associated with paternal psychological control in Belgians but not in Turks. The study provides cross-cultural evidence for specific relations between peer attachment and perceived parenting and suggests a culture-specific pathway for the development of attachment avoidance.

  9. The impact of age on the reservation wage: the role of employment efficacy and work intention: a study in the Belgian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coen, An; Forrier, Anneleen; Sels, Luc

    2015-04-01

    This study explores the relationship between age and reservation wage. The authors investigate whether individuals' attitudes toward employment, that is, their "employment efficacy" and "work intention," mediate this relationship. The authors examine this in the Belgian labor market, where substantial differences exist between blue-collar workers, white-collar workers, and civil servants regarding payment systems, employment protection, and pension benefits. Path analysis on a sample of 22,796 Belgian workers aged 18 to 60 years reveals a reverse U-shaped relationship between age and the reservation wage via employment efficacy and a U-shaped relationship via work intention. In addition, study analyses also show a direct relationship between age and the reservation wage. The effects vary with employment status. The authors discuss implications for theory, practice, and future research. © The Author(s) 2012.

  10. Does Financial Hardship Explain Differences Between Belgian and South African Unemployed Regarding Experiences of Unemployment, Employment Commitment, and Job Search Behaviour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Vleugels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Belgian and South African unemployed differed regarding three psychological dimensions of unemployment: affect (experiences of unemployment, attitudes (employment commitment, and behaviour (job search intensity. Moreover, we expected country of residence to indirectly influence unemployed people's experiences, employment commitment, and job search intensity via financial hardship. A cross-sectional survey design was used to test our hypotheses. Data were sampled from unemployed people in the Brussels area in Belgium ('N' = 305, and the Potchefstroom area in South Africa ('N' = 381. The results indicated that, compared to the Belgian unemployed, the South African unemployed experienced their unemployment as more negative, were more committed towards employment and more intensively searched for work. Moreover, country of residence indirectly influenced unemployed people's experiences, employment commitment, and job search intensity via financial hardship. Some policy recommendations are suggested.

  11. More about ... Nuclear medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid scintigraphy. In neonates with hypothyroidism detected on neonatal screening and confirmed by subsequent testing, a radionuclide thyroid scan should be performed as soon as possible. It must be undertaken in all nuclear medicine departments as a matter of urgency. Any delay in treatment should be avoided.

  12. Ethical aspects of radioactive waste management and public information. The Belgian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minon, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Belgium has a well-developed nuclear programme and has elaborated several research and nuclear fuel cycle facilities on its territory since the beginning of the nineteen fifties. About 60 per cent of the electricity produced is of nuclear origin. All these facilities produce waste. In 1980, waste management was entrusted by law to the ONDRAF. The Agency new controls all aspects of waste management and has indicated the direction for final disposal of waste. Both public information and the justification, from an ethical point of view, of the solutions proposed have become an essential topic in radioactive waste management. The situation as it exists today in Belgium is described in this paper. The paper indicates that all decision-making process now pass through an objective information phase, involving the public and the various decision makers. This is intended to provoke discussion and encourage the public to become more active and responsible, and should be based on new ethical concepts. We need to be sure that we put into place for the future, systems based on passive technology, full information and with sufficient financial provision for future needs. (authors)

  13. Prevalence of the AMHR2 mutation in Miniature Schnauzers and genetic investigation of a Belgian Malinois with persistent Müllerian duct syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, M M; Ekenstedt, K J; Minor, K M; Lim, C K; Leegwater, Paj; Furrow, E

    2018-04-01

    Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a sex-limited disorder in which males develop portions of the female reproductive tract. Important consequences of PMDS are cryptorchidism and its sequelae of infertility and increased risk of testicular cancer. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and its receptor (AMHR2) induce the regression of the Müllerian ducts in male embryos. In Miniature Schnauzer dogs, the genetic basis has been identified as an autosomal recessive nonsense mutation in AMHR2, but the allele frequency of the mutation is unknown. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the AMHR2 mutation in North American Miniature Schnauzers, in order to ascertain the value of genetic testing in this breed. An additional objective was to determine whether mutations in AMH or AMHR2 were responsible for PMDS in a Belgian Malinois; this would aid development of a genetic test for the Belgian Malinois breed. Genomic DNA from 216 Miniature Schnauzers (including one known PMDS case) was genotyped for the AMHR2 mutation, and DNA from a single PMDS-affected Belgian Malinois was sequenced for all coding exons of AMH and AMHR2. The Miniature Schnauzer cohort had an AMHR2 mutation allele frequency of 0.16 and a carrier genotypic frequency of 0.27. The genetic basis for PMDS in the Belgian Malinois was not determined, as no coding or splicing mutations were identified in either AMH or AMHR2. These findings support a benefit to AMHR2 mutation testing Miniature Schnauzers used for breeding or with cryptorchidism. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. An attempt to reconstruct geodynamically the Belgian palaeogene basin from mineralogical clay data, from radioelement (U, Th, K2O) geochemistry and palynology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinif, Yves; Mercier, Monique; Dupuis Christian; Roche, Emile

