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Sample records for delayed verbal memory

  1. Magic memories: young children's verbal recall after a 6-year delay.

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    Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the event, including 2 who were under 3 years old when the event occurred. This may be the most convincing evidence to date that such early experiences can be verbally recalled after long delays. These data have important implications for current theories of memory development and childhood amnesia and underscore some of the problems associated with evaluating the veracity of early memories under less controlled conditions. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. The rise and fall of immediate and delayed memory for verbal and visuospatial information from late childhood to late adulthood.

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    Murre, Jaap M J; Janssen, Steve M J; Rouw, Romke; Meeter, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    Over 100,000 verbal and visuospatial immediate and delayed memory tests were presented via the Internet to over 28,000 participants in the age range of 11 to 80. Structural equation modeling pointed to the verbal versus visuospatial dimension as an important factor in individual differences, but not the immediate versus delayed dimension. We found a linear decrease of 1% to 3% per year in overall memory performance past the age of 25. For visuospatial tests, this decrease started at age 18 and was twice as fast as the decrease of verbal memory. There were strong effects of education, with the highest educated group sometimes scoring one full standard deviation above the lowest educated group. Gender effects were small but as expected: women outperformed men on the verbal memory tasks; men outperformed women on the visuospatial tasks. We also found evidence of increasing proneness to false memory with age. Memory for recent news events did not show a decrease with age.

  3. Demand on verbal working memory delays haemodynamic response in the inferior prefrontal cortex.

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    Thierry, Guillaume; Ibarrola, Danielle; Démonet, Jean-François; Cardebat, Dominique

    2003-05-01

    Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to test the involvement of the inferior prefrontal cortex in verbal working memory. Pairs of French nouns were presented to ten native French speakers who had to make semantic or grammatical gender decisions. Verbal working memory involvement was manipulated by making the categorization of the second noun optional. Decisions could be made after processing the first noun only (RELEASE condition) or after processing the two nouns (HOLD condition). Reaction times suggested faster processing for gender than for semantic category in RELEASE. Despite the absence of anatomical difference across tasks and conditions in the wide activated network, the haemodynamic response peak latencies of the inferior prefrontal cortex were significantly delayed in HOLD versus RELEASE while no such peak delay was observed in the superior temporal gyrus. Interestingly, this pattern did not interact with language tasks. This study shows that cognitive manipulation can influence haemodynamic time-course and suggests that the main cognitive process determining inferior prefrontal activation is verbal working memory rather than specific linguistic processes such as grammatical or semantic analysis.

  4. Nicotine effects on immediate and delayed verbal memory after substance use detoxification.

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    Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2011-07-01

    Decrements in verbal memory are commonly reported by detoxified treatment-seeking individuals. Although acute nicotine has been shown to improve attentional performance, its effects on verbal memory in substance abusers have not been addressed. Treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (ALCs, n = 29; 14 male), illicit-stimulant-dependent (predominantly cocaine; STIMs, n = 25; 15 male), and alcohol- and illicit-stimulant-dependent (ALC/STIMs, n = 50; 35 male) participants with comorbid nicotine dependence were studied. Subjects had been abstinent from their drugs of choice for 41 (±18) days and were in short-term abstinence from tobacco (∼8-10 hours). Subjects received double-blind administration of either transdermal nicotine (high dose: 21/14 mg for men and women, respectively, or low dose: 7 mg) or placebo. The Logical Memory (LM) subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) was used to assess immediate and delayed verbal memory recall. Results indicated that STIMs receiving the high dose of nicotine recalled more words at immediate recall than STIMs who received placebo. Trend level differences were also noted at delayed recall between STIM nicotine and placebo doses. Nicotine failed to impact either recall in alcoholic subgroups. Although not the primary focus, results also revealed differences in the forgetting rates between the groups with the ALC/STIMs demonstrating the steepest forgetting slope. In summary, this study suggests that nicotine effects may be differentially experienced by substance-using subgroups; that nicotine may have a direct effect on memory; and that in considering neurocognitive processes (e.g., encoding vs. retrieval), underlying endpoint indicators (e.g., correct recall) may be critical in predicting outcomes.

  5. The rise and fall of immediate and delayed memory for verbal and visuospatial information from late childhood to late adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murre, J.M.J.; Janssen, S.M.J.; Rouw, R.; Meeter, M.

    2013-01-01

    Over 100,000 verbal and visuospatial immediate and delayed memory tests were presented via the Internet to over 28,000 participants in the age range of 11 to 80. Structural equation modeling pointed to the verbal versus visuospatial dimension as an important factor in individual differences, but not

  6. Symptoms of ADHD in children with high-functioning autism are related to impaired verbal working memory and verbal delayed recall.

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    Per Normann Andersen

    Full Text Available Symptoms similar to those found in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD often occur in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. The objective of the current study was to compare verbal working memory, acquisition and delayed recall in children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA to children with ADHD and typically developing children (TDC. Thirty-eight children with HFA, 79 with ADHD and 50 TDC (age 8-17 were assessed with a letter/number sequencing task and a verbal list-learning task. To investigate the possible influence of attention problems in children with HFA, we divided the HFA group into children with (HFA+ or without (HFA- "attention problems" according to the Child Behaviour Checklist 6-18. The children with HFA+ displayed significant impairment compared to TDC on all three neurocognitive measures, while the children with HFA- were significantly impaired compared to TDC only on the working memory and acquisition measures. In addition, the HFA+ group scored significantly below the HFA- group and the ADHD group on the verbal working memory and delayed recall measures. The results support the proposition that children with HFA+, HFA-, and ADHD differ not only on a clinical level but also on a neurocognitive level which may have implications for treatment.

  7. Verbal memory and menopause.

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    Maki, Pauline M

    2015-11-01

    Midlife women frequently report memory problems during the menopausal transition. Recent studies validate those complaints by showing significant correlations between memory complaints and performance on validated memory tasks. Longitudinal studies demonstrate modest declines in verbal memory during the menopausal transition and a likely rebound during the postmenopausal stage. Clinical studies that examine changes in memory following hormonal withdrawal and add-back hormone therapy (HT) demonstrate that estradiol plays a critical role in memory. Although memory changes are frequently attributed to menopausal symptoms, studies show that the memory problems occur during the transition even after controlling for menopausal symptoms. It is well established that self-reported vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are unrelated to objective memory performance. However, emerging evidence suggests that objectively measured VMS significantly correlate with memory performance, brain activity during rest, and white matter hyperintensities. This evidence raises important questions about whether VMS and VMS treatments might affect memory during the menopausal transition. Unfortunately, there are no clinical trials to inform our understanding of how HT affects both memory and objectively measured VMS in women in whom HT is indicated for treatment of moderate to severe VMS. In clinical practice, it is helpful to normalize memory complaints, to note that evidence suggests that memory problems are temporary, and to counsel women with significant VMS that memory might improve with treatment.

  8. Visuospatial and verbal memory in mental arithmetic.

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    Clearman, Jack; Klinger, Vojtěch; Szűcs, Dénes

    2016-08-01

    Working memory allows complex information to be remembered and manipulated over short periods of time. Correlations between working memory and mathematics achievement have been shown across the lifespan. However, only a few studies have examined the potentially distinct contributions of domain-specific visuospatial and verbal working memory resources in mental arithmetic computation. Here we aimed to fill this gap in a series of six experiments pairing addition and subtraction tasks with verbal and visuospatial working memory and interference tasks. In general, we found higher levels of interference between mental arithmetic and visuospatial working memory tasks than between mental arithmetic and verbal working memory tasks. Additionally, we found that interference that matched the working memory domain of the task (e.g., verbal task with verbal interference) lowered working memory performance more than mismatched interference (verbal task with visuospatial interference). Findings suggest that mental arithmetic relies on domain-specific working memory resources.

  9. Ecstasy exposure & gender: examining components of verbal memory functioning.

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    Jenessa S Price

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have demonstrated verbal memory deficits associated with past year ecstasy use, although specific underlying components of these deficits are less understood. Further, prior research suggests potential gender differences in ecstasy-induced serotonergic changes. Therefore, the current study investigated whether gender moderated the relationship between ecstasy exposure and components of verbal memory after controlling for polydrug use and confounding variables. METHOD: Data were collected from 65 polydrug users with a wide range of ecstasy exposure (ages 18-35; 48 ecstasy and 17 marijuana users; 0-2310 ecstasy tablets. Participants completed a verbal learning and memory task, psychological questionnaires, and a drug use interview. RESULTS: Increased past year ecstasy exposure predicted poorer short and long delayed free and cued recalls, retention, and recall discrimination. Male ecstasy users were more susceptible to dose-dependent deficits in retention than female users. CONCLUSION: Past year ecstasy consumption was associated with verbal memory retrieval, retention, and discrimination deficits in a dose-dependent manner in a sample of healthy young adult polydrug users. Male ecstasy users were at particular risk for deficits in retention following a long delay. Gender difference may be reflective of different patterns of polydrug use as well as increased hippocampal sensitivity. Future research examining neuronal correlates of verbal memory deficits in ecstasy users are needed.

  10. Assessing the aging effect on auditory-verbal memory by Persian version of dichotic auditory verbal memory test

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    Zahra Shahidipour

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, significant reduction in auditory memory was seen in aged group and the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test, like many other auditory verbal memory tests, showed the aging effects on auditory verbal memory performance.

  11. Verbal Memory Abilities in Severe Childhood Psychiatric Disorders and the Influence of Attention and Executive Functions.

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    Kavanaugh, Brian C; Gaudet, Charles E; Dupont-Frechette, Jennifer A; Tellock, Perrin P; Maher, Isolde D; Haisley, Lauren D; Holler, Karen A

    2016-04-28

    Despite prior adult research regarding the influence of executive functions on memory performance, there has been inconsistent prior research on the role of executive functions on memory performance in children, particularly those children with severe psychiatric disorders. A medical chart review was conducted for 76 children (ages 6-12 years) who received a neuropsychological evaluation during children's psychiatric inpatient program hospitalization. A series of hierarchical regression analyses investigated the role of attention/executive and non-executive functions in verbal memory performance (immediate recall, delayed recall, and delayed recognition). Demographic and verbal measures were entered into blocks 1 and 2 for all analyses, followed by attention and executive functions (i.e., attention span, sustained attention, verbal fluency, cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, and planning/organization). Nearly 15% of the participants displayed memory impairment. Results of regression analyses indicated attention/executive dysfunction severity predicted overall memory performance. Attention span predicted performance on all three memory conditions. Planning/organization accounted for unique variance in immediate recall condition while inhibitory control accounted for unique variance in delayed recall condition. These results indicate that verbal memory problems frequently occur in severe childhood psychiatric disorders. Further, planning/organization deficits may influence immediate recall, while inhibitory control deficits may influence delayed recall. Alternatively, delayed recognition memory may be the most resistant to the negative influence of executive deficits on verbal memory performance in childhood psychiatric disorders.

  12. Aging and verbal working memory capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Kralingen, R.B.A.S. van

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The development of verbal working memory capacity over time was investigated. xxx Methods. Four different age groups were tested with the new standard computerized version of the reading span test (Van den Noort et al., 2006, 2008). xxx Results. Compared to the young adults, the old adu

  13. Musical and verbal semantic memory: two distinct neural networks?

    OpenAIRE

    Groussard, Mathilde; Viader, Fausto; Hubert, Valérie; Landeau, Brigitte; Abbas, Ahmed; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis; Platel, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Semantic memory has been investigated in numerous neuroimaging and clinical studies, most of which have used verbal or visual, but only very seldom, musical material. Clinical studies have suggested that there is a relative neural independence between verbal and musical semantic memory. In the present study, "musical semantic memory" is defined as memory for "well-known" melodies without any knowledge of the spatial or temporal circumstances of learning, while "verbal ...

  14. Contributions of Language and Memory Demands to Verbal Memory Performance in Language-Learning Disabilities

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    Isaki, Emi; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of adults with language-based learning disorders (L/LD) and normal language controls on verbal short-term and verbal working memory tasks. Eighteen adults with L/LD and 18 normal language controls were compared on verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory tasks under low,…

  15. Visuospatial and verbal working memory load: effects on visuospatial vigilance.

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    Helton, William S; Russell, Paul N

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of concurrent verbal and visuospatial working memory demands on performance of a visuospatial successive target detection task. Three hundred and four participants performed a visuospatial vigilance task while simultaneously performing either a spatial or verbal working memory task that either required a memory load during the vigil or did not require a memory load during the vigil. Perceptual sensitivity A' to vigilance target stimuli was reduced by concurrent memory load, both verbal and visuospatial. The decline in perceptual sensitivity to vigilance targets, the vigilance decrement, was steeper for a visuospatial memory task than a verbal memory task, regardless of concurrent memory load. Memory performance after vigilance detection trials was much lower for visuospatial than verbal items, even though memory performance before vigilance detection trials was higher for visuospatial than verbal items. Together, this indicates increased interference when a visuospatial vigilance task is paired with a visuospatial memory task, than when paired with a verbal memory task. Overall, the visuospatial and verbal working memory loads both impacted vigilance target detection, suggesting utilization of common executive resources. There may, however, be domain specific interference, and this may be exacerbated for two visuospatial tasks.

  16. Keeping Timbre in Mind: Working Memory for Complex Sounds that Can't Be Verbalized

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    Golubock, Jason L.; Janata, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Properties of auditory working memory for sounds that lack strong semantic associations and are not readily verbalized or sung are poorly understood. We investigated auditory working memory capacity for lists containing 2-6 easily discriminable abstract sounds synthesized within a constrained timbral space, at delays of 1-6 s (Experiment 1), and…

  17. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

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    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues.

  18. Predictors of Verbal Working Memory in Children with Cerebral Palsy

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    Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the precursors of verbal working memory in 52 children with cerebral palsy with varying degrees of speech impairments in the first grade of special education. Following Baddeley's model of working memory, children's verbal working memory was measured by means of a forced-recognition task. As precursors…

  19. Predictors of Verbal Working Memory in Children with Cerebral Palsy

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    Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the precursors of verbal working memory in 52 children with cerebral palsy with varying degrees of speech impairments in the first grade of special education. Following Baddeley's model of working memory, children's verbal working memory was measured by means of a forced-recognition task. As precursors…

  20. Music training is associated with cortical synchronization reflected in EEG coherence during verbal memory encoding

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    Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Liu, Ying; Law, Derry; Wong, Christina W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Music training can improve cognitive functions. Previous studies have shown that children and adults with music training demonstrate better verbal learning and memory performance than those without such training. Although prior studies have shown an association between music training and changes in the structural and functional organization of the brain, there is no concrete evidence of the underlying neural correlates of the verbal memory encoding phase involved in such enhanced memory performance. Therefore, we carried out an electroencephalography (EEG) study to investigate how music training was associated with brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 of whom had received music training for at least one year (the MT group) and 30 of whom had never received music training (the NMT group). The participants in the two groups were matched for age, education, gender distribution, and cognitive capability. Their verbal and visual memory functions were assessed using standardized neuropsychological tests and EEG was used to record their brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Consistent with previous studies, the MT group demonstrated better verbal memory than the NMT group during both the learning and the delayed recall trials in the paper-and-pencil tests. The MT group also exhibited greater learning capacity during the learning trials. Compared with the NMT group, the MT group showed an increase in long-range left and right intrahemispheric EEG coherence in the theta frequency band during the verbal memory encoding phase. In addition, their event-related left intrahemispheric theta coherence was positively associated with subsequent verbal memory performance as measured by discrimination scores. These results suggest that music training may modulate the cortical synchronization of the neural networks involved in verbal memory formation. PMID:28358852

  1. Music training is associated with cortical synchronization reflected in EEG coherence during verbal memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S; Liu, Ying; Law, Derry; Wong, Christina W Y

    2017-01-01

    Music training can improve cognitive functions. Previous studies have shown that children and adults with music training demonstrate better verbal learning and memory performance than those without such training. Although prior studies have shown an association between music training and changes in the structural and functional organization of the brain, there is no concrete evidence of the underlying neural correlates of the verbal memory encoding phase involved in such enhanced memory performance. Therefore, we carried out an electroencephalography (EEG) study to investigate how music training was associated with brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 of whom had received music training for at least one year (the MT group) and 30 of whom had never received music training (the NMT group). The participants in the two groups were matched for age, education, gender distribution, and cognitive capability. Their verbal and visual memory functions were assessed using standardized neuropsychological tests and EEG was used to record their brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Consistent with previous studies, the MT group demonstrated better verbal memory than the NMT group during both the learning and the delayed recall trials in the paper-and-pencil tests. The MT group also exhibited greater learning capacity during the learning trials. Compared with the NMT group, the MT group showed an increase in long-range left and right intrahemispheric EEG coherence in the theta frequency band during the verbal memory encoding phase. In addition, their event-related left intrahemispheric theta coherence was positively associated with subsequent verbal memory performance as measured by discrimination scores. These results suggest that music training may modulate the cortical synchronization of the neural networks involved in verbal memory formation.

  2. The role of verbal labels on flexible memory retrieval at 12-months of age.

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    Taylor, Gemma; Liu, Hao; Herbert, Jane S

    2016-11-01

    The provision of verbal labels enhances 12-month-old infants' memory flexibility across a form change in a puppet imitation task (Herbert, 2011), although the mechanisms for this effect remain unclear. Here we investigate whether verbal labels can scaffold flexible memory retrieval when task difficulty increases and consider the mechanism responsible for the effect of language cues on early memory flexibility. Twelve-month-old infants were provided with English, Chinese, or empty language cues during a difficult imitation task, a combined change in the puppet's colour and form at the test (Hayne et al., 1997). Imitation performance by infants in the English language condition only exceeded baseline performance after the 10-min delay. Thus, verbal labels facilitated flexible memory retrieval on this task. There were no correlations between infants' language comprehension and imitation performance. Thus, it is likely that verbal labels facilitate both attention and categorisation during encoding and retrieval.

  3. Musical and verbal semantic memory: two distinct neural networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groussard, M; Viader, F; Hubert, V; Landeau, B; Abbas, A; Desgranges, B; Eustache, F; Platel, H

    2010-02-01

    Semantic memory has been investigated in numerous neuroimaging and clinical studies, most of which have used verbal or visual, but only very seldom, musical material. Clinical studies have suggested that there is a relative neural independence between verbal and musical semantic memory. In the present study, "musical semantic memory" is defined as memory for "well-known" melodies without any knowledge of the spatial or temporal circumstances of learning, while "verbal semantic memory" corresponds to general knowledge about concepts, again without any knowledge of the spatial or temporal circumstances of learning. Our aim was to compare the neural substrates of musical and verbal semantic memory by administering the same type of task in each modality. We used high-resolution PET H(2)O(15) to observe 11 young subjects performing two main tasks: (1) a musical semantic memory task, where the subjects heard the first part of familiar melodies and had to decide whether the second part they heard matched the first, and (2) a verbal semantic memory task with the same design, but where the material consisted of well-known expressions or proverbs. The musical semantic memory condition activated the superior temporal area and inferior and middle frontal areas in the left hemisphere and the inferior frontal area in the right hemisphere. The verbal semantic memory condition activated the middle temporal region in the left hemisphere and the cerebellum in the right hemisphere. We found that the verbal and musical semantic processes activated a common network extending throughout the left temporal neocortex. In addition, there was a material-dependent topographical preference within this network, with predominantly anterior activation during musical tasks and predominantly posterior activation during semantic verbal tasks. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of Musical Training on Verbal Memory

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    Franklin, Michael S.; Moore, Katherine Sledge; Yip, Chun-Yu; Jonides, John; Rattray, Katie; Moher, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies suggest a link between musical training and general cognitive abilities. Despite some positive results, there is disagreement about which abilities are improved. One line of research leads to the hypothesis that verbal abilities in general, and verbal memory in particular, are related to musical training. In the present…

  5. The Effects of Musical Training on Verbal Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Michael S.; Moore, Katherine Sledge; Yip, Chun-Yu; Jonides, John; Rattray, Katie; Moher, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies suggest a link between musical training and general cognitive abilities. Despite some positive results, there is disagreement about which abilities are improved. One line of research leads to the hypothesis that verbal abilities in general, and verbal memory in particular, are related to musical training. In the present…

  6. Music lessons are associated with increased verbal memory in individuals with Williams syndrome.

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    Dunning, Brittany A; Martens, Marilee A; Jungers, Melissa K

    2014-11-16

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual delay and an affinity for music. It has been previously shown that familiar music can enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS who have had music training. There is also evidence that unfamiliar, or novel, music may also improve cognitive recall. This study was designed to examine if a novel melody could also enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS, and to more fully characterize music training in this population. We presented spoken or sung sentences that described an animal and its group name to 44 individuals with WS, and then tested their immediate and delayed memory using both recall and multiple choice formats. Those with formal music training (average duration of training 4½ years) scored significantly higher on both the spoken and sung recall items, as well as on the spoken multiple choice items, than those with no music training. Music therapy, music enjoyment, age, and Verbal IQ did not impact performance on the memory tasks. These findings provide further evidence that formal music lessons may impact the neurological pathways associated with verbal memory in individuals with WS, consistent with findings in typically developing individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cerebellar Damage Produces Selective Deficits in Verbal Working Memory

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    Ravizza, Susan M.; Mccormick, Cristin A.; Schlerf, John E.; Justus, Timothy; Ivry, Richard B.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    The cerebellum is often active in imaging studies of verbal working memory, consistent with a putative role in articulatory rehearsal. While patients with cerebellar damage occasionally exhibit a mild impairment on standard neuropsychological tests of working memory, these tests are not diagnostic for exploring these processes in detail. The…

  8. Impaired verbal memory in Parkinson disease: relationship to prefrontal dysfunction and somatosensory discrimination

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    Weniger Dorothea

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To study the neurocognitive profile and its relationship to prefrontal dysfunction in non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD with deficient haptic perception. Methods Twelve right-handed patients with PD and 12 healthy control subjects underwent thorough neuropsychological testing including Rey complex figure, Rey auditory verbal and figural learning test, figural and verbal fluency, and Stroop test. Test scores reflecting significant differences between patients and healthy subjects were correlated with the individual expression coefficients of one principal component, obtained in a principal component analysis of an oxygen-15-labeled water PET study exploring somatosensory discrimination that differentiated between the two groups and involved prefrontal cortices. Results We found significantly decreased total scores for the verbal learning trials and verbal delayed free recall in PD patients compared with normal volunteers. Further analysis of these parameters using Spearman's ranking correlation showed a significantly negative correlation of deficient verbal recall with expression coefficients of the principal component whose image showed a subcortical-cortical network, including right dorsolateral-prefrontal cortex, in PD patients. Conclusion PD patients with disrupted right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex function and associated diminished somatosensory discrimination are impaired also in verbal memory functions. A negative correlation between delayed verbal free recall and PET activation in a network including the prefrontal cortices suggests that verbal cues and accordingly declarative memory processes may be operative in PD during activities that demand sustained attention such as somatosensory discrimination. Verbal cues may be compensatory in nature and help to non-specifically enhance focused attention in the presence of a functionally disrupted prefrontal cortex.

  9. White matter microstructure complements morphometry for predicting verbal memory in epilepsy.

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    McDonald, Carrie R; Leyden, Kelly M; Hagler, Donald J; Kucukboyaci, Nuri E; Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Tecoma, Evelyn S; Iragui, Vicente J

    2014-09-01

    Verbal memory is the most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Although damage to the hippocampus and adjacent temporal lobe structures is known to contribute to memory impairment, little is known of the relative contributions of white versus gray matter structures, or whether microstructural versus morphometric measures of temporal lobe pathology are stronger predictors of impairment. We evaluate whether measures of temporal lobe pathology derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI; microstructural) versus structural MRI (sMRI; morphometric) contribute the most to memory performances in TLE, after controlling for hippocampal volume (HCV). DTI and sMRI were performed on 26 patients with TLE and 35 controls. Verbal memory was measured with the Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to examine unique contributions of DTI and sMRI measures to verbal memory with HCV entered in block 1. In patients, impaired recall was associated with increased mean diffusivity (MD) of multiple fiber tracts that project through the temporal lobes. In addition, increased MD of the left cortical and bilateral pericortical white matter was associated with impaired recall. After controlling for left HCV, only microstructural measures of white matter pathology contributed to verbal recall. The best predictive model included left HCV and MD of the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and pericortical white matter beneath the left entorhinal cortex. This model explained 60% of the variance in delayed recall and revealed that MD of the left ILF was the strongest predictor. These data reveal that white matter microstructure within the temporal lobe can be used in conjunction with left HCV to enhance the prediction of verbal memory impairment, and speak to the complementary nature of DTI and sMRI for understanding cognitive dysfunction in epilepsy and possibly other memory

  10. Cerebral Glucose Metabolism is Associated with Verbal but not Visual Memory Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

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    Gardener, Samantha L; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Shen, Kai-Kai; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Weinborn, Michael; Bates, Kristyn A; Shah, Tejal; Foster, Jonathan K; Lenzo, Nat; Salvado, Olivier; Laske, Christoph; Laws, Simon M; Taddei, Kevin; Verdile, Giuseppe; Martins, Ralph N

    2016-03-31

    Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) sufferers show region-specific reductions in cerebral glucose metabolism, as measured by [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET). We investigated preclinical disease stage by cross-sectionally examining the association between global cognition, verbal and visual memory, and 18F-FDG PET standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) in 43 healthy control individuals, subsequently focusing on differences between subjective memory complainers and non-memory complainers. The 18F-FDG PET regions of interest investigated include the hippocampus, amygdala, posterior cingulate, superior parietal, entorhinal cortices, frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and inferior parietal region. In the cohort as a whole, verbal logical memory immediate recall was positively associated with 18F-FDG PET SUVR in both the left hippocampus and right amygdala. There were no associations observed between global cognition, delayed recall in logical memory, or visual reproduction and 18F-FDG PET SUVR. Following stratification of the cohort into subjective memory complainers and non-complainers, verbal logical memory immediate recall was positively associated with 18F-FDG PET SUVR in the right amygdala in those with subjective memory complaints. There were no significant associations observed in non-memory complainers between 18F-FDG PET SUVR in regions of interest and cognitive performance. We observed subjective memory complaint-specific associations between 18F-FDG PET SUVR and immediate verbal memory performance in our cohort, however found no associations between delayed recall of verbal memory performance or visual memory performance. It is here argued that the neural mechanisms underlying verbal and visual memory performance may in fact differ in their pathways, and the characteristic reduction of 18F-FDG PET SUVR observed in this and previous studies likely reflects the pathophysiological changes in specific

  11. Neural Correlates of Verbal Episodic Memory and Lexical Retrieval in Logopenic Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia

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    Khaing T. Win

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA is commonly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology. But lvPPA patients display different cognitive and anatomical profile from the common clinical AD patients, whose verbal episodic memory is primarily affected. Reports of verbal episodic memory difficulty in lvPPA are inconsistent, and we hypothesized that their lexical retrieval impairment contributes to verbal episodic memory performance and is associated with left middle temporal gyrus atrophy.Methods: We evaluated patients with lvPPA (n = 12 displaying prominent word-finding and repetition difficulties, and a demographically-matched cohort of clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 26, and healthy seniors (n = 16. We assessed lexical retrieval with confrontation naming and verbal episodic memory with delayed free recall. Whole-brain regressions related naming and delayed free recall to gray matter atrophy. Medial temporal lobe (MTL subfields were examined using high in-plane resolution imaging.Results: lvPPA patients had naming and delayed free recall impairments, but intact recognition memory. In lvPPA, delayed free recall was related to naming; both were associated with left middle temporal gyrus atrophy but not MTL atrophy. Despite cerebrospinal fluid evidence consistent with AD pathology, examination of MTL subfields revealed no atrophy in lvPPA. While AD patients displayed impaired delayed free recall, this deficit did not correlate with naming. Regression analyses related delayed free recall deficits in clinical AD patients to MTL subfield atrophy, and naming to left middle temporal gyrus atrophy.Conclusion: Unlike amnestic AD patients, MTL subfields were not affected in lvPPA patients. Verbal episodic memory deficit observed in lvPPA was unlikely to be due to a hippocampal-mediated mechanism but appeared to be due to poor lexical retrieval. Relative sparing of MTL volume and intact recognition memory are

  12. [Repeated measurement of memory with valenced test items: verbal memory, working memory and autobiographic memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffel, A; Terfehr, K; Uhlmann, C; Schreiner, J; Löwe, B; Spitzer, C; Wingenfeld, K

    2013-07-01

    A large number of questions in clinical and/or experimental neuropsychology require the multiple repetition of memory tests at relatively short intervals. Studies on the impact of the associated exercise and interference effects on the validity of the test results are rare. Moreover, hardly any neuropsychological instruments exist to date to record the memory performance with several parallel versions in which the emotional valence of the test material is also taken into consideration. The aim of the present study was to test whether a working memory test (WST, a digit-span task with neutral or negative distraction stimuli) devised by our workgroup can be used with repeated measurements. This question was also examined in parallel versions of a wordlist learning paradigm and an autobiographical memory test (AMT). Both tests contained stimuli with neutral, positive and negative valence. Twenty-four participants completed the memory testing including the working memory test and three versions of a wordlist and the AMT at intervals of a week apiece (measuring points 1. - 3.). The results reveal consistent performances across the three measuring points in the working and autobiographical memory test. The valence of the stimulus material did not influence the memory performance. In the delayed recall of the wordlist an improvement in memory performance over time was seen. The tests on working memory presented and the parallel versions for the declarative and autobiographical memory constitute informal economic instruments within the scope of the measurement repeatability designs. While the WST and AMT are appropriate for study designs with repeated measurements at relatively short intervals, longer intervals might seem more favourable for the use of wordlist learning paradigms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Effect of Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation on Verbal Episodic Memory in Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro; Kaneko, Jun; Kurashige, Hiroki; Cao, Yuan; Satsu, Hideo; Totsuka, Mamoru; Katakura, Yoshinori; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to determine whether or not anserine/carnosine supplementation (ACS) is capable of preserving cognitive function of elderly people. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, volunteers were randomly assigned to an ACS or placebo group at a 1:1 ratio. The ACS group took 1.0 g of an anserine/carnosine (3:1) formula daily for 3 months. Participants were evaluated by psychological tests before and after the 3-month supplementation period. Thirty-nine healthy elderly volunteers (60–78 years old) completed the follow-up tests. Among the tests, delayed recall verbal memory assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Logical Memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0128). Blood analysis revealed a decreased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including CCL-2 and IL-8, in the ACS group. MRI analysis using arterial spin labeling showed a suppression in the age-related decline in brain blood flow in the posterior cingulate cortex area in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0248). In another randomized controlled trial, delayed recall verbal memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0202). These results collectively suggest that ACS may preserve verbal episodic memory and brain perfusion in elderly people, although further study is needed. PMID:26682691

  14. Verbal Working Memory and Story Retelling in School-Age Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabig, Cheryl Smith

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined verbal working memory and language ability in 15 school-age children with autism using 3 verbal working memory tasks and 1 story recall task. Method: Three measures of verbal working memory--nonword repetition, memory for digits span, and sentence imitation--were given to children with autism and age-matched controls.…

  15. Effect of background music on auditory-verbal memory performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Matloubi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Music exists in all cultures; many scientists are seeking to understand how music effects cognitive development such as comprehension, memory, and reading skills. More recently, a considerable number of neuroscience studies on music have been developed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of null and positive background music in comparison with silence on auditory-verbal memory performance.Methods: Forty young adults (male and female with normal hearing, aged between 18 and 26, participated in this comparative-analysis study. An auditory and speech evaluation was conducted in order to investigate the effects of background music on working memory. Subsequently, the Rey auditory-verbal learning test was performed for three conditions: silence, positive, and null music.Results: The mean score of the Rey auditory-verbal learning test in silence condition was higher than the positive music condition (p=0.003 and the null music condition (p=0.01. The tests results did not reveal any gender differences.Conclusion: It seems that the presence of competitive music (positive and null music and the orientation of auditory attention have negative effects on the performance of verbal working memory. It is possibly owing to the intervention of music with verbal information processing in the brain.

  16. Visuospatial and Verbal Short-Term Memory Correlates of Vocabulary Ability in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Stephanie F; Klee, Thomas; Kornisch, Myriam; Furlong, Lisa

    2017-08-16

    Recent studies indicate that school-age children's patterns of performance on measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) differ across types of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because these disorders are often characterized by early language delay, administering STM and WM tests to toddlers could improve prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Toddler-appropriate verbal, but not visuospatial, STM and WM tasks are available. A toddler-appropriate visuospatial STM test is introduced. Tests of verbal STM, visuospatial STM, expressive vocabulary, and receptive vocabulary were administered to 92 English-speaking children aged 2-5 years. Mean test scores did not differ for boys and girls. Visuospatial and verbal STM scores were not significantly correlated when age was partialed out. Age, visuospatial STM scores, and verbal STM scores accounted for unique variance in expressive (51%, 3%, and 4%, respectively) and receptive vocabulary scores (53%, 5%, and 2%, respectively) in multiple regression analyses. Replication studies, a fuller test battery comprising visuospatial and verbal STM and WM tests, and a general intelligence test are required before exploring the usefulness of these STM tests for predicting longitudinal outcomes. The lack of an association between the STM tests suggests that the instruments have face validity and test independent STM skills.

  17. A multiple case study of verbal short-term memory in velo-cardio-facial syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Majerus, Steve; Glaser, B.; Van der Linden, Martial; Eliez, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS, 22q11.2 deletion) is characterized by severely delayed language development. The current study explored the integrity of verbal short-term memory (STM), a cognitive function critically involved in language development, in eight children with VCFS. Methods: Using a multiple case study design, we presented a series of STM tasks exploring immediate serial recall for word and non-word lists to eight children with VCFS (aged 8 - 12 years) and to chron...

  18. Improvement in verbal memory performance in depressed in-patients after treatment with electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, S V; Bumb, J M; Demirakca, T; Ende, G; Sartorius, A

    2016-12-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and well-tolerated therapy for severe and treatment-resistant depression. Cognitive side-effects are still feared by some patients and clinicians. Importantly, cognitive impairments are among the most disabling symptoms of depression itself. Patients suffering from a severe episode of depression were treated with either ECT or treatment as usual (TAU) in an in-patient setting. Matched healthy participants served as controls (HC). Verbal memory was tested with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) before the specific treatment started (ECT = 15, TAU = 16, HC = 31) and 2 months after the last ECT session or 2 months after discharge respectively. Before the specific treatment started, depressed patients performed substantially worse compared with HC in total, short- and long-delay recall in the CVLT, while the ECT group showed the worst performance. More severely depressed patients showed worse performances in these measures. Intriguingly, verbal memory showed a significant improvement in ECT-treated patients, but not in the other groups. No differences between the groups were found at follow-up. Contrary to the widely feared assumption that ECT has long-term impact on memory functions, we found evidence that ECT is superior to TAU in improving verbal memory in depressed patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effect of background music on auditory-verbal memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sona Matloubi; Ali Mohammadzadeh; Zahra Jafari; Alireza Akbarzade Baghban

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Music exists in all cultures; many scientists are seeking to understand how music effects cognitive development such as comprehension, memory, and reading skills. More recently, a considerable number of neuroscience studies on music have been developed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of null and positive background music in comparison with silence on auditory-verbal memory performance.Methods: Forty young adults (male and female) with normal hearing, aged betw...

  20. Verbal Fluency and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Adults with Down Syndrome and Unspecified Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavroussi, Panayiota; Andreou, Georgia; Karagiannopoulou, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine verbal fluency and verbal short-term memory in 12 adults with Down syndrome (DS) and 12 adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) of unspecified origin, matched for receptive vocabulary and chronological age. Participants' performance was assessed on two conditions of a verbal fluency test, namely, semantic…

  1. Asymmetric binding in serial memory for verbal and spatial information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerard, Katherine; Morey, Candice C.; Lagace, Sebastien; Tremblay, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    As the number of studies showing that items can be retained as bound representations in memory increases, researchers are beginning to investigate how the different features are bound together. In the present study, we examined the relative importances of the verbal and spatial features in serial me

  2. Genetic structure of spatial and verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, J; Ono, Y; Wright, M J

    2001-11-01

    Working memory (WM) encompasses both short-term memory (storage) and executive functions that play an essential role in all forms of cognition. In this study, the genetic structure of storage and executive functions engaged in both a spatial and verbal WM span task is investigated using a twin sample. The sample consists of 143 monozygotic (MZ) and 93 dizygotic (DZ) Japanese twin pairs, ages 16 to 29 years. In 155 (87 MZ, 62 DZ) of these pairs, cognitive ability scores from the Kyodai Japanese IQ test are also obtained. The phenotypic relationship between WM and cognitive ability is confirmed (r = 0.26-0.44). Individual differences in WM storage and executive functions are found to be significantly influenced by genes, with heritability estimates all moderately high (43%-49%), and estimates for cognitive ability comparable to previous studies (65%). A large part of the genetic variance in storage and executive functions in both spatial and verbal modalities is due to a common genetic factor that accounts for 11% to 43% of the variance. In the reduced sample, this common genetic factor accounts for 64% and 26% of the variance in spatial and verbal cognitive ability, respectively. Additional genetic variance in WM (7%-30%) is due to modality specific factors (spatial and verbal) and a storage specific factor that may be particularly important for the verbal modality. None of the variance in cognitive ability is accounted for by the modality and storage genetic factors, suggesting these may be specific to WM.

  3. Updating verbal and visuospatial working memory: Are the processes parallel?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE ZhenZhu; ZHANG Ming; ZHOU XiaoLin

    2008-01-01

    The current study compared the processes of updating verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) and examined the roles of central executive and slave systems in working memory updating tasks, by changing the number of items updated simultaneously to manipulate the load on central executive. Ex-periment 1 used the verbal WM updating task, and the results validated the efficiency of the paradigm to manipulate the load on central executive. Experiment 2 employed the verbal WM updating task, with the articulatory suppression task to interfere with the phonological loop. The results supported the study by Morris and Jones, revealing that the central executive system played an important role in the updating component of verbal WM, while the phonological loop was responsible for the serial recall component. Experiment 3 employed the visuospatial WM updating task, with the spatial tapping task to interfere with the visuospatial sketchpad. The results suggested that the visuospatial sketchpad and the central execu-tive together dealt with the updating component, while the visuospatial sketchpad was responsible for the serial recall component by itself. These results are consistent with the findings that visuospatial sketch-pad has close links with central executive, while the phonological loop is separated from the central ex-ecutive. It suggests that updating visuospatial and verbal WM are not two parallel processes.

  4. Verbal redundancy aids memory for filmed entertainment dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkin, Michael P; Harris, Richard J; Miranda, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    Three studies investigated the effects of presentation modality and redundancy of verbal content on recognition memory for entertainment film dialogue. U.S. participants watched two brief movie clips and afterward answered multiple-choice questions about information from the dialogue. Experiment 1 compared recognition memory for spoken dialogue in the native language (English) with subtitles in English, French, or no subtitles. Experiment 2 compared memory for material in English subtitles with spoken dialogue in English, French, or no sound. Experiment 3 examined three control conditions with no spoken or captioned material in the native language. All participants watched the same video clips and answered the same questions. Performance was consistently good whenever English dialogue appeared in either the subtitles or sound, and best of all when it appeared in both, supporting the facilitation of verbal redundancy. Performance was also better when English was only in the subtitles than when it was only spoken. Unexpectedly, sound or subtitles in an unfamiliar language (French) modestly improved performance, as long as there was also a familiar channel. Results extend multimedia research on verbal redundancy for expository material to verbal information in entertainment media.

  5. Development of a new Delayed Memory Index for the WMS-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Chelune, Gordon J; Price, Larry R

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents the Delayed Memory Index (DMI) as an alternative to the General Memory Index (GMI) of the Weschler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WMS-III). The WMS-III Immediate Memory Index (IMI) and the GMI are not parallel in structure, making a direct comparison between these index scores (i.e., immediate vs. delayed memory variables) difficult. The IMI is composed of the sum of scaled scores of four subtests (Logical Memory I, Verbal Paired Associates I, Faces I, and Family Pictures I) while the GMI is composed of the sum of scaled scores of five subtests (Logical Memory II, Verbal Paired Associates II, Faces II, Family Pictures II and Auditory Recognition Delayed). Inclusion of Auditory Recognition Delayed in the GMI is also problematic as it is highly skewed and limited by extreme ceiling effects (see Tulsky, Chiaravalloti, Palmer, & Chelune, 2003). To remedy these problems, we present a new index score that does not include auditory recognition, the Delayed Memory Index. Normative tables for the new Delayed Memory Index based on the inclusion of the Faces subtest, or alternatively the Visual Reproduction subtest, are presented, and initial estimates of their psychometric properties are described.

  6. Treating verbal working memory in a boy with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita eOrsolini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present case study investigates the effects of a cognitive training of verbal working memory that was proposed for Davide, a fourteen-year-old boy diagnosed with mild intellectual disability. The program stimulated attention, inhibition, switching, and the ability to engage either in verbal dual tasks or in producing inferences after the content of a short passage had been encoded in episodic memory. Key elements in our program included (1 core training of target cognitive mechanisms; (2 guided practice emphasizing concrete strategies to engage in exercises; and (3 a variable amount of adult support. The study explored whether such a complex program produced near transfer effects on an untrained dual task assessing verbal working memory and whether effects on this and other target cognitive mechanisms (i.e., attention, inhibition and switching were long-lasting and produced far transfer effects on cognitive flexibility. The effects of the intervention program were investigated with a research design consisting of four subsequent phases lasting eight or ten weeks, each preceded and followed by testing. There was a control condition (phase 1 in which the boy received, at home, a stimulation focused on the visuospatial domain. Subsequently, there were three experimental training phases, in which stimulation in the verbal domain was first focused on attention and inhibition (phase 2a, then on switching and simple working memory tasks (phase 2b, then on complex working memory tasks (phase 3. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered before and after each training phase and seven months after the conclusion of the intervention. The main finding was that Davide changed from being incapable of addressing the dual task request of the listening span test in the initial assessment to performing close to the normal limits of a thirteen-year-old boy in the follow-up assessment with this test, when he was fifteen years old.

  7. Motor system contributions to verbal and non-verbal working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana A Liao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM involves the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in mind. Neuroimaging studies have shown that secondary motor areas activate during WM for verbal content (e.g., words or letters, in the absence of primary motor area activation. This activation pattern may reflect an inner speech mechanism supporting online phonological rehearsal. Here, we examined the causal relationship between motor system activity and WM processing by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to manipulate motor system activity during WM rehearsal. We tested WM performance for verbalizable (words and pseudowords and non-verbalizable (Chinese characters visual information. We predicted that disruption of motor circuits would specifically affect WM processing of verbalizable information. We found that TMS targeting motor cortex slowed response times on verbal WM trials with high (pseudoword vs. low (real word phonological load. However, non-verbal WM trials were also significantly slowed with motor TMS. WM performance was unaffected by sham stimulation or TMS over visual cortex. Self-reported use of motor strategy predicted the degree of motor stimulation disruption on WM performance. These results provide evidence of the motor system’s contributions to verbal and non-verbal WM processing. We speculate that the motor system supports WM by creating motor traces consistent with the type of information being rehearsed during maintenance.

  8. Auditory and verbal memory predictors of spoken language skills in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, Brigitte E; Langereis, Margreet C; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Keuning, Jos; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-10-01

    Large variability in individual spoken language outcomes remains a persistent finding in the group of children with cochlear implants (CIs), particularly in their grammatical development. In the present study, we examined the extent of delay in lexical and morphosyntactic spoken language levels of children with CIs as compared to those of a normative sample of age-matched children with normal hearing. Furthermore, the predictive value of auditory and verbal memory factors in the spoken language performance of implanted children was analyzed. Thirty-nine profoundly deaf children with CIs were assessed using a test battery including measures of lexical, grammatical, auditory and verbal memory tests. Furthermore, child-related demographic characteristics were taken into account. The majority of the children with CIs did not reach age-equivalent lexical and morphosyntactic language skills. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that lexical spoken language performance in children with CIs was best predicted by age at testing, phoneme perception, and auditory word closure. The morphosyntactic language outcomes of the CI group were best predicted by lexicon, auditory word closure, and auditory memory for words. Qualitatively good speech perception skills appear to be crucial for lexical and grammatical development in children with CIs. Furthermore, strongly developed vocabulary skills and verbal memory abilities predict morphosyntactic language skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Age-related effects on verbal and visuospatial memory are mediated by theta and alpha II rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Johanna Louise; Kober, Silvia Erika; Witte, Matthias; Neuper, Christa; Wood, Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Both electrical brain activity during rest and memory functions change across the lifespan. Moreover, electrical brain activity is associated with memory functions. However, the interplay between all these effects has been investigated only scarcely. The present study investigated the extent to which the power of resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) frequencies mediates the impact of aging on verbal and visuospatial memory. Seventy healthy participants with 22 to 83years of age completed a visuospatial and verbal learning and memory test and provided eyes-open and eyes-closed resting-state EEG data. Robust age-related effects on behavioral and EEG data were observed. Mediation analyses showed that the relative power of the theta (4-8Hz) frequency band in fronto-central locations partly explained the negative age-related effect on delayed recall in the verbal memory task. The relative power of the alpha II (10-12Hz) frequency band in mainly parietal locations partly explained the negative impact of age on immediate and delayed recall in the visuospatial task. Results indicate that spontaneous brain activity carries specific information about aging processes and predicts the level of competence in verbal and visuospatial memory tasks.

  10. Verbal Memory Impairment in Polydrug Ecstasy Users: A Clinical Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim P C Kuypers

    Full Text Available Ecstasy use has been associated with short-term and long-term memory deficits on a standard Word Learning Task (WLT. The clinical relevance of this has been debated and is currently unknown. The present study aimed at evaluating the clinical relevance of verbal memory impairment in Ecstasy users. To that end, clinical memory impairment was defined as decrement in memory performance that exceeded the cut-off value of 1.5 times the standard deviation of the average score in the healthy control sample. The primary question was whether being an Ecstasy user (E-user was predictive of having clinically deficient memory performance compared to a healthy control group.WLT data were pooled from four experimental MDMA studies that compared memory performance during placebo and MDMA intoxication. Control data were taken from healthy volunteers with no drug use history who completed the WLT as part of a placebo-controlled clinical trial. This resulted in a sample size of 65 E-users and 65 age- and gender-matched healthy drug-naïve controls. All participants were recruited by similar means and were tested at the same testing facilities using identical standard operating procedures. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models, Bayes factor, and logistic regressions.Findings were that verbal memory performance of placebo-treated E-users did not differ from that of controls, and there was substantial evidence in favor of the null hypothesis. History of use was not predictive of memory impairment. During MDMA intoxication of E-users, verbal memory was impaired.The combination of the acute and long-term findings demonstrates that, while clinically relevant memory impairment is present during intoxication, it is absent during abstinence. This suggests that use of Ecstasy/MDMA does not lead to clinically deficient memory performance in the long term. Additionally, it has to be investigated whether the current findings apply to more complex cognitive

  11. Selective attention and the three-process memory model for the interpretation of verbal free recall in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidi, Foteini; Zalonis, Ioannis; Smyrnis, Nikolaos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigates selective attention and verbal free recall in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and examines the contribution of selective attention, encoding, consolidation, and retrieval memory processes to patients' verbal free recall. We examined 22 non-demented patients with sporadic ALS and 22 demographically related controls using Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test (SNST; selective attention) and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; immediate & delayed verbal free recall). The item-specific deficit approach (ISDA) was applied to RAVLT to evaluate encoding, consolidation, and retrieval difficulties. ALS patients performed worse than controls on SNST (p recall (p recall, with encoding (p = .016), consolidation (p recall, with consolidation (p recall. Concluding, selective attention and the memory processes of encoding, consolidation, and retrieval should be considered while interpreting patients' impaired free recall. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1-10).

  12. Development and psychometric validation of the verbal affective memory test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S

    2015-01-01

    -taboo words. Second, we studied the test's psychometric properties in healthy adults. Finally, we investigated whether individuals diagnosed with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) differed from healthy controls on seasonal changes in affective recall. Recall rates were internally consistent and reliable...... psychometric properties. VAMT-24 seems especially sensitive to measuring positive verbal recall bias, perhaps due to the application of common, non-taboo words. Based on the psychometric and clinical results, we recommend VAMT-24 for international translations and studies of affective memory....

  13. Cognitive Predictors of Verbal Memory in a Mixed Clinical Pediatric Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley C. Heaton

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Verbal memory problems, along with other cognitive difficulties, are common in children diagnosed with neurological and/or psychological disorders. Historically, these “memory problems” have been poorly characterized and often present with a heterogeneous pattern of performance across memory processes, even within a specific diagnostic group. The current study examined archival neuropsychological data from a large mixed clinical pediatric sample in order to understand whether functioning in other cognitive areas (i.e., verbal knowledge, attention, working memory, executive functioning may explain some of the performance variability seen across verbal memory tasks of the Children’s Memory Scale (CMS. Multivariate analyses revealed that among the cognitive functions examined, only verbal knowledge explained a significant amount of variance in overall verbal memory performance. Further univariate analyses examining the component processes of verbal memory indicated that verbal knowledge is specifically related to encoding, but not the retention or retrieval stages. Future research is needed to replicate these findings in other clinical samples, to examine whether verbal knowledge predicts performance on other verbal memory tasks and to explore whether these findings also hold true for visual memory tasks. Successful replication of the current study findings would indicate that interventions targeting verbal encoding deficits should include efforts to improve verbal knowledge.

  14. Left Posteroventral Pallidotomy Results in a Deficit in Verbal Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Crowe

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Whilst pallidotomy is emerging as a popular approach to the treatment to Parkinson’s disease, little is yet known about the cognitive effects of this procedure. This study presents 19 patients (6 right, 13 left who were assessed both before and after the procedure on a battery of cognitive tests. The results indicate that subjects with left-sided lesions display significant decline in verbal memory between one and three months following the procedure. The results are consistent with the notion of either a classic amnesic syndrome or a deficit in striato-frontal working memory.

  15. Differential associations between types of verbal memory and prefrontal brain structure in healthy aging and late life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, Melissa; Charlton, Rebecca; Zhang, Aifeng; Kumar, Anand

    2012-07-01

    Verbal memory deficits attributed to late life depression (LLD) may result from executive dysfunction that is more detrimental to list-learning than story-based recall when compared to healthy aging. Despite these behavioral dissociations, little work has been done investigating related neuroanatomical dissociations across types of verbal memory performance in LLD. We compared list-learning to story-based memory performance in 24 non-demented individuals with LLD (age ~ 66.1 ± 7.8) and 41 non-demented/non-depressed healthy controls (HC; age ~ 67.6 ± 5.3). We correlated significant results of between-group analyses across memory performance variables with brain volumes of frontal, temporal and parietal regions known to be involved with verbal learning and memory. When compared to the HC group, the LLD group showed significantly lower verbal memory performance for spontaneous recall after repeated exposure and after a long-delay but only for the list-learning task; groups did not differ on story-based memory performance. Despite equivalent brain volumes across regions, only the LLD group showed brain associations with verbal memory performance and only for the list-learning task. Specifically, frontal volumes important for subjective organization and response monitoring correlated with list-learning performance in the LLD group. This study is the first to demonstrate neuroanatomical dissociations across types of verbal memory performance in individuals with LLD. Results provide structural evidence for the behavioral dissociations between list-learning and story-based recall in LLD when compared to healthy aging. More specifically, it points toward a network of predominantly anterior brain regions that may underlie the executive contribution to list-learning in older adults with depression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-related decline in verbal learning is moderated by demographic factors, working memory capacity, and presence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinidou, Fofi; Zaganas, Ioannis; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Nidos, Andreas; Simos, Panagiotis G

    2014-09-01

    Age-related memory changes are highly varied and heterogeneous. The study examined the rate of decline in verbal episodic memory as a function of education level, auditory attention span and verbal working memory capacity, and diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Data were available on a community sample of 653 adults aged 17-86 years and 70 patients with a-MCI recruited from eight broad geographic areas in Greece and Cyprus. Measures of auditory attention span and working memory capacity (digits forward and backward) and verbal episodic memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test [AVLT]) were used. Moderated mediation regressions on data from the community sample did not reveal significant effects of education level on the rate of age-related decline in AVLT indices. The presence of a-MCI was a significant moderator of the direct effect of Age on both immediate and delayed episodic memory indices. The rate of age-related decline in verbal episodic memory is normally mediated by working memory capacity. Moreover, in persons who display poor episodic memory capacity (a-MCI group), age-related memory decline is expected to advance more rapidly for those who also display relatively poor verbal working memory capacity.

  17. Music enhances verbal episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisson, Juliette; Roussel-Baclet, Caroline; Maillet, Didier; Belin, Catherine; Ankri, Joël; Narme, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies suggest that music may facilitate verbal learning in a healthy population, such a mnemonic effect has seldom been investigated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, memorization of texts was generally compared when either sung or spoken. In the present study, it was examined whether the benefit observed on verbal learning was specific to music or whether an associative context binding items together led to similar benefits, regardless of the nature of the association. Twelve patients with mild AD and 15 healthy controls learned texts presented with either a musical (sung) or a nonmusical association (spoken associated to a silent movie sequence) or without association (spoken alone). Immediate and delayed (after a 5-min delay) recall was measured. Main results showed that (a) sung texts were better remembered than spoken texts, both immediately and after a retention delay, for both groups; (b) the musical benefit was robust, being observed in most AD patients; (c) the nonmusical association may also facilitate verbal learning but to a lesser extent. A musical association during the encoding stage facilitates learning and retention in AD. Furthermore, this advantage seemed quite specific to music. The results are discussed with respect to the clinical applications in AD; theoretical implications are highlighted to explain the power of music as a mnemonic technique.

  18. Stage effects of negative emotion on spatial and verbal working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond CK

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of negative emotion on different processing periods in spatial and verbal working memory (WM and the possible brain mechanism of the interaction between negative emotion and WM were explored using a high-time resolution event-related potential (ERP technique and time-locked delayed matching-to-sample task (DMST. Results Early P3b and late P3b were reduced in the negative emotion condition for both the spatial and verbal tasks at encoding. At retention, the sustained negative slow wave (NSW showed a significant interaction between emotional state and task type. Spatial trials in the negative emotion condition elicited a more negative deflection than they did in the neutral emotion condition. However, no such effect was observed for the verbal tasks. At retrieval, early P3b and late P3b were markedly more attenuated in the negative emotion condition than in the neutral emotion condition for both the spatial and verbal tasks. Conclusions The results indicate that the differential effects of negative emotion on spatial and verbal WM mainly take place during information maintenance processing, which implies that there is a systematic association between specific affects (e.g., negative emotion and certain cognitive processes (e.g., spatial retention.

  19. Deaf children’s non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe eMarshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but do not say whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children’s reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come from (1 tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2 involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities. A more direct test of how the type and quality of language exposure impacts working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6-11 years: hearing children (n=27, deaf native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n=7, and deaf children non native signers (n=19. We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and if language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two NVWM tasks, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the vocabulary measure predicted scores on NVWM tasks. Our results suggest that whatever the language modality – spoken or signed – rich language experience from birth, and the good language skills that result from this early age of aacquisition, play a critical role in the development of NVWM and in performance on NVWM

  20. Binge drinking during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with deficits in verbal episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbia, Carina; Cadaveira, Fernando; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro; Corral, Montse

    2017-01-01

    Binge drinking (BD), a harmful pattern of alcohol consumption, is common during adolescence. Young adults with alcohol use disorders exhibit hippocampal alterations and episodic memory deficits. However, it is not known how these difficulties progress in community BD adolescents. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between BD trajectory and verbal episodic memory during the developmental period spanning from adolescence and to early adulthood. An initial sample of 155 male and female first-year university students with no other risk factors were followed over six years. Participants were classified as stable non-BDs, stable BDs and ex-BDs according to the third AUDIT item. At baseline, participants comprised 36 ♂/ 40 ♀ non-BDs (18.58 years), 40 ♂/ 39 ♀ BDs (18.87 years), and at the third follow-up, they comprised 8 ♂/ 8 ♀ stable non-BDs (25.49 years), 2 ♂/ 2 ♀ stable BDs (25.40) and 8 ♂/ 12 ♀ ex-BDs (24.97 years). Episodic memory was assessed four times with the Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III) and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Generalized linear mixed models were applied. The results showed that, relative to non-BDs, stable BDs presented difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest. These difficulties remained stable over time. The short-term ex-BDs continued to display difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest, but long-term ex-BDs did not. The effects were not influenced by age of alcohol onset, frequency of cannabis use, tobacco use or psychopathological distress. In conclusion, BD during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with episodic memory deficits. Abandoning the BD pattern may lead to partial recovery. These findings are consistent with the vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol.

  1. Binge drinking during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with deficits in verbal episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadaveira, Fernando; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro

    2017-01-01

    Binge drinking (BD), a harmful pattern of alcohol consumption, is common during adolescence. Young adults with alcohol use disorders exhibit hippocampal alterations and episodic memory deficits. However, it is not known how these difficulties progress in community BD adolescents. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between BD trajectory and verbal episodic memory during the developmental period spanning from adolescence and to early adulthood. An initial sample of 155 male and female first-year university students with no other risk factors were followed over six years. Participants were classified as stable non-BDs, stable BDs and ex-BDs according to the third AUDIT item. At baseline, participants comprised 36 ♂/ 40 ♀ non-BDs (18.58 years), 40 ♂/ 39 ♀ BDs (18.87 years), and at the third follow-up, they comprised 8 ♂/ 8 ♀ stable non-BDs (25.49 years), 2 ♂/ 2 ♀ stable BDs (25.40) and 8 ♂/ 12 ♀ ex-BDs (24.97 years). Episodic memory was assessed four times with the Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III) and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Generalized linear mixed models were applied. The results showed that, relative to non-BDs, stable BDs presented difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest. These difficulties remained stable over time. The short-term ex-BDs continued to display difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest, but long-term ex-BDs did not. The effects were not influenced by age of alcohol onset, frequency of cannabis use, tobacco use or psychopathological distress. In conclusion, BD during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with episodic memory deficits. Abandoning the BD pattern may lead to partial recovery. These findings are consistent with the vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. PMID:28152062

  2. Similar verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia and healthy aging. Implications for understanding of neural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2015-03-30

    Memory is impaired in schizophrenia patients but it is not clear whether this is specific to the illness and whether different types of memory (verbal and nonverbal) or memories in different cognitive domains (executive, object recognition) are similarly affected. To study relationships between memory impairments and schizophrenia we compared memory functions in 77 schizophrenia patients, 58 elderly healthy individuals and 41 young healthy individuals. Tests included verbal associative and logical memory and memory in executive and object recognition domains. We compared relationships of memory functions to each other and to other cognitive functions including psychomotor speed and verbal and spatial working memory. Compared to the young healthy group, schizophrenia patients and elderly healthy individuals showed similar severe impairment in logical memory and in the ability to learn new associations (NAL), and similar but less severe impairment in spatial working memory and executive and object memory. Verbal working memory was significantly more impaired in schizophrenia patients than in the healthy elderly. Verbal episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia may share common mechanisms with similar impairment in healthy aging. Impairment in verbal working memory in contrast may reflect mechanisms specific to schizophrenia. Study of verbal explicit memory impairment tapped by the NAL index may advance understanding of abnormal hippocampus dependent mechanisms common to schizophrenia and aging.

  3. Metabolic correlates of Rey auditory verbal learning test in elderly subjects with memory complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnolo, Andrea; Morbelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Dario; De Carli, Fabrizio; Accardo, Jennifer; Bossert, Irene; Dessi, Barbara; Famà, Francesco; Ferrara, Michela; Girtler, Nicola; Picco, Agnese; Rodriguez, Guido; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Nobili, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the brain metabolic correlates of main indexes of a widely used word list learning test, the Rey Auditory Verbal Memory Test (RAVLT), in a group of elderly subjects with memory complaints. Fifty-four subjects (age: 72.02 ± 7.45; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score: 28.9 ± 1.24) presenting at a memory clinic complaining of memory deficit, but not demented, and thirty controls (age: 71.87 ± 7.08; MMSE score: 29.1 ± 1.1) were included. Subjects with memory complaints included both patients with (amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI) and without (subjective memory complaints, SMC) impairment on memory tests. All subjects underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), analyzed with statistical parametric. Patients with aMCI but not those with SMC showed the expected posterior cingulate-precuneus and parietal hypometabolism as compared to controls. Correlation was determined for between four indexes of the RAVLT and brain metabolism. The results show a significant correlation between the delayed recall score and metabolism in posterior cingulate gyrus of both hemispheres and in left precuneus, as well as between a score of long-term percent retention and metabolism in left posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and orbitofrontal areas. These correlations survived correction for age, education, and MMSE score. No correlation was found between immediate or total recall scores and glucose metabolism. These data show the relevant role of posterior cingulate-precuneus and orbitofrontal cortices in retention and retrieval of de-contextualized verbal memory material in a group of elderly subjects with memory complaints and shed light on the topography of synaptic dysfunction in these subjects, overlapping that found in the earliest stages of Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration.

  4. Relationship between personality disorder dimensions and verbal memory functioning in a community population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Lee, Hochang B; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Chung, Hye Yoon; Eaton, William W; Costa, Paul T; Nestadt, Gerald

    2012-03-30

    Based on the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) follow-up survey, we examined relationships between dimensions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) personality disorders and both subjective and objective memory functioning in a community population. Our study subjects consisted of 736 individuals from the ECA follow-up study of the original Baltimore ECA cohort, conducted between 1993 and 1996 and available for assessment in the Hopkins Epidemiology Study of Personality Disorders from 1997 to 1999. Subjects were assessed for DSM-IV personality disorders using a semi-structured instrument, the International Personality Disorder Examination, and were asked about a subjective appraisal of memory. Verbal memory function, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and recognition, were also evaluated. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine associations between personality dimensions of DSM-IV Axis II traits and subjective and objective memory functioning. Scores on schizoid and schizotypal personality dimensions were associated with subjective and objective memory dysfunction, both with and without adjustment for Axis I disorders. Borderline, antisocial, avoidant, and dependent personality disorder scores were associated with subjective memory impairment only, both with and without adjustment for Axis I disorders. This study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment and/or objective memory dysfunction are associated with specific personality disorder dimensions.

  5. Obesity enhances verbal memory in postmenopausal women with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bindu N; Pang, Deborah; Stern, Yaakov; Silverman, Wayne; Kline, Jennie K; Mayeux, Richard; Schupf, Nicole

    2004-02-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the loss of estrogen after menopause may play a role in cognitive declines associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In postmenopausal women, the principal source of estrogen is estrone, which is influenced by body mass index (BMI). Increased BMI in postmenopausal women is associated with higher levels of serum estradiol and estrone. We hypothesized that obesity could have a beneficial effect on cognition with advancing age. We compared the performance of healthy nondemented obese and non-obese women with Down syndrome (DS) on a broad spectrum of cognitive tests. Estrone levels were 66.9% higher in obese than in non-obese postmenopausal women, and 136% higher in obese than in non-obese premenopausal women. Obese postmenopausal women performed significantly better than non-obese women on measures of verbal memory and on an omnibus test of neuropsychological function, but did not differ significantly in verbal fluency, language, praxis or visuospatial functioning. Among premenopausal women, there was no difference in cognitive function between obese and non-obese women. Our results support the hypothesis that higher endogenous estrogen levels after menopause are associated with better performance on verbal memory.

  6. Memory Reduction via Delayed Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Holtmann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We address a central (and classical issue in the theory of infinite games: the reduction of the memory size that is needed to implement winning strategies in regular infinite games (i.e., controllers that ensure correct behavior against actions of the environment, when the specification is a regular omega-language. We propose an approach which attacks this problem before the construction of a strategy, by first reducing the game graph that is obtained from the specification. For the cases of specifications represented by "request-response"-requirements and general "fairness" conditions, we show that an exponential gain in the size of memory is possible.

  7. Spatial and verbal memory test scores following yoga and fine arts camps for school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, N K; Telles, Shirley

    2004-07-01

    The performance scores of children (aged 11 to 16 years) in verbal and spatial memory tests were compared for two groups (n = 30, each), one attending a yoga camp and the other a fine arts camp. Both groups were assessed on the memory tasks initially and after ten days of their respective interventions. A control group (n = 30) was similarly studied to assess the test-retest effect. At the final assessment the yoga group showed a significant increase of 43% in spatial memory scores (Multivariate analysis, Tukey test), while the fine arts and control groups showed no change. The results suggest that yoga practice, including physical postures, yoga breathing, meditation and guided relaxation improved delayed recall of spatial information.

  8. Frontoparietal cognitive control of verbal memory recall in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanjal, Novraj S; Wise, Richard J S

    2014-08-01

    Episodic memory retrieval is reliant upon cognitive control systems, of which 2 have been identified with functional neuroimaging: a cingulo-opercular salience network (SN) and a frontoparietal executive network (EN). In Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathology is distributed throughout higher-order cortices. The hypotheses were that this frontoparietal pathology would impair activity associated with verbal memory recall; and that central cholinesterase inhibition (ChI) would modulate this, improving memory recall. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study normal participants and 2 patient groups: mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. Activity within the EN and SN was observed during free recall of previously heard sentences, and related to measures of recall accuracy. In normal subjects, trials with reduced recall were associated with greater activity in both the SN and EN. Better recall was associated with greater activity in medial regions of the default mode network. By comparison, AD patients showed attenuated responses in both the SN and EN compared with either controls or MCI patients, even after recall performance was matched between groups. Following ChI, AD patients showed no modulation of activity within the SN, but increased activity within the EN. There was also enhanced activity within regions associated with episodic and semantic memory during less successful recall, requiring greater cognitive control. The results indicate that in AD, impaired responses of cognitive control networks during verbal memory recall are partly responsible for reduced recall performance. One action of symptom-modifying treatment is partially to reverse the abnormal function of frontoparietal cognitive control and temporal lobe memory networks. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  9. Sex differences in episodic memory: the impact of verbal and visuospatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, A; Airaksinen, E; Nordström, E

    1999-10-01

    The impact of verbal and visuospatial ability on sex differences in episodic memory was investigated. One hundred men and 100 women, 2040 years old, participated in a series of verbal and visuospatial tasks. Episodic memory was assessed in tasks that, to a greater or lesser extent, were verbal or visuospatial in nature. Results showed that women excelled in verbal production tasks and that men performed at a superior level on a mental rotation task. In addition, women tended to perform at a higher level than men on most episodic memory tasks. Taken together, the results demonstrated that (a) women perform at a higher level than men on most verbal episodic memory tasks and on some episodic memory tasks with a visuospatial component, and (b) women's higher performance on episodic memory tasks cannot fully be explained by their superior performance on verbal production tasks.

  10. Sex differences favoring women in verbal but not in visuospatial episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, C; Wolgers, G; Herlitz, A

    2001-04-01

    Sex differences favoring women have been found in a number of studies of episodic memory. This study examined sex differences in verbal, nonverbal, and visuospatial episodic memory tasks. Results showed that although women performed at a higher level on a composite verbal and nonverbal episodic memory score, men performed at a higher level on a composite score of episodic memory tasks requiring visuospatial processing. Thus, men can use their superior visuospatial abilities to excel in highly visuospatial episodic memory tasks, whereas women seem to excel in episodic memory tasks in which a verbalization of the material is possible.

  11. Improving digit span assessment of short-term verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David L; Kishiyamaa, Mark M; Lund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Edwards, Ben; Poliva, Oren; Hink, Robert F; Reed, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    We measured digit span (DS) in two experiments that used computerized presentation of randomized auditory digits with performance-adapted list length adjustment. A new mean span (MS) metric of DS was developed that showed reduced variance, improved test-retest reliability, and higher correlations with the results of other neuropsychological test results when compared to traditional DS measures. The MS metric also enhanced the sensitivity of forward versus backward span comparisons, enabled the development of normative performance criteria with subdigit precision, and elucidated changes in DS performance with age and education level. Computerized stimulus delivery and improved scoring metrics significantly enhance the precision of DS assessments of short-term verbal memory.

  12. Contributions of phonological and verbal working memory to language development in adolescents with fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpont, Elizabeth I; Richmond, Erica Kesin; Abbeduto, Leonard; Kover, Sara T; Brown, W Ted

    2011-12-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability. Although language delays are frequently observed in FXS, neither the longitudinal course of language development nor its cognitive predictors are well understood. The present study investigated whether phonological and working memory skills are predictive of growth in vocabulary and syntax in individuals with FXS during adolescence. Forty-four individuals with FXS (mean age = 12.61 years) completed assessments of phonological memory (nonword repetition and forward digit recall), verbal working memory (backward digit recall), vocabulary, syntax, and nonverbal cognition. Vocabulary and syntax skills were reassessed at a 2-year follow-up. In a series of analyses that controlled for nonverbal cognitive ability and severity of autism symptoms, the relative contributions of phonological and working memory to language change over time were investigated. These relationships were examined separately for boys and girls. In boys with FXS, phonological memory significantly predicted gains in vocabulary and syntax skills. Further, verbal working memory was uniquely associated with vocabulary gains among boys. In girls with FXS, phonological and working memory skills showed no relationship with language change across the 2-year time period. Our findings indicate that, for adolescent boys with FXS, acquisition of vocabulary and syntax may be constrained by the ability to maintain and manipulate phonological representations online. Implications for the identification and treatment of language disorders in this population are discussed. The present study is the first to identify specific cognitive mechanisms contributing to language growth over time in individuals with FXS.

  13. The strengths and weaknesses in verbal short-term memory and visual working memory in children with hearing impairment and additional language learning difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Suzi; Goldbart, Juliet; Stansfield, Jois

    2014-07-01

    To compare verbal short-term memory and visual working memory abilities of six children with congenital hearing-impairment identified as having significant language learning difficulties with normative data from typically hearing children using standardized memory assessments. Six children with hearing loss aged 8-15 years were assessed on measures of verbal short-term memory (Non-word and word recall) and visual working memory annually over a two year period. All children had cognitive abilities within normal limits and used spoken language as the primary mode of communication. The language assessment scores at the beginning of the study revealed that all six participants exhibited delays of two years or more on standardized assessments of receptive and expressive vocabulary and spoken language. The children with hearing-impairment scores were significantly higher on the non-word recall task than the "real" word recall task. They also exhibited significantly higher scores on visual working memory than those of the age-matched sample from the standardized memory assessment. Each of the six participants in this study displayed the same pattern of strengths and weaknesses in verbal short-term memory and visual working memory despite their very different chronological ages. The children's poor ability to recall single syllable words in relation to non-words is a clinical indicator of their difficulties in verbal short-term memory. However, the children with hearing-impairment do not display generalized processing difficulties and indeed demonstrate strengths in visual working memory. The poor ability to recall words, in combination with difficulties with early word learning may be indicators of children with hearing-impairment who will struggle to develop spoken language equal to that of their normally hearing peers. This early identification has the potential to allow for target specific intervention that may remediate their difficulties. Copyright © 2014. Published

  14. Developmental Changes in the Effect of Verbal, Non-verbal, and Spatial-Positional Cues for Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevensky, Jeffrey

    1976-01-01

    Sixty kindergarten, sixty second grade, and sixty fourth grade students performed several memory tasks under one of six conditions. The conditions differed as to the method of presentation of information. The study focused on developmental changes in children's use of verbal, nonverbal, and spatial-positional cues for memory. (Editor)

  15. Effects of regulating positive emotions through reappraisal and suppression on verbal and non-verbal recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Catherine N M; de Koning, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task.

  16. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities within a normal developmental timeframe for language acquisition). A more direct, and therefore stronger, test of the hypothesis that the type and quality of language exposure impact working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM) and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition and reduced quality of language input compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6-11 years: hearing children (n = 28), deaf children who were native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n = 8), and deaf children who used BSL but who were not native signers (n = 19). We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and whether scores on language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two executive-loaded NVWM tasks included in our battery, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another). Multiple regression analysis revealed that scores on the vocabulary measure

  17. Non-Verbal Episodic Memory Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasias are Highly Predictive of Underlying Amyloid Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Siddharth; Flanagan, Emma; Leyton, Cristian E; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic distinction of primary progressive aphasias (PPA) remains challenging, in particular for the logopenic (lvPPA) and nonfluent/agrammatic (naPPA) variants. Recent findings highlight that episodic memory deficits appear to discriminate these PPA variants from each other, as only lvPPA perform poorly on these tasks while having underlying amyloid pathology similar to that seen in amnestic dementias like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most memory tests are, however, language based and thus potentially confounded by the prevalent language deficits in PPA. The current study investigated this issue across PPA variants by contrasting verbal and non-verbal episodic memory measures while controlling for their performance on a language subtest of a general cognitive screen. A total of 203 participants were included (25 lvPPA; 29 naPPA; 59 AD; 90 controls) and underwent extensive verbal and non-verbal episodic memory testing, with a subset of patients (n = 45) with confirmed amyloid profiles as assessed by Pittsburgh Compound B and PET. The most powerful discriminator between naPPA and lvPPA patients was a non-verbal recall measure (Rey Complex Figure delayed recall), with 81% of PPA patients classified correctly at presentation. Importantly, AD and lvPPA patients performed comparably on this measure, further highlighting the importance of underlying amyloid pathology in episodic memory profiles. The findings demonstrate that non-verbal recall emerges as the best discriminator of lvPPA and naPPA when controlling for language deficits in high load amyloid PPA cases.

  18. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  19. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  20. Verbal and visual-spatial working memory and mathematical ability in different domains throughout primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2015-01-01

    The relative importance of visual-spatial and verbal working memory for mathematics performance and learning seems to vary with age, the novelty of the material, and the specific math domain that is investigated. In this study, the relations between verbal and visual-spatial working memory and perfo

  1. Interaction of threat and verbal working memory in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nilam; Vytal, Katherine; Pavletic, Nevia; Stoodley, Catherine; Pine, Daniel S; Grillon, Christian; Ernst, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Threat induces a state of sustained anxiety that can disrupt cognitive processing, and, reciprocally, cognitive processing can modulate an anxiety response to threat. These effects depend on the level of cognitive engagement, which itself varies as a function of task difficulty. In adults, we recently showed that induced anxiety impaired working memory accuracy at low and medium but not high load. Conversely, increasing the task load reduced the physiological correlates of anxiety (anxiety-potentiated startle). The present work examines such threat-cognition interactions as a function of age. We expected threat to more strongly impact working memory in younger individuals by virtue of putatively restricted cognitive resources and weaker emotion regulation. This was tested by examining the influence of age on the interaction of anxiety and working memory in 25 adolescents (10 to 17 years) and 25 adults (22 to 46 years). Working memory load was manipulated using a verbal n-back task. Anxiety was induced using the threat of an aversive loud scream and measured via eyeblink startle. Findings revealed that, in both age groups, accuracy was lower during threat than safe conditions at low and medium but not high load, and reaction times were faster during threat than safe conditions at high load but did not differ at other loads. Additionally, anxiety-potentiated startle was greater during low and medium than high load. Thus, the interactions of anxiety with working memory appear similar in adolescents and adults. Whether these similarities reflect common neural mechanisms would need to be assessed using functional neuroimaging.

  2. How Does the Linguistic Distance Between Spoken and Standard Language in Arabic Affect Recall and Recognition Performances During Verbal Memory Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham

    2017-06-01

    The current research examined how Arabic diglossia affects verbal learning memory. Thirty native Arab college students were tested using auditory verbal memory test that was adapted according to the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and developed in three versions: Pure spoken language version (SL), pure standard language version (SA), and phonologically similar version (PS). The result showed that for immediate free-recall, the performances were better for the SL and the PS conditions compared to the SA one. However, for the parts of delayed recall and recognition, the results did not reveal any significant consistent effect of diglossia. Accordingly, it was suggested that diglossia has a significant effect on the storage and short term memory functions but not on long term memory functions. The results were discussed in light of different approaches in the field of bilingual memory.

  3. Rehabilitation of verbal memory by means of preserved nonverbal memory abilities after epilepsy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mosca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with epilepsy who underwent left anterior temporal cortex resection, sparing the hippocampus, to stop drug-refractory seizures. Given that one year after surgery the patient showed verbal memory difficulties, we proposed a short (twelve weeks and intensive (two times a week training based on visual imagery strategies as the nonverbal memory abilities were preserved. Neuropsychological and fMRI assessments were performed before and after rehabilitation to evaluate the cognitive progress and cerebral modifications induced by this rehabilitation program. Our results showed that the rehabilitation program improved both scores for verbal memory and the everyday quality of life. Changes in cerebral activity highlighted by fMRI suggest that the program might have facilitated the development of compensatory strategies, as reflected by the shift of activation from the anterior to the posterior cerebral network during a verbal memory task. One year after the rehabilitation program, the patient reported using mental imagery in everyday life for routine and professional activities. Although supplementary evidence is necessary to increase the robustness of these findings, this case report suggests that an efficient rehabilitation program is feasible and (a should be based on the individual cognitive profile and on the preserved cognitive abilities, (b can be short but intensive, (c can be applied even months after the lesion occurrence, and (d can induce a positive effect which may be sustainable over time.

  4. Rehabilitation of verbal memory by means of preserved nonverbal memory abilities after epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, C; Zoubrinetzy, R; Baciu, M; Aguilar, L; Minotti, L; Kahane, P; Perrone-Bertolotti, M

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with epilepsy who underwent left anterior temporal cortex resection, sparing the hippocampus, to stop drug-refractory seizures. Given that one year after surgery the patient showed verbal memory difficulties, we proposed a short (twelve weeks) and intensive (two times a week) training based on visual imagery strategies as the nonverbal memory abilities were preserved. Neuropsychological and fMRI assessments were performed before and after rehabilitation to evaluate the cognitive progress and cerebral modifications induced by this rehabilitation program. Our results showed that the rehabilitation program improved both scores for verbal memory and the everyday quality of life. Changes in cerebral activity highlighted by fMRI suggest that the program might have facilitated the development of compensatory strategies, as reflected by the shift of activation from the anterior to the posterior cerebral network during a verbal memory task. One year after the rehabilitation program, the patient reported using mental imagery in everyday life for routine and professional activities. Although supplementary evidence is necessary to increase the robustness of these findings, this case report suggests that an efficient rehabilitation program is feasible and (a) should be based on the individual cognitive profile and on the preserved cognitive abilities, (b) can be short but intensive, (c) can be applied even months after the lesion occurrence, and (d) can induce a positive effect which may be sustainable over time.

  5. Sex-Related Differences in the Effects of Sleep Habits on Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Seishu Nakagawa; Hikaru Takeuchi; Yasuyuki Taki; Rui Nouchi; Atsushi Sekiguchi; Yuka Kotozaki; Carlos Makoto Miyauchi; Kunio Iizuka; Ryoichi Yokoyama; Takamitsu Shinada; Yuki Yamamoto; Sugiko Hanawa; Tsuyoshi Araki; Keiko Kunitoki; Yuko Sassa

    2016-01-01

    Sleep facilitates memory consolidation. Consequently, poor sleep quality negatively affects memory performance, and working memory in particular. We investigated sleep habits related to sleep quality including sleep duration, daytime nap duration, nap frequency, and dream content recall frequency (DCRF). Declarative working memory can be subdivided into verbal working memory (VWM) and visuospatial working memory (VSWM). We hypothesized that sleep habits would have different effects on VWM and...

  6. Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yim-Chi; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S

    2003-07-01

    The hypothesis that music training can improve verbal memory was tested in children. The results showed that children with music training demonstrated better verbal but not visual memory than did their counterparts without such training. When these children were followed up after a year, those who had begun or continued music training demonstrated significant verbal memory improvement. Students who discontinued the training did not show any improvement. Contrary to the differences in verbal memory between the groups, their changes in visual memory were not significantly different. Consistent with previous findings for adults (A. S. Chan, Y. Ho, & M. Cheung, 1998), the results suggest that music training systematically affects memory processing in accordance with possible neuroanatomical modifications in the left temporal lobe.

  7. Music training is associated with cortical synchronization reflected in EEG coherence during verbal memory encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Liu, Ying; Law, Derry; Wong, Christina W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Music training can improve cognitive functions. Previous studies have shown that children and adults with music training demonstrate better verbal learning and memory performance than those without such training. Although prior studies have shown an association between music training and changes in the structural and functional organization of the brain, there is no concrete evidence of the underlying neural correlates of the verbal memory encoding phase involved in such enhanced memory perfo...

  8. Variation in strategy use across measures of verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Alexandra B; Rosenbaum, Gail M; Fair, Damien; Chein, Jason M

    2016-08-01

    The working memory (WM) literature contains a number of tasks that vary on dimensions such as when or how memory items are reported. In addition to the ways in which WM tasks are designed to differ, tasks may also diverge according to the strategies participants use during task performance. The present study included seven tasks from the WM literature, each requiring short-term retention of verbal items. Following completion of a small number of trials from each task, individuals completed a self-report questionnaire to identify their primary strategy. Results indicated substantial variation across individuals for a given task, and within the same individual across tasks. Moreover, while direct comparisons between tasks showed that some tasks evinced similar patterns of strategy use despite differing task demands, others showed markedly different patterns of self-reported strategy use. A community detection algorithm, aimed at identifying groups of individuals based on their profile of strategic choices, revealed unique communities of individuals who are dependent on specific strategies under varying demands. Together, the findings suggest that researchers using common WM paradigms should very carefully consider the implications of variation in strategy use when interpreting their findings.

  9. Brains of verbal memory specialists show anatomical differences in language, memory and visual systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, James F; Davis, Ben; Melcher, David; Miceli, Gabriele; Jovicich, Jorge; Nath, Tanmay; Singh, Nandini Chatterjee; Hasson, Uri

    2016-05-01

    We studied a group of verbal memory specialists to determine whether intensive oral text memory is associated with structural features of hippocampal and lateral-temporal regions implicated in language processing. Professional Vedic Sanskrit Pandits in India train from childhood for around 10years in an ancient, formalized tradition of oral Sanskrit text memorization and recitation, mastering the exact pronunciation and invariant content of multiple 40,000-100,000 word oral texts. We conducted structural analysis of gray matter density, cortical thickness, local gyrification, and white matter structure, relative to matched controls. We found massive gray matter density and cortical thickness increases in Pandit brains in language, memory and visual systems, including i) bilateral lateral temporal cortices and ii) the anterior cingulate cortex and the hippocampus, regions associated with long and short-term memory. Differences in hippocampal morphometry matched those previously documented for expert spatial navigators and individuals with good verbal working memory. The findings provide unique insight into the brain organization implementing formalized oral knowledge systems.

  10. Immediate rather than delayed memory impairment in older adults with latent toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendy, Angelico; Vieira, Edgar R; Albatineh, Ahmed N; Gasana, Janvier

    2015-03-01

    The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects one third of the world population, but its effect on memory remains ambiguous. To examine a potential relationship of the infection with immediate and delayed memory, a population-based study was conducted in 4485 participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey aged 60years and older. Serum anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were measured by enzyme immune assay and verbal memory was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the East Boston Memory Test. The prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis was 41%; in one way analysis of variance, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody levels significantly differed across tertiles for immediate (P=0.006) but not delayed memory scores (P=0.22). In multinomial logistic regression adjusting for covariates, Toxoplasma seropositivity was associated with lower immediate memory performance (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.97 for medium tertile and OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.98 for highest tertile in reference to the lowest tertile), especially in non-Hispanic Whites (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.88 for medium tertile and OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.87 for highest tertile in reference to the lowest tertile). However, no relationship with delayed memory was observed. In conclusion, latent toxoplasmosis is widespread in older adults and may primarily affect immediate rather than delayed memory, particularly in White Americans.

  11. Verbal memory functioning in recurrent depression during partial remission and remission-Brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa eHammar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate verbal memory performance in a group of patients with remitted and partial remitted major depressive disorder. Thirty-one patients and 31 healthy matched controls were included in the study. Results from the California Verbal Learning Test show intact verbal memory performance in the patient group regarding learning, recall and recognition. However, patients had significantly poorer performance compared to healthy controls in immediate recall of the first trial in the verbal memory test. In conclusion, the patient group showed intact memory performance, when material is presented more than once. These findings indicate that memory performance in MDD patients with partial remission and remission benefit from repetition of material.

  12. Musicians' Memory for Verbal and Tonal Materials under Conditions of Irrelevant Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria J.; Mitchell, Tom; Hitch, Graham J.; Baddeley, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    Studying short-term memory within the framework of the working memory model and its associated paradigms (Baddeley, 2000; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) offers the chance to compare similarities and differences between the way that verbal and tonal materials are processed. This study examined amateur musicians' short-term memory using a newly adapted…

  13. Spatial Inferences in Narrative Comprehension: the Role of Verbal and Spatial Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrazabal, Natalia; Burin, Debora

    2016-01-01

    During the comprehension of narrative texts, readers keep a mental representation of the location of protagonists and objects; a breach in spatial coherence is detected by longer online reading times (consistency effect). We addressed whether these spatial inferences involve verbal or spatial working memory in two experiments, combining the consistency paradigm with selective verbal and spatial working memory concurrent tasks. The first experiment found longer reading times with a concurrent spatial task under imagery instructions (t33 = 2.87, p = .021). The second experiment, under comprehension reading instructions, found effects of verbal interference on reading times and accuracy. With a verbal secondary task, reading times for the target sentence were shorter (t45 = 3.60, p = .004) and the error rate was significantly higher (t47 = 2.95, p = .005) than without interference. This pattern of results suggests that spatial inferences in narrative comprehension rely mainly on verbal resources, and spatial working memory resources are recruited when imagery is required.

  14. Low-SES children's eyewitness memory: the effects of verbal labels and vocabulary skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Kulkofsky, Sarah; Debaran, Francisco; Wang, Qi; Hart, Sybil L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the verbal labels procedure and vocabulary skills on low-socioeconomic status (SES) preschool children's eyewitness memory. Children (N = 176) aged 3-5 years witnessed a conflict event and were then questioned about it in either a standard or a verbal labels interview. Findings revealed that children with higher rather than lower vocabulary skills produced more complete and accurate memories. Children who were given the verbal labels interview recalled more information, which included both correct and incorrect details. Overall, the verbal labels procedure did not improve children's performance on direct questions, but children with low vocabulary skills answered direct questions more accurately if they were given the verbal labels interview than when they were not. Implications of the findings for memory performance of low-SES children are discussed.

  15. Verbal memory, problem-solving skills and community status in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revheim, Nadine; Medalia, Alice

    2004-06-01

    Neuropsychological deficits have been associated with poor community functioning in individuals with schizophrenia. Previous research suggests that verbal memory capacity is related to functional capacity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between verbal memory, problem-solving skills and community functioning, as measured by treatment status (inpatient vs. outpatient) in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Evaluations were done on 162 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, seen in inpatient (n=87) and outpatient settings (n=75). Verbal memory was assessed using narrative recall and list recall measures. Problem-solving skills for independent living were assessed using a social reasoning measure and a daily problem-solving skills measure. Better verbal memory performance was associated with better problem solving for independent living. However, inpatient vs. outpatient status was best determined by problem-solving skills for independent living rather than verbal memory performance. The results reveal the importance of daily problem-solving skills for community status in schizophrenia. Although verbal memory performance is associated with problem-solving skills for independent living, predictive probability of community status does not improve when memory performance is taken into account.

  16. Toward a model of cognitive insight in first-episode psychosis: verbal memory and hippocampal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchy, L; Czechowska, Y; Chochol, C; Malla, A; Joober, R; Pruessner, J; Lepage, M

    2010-09-01

    Our previous work has linked verbal learning and memory with cognitive insight, but not clinical insight, in individuals with a first-episode psychosis (FEP). The current study reassessed the neurocognitive basis of cognitive and clinical insight and explored their neural basis in 61 FEP patients. Cognitive insight was measured with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and clinical insight with the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). Global measures for 7 domains of cognition were examined. Hippocampi were manually segmented in to 3 parts: the body, head, and tail. Verbal learning and memory significantly correlated with the BCIS composite index. Composite index scores were significantly associated with total left hippocampal (HC) volume; partial correlations, however, revealed that this relationship was attributable largely to verbal memory performance. The BCIS self-certainty subscale significantly and inversely correlated with bilateral HC volumes, and these associations were independent of verbal learning and memory performance. The BCIS self-reflectiveness subscale significantly correlated with verbal learning and memory but not with HC volume. No significant correlations emerged between the SUMD and verbal memory or HC volume. These results strengthen our previous assertion that in individuals with an FEP cognitive insight may rely on memory whereby current experiences are appraised based on previous ones. The HC may be a viable location among others for the brain system that underlies aspects of cognitive insight in individuals with an FEP.

  17. Verbal Memory Impairments in Children after Cerebellar Tumor Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Kirschen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate cerebellar lobular contributions to specific cognitive deficits observed after cerebellar tumor resection. Verbal working memory (VWM tasks were administered to children following surgical resection of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and age-matched controls. Anatomical MRI scans were used to quantify the extent of cerebellar lobular damage from each patient's resection. Patients exhibited significantly reduced digit span for auditory but not visual stimuli, relative to controls, and damage to left hemispheral lobule VIII was significantly correlated with this deficit. Patients also showed reduced effects of articulatory suppression and this was correlated with damage to the vermis and hemispheral lobule IV/V bilaterally. Phonological similarity and recency effects did not differ overall between patients and controls, but outlier patients with abnormal phonological similarity effects to either auditory or visual stimuli were found to have damage to hemispheral lobule VIII/VIIB on the left and right, respectively. We postulate that damage to left hemispheral lobule VIII may interfere with encoding of auditory stimuli into the phonological store. These data corroborate neuroimaging studies showing focal cerebellar activation during VWM paradigms, and thereby allow us to predict with greater accuracy which specific neurocognitive processes will be affected by a cerebellar tumor resection.

  18. Impact of Auditory Selective Attention on Verbal Short-Term Memory and Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Heiligenstein, Lucie; Gautherot, Nathalie; Poncelet, Martine; Van der Linden, Martial

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the role of auditory selective attention capacities as a possible mediator of the well-established association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development. A total of 47 6- and 7-year-olds were administered verbal immediate serial recall and auditory attention tasks. Both task types probed processing…

  19. Cross-domain interference costs during concurrent verbal and spatial serial memory tasks are asymmetric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Candice C.; Mall, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that memory for serial order is domain-general. Evidence also points to asymmetries in interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks. We confirm that concurrently remembering verbal and spatial serial lists provokes substantial interference compared with remembering a s

  20. The Ineluctable Modality of the Audible: Perceptual Determinants of Auditory Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, David W.; Macken, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Classical cognitive accounts of verbal short-term memory (STM) invoke an abstract, phonological level of representation which, although it may be derived differently via different modalities, is itself amodal. Key evidence for this view is that serial recall of phonologically similar verbal items (e.g., the letter sounds "b", "c", "g", and "d") is…

  1. The Ineluctable Modality of the Audible: Perceptual Determinants of Auditory Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, David W.; Macken, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Classical cognitive accounts of verbal short-term memory (STM) invoke an abstract, phonological level of representation which, although it may be derived differently via different modalities, is itself amodal. Key evidence for this view is that serial recall of phonologically similar verbal items (e.g., the letter sounds "b",…

  2. Cross-domain interference costs during concurrent verbal and spatial serial memory tasks are asymmetric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Candice C.; Mall, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that memory for serial order is domain-general. Evidence also points to asymmetries in interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks. We confirm that concurrently remembering verbal and spatial serial lists provokes substantial interference compared with remembering a

  3. Age and Overt Verbalization in Delay-Maintenance Behavior in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Ignatius J.; Smith, Romayne A.

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of overt self-verbalization of various contents on the delay maintenance behavior of preschool, second grade and third grade children in a task in which the child's possession of accumulating candy rewards was made contingent upon the child's stopping further accumulation. (BD)

  4. Music training is associated with cortical synchronization reflected in EEG coherence during verbal memory encoding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mei-chun Cheung; Agnes S Chan; Ying Liu; Derry Law; Christina W Y Wong

    2017-01-01

    Music training can improve cognitive functions. Previous studies have shown that children and adults with music training demonstrate better verbal learning and memory performance than those without such training...

  5. Verbal Memory Decline following DBS for Parkinson’s Disease: Structural Volumetric MRI Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geevarghese, Ruben; Lumsden, Daniel E.; Costello, Angela; Hulse, Natasha; Ayis, Salma; Samuel, Michael; Ashkan, Keyoumars

    2016-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease is a chronic degenerative movement disorder. The mainstay of treatment is medical. In certain patients Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) may be offered. However, DBS has been associated with post-operative neuropsychology changes, especially in verbal memory. Objectives Firstly, to determine if pre-surgical thalamic and hippocampal volumes were related to verbal memory changes following DBS. Secondly, to determine if clinical factors such as age, duration of symptoms or motor severity (UPDRS Part III score) were related to verbal memory changes. Methods A consecutive group of 40 patients undergoing bilateral Subthalamic Nucleus (STN)-DBS for PD were selected. Brain MRI data was acquired, pre-processed and structural volumetric data was extracted using FSL. Verbal memory test scores for pre- and post-STN-DBS surgery were recorded. Linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between score change and structural volumetric data. Results A significant relationship was demonstrated between change in List Learning test score and thalamic (left, p = 0.02) and hippocampal (left, p = 0.02 and right p = 0.03) volumes. Duration of symptoms was also associated with List Learning score change (p = 0.02 to 0.03). Conclusion Verbal memory score changes appear to have a relationship to pre-surgical MRI structural volumetric data. The findings of this study provide a basis for further research into the use of pre-surgical MRI to counsel PD patients regarding post-surgical verbal memory changes. PMID:27557088

  6. Response to psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: the role of pretreatment verbal memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijdam, Mirjam J; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda

    2015-08-01

    Neuropsychological studies have consistently demonstrated impaired verbal memory in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma-focused treatment for PTSD is thought to rely on memory, but it is largely unknown whether treatment outcome is influenced by memory performance. The aim of the study, therefore, was to examine the relationship between verbal memory performance and treatment response to trauma-focused psychotherapy. Participants were referred to our outpatient clinic and recruited between December 2003 and January 2009 upon diagnosis of PTSD according to DSM-IV. Secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial comparing eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy (n = 70) and brief eclectic psychotherapy (n = 70), a cognitive-behavioral intervention, are reported. Response to treatment was measured by self-reported PTSD symptom severity (Impact of Event Scale-Revised) over 17 weeks. Pretreatment verbal memory measures (California Verbal Learning Test, Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test) were included in the mixed linear model analyses in order to investigate the influence of memory on treatment outcome. Pretreatment encoding, short-term retrieval, long-term retrieval, and recognition performance were significantly associated with treatment response in terms of self-reported PTSD symptom severity for both treatments (P ≤ .013). Receiver operating characteristic curves predicting treatment response with pretreatment memory indices showed that 75.6% of the patients could be correctly classified as responder. Poor verbal memory performance represents a risk factor for worse treatment response to trauma-focused psychotherapy. Memory measures can be helpful in determining which patients are unable to benefit from trauma-focused psychotherapy. Future research should explore how treatment perspectives of patients with poor verbal memory can be improved. ISRCTN.com identifier: ISRCTN64872147. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  7. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hy...

  8. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    OpenAIRE

    Laura eFerreri; JeanJulien eAucouturier; Mark eMuthalib; Emmanuel eBigand; Aurelia eBugaiska

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hy...

  9. Uncinate fasciculus microstructure and verbal episodic memory in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidi, Foteini; Zalonis, Ioannis; Kyriazi, Stavroula; Rentzos, Michalis; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2014-12-01

    The present study evaluates the integrity of uncinate fasciculus (UF) and the association between UF microstructure and verbal episodic memory (as one of the cognitive functions linked to UF) in non-demented patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We studied 21 patients with ALS and 11 healthy, demographically-comparable volunteers. Fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient, axial and radial diffusivity were the DTI metrics examined. Episodic memory was evaluated with Babcock Story Recall Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) for patients; measures of immediate and delayed recall and retention for both tests and sum of words recalled through five learning trials for RAVLT were considered. Patients with ALS showed significant bilateral reduction of axial diffusivity in the UF as compared to controls. Furthermore, there were several significant relations between various DTI metrics (mostly in left hemisphere) and memory measures (specifically for the RAVLT). UF microstructural changes may contribute to ALS-related memory impairment, with word-list learning performance relying more upon the integrity of frontal and temporal connections than memory components associated with story recall.

  10. Early blindness alters the spatial organization of verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, Roberto; Mattioni, Stefania; Collignon, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Several studies suggest that serial order in working memory (WM) is grounded on space. For a list of ordered items held in WM, items at the beginning of the list are associated with the left side of space and items at the end of the list with the right side. This suggests that maintaining items in verbal WM is performed in strong analogy to writing these items down on a physical whiteboard for later consultation (The Mental Whiteboard Hypothesis). What drives this spatial mapping of ordered series in WM remains poorly understood. In the present study we tested whether visual experience is instrumental in establishing the link between serial order in WM and spatial processing. We tested early blind (EB), late blind (LB) and sighted individuals in an auditory WM task. Replicating previous studies, left-key responses were faster for early items in the list whereas later items facilitated right-key responses in the sighted group. The same effect was observed in LB individuals. In contrast, EB participants did not show any association between space and serial position in WM. These results suggest that early visual experience plays a critical role in linking ordered items in WM and spatial representations. The analogical spatial structure of WM may depend in part on the actual experience of using spatially organized devices (e.g., notes, whiteboards) to offload WM. These practices are largely precluded to EB individuals, who instead rely to mnemonic devices that are less spatially organized (e.g., recordings, vocal notes). The way we habitually organize information in the external world may bias the way we organize information in our WM.

  11. Verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia associated with cortical thinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guimond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal memory (VM represents one of the most affected cognitive domains in schizophrenia. Multiple studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with cortical abnormalities, but it remains unclear whether these are related to VM impairments. Considering the vast literature demonstrating the role of the frontal cortex, the parahippocampal cortex, and the hippocampus in VM, we examined the cortical thickness/volume of these regions. We used a categorical approach whereby 27 schizophrenia patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments were compared to 23 patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments and 23 healthy controls. A series of between-group vertex-wise GLM on cortical thickness were performed for specific regions of interest defining the parahippocampal gyrus and the frontal cortex. When compared to healthy controls, patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments revealed significantly thinner cortex in the left frontal lobe, and the parahippocampal gyri. When compared to patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments, patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments showed a trend of thinner cortex in similar regions. Virtually no differences were observed in the frontal area of patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments relative to controls. No significant group differences were observed in the hippocampus. Our results indicate that patients with greater VM impairments demonstrate significant cortical thinning in regions known to be important in VM performance. Treating VM deficits in schizophrenia could have a positive effect on the brain; thus, subgroups of patients with more severe VM deficits should be a prioritized target in the development of new cognitive treatments.

  12. Stress facilitates consolidation of verbal memory for a film but does not affect retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckner, Victoria E; Tucker, David M; Delville, Yvon; Mohr, David C

    2006-06-01

    The effect of psychosocial stress on distinct memory processes was investigated in 157 college students using a brief film, which enabled comparison of verbal and visual memory by using a single complex stimulus. Participants were stressed either following stimuli presentation (consolidation) or before testing 48 hr later (retrieval) and were compared with no-stress controls. Salivary cortisol was measured before and 20 min after stress. The consolidation group significantly outperformed controls on total and verbal film scores. Stress did not impair retrieval relative to controls. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant correlation between cortisol and verbal scores across all groups (r = .18). Results provide the first evidence of a facilitative effect of a stressor on verbal memory, but failed to replicate retrieval findings.

  13. The impact of a high versus a low glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal on verbal episodic memory in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Foster, Jonathan K

    2008-10-01

    In this study, healthy adolescents consumed either (i) a low glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal or (ii) a high glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal, before completing a test of verbal episodic memory in which the memory materials were encoded under conditions of divided attention. Analysis of remembering/forgetting indices revealed that the high glycaemic index breakfast group remembered significantly more items relative to the low glycaemic index breakfast group after a long delay. The superior performance observed in the high glycaemic index group, relative to the low glycaemic index group, may be due to the additional glucose availability provided by the high glycaemic index meal at the time of memory encoding. This increased glucose availability may be necessary for effective encoding under dual task conditions.

  14. Verbal memory performance and completion of cardiac rehabilitation in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swardfager, Walter; Herrmann, Nathan; Marzolini, Susan; Oh, Paul I; Saleem, Mahwesh; Shammi, Prathiba; Kiss, Alexander; Cappell, Jaclyn; Lanctôt, Krista L

    2011-09-01

    To assess cognitive performance as a predictor of noncompletion of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) using a standardized verbal memory test. This was a prospective cohort study of consecutive patients with coronary artery disease (n = 131) entering 1-year outpatient CR between April 2007 and May 2009. Verbal memory performance was assessed using the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition. Attendance at weekly CR sessions was recorded, and completion or noncompletion was determined according to comprehensive CR criteria. Depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria as a possible confounder. Verbal memory performance at entry into CR differed significantly (F(1,130) = 7.80, p = .006) between noncompleters and completers (mean [SD] cumulative California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition, score, -1.15 [2.59] versus 0.47 [3.12]) in analysis of covariance controlling for pertinent clinical confounders. Better verbal memory performance predicted a reduced risk of noncompletion (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.77-0.96, p = .009) in time-to-event analysis adjusted for depression (HR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.33-5.17, p = .006) and smoking history (HR = 2.03, 95% CI = 0.98-4.22, p = .06). A post hoc analysis suggested that better verbal memory performance predicted a reduced risk of noncompletion for medical reasons (HR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70-0.99, p = .03). Poorer verbal memory performance was associated with an increased risk of noncompletion of CR among participants with coronary artery disease. Further studies exploring practical methods for screening and targeted support might improve rehabilitation outcomes.

  15. Areas of Left Perisylvian Cortex Mediate Auditory-Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigs, Michael; Acheson, Daniel J.; Barbey, Aron K.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Postle, Bradley R.; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    A contentious issue in memory research is whether verbal short-term memory (STM) depends on a neural system specifically dedicated to the temporary maintenance of information, or instead relies on the same brain areas subserving the comprehension and production of language. In this study, we examined a large sample of adults with acquired brain…

  16. Areas of Left Perisylvian Cortex Mediate Auditory-Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigs, Michael; Acheson, Daniel J.; Barbey, Aron K.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Postle, Bradley R.; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    A contentious issue in memory research is whether verbal short-term memory (STM) depends on a neural system specifically dedicated to the temporary maintenance of information, or instead relies on the same brain areas subserving the comprehension and production of language. In this study, we examined a large sample of adults with acquired brain…

  17. Profiles of Verbal Working Memory Growth Predict Speech and Language Development in Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.; Harris, Michael S.; Hoen, Helena M.; Xu, Huiping; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) skills predict speech and language outcomes in children with cochlear implants (CIs) even after conventional demographic, device, and medical factors are taken into account. However, prior research has focused on single end point outcomes as opposed to the longitudinal process of…

  18. Increased Interhemispheric Interaction Is Associated with Decreased False Memories in a Verbal Converging Semantic Associates Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, S.D.; Propper, R.E.; Dion, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that task and subject variables that are associated with increased interaction between the left and right cerebral hemispheres result in enhanced performance on tests of episodic memory. The current study looked at the effects of increased interhemispheric interaction on false memories using a verbal converging semantic…

  19. Verbal Working Memory Is Related to the Acquisition of Cross-Linguistic Phonological Regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Evelyn; Heeringa, Wilbert; Hoekstra, Eric; Versloot, Arjen; Blom, Elma

    2017-01-01

    Closely related languages share cross-linguistic phonological regularities, such as Frisian -âld [ͻ:t] and Dutch -oud [ʱut], as in the cognate pairs kâld [kͻ:t] - koud [kʱut] 'cold' and wâld [wͻ:t] - woud [wʱut] 'forest'. Within Bybee's (1995, 2001, 2008, 2010) network model, these regularities are, just like grammatical rules within a language, generalizations that emerge from schemas of phonologically and semantically related words. Previous research has shown that verbal working memory is related to the acquisition of grammar, but not vocabulary. This suggests that verbal working memory supports the acquisition of linguistic regularities. In order to test this hypothesis we investigated whether verbal working memory is also related to the acquisition of cross-linguistic phonological regularities. For three consecutive years, 5- to 8-year-old Frisian-Dutch bilingual children (n = 120) were tested annually on verbal working memory and a Frisian receptive vocabulary task that comprised four cognate categories: (1) identical cognates, (2) non-identical cognates that either do or (3) do not exhibit a phonological regularity between Frisian and Dutch, and (4) non-cognates. The results showed that verbal working memory had a significantly stronger effect on cognate category (2) than on the other three cognate categories. This suggests that verbal working memory is related to the acquisition of cross-linguistic phonological regularities. More generally, it confirms the hypothesis that verbal working memory plays a role in the acquisition of linguistic regularities.

  20. Verbal Working Memory Is Related to the Acquisition of Cross-Linguistic Phonological Regularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Bosma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Closely related languages share cross-linguistic phonological regularities, such as Frisian -âld [ͻ:t] and Dutch -oud [ʱut], as in the cognate pairs kâld [kͻ:t] – koud [kʱut] ‘cold’ and wâld [wͻ:t] – woud [wʱut] ‘forest’. Within Bybee’s (1995, 2001, 2008, 2010 network model, these regularities are, just like grammatical rules within a language, generalizations that emerge from schemas of phonologically and semantically related words. Previous research has shown that verbal working memory is related to the acquisition of grammar, but not vocabulary. This suggests that verbal working memory supports the acquisition of linguistic regularities. In order to test this hypothesis we investigated whether verbal working memory is also related to the acquisition of cross-linguistic phonological regularities. For three consecutive years, 5- to 8-year-old Frisian-Dutch bilingual children (n = 120 were tested annually on verbal working memory and a Frisian receptive vocabulary task that comprised four cognate categories: (1 identical cognates, (2 non-identical cognates that either do or (3 do not exhibit a phonological regularity between Frisian and Dutch, and (4 non-cognates. The results showed that verbal working memory had a significantly stronger effect on cognate category (2 than on the other three cognate categories. This suggests that verbal working memory is related to the acquisition of cross-linguistic phonological regularities. More generally, it confirms the hypothesis that verbal working memory plays a role in the acquisition of linguistic regularities.

  1. Impaired decision making and delayed memory are related with anxiety and depressive symptoms in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Iris; Santos, Alicia; Valassi, Elena; Pires, Patricia; Webb, Susan M; Resmini, Eugenia

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of cognitive function in acromegaly has revealed contradictory findings; some studies report normal cognition in patients with long-term cured acromegaly, while others show attention and memory deficits. Moreover, the presence of affective disorders in these patients is common. Our aim was to evaluate memory and decision making in acromegalic patients and explore their relationship with affective disorders like anxiety and depressive symptoms. Thirty-one patients with acromegaly (mean age 49.5 ± 8.5 years, 14 females and 17 males) and thirty-one healthy controls participated in this study. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were used to evaluate decision making, verbal memory, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, respectively. Acromegalic patients showed impairments in delayed verbal memory (p < 0.05) and more anxiety and depressive symptoms (p < 0.05) than controls. In the IGT, acromegalic patients presented an altered decision-making strategy compared to controls, choosing a lower number of the safer cards (p < 0.05) and higher number of the riskier cards (p < 0.05). Moreover, multiple correlations between anxiety and depressive symptoms and performance in memory and decision making were found. Impaired delayed memory and decision making observed in acromegalic patients are related to anxiety and depressive symptoms. Providing emotional support to the patients could improve their cognitive function. A key clinical application of this research is the finding that depressive symptoms and anxiety are essentially modifiable factors.

  2. Verbal overshadowing of memories for fencing movements is mediated by expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrasne Ait-Said, Elise; Maquestiaux, François; Didierjean, André

    2014-01-01

    Does verbalizing a previously-seen complex visual stimulus influence its subsequent recollection? We investigated this question by examining the mediating role played by expertise level in fencing on the effects of verbalizing upon visual memory. Participants with three distinct levels of expertise in fencing (novices, intermediates, experts) performed seven trials. In each trial, they first watched four times a short video that displayed fencing movements. Then, half of them verbalized the previously-seen visual stimulus (i.e., the verbalization group), the other half carried out a hidden-word task (i.e., the non-verbalization group). Finally, all the participants were asked to recognize the previously-seen fencing movements amongst novel fencing movements. Overall, verbalizing improved recognition for novices, altered recognition for intermediates, and had no effect for experts. These findings replicated the classical verbal-overshadowing effect, while extending it to a more conceptual material. They also point out to some potential benefits and costs of verbalizing on visual memory, depending on the level of expertise.

  3. Count out your intrusions: effects of verbal encoding on intrusive memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krans, Julie; Naring, Gerard; Becker, Eni S

    2009-11-01

    Peri-traumatic information processing is thought to affect the development of intrusive trauma memories. This study aimed to replicate and improve the study by Holmes, Brewin, and Hennessy (2004, Exp. 3) on the role of peri-traumatic verbal processing in analogue traumatic intrusion development. Participants viewed an aversive film under one of three conditions: counting backwards in 3s ("verbal interference"), verbalising emotions and thoughts ("verbal enhancement"), or without an extra task. A dual-process account of PTSD would predict that verbal interference would increase intrusion frequency compared to no task, whereas verbal enhancement would lead to a decrease. In contrast, mainstream memory theory predicts a decrease in intrusion frequency from any concurrent task that diverts attention away from the trauma film. The main finding was that the verbal interference task led to a decrease in intrusive memories of the film compared to the other two conditions. This finding does not support a dual-process account of PTSD, but is in line with general theories of memory and attention.

  4. The sleeping brain's influence on verbal memory: boosting resistance to interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Ellenbogen

    Full Text Available Memories evolve. After learning something new, the brain initiates a complex set of post-learning processing that facilitates recall (i.e., consolidation. Evidence points to sleep as one of the determinants of that change. But whenever a behavioral study of episodic memory shows a benefit of sleep, critics assert that sleep only leads to a temporary shelter from the damaging effects of interference that would otherwise accrue during wakefulness. To evaluate the potentially active role of sleep for verbal memory, we compared memory recall after sleep, with and without interference before testing. We demonstrated that recall performance for verbal memory was greater after sleep than after wakefulness. And when using interference testing, that difference was even more pronounced. By introducing interference after sleep, this study confirms an experimental paradigm that demonstrates the active role of sleep in consolidating memory, and unmasks the large magnitude of that benefit.

  5. Brain serotonin 4 receptor binding is inversely associated with verbal memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbæk, Dea S; Fisher, Patrick M; Ozenne, Brice; Andersen, Emil; Hjordt, Liv V; McMahon, Brenda; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-04-01

    We have previously identified an inverse relationship between cerebral serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT 4R) binding and nonaffective episodic memory in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate in a novel sample if the association is related to affective components of memory, by examining the association between cerebral 5-HT 4R binding and affective verbal memory recall. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were scanned with the 5-HT 4R radioligand [(11)C]SB207145 and positron emission tomography, and were tested with the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24. The association between 5-HT 4R binding and affective verbal memory was evaluated using a linear latent variable structural equation model. We observed a significant inverse association across all regions between 5-HT 4R binding and affective verbal memory performances for positive (p = 5.5 × 10(-4)) and neutral (p = .004) word recall, and an inverse but nonsignificant association for negative (p = .07) word recall. Differences in the associations with 5-HT 4R binding between word categories (i.e., positive, negative, and neutral) did not reach statistical significance. Our findings replicate our previous observation of a negative association between 5-HT 4R binding and memory performance in an independent cohort and provide novel evidence linking 5-HT 4R binding, as a biomarker for synaptic 5-HT levels, to the mnestic processing of positive and neutral word stimuli in healthy humans.

  6. A Review of the Verbal Memory Profile of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolson Yat-Fan Siu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies concerning the memory of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD have yielded inconsistent results over the past few decades. Some have found impairment where as others have reported an intact memory profile in ASD. Therefore, in the present review, we will examine the verbal memory profile of ASD. A systematic search has located 18 articles for review and analysis. It is suggested that ASDs mainly have an intact verbal recognition performance but impaired verbal recall ability. The conflicting memory performance found in ASD may probably be due to confounding factors, including differences in the experimental designs of research studies, the intellectual functioning levels of ASD and their developmental trajectories. In general, the memory processing of ASD is implicated by the frontal lobe function, and the memory problem is primarily caused by the poor utilization of organizational strategies during information encoding. A failure to encode the information properly will directly hinder their later retrieval performance. Finally, priorities for future research in the memory functions of ASD are suggested, and the need for more rigorous research paradigms is highlighted. With a more comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanism of the memory functions of those with ASD, it is believed that better intervention programs can be developed to aid their memory deficits and to improve their daily-life performances.

  7. The relationship between cortisol and verbal memory in the early stages of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirbin, Christopher A; Chua, Phyllis; Churchyard, Andrew; Hannan, Anthony J; Lowndes, Georgia; Stout, Julie C

    2013-03-01

    Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity has been linked to learning and memory difficulties in a range of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric conditions. In Huntington's disease (HD), both declines in learning and memory and HPA axis dysfunction are present early in the disease. However, the relationship between specific learning and memory deficits and HPA axis functioning in HD has not been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate cortisol levels in relation to verbal learning and memory in pre-diagnosed (pre-HD) participants and patients at the early stages of diagnosed HD (early-HD). Cortisol concentration was assayed in saliva samples from 57 participants (17 early-HD, 20 pre-HD, and 20 controls) at four time-points across a 24-h period. Verbal memory was assessed using the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II). We focused statistical analyses on the late evening cortisol concentration, and examined cortisol levels and verbal memory function in relation to diagnostic group (control, pre-HD, early-HD), and in a separate set of analyses combining pre-HD and early-HD (and excluding controls) we also examined cortisol and verbal memory performance in relation to the severity of HD-related motor signs. Of these two classification approaches, HD motor sign severity was more strongly associated with high evening cortisol levels and both reduced information encoding and memory retrieval. Separately, there was also a trend of higher cortisol levels in pre-HD. The findings suggest hypercortisolism and the underlying pathological changes may begin many years before a clinical diagnosis is made, but the memory decline associated with HPA axis disturbance may only become detectable once motor signs become pronounced.

  8. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have...

  9. Four-hour delayed memory recall for stories: Theoretical and clinical implications of measuring accelerated long-term forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladowsky-Brooks, Ricki L

    2016-01-01

    It has been noted that clinical neuropsychological assessment is "blind" to certain abnormalities of consolidation that occur beyond standard 30-min delay intervals. For example, normal forgetting at 30-min delays has been followed by enhanced forgetting at longer delays in temporal-lobe epilepsy, termed accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF). To evaluate whether ALF could be identified in the neuropsychological assessment of a small sample of examinees with head injuries or other neurological diagnoses (n = 42), a 4-hr delayed recall condition was added to the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition. A small percentage of examinees (5/42 or 11%), despite exhibiting unimpaired story recall immediately and after 30-min delays, showed increased forgetting when compared with the average retention of stories (M = 0.83, SD = 0.17) after a 4-hr delay. Three of these 5 examinees also had impaired scores on 20-min delayed recall of the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) and would have been identified as having memory impairment without an extended, 4-hr delayed recall. In fact, the highest correlation among memory indexes was between 4-hr delayed recall of stories and delayed recall of the CVLT-II word list (r = .59, p < .0001), suggesting different consolidation rates for relational and nonrelational material.

  10. Preliminary data on the effect of culture on the assessment of Alzheimer's disease-related verbal memory impairment with the International Shopping List Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yen Ying; Pietrzak, Robert H; Snyder, Peter J; Darby, David; Maruff, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The International Shopping List Test (ISLT) is a measure of verbal learning and memory, developed specifically for use in people from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. In this report, we describe two studies that examined the ISLT's ability to detect memory impairment and memory decline in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) from a range of cultural and linguistic backgrounds. In Study 1, the performance of Australian-English-speaking adults with mild AD was compared with that of native Australian-English- and Korean-speaking patients with mild AD. Compared with controls, patients with AD from both language groups showed large but equivalent impairments in total recall, delayed recall, rate of learning, and primacy and retention-weighted recall (RWR) measures on the ISLT. In Study 2, the rate of deterioration in verbal memory over 1 year was examined in groups of native Canadian-English, French, and Korean speakers with mild AD using the total recall, delayed recall, and RWR measures. Rates of change on all three measures were equivalent across the language groups, although the magnitude of deterioration was most pronounced for the total recall and RWR measures. Taken together, these results suggest that the ISLT is valid and reliable for the assessment of verbal learning and memory impairment and decline in patients with mild AD from diverse language groups.

  11. Disturbance effect of music on processing of verbal and spatial memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Makoto; Ito, Takako

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the disturbance effect of music on performances of memory tasks. Subjects performed a verbal memory task and a spatial memory task in 4 sound conditions, including the presence of vocal music, instrumental music, a natural sound (murmurings of a stream), and no music. 47 undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to perform tasks under each condition. Perceived disturbance was highest under the vocal music condition regardless of the type of task. A disturbance in performance by music was observed only with the verbal memory task under the vocal and the instrumental music conditions. These findings were discussed from the perspectives of the working memory hypothesis and the changing state model.

  12. The differential relations between verbal, numerical and spatial working memory abilitiesand children's reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane OAKHILL

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Working memory predicts children's reading comprehension but it is not clear whether this relation is due to a modality-specific or general working memory. This study, which investigated the relationsbetween children's reading skills and working memory (WM abilities in 3 modalities, extends previous work by including measures of both reading comprehension and reading accuracy. Tests of word reading accuracy and reading comprehension, and working memory tests in three different modalities(verbal, numerical and spatial, were given to 197 6- to 11-year old children. The results support the view that working memory tasks that require the processing and recall of symbolic information (words and numbers are better predictors of reading comprehension than tasks that require visuo-spatial storage and processing. The different measures of verbal and numerical working memory were not equally good predictors of reading comprehension, but their predictive power depended on neitherthe word vs. numerical contrast nor the complexity of the processing component. In general, performance on the verbal and numerical working memory tasks predicted reading comprehension, but not reading accuracy, and spatial WM did not predict either. The patterns of relations between the measures of working memory and reading comprehension ability were relatively constant across theage group tested.

  13. Effects of classroom bilingualism on task-shifting, verbal memory, and word learning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

    2014-07-01

    We examined the effects of classroom bilingual experience in children on an array of cognitive skills. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared with children who spoke English as the native language and who had been exposed to Spanish in the context of dual-immersion schooling for an average of 2 years. The groups were compared on a measure of non-linguistic task-shifting; measures of verbal short-term and working memory; and measures of word learning. The two groups of children did not differ on measures of non-linguistic task-shifting and verbal short-term memory. However, the classroom-exposure bilingual group outperformed the monolingual group on the measure of verbal working memory and a measure of word learning. Together, these findings indicate that while exposure to a second language in a classroom setting may not be sufficient to engender changes in cognitive control, it can facilitate verbal memory and verbal learning. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of Classroom Bilingualism on Task Shifting, Verbal Memory, and Word Learning in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of classroom bilingual experience in children on an array of cognitive skills. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared with children who spoke English as the native language and who had been exposed to Spanish in the context of dual-immersion schooling for an average of two years. The groups were compared on a measure of non-linguistic task-shifting; measures of verbal short-term and working memory; and measures of word-learning. The two groups of children did not differ on measures of non-linguistic task-shifting and verbal short-term memory. However, the classroom-exposure bilingual group outperformed the monolingual group on the measure of verbal working memory and a measure of word-learning. Together, these findings indicate that while exposure to a second language in a classroom setting may not be sufficient to engender changes in cognitive control, it can facilitate verbal memory and verbal learning. PMID:24576079

  15. Short-term verbal memory and psychophysiological response to emotion-related words in children who stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokić Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions play a significant role in fluency disorders. In this research we wanted to examine immediate and delayed verbal recall for auditory presented words that carry information about different emotional state (emotion-related words and emotionally neutral words in children who stutter (N=35 and their peers (N=35. Using only word semantics, we wanted to eliminate emotional verbal expression of words as a factor that can influence memory abilities. In addition, we also wanted to examine skin conductance measure as an indicator of autonomic nervous system arousal during short-term memory task for emotion-related and emotionally neutral words. Parental questionnaire (Stuttering Intensity in Children Who Stutter in Positive and Negative Emotion-Related Everyday Situations was given to parents of children who stutter in order to collect data regarding stuttering severity in emotionally arousing situations in everyday life. Differences between the experimental and the control group in global memory capacity are highest in immediate recall (p=0,01 with the tendency for lowering statistical significance with prolongation of retention interval. According to the questionnaire results, children who stutter show a higher degree of stuttering in situations with positive emotional valence (p< 0.00. Skin conductance measurements showed higher autonomic nervous system arousal during perception and free recall of positive emotion-related words in children who stutter when compared to negative and emotionally neutral words. The results indicate higher emotional arousal to positive emotions in children who stutter (p=0.02, leading to either less fluent speech or suppression of verbal short-term memory capacity.

  16. Older Adults' Memory for Verbally Presented Medical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…

  17. The heterogeneity of verbal short-term memory impairment in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Attout, Lucie; Artielle, Marie-Amélie; Van der Kaa, Marie-Anne

    2015-10-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment represents a frequent and long-lasting deficit in aphasia, and it will prevent patients from recovering fully functional language abilities. The aim of this study was to obtain a more precise understanding of the nature of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by determining whether verbal STM impairment is merely a consequence of underlying language impairment, as suggested by linguistic accounts of verbal STM, or whether verbal STM impairment reflects an additional, specific deficit. We investigated this question by contrasting item-based STM measures, supposed to depend strongly upon language activation, and order-based STM measures, supposed to reflect the operation of specific, serial order maintenance mechanisms, in a sample of patients with single-word processing deficits at the phonological and/or lexical level. A group-level analysis showed robust impairment for both item and serial order STM aspects in the aphasic group relative to an age-matched control group. An analysis of individual profiles revealed an important heterogeneity of verbal STM profiles, with patients presenting either selective item STM deficits, selective order STM deficits, generalized item and serial order STM deficits or no significant STM impairment. Item but not serial order STM impairment correlated with the severity of phonological impairment. These results disconfirm a strong version of the linguistic account of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by showing variable impairment to both item and serial order processing aspects of verbal STM.

  18. Memory Test Performance on Analogous Verbal and Nonverbal Memory Tests in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Baldock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD typically have initial deficits in language or changes in personality, while the defining characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD is memory impairment. Neuropsychological findings in the two diseases tend to differ, but can be confounded by verbal impairment in FTD impacting performance on memory tests in these patients. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with FTD and 102 patients with AD underwent a neuropsychological assessment before diagnosis. By utilizing analogous versions of a verbal and nonverbal memory test, we demonstrated differences in these two modalities between AD and FTD. Discussion: Better differentiation between AD and FTD is found in a nonverbal memory test, possibly because it eliminates the confounding variable of language deficits found in patients with FTD. These results highlight the importance of nonverbal learning tests with multiple learning trials in diagnostic testing.

  19. Cerebellar damage produces selective deficits in verbal working memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ravizza, Susan M; McCormick, Cristin A; Schlerf, John E; Justus, Timothy; Ivry, Richard B; Fiez, Julie A

    .... While patients with cerebellar damage occasionally exhibit a mild impairment on standard neuropsychological tests of working memory, these tests are not diagnostic for exploring these processes in detail...

  20. The decline of verbal and visuospatial working memory across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansino, Selene; Hernández-Ramos, Evelia; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Torres-Trejo, Frine; Martínez-Galindo, Joyce Graciela; Ayala-Hernández, Mariana; Gómez-Fernández, Tania; Osorio, David; Cedillo-Tinoco, Melisa; Garcés-Flores, Lissete; Beltrán-Palacios, Karla; García-Lázaro, Haydée Guadalupe; García-Gutiérrez, Fabiola; Cadena-Arenas, Yadira; Fernández-Apan, Luisa; Bärtschi, Andrea; Rodríguez-Ortiz, María Dolores

    2013-12-01

    It has been well established that working memory abilities decrease with advancing age; however, the specific time point in the adult life span at which this deficit begins and the rate at which it advances are still controversial. There is no agreement on whether working memory declines equally for visuospatial and verbal information, and the literature disagrees on how task difficulty may influence this decay. We addressed these questions in a lifespan sample of 1,500 participants between 21 and 80 years old. The n-back task was used, with letters and circles presented at different positions around an imaginary circle, to evaluate working memory in the verbal and visuospatial domains, respectively. The participants' task was to judge whether the current stimulus matched a stimulus that was shown n trials prior. Both domains were evaluated in two levels of difficulty: 1-back and 2-back. The comparison across decades showed that discrimination in the visuospatial and 1-back tasks started to decline earlier in women than in men; however, discrimination was equal between the sexes in the verbal and 2-back tasks. Performance on tasks in the visuospatial domain exhibited more pronounced decline than in those in the verbal domain. The rate of decline in working memory accuracy was superior in 2-back tasks than in 1-back tasks, independent of the domain. These results revealed that the effects of aging on working memory are less dependent on the type of information and more reliant on the resources demanded by the task.

  1. Enhanced Neuroactivation during Verbal Memory Processing in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Short Term Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Carol C.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Love, Tiffany; Wang, Heng; Tkaczyk, Anne; Smith, Yolanda R.

    2012-01-01

    Capsule Using a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design, we showed that short-term hormone replacement therapy increases brain activation in parietal and prefrontal areas during verbal memory tasks in postmenopausal women. Objective To study the effects of hormone therapy on brain activation patterns during verbal memory in postmenopausal women. Design A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study was performed. Setting A tertiary care university medical center. Participants Ten healthy postmenopausal women (age range 50-60 years) were recruited from the local community. Interventions Women were randomized to the order they received combined hormone therapy, 5 ug ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate, and placebo. Volunteers received hormone therapy or placebo for 4 weeks, followed by a one month washout period, and then received the other treatment for 4 weeks. An fMRI was performed at the end of each 4 week treatment utilizing a verbal memory task. Main Outcome Measure Brain activation patterns were compared between hormone therapy and placebo. Results Hormone therapy was associated with increased activation in left middle/superior frontal cortex (BA 6,9), medial frontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate (BA 24,32), posterior cingulate (BA 6), and left inferior parietal (BA 40) during memory encoding. All regions were significant at p ≤ 0.05 with correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions Hormone therapy increased neural activation in frontal and parietal areas in postmenopausal women during a verbal memory task. PMID:18692790

  2. Depressive Mood and Testosterone Related to Declarative Verbal Memory Decline in Middle-Aged Caregivers of Children with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-03-04

    Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED) can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T) levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27) show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27), using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline.

  3. ABOUT HYBRID BIDIRECTIONAL ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY NEURAL NETWORKS WITH DISCRETE DELAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid bidirectional associative memory neural networks with discrete delays is considered. By ingeniously importing real parameters di > 0(i = 1,2,···,n) which can be adjusted, we establish some new sufficient conditions for the dynamical characteristics of hybrid bidirectional associative memory neural networks with discrete delays by the method of variation of parameters and some analysis techniques. Our results generalize and improve the related results in [10,11]. Our work is significant...

  4. Listen up, eye movements play a role in verbal memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Agnes; Mehlhorn, Katja; Krems, Josef F

    2016-01-01

    People fixate on blank spaces if visual stimuli previously occupied these regions of space. This so-called "looking at nothing" (LAN) phenomenon is said to be a part of information retrieval from internal memory representations, but the exact nature of the relationship between LAN and memory retrieval is unclear. While evidence exists for an influence of LAN on memory retrieval for visuospatial stimuli, evidence for verbal information is mixed. Here, we tested the relationship between LAN behavior and memory retrieval in an episodic retrieval task where verbal information was presented auditorily during encoding. When participants were allowed to gaze freely during subsequent memory retrieval, LAN occurred, and it was stronger for correct than for incorrect responses. When eye movements were manipulated during memory retrieval, retrieval performance was higher when participants fixated on the area associated with to-be-retrieved information than when fixating on another area. Our results provide evidence for a functional relationship between LAN and memory retrieval that extends to verbal information.

  5. Effect of Musical Experience on Verbal Memory in Williams Syndrome: Evidence from a Novel Word Learning Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marilee A.; Jungers, Melissa K.; Steele, Anita L.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by an increased affinity for music, deficits in verbal memory, and atypical brain development. Music has been shown to improve verbal memory in typical individuals as well as those with learning difficulties, but no studies have examined this relationship in WS. The aim…

  6. The Advantage of Reading over Listening Text Comprehension in Down Syndrome: What Is the Role of Verbal Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena; Levorato, M. Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the role played by verbal memory in the advantage shown by individuals with Down syndrome in reading over listening text comprehension (Roch & Levorato, 2009). Two different aspects of verbal memory were analyzed: processing load and coding modality. Participants were 20 individuals with Down syndrome,…

  7. The Differential Contributions of Auditory-Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory on Decoding Skills in Children Who Are Poor Decoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Katie Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the differential contribution of auditory-verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) on decoding skills in second- and fifth-grade children identified with poor decoding. Thirty-two second-grade students and 22 fifth-grade students completed measures that assessed simple and complex auditory-verbal and visuospatial memory,…

  8. The association of perceived stress and verbal memory is greater in HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Cook, Judith A; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R; Maki, Pauline M

    2015-08-01

    In contrast to findings from cohorts comprised primarily of HIV-infected men, verbal memory deficits are the largest cognitive deficit found in HIV-infected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), and this deficit is not explained by depressive symptoms or substance abuse. HIV-infected women may be at greater risk for verbal memory deficits due to a higher prevalence of cognitive risk factors such as high psychosocial stress and lower socioeconomic status. Here, we investigate the association between perceived stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and verbal memory performance using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) in 1009 HIV-infected and 496 at-risk HIV-uninfected WIHS participants. Participants completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery which yielded seven cognitive domain scores, including a primary outcome of verbal memory. HIV infection was not associated with a higher prevalence of high perceived stress (i.e., PSS-10 score in the top tertile) but was associated with worse performance on verbal learning (p memory (p stress was associated with poorer performance in those cognitive domains (p's stress interaction was found only for the verbal memory domain (p = 0.02); among HIV-infected women only, high stress was associated with lower performance (p's memory measure in particular. These findings suggest that high levels of perceived stress contribute to the deficits in verbal memory observed in WIHS women.

  9. Effect of Musical Experience on Verbal Memory in Williams Syndrome: Evidence from a Novel Word Learning Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marilee A.; Jungers, Melissa K.; Steele, Anita L.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by an increased affinity for music, deficits in verbal memory, and atypical brain development. Music has been shown to improve verbal memory in typical individuals as well as those with learning difficulties, but no studies have examined this relationship in WS. The aim…

  10. Beyond Capacity Limitations: Determinants of Word Recall Performance on Verbal Working Memory Span Tasks in Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

    2005-01-01

    Reduced verbal working memory capacity has been proposed as a possible account of language impairments in specific language impairment (SLI). Studies have shown, however, that differences in strength of linguistic representations in the form of word frequency affect list recall and performance on verbal working memory tasks. This suggests that…

  11. The Contributions of Memory and Vocabulary to Non-Verbal Ability Scores in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Bavin, Edith L.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    It is usually assumed that performance on non-verbal intelligence tests reflects visual cognitive processing and that aspects of working memory (WM) will be involved. However, the unique contribution of memory to non-verbal scores is not clear, nor is the unique contribution of vocabulary. Thus, we aimed to investigate these contributions. Non-verbal test scores for 17 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and 39 children with typical development (TD) of similar mental age were compared to determine the unique contribution of visual and verbal short-term memory (STM) and WM and the additional variance contributed by vocabulary scores. No significant group differences were found in the non-verbal test scores or receptive vocabulary scores, but there was a significant difference in expressive vocabulary. Regression analyses indicate that for the TD group STM and WM (both visual and verbal) contributed similar variance to the non-verbal scores. For the ID group, visual STM and verbal WM contributed most of the variance to the non-verbal test scores. The addition of vocabulary scores to the model contributed greater variance for both groups. More unique variance was contributed by vocabulary than memory for the TD group, whereas for the ID group memory contributed more than vocabulary. Visual and auditory memory and vocabulary contributed significantly to solving visual non-verbal problems for both the TD group and the ID group. However, for each group, there were different weightings of these variables. Our findings indicate that for individuals with TD, vocabulary is the major factor in solving non-verbal problems, not memory, whereas for adolescents with ID, visual STM, and verbal WM are more influential than vocabulary, suggesting different pathways to achieve solutions to non-verbal problems. PMID:28082922

  12. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  13. Regenerative memory in time-delayed neuromorphic photonic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Romeira, B; Figueiredo, José M L; Barland, S; Javaloyes, J

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a regenerative memory based upon a time-delayed neuromorphic photonic oscillator and discuss the link with temporal localized structures. Our experimental implementation is based upon a optoelectronic system composed of a nanoscale nonlinear resonant tunneling diode coupled to a laser that we link to the paradigm of neuronal activity, the FitzHugh-Nagumo model with delayed feedback.

  14. Disturbance of time orientation, attention, and verbal memory in amnesic patients with confabulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingaki, Honoka; Park, Paeksoon; Ueda, Keita; Murai, Toshiya; Tsukiura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Confabulation is often observed in amnesic patients after brain damage. However, evidence regarding the relationship between confabulation and other neuropsychological functions is scarce. In addition, previous studies have proposed two possibilities of the relationship between confabulation and false memory, in which patients with confabulation are likely to retrieve false memories, or confabulations are relatively independent of false memories. The present study investigated how confabulation is related to various cognitive functions, including orientation, attention, frontal lobe function, memory, and mental status, and to false memories, as assessed by the Deese-Roediger-Mcdermott (DRM) paradigm. Patients with organic amnesia participated, and confabulations were evaluated using the Confabulation Battery. Amnestic patients were classified into two groups: confabulating (CP) and nonconfabulating patients (NCP). The CP group was significantly impaired in time orientation, attention, and verbal memory, compared to the NCP group and age-matched healthy controls (HC). Results of the DRM paradigm revealed no significant difference in false memory retrieval induced by critical lures across CP, NCP, and HC groups. Confabulating responses in organic amnesia could be in part induced by disturbance of time consciousness and attention control in severe impairment of verbal memories, and confabulation and false memory could be modulated by different cognitive systems.

  15. The decline of verbal and visuospatial working memory across the adult life span

    OpenAIRE

    Cansino, Selene; Hernández-Ramos, Evelia; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Torres-Trejo, Frine; Martínez-Galindo, Joyce Graciela; Ayala-Hernández, Mariana; Gómez-Fernández, Tania; Osorio, David; Cedillo-Tinoco, Melisa; Garcés-Flores, Lissete; Beltrán-Palacios, Karla; García-Lázaro, Haydée Guadalupe; García-Gutiérrez, Fabiola; Cadena-Arenas, Yadira; Fernández-Apan, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established that working memory abilities decrease with advancing age; however, the specific time point in the adult life span at which this deficit begins and the rate at which it advances are still controversial. There is no agreement on whether working memory declines equally for visuospatial and verbal information, and the literature disagrees on how task difficulty may influence this decay. We addressed these questions in a lifespan sample of 1,500 participants between 2...

  16. Nap and melatonin-induced changes in hippocampal activation and their role in verbal memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorfine, Tali; Yeshurun, Yaara; Zisapel, Nava

    2007-11-01

    Overnight sleep contributes to memory consolidation; even a short nap improves memory performance. Such improvement has been linked to hippocampal activity during sleep. Melatonin has been shown to affect the human hippocampus and to induce 'sleep like' changes in brain activation. We therefore conducted and compared two functional magnetic resonance imaging studies: the first study assessed the effect of a 2-hr mid-day nap versus an equal amount of wakefulness on a verbal memory task (unrelated word pair association); the second assessed the effect of melatonin versus placebo (both conditions without nap) on a similar task. We report that following a nap relative to wakefulness, successful retrieval-related activation in the parahippocampus is decreased. A smaller decrease is seen in wakefulness with melatonin but not placebo. In parallel, an improvement in verbal memory recall was found after a nap compared with wakefulness but not with melatonin during wakefulness compared with placebo. Our findings demonstrate effects of melatonin that resemble those of sleep on verbal memory processing in the hippocampus thus suggesting that melatonin, like sleep, can initiate offline plastic changes underlying memory consolidation; they also suggest that concomitant rest without interferences is necessary for enhanced performance.

  17. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer’s patients. PMID:24339807

  18. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eFerreri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. 22 healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients.

  19. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients.

  20. How do verbal short-term memory and working memory relate to the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar? : A comparison between first and second language learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Josje|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/277955882; Leseman, Paul|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070760810

    Previous studies show that verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is related to vocabulary learning, whereas verbal working memory (VWM) is related to grammar learning in children learning a second language (L2) in the classroom. In this study, we investigated whether the same relationships apply to

  1. How do verbal short-term memory and working memory relate to the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar? : A comparison between first and second language learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show that verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is related to vocabulary learning, whereas verbal working memory (VWM) is related to grammar learning in children learning a second language (L2) in the classroom. In this study, we investigated whether the same relationships apply to childr

  2. The Effect of Morphological Complexity on Verbal Working Memory: Results from Arabic Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Adwan-Mansour, Jasmeen; Sapir, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    To examine the role of morphology in verbal working memory. Forty nine children, all native speakers of Arabic from the same region and of the same dialect, performed a "Listening Word Span Task", whereby they had to recall Arabic uninflected words (i.e., base words), inflected words with regular (possessive) morphology, or inflected words with…

  3. Verbal Short-Term Memory Performance in Pupils with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Hala; Porter, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that verbal short-term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative…

  4. Verbal Short-Term Memory Performance in Pupils with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Hala; Porter, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that verbal short-term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative…

  5. Two Distinct Origins of Long-Term Learning Effects in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Perez, Trecy Martinez; Oberauer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In this study we show that sublist-level, incidental learning of item co-occurrence regularities affects immediate serial recall of words and…

  6. Effects of Steady-State Noise on Verbal Working Memory in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, Nicole; Alt, Mary; DeDe, Gayle; Olson, Sarah; Shehorn, James

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We set out to examine the impact of perceptual, linguistic, and capacity demands on performance of verbal working-memory tasks. The Ease of Language Understanding model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) provides a framework for testing the dynamics of these interactions within the auditory-cognitive system. Methods: Adult native speakers of English…

  7. Congenital Amusia: A Short-Term Memory Deficit for Non-Verbal, but Not Verbal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Schulze, Katrin; Foxton, Jessica M.

    2009-01-01

    Congenital amusia refers to a lifelong disorder of music processing and is linked to pitch-processing deficits. The present study investigated congenital amusics' short-term memory for tones, musical timbres and words. Sequences of five events (tones, timbres or words) were presented in pairs and participants had to indicate whether the sequences…

  8. Congenital Amusia: A Short-Term Memory Deficit for Non-Verbal, but Not Verbal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Schulze, Katrin; Foxton, Jessica M.

    2009-01-01

    Congenital amusia refers to a lifelong disorder of music processing and is linked to pitch-processing deficits. The present study investigated congenital amusics' short-term memory for tones, musical timbres and words. Sequences of five events (tones, timbres or words) were presented in pairs and participants had to indicate whether the sequences…

  9. The role of the prefrontal cortex in familiarity and recollection processes during verbal and non-verbal recognition memory: an rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turriziani, Patrizia; Smirni, Daniela; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Semenza, Carlo; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2010-08-01

    Neuroimaging and lesion studies have documented the involvement of the frontal lobes in recognition memory. However, the precise nature of prefrontal contributions to verbal and non-verbal memory and to familiarity and recollection processes remains unclear. The aim of the current rTMS study was to investigate for the first time the role of the DLPFC in encoding and retrieval of non-verbal and verbal memoranda and its contribution to recollection and familiarity processes. Recollection and familiarity processes were studied using the ROC and unequal variance signal detection methodologies. We found that rTMS delivered over left and right DLPFC at encoding resulted in material specific laterality effects with a disruption of recognition of verbal and non-verbal memoranda. Interestingly, rTMS over DLPFCs at encoding significantly affected both recollection and familiarity. However, at retrieval rTMS did not affect recollection and familiarity. Our results suggest that DLPFC has a degree of functional specialisation and plays an important role in the encoding of verbal and non-verbal memoranda.

  10. Effect of Delay on Children's Delay-Execute Prospective Memory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Peter G.; Vella, Melissa J.; Kliegel, Matthias; Terrett, Gill

    2009-01-01

    To date, little work has been done investigating prospective memory in children, particularly using a delay-execute paradigm. Two experiments were conducted to investigate this issue with children aged 5-11 years. While playing a computer driving game, children's ability to carry out a delayed intention either immediately a target cue appeared or…

  11. Sensitivity to Referential Ambiguity in Discourse: The Role of Attention, Working Memory, and Verbal Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudewyn, Megan A; Long, Debra L; Traxler, Matthew J; Lesh, Tyler A; Dave, Shruti; Mangun, George R; Carter, Cameron S; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2015-12-01

    The establishment of reference is essential to language comprehension. The goal of this study was to examine listeners' sensitivity to referential ambiguity as a function of individual variation in attention, working memory capacity, and verbal ability. Participants listened to stories in which two entities were introduced that were either very similar (e.g., two oaks) or less similar (e.g., one oak and one elm). The manipulation rendered an anaphor in a subsequent sentence (e.g., oak) ambiguous or unambiguous. EEG was recorded as listeners comprehended the story, after which participants completed tasks to assess working memory, verbal ability, and the ability to use context in task performance. Power in the alpha and theta frequency bands when listeners received critical information about the discourse entities (e.g., oaks) was used to index attention and the involvement of the working memory system in processing the entities. These measures were then used to predict an ERP component that is sensitive to referential ambiguity, the Nref, which was recorded when listeners received the anaphor. Nref amplitude at the anaphor was predicted by alpha power during the earlier critical sentence: Individuals with increased alpha power in ambiguous compared with unambiguous stories were less sensitive to the anaphor's ambiguity. Verbal ability was also predictive of greater sensitivity to referential ambiguity. Finally, increased theta power in the ambiguous compared with unambiguous condition was associated with higher working-memory span. These results highlight the role of attention and working memory in referential processing during listening comprehension.

  12. Sensitivity to Referential Ambiguity in Discourse: The Role of Attention, Working Memory, and Verbal Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Long, Debra L.; Traxler, Matthew J.; Lesh, Tyler A.; Dave, Shruti; Mangun, George R.; Carter, Cameron S.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of reference is essential to language comprehension. The goal of this study was to examine listeners’ sensitivity to referential ambiguity as a function of individual variation in attention, working memory capacity, and verbal ability. Participants listened to stories in which two entities were introduced that were either very similar (e.g., two oaks) or less similar (e.g., one oak and one elm). The manipulation rendered an anaphor in a subsequent sentence (e.g., oak) ambiguous or unambiguous. EEG was recorded as listeners comprehended the story, after which participants completed tasks to assess working memory, verbal ability, and the ability to use context in task performance. Power in the alpha and theta frequency bands when listeners received critical information about the discourse entities (e.g., oaks) was used to index attention and the involvement of the working memory system in processing the entities. These measures were then used to predict an ERP component that is sensitive to referential ambiguity, the Nref, which was recorded when listeners received the anaphor. Nref amplitude at the anaphor was predicted by alpha power during the earlier critical sentence: Individuals with increased alpha power in ambiguous compared with unambiguous stories were less sensitive to the anaphor's ambiguity. Verbal ability was also predictive of greater sensitivity to referential ambiguity. Finally, increased theta power in the ambiguous compared with unambiguous condition was associated with higher working-memory span. These results highlight the role of attention and working memory in referential processing during listening comprehension. PMID:26401815

  13. Verbal memory decline is less frequent at 10 years than at 2 years after temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson-Roswall, Lena; Malmgren, Kristina; Engman, Elisabeth; Samuelsson, Hans

    2012-08-01

    We investigated individual short- and long-term verbal memory changes after temporal lobe resection for epilepsy. Fifty-one patients (23 operated on the speech-dominant temporal lobe, DTL and 28 on the non-dominant temporal lobe, NDTL) were tested on learning/immediate recall and delayed recall of word-list and word-pairs preoperatively, 2 years postoperatively and 10years postoperatively. Changes were defined using reliable change indices of 23 healthy controls assessed at corresponding intervals. Fewer patients had reliable declines at 10 years than at 2 years (DTL: 13-35% vs 35-44%; NDTL: 0-4% vs 7-21%). Four DTL patients (17%) had reliable declines in ≥2 tests at 10-year follow-up. More NDTL patients had improvement at 10 years than at 2 years (18-30% vs 4-22%). The only risk factor for decline both short and long term was DTL resection. In conclusion, most patients had stable verbal memory postoperatively. A few DTL patients had a lasting decline at long-term follow-up, but more patients showed partial recovery, especially in the NDTL group.

  14. The role of non-verbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between non-verbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntatic processing, and a visual N-Back task and a Corsi Blocks task to measure non-verbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher non-verbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals, but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that non-verbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge. PMID:26550957

  15. People, clothing, music, and arousal as contextual retrieval cues in verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Lionel G; Bobbitt, Kristin E; Boisvert, Kathryn L; Dayholos, Kathy N; Gagnon, Anne M

    2008-10-01

    Four experiments (N = 164) on context-dependent memory were performed to explore the effects on verbal memory of incidental cues during the test session which replicated specific features of the learning session. These features involved (1) bystanders, (2) the clothing of the experimenter, (3) background music, and (4) the arousal level of the subject. Social contextual cues (bystanders or experimenter clothing) improved verbal recall or recognition. However, recall decreased when the contextual cue was a different stimulus taken from the same conceptual category (piano music by Chopin) that was heard during learning. Memory was unaffected by congruent internal cues, produced by the same physiological arousal level (low, moderate, or high heart rate) during the learning and test sessions. However, recall increased with the level of arousal across the three congruent conditions. The results emphasize the effectiveness as retrieval cues of stimuli which are socially salient, concrete, and external.

  16. Verbal short-term memory and language impairments in Cantonese speakers after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Diana Wai-Lam; Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Koon, Nim-Ting

    2017-02-21

    The study examined the relationship between verbal short-term memory (STM) and language impairment in Cantonese speakers after stroke. It is hypothesised that Cantonese speakers with left-hemisphere (LH) stroke would perform worse than those with right hemisphere (RH) stroke and normal controls. Specific linguistic factors of Cantonese might affect results in the tasks. Fifteen participants with LH stroke, 10 with RH stroke and 25 healthy controls were tested with auditory-verbal immediate serial recall (ISR) tasks and auditory linguistic tasks. All stroke participants were assessed with the Cantonese version of Western Aphasia Battery (CAB). The LH group performed significantly worse than the RH and healthy control groups in the auditory verbal ISR and auditory linguistic tasks. There were significant lexicality, frequency and imageability effects in most tasks. Auditory discrimination and word comprehension tasks, but not the auditory word recognition task had correlations with ISR tasks. Verbal STM and language performance of Cantonese-speakers with history of LH stroke were inferior to RH stroke and healthy controls. The effects of lexicality, word frequency and imageability on verbal STM memory performance were found. Cantonese tones have effects on performance in auditory word recognition task, similar to onset, nucleus and rime.

  17. Visual working memory is disrupted by covert verbal retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricker, Timothy J.; Cowan, Nelson; Morey, Candice C.

    2010-01-01

    If working memory (WM) depends on a central resource as is posited in some theories, but not in others it should be possible to observe interference between tasks that share few features with each other. We investigated whether interference with WM for visual arrays would occur, even if the interfer

  18. Validating Age-Related Functional Imaging Changes in Verbal Working Memory with Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B. Meier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional imaging studies consistently find that older adults recruit bilateral brain regions in cognitive tasks that are strongly lateralized in younger adults, a characterization known as the Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults model. While functional imaging displays what brain areas are active during tasks, it cannot demonstrate what brain regions are necessary for task performance. We used behavioral data from acute stroke patients to test the hypothesis that older adults need both hemispheres for a verbal working memory task that is predominantly left-lateralized in younger adults. Right-handed younger (age ≥ 50, n = 7 and older adults (age > 50, n = 21 with acute unilateral stroke, as well as younger (n = 6 and older (n = 13 transient ischemic attack (TIA patients, performed a self-paced verbal item-recognition task. Older patients with stroke to either hemisphere had a higher frequency of deficits in the verbal working memory task compared to older TIA patients. Additionally, the deficits in older stroke patients were mainly in retrieval time while the deficits in younger stroke patients were mainly in accuracy. These data suggest that bihemispheric activity is necessary for older adults to successfully perform a verbal working memory task.

  19. Hippocampal Functioning and Verbal Associative Memory in Adolescents with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Marie Wheeler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH is essential for normal development of the hippocampus, which is critical for memory and particularly for learning and recalling associations between visual and verbal stimuli. Adolescents with congenital hypothyroidism (CH, who lack TH in late gestation and early life, demonstrate weak verbal recall abilities, reduced hippocampal volumes, and abnormal hippocampal functioning for visually associated material. However, it is not known if their hippocampus functions abnormally when remembering verbal associations. Our objective was to assess hippocampal functioning in CH using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Fourteen adolescents with CH and 14 typically developing controls (TDC were studied. Participants studied pairs of words and then, during fMRI acquisition, made two types of recognition decisions: in one they judged whether the pairs were the same as when seen originally and in the other, whether individual words were seen before regardless of pairing. Hippocampal activation was greater for pairs than items in both groups, but this difference was only significant in TDC. When we directly compared the groups, the right anterior hippocampus was the primary region in which the TDC and CH groups differed for this pair memory effect. Results signify that adolescents with CH show abnormal hippocampal functioning during verbal memory processing.

  20. Effects of Age, Acoustic Challenge, and Verbal Working Memory on Recall of Narrative Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Caitlin M; Rogers, Chad S; Van Engen, Kristin J; Peelle, Jonathan E

    2016-01-01

    A common goal during speech comprehension is to remember what we have heard. Encoding speech into long-term memory frequently requires processes such as verbal working memory that may also be involved in processing degraded speech. Here the authors tested whether young and older adult listeners' memory for short stories was worse when the stories were acoustically degraded, or whether the additional contextual support provided by a narrative would protect against these effects. The authors tested 30 young adults (aged 18-28 years) and 30 older adults (aged 65-79 years) with good self-reported hearing. Participants heard short stories that were presented as normal (unprocessed) speech or acoustically degraded using a noise vocoding algorithm with 24 or 16 channels. The degraded stories were still fully intelligible. Following each story, participants were asked to repeat the story in as much detail as possible. Recall was scored using a modified idea unit scoring approach, which included separately scoring hierarchical levels of narrative detail. Memory for acoustically degraded stories was significantly worse than for normal stories at some levels of narrative detail. Older adults' memory for the stories was significantly worse overall, but there was no interaction between age and acoustic clarity or level of narrative detail. Verbal working memory (assessed by reading span) significantly correlated with recall accuracy for both young and older adults, whereas hearing ability (better ear pure tone average) did not. The present findings are consistent with a framework in which the additional cognitive demands caused by a degraded acoustic signal use resources that would otherwise be available for memory encoding for both young and older adults. Verbal working memory is a likely candidate for supporting both of these processes.

  1. Neuroarchitecture of verbal and tonal working memory in nonmusicians and musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Katrin; Zysset, Stefan; Mueller, Karsten; Friederici, Angela D; Koelsch, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Working memory (WM) for auditory information has been thought of as a unitary system, but whether WM for verbal and tonal information relies on the same or different functional neuroarchitectures has remained unknown. This fMRI study examines verbal and tonal WM in both nonmusicians (who are trained in speech, but not in music) and highly trained musicians (who are trained in both domains). The data show that core structures of WM are involved in both tonal and verbal WM (Broca's area, premotor cortex, pre-SMA/SMA, left insular cortex, inferior parietal lobe), although with significantly different structural weightings, in both nonmusicians and musicians. Additionally, musicians activated specific subcomponents only during verbal (right insular cortex) or only during tonal WM (right globus pallidus, right caudate nucleus, and left cerebellum). These results reveal the existence of two WM systems in musicians: A phonological loop supporting rehearsal of phonological information, and a tonal loop supporting rehearsal of tonal information. Differences between groups for tonal WM, and between verbal and tonal WM within musicians, were mainly related to structures involved in controlling, programming and planning of actions, thus presumably reflecting differences in action-related sensorimotor coding of verbal and tonal information. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Syntactic comprehension, verbal memory, and calculation abilities in Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, A; Rosselli, M; Ostrosky-Solís, F; Marcos, J; Granda, G; Soto, M

    2000-01-01

    This article analyzes the interfering effect of the second language (L2) on the first language (L1) in native Spanish speakers living in the United States. We examined 3 linguistic aspects: (a) syntactic comprehension, (b) verbal memory, and (c) calculation abilities. We carried out 2 different studies. In the 1st study, we studied syntactic understanding in 50 Spanish-English bilinguals. For all participants, L1 was Spanish and L2 was English, and all learned English early in life and had attended English schools. Results for the Spanish Syntactic Comprehension Test (Marcos & Ostrosky, 1995) were compared with the normative results obtained with 40 Spanish monolingual participants. We observed that the closer to the English syntax the sentences were, the easier it was for the participants to understand them. Participants who had been exposed to English between the ages of 5 and 12 outperformed participants exposed to English before 5 years of age. Language preference correlated with syntactic comprehension. Women outperformed men. In the 2nd study, verbal memory and calculation abilities were examined in L1 and L2 in a group of 85 Spanish-English bilinguals. Parallel versions of the different tests were administered in Spanish and English. The results indicated some significant differences between the 2 languages in several verbal learning and calculation ability subtests. Most of the verbal memory subtests were better performed in L1. Scores on tasks measuring speed and calculation accuracy were higher in the participant's native language. Best spoken language proved to be a significant variable in some verbal memory subtests performed in English but not in Spanish. We analyze implications of bilingualism in neuropsychological testing. We also present some suggestions to minimize the bilingualism effect.

  3. Delay generation methods with reduced memory requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    Modern diagnostic ultrasound beamformers require delay information for each sample along the image lines. In order to avoid storing large amounts of focusing data, delay generation techniques have to be used. In connection with developing a compact beamformer architecture, recursive algorithms were......) For the best parametric approach, the gate count was 2095, the maximum operation speed was 131.9 MHz, the power consumption at 40 MHz was 10.6 mW, and it requires 4 12-bit words for each image line and channel. 2) For the piecewise-linear approximation, the corresponding numbers are 1125 gates, 184.9 MHz, 7...

  4. Dichotic auditory-verbal memory in adults with cerebro-vascular accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Yekta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cerebrovascular accident is a neurological disorder involves central nervous system. Studies have shown that it affects the outputs of behavioral auditory tests such as dichotic auditory verbal memory test. The purpose of this study was to compare this memory test results between patients with cerebrovascular accident and normal subjects.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 20 patients with cerebrovascular accident aged 50-70 years and 20 controls matched for age and gender in Emam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Dichotic auditory verbal memory test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean score in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.0001. The results indicated that the right-ear score was significantly greater than the left-ear score in normal subjects (p<0.0001 and in patients with right hemisphere lesion (p<0.0001. The right-ear and left-ear scores were not significantly different in patients with left hemisphere lesion (p=0.0860.Conclusion: Among other methods, Dichotic auditory verbal memory test is a beneficial test in assessing the central auditory nervous system of patients with cerebrovascular accident. It seems that it is sensitive to the damages occur following temporal lobe strokes.

  5. Verbal memory deficits are correlated with prefrontal hypometabolism in (18FDG PET of recreational MDMA users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver G Bosch

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy" is a recreational club drug with supposed neurotoxic effects selectively on the serotonin system. MDMA users consistently exhibit memory dysfunction but there is an ongoing debate if these deficits are induced mainly by alterations in the prefrontal or mediotemporal cortex, especially the hippocampus. Thus, we investigated the relation of verbal memory deficits with alterations of regional cerebral brain glucose metabolism (rMRGlu in recreational MDMA users. METHODS: Brain glucose metabolism in rest was assessed using 2-deoxy-2-((18Ffluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ((18FDG PET in 19 male recreational users of MDMA and 19 male drug-naïve controls. (18FDG PET data were correlated with memory performance assessed with a German version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. RESULTS: As previously shown, MDMA users showed significant impairment in verbal declarative memory performance. PET scans revealed significantly decreased rMRGlu in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, bilateral thalamus, right hippocampus, right precuneus, right cerebellum, and pons (at the level of raphe nuclei of MDMA users. Among MDMA users, learning and recall were positively correlated with rMRGlu predominantly in bilateral frontal and parietal brain regions, while recognition was additionally related to rMRGlu in the right mediotemporal and bihemispheric lateral temporal cortex. Moreover, cumulative lifetime dose of MDMA was negatively correlated with rMRGlu in the left dorsolateral and bilateral orbital and medial PFC, left inferior parietal and right lateral temporal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Verbal learning and recall deficits of recreational MDMA users are correlated with glucose hypometabolism in prefrontal and parietal cortex, while word recognition was additionally correlated with mediotemporal hypometabolism. We conclude that memory deficits of MDMA users

  6. Contribution of the Cholinergic System to Verbal Memory Performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jessica; Lahr, Jacob; Minkova, Lora; Lauer, Eliza; Grothe, Michel J; Teipel, Stefan; Köstering, Lena; Kaller, Christoph P; Heimbach, Bernhard; Hüll, Michael; Normann, Claus; Nissen, Christoph; Reis, Janine; Klöppel, Stefan

    2016-06-18

    Acetylcholine is critically involved in modulating learning and memory function, which both decline in neurodegeneration. It remains unclear to what extent structural and functional changes in the cholinergic system contribute to episodic memory dysfunction in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), in addition to hippocampal degeneration. A better understanding is critical, given that the cholinergic system is the main target of current symptomatic treatment in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. We simultaneously assessed the structural and functional integrity of the cholinergic system in 20 patients with MCI and 20 matched healthy controls and examined their effect on verbal episodic memory via multivariate regression analyses. Mediating effects of either cholinergic function or hippocampal volume on the relationship between cholinergic structure and episodic memory were computed. In MCI, a less intact structure and function of the cholinergic system was found. A smaller cholinergic structure was significantly correlated with a functionally more active cholinergic system in patients, but not in controls. This association was not modulated by age or disease severity, arguing against compensational processes. Further analyses indicated that neither functional nor structural changes in the cholinergic system influence verbal episodic memory at the MCI stage. In fact, those associations were fully mediated by hippocampal volume. Although the cholinergic system is structurally and functionally altered in MCI, episodic memory dysfunction results primarily from hippocampal neurodegeneration, which may explain the inefficiency of cholinergic treatment at this disease stage.

  7. Visual memory in unilateral spatial neglect: immediate recall versus delayed recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreh, Elior; Malkinson, Tal Seidel; Zohary, Ehud; Soroker, Nachum

    2014-09-01

    Patients with unilateral spatial neglect (USN) often show impaired performance in spatial working memory tasks, apart from the difficulty retrieving "left-sided" spatial data from long-term memory, shown in the "piazza effect" by Bisiach and colleagues. This study's aim was to compare the effect of the spatial position of a visual object on immediate and delayed memory performance in USN patients. Specifically, immediate verbal recall performance, tested using a simultaneous presentation of four visual objects in four quadrants, was compared with memory in a later-provided recognition task, in which objects were individually shown at the screen center. Unlike healthy controls, USN patients showed a left-side disadvantage and a vertical bias in the immediate free recall task (69% vs. 42% recall for right- and left-sided objects, respectively). In the recognition task, the patients correctly recognized half of "old" items, and their correct rejection rate was 95.5%. Importantly, when the analysis focused on previously recalled items (in the immediate task), no statistically significant difference was found in the delayed recognition of objects according to their original quadrant of presentation. Furthermore, USN patients were able to recollect the correct original location of the recognized objects in 60% of the cases, well beyond chance level. This suggests that the memory trace formed in these cases was not only semantic but also contained a visuospatial tag. Finally, successful recognition of objects missed in recall trials points to formation of memory traces for neglected contralesional objects, which may become accessible to retrieval processes in explicit memory.

  8. Verbal and musical short-term memory: Variety of auditory disorders after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirel, Catherine; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Lévêque, Yohana; Hannoun, Salem; Fornoni, Lesly; Daligault, Sébastien; Bouchet, Patrick; Jung, Julien; Tillmann, Barbara; Caclin, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Auditory cognitive deficits after stroke may concern language and/or music processing, resulting in aphasia and/or amusia. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential deficits of auditory short-term memory for verbal and musical material after stroke and their underlying cerebral correlates with a Voxel-based Lesion Symptom Mapping approach (VLSM). Patients with an ischemic stroke in the right (N=10) or left (N=10) middle cerebral artery territory and matched control participants (N=14) were tested with a detailed neuropsychological assessment including global cognitive functions, music perception and language tasks. All participants then performed verbal and musical auditory short-term memory (STM) tasks that were implemented in the same way for both materials. Participants had to indicate whether series of four words or four tones presented in pairs, were the same or different. To detect domain-general STM deficits, they also had to perform a visual STM task. Behavioral results showed that patients had lower performance for the STM tasks in comparison with control participants, regardless of the material (words, tones, visual) and the lesion side. The individual patient data showed a double dissociation between some patients exhibiting verbal deficits without musical deficits or the reverse. Exploratory VLSM analyses suggested that dorsal pathways are involved in verbal (phonetic), musical (melodic), and visual STM, while the ventral auditory pathway is involved in musical STM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Elevated stress is associated with prefrontal cortex dysfunction during a verbal memory task in women with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Wu, Minjie; Sundermann, Erin E; Meyer, Vanessa J; Smith, Rachael; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Little, Deborah M; Maki, Pauline M

    2016-12-01

    HIV-infected women may be particularly vulnerable to verbal learning and memory deficits. One factor contributing to these deficits is high perceived stress, which is associated with prefrontal cortical (PFC) atrophy and memory outcomes sensitive to PFC function, including retrieval and semantic clustering. We examined the association between stress and PFC activation during a verbal memory task in 36 HIV-infected women from the Chicago Consortium of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) to better understand the role of the PFC in this stress-related impairment. Participants completed standardized measures of verbal learning and memory and stress (perceived stress scale-10). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess brain function while participants completed encoding and recognition phases of a verbal memory task. HIV-infected women with higher stress (scores in top tertile) performed worse on all verbal memory outcomes including strategic encoding (p stress (scores in lower two tertiles). Patterns of brain activation during recognition (but not encoding) differed between women with higher vs. lower stress. During recognition, women with higher stress demonstrated greater deactivation in medial PFC and posterior cingulate cortex compared to women with lower stress (p stress might alter the function of the medial PFC in HIV-infected women resulting in less efficient strategic retrieval and deficits in verbal memory.

  10. Longitudinal relationships between language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næss, Kari-Anne B; Lervåg, Arne; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles

    2015-07-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at risk for language difficulties, the nature of which is not well understood. This study compared the longitudinal predictors of language skills in children with Down syndrome with those in typically developing control children matched for initial level of nonverbal mental ability. An age cohort of children with Down syndrome (n=43) and 57 typically developing control children was assessed on measures of vocabulary, grammar, and verbal short-term memory three times at yearly intervals. Children with Down syndrome showed slower development on all measures than the typically developing controls. Longitudinal analyses showed moderate to high stability of language and verbal short-term memory skills. Our results confirm earlier evidence of pervasive language learning difficulties in this group and suggest that early language intervention should be given high priority. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The complex interaction between anxiety and cognition: Insight from spatial and verbal working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Elizabeth Vytal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety can be distracting, disruptive, and incapacitating. Despite problems with empirical replication of this phenomenon, one fruitful avenue of study has emerged from working memory (WM experiments where a translational method of anxiety induction (risk of shock has been shown to disrupt spatial and verbal WM performance. Performance declines when resources (e.g., spatial attention, executive function devoted to goal-directed behaviors are consumed by anxiety. Importantly, it has been shown that anxiety-related impairments in verbal WM depend on task difficulty, suggesting that cognitive load may be an important consideration in the interaction between anxiety and cognition. Here we use both spatial and verbal WM paradigms to probe the effect of cognitive load on anxiety-induced WM impairment across task modality. Subjects performed a series of spatial and verbal n-back tasks of increasing difficulty (1, 2, and 3-back while they were safe or at risk for shock. Startle reflex was used to probe anxiety. Results demonstrate that induced-anxiety differentially impacts verbal and spatial WM, such that low and medium-load verbal WM is more susceptible to anxiety-related disruption relative to high-load, and spatial WM is disrupted regardless of task difficulty. Anxiety impacts both verbal and spatial processes, as described by correlations between anxiety and performance impairment, albeit the effect on spatial WM is consistent across load. Demanding WM tasks may exert top-down control over higher-order cortical resources engaged by anxious apprehension, however high-load spatial WM may continue to experience additional competition from anxiety-related changes in spatial attention, resulting in impaired performance. By describing this disruption across task modalities, these findings inform current theories of emotion-cognition interactions and may facilitate development of clinical interventions that seek to target cognitive impairments associated

  12. Development of Spatial and Verbal Working Memory Capacity in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Race, Elizabeth; Burrows, Brittany; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2009-01-01

    A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between children (ages 7-12 years) and adults (ages 20-29 years) performing tests of verbal and spatial WM with varying amounts (loads)…

  13. Development of Spatial and Verbal Working Memory Capacity in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Race, Elizabeth; Burrows, Brittany; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2009-01-01

    A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between children (ages 7-12 years) and adults (ages 20-29 years) performing tests of verbal and spatial WM with varying amounts (loads)…

  14. The Monkey game : A computerized verbal working memory task for self-reliant administration in primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Jolani, Shahab; van Luit, Johannes E H

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, the psychometric properties of an online self-reliant verbal working memory task (the Monkey game) for primary school children (6–12 years of age) were examined. In Study 1, children (n = 5,203) from 31 primary schools participated. The participants completed computerized verbal and

  15. The Functional Determinants of Short-Term Memory: Evidence from Perceptual-Motor Interference in Verbal Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert W.; Marsh, John E.

    2017-01-01

    A functional, perceptual-motor, account of serial short-term memory (STM) is examined by investigating the way in which an irrelevant spoken sequence interferes with verbal serial recall. Even with visual list-presentation, verbal serial recall is particularly susceptible to disruption by irrelevant spoken stimuli that have the same identity…

  16. Depressive Mood and Testosterone Related to Declarative Verbal Memory Decline in Middle-Aged Caregivers of Children with Eating Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-01-01

    ...) can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers...

  17. Exploratory Practice: Researching the Impact of Songs on EFL Learners' Verbal Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally popular songs have been used as a way of enhancing listening and auditory\\ud perception skills and teaching vocabulary, but not necessarily for memory recall. Popular\\ud song gap-fills are already commonplace within the EFL (English as a foreign language) field;\\ud however, this study found that more attention needs to be given, to the lexical, grammatical\\ud and phonological items that learners are instructed to retain. The results of this study\\ud suggest that, verbal memory i...

  18. Building memories: remembering and forgetting of verbal experiences as predicted by brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A D; Schacter, D L; Rotte, M; Koutstaal, W; Maril, A; Dale, A M; Rosen, B R; Buckner, R L

    1998-08-21

    A fundamental question about human memory is why some experiences are remembered whereas others are forgotten. Brain activation during word encoding was measured using blocked and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how neural activation differs for subsequently remembered and subsequently forgotten experiences. Results revealed that the ability to later remember a verbal experience is predicted by the magnitude of activation in left prefrontal and temporal cortices during that experience. These findings provide direct evidence that left prefrontal and temporal regions jointly promote memory formation for verbalizable events.

  19. Depression, avolition, and attention disorders in patients with schizophrenia: associations with verbal memory efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brébion, Gildas; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Pilowsky, Lyn S; David, Anthony S

    2009-01-01

    The authors undertook a study of the clinical correlates of verbal memory deficits in schizophrenia. The first purpose was to replicate the finding of a significant association between depression and impairment in the deep encoding memory processes. The second purpose was to test the hypothesis that certain clinical symptoms--avolition, disorders of attention--also play a role in verbal memory impairment, distinct from a global negative symptomatology score. Forty-one patients with schizophrenia underwent a memory task including forward digit span and learning lists of words with different levels of semantic organization. Regression analyses revealed that the depression score was associated with the total number of recalled words, whereas the global negative symptom score was not. Depression score was not associated with the forward digit span, a measure of superficial serial encoding processes. An analysis of individual symptoms from the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) indicated that avolition was associated with several memory scores, suggesting a pervasive effect of this symptom. Attention disorders were associated with impaired efficiency in serial learning, but not with word recall efficiency. It is suggested that more consideration should be given to depression and motivation in the investigation of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, as well as in cognitive remediation strategies.

  20. Depressive Mood and Testosterone Related to Declarative Verbal Memory Decline in Middle-Aged Caregivers of Children with Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Romero-Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers’ cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27 show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27, using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline.

  1. FMRI hypoactivation during verbal learning and memory in former high school football players with multiple concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Douglas P; Adams, T Eric; Ferrara, Michael S; Miller, L Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Multiple concussions before the age of 18 may be associated with late-life memory deficits. This study examined neural activation associated with verbal encoding and memory retrieval in former athletes ages 40-65 who received at least two concussions (median = 3; range = 2-15) playing high school football and a group of former high school football players with no reported history of concussions matched on age, education, and pre-morbid IQ. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected during a modified verbal paired associates paradigm indicated that those with concussive histories had hypoactivation in left hemispheric language regions, including the inferior/middle frontal gyri and angular gyrus compared with controls. However, concussive history was not associated with worse memory functioning on neuropsychological tests or worse behavioral performance during the paradigm, suggesting that multiple early-life concussions may be associated with subtle changes in the verbal encoding system that limits one from accessing higher-order semantic networks, but this difference does not translate into measurable cognitive performance deficits. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Verbal Learning and Memory in Older Adults with Minor and Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Zillmer, Eric A.; Barakat, Lamia P.; Kumar, Anand; Gur, Ruben C.; McAndrew, Lisa M.; Bilker, Warren B.; Elderkin-Thompson, Virginia; Moberg, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Late-life minor depression (miD) is a prevalent but poorly understood illness. Verbal learning and memory profiles have commonly been used to characterize neuropsychiatric disorders. This study compared the performance of 27 older adults with miD on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) with 26 age-matched individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 36 non-depressed controls. Results revealed that the miD group performed comparably with controls and significantly better than the MDD group on several CVLT indices. Moreover, cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups, consistent with theoretical representations of “normal,” “subcortical,” and “cortical” verbal learning and memory profiles. The majority of the miD group showed “normal” profiles (74%), whereas most individuals with MDD displayed “subcortical” profiles (54%). The findings suggest that depression in the elderly is a heterogeneous entity and that the CVLT may be a useful tool for characterizing learning and memory in late-onset depressive disorders. PMID:22189596

  3. Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning - Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H; Peterson, David A; McIntosh, Gerald C; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey's auditory verbal learning test. We defined the "learning-related synchronization" (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances "deep encoding" during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS.

  4. musical mnemonics aid verbal memory and induce learning related brain plasticity in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eThaut

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music andrhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory weinvestigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis and ifmusic assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measuredsystems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music assisted learning.Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG in alpha andbeta frequency bands in 54 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. The study sample was randomlydivided into 2 groups, either hearing a spoken or musical (sung presentation of Rey’s Auditory VerbalLearning Test (RAVLT. We defined the learning-related synchronization (LRS as the percent changein EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent wordencoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and spoken conditions in low alpha andupper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better wordorder memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. Theevidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization inprefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicitin musical stimuli enhances ‘deep encoding’ during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neuraldynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS

  5. Verbal to visual code switching improves working memory in older adults: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko eOsaka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of verbal to visual code switching training on working memory performance were investigated in the elderly. Twenty-five elderly people were introduced to a verbal to visual code switching strategy (training group while the other 25 were not (control group. During this strategy training period, participants in the training group practiced focusing their attention on a target word both by drawing the target’s figure and by forming mental images of the target. To explore the neural substrates underlying strategy effects, fMRI was used to measure brain activity of the elderly in both groups while they performed a working memory task (reading span test, RST, before and after the attention training period. RST recognition accuracy was enhanced only in the training group. fMRI data for this group showed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a region that typically shows activation in young adults performing the RST. Furthermore, activation was found both in the left and right inferior parietal lobule (IPL and right superior parietal lobule (SPL, while there was no activation in these areas for the control group. These findings suggest that using a strategy of verbal to visual code switching helped the elderly participants to maintain the words in working memory.

  6. Delayed effects of cortisol enhance fear memory of trace conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, S.; Ast, V.A. van; Joëls, M.; Kindt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroids induce rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effects that are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite and complementary ways. It is presently unknown how these time-dependent effects of cortisol affect fear memory of delay and trace conditioning. This distin

  7. Delayed effects of cortisol enhance fear memory of trace conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, S.; Ast, V.A. van; Joëls, M.; Kindt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroids induce rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effects that are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite and complementary ways. It is presently unknown how these time-dependent effects of cortisol affect fear memory of delay and trace conditioning. This distin

  8. Effect of alcohol and illicit substance use on verbal memory among individuals with bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Karen; Suchting, Robert; Zunta-Soares, Giovana; Quevedo, João; Glahn, David C.; Soares, Jair C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is a well-established feature of bipolar disorder (BD). Comorbid BD and substance use leads to poor psychosocial and clinical outcomes. However, knowledge on the neurocognitive functioning of individuals with dual diagnosis is limited. The aim of this study is to assess the cognitive performance of subjects with BD, BD with comorbid alcohol use disorder (AUD), and BD with comorbid illicit substance use disorders (SUD) as compared to healthy individuals. Methods We included 270 inpatients and outpatients with BD and 211 healthy controls. The diagnostic of BD and substance use disorder was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis I. Demographic and clinical information were also collected. The cognitive assessment included the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), and a revised version of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) as part of the South Texas Assessment of Neurocognition (STAN). Results The STAN was administered to 134 BD patients (100 female, M±SD: 37.37±12.74 years), 72 BD patients with AUD (40 female, M±SD: 38.42±11.82), 64 BD patients with SUD (39 female, M±SD: 34.50±10.57), and 211 healthy controls with no lifetime history of mental illness and substance use (127 female, M±SD: 34.80±12.57 years). In terms of clinical characteristics, BD+SUD showed a marginally earlier onset of illness compared to BD. Compared to HC, BD performed poorly in the immediate recall and short-delay free tests of the CVLT, while BD patients with AUD and SUD showed significant memory deficits in both the immediate recall and recognition components of the CVLT. There were no differences in memory performance between BD and BD with either AUD or SUD. Conclusions A history of substance use disorders is associated with an earlier onset of BD. BD has marked effects on processes underlying the encoding of new information, while comorbid substance use in BD impairs

  9. How Does the Linguistic Distance between Spoken and Standard Language in Arabic Affect Recall and Recognition Performances during Verbal Memory Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham

    2017-01-01

    The current research examined how Arabic diglossia affects verbal learning memory. Thirty native Arab college students were tested using auditory verbal memory test that was adapted according to the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and developed in three versions: Pure spoken language version (SL), pure standard language version (SA), and…

  10. Examining the Relative Contribution of Memory Updating, Attention Focus Switching, and Sustained Attention to Children’s Verbal Working Memory Span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beula M. Magimairaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas considerable developmental memory research has examined the contributions of short-term memory, processing efficiency, retention duration, and scope of attention to complex memory span, little is known about the influence of controlled attention. The present study investigated the relative influence of three understudied attention mechanisms on the verbal working memory span of school-age children: memory updating; attention focus switching; and sustained attention. Results of general linear modeling revealed that, after controlling for age, only updating accuracy emerged as a significant predictor of verbal working memory span. Memory updating speed (that subsumed attention focus switching speed also contributed but was mediated by age. The results extend the developmental memory literature by implicating the mechanism of memory updating and developmental improvement in speed of attention focus switching and updating as critical contributors to children’s verbal working memory. Theoretically, the results provide substantively new information about the role of domain-general executive attention in children’s verbal working memory.

  11. Delayed effects of cortisol enhance fear memory of trace conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelisse, Sandra; van Ast, Vanessa A; Joëls, Marian; Kindt, Merel

    2014-02-01

    Corticosteroids induce rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effects that are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite and complementary ways. It is presently unknown how these time-dependent effects of cortisol affect fear memory of delay and trace conditioning. This distinction is of special interest because the neural substrates underlying these types of conditioning may be differently affected by time-dependent cortisol effects. Delay conditioning is predominantly amygdala-dependent, while trace conditioning additionally requires the hippocampus. Here, we manipulated the timing of cortisol action during acquisition of delay and trace fear conditioning, by randomly assigning 63 men to one of three possible groups: (1) receiving 10mg hydrocortisone 240 min (slow cort) or (2) 60 min (rapid cort) before delay and trace acquisition, or (3) placebo at both times, in a double-blind design. The next day, we tested memory for trace and delay conditioning. Fear potentiated startle responses, skin conductance responses and unconditioned stimulus expectancy scores were measured throughout the experiment. The fear potentiated startle data show that cortisol intake 240 min before actual fear acquisition (slow cort) uniquely strengthened subsequent trace conditioned memory. No effects of cortisol delivery 60 min prior to fear acquisition were found on any measure of fear memory. Our findings emphasize that slow, presumably genomic, but not more rapid effects of corticosteroids enhance hippocampal-dependent fear memories. On a broader level, our findings underline that basic experimental research and clinically relevant pharmacological treatments employing corticosteroids should acknowledge the timing of corticosteroid administration relative to the learning phase, or therapeutic intervention.

  12. Temporal Lobe and Frontal-Subcortical Dissociations in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease with Verbal Memory Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared J Tanner

    Full Text Available The current investigation examined verbal memory in idiopathic non-dementia Parkinson's disease and the significance of the left entorhinal cortex and left entorhinal-retrosplenial region connections (via temporal cingulum on memory impairment in Parkinson's disease.Forty non-demented Parkinson's disease patients and forty non-Parkinson's disease controls completed two verbal memory tests--a wordlist measure (Philadelphia repeatable Verbal Memory Test and a story measure (Logical Memory. All participants received T1-weighted and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (3T; Siemens sequences. Left entorhinal volume and left entorhinal-retrosplenial connectivity (temporal cingulum edge weight were the primary imaging variables of interest with frontal lobe thickness and subcortical structure volumes as dissociating variables.Individuals with Parkinson's disease showed worse verbal memory, smaller entorhinal volumes, but did not differ in entorhinal-retrosplenial connectivity. For Parkinson's disease entorhinal-retrosplenial edge weight had the strongest associations with verbal memory. A subset of Parkinson's disease patients (23% had deficits (z-scores < -1.5 across both memory measures. Relative to non-impaired Parkinson's peers, this memory-impaired group had smaller entorhinal volumes.Although entorhinal cortex volume was significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease patients relative to non-Parkinson's peers, only white matter connections associated with the entorhinal cortex were significantly associated with verbal memory performance in our sample. There was also no suggestion of contribution from frontal-subcortical gray or frontal white matter regions. These findings argue for additional investigation into medial temporal lobe gray and white matter connectivity for understanding memory in Parkinson's disease.

  13. Theory of mind and verbal working memory deficits in parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcen, Sezen; Bora, Emre; Erermis, Serpil; Kesikci, Hande; Aydin, Cahide

    2009-03-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential values of executive function and social cognition deficits as endophenotypes of autism. While theory of mind (ToM) is generally accepted as a unitary concept, some have suggested that ToM may be separated into two components (mental state reasoning and decoding). In this study, both aspects of ToM and verbal working memory abilities were investigated with relatively demanding tasks. The authors used a neurocognitive battery to compare the executive function and social cognition skills of 76 parents of autistic probands with 41 parents of healthy children. Both groups were matched for IQ, age and gender. Index parents had verbal working memory deficits. They had also low performance on a mental state reasoning task. Index parents had difficulties in reasoning about others' emotions. In contrast to findings in the control group, low performance of mental state reasoning ability was not associated with working memory deficit in index parents. Social cognition and working memory impairments may represent potential endophenotypes, related to an underlying vulnerability for autistic spectrum disorders.

  14. APOE genotype and verbal memory recovery during and after emergence from post-traumatic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, E; Ferri, J; Colomer, C; Moliner, B; Chirivella, J

    2010-01-01

    To determine if APOE genotype is linked to memory function after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Eighty-two patients in post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) and 107 patients who had emerged from PTA were selected from 239 consecutive patients admitted to the facility. Verbal memory assessments, including the Spanish version of the California Verbal Learning Test and the Working-Memory Index of the WAIS-III, were conducted immediately after PTA resolution or during the first week after admission for patients who were out of PTA. Both groups were reassessed 6 months after inclusion in a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme. Patients with the APOE-epsilon 4 allele (n = 17 in the PTA group and n = 9 in the out of PTA group) entered rehabilitation at a more impaired level, but made remarkable progress during follow-up. Fifty-five patients from the initial sample emerged from PTA during the follow-up period. Age, GOAT at admission and chronicity, but not APOE genotype or initial trauma severity, were significant predictors of emergence from PTA. APOE genotype seems to be associated with the trajectory of cognitive recovery after TBI, but does not play a determinant role in the efficacy of memory rehabilitation in this population.

  15. The advantage of reading over listening text comprehension in Down syndrome: what is the role of verbal memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena; Levorato, M Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the role played by verbal memory in the advantage shown by individuals with Down syndrome in reading over listening text comprehension (Roch & Levorato, 2009). Two different aspects of verbal memory were analyzed: processing load and coding modality. Participants were 20 individuals with Down syndrome, aged between 11 and 26 years who were matched for reading comprehension with a group of 20 typically developing children aged between 6;3 and 7;3 years. The two groups were presented with a listening comprehension test and four verbal memory tasks in which the degree of processing load and the coding modality were manipulated. The results of the study confirmed the advantage of reading over listening comprehension for individuals with Down syndrome. Furthermore, it emerged that different aspects of verbal memory were related respectively to reading and to listening comprehension: visual memory with low processing load was related to the former and oral memory with high processing load to the latter. Finally, it was demonstrated that verbal memory contributed to explain the advantage of reading over listening comprehension in Down syndrome. The results are discussed in light of their theoretical relevance and practical implications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of musical experience on verbal memory in Williams syndrome: evidence from a novel word learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marilee A; Jungers, Melissa K; Steele, Anita L

    2011-09-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by an increased affinity for music, deficits in verbal memory, and atypical brain development. Music has been shown to improve verbal memory in typical individuals as well as those with learning difficulties, but no studies have examined this relationship in WS. The aim of our two studies was to examine whether music can enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS. In Study 1, we presented a memory task of eight spoken or sung sentences that described an animal and identified its group name to 38 individuals with WS. Study 2, involving another group of individuals with WS (n=38), included six spoken or sung sentences that identified an animal group name. In both studies, those who had participated in formal music lessons scored significantly better on the verbal memory task when the sentences were sung than when they were spoken. Those who had not taken formal lessons showed no such benefit. We also found that increased enjoyment of music and heightened emotional reactions to music did not impact performance on the memory task. These compelling findings provide the first evidence that musical experience may enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS and shed more light on the complex relationship between aspects of cognition and altered neurodevelopment in this unique disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Training of verbal creativity modulates brain activity in regions associated with language- and memory-related demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Andreas; Benedek, Mathias; Koschutnig, Karl; Pirker, Eva; Berger, Elisabeth; Meister, Sabrina; Neubauer, Aljoscha C; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2015-10-01

    This functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study was designed to investigate changes in functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation as a result of a computerized, 3-week verbal creativity training. The training was composed of various verbal divergent thinking exercises requiring participants to train approximately 20 min per day. Fifty-three participants were tested three times (psychometric tests and fMRI assessment) with an intertest-interval of 4 weeks each. Participants were randomly assigned to two different training groups, which received the training time-delayed: The first training group was trained between the first and the second test, while the second group accomplished the training between the second and the third test session. At the behavioral level, only one training group showed improvements in different facets of verbal creativity right after the training. Yet, functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation were strikingly similar across both training groups. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses (along with supplementary region of interest analyses) revealed that the training was associated with activity changes in well-known creativity-related brain regions such as the left inferior parietal cortex and the left middle temporal gyrus, which have been shown as being particularly sensitive to the originality facet of creativity in previous research. Taken together, this study demonstrates that continuous engagement in a specific complex cognitive task like divergent thinking is associated with reliable changes of activity patterns in relevant brain areas, suggesting more effective search, retrieval, and integration from internal memory representations as a result of the training. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The influence of emotional distraction on verbal working memory: an fMRI investigation comparing individuals with schizophrenia and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Michele T; He, George; Gadde, Syam; Bellion, Carolyn; Belger, Aysenil; Voyvodic, James T; McCarthy, Gregory

    2011-09-01

    The ability to maintain information over short periods of time (i.e., working memory) is critically important in a variety of cognitive functions including language, planning, and decision-making. Recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) research with healthy adults has shown that brain activations evoked during the delay interval of working memory tasks can be reduced by the presentation of distracting emotional events, suggesting that emotional events may take working-memory processes momentarily offline. Both executive function and emotional processing are disrupted in schizophrenia, and here we sought to elucidate the effect of emotional distraction upon brain activity in schizophrenic and healthy adults performing a verbal working memory task. During the delay period between the memoranda and memory probe items, emotional and neutral distractors differentially influenced brain activity in these groups. In healthy adults, the hemodynamic response from posterior cingulate, orbital frontal cortex, and the parietal lobe strongly differentiated emotional from neutral distractors. In striking contrast, schizophrenic adults showed no significant differences in brain activation when processing emotional and neutral distractors. Moreover, the influence of emotional distractors extended into the memory probe period in healthy, but not schizophrenic, adults. The results suggest that although emotional items are highly salient for healthy adults, emotional items are no more distracting than neutral ones to individuals with schizophrenia.

  19. Sex differences in verbal working memory performance emerge at very high loads of common neuroimaging tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jessica L; Gallagher, Natalie M; Sullivan, Marie; Callicott, Joseph H; Green, Adam E

    2017-04-01

    Working memory (WM) supports a broad range of intelligent cognition and has been the subject of rich cognitive and neural characterization. However, the highest ranges of WM have not been fully characterized, especially for verbal information. Tasks developed to test multiple levels of WM demand (load) currently predominate brain-based WM research. These tasks are typically used at loads that allow most healthy participants to perform well, which facilitates neuroimaging data collection. Critically, however, high performance at lower loads may obscure differences that emerge at higher loads. A key question not yet addressed at high loads concerns the effect of sex. Thoroughgoing investigation of high-load verbal WM is thus timely to test for potential hidden effects, and to provide behavioral context for effects of sex observed in WM-related brain structure and function. We tested 111 young adults, matched on genotype for the WM-associated COMT-Val(108/158)Met polymorphism, on three classic WM tasks using verbal information. Each task was tested at four WM loads, including higher loads than those used in previous studies of sex differences. All tasks loaded on a single factor, enabling comparison of verbal WM ability at a construct level. Results indicated sex effects at high loads across tasks and within each task, such that males had higher accuracy, even among groups that were matched for performance at lower loads.

  20. Verbal Dominant Memory Impairment and Low Risk for Post-operative Memory Worsening in Both Left and Right Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHALIL, Amr Farid; IWASAKI, Masaki; NISHIO, Yoshiyuki; JIN, Kazutaka; NAKASATO, Nobukazu; TOMINAGA, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Post-operative memory changes after temporal lobe surgery have been established mainly by group analysis of cognitive outcome. This study investigated individual patient-based memory outcome in surgically-treated patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This study included 84 consecutive patients with intractable TLE caused by unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) who underwent epilepsy surgery (47 females, 41 left [Lt] TLE). Memory functions were evaluated with the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised before and at 1 year after surgery. Pre-operative memory function was classified into three patterns: verbal dominant memory impairment (Verb-D), visual dominant impairment (Vis-D), and no material-specific impairment. Post-operative changes in verbal and visual memory indices were classified into meaningful improvement, worsening, or no significant changes. Pre-operative patterns and post-operative changes in verbal and visual memory function were compared between the Lt and right (Rt) TLE groups. Pre-operatively, Verb-D was the most common type of impairment in both the Lt and Rt TLE groups (65.9 and 48.8%), and verbal memory indices were lower than visual memory indices, especially in the Lt compared with Rt TLE group. Vis-D was observed only in 11.6% of Rt and 7.3% of Lt TLE patients. Post-operatively, meaningful improvement of memory indices was observed in 23.3–36.6% of the patients, and the memory improvement was equivalent between Lt and Rt TLE groups and between verbal and visual materials. In conclusion, Verb-D is most commonly observed in patients with both the Lt and Rt TLE associated with HS. Hippocampectomy can improve memory indices in such patients regardless of the side of surgery and the function impaired. PMID:27250575

  1. Role of Auditory Non-Verbal Working Memory in Sentence Repetition for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sentence repetition performance is attracting increasing interest as a valuable clinical marker for primary (or specific) language impairment (LI) in both monolingual and bilingual populations. Multiple aspects of memory appear to contribute to sentence repetition performance, but non-verbal memory has not yet been considered. Aims: To…

  2. Benefits of a Classroom Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal Memory of Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Nikki S.; Vasquez, Jorge T.; Murphy, Fintan; Gill, Anneliese; Toukhsati, Samia R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a benefit of music training on a number of cognitive functions including verbal memory performance. The impact of school-based music programs on memory processes is however relatively unknown. The current study explored the effect of increasing frequency and intensity of classroom-based instrumental training…

  3. Order recall in verbal short-term memory: The role of semantic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Marie; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Mair, Ali; Tehan, Gerry; Tolan, Anne

    2015-04-01

    In their recent article, Acheson, MacDonald, and Postle (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 37:44-59, 2011) made an important but controversial suggestion: They hypothesized that (a) semantic information has an effect on order information in short-term memory (STM) and (b) order recall in STM is based on the level of activation of items within the relevant lexico-semantic long-term memory (LTM) network. However, verbal STM research has typically led to the conclusion that factors such as semantic category have a large effect on the number of correctly recalled items, but little or no impact on order recall (Poirier & Saint-Aubin, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 48A:384-404, 1995; Saint-Aubin, Ouellette, & Poirier, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 12:171-177, 2005; Tse, Memory 17:874-891, 2009). Moreover, most formal models of short-term order memory currently suggest a separate mechanism for order coding-that is, one that is separate from item representation and not associated with LTM lexico-semantic networks. Both of the experiments reported here tested the predictions that we derived from Acheson et al. The findings show that, as predicted, manipulations aiming to affect the activation of item representations significantly impacted order memory.

  4. Recency Effects in the Inferior Parietal Lobe during Verbal Recognition Memory

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    Bradley Russell Buchsbaum

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The most recently encountered information is often most easily remembered in psychological tests of memory. Recent investigations of the neural basis of such recency effects have shown that activation in the lateral inferior parietal cortex (LIPC tracks the recency of a probe item when subjects make recognition memory judgments. A key question regarding recency effects in the LIPC is whether they fundamentally reflect the storage (and strength of information in memory, or whether such effects are a consequence of task difficulty or an upswing in resting state network activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI we show that recency effects in the LIPC are independent of the difficulty of recognition memory decisions, that they are not a by-product of an increase in resting state network activity, and that they appear to dissociate from regions known to be involved in verbal working memory maintenance. We conclude with a discussion of two alternative explanations – the memory strength and expectancy hypotheses, respectively -- of the parietal lobe recency effect.

  5. Recency Effects in the Inferior Parietal Lobe during Verbal Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Ye, Donald; D'Esposito, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The most recently encountered information is often most easily remembered in psychological tests of memory. Recent investigations of the neural basis of such “recency effects” have shown that activation in the lateral inferior parietal cortex (LIPC) tracks the recency of a probe item when subjects make recognition memory judgments. A key question regarding recency effects in the LIPC is whether they fundamentally reflect the storage (and strength) of information in memory, or whether such effects are a consequence of task difficulty or an upswing in resting state network activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we show that recency effects in the LIPC are independent of the difficulty of recognition memory decisions, that they are not a by-product of an increase in resting state network activity, and that they appear to dissociate from regions known to be involved in verbal working memory maintenance. We conclude with a discussion of two alternative explanations – the memory strength and “expectancy” hypotheses, respectively – of the parietal lobe recency effect. PMID:21811449

  6. 5-HTTLPR Genotype Moderates the Effects of Past Ecstasy Use on Verbal Memory Performance in Adolescent and Emerging Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha E Wright

    Full Text Available Ecstasy use is associated with memory deficits. Serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR polymorphisms have been linked with memory function in healthy samples. The present pilot study investigated the influence of 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms on memory performance in ecstasy users, marijuana-using controls, and non-drug-using controls, after a minimum of 7 days of abstinence.Data were collected from 116 young adults (18-25 years-old, including 45 controls, 42 marijuana users, and 29 ecstasy users, and were balanced for 5-HTTLPR genotype. Participants were abstinent seven days prior to completing memory testing. Three MANCOVAs and one ANCOVA were run to examine whether drug group, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and their interactions predicted verbal and visual memory after controlling for gender, past year alcohol use, other drug use, and nicotine cotinine levels.MANCOVA and ANCOVA analysis revealed a significant interaction between drug group and genotype (p = .03 such that ecstasy users with the L/L genotype performed significantly worse on CVLT-2 total recall (p = .05, short (p = .008 and long delay free recall (p = .01, and recognition (p = .006, with the reverse pattern found in controls. Ecstasy did not significantly predict visual memory. 5-HTTLPR genotype significantly predicted memory for faces (p = .02; short allele carriers performed better than those with L/L genotype.5-HTTLPR genotype moderated the effects of ecstasy on verbal memory, with L/L carriers performing worse compared to controls. Future research should continue to examine individual differences in ecstasy's impact on neurocognitive performance as well as relationships with neuronal structure. Additional screening and prevention efforts focused on adolescents and emerging adults are necessary to prevent ecstasy consumption.

  7. Memory load effect in auditory-verbal short-term memory task: EEG fractal and spectral analysis.

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    Stokić, Miodrag; Milovanović, Dragan; Ljubisavljević, Miloš R; Nenadović, Vanja; Čukić, Milena

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to quantify changes in complexity of EEG using fractal dimension (FD) alongside linear methods of spectral power, event-related spectral perturbations, coherence, and source localization of EEG generators for theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (13-23 Hz) frequency bands due to a memory load effect in an auditory-verbal short-term memory (AVSTM) task for words. We examined 20 healthy individuals using the Sternberg's paradigm with increasing memory load (three, five, and seven words). The stimuli were four-letter words. Artifact-free 5-s EEG segments during retention period were analyzed. The most significant finding was the increase in FD with the increase in memory load in temporal regions T3 and T4, and in parietal region Pz, while decrease in FD with increase in memory load was registered in frontal midline region Fz. Results point to increase in frontal midline (Fz) theta spectral power, decrease in alpha spectral power in parietal region-Pz, and increase in beta spectral power in T3 and T4 region with increase in memory load. Decrease in theta coherence within right hemisphere due to memory load was obtained. Alpha coherence increased in posterior regions with anterior decrease. Beta coherence increased in fronto-temporal regions. Source localization delineated theta activity increase in frontal midline region, alpha decrease in superior parietal region, and beta increase in superior temporal gyrus with increase in memory load. In conclusion, FD as a nonlinear measure may serve as a sensitive index for quantifying dynamical changes in EEG signals during AVSTM tasks.

  8. Musicians' and nonmusicians' short-term memory for verbal and musical sequences: comparing phonological similarity and pitch proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria J; Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J

    2010-03-01

    Language-music comparative studies have highlighted the potential for shared resources or neural overlap in auditory short-term memory. However, there is a lack of behavioral methodologies for comparing verbal and musical serial recall. We developed a visual grid response that allowed both musicians and nonmusicians to perform serial recall of letter and tone sequences. The new method was used to compare the phonological similarity effect with the impact of an operationalized musical equivalent-pitch proximity. Over the course of three experiments, we found that short-term memory for tones had several similarities to verbal memory, including limited capacity and a significant effect of pitch proximity in nonmusicians. Despite being vulnerable to phonological similarity when recalling letters, however, musicians showed no effect of pitch proximity, a result that we suggest might reflect strategy differences. Overall, the findings support a limited degree of correspondence in the way that verbal and musical sounds are processed in auditory short-term memory.

  9. Short-term delayed recall of auditory verbal learning test is equivalent to long-term delayed recall for identifying amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Qianhua Zhao

    Full Text Available Delayed recall of words in a verbal learning test is a sensitive measure for the diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and early Alzheimer's disease (AD. The relative validity of different retention intervals of delayed recall has not been well characterized. Using the Auditory Verbal Learning Test-Huashan version, we compared the differentiating value of short-term delayed recall (AVL-SR, that is, a 3- to 5-minute delay time and long-term delayed recall (AVL-LR, that is, a 20-minute delay time in distinguishing patients with aMCI (n = 897 and mild AD (n = 530 from the healthy elderly (n = 1215. In patients with aMCI, the correlation between AVL-SR and AVL-LR was very high (r = 0.94, and the difference between the two indicators was less than 0.5 points. There was no difference between AVL-SR and AVL-LR in the frequency of zero scores. In the receiver operating characteristic curves analysis, although the area under the curve (AUC of AVL-SR and AVL-LR for diagnosing aMCI was significantly different, the cut-off scores of the two indicators were identical. In the subgroup of ages 80 to 89, the AUC of the two indicators showed no significant difference. Therefore, we concluded that AVL-SR could substitute for AVL-LR in identifying aMCI, especially for the oldest patients.

  10. Memory fMRI predicts verbal memory decline after anterior temporal lobe resection

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhu, Meneka K; Stretton, Jason; Winston, Gavin P.; Symms, Mark; Thompson, Pamela J; Koepp, Matthias J; Duncan, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop a clinically applicable memory functional MRI (fMRI) method of predicting postsurgical memory outcome in individual patients. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 50 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (23 left) and 26 controls underwent an fMRI memory encoding paradigm of words with a subsequent out-of-scanner recognition assessment. Neuropsychological assessment was performed preoperatively and 4 months after anterior temporal lobe resection, and at equal time i...

  11. Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning – Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis

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    Thaut, Michael H.; Peterson, David A.; McIntosh, Gerald C.; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey’s auditory verbal learning test. We defined the “learning-related synchronization” (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances “deep encoding” during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS. PMID:24982626

  12. Automatic memory management policies for low power, memory limited, and delay intolerant devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahid, Md. Abu

    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets are energy and memory limited, and implement graphical user interfaces that are intolerant of computational delays. Mobile device platforms supporting apps implemented in languages that require automatic memory management, such as the Dalvik (Java) virtual machine within Google's Android, have become dominant. It is essential that automatic memory management avoid causing unacceptable interface delays while responsibly managing energy and memory resource usage. Dalvik's automatic memory management policies for heap growth and garbage collection scheduling utilize heuristics tuned to minimize memory footprint. These policies result in only marginally acceptable response times and garbage collection signicantly contributes to apps' CPU time and therefore energy consumption. The primary contributions of this research include a characterization of Dalvik's "baseline" automatic memory management policy, the development of a new "adaptive" policy, and an investigation of the performance of this policy. The investigation indicates that this adaptive policy consumes less CPU time and improves interactive performance at the cost of increasing memory footprint size by an acceptable amount.

  13. Are Cardiovascular Risk Factors Associated with Verbal Learning and Memory Impairment in Patients with Schizophrenia? A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Lancon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to assess the relationships of cardiovascular risk factors with verbal learning and memory in patients with schizophrenia. Methods and Design. cross-sectional study. Inclusion Criteria. Diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Data Collection. Sociodemographic information, clinical characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood tests, and episodic memory using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT. Analysis. A multivariate analysis using multiple linear regressions was performed to determine variables that are potentially associated with verbal learning and memory. Results. One hundred and sixty-eight outpatients participated in our study. An association was found between the metabolic syndrome (MetS and memory impairment on measures of verbal learning, and short- and long-term memory. Among the different components of MeTS, hypertriglycerides, abdominal obesity, and low HDL cholesterol were the only factors associated with memory impairment. Alcohol dependence or abuse was associated with a higher rate of forgetting. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that MetS and alcohol use may be linked with memory impairment in schizophrenia. These findings provide important insights into the interdependencies of cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive disorders and support novel strategies for treating and preventing cognitive disorders in patients with schizophrenia.

  14. Long-term associative learning predicts verbal short-term memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2017-10-02

    Studies using tests such as digit span and nonword repetition have implicated short-term memory across a range of developmental domains. Such tests ostensibly assess specialized processes for the short-term manipulation and maintenance of information that are often argued to enable long-term learning. However, there is considerable evidence for an influence of long-term linguistic learning on performance in short-term memory tasks that brings into question the role of a specialized short-term memory system separate from long-term knowledge. Using natural language corpora, we show experimentally and computationally that performance on three widely used measures of short-term memory (digit span, nonword repetition, and sentence recall) can be predicted from simple associative learning operating on the linguistic environment to which a typical child may have been exposed. The findings support the broad view that short-term verbal memory performance reflects the application of long-term language knowledge to the experimental setting.

  15. Visuospatial bootstrapping: implicit binding of verbal working memory to visuospatial representations in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Stephen; Parker, Mary-Jane; Goodall, Karen E; Havelka, Jelena; Allen, Richard J

    2014-03-01

    When participants carry out visually presented digit serial recall, their performance is better if they are given the opportunity to encode extra visuospatial information at encoding-a phenomenon that has been termed visuospatial bootstrapping. This bootstrapping is the result of integration of information from different modality-specific short-term memory systems and visuospatial knowledge in long term memory, and it can be understood in the context of recent models of working memory that address multimodal binding (e.g., models incorporating an episodic buffer). Here we report a cross-sectional developmental study that demonstrated visuospatial bootstrapping in adults (n=18) and 9-year-old children (n=15) but not in 6-year-old children (n=18). This is the first developmental study addressing visuospatial bootstrapping, and results demonstrate that the developmental trajectory of bootstrapping is different from that of basic verbal and visuospatial working memory. This pattern suggests that bootstrapping (and hence integrative functions such as those associated with the episodic buffer) emerge independent of the development of basic working memory slave systems during childhood.

  16. Localization of brain activity during auditory verbal short-term memory derived from magnetic recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, A; Kristeva, R; Cheyne, D; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L

    1991-09-06

    We have studied magnetic and electrical fields of the brain in normal subjects during the performance of an auditory verbal short-term memory task. On each trial 3 digits, selected from the numbers 'one' through 'nine', were presented for memorization followed by a probe number which could or could not be a member of the preceding memory set. The subject pressed an appropriate response button and accuracy and reaction time were measured. Magnetic fields recorded from up to 63 sites over both hemispheres revealed a transient field at 110 ms to both the memory item and the probe consistent with a dipole source in Heschl's gyrus; a sustained magnetic field between 300 and 800 ms to just the memory items localized to the temporal lobe slightly deeper and posterior to Heschl's gyri; and a sustained magnetic field between 300 and 800 ms to just the probes localized bilaterally to the medio-basal temporal lobes. These results are related to clinical disorders of short-term memory in man.

  17. Sex-related differences in the effects of sleep habits on verbal and visuospatial working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seishu Nakagawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sleep facilitates memory consolidation. Consequently, poor sleep quality negatively affects memory performance, and working memory in particular. We investigated sleep habits related to sleep quality including sleep duration, daytime nap duration, nap frequency, and dream content recall frequency (DCRF. Declarative working memory can be subdivided into verbal working memory (VWM and visuospatial working memory (VSWM. We hypothesized that sleep habits would have different effects on VWM and VSWM. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate differences between VWM and VSWM related to daytime nap duration, nap frequency, and DCRF. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that the effects of duration and frequency of daytime naps and DCRF on VWM and VSWM differed according to sex. We assessed 779 healthy right-handed individuals (434 males and 345 females; mean age: 20.7 ± 1.8 years using a digit span forward and backward VWM task, a forward and backward VSWM task, and sleep habits scales. A correlation analysis was used to test the relationships between VWM capacity (VWMC and VSWM capacity (VSWMC scores and sleep duration, nap duration, nap frequency, and DCRF. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with VWMC and VSWMC scores and to identify sex-related differences. We found significant positive correlations between VSWMC and nap duration and DCRF, and between VWMC and sleep duration in all subjects. Furthermore, we found that working memory capacity (WMC was positively correlated with nap duration in males and with sleep duration in females, and DCRF was positively correlated with VSWMC in females. Our finding of sex-related differences in the effects of sleep habits on WMC has not been reported previously. The associations between WMC and sleep habits differed according to sex because of differences in the underlying neural correlates of VWM and VSWM, and effectiveness of the sleep habits

  18. The neurodevelopmental differences of increasing verbal working memory demand in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogan, V M; Morgan, B R; Powell, T L; Smith, M L; Taylor, M J

    2016-02-01

    Working memory (WM) - temporary storage and manipulation of information in the mind - is a key component of cognitive maturation, and structural brain changes throughout development are associated with refinements in WM. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that there is greater activation in prefrontal and parietal brain regions with increasing age, with adults showing more refined, localized patterns of activations. However, few studies have investigated the neural basis of verbal WM development, as the majority of reports examine visuo-spatial WM. We used fMRI and a 1-back verbal WM task with six levels of difficulty to examine the neurodevelopmental changes in WM function in 40 participants, twenty-four children (ages 9-15 yr) and sixteen young adults (ages 20-25 yr). Children and adults both demonstrated an opposing system of cognitive processes with increasing cognitive demand, where areas related to WM (frontal and parietal regions) increased in activity, and areas associated with the default mode network decreased in activity. Although there were many similarities in the neural activation patterns associated with increasing verbal WM capacity in children and adults, significant changes in the fMRI responses were seen with age. Adults showed greater load-dependent changes than children in WM in the bilateral superior parietal gyri, inferior frontal and left middle frontal gyri and right cerebellum. Compared to children, adults also showed greater decreasing activation across WM load in the bilateral anterior cingulate, anterior medial prefrontal gyrus, right superior lateral temporal gyrus and left posterior cingulate. These results demonstrate that while children and adults activate similar neural networks in response to verbal WM tasks, the extent to which they rely on these areas in response to increasing cognitive load evolves between childhood and adulthood.

  19. Delayed working memory consolidation during the attentional blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Edward K; Luck, Steven J

    2002-12-01

    After the detection of a target (T1) in a rapid stream of visual stimuli, there is a period of 400-600 msec during which a subsequent target (T2) is missed. This impairment in performance has been labeled the attentional blink. Recent theories propose that the attentional blink reflects a bottleneck in working memory consolidation such that T2 cannot be consolidated until after T1 is consolidated, and T2 is therefore masked by subsequent stimuli if it is presented while T1 is being consolidated. In support of this explanation, Giesbrecht & Di Lollo (1998) found that when T2 is the final item in the stimulus stream, no attentional blink is observed, because there are no subsequent stimuli that might mask T2. To provide a direct test of this explanation of the attentional blink, in the present study we used the P3 component of the event-related potential waveform to track the processing of T2. When T2 was followed by a masking item, we found that the P3 wave was completely suppressed during the attentional blink period, indicating that T2 was not consolidated in working memory. When T2 was the last item in the stimulus stream, however, we found that the P3 wave was delayed but not suppressed, indicating that T2 consolidation was not eliminated but simply delayed. These results are consistent with a fundamental limit on the consolidation of information in working memory.

  20. Entorhinal cortex structure and functional MRI response during an associative verbal memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braskie, Meredith N; Small, Gary W; Bookheimer, Susan Y

    2009-12-01

    Entorhinal cortex (ERC) volume in adults with mild cognitive impairment has been shown to predict prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Likewise, neuronal loss in ERC has been associated with AD, but not with normal aging. Because ERC is part of a major pathway modulating input to the hippocampus, structural changes there may result in changes to cognitive performance and functional brain activity during memory tasks. In 32 cognitively intact older adults, we examined the relationship between left ERC thickness and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity during an associative verbal memory task. This task has been shown previously to activate regions that are sensitive to aging and AD risk. ERC was manually defined on native space, high resolution, oblique coronal MRI scans. Subjects having thicker left ERC showed greater activation in anterior cingulate and medial frontal regions during memory retrieval, but not encoding. This result was independent of hippocampal volume. Anterior cingulate cortex is directly connected to ERC, and is, along with medial frontal cortex, implicated in error detection, which is impaired in AD. Our results suggest that in healthy older adults, processes that engage frontal regions during memory retrieval are related to ERC structure.

  1. Alternate forms of prose passages for the assessment of auditory-verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Karen

    2005-08-01

    Logical memory (LM) is the most frequently administered subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; however, the lack of alternate equivalent forms for this subtest may limit its clinical utility. Six new paragraphs modelled on LM stories were developed. Stories were matched on attributes such as number of words and readability. Passage attributes for the six stories were compared with those of standard LM stories (WMS-R and WMS-III versions) to examine story equivalence. The psychometric properties of new passages were also calculated to assess task difficulty and interrater reliability. Results from these analyses suggest a high degree of overlap between the attributes of the new stories and some interesting discrepancies between passage attributes of WMS-R and WMS-III LM stories. In addition, interrater reliability of new passages was found to be excellent (at least .97), and when combined into three sets of passage-pairs, these pairs were found have equivalent difficulty. To reduce the potential for practice effects by use of alternate forms, these new logical memory-style passages may facilitate repeat assessment of auditory-verbal memory.

  2. Verbal learning and memory impairment in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine E; Thomas, Kevin G F; Dodge, Neil C; Molteno, Christopher D; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies using the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) to examine effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure on verbal learning and memory have reported impaired information acquisition (i.e., encoding), rather than retrieval, as the primary mechanism underlying learning and memory impairment. We administered the CVLT-C to 2 independent cohorts to determine whether (i) effects on encoding are also seen at moderate exposure levels, using both categorical (diagnostic/exposure group) and continuous exposure measures; (ii) these deficits are specific or secondary to alcohol-related impairment in IQ; (iii) effects on retrieval can be detected over and above effects on initial encoding; and (iv) effects on learning are attributable to less efficient learning strategy use. We administered the CVLT-C and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to 151 Cape Town heavy and nonexposed children (M = 10.3 years), and 291 Detroit adolescents recruited to over-represent moderate-to-heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (M = 14.4 years). Effects on encoding in the heavily exposed Cape Town cohort and on retrieval in both cohorts were significant after adjustment for IQ. Although effects on retrieval were no longer significant in Cape Town after control for initial encoding, effects on recognition memory continued to be evident in Detroit. Children with full or partial fetal alcohol syndrome were less able to use the semantic cluster encoding strategy implicit in the CVLT-C. Effects on verbal learning were seen primarily in the more heavily exposed Cape Town cohort; effects on recall and recognition memory were also seen at moderate exposure levels in Detroit. These effects were not attributable to alcohol-related impairment in overall intellectual competence. The finding that effects on retention continued to be evident after statistical adjustment for initial encoding in Detroit suggests that a fetal alcohol-related deficit in retrieval is not

  3. Sex-Related Differences in the Effects of Sleep Habits on Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos M; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Poor sleep quality negatively affects memory performance, and working memory in particular. We investigated sleep habits related to sleep quality including sleep duration, daytime nap duration, nap frequency, and dream content recall frequency (DCRF). Declarative working memory can be subdivided into verbal working memory (VWM) and visuospatial working memory (VSWM). We hypothesized that sleep habits would have different effects on VWM and VSWM. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate differences between VWM and VSWM related to daytime nap duration, nap frequency, and DCRF. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that the effects of duration and frequency of daytime naps and DCRF on VWM and VSWM differed according to sex. We assessed 779 healthy right-handed individuals (434 males and 345 females; mean age: 20.7 ± 1.8 years) using a digit span forward and backward VWM task, a forward and backward VSWM task, and sleep habits scales. A correlation analysis was used to test the relationships between VWM capacity (VWMC) and VSWM capacity (VSWMC) scores and sleep duration, nap duration, nap frequency, and DCRF. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with VWMC and VSWMC scores and to identify sex-related differences. We found significant positive correlations between VSWMC and nap duration and DCRF, and between VWMC and sleep duration in all subjects. Furthermore, we found that working memory capacity (WMC) was positively correlated with nap duration in males and with sleep duration in females, and DCRF was positively correlated with VSWMC in females. Our finding of sex-related differences in the effects of sleep habits on WMC has not been reported previously. The associations between WMC and sleep habits differed according to sex because of differences in the underlying neural correlates of VWM and VSWM, and effectiveness of the sleep habits in males and females.

  4. Is the WMS-IV verbal paired associates as effective as other memory tasks in discriminating amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Kerryn E; Kinsella, Glynda J; Ong, Ben; Mullaly, Elizabeth; Rand, Elizabeth; Storey, Elsdon; Ames, David; Saling, Michael; Clare, Linda; Parsons, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Paired associate learning tasks are reportedly particularly sensitive to preclinical Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of the recently updated Wechsler Memory Scale verbal paired associates (VPA) in distinguishing the earliest stages of memory impairment (amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI), and the clinical application at the case level, compared with other episodic memory tasks. Participants were 77 people with aMCI and 77 matched healthy older adults (HOA). VPA performance distinguished aMCI from HOA at the group level with large effect sizes, of similar size to the other tasks at immediate recall, but smaller than the CVLT-II list-learning task at delayed recall. Similarly, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated good discrimination, similar to other tasks, but again with CVLT-II more accurate at delayed recall. Although group differences remained for normative data, on a case basis using existing normative data the VPA failed to identify 70% of aMCI as impaired. The findings suggest further examination of the normative data is required before the VPA is useful in clinical practice, and highlight the importance of comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in detecting mild memory changes in older adults.

  5. Music-dependent memory in immediate and delayed word recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, W R; Bowman, K; Mohler, L

    1992-01-01

    Undergraduate volunteers rated a series of words for pleasantness while hearing a particular background music. The subjects in Experiment 1 received, immediately or after a 48-h delay, an unexpected word-recall test in one of the following musical cue contexts: same cue (S), different cue (D), or no cue (N). For immediate recall, context dependency (S-D) was significant but same-cue facilitation (S-N) was not. No cue effects at all were found for delayed recall, and there was a significant interaction between cue and retention interval. A similar interaction was also found in Experiment 3, which was designed to rule out an alternative explanation with respect to distraction. When the different musical selection was changed specifically in either tempo or form (genre), only pieces having an altered tempo produced significantly lower immediate recall compared with the same pieces (Experiment 2). The results support a stimulus generalization view of music-dependent memory.

  6. Factors associated with delay in care–seeking for fatal neonatal illness in the Sylhet district of Bangladesh: results from a verbal and social autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bareng AS Nonyane 1,2

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a social and verbal autopsy study to determine cultural–, social– and health system–related factors that were associated with the delay in formal care seeking in Sylhet district, Bangladesh.

  7. The contributions of cerebro-cerebellar circuitry to executive verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Cherie L; Desmond, John E

    2010-01-01

    Contributions of cerebro-cerebellar function to executive verbal working memory were examined using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while 16 subjects completed two versions of the Sternberg task. In both versions subjects were presented with two or six target letters during the encoding phase, which were held in memory during the maintenance phase. A single probe letter was presented during the retrieval phase. In the "match condition", subjects decided whether the probe matched the target letters. In the "executive condition", subjects created a new probe by counting two alphabetical letters forward (e.g., f-->h) and decided whether the new probe matched the target letters. Neural activity during the match and executive conditions was compared during each phase of the task. There were four main findings. First, cerebro-cerebellar activity increased as a function of executive load. Second, the dorsal cerebellar dentate co-activated with the supplementary motor area (SMA) during encoding. This likely represented the formation of an articulatory (motor) trajectory. Third, the ventral cerebellar dentate co-activated with anterior prefrontal regions Brodmann Area (BA) 9/46 and the pre-SMA during retrieval. This likely represented the manipulation of information and formation of a response. A functional dissociation between the dorsal "motor" dentate and "cognitive" ventral dentate agrees with neuroanatomical tract tracing studies that have demonstrated separate neural pathways involving each region of the dentate: the dorsal dentate projects to frontal motor areas (including the SMA), and the ventral dentate projects to frontal cognitive areas (including BA 9/46 and the pre-SMA). Finally, activity during the maintenance phase in BA 9, anterior insula, pre-SMA and ventral dentate predicted subsequent accuracy of response to the probe during the retrieval phase. This finding underscored the significant contribution of the pre

  8. GLOBAL DYNAMICS OF DELAYED BIDIRECTIONAL ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY (BAM) NEURAL NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jin; LIU Zeng-rong; XIANG Lan

    2005-01-01

    Without assuming the smoothness, monotonicity and boundedness of the activation functions, some novel criteria on the existence and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for delayed bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks are established by applying the Liapunov functional methods and matrix-algebraic techniques. It is shown that the new conditions presented in terms of a nonsingular M matrix described by the networks parameters, the connection matrix and the Lipschitz constant of the activation functions, are not only simple and practical, but also easier to check and less conservative than those imposed by similar results in recent literature.

  9. Interpreting potential markers of storage and rehearsal: Implications for studies of verbal short-term memory and neuropsychological cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Logie, Robert H; Jarrold, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Neuropsychological studies of verbal short-term memory have often focused on two signature effects - phonological similarity and word length - the absence of which has been taken to indicate problems in phonological storage and rehearsal respectively. In the present study we present a possible alternative reading of such data, namely that the absence of these effects can follow as a consequence of an individual's poor level of recall. Data from a large normative sample of 251 adult participants were re-analyzed under the assumption that the size of phonological similarity and word length effects are proportional to an individual's overall level of recall. For both manipulations, when proportionalized effects were plotted against memory span, the same function fit the data in both auditory and visual presentation conditions. Furthermore, two additional sets of single-case data were broadly comparable to those that would be expected for an individual's level of verbal short-term memory performance albeit with some variation across tasks. These findings indicate that the absolute magnitude of phonological similarity and word length effects depends on overall levels of recall, and that these effects are necessarily eliminated at low levels of verbal short-term memory performance. This has implications for how one interprets any variation in the size of these effects, and raises serious questions about the causal direction of any relationship between impaired verbal short-term memory and the absence of phonological similarity or word length effects.

  10. Language facilitates event memory in early childhood: Child comprehension, adult-provided linguistic support and delayed recall at 16 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F; Phung, Janice N; Milojevich, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    Adult-provided supportive language facilitates memory for the past in preverbal and verbal children. Work conducted with 18-month-olds indicates that children benefit from supportive adult language when tested after a 4-week delay but not when tested immediately after sequence demonstration; moreover, findings reveal that supportive language provided only at test may be more facilitative of recall after a delay relative to supportive language provided only at encoding. In the present study, we examined whether child language comprehension abilities moderated the extent to which preverbal children benefitted from supportive language provided at encoding and test. The findings indicated that child language comprehension and supportive language provided at encoding were unassociated with performance at baseline or immediate imitation; however, the moderating effect of child language comprehension on adult-provided supportive language at encoding and test was observed after a 1-week delay. Correlations revealed continuous associations between general comprehension scores and recall performance after the 1-week delay on sequences presented in the most supportive condition at encoding. Taken together, the presented findings reveal that the complex interplay between language and cognition is established in early childhood, with foundational relations emerging before children are capable of verbally reporting on the past.

  11. The genetic and environmental structure of verbal and visuospatial memory in young adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, Stéphanie M; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2009-11-01

    The extent to which verbal (VM) and visuospatial memory (VSM) tests measure the same or multiple constructs is unclear. Likewise the relationship between VM and VSM across development is not known. These questions are addressed using genetically informative data, studying two age cohorts (young adults and children) of twins and siblings. VM and VSM were measured in the working memory and short-term memory domain. Multivariate genetic analyses revealed that two highly correlated common genetic factors, one for VM and one for VSM, gave the best description of the covariance structure among the measures. Only in children, specific genetic factors were also present. This led to the following conclusions: In children, one genetic factor is responsible for linking VM and VSM. Specific genetic factors create differences between these two domains. During the course of development, the influence of genetic factors unique to each of these domains disappears and the genetic factor develops into two highly correlated factors, which are specific to VM and VSM respectively. At the environmental level, in both age cohorts, environmental factors create differences between these domains.

  12. [Multiple sclerosis and verbal episodic memory: Critical review of cognitive processes and their assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, A; Bakchine, S; Jonin, P-Y; Ehrlé, N

    2015-09-01

    Memory impairment, especially verbal episodic memory (VEM), represents a common ground for cognitive complaint in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Beyond the difficulty caused in daily life, these deficits may impact on occupational activities. Neuropsychological assessment of these patients has to include VEM tests, to describe the level of dysfunction of the different processes contributing to VEM and, if required, to guide adapted cognitive rehabilitation. The objective of the present paper is to propose a critique review of the literature on VEM abilities in MS. This review will present the conceptual references and the psychometric characteristics of the main VEM tests applied in MS (isolated tests or included within more general batteries developed specifically for MS). In a second phase, we propose an inventory of work on MS presented as a function of the cognitive processes involved. This approach provides an approach to the limitations of each conception and possible terminological ambiguities. Contributions to knowledge of MS memory impairments will be clarified, as well as the impact of the disease characteristics (MS forms, disease duration, EDSS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. On some verbal short-term and working memory properties in patients suffering from clinical depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalović Dejan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical depression with verbal short-term memory relation research does not yield unequivocal results. While short-term memory (STM deficits in depressed patients are consistently displayed in working memory (WM and executive attention tasks, for STM passive memorizing tasks this holds less correct. Objective. Primary goal was to collect initial data on depressed patients treated in Serbian institutions WM/ STM. In addition, we estimated the power of WAIS IV WM subtests to discriminate depressed patients from normal subjects. Method. Depressed patients' sample was contrasted with the parallel group in WAIS' IV Arithmetic, Digit Span, and Letter- Number Sequencing; free word recall task, semantic fluency task, without and with category switching. Results. All the WM measures, with the exception of Digit Span Backward score, discriminate depressed from no depressed subjects. On the other hand, STM tasks, with the exception of short-term word free recall, fail to do the same. We suggest explanation for both the exceptions in terms of WM efficiency. WAIS IV Arithmetic, Digit Span Sequencing and Letter-Number Sequencing can be used to discriminate depressed from control subjects. Performance in STM/WM tasks is in moderate to strong negative correlation with depression severity as assessed with the Hamilton scale. Conclusion. STM deficits in the depressed are likely to be observed in tasks requiring executive attention and WM efficiency rather than in standard STM span tasks. The deficits are inertly related to depression severity.

  14. Genome-wide Studies of Verbal Declarative Memory in Nondemented Older People: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debette, Stéphanie; Ibrahim Verbaas, Carla A.; Bressler, Jan; Schuur, Maaike; Smith, Albert; Bis, Joshua C.; Davies, Gail; Wolf, Christiane; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chibnik, Lori B.; Yang, Qiong; deStefano, Anita L.; de Quervain, Dominique J.F.; Srikanth, Velandai; Lahti, Jari; Grabe, Hans J.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Priebe, Lutz; Yu, Lei; Karbalai, Nazanin; Hayward, Caroline; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Petrovic, Katja; Fornage, Myriam; Chauhan, Ganesh; Yeo, Robin; Boxall, Ruth; Becker, James; Stegle, Oliver; Mather, Karen A.; Chouraki, Vincent; Sun, Qi; Rose, Lynda M.; Resnick, Susan; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Kirin, Mirna; Wright, Alan F.; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Au, Rhoda; Becker, Albert; Amin, Najaf; Nalls, Mike A.; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Oostra, Ben; Windham, Gwen; Coker, Laura H.; Zhao, Wei; Knopman, David S.; Heiss, Gerardo; Griswold, Michael E.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Vitart, Veronique; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Zgaga, Lina; Rudan, Igor; Polasek, Ozren; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Schofield, Peter; Choi, Seung Hoan; Tanaka, Toshiko; An, Yang; Perry, Rodney T.; Kennedy, Richard E.; Sale, Michèle M.; Wang, Jing; Wadley, Virginia G.; Liewald, David C.; Ridker, Paul M.; Gow, Alan J.; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David; Liu, Xuan; Thomson, Russell; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Assareh, Arezoo A.; Kochan, Nicole A.; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vogler, Christian; van Swieten, John C.; Shulman, Joshua M.; Beiser, Alexa; Rotter, Jerome; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Attia, John; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Amouyel, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Amieva, Hélène; Räikkönen, Katri; Garcia, Melissa; Wolf, Philip A.; Hofman, Albert; Longstreth, W.T.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; DeJager, Philip L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Breteler, Monique M.B.; Teumer, Alexander; Lopez, Oscar L.; Cichon, Sven; Chasman, Daniel I.; Grodstein, Francine; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Tzourio, Christophe; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Bennett, David A.; Ikram, Arfan M.; Deary, Ian J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Launer, Lenore; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Seshadri, Sudha; Mosley, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. METHODS We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragraph or word list delayed recall in 19 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, comprising 29,076 dementia-and stroke-free individuals of European descent, aged ≥45 years. Replication of suggestive associations (p < 5 × 10−6) was sought in 10,617 participants of European descent, 3811 African-Americans, and 1561 young adults. RESULTS rs4420638, near APOE, was associated with poorer delayed recall performance in discovery (p = 5.57 × 10−10) and replication cohorts (p = 5.65 × 10−8). This association was stronger for paragraph than word list delayed recall and in the oldest persons. Two associations with specific tests, in subsets of the total sample, reached genome-wide significance in combined analyses of discovery and replication (rs11074779 [HS3ST4], p = 3.11 × 10−8, and rs6813517 [SPOCK3], p = 2.58 × 10−8) near genes involved in immune response. A genetic score combining 58 independent suggestive memory risk variants was associated with increasing Alzheimer disease pathology in 725 autopsy samples. Association of memory risk loci with gene expression in 138 human hippocampus samples showed cis-associations with WDR48 and CLDN5, both related to ubiquitin metabolism. CONCLUSIONS This largest study to date exploring the genetics of memory function in ~ 40,000 older individuals revealed genome-wide associations and suggested an involvement of immune and ubiquitin pathways. PMID:25648963

  15. Language and Verbal Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Down Syndrome: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naess, Kari-Anne B.; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles; Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a meta-analytic review of language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. The study examines the profile of strengths and weaknesses in children with Down syndrome compared to typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age. The findings show that children with Down syndrome have…

  16. Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Effect of Verbal and Nonverbal Task Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, Nicola; Psarou, Popi; Caplin, Tamara; Nevin, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background and Design: In recent years, evidence has emerged that suggests specific language impairment (SLI) does not exclusively affect linguistic skill. Studies have revealed memory difficulties, including those measured using nonverbal tasks. However, there has been relatively little research into the nature of the verbal/nonverbal boundaries…

  17. Subject-Verb Agreement and Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Perspective from Greek Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalioti, Marina; Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Manouilidou, Christina; Talli, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of school age Greek-speaking children with SLI on verbal short-term memory (VSTM) and Subject-Verb (S-V) agreement in comparison to chronological age controls and younger typically developing children. VSTM abilities were assessed by means of a non-word repetition task (NRT) and an elicited production task,…

  18. Language and Verbal Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Down Syndrome: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naess, Kari-Anne B.; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles; Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a meta-analytic review of language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. The study examines the profile of strengths and weaknesses in children with Down syndrome compared to typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age. The findings show that children with Down syndrome have…

  19. Contribution of working memory in multiplication fact network in children may shift from verbal to visuo-spatial: A longitudinal investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba eSoltanlou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Number facts are commonly assumed to be verbally stored in an associative multiplication fact retrieval network. Prominent evidence for this assumption comes from so-called operand-related errors (e.g. 4 × 6 = 28. However, little is known about the development of this network in children and its relation to verbal and non-verbal memories. In a longitudinal design, we explored elementary school children from grades 3 and 4 in a multiplication verification task with the operand-related and -unrelated distractors. We examined the contribution of multiplicative fact retrieval by verbal and visuo-spatial short-term and working memory. Children in grade 4 showed smaller reaction times in all conditions. However, there was no significant difference in errors between grades. Contribution of verbal and visuo-spatial working memory also changed with grade. Multiplication correlated with verbal working memory and performance in grade 3 but with visuo-spatial working memory and performance in grade 4. We suggest that the relation to verbal working memory in grade 3 indicates primary linguistic learning of and access to multiplication in grade 3 which is probably based on verbal repetition of the multiplication table heavily practiced in grades 2 and 3. However, the relation to visuo-spatial semantic working memory in grade 4 suggests that there is a shift from verbal to visual and semantic learning in grade 4. This shifting may be induced because later in elementary school, multiplication problems are rather carried out via more written, i.e., visual tasks, which also involve executive functions. More generally, the current data indicates that mathematical development is not generally characterized by a steady progress in performance; rather verbal and non-verbal memory contributions of performance shift over time, probably due to different learning contents.

  20. Transcranial direct current stimulation enhances verbal working memory training performance over time and near transfer outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Lauren L; Wolk, David; Chein, Jason; Olson, Ingrid R

    2014-11-01

    Studies attempting to increase working memory (WM) capacity show promise in enhancing related cognitive functions but have also raised criticism in the broader scientific community given the inconsistent findings produced by these studies. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance WM performance in a single session [Fregni, F., Boggio, P., Nitsche, M., Bermpohl, F., Anatal, A., Feredoes, E., et al. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory. Experimental Brain Research, 166, 23-30, 2005]; however, the extent to which tDCS might enhance learning on a WM training regime and the extent to which learning gains might transfer outside the training task remains largely unknown. To this end, participants engaged in an adaptive WM training task [previously utilized in Richmond, L., Morrison, A., Chein, J., & Olson, I. Working memory training and transfer in older adults. Psychology & Aging, 26, 813-822, 2011; Chein, J., & Morrison, A. Expanding the mind's workspace: Training and transfer effects with a complex working memory span task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 193-199, 2010] for 10 sessions over 2 weeks, concurrent with either active or sham stimulation of dorsolateral pFC. Before and after training, a battery of tests tapping domains known to relate to WM abilities was administered. Results show that tDCS enhanced learning on the verbal portion of the training task by 3.65 items. Furthermore, tDCS was shown to enhance near transfer to other untrained WM tasks in comparison with a no-contact control group. These results lend support to the idea that tDCS might bolster training and transfer gains in populations with compromised WM abilities.

  1. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50, showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress - all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students' Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = -0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the results showing that the variance in SNR50 was significantly predicted by this model (r

  2. Delineation of a spatial working memory profile using a non-verbal eye-tracking paradigm in young children with autism and Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Peter A J; Hocking, Darren R; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Vivanti, Giacomo

    2017-02-09

    Working memory deficits profoundly inhibit children's ability to learn. While deficits have been identified in disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS), findings are equivocal, and very little is known about the nature of these deficits early in development. A major barrier to advances in this area is the availability of tasks suitable for young children with neurodevelopmental disorders who experience difficulties with following verbal instructions or who are distressed by formal testing demands. To address these issues, a novel eye-tracking paradigm was designed based on an adaptation of the classic A not B paradigm in order to examine the early foundations of spatial working memory capabilities in 26 developmentally delayed preschool children with ASD, 18 age- and IQ-matched children with WS, and 19 age-matched typically-developing (TD) children. The results revealed evidence that foundational spatial working memory performance in ASD and WS was comparable with that of TD children. Performance was associated with intellectual ability in the ASD and TD groups, but not in the WS group. Performance was not associated with adaptive behavior in any group. These findings are discussed in the context of previous research that has been largely limited to older and substantially less developmentally delayed children with these neurodevelopmental disorders.

  3. Independent and Combined Effects of Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Bilingualism on Children's Vocabulary and Verbal Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Natalia; Armon-Lotem, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    The current study explores the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism on the linguistic skills and verbal short-term memory of preschool children. In previous studies comparing children of low and mid-high SES, the terms "a child with low-SES" and "a child speaking a minority language" are often interchangeable, not enabling differentiated evaluation of these two variables. The present study controls for this confluence by testing children born and residing in the same country and attending the same kindergartens, with all bilingual children speaking the same heritage language (HL-Russian). A total of 120 children (88 bilingual children: 44 with low SES; and 32 monolingual children: 16 with low SES) with typical language development, aged 5; 7-6; 7, were tested in the societal language (SL-Hebrew) on expressive vocabulary and three repetition tasks [forward digit span (FWD), nonword repetition (NWR), and sentence repetition (SRep)], which tap into verbal short-term memory. The results indicated that SES and bilingualism impact different child abilities. Bilingualism is associated with decreased vocabulary size and lower performance on verbal short-term memory tasks with higher linguistic load in the SL-Hebrew. The negative effect of bilingualism on verbal short-term memory disappears once vocabulary is accounted for. SES influences not only linguistic performance, but also verbal short-term memory with lowest linguistic load. The negative effect of SES cannot be solely attributed to lower vocabulary scores, suggesting that an unprivileged background has a negative impact on children's cognitive development beyond a linguistic disadvantage. The results have important clinical implications and call for more research exploring the varied impact of language and life experience on children's linguistic and cognitive skills.

  4. The Memory That's Right and the Memory That's Left: Event-Related Potentials Reveal Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Encoding and Retention of Verbal Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karen M.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the nature and timecourse of hemispheric asymmetries in verbal memory by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in a continuous recognition task. Participants made overt recognition judgments to test words presented in central vision that were either novel (new words) or had been previously presented in the left or right visual…

  5. Higher Cortisol Predicts Less Improvement in Verbal Memory Performance after Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahwesh Saleem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. While physical activity can improve verbal memory performance in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD, there is large variability in response. Elevated cortisol production has been suggested to negatively affect verbal memory performance, yet cortisol concentrations have not been assessed as a predictor of response to exercise intervention in those with CAD. Methods. CAD patients participating in a one-year cardiac rehabilitation program were recruited. Memory was assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test second edition at baseline and one year. Cortisol was measured from a 20 mg, 3.0 cm hair sample collected at baseline. Results. In patients with CAD (n=56, mean ± SD age = 66±11, 86% male, higher cortisol (hair cortisol concentrations ≥ 153.2 ng/g significantly predicted less memory improvement (F1,50=5.50, P=0.02 when controlling for age (F1,50=0.17, P=0.68, gender (F1,50=2.51, P=0.12, maximal oxygen uptake (F1,50=1.88, P=0.18, and body mass index (F1,50=3.25, P=0.08. Conclusion. Prolonged hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis activation may interfere with exercise-related improvements in memory in CAD.

  6. Persistence of Gender Related-Effects on Visuo-Spatial and Verbal Working Memory in Right Brain-Damaged Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Piccardi, Laura; Matano, Alessandro; D’Antuono, Giovanni; Marin, Dario; Ciurli, Paola; Incoccia, Chiara; Verde, Paola; Guariglia, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify if gender differences in verbal and visuo-spatial working memory would persist following right cerebral lesions. To pursue our aim we investigated a large sample (n. 346) of right brain-damaged patients and healthy participants (n. 272) for the presence of gender effects in performing Corsi and Digit Test. We also assessed a subgroup of patients (n. 109) for the nature (active vs. passive) of working memory tasks. We tested working memory (WM) admini...

  7. Modality Specific Cerebro-Cerebellar Activations in Verbal Working Memory: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Kirschen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal working memory (VWM engages frontal and temporal/parietal circuits subserving the phonological loop, as well as, superior and inferior cerebellar regions which have projections from these neocortical areas. Different cerebro-cerebellar circuits may be engaged for integrating aurally- and visually-presented information for VWM. The present fMRI study investigated load (2, 4, or 6 letters and modality (auditory and visual dependent cerebro-cerebellar VWM activation using a Sternberg task. FMRI revealed modality-independent activations in left frontal (BA 6/9/44, insular, cingulate (BA 32, and bilateral inferior parietal/supramarginal (BA 40 regions, as well as in bilateral superior (HVI and right inferior (HVIII cerebellar regions. Visual presentation evoked prominent activations in right superior (HVI/CrusI cerebellum, bilateral occipital (BA19 and left parietal (BA7/40 cortex while auditory presentation showed robust activations predominately in bilateral temporal regions (BA21/22. In the cerebellum, we noted a visual to auditory emphasis of function progressing from superior to inferior and from lateral to medial regions. These results extend our previous findings of fMRI activation in cerebro-cerebellar networks during VWM, and demonstrate both modality dependent commonalities and differences in activations with increasing memory load.

  8. Modality specific cerebro-cerebellar activations in verbal working memory: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Chen, S H Annabel; Desmond, John E

    2010-01-01

    Verbal working memory (VWM) engages frontal and temporal/parietal circuits subserving the phonological loop, as well as, superior and inferior cerebellar regions which have projections from these neocortical areas. Different cerebro-cerebellar circuits may be engaged for integrating aurally- and visually-presented information for VWM. The present fMRI study investigated load (2, 4, or 6 letters) and modality (auditory and visual) dependent cerebro-cerebellar VWM activation using a Sternberg task. FMRI revealed modality-independent activations in left frontal (BA 6/9/44), insular, cingulate (BA 32), and bilateral inferior parietal/supramarginal (BA 40) regions, as well as in bilateral superior (HVI) and right inferior (HVIII) cerebellar regions. Visual presentation evoked prominent activations in right superior (HVI/CrusI) cerebellum, bilateral occipital (BA19) and left parietal (BA7/40) cortex while auditory presentation showed robust activations predominantly in bilateral temporal regions (BA21/22). In the cerebellum, we noted a visual to auditory emphasis of function progressing from superior to inferior and from lateral to medial regions. These results extend our previous findings of fMRI activation in cerebro-cerebellar networks during VWM, and demonstrate both modality dependent commonalities and differences in activations with increasing memory load.

  9. The Contributions of Cerebro-Cerebellar Circuitry to Executive Verbal Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Cherie L.; Desmond, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Contributions of cerebro-cerebellar function to executive verbal working memory were examined using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while 16 subjects completed two versions of the Sternberg task. In both versions subjects were presented with two or six target letters during the encoding phase, which were held in memory during the maintenance phase. A single probe letter was presented during the retrieval phase. In the “match condition”, subjects decided whether the probe matched the target letters. In the “executive condition”, subjects created a new probe by counting two alphabetical letters forward (e.g., f → h) and decided whether the new probe matched the target letters. Neural activity during the match and executive conditions was compared during each phase of the task. There were four main findings. First, cerebro-cerebellar activity increased as a function of executive load. Second, the dorsal cerebellar dentate co-activated with the supplementary motor area (SMA) during encoding. This likely represented the formation of an articulatory (motor) trajectory. Third, the ventral cerebellar dentate co-activated with anterior prefrontal regions BA 9/46 and the pre-SMA during retrieval. This likely represented the manipulation of information and formation of a response. A functional dissociation between the dorsal “motor” dentate and “cognitive” ventral dentate agrees with neuroanatomical tract tracing studies that have demonstrated separate neural pathways involving each region of the dentate: the dorsal dentate projects to frontal motor areas (including the SMA), and the ventral dentate projects to frontal cognitive areas (including BA 9/46 and the pre-SMA). Finally, activity during the maintenance phase in BA 9, anterior insula, pre-SMA and ventral dentate predicted subsequent accuracy of response to the probe during the retrieval phase. This finding underscored the significant contribution of the pre

  10. Exploration of verbal and non-verbal semantic knowledge and autobiographical memories starting from popular songs in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaglia-Pappas, S; Laterza, M; Borg, C; Richard-Mornas, A; Favre, E; Thomas-Antérion, C

    2013-05-01

    In mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), a deficit in episodic memory, particularly autobiographical memory, is clearly established. Several recent studies have also shown impaired semantic memory from the onset of the disease. Musical memory capacities may be especially preserved and listening to music might encourage autobiographical recall. The aim of this study was to explore recall of popular songs in AD. We tested 12 patients with mild AD and 12 control subjects. We created a tool made up of old French popular songs: POP 10. This tool is a questionnaire composed of several subtests: melodic free recall, chorus free recall, melodic recognition, chorus recognition, semantic knowledge, autobiographical recall about the song, and autobiographical recall about the interpreter. We used non-parametric tests, the Mann-Whitney test (M-W), the Friedman test, and the a posteriori Wilcoxon test. Results of AD patients were rather similar to those of control participants for melodic memory. Concerning chorus memory (except recognition), semantic knowledge, and autobiographical recall about the interpreter, results of AD patients were significantly weaker than those of control participants. The most important result concerned autobiographical recall about the song: we found no impairment-related differences between the two groups. Our findings demonstrate that popular songs can be excellent stimuli for reminiscence, such as the ability to produce an autobiographical memory related to a song. Thus, we confirm that musical semantic knowledge associated with a song may be relatively preserved in the early stages of AD. This leads to new possibilities for cognitive stimulation.

  11. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms predict delay in non-verbal communication in 14-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Emiko; Takagai, Shu; Takei, Nori; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji J

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the potential relationship between maternal depressive symptoms during the postpartum period and non-verbal communication skills of infants at 14 months of age in a birth cohort study of 951 infants and assessed what factors may influence this association. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and non-verbal communication skills were measured using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, which include Early Gestures and Later Gestures domains. Infants whose mothers had a high level of depressive symptoms (13+ points) during both the first month postpartum and at 10 weeks were approximately 0.5 standard deviations below normal in Early Gestures scores and 0.5-0.7 standard deviations below normal in Later Gestures scores. These associations were independent of potential explanations, such as maternal depression/anxiety prior to birth, breastfeeding practices, and recent depressive symptoms among mothers. These findings indicate that infants whose mothers have postpartum depressive symptoms may be at increased risk of experiencing delay in non-verbal development.

  12. Cognitive Training and Work Therapy for the Treatment of Verbal Learning and Memory Deficits in Veterans With Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris D; Vissicchio, Nicholas A; Weinstein, Andrea J

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the efficacy of cognitive training for verbal learning and memory deficits in a population of older veterans with alcohol use disorders. Veterans with alcohol use disorders, who were in outpatient treatment at VA facilities and in early-phase recovery (N = 31), were randomized to receive a three-month trial of daily cognitive training plus work therapy (n = 15) or work therapy alone (n = 16), along with treatment as usual. Participants completed assessments at baseline and at three- and six-month follow-ups; the Hopkins Verbal Learning Task (HVLT) was the primary outcome measure. Participants were primarily male (97%) and in their mid-50s (M = 55.16, SD = 5.16) and had been sober for 1.64 (SD = 2.81) months. Study retention was excellent (91% at three-month follow-up) and adherence to treatment in both conditions was very good. On average, participants in the cognitive training condition had more than 41 hours of cognitive training, and both conditions had more than 230 hours of productive activity. HVLT results at three-month follow-up revealed significant condition effects favoring cognitive training for verbal learning (HVLT Trial-3 T-score, p learning compared with a premorbid estimate of verbal IQ. At three-month follow-up there was a significant reduction in the number of participants in the cognitive training condition with clinically significant verbal memory deficits (p learning deficits, which was not sustained at six-month follow-up. This National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded pilot study demonstrates that cognitive training within the context of another activating intervention (work therapy) may have efficacy in remediating verbal learning and memory deficits in patients with alcohol use disorder. Findings indicate a large effect for cognitive training in this pilot study, which suggests that further research is warranted. This study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT 01410110).

  13. How do verbal short-term memory and working memory relate to the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar? A comparison between first and second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show that verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is related to vocabulary learning, whereas verbal working memory (VWM) is related to grammar learning in children learning a second language (L2) in the classroom. In this study, we investigated whether the same relationships apply to children learning an L2 in a naturalistic setting and to monolingual children. We also investigated whether relationships with verbal memory differ depending on the type of grammar skill investigated (i.e., morphology vs. syntax). Participants were 63 Turkish children who learned Dutch as an L2 and 45 Dutch monolingual children (mean age = 5 years). Children completed a series of VSTM and VWM tasks, a Dutch vocabulary task, and a Dutch grammar task. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that VSTM and VWM represented two separate latent factors in both groups. Structural equation modeling showed that VSTM, treated as a latent factor, significantly predicted vocabulary and grammar. VWM, treated as a latent factor, predicted only grammar. Both memory factors were significantly related to the acquisition of morphology and syntax. There were no differences between the two groups. These results show that (a) VSTM and VWM are differentially associated with language learning and (b) the same memory mechanisms are employed for learning vocabulary and grammar in L1 children and in L2 children who learn their L2 naturalistically. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hippocampus Is Required for Paired Associate Memory with Neither Delay Nor Trial Uniqueness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jinah; Seo, Yeran; Kim, Jangjin; Lee, Inah

    2012-01-01

    Cued retrieval of memory is typically examined with delay when testing hippocampal functions, as in delayed matching-to-sample tasks. Equally emphasized in the literature, on the other hand, is the hippocampal involvement in making arbitrary associations. Paired associate memory tasks are widely used for examining this function. However, the two…

  15. Effects of a school-based instrumental music program on verbal and visual memory in primary school children: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo eRoden

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 minutes sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests for three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children's socio-economic background, age and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills.

  16. Effects of a school-based instrumental music program on verbal and visual memory in primary school children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children's socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills.

  17. Effects of a School-Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal and Visual Memory in Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children’s socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills. PMID:23267341

  18. Working memory and insight in verbal problems: analysis of compound remote associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chein, Jason M; Weisberg, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Problem solving is sometimes accompanied by a sudden feeling of knowing, or insight. The specific cognitive processes that underlie insightful problem solving are a matter of great interest and debate. Although some investigators favor a special-process view, which explains insight in terms of specialized mechanisms that operate outside of conscious awareness, others favor a business-as-usual account, which posits that insightful problem solving involves the same conscious mechanisms-including working memory (WM) and attention-that are implicated in noninsightful problem solving. In the present study, we used an individual-differences approach to explore the contributions of WM and attention to the solution of compound remote associate (CRA) problems. On the basis of self-report insight ratings, we identified CRA problems whose solution was accompanied by a subjective feeling of insight and examined the correlations between problem performance and measures of WM capacity (verbal and spatial) and attention control (Stroop and antisaccade tasks). The results indicated that individual differences in verbal WM and attention significantly explained variation in overall CRA problem solving and, most importantly, in the occurrence of solutions that were accompanied by a feeling of insight. The findings implicated both modality-dependent WM mechanisms and modality-independent attention control mechanisms in this class of insight problems. Comparisons of the accuracy and solution-latency findings for insightfully versus noninsightfully solved CRA problems, and for participants working silently versus in a "think-aloud" condition, provided additional evidence against the special-process view, and reinforcing the business-as-usual account of insight.

  19. Computerized training of non-verbal reasoning and working memory in children with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina eSöderqvist

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Children with intellectual disabilities show deficits in both reasoning ability and working memory (WM that impact everyday functioning and academic achievement. In this study we investigated the feasibility of cognitive training for improving WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR ability in children with intellectual disability. Participants were randomized to a 5-week adaptive training program (intervention group or non-adaptive version of the program (active control group. Cognitive assessments were conducted prior to and directly after training, and one year later to examine effects of the training. Improvements during training varied largely and amount of progress during training predicted transfer to WM and comprehension of instructions, with higher training progress being associated with greater transfer effects. The strongest predictors for training progress were found to be gender, co-morbidity and baseline capacity on verbal WM. In particular, females without an additional diagnosis and with higher baseline performance showed greater progress. No significant effects of training were observed at the one-year follow-up, suggesting that training should be more intense or repeated in order for effects to persist in children with intellectual disabilities. A major finding of this study is that cognitive training is feasible in children with intellectual disabilities and can help improve their cognitive capacities. However, a minimum cognitive capacity or training ability seems necessary for the training to be beneficial, with some individuals showing little improvement in performance. Future studies of cognitive training should take into consideration how inter-individual differences in training progress influence transfer effects and further investigate how baseline capacities predict training outcome.

  20. Entorhinal cortex volume measured with 3T MRI is positively correlated with the Wechsler memory scale-revised logical/verbal memory score for healthy subjects

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    Goto, Masami [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa University, Tsunomatyou, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Abe, Osamu; Takao, Hidemasa; Inano, Sachiko; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Miyati, Tosiaki [Kanazawa University, Tsunomatyou, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kabasawa, Hiroyuki [GE Healthcare, Japan Applied Science Laboratory, Hino (Japan); Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Ino, Kenji; Iida, Kyouhito; Yano, Keiichi [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Previous studies revealed a correlation between local brain volume and cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between local gray matter volume and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) logical/verbal memory (WMS-R-verbal) score in healthy adults using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 1,169 healthy adults. The T1-weighted images in native space were bias-corrected, spatially normalized, and segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid images with Statistical Parametric Mapping 5. To investigate regionally the specific effects of the WMS-R-verbal score on the gray matter images, simple regression analysis was performed by VBM treating age, total intracranial volume, and gender as confounding covariates. A P value of less than 0.05 corrected with false discovery rate in voxel difference was considered to be statistically significant. Our study showed a significant positive correlation between the WMS-R-verbal score and the bilateral entorhinal cortex volume. In the right entorhinal, T value is 4.75, and the size of the clusters is 155 voxels. In the left entorhinal, T value is 4.08, and the size of the clusters is 23 voxels. A significant negative correlation was not found. To our knowledge, this is the first VBM study showing that entorhinal cortex volume is positively correlated with the WMS-R-verbal score for healthy subjects. Therefore, in our structural neuroimaging study, we add evidence to the hypothesis that the entorhinal cortex is involved in verbal memory processing. (orig.)

  1. The relationship between visual-spatial and auditory-verbal working memory span in Senegalese and Ugandan children.

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    Michael J Boivin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC Conant et al. (1999 observed that visual and auditory working memory (WM span were independent in both younger and older children from DR Congo, but related in older American children and in Lao children. The present study evaluated whether visual and auditory WM span were independent in Ugandan and Senegalese children. METHOD: In a linear regression analysis we used visual (Spatial Memory, Hand Movements and auditory (Number Recall WM along with education and physical development (weight/height as predictors. The predicted variable in this analysis was Word Order, which is a verbal memory task that has both visual and auditory memory components. RESULTS: Both the younger (8.5 yrs Ugandan children had auditory memory span (Number Recall that was strongly predictive of Word Order performance. For both the younger and older groups of Senegalese children, only visual WM span (Spatial Memory was strongly predictive of Word Order. Number Recall was not significantly predictive of Word Order in either age group. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible that greater literacy from more schooling for the Ugandan age groups mediated their greater degree of interdependence between auditory and verbal WM. Our findings support those of Conant et al., who observed in their cross-cultural comparisons that stronger education seemed to enhance the dominance of the phonological-auditory processing loop for WM.

  2. Effect of Time Delay on Recognition Memory for Pictures: The Modulatory Role of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the modulatory role of emotion in the effect of time delay on recognition memory for pictures. Participants viewed neutral, positive and negative pictures, and took a recognition memory test 5 minutes, 24 hours, or 1 week after learning. The findings are: 1) For neutral, positive and negative pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h delay. For neutral and positive pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 1-week delay was lower than in the 24-h delay; for negative pictures, overall recognition in the 24-h and 1-week delay did not significantly differ. Therefore negative emotion modulates the effect of time delay on recognition memory, maintaining retention of overall recognition accuracy only within a certain frame of time. 2) For the three types of pictures, recollection and familiarity in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h and the 1-week delay. Thus emotion does not appear to modulate the effect of time delay on recollection and familiarity. However, recollection in the 24-h delay was higher than in the 1-week delay, whereas familiarity in the 24-h delay was lower than in the 1-week delay. PMID:24971457

  3. Interaction of language, auditory and memory brain networks in auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćurčić-Blake, Branislava; Ford, Judith M; Hubl, Daniela; Orlov, Natasza D; Sommer, Iris E; Waters, Flavie; Allen, Paul; Jardri, Renaud; Woodruff, Peter W; David, Olivier; Mulert, Christoph; Woodward, Todd S; Aleman, André

    2017-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) occur in psychotic disorders, but also as a symptom of other conditions and even in healthy people. Several current theories on the origin of AVH converge, with neuroimaging studies suggesting that the language, auditory and memory/limbic networks are of particular relevance. However, reconciliation of these theories with experimental evidence is missing. We review 50 studies investigating functional (EEG and fMRI) and anatomic (diffusion tensor imaging) connectivity in these networks, and explore the evidence supporting abnormal connectivity in these networks associated with AVH. We distinguish between functional connectivity during an actual hallucination experience (symptom capture) and functional connectivity during either the resting state or a task comparing individuals who hallucinate with those who do not (symptom association studies). Symptom capture studies clearly reveal a pattern of increased coupling among the auditory, language and striatal regions. Anatomical and symptom association functional studies suggest that the interhemispheric connectivity between posterior auditory regions may depend on the phase of illness, with increases in non-psychotic individuals and first episode patients and decreases in chronic patients. Leading hypotheses involving concepts as unstable memories, source monitoring, top-down attention, and hybrid models of hallucinations are supported in part by the published connectivity data, although several caveats and inconsistencies remain. Specifically, possible changes in fronto-temporal connectivity are still under debate. Precise hypotheses concerning the directionality of connections deduced from current theoretical approaches should be tested using experimental approaches that allow for discrimination of competing hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Deficits in visual short-term memory binding in children at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Pancera, Arianna; Galera, Cesar; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that learning disabled children meet short-term memory (STM) problems especially when they must bind different types of information, however the hypothesis has not been systematically tested. This study assessed visual STM for shapes and colors and the binding of shapes and colors, comparing a group of children (aged between 8 and 10 years) at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) with a control group of children matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. Results revealed that groups did not differ in retention of either shapes or colors, but children at risk of NLD were poorer than controls in memory for shape-color bindings.

  5. Inverse correspondence between hippocampal perfusion and verbal memory performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Swati; Ally, Brandon A; Hussey, Erin; Wilson, Tracy; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Gore, John C; Donahue, Manus J

    2013-03-01

    Understanding physiological changes that precede irreversible tissue damage in age-related pathology is central to optimizing treatments that may prevent, or delay, cognitive decline. Cerebral perfusion is a tightly regulated physiological property, coupled to tissue metabolism and function, and abnormal (both elevated and reduced) hippocampal perfusion has been reported in a range of cognitive disorders. However, the size and location of the hippocampus complicates perfusion quantification, as many perfusion techniques acquire data with spatial resolution on the order of or beyond the size of the hippocampus, and are thus suboptimal in this region (especially in the presence of hippocampal atrophy and reduced flow scenarios). Here, the relationship between hippocampal perfusion and atrophy as a function of memory performance was examined in cognitively normal healthy older adults (n = 20; age=67 ± 7 yr) with varying genetic risk for dementia using a custom arterial spin labeling acquisition and analysis procedure. When controlling for hippocampal volume, it was found that hippocampal perfusion correlated inversely (P = 0.04) with memory performance despite absent hippocampal tissue atrophy or white matter disease. The hippocampal flow asymmetry (left hippocampus perfusion-right hippocampus perfusion) was significantly (P = 0.04) increased in APOE-ϵ4 carriers relative to noncarriers. These findings demonstrate that perfusion correlates more strongly than tissue volume with memory performance in cognitively normal older adults, and furthermore that an inverse trend between these two parameters suggests that elevation of neuronal activity, possibly mediated by neuroinflammation and/or excitation/inhibition imbalance, may be closely associated with minor changes in memory performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students

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    Collette Mann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is often poorer for a second language (L2. In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1 may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001. Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = −0.023. Standard multiple regression was

  7. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canny, Benedict J.; Reser, David H.; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 ) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = −0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50 ) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the results showing that

  8. Noninvasive optical evaluation of low frequency oscillations in prefrontal cortex hemodynamics during verbal working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Li, Kai; Sun, Yunlong

    2014-03-01

    The low frequency oscillation (LFO) around 0.1 Hz has been observed recently in cerebral hemodynamic signals during rest/sleep, enhanced breathing, and head- up-tilting, showing that cerebral autoregulation can be accessed by LFOs. However, many brain function researches require direct measurement of LFOs during specified brain function activities. This pilot study explored using near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging (NIRS) to noninvasively and simultaneously detect LFOs of prefrontal cerebral hemodynamics (i.e., oxygenated/deoxygenated/total hemoglobin concentration: △[oxy-Hb]/ △[deoxy-Hb]/ △[tot-Hb]) during N-back visual verbal working memory task. The LFOs were extracted from the measured variables using power spectral analysis. We found the brain activation sites struck clear LFOs while other sites did not. The LFO of △[deoxy-Hb] acted as a negative pike and ranged in (0.05, 0.1) Hz, while LFOs of △[oxy-Hb] and △[tot-Hb] acted as a positive pike and ranged in (0.1, 0.15) Hz. The amplitude difference and frequency lag between △[deoxy-Hb] and △[oxy-Hb]/ △[tot-Hb] produced a more focused and sensitive activation map compare to hemodynamic amplitude-quantified activation maps. This study observed LFOs in brain activities and showed strong potential of LFOs in accessing brain functions.

  9. The deaf utilize phonological representations in visually presented verbal memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Rieko; Nakagawa, Jun; Takahashi, Muneyoshi; Kanaka, Noriko; Fukamauchi, Fumihiko; Watanabe, Katsumi; Namatame, Miki; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The phonological abilities of congenitally deaf individuals are inferior to those of people who can hear. However, deaf individuals can acquire spoken languages by utilizing orthography and lip-reading. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show that deaf individuals utilize phonological representations via a mnemonic process. We compared the brain activation of deaf and hearing participants while they memorized serially visually presented Japanese kana letters (Kana), finger alphabets (Finger), and Arabic letters (Arabic). Hearing participants did not know which finger alphabets corresponded to which language sounds, whereas deaf participants did. All of the participants understood the correspondence between Kana and their language sounds. None of the participants knew the correspondence between Arabic and their language sounds, so this condition was used as a baseline. We found that the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) was activated by phonological representations in the deaf group when memorizing both Kana and Finger. Additionally, the brain areas associated with phonological representations for Finger in the deaf group were the same as the areas for Kana in the hearing group. Overall, despite the fact that they are superior in visual information processing, deaf individuals utilize phonological rather than visual representations in visually presented verbal memory.

  10. Planning sentences while doing other things at the same time: effects of concurrent verbal and visuospatial working memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Jana; Mädebach, Andreas; Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jörg D

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated to what extent advance planning during sentence production is affected by a concurrent cognitive load. In two picture-word interference experiments in which participants produced subject-verb-object sentences while ignoring auditory distractor words, we assessed advance planning at a phonological (lexeme) and at an abstract-lexical (lemma) level under visuospatial or verbal working memory (WM) load. At the phonological level, subject and object nouns were found to be activated before speech onset with concurrent visuospatial WM load, but only subject nouns were found to be activated with concurrent verbal WM load, indicating a reduced planning scope as a function of type of WM load (Experiment 1). By contrast, at the abstract-lexical level, subject and object nouns were found to be activated regardless of type of concurrent load (Experiment 2). In both experiments, sentence planning had a more detrimental effect on concurrent verbal WM task performance than on concurrent visuospatial WM task performance. Overall, our results suggest that advance planning at the phonological level is more affected by a concurrently performed verbal WM task than advance planning at the abstract-lexical level. Also, they indicate an overlap of resources allocated to phonological planning in speech production and verbal WM.

  11. Impact of hearing aid use on auditory perception and verbal short-term memory in children with bimodal stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostojić Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The combination of electric stimulation from cochlear implant (CI with acoustic stimulation from hearing aid (HA, otherwise known as bimodal hearing, may provide several binaural benefits including binaural summation, binaural squelch, reduction of the head shadow effect, and improved localization. Purpose: This study investigated the influence of preoperative rehabilitation and bilateral HA use, bimodal stimulation post-implantation (CI on one ear and HA on the non-implanted ear and hearing thresholds in the verbal short-term memory. Method: Immediate verbal memory test for Serbian language consisting of four subtests was used for auditory perception testing on 21 pre-lingually deaf children. Results: Duration of bimodal hearing proved to be significant in the terms of auditory perception and verbal short-term memory. Mid- and high-frequency amplified thresholds on the non-implanted ear were correlated with poorer perception and reproduction of monosyllables and nonsense words. Conclusion: Duration of bimodal hearing proved to be significant in the terms of auditory perception, speech reproduction and semantic ability. Patients with a unilateral cochlear implant who have measurable residual hearing in the non-implanted ear should be individually fitted with a hearing aid in that ear, to improve speech perception and maximize binaural sensitivity.

  12. Consistency of Flashbulb Memories of September 11 over Long Delays: Implications for Consolidation and Wrong Time Slice Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Mirani, Jennifer; Schlagman, Simone; Foley, Kerry; Kornbrot, Diana E.

    2009-01-01

    The consistency of flashbulb memories over long delays provides a test of theories of memory for highly emotional events. This study used September 11, 2001 as the target event, with test-retest delays of 2 and 3 years. The nature and consistency of flashbulb memories were examined as a function of delay between the target event and an initial…

  13. Prefrontal cortical volume loss is associated with stress-related deficits in verbal learning and memory in HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Meyer, Vanessa J; J Conant, Rhoda; Sundermann, Erin E; Wu, Minjie; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Little, Deborah M; Maki, Pauline M

    2016-08-01

    Deficits in verbal learning and memory are a prominent feature of neurocognitive function in HIV-infected women, and are associated with high levels of perceived stress. To understand the neurobiological factors contributing to this stress-related memory impairment, we examined the association between stress, verbal memory, and brain volumes in HIV-infected women. Participants included 38 HIV-infected women (Mean age=43.9years) from the Chicago Consortium of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and completed standardized measures of verbal learning and memory and stress (Perceived Stress Scale-10; PSS-10). Brain volumes were evaluated in a priori regions of interest, including the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Compared to HIV-infected women with lower stress (PSS-10 scores in lower two tertiles), HIV-infected women with higher stress (scores in the top tertile), performed worse on measures of verbal learning and memory and showed smaller volumes bilaterally in the parahippocampal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus (p'slearning and memory performance. Prefrontal cortical atrophy is associated with stress-related deficits in verbal learning and memory in HIV-infected women. The time course of these volume losses in relation to memory deficits has yet to be elucidated, but the magnitude of the volumetric differences between women with higher versus lower stress suggests a prolonged vulnerability due to chronic stress and/or early life trauma.

  14. The Family Pictures subtest of the WMS-III: relationship to verbal and visual memory following temporal lobectomy for intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Jessica S; Busch, Robyn M; Naugle, Richard I; Najm, Imad M

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the extent to which the Family Pictures (FP) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WMS-III) is related to verbal memory measures and right mesial temporal integrity. Epilepsy patients who underwent temporal lobectomy did not differ in the extent to which FP scores changed from before to after surgery, although postoperative FP performance was worse in those who underwent right temporal lobectomy than in those who underwent left temporal lobectomy. FP was most strongly related to the Logical Memory subtest from the WMS-III. Results suggest that FP measures both verbal and visual memory and is minimally sensitive to lateralization of temporal lobectomy.

  15. The Monkey game: A computerized verbal working memory task for self-reliant administration in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Jolani, Shahab; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2016-06-01

    In two studies, the psychometric properties of an online self-reliant verbal working memory task (the Monkey game) for primary school children (6-12 years of age) were examined. In Study 1, children (n = 5,203) from 31 primary schools participated. The participants completed computerized verbal and visual-spatial working memory tasks (i.e., the Monkey game and the Lion game) and a paper-and-pencil version of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Reading comprehension and math achievement test scores were obtained from the schools. First, the internal consistency of the Monkey game was examined. Second, multilevel modeling was used to examine the effects of classroom membership. Multilevel multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the Monkey game's concurrent relationship with the Lion game and its predictive relationships with reading comprehension and math achievement. Also, age-related differences in performance were examined. In Study 2, the concurrent relationships between the Monkey game and two tester-led computerized working memory tasks were further examined (n = 140). Also, the 1- and 2-year stability of the Monkey game was investigated. The Monkey game showed excellent internal consistency, good concurrent relationships with the other working memory measures, and significant age differences in performance. Performance on the Monkey game was also predictive of subsequent reading comprehension and mathematics performance, even after controlling for individual differences in intelligence. Performance on the Monkey game was influenced by classroom membership. The Monkey game is a reliable and suitable instrument for the online computerized and self-reliant assessment of verbal working memory in primary school children.

  16. Declarative verbal memory impairments in middle-aged women who are caregivers of offspring with autism spectrum disorders: The role of negative affect and testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, A; González-Bono, E; Salvador, A; Moya-Albiol, L

    2016-01-01

    Caring for offspring diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is used in research as a model of chronic stress. This chronic stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory. Moreover, such cognitive decline may be mediated by testosterone (T) levels and negative affect, understood as depressive mood together with high anxiety and anger. This study aimed to compare declarative memory function in middle-aged women who were caregivers for individuals with ASD (n = 24; mean age = 45) and female controls (n = 22; mean age = 45), using a standardised memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). It also sought to examine the role of care recipient characteristics, negative mood and T levels in memory impairments. ASD caregivers were highly sensitive to proactive interference and verbal forgetting. In addition, they had higher negative affect and T levels, both of which have been associated with poorer verbal memory performance. Moreover, the number of years of caregiving affected memory performance and negative affect, especially, in terms of anger feelings. On the other hand, T levels in caregivers had a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance; that is, increases in T were associated with improvements in verbal memory performance up to a certain point, but subsequently, memory performance decreased with increasing T. Chronic stress may produce disturbances in mood and hormonal levels, which in turn might increase the likelihood of developing declarative memory impairments although caregivers do not show a generalised decline in memory. These findings should be taken into account for understanding the impact of cognitive impairments on the ability to provide optimal caregiving.

  17. Musical and Verbal Memory in Alzheimer's Disease: A Study of Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Marie-Claude; Belleville, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal…

  18. The Neural Substrates of Recognition Memory for Verbal Information: Spanning the Divide between Short- and Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Berman, Karen Faith

    2011-01-01

    One of the classic categorical divisions in the history of memory research is that between short-term and long-term memory. Indeed, because memory for the immediate past (a few seconds) and memory for the relatively more remote past (several seconds and beyond) are assumed to rely on distinct neural systems, more often than not, memory research…

  19. The Neural Substrates of Recognition Memory for Verbal Information: Spanning the Divide between Short- and Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Berman, Karen Faith

    2011-01-01

    One of the classic categorical divisions in the history of memory research is that between short-term and long-term memory. Indeed, because memory for the immediate past (a few seconds) and memory for the relatively more remote past (several seconds and beyond) are assumed to rely on distinct neural systems, more often than not, memory research…

  20. Musical and Verbal Memory in Alzheimer's Disease: A Study of Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Marie-Claude; Belleville, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal…

  1. Jian Nao Ning for Treatment of Memory Impairment in Patients with Mild or Moderate Multi-infarct Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田金洲; 尹军祥; 刘峘; 杨承芝; 王永炎

    2002-01-01

    Forty patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID) were randomly assigned to the treatment group (25 cases) treated with Jian Nao Ning (健脑宁JNN) and the duxil control group (15 cases). Memory function were assessed at baseline and endpoint using memory subscales of a battery of New Psychometric Tests (Chinese version) including mini-mental state examination (MMSE), verbal memory, and non-verbal memory, etc. After treatment, the mean scores of verbal memory in the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (P<0.05) and total memory scores of memory items (P<0.001) in JNN group increased significantly; and improvement in episodic memory function including story recall (immediate and delayed), delayed word recall, verbal learning and verbal recognition and visual recognition in the JNN group was better than that in the duxil control group, suggesting that JNN can obviously improve memory function for the patients with mild or moderate multi-infarct dementia.

  2. Synchronization of map-based neurons with memory and synaptic delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausedo-Solorio, J.M. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42074 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Pisarchik, A.N., E-mail: apisarch@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Centre for Biomedical Technology, Technical University of Madrid, Campus Montegancedo, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcon, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-06-13

    Synchronization of two synaptically coupled neurons with memory and synaptic delay is studied using the Rulkov map, one of the simplest neuron models which displays specific features inherent to bursting dynamics. We demonstrate a transition from lag to anticipated synchronization as the relationship between the memory duration and the synaptic delay time changes. The neuron maps synchronize either with anticipation, if the memory is longer than the synaptic delay time, or with lag otherwise. The mean anticipation time is equal to the difference between the memory and synaptic delay independently of the coupling strength. Frequency entrainment and phase-locking phenomena as well as a transition from regular spikes to chaos are demonstrated with respect to the coupling strength. - Highlights: • We study synchronization of neurons with memory and synaptic delay in the map model. • Neurons synchronize either with anticipation or with lag depending on delay time. • Mean anticipation time is equal to the difference between memory and synaptic delay. • Frequency entrainment and phase locking are studied with respect to the coupling.

  3. Real-time fMRI training-induced changes in regional connectivity mediating verbal working memory behavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J; Zhang, G; Yao, L; Zhao, X

    2015-03-19

    Working memory refers to the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information that is necessary for complex cognition activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that working memory capacity can be improved by behavioral training, and brain activities in the frontal and parietal cortices and the connections between these regions are also altered by training. Our recent neurofeedback training has proven that the regulation of the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) can improve working memory performance. However, how working memory training promotes interaction between brain regions and whether this promotion correlates with performance improvement remain unclear. In this study, we employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to calculate the interactions between the regions within the working memory network during neurofeedback training. The results revealed that the direct effect of the frontoparietal connection in the left hemisphere was enhanced by the rtfMRI training. Specifically, the increase in the path from the left DLPFC to the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was positively correlated with improved performance in verbal working memory. These findings demonstrate the important role of the frontoparietal connection in working memory training and suggest that increases in frontoparietal connectivity might be a key factor associated with behavioral improvement.

  4. Relações entre controle executivo e memória episódica verbal no comprometimento cognitivo leve e na demência tipo Alzheimer Relationships between executive control and verbal episodic memory in the mild cognitive impairment and the Alzheimer-type dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Cavalheiro Hamdan

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo comparou e relacionou o desempenho de idosos com Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve e Demência Tipo Alzheimer em testes de controle executivo e de memória episódica verbal. Para a avaliação da memória episódica verbal utilizamos a Tarefa de Recordação de Palavras Imediata e a Tarefa de Recordação de Palavras com Intervalo. Na avaliação do controle executivo foram utilizados, os seguintes testes: Random Number Generation, Trail Making Test, Fluência Verbal semântica e fonológica, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Reading Span Test e Brow-Peterson Test. Treze idosos do grupo controle foram equiparados quanto à idade e escolaridade com nove idosos com Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve e oito idosos com Demência Tipo Alzheimer. Foram encontradas diferenças e associações estatisticamente significantes em relação aos testes de controle executivo entre os grupos investigados. Apesar da presença de associações significativas entre a memória episódica verbal e o controle executivo, não foram evidenciados déficits do controle executivo nos idosos com Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve.This study compared and related the performance of older people with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer-type dementia in tests of executive control and of verbal episodic memory. In the evaluation of the verbal episodic memory we used the Task of Immediate Word Recall and the Task of Delayed Word Recall. In the evaluation of executive control we used the following tests: Random Number Generation, Trail Making Test, Semantic and Phonological Verbal Fluency, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Reading Span Test, and Brow-Peterson Test. Thirteen elders of the control group were compared by age and education with nine elders with Mild Cognitive Impairment and eight elders with Alzheimer-type dementia. Differences and significant statistical associations were found in relation to the tests of executive control with the groups investigated. Despite the

  5. The Language, Working Memory, and Other Cognitive Demands of Verbal Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To gain a better understanding of the cognitive processes supporting verbal abilities, the underlying structure and interrelationships between common verbal measures were investigated. Methods: An epidemiological sample (n = 374) of school-aged children completed standardized tests of language, intelligence, and short-term and working…

  6. The Specific Involvement of Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory in Hypermedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Francesca; Toso, Cristina; Cacciamani, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Many models have hypothesized that multimedia comprehension requires the concurrent processing of verbal and visuospatial information by limited information processing systems. However, in spite of the emphasis devoted to the concurrent processing of verbal and visuospatial information, little research has so far investigated the specific role…

  7. Effect of verbal encoding and motor memory on test performance in the Rey Visual Design Learning Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, P; Maathuis, I; Matzner, M

    2011-01-01

    This study offers new evidence for the validity of the interpretation of the Rey Visual Design Learning Test (RVDLT) test score. The RVDLT is a design memory test that requires constructive output (drawings of memorized test items) in the recall phase. We mainly focused on response processes and tested the effect of a verbal and a motor memory strategy on test performance. Strategies were only explained and participants (12- to 15-year-olds) were stimulated to use them in a subsequent test session. In the verbal encoding condition, participants were instructed to name the test items of the RVDLT. In the copy condition, participants copied test items with an empty pen concurrent with test item presentation (rehearsal of motor sequences). Test performances were compared to a control group. No significant difference in RVDLT test score was detected between the verbal encoding group and the control group. However, the copy group scored significantly lower than the other two groups. Results are discussed in light of the validity of the test interpretation.

  8. Verbal memory declines more in female patients with Parkinson's disease: the importance of gender-corrected normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, S; Roeske, S; Heber, I; Reetz, K; Schulz, J B; Riedel, O; Wittchen, H U; Storch, A; Linse, K; Baudrexel, S; Hilker, R; Mollenhauer, B; Witt, K; Schmidt, N; Balzer-Geldsetzer, M; Dams, J; Dodel, R; Gräber, S; Pilotto, A; Petrelli, A; Fünkele, S; Kassubek, J; Kalbe, E

    2016-08-01

    Data on gender-specific profiles of cognitive functions in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are rare and inconsistent, and possible disease-confounding factors have been insufficiently considered. The LANDSCAPE study on cognition in PD enrolled 656 PD patients (267 without cognitive impairment, 66% male; 292 with mild cognitive impairment, 69% male; 97 with PD dementia, 69% male). Raw values and age-, education-, and gender-corrected Z scores of a neuropsychological test battery (CERAD-Plus) were compared between genders. Motor symptoms, disease duration, l-dopa equivalent daily dose, depression - and additionally age and education for the raw value analysis - were taken as covariates. Raw-score analysis replicated results of previous studies in that female PD patients were superior in verbal memory (word list learning, p = 0.02; recall, p = 0.03), while men outperformed women in visuoconstruction (p = 0.002) and figural memory (p = 0.005). In contrast, gender-corrected Z scores showed that men were superior in verbal memory (word list learning, p = 0.02; recall, p = 0.02; recognition, p = 0.04), while no difference was found for visuospatial tests. This picture could be observed both in the overall analysis of PD patients as well as in a differentiated group analysis. Normative data corrected for gender and other sociodemographic variables are relevant, since they may elucidate a markedly different cognitive profile compared to raw scores. Our study also suggests that verbal memory decline is stronger in women than in men with PD. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings, examine the progression of gender-specific cognitive decline in PD and define different underlying mechanisms of this dysfunction.

  9. Sentence Comprehension in Adolescents with down Syndrome and Typically Developing Children: Role of Sentence Voice, Visual Context, and Auditory-Verbal Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miolo, Giuliana; Chapman, Robins S.; Sindberg, Heidi A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors evaluated the roles of auditory-verbal short-term memory, visual short-term memory, and group membership in predicting language comprehension, as measured by an experimental sentence comprehension task (SCT) and the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language--Third Edition (TACL-3; E. Carrow-Woolfolk, 1999) in 38 participants: 19 with…

  10. Genome-wide studies of verbal declarative memory in nondemented older people: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Debette (Stéphanie); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); J. Bressler (Jan); M. Schuur (Maaike); G.D. Smith; J.C. Bis (Joshua); G. Davies (Gail); C. Wolf (Christiane); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); L.B. Chibnik (Lori); Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); D.J.F. De Quervain (Dominique J.F.); V. Srikanth (Velandai); J. Lahti (Jari); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); L. Priebe; L. Yu (Lei); N. Karbalai (Nazanin); C. Hayward (Caroline); J.F. Wilson (James F); H. Campbell (Harry); K. Petrovic (Katja); M. Fornage (Myriam); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); R. Yeo (Robin); R. Boxall (Ruth); J.T. Becker (James); O. Stegle (Oliver); R. Mather; V. Chouraki (Vincent); Q. Sun (Qi); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Resnick (Susan); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); M. Kirin (Mirna); A. Wright (Alan); M.K. Jonsdottir (Maria K.); R. Au (Rhoda); A. Becker (Albert); N. Amin (Najaf); M.A. Nalls (Michael); S.T. Turner (Stephen); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); B.A. Oostra (Ben); G. Windham (Gwen); L.H. Coker (Laura); W. Zhao (Wei); D.S. Knopman (David); G. Heiss (Gerardo); M.D. Griswold (Michael); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); V. Vitart (Veronique); N. Hastie (Nick); L. Zgaga (Lina); I. Rudan (Igor); O. Polasek (Ozren); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); P. Schofield (Peter); S.-H. Choi (Seung-Hoan); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); Y. An (Yang); R.T. Perry (Rodney T.); R.E. Kennedy (Richard E.); M.M. Sale (Michèle M.); J. Wang (Jing); V.G. Wadley (Virginia G.); D.C. Liewald (David C.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); A.J. Gow (Alan J.); A. Pattie (Alison); J.M. Starr (John); D.J. Porteous (David J.); X. Liu (Xuan); R. Thomson (Russell); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); A.A. Assareh (Arezoo A.); N.A. Kochan (Nicole A.); E. Widen (Elisabeth); A. Palotie (Aarno); Y.-C. Hsieh (Yi-Chen); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); C. Vogler (Christian); J.C. van Swieten (John); L. Shulman (Lee); A. Beiser (Alexa); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); C.O. Schmidt (Carsten O.); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); M.M. Nöthen (Markus M.); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J. Attia (John); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Amouyel (Philippe); J.-F. Dartigues (Jean-François); H. Amieva (Hélène); K. Räikkönen (Katri); M. Garcia (Melissa); P.A. Wolf (Philip); A. Hofman (Albert); W.T. Longstreth Jr; B.M. Psaty (Bruce); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); P.L. DeJager (Philip L.); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); A. Teumer (Alexander); O.L. Lopez (Oscar); S. Cichon (Sven); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); F. Grodstein (Francine); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); C. Tzourio (Christophe); A. Papassotiropoulos (Andreas); D.A. Bennett (David); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A.L. Fitzpatrick (Annette); S. Seshadri (Sudha); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies for

  11. Text Comprehension in Chinese Children: Relative Contribution of Verbal Working Memory, Pseudoword Reading, Rapid Automated Naming, and Onset-Rime Phonological Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Che Kan; Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee; Hau, Kit Tai

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the role of verbal working memory (memory span, tongue twister), 2-character Chinese pseudoword reading, rapid automatized naming (letters, numbers), and phonological segmentation (deletion of rimes and onsets) in inferential text comprehension in Chinese in 518 Chinese children in Hong Kong in Grades 3 to 5. It was…

  12. Searching for the Hebb Effect in down Syndrome: Evidence for a Dissociation between Verbal Short-Term Memory and Domain-General Learning of Serial Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, E. K.; Jarrold, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Hebb effect is a form of repetition-driven long-term learning that is thought to provide an analogue for the processes involved in new word learning. Other evidence suggests that verbal short-term memory also constrains now vocabulary acquisition, but if the Hebb effect is independent of short-term memory, then it may be possible…

  13. A Comparison between Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary in Bilingual and Monolingual South African School Beginners: Implications for Bilingual Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bilingual and monolingual school beginners on measures of simple and complex verbal working memory and receptive and expressive vocabulary. The aim was to determine whether the tests of working memory are fairer measures of language ability than the vocabulary tests for bilingual children when tested in their second language.…

  14. Searching for the Hebb Effect in down Syndrome: Evidence for a Dissociation between Verbal Short-Term Memory and Domain-General Learning of Serial Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, E. K.; Jarrold, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Hebb effect is a form of repetition-driven long-term learning that is thought to provide an analogue for the processes involved in new word learning. Other evidence suggests that verbal short-term memory also constrains now vocabulary acquisition, but if the Hebb effect is independent of short-term memory, then it may be possible…

  15. Genome-wide studies of verbal declarative memory in nondemented older people: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Debette (Stéphanie); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); J. Bressler (Jan); M. Schuur (Maaike); G.D. Smith; J.C. Bis (Joshua); G. Davies (Gail); C. Wolf (Christiane); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); L.B. Chibnik (Lori); Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); D.J.F. De Quervain (Dominique J.F.); V. Srikanth (Velandai); J. Lahti (Jari); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); L. Priebe; L. Yu (Lei); N. Karbalai (Nazanin); C. Hayward (Caroline); J.F. Wilson (James F); H. Campbell (Harry); K. Petrovic (Katja); M. Fornage (Myriam); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); R. Yeo (Robin); R. Boxall (Ruth); J.T. Becker (James); O. Stegle (Oliver); R. Mather; V. Chouraki (Vincent); Q. Sun (Qi); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Resnick (Susan); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); M. Kirin (Mirna); A. Wright (Alan); M.K. Jonsdottir (Maria K.); R. Au (Rhoda); A. Becker (Albert); N. Amin (Najaf); M.A. Nalls (Michael); S.T. Turner (Stephen); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); B.A. Oostra (Ben); G. Windham (Gwen); L.H. Coker (Laura); W. Zhao (Wei); D.S. Knopman (David); G. Heiss (Gerardo); M.D. Griswold (Michael); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); V. Vitart (Veronique); N. Hastie (Nick); L. Zgaga (Lina); I. Rudan (Igor); O. Polasek (Ozren); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); P. Schofield (Peter); S.-H. Choi (Seung-Hoan); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); Y. An (Yang); R.T. Perry (Rodney T.); R.E. Kennedy (Richard E.); M.M. Sale (Michèle M.); J. Wang (Jing); V.G. Wadley (Virginia G.); D.C. Liewald (David C.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); A.J. Gow (Alan J.); A. Pattie (Alison); J.M. Starr (John); D.J. Porteous (David J.); X. Liu (Xuan); R. Thomson (Russell); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); A.A. Assareh (Arezoo A.); N.A. Kochan (Nicole A.); E. Widen (Elisabeth); A. Palotie (Aarno); Y.-C. Hsieh (Yi-Chen); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); C. Vogler (Christian); J.C. van Swieten (John); L. Shulman (Lee); A. Beiser (Alexa); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); C.O. Schmidt (Carsten O.); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); M.M. Nöthen (Markus M.); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J. Attia (John); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Amouyel (Philippe); J.-F. Dartigues (Jean-François); H. Amieva (Hélène); K. Räikkönen (Katri); M. Garcia (Melissa); P.A. Wolf (Philip); A. Hofman (Albert); W.T. Longstreth Jr; B.M. Psaty (Bruce); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); P.L. DeJager (Philip L.); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); A. Teumer (Alexander); O.L. Lopez (Oscar); S. Cichon (Sven); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); F. Grodstein (Francine); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); C. Tzourio (Christophe); A. Papassotiropoulos (Andreas); D.A. Bennett (David); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A.L. Fitzpatrick (Annette); S. Seshadri (Sudha); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragrap

  16. Working Memory Encoding Delays Top-Down Attention to Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalf, Paige E.; Dux, Paul E.; Marois, Rene

    2011-01-01

    The encoding of information from one event into working memory can delay high-level, central decision-making processes for subsequent events [e.g., Jolicoeur, P., & Dell'Acqua, R. The demonstration of short-term consolidation. "Cognitive Psychology, 36", 138-202, 1998, doi:10.1006/cogp.1998.0684]. Working memory, however, is also believed to…

  17. Visuospatial declarative learning despite profound verbal declarative amnesia in Korsakoff's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudman, Erik; Postma, Albert; Nijboer, Tanja C W; Wijnia, Jan W; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2017-03-20

    Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by severe amnesia. Although the presence of impairments in memory has long been acknowledged, there is a lack of knowledge about the precise characteristics of declarative memory capacities in order to implement memory rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the extent to which patients diagnosed with KS have preserved declarative memory capacities in working memory, long-term memory encoding or long-term memory recall operations, and whether these capacities are most preserved for verbal or visuospatial content. The results of this study demonstrate that patients with KS have compromised declarative memory functioning on all memory indices. Performance was lowest for the encoding operation compared to the working memory and delayed recall operation. With respect to the content, visuospatial memory was relatively better preserved than verbal memory. All memory operations functioned suboptimally, although the most pronounced disturbance was found in verbal memory encoding. Based on the preserved declarative memory capacities in patients, visuospatial memory can form a more promising target for compensatory memory rehabilitation than verbal memory. It is therefore relevant to increase the number of spatial cues in memory rehabilitation for KS patients.

  18. Mind the gap: delayed manifestation of long-term object memory improvement by phosphodiesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, S; Blokland, A; Prickaerts, J

    2014-03-01

    We examined the temporal profile of pharmacologically enhanced episodic memory, using the object recognition task. Male Wistar rats were tested at different retention intervals ranging from 1 h to 24 h. The object discrimination performance of all groups (untreated, placebo, drug treatment) gradually decreased up to an interval (8 h). Interestingly, only after this 8 h interval the memory improving effects of vardenafil and rolipram started to emerge. This time-dependent memory performance shows similarities with the Kamin effect. The delayed manifestation of drug-enhanced memory suggests that two separate memory mechanisms are at play, a quick transient form of memory and a more stable memory form that requires several hours to develop. It is important to take this into account when testing treatments intended for long-term memory enhancement.

  19. Verbal learning on depressive pseudodementia: accentuate impairment of free recall, moderate on learning processes, and spared short-term and recognition memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Jardim de Paula

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Depressive pseudodementia (DPD is a clinical condition characterized by depressive symptoms followed by cognitive and functional impairment characteristics of dementia. Memory complaints are one of the most related cognitive symptoms in DPD. The present study aims to assess the verbal learning profile of elderly patients with DPD. Methods Ninety-six older adults (34 DPD and 62 controls were assessed by neuropsychological tests including the Rey auditory-verbal learning test (RAVLT. A multivariate general linear model was used to assess group differences and controlled for demographic factors. Results Moderate or large effects were found on all RAVLT components, except for short-term and recognition memory. Conclusion DPD impairs verbal memory, with large effect size on free recall and moderate effect size on the learning. Short-term storage and recognition memory are useful in clinical contexts when the differential diagnosis is required.

  20. Differences in the verbal fluency, working memory and executive functions in alcoholics: Short-term vs. long-term abstainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska-Domagała, Katarzyna; Jabłkowska-Górecka, Karolina; Mokros, Łukasz; Koprowicz, Jacek; Pietras, Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess differences in verbal fluency, working memory and executive functions in two subgroups of alcohol-dependent patients, those undergoing short-term abstinence (STA) and those undergoing long-term abstinence (LTA), and to compare the level of cognitive functions in patients after long-term abstinence with healthy subjects. The study group consisted of 106 alcohol-dependent patients (53 immediately after drinking at least 3 days and 53 after at least one-year abstinence). The control group comprised 53 subjects, whose age, sex and education levels matched those of the patients in the experimental group. The dependence intensity was assessed using SADD and MAST scales. The neuropsychological assessment was based on the FAS Test, Stroop Test and TMT A&B Test. The results obtained for alcohol-dependent patients revealed significant disturbances of cognitive functions. Such results indicate the presence of severe frontal cerebral cortex dysfunctions. Frontal cortex dysfunctions affecting the verbal fluency and working memory subsystems and the executive functions also persisted during long-term abstinence periods. No significant correlations between the duration of dependence, quantity of alcohol consumed and efficiency of the working memory and executive functions were observed in alcohol-dependent subjects after short-term or long-term abstinence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Verbal memory and 5-HT1A receptors in healthy volunteers--A PET study with [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, Jani; Hirvonen, Jussi; Tuominen, Lauri; Lumme, Ville; Ilonen, Tuula; Någren, Kjell; Hietala, Jarmo

    2016-03-01

    The serotonin 5-HT1A receptor is a putative drug development target in disorders with cognitive and in particular memory deficits. However, previous human positron emission tomography (PET) studies on 5-HT1A receptor binding and memory functions have yielded discrepant results. We explored the association between verbal memory and 5-HT1A receptor binding in 24 healthy subjects (14 male, 10 female, aged 18-41 years). The cognitive tests included the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). 5-HT1A receptor binding was measured with PET and the radioligand [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635, which was quantified with the gold standard method based on kinetic modeling using arterial blood samples. We found that global 5-HT1A receptor binding was positively correlated with measures of verbal memory, such that subjects who had higher receptor binding tended to have better verbal memory than subjects who had lower receptor binding. Regional analyses suggested significant correlations in multiple neocortical brain regions and the raphe nuclei. We did not find significant correlations between 5-HT1A receptor binding and executive functions as measured with WCST. We conclude that neocortical as well as raphe 5-HT1A receptors are involved in verbal memory function in man.

  2. Phonological awareness intervention for verbal working memory skills in school-age children with specific language impairment and concomitant word reading difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungjun Park

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory investigation examined the effects of explicit phonological awareness intervention on each subcomponent of Baddeley’s verbal working memory model. Fifty school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI and concurrent deficits in word reading were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n=25 or a control group (n = 25. Children in both groups received individual traditional language intervention for four, 1 hour sessions each week for 4 weeks (16 hrs. The experimental group received an additional 20 min of phonological awareness intervention each day (5.3 hrs. Participants in the experimental group significantly outperformed the children in the control group across all verbal working memory measures. The strongest effects were found for the digit recall and word list recall subtests, which were used to assess the verbal short-term memory component of the model (i.e., phonological loop. The next largest effect sizes were reported for the subtests of the verbal working memory functioning (i.e., phonological loop and central executive. The smallest change was found on the recalling sentences subtest, which was chosen to represent the episodic buffer component. These results suggest that school-age children with SLI and concomitant word-reading difficulties in second through third grade who receive explicit phonological awareness intervention can make significant gains on untrained verbal working memory skills in a relatively short period of time which underscores the importance of phonological awareness intervention beyond first grade.

  3. Animal memory: A review of delayed matching-to-sample data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Johan; Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    We performed a meta-analysis of over 90 data sets from delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) studies with 25 species (birds, mammals, and bees). In DMTS, a sample stimulus is first presented and then removed. After a delay, two (or more) comparison stimuli are presented, and the subject is rewarded for choosing the one matching the sample. We used data on performance vs. delay length to estimate two parameters informative of working memory abilities: the maximum performance possible with no delay (comparison stimuli presented as soon as the sample is removed), and the rate of performance decay as the delay is lengthened (related to memory span). We conclude that there is little evidence that zero-delay performance varies between these species. There is evidence that pigeons do not perform as well as mammals at longer delay intervals. Pigeons, however, are the only extensively studied bird, and we cannot exclude that other birds may be able to bridge as long a delay as mammals. Extensive training may improve memory, although the data are open to other interpretations. Overall, DMTS studies suggest memory spans ranging from a few seconds to several minutes. We suggest that observations of animals exhibiting much longer memory spans (days to months) can be explained in terms of specialized memory systems that deal with specific, biologically significant information, such as food caches. Events that do not trigger these systems, on the other hand, appear to be remembered for only a short time. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  4. An investigation of the effects of interference speech on short-term memory for verbally presented prose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodico, Dana M.; Torres, Rendell R.; Shimizu, Yasushi; Hunter, Claudia

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of interference speech and the built acoustical environment on human performance, and the possibility of designing spaces to architecturally meet the acoustical goals of office and classroom environments. The effects of room size, geometry, and acoustical parameters on human performance are studied through human subject testing. Three experiments are used to investigate the effects of distracting background speech on short-term memory for verbally presented prose under constrained laboratory conditions. Short-term memory performance is rated within four different acoustical spaces and five background noise levels, as well as a quiet condition. The presentation will cover research methods, results, and possibilities for furthering this research. [Work supported by the Program in Architectural Acoustics, School of Architecture, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

  5. Gender differences in autobiographical memory for everyday events: Retrieval elicited by SenseCam Images vs. Verbal Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Jacques, Peggy L.; Conway, Martin A.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences are frequently observed in autobiographical memory (AM). Few studies, however, have investigated the neural basis of potential gender differences in AM. In the present functional MRI (fMRI) study we investigated gender differences in AMs elicited using dynamic visual images vs. verbal cues. We used a novel technology called a SenseCam, a wearable device that automatically takes thousands of photographs. SenseCam differs considerably from other prospective methods of generating retrieval cues because it does not disrupt the ongoing experience. This allowed us to control for potential gender differences in emotional processing and elaborative rehearsal, while manipulating how the AMs were elicited. We predicted that males would retrieve more richly experienced AMs elicited by the SenseCam images vs. the verbal cues, whereas females would show equal sensitivity to both cues. The behavioral results indicated that there were no gender differences in subjective ratings of reliving, importance, vividness, emotion and uniqueness, suggesting that gender differences in brain activity were not due to differences in these measures of phenomenological experience. Consistent with our predictions, the fMRI results revealed that males showed a greater difference in functional activity associated with the rich experience of SenseCam vs. Verbal Cues, than did females. PMID:20981611

  6. Verbal short-term memory span in children: long-term modality dependent effects of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, R; Eshel, R; Leitner, Y; Fattal-Valevski, A; Harel, S

    2008-12-01

    Recent reports showed that children born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at greater risk of experiencing verbal short-term memory span (STM) deficits that may impede their learning capacities at school. It is still unknown whether these deficits are modality dependent. This long-term, prospective design study examined modality-dependent verbal STM functions in children who were diagnosed at birth with IUGR (n = 138) and a control group (n = 64). Their STM skills were evaluated individually at 9 years of age with four conditions of the Visual-Aural Digit Span Test (VADS; Koppitz, 1981): auditory-oral, auditory-written, visuospatial-oral and visuospatial-written. Cognitive competence was evaluated with the short form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children--revised (WISC-R95; Wechsler, 1998). We found IUGR-related specific auditory-oral STM deficits (p long-term relationship between prenatal aberrant head growth and auditory verbal STM deficits by the end of the first decade of life. Empirical, clinical and educational implications are presented.

  7. Hippocampal atrophy and verbal episodic memory performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Carollina Peruzza Marchiani

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate hippocampal volume in patients with AD and aMCI, and correlate its atrophy with verbal episodic memory performance. Methods: We studied 42 individuals older than 50 years, including 14 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, 14 with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD and 14 normal controls. All individuals were submitted to the Rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT to evaluate episodic memory. They were also submitted to the forward (FDS and backward digit span (BDS subtest of WAIS-R to evaluate working memory and attention, and to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Hippocampal volumetric measurements were performed according to anatomic guidelines from a standard protocol using high-resolution T1-inversion recovery 3-mm coronal MRI slices. Hippocampal volumes (HV were corrected for the variation in total intracranial volume. There was no significant difference between the three groups concerning age and education. Results: On RAVLT, there was a continuum between the three groups, with AD recalling less words, controls more, and aMCI subjects showing an intermediate performance on all sub-items. We found an asymmetry between HVs, with smaller mean left HV for all groups. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test for comparisons of HV showed a significant difference among groups, with difference between controls and both AD and aMCI, although there was no significant difference between AD and aMCI groups. Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between hippocampal volumes and scores on RAVLT, confirming that medial temporal structures are closely associated with memory performance in normal ageing as well as in aMCI and AD.

  8. Domain-Generality of Timing-Based Serial Order Processes in Short-Term Memory: New Insights from Musical and Verbal Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Simon; Kowialiewski, Benjamin; Majerus, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Several models in the verbal domain of short-term memory (STM) consider a dissociation between item and order processing. This view is supported by data demonstrating that different types of time-based interference have a greater effect on memory for the order of to-be-remembered items than on memory for the items themselves. The present study investigated the domain-generality of the item versus serial order dissociation by comparing the differential effects of time-based interfering tasks, such as rhythmic interference and articulatory suppression, on item and order processing in verbal and musical STM domains. In Experiment 1, participants had to maintain sequences of verbal or musical information in STM, followed by a probe sequence, this under different conditions of interference (no-interference, rhythmic interference, articulatory suppression). They were required to decide whether all items of the probe list matched those of the memory list (item condition) or whether the order of the items in the probe sequence matched the order in the memory list (order condition). In Experiment 2, participants performed a serial order probe recognition task for verbal and musical sequences ensuring sequential maintenance processes, under no-interference or rhythmic interference conditions. For Experiment 1, serial order recognition was not significantly more impacted by interfering tasks than was item recognition, this for both verbal and musical domains. For Experiment 2, we observed selective interference of the rhythmic interference condition on both musical and verbal order STM tasks. Overall, the results suggest a similar and selective sensitivity to time-based interference for serial order STM in verbal and musical domains, but only when the STM tasks ensure sequential maintenance processes.

  9. The Swedish Hayling task, and its relation to working memory, verbal ability, and speech-recognition-in-noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbäck, Victoria; Hällgren, Mathias; Lyxell, Björn; Larsby, Birgitta

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive functions and speech-recognition-in-noise were evaluated with a cognitive test battery, assessing response inhibition using the Hayling task, working memory capacity (WMC) and verbal information processing, and an auditory test of speech recognition. The cognitive tests were performed in silence whereas the speech recognition task was presented in noise. Thirty young normally-hearing individuals participated in the study. The aim of the study was to investigate one executive function, response inhibition, and whether it is related to individual working memory capacity (WMC), and how speech-recognition-in-noise relates to WMC and inhibitory control. The results showed a significant difference between initiation and response inhibition, suggesting that the Hayling task taps cognitive activity responsible for executive control. Our findings also suggest that high verbal ability was associated with better performance in the Hayling task. We also present findings suggesting that individuals who perform well on tasks involving response inhibition, and WMC, also perform well on a speech-in-noise task. Our findings indicate that capacity to resist semantic interference can be used to predict performance on speech-in-noise tasks. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. GLOBAL EXPONENTIAL STABILITY IN HOPFIELD AND BIDIRECTIONAL ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY NEURAL NETWORKS WITH TIME DELAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG LIBIN; LU WENLIAN; CHEN TIANPING

    2004-01-01

    Without assuming the boundedness, strict monotonicity and differentiability of the activation functions, the authors utilize the Lyapunov functional method to analyze the global convergence of some delayed models. For the Hopfield neural network with time delays, a new sufficient condition ensuring the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point is derived. This criterion concerning the signs of entries in the connection matrix imposes constraints on the feedback matrix independently of the delay parameters. From a new viewpoint, the bidirectional associative memory neural network with time delays is investigated and a new global exponential stability result is given.

  11. Parietal lobe critically supports successful paired immediate and single-item delayed memory for targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Sabine; Kivisaari, Sasa L; Monsch, Andreas U; Reinhardt, Julia; Ulmer, Stephan; Stippich, Christoph; Kressig, Reto W; Taylor, Kirsten I

    2017-05-01

    The parietal lobe is important for successful recognition memory, but its role is not yet fully understood. We investigated the parietal lobes' contribution to immediate paired-associate memory and delayed item-recognition memory separately for hits (targets) and correct rejections (distractors). We compared the behavioral performance of 56 patients with known parietal and medial temporal lobe dysfunction (i.e. early Alzheimer's Disease) to 56 healthy control participants in an immediate paired and delayed single item object memory task. Additionally, we performed voxel-based morphometry analyses to investigate the functional-neuroanatomic relationships between performance and voxel-based estimates of atrophy in whole-brain analyses. Behaviorally, all participants performed better identifying targets than rejecting distractors. The voxel-based morphometry analyses associated atrophy in the right ventral parietal cortex with fewer correct responses to familiar items (i.e. hits) in the immediate and delayed conditions. Additionally, medial temporal lobe integrity correlated with better performance in rejecting distractors, but not in identifying targets, in the immediate paired-associate task. Our findings suggest that the parietal lobe critically supports successful immediate and delayed target recognition memory, and that the ventral aspect of the parietal cortex and the medial temporal lobe may have complementary preferences for identifying targets and rejecting distractors, respectively, during recognition memory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. A combination of physical activity and computerized brain training improves verbal memory and increases cerebral glucose metabolism in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, T; Verdile, G; Sohrabi, H; Campbell, A; Putland, E; Cheetham, C; Dhaliwal, S; Weinborn, M; Maruff, P; Darby, D; Martins, R N

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise interventions and cognitive training programs have individually been reported to improve cognition in the healthy elderly population; however, the clinical significance of using a combined approach is currently lacking. This study evaluated whether physical activity (PA), computerized cognitive training and/or a combination of both could improve cognition. In this nonrandomized study, 224 healthy community-dwelling older adults (60–85 years) were assigned to 16 weeks home-based PA (n=64), computerized cognitive stimulation (n=62), a combination of both (combined, n=51) or a control group (n=47). Cognition was assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test and the CogState computerized battery at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks post intervention. Physical fitness assessments were performed at all time points. A subset (total n=45) of participants underwent [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans at 16 weeks (post-intervention). One hundred and ninety-one participants completed the study and the data of 172 participants were included in the final analysis. Compared with the control group, the combined group showed improved verbal episodic memory and significantly higher brain glucose metabolism in the left sensorimotor cortex after controlling for age, sex, premorbid IQ, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status and history of head injury. The higher cerebral glucose metabolism in this brain region was positively associated with improved verbal memory seen in the combined group only. Our study provides evidence that a specific combination of physical and mental exercises for 16 weeks can improve cognition and increase cerebral glucose metabolism in cognitively intact healthy older adults. PMID:25463973

  13. Odor Memory and Discrimination Covary as a Function of Delay between Encoding and Recall in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Chelsea; Choi, Christina; O'Brien, Brenna; Shin, Philip; Linster, Christiane

    2015-06-01

    Nonassociative odor learning paradigms are often used to assess memory, social recognition and neuromodulation of olfactory pathways. We here use a modified object recognition paradigm to investigate how an important task parameter, delay between encoding and recall trials, affects the properties of this memory. We show that both memory for a previously investigated odorant and discrimination of a novel odorant decay with delay time and that rats can remember an odorant for up to 45min after a single trial encoding event. The number of odorants that can be encoded, as well as the specificity of the encoded memory, decrease with increased delay and also depend on stimulus concentration. Memory for an odorant and discrimination of a novel odorant decay at approximately the same rate, whereas the specificity of the formed memory decays faster than the memory itself. These results have important implications for the interpretation of behavioral data obtained with this paradigm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Isolated left posterior insular infarction and convergent roles in verbal fluency, language, memory, and executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julayanont, Parunyou; Ruthirago, Doungporn; DeToledo, John C

    2016-07-01

    The posterior insular cortex-a complex structure interconnecting various brain regions for different functions-is a rare location for ischemic stroke. We report a patient with isolated left posterior insular infarction who presented with multiple cognitive impairment, including impairment in semantic and phonemic verbal fluency.

  15. Avaliação da memória de trabalho verbal e visuoespacial no comprometimento cognitivo leve e na doença de Alzheimer [Assessment of verbal and visuospatial working memory in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Overbeek, A.; Bouman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to episodic memory impairment, working memory may also be compromised in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's dementia (AD), but standard verbal and visuospatial span tasks do not always detect impairments.Objective:To examine whether more complex verbal and visuospatial workin

  16. Memory Abilities in Williams Syndrome: Dissociation or Developmental Delay Hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Adriana; Sousa, Nuno; Fernandez, Montse; Henriques, Margarida; Goncalves, Oscar F.

    2008-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder often described as being characterized by a dissociative cognitive architecture, in which profound impairments of visuo-spatial cognition contrast with relative preservation of linguistic, face recognition and auditory short-memory abilities. This asymmetric and dissociative cognition…

  17. Fine motor movements while drawing during the encoding phase of a serial verbal recall task reduce working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindle, Richard; Longstaff, Mitchell G

    2016-02-01

    The time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model of working memory indicates that secondary tasks that capture attention for relatively long periods can result in the interference of working memory processing and maintenance. The current study investigates if discrete and continuous movements have differing effects on a concurrent, verbal serial recall task. In the listening condition, participants were asked to recall spoken words presented in lists of six. In the drawing conditions, participants performed the same task while producing discrete (star) or continuous (circle) movements. As hypothesised, participants recalled more words overall in the listening condition compared to the combined drawing conditions. The prediction that the continuous movement condition would reduce recall compared to listening was also supported. Fine-grained analysis at each serial position revealed significantly more words were recalled at mid serial positions in the listening condition, with worst recall for the continuous condition at position 5 compared to the listening and discrete conditions. Kinematic analysis showed that participants increased the size and speed of the continuous movements resulting in a similar duration and number of strokes for each condition. The duration of brief pauses in the discrete condition was associated with the number of words recalled. The results indicate that fine motor movements reduced working memory performance; however, it was not merely performing a movement but the type of the movement that determined how resources were diverted. In the context of the TBRS, continuous movements could be capturing attention for longer periods relative to discrete movements, reducing verbal serial recall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Working Memory and vocabulary: An interaction model between Baddeley’s memory systems and the verbal crystallized system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Injoque-Ricle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La Memoria de Trabajo es un sistema de almacenamiento temporal y procesamiento simultáneo de información. De acuerdo al modelo original de Baddeley está formado por tres componentes: el Ejecutivo Central, encargado del procesamiento de información, y la Agenda Viso-Espacial y el Bucle Fonológico, responsables del almacenamiento por breves períodos de tiempo. El objetivo de este trabajo es poner a prueba distintos modelos sobre la relación de los componentes de la Memoria de Trabajo con el sistema de información verbal cristalizada. Participaron 180 niños de 6, 8 y 11 años, a quienes se les administró la Batería Automatizada de Memoria de Trabajo (AWMA junto con Vocabulario del WISC-III. Se realizó un análisis de senderos para evaluar el ajuste de los modelos a los datos. Los resultados indicaron que el Ejecutivo Central tiene una doble relación con el sistema de información verbal, tanto directa como mediada por el Bucle Fonológico. Esto indica que la recuperación de la información verbal no está a cargo exclusivamente de uno de los componentes de la Memoria de Trabajo.

  19. Dynamic Delayed Duplicate Detection for External Memory Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evangelista, Sami

    2008-01-01

    Duplicate detection is an expensive operation of disk-based model checkers. It consists of comparing some potentially new states, the candidate states, to previous visited states. We propose a new approach to this technique called dynamic delayed duplicate detection. This one exploits some typical...

  20. Utility of Green's Word Memory Test Free Recall Subtest as a Measure of Verbal Memory: Initial Evidence from a Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soble, Jason R; Osborn, Katie E; Mattingly, Michelle L; Vale, Fernando L; Benbadis, Selim R; Rodgers-Neame, Nancy T; Schoenberg, Mike R

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the Word Memory Test (WMT) Free Recall (FR) subtest as a conventional memory measure. Nineteen participants with pharmacoresistant left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) and 16 with right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE) completed the WMT, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition Logical Memory (LM) subtest during presurgical evaluation. LTLE participants performed significantly worse on FR subtest (p < .05, [Formula: see text]) and RAVLT Trial 7 (p < .01, [Formula: see text]), but not on LM subtest. Age was a significant covariate for FR (p < .01, [Formula: see text]). Logistic regression revealed FR plus age and RAVLT age-adjusted T-scores both yielded 77.1% classification accuracy and respective diagnostic odds ratios of 11.36 and 11.84. Receiver operating characteristic curves to classify seizure laterality found that RAVLT and FR were significant (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.82 and 0.74), whereas LM was nonsignificant (AUC = 0.67). Cut scores and positive/negative predictive values were established for improved clinical classification. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Listen up, eye movements play a role in verbal memory retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholz, Agnes; Mehlhorn, Katja; Krems, Josef F

    2014-01-01

    People fixate on blank spaces if visual stimuli previously occupied these regions of space. This so-called ‘‘looking at nothing’’ (LAN) phenomenon is said to be a part of information retrieval from internal memory repre- sentations, but the exact nature of the relationship between LAN and memory ret

  2. Does Bilingualism Help Memory? Competing Effects of Verbal Ability and Executive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodniecka, Zofia; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Luo, Lin; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Two studies are reported that explore the effect of bilingualism on memory performance. Following previous reports of a bilingual advantage in executive control that sometimes shows a greater advantage in older adults, we compared younger and older monolinguals and bilinguals on a memory paradigm that yielded separate measures of familiarity and…

  3. Brain serotonin 4 receptor binding is inversely associated with verbal memory recall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea S; Fisher, Patrick M; Ozenne, Brice

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously identified an inverse relationship between cerebral serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT 4R) binding and nonaffective episodic memory in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate in a novel sample if the association is related to affective components of memory, by examining t...

  4. Models of Verbal Working Memory Capacity: What Does It Take to Make Them Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Blume, Christopher L.; Saults, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Theories of working memory (WM) capacity limits will be more useful when we know what aspects of performance are governed by the limits and what aspects are governed by other memory mechanisms. Whereas considerable progress has been made on models of WM capacity limits for visual arrays of separate objects, less progress has been made in…

  5. Implicit Memory Influences on Metamemory during Verbal Learning after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Pradeep; Kennedy, Mary R. T.; Marsolek, Chad J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Prior research has shown that individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be overconfident in their judgments of learning (JOLs; online measures of self-monitoring of learning and memory). JOLs had been presumed to be driven by explicit processes, but recent research has also revealed implicit memory involvement. Given that implicit…

  6. Verbal Working Memory Performance Correlates with Regional White Matter Structures in the Frontoparietal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    Working memory is the limited capacity storage system involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information over short periods of time. Previous imaging studies have suggested that the frontoparietal regions are activated during working memory tasks; a putative association between the structure of the frontoparietal regions and working…

  7. Contributions of Volumetrics of the Hippocampus and Thalamus to Verbal Memory in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christopher C.; Griffith, H. Randall; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Martin, Roy C.; Knowlton, Robert K.; Richardson, Elizabeth J.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Seidenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Recent theories have posited that the hippocampus and thalamus serve distinct, yet related, roles in episodic memory. Whereas the hippocampus has been implicated in long-term memory encoding and storage, the thalamus, as