    1983-01-01

    By analysing clay mineralogy, U-Th-K 2 O geochemistry and palynology data, we find that the Belgian Palaeogene is dominated by the action of a biostasic period toward the end of the lower Eocene. At the middle Eocene starts a new phase, at least a rhexistasic one at the begining. In the Basin, the geochemical and mineralogical traces of this phase just start from the upper Eocene [fr

  15. Beta-delayed proton emitter $^{113}Xe$

    CERN Document Server

    Hagberg, E; Jonson, B; Jørgensen, B; Kugler, E; Mowinckel, T

    1973-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at the CERN synchrocyclotron has been used for extending the series of beta -delayed proton emitters in xenon to masses lighter than those previously observed (/sup 115,117/Xe). Owing to the rapid decrease of the yields, experiments with solid-state counters were inconclusive, and instead a new and much more sensitive method based on nuclear emulsions was developed. The mass range 111-114 showed one new activity, /sup 113/Xe, with a half-life of 2.8+or-0.2 sec. From measurements of the track lengths for a total of 1130 protons from /sup 113/Xe it was possible to determine the energy spectrum. The results extend the systematics of beta -strength functions in the light xenon isotopes. (19 refs).

  16. Use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for the detection and surveillance of marine oil spills in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnay, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discussed the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) deployed by the Belgian Army in order to detect oil spills as well as for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance missions. The UAV are fitted with a dual sensor gyro-stabilized turret which combines a daylight camera and a thermal infrared camera. Live images of the sensors are transmitted in real time to control stations. All Belgian marine pollution surveillance platforms are coordinated by the Maritime Security Center of the Belgian Coast Guard. Satellite surveillance services provide real time information related to potential oil spills and other anomalies on the sea surface. Stand-by helicopters are also used for the rapid assessment of reported spills. The B-Hunter system is undetectable due to its small size and low noise signature, and can be used for the continuous monitoring of specific areas or for the tracking of suspect vessels. The system will also be used to monitor the progress of oil spill response operations as well as to provide information and guidance to response vessels. 6 refs., 2 figs

  17. Use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for the detection and surveillance of marine oil spills in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnay, E. [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) deployed by the Belgian Army in order to detect oil spills as well as for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance missions. The UAV are fitted with a dual sensor gyro-stabilized turret which combines a daylight camera and a thermal infrared camera. Live images of the sensors are transmitted in real time to control stations. All Belgian marine pollution surveillance platforms are coordinated by the Maritime Security Center of the Belgian Coast Guard. Satellite surveillance services provide real time information related to potential oil spills and other anomalies on the sea surface. Stand-by helicopters are also used for the rapid assessment of reported spills. The B-Hunter system is undetectable due to its small size and low noise signature, and can be used for the continuous monitoring of specific areas or for the tracking of suspect vessels. The system will also be used to monitor the progress of oil spill response operations as well as to provide information and guidance to response vessels. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Arbitrary digital pulse sequence generator with delay-loop timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hošák, Radim; Ježek, Miroslav

    2018-04-01

    We propose an idea of an electronic multi-channel arbitrary digital sequence generator with temporal granularity equal to two clock cycles. We implement the generator with 32 channels using a low-cost ARM microcontroller and demonstrate its capability to produce temporal delays ranging from tens of nanoseconds to hundreds of seconds, with 24 ns timing granularity and linear scaling of delay with respect to the number of delay loop iterations. The generator is optionally synchronized with an external clock source to provide 100 ps jitter and overall sequence repeatability within the whole temporal range. The generator is fully programmable and able to produce digital sequences of high complexity. The concept of the generator can be implemented using different microcontrollers and applied for controlling of various optical, atomic, and nuclear physics measurement setups.

  19. Importance of delayed neutron data in transmutation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

    1999-01-01

    The accelerator-driven transmutation system has been studied at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This system is a hybrid system which consists of a high intensity accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical core region. The subcritical core is driven by neutrons generated by spallation reaction in the target region. There is no control rod in this system, so the power is controlled only by proton beam current. The beam current to keep constant power change with effective multiplication factor of subcritical core. So, the evaluation of delayed neutron fraction which is strongly connected to the measurement of subcritical level is important factor in operation of accelerator-driven system. In this paper, important nuclides for the delayed neutron fraction of ADS will be discussed, moreover, present state of delayed neutron data in evaluated nuclear data library is presented. (author)

  20. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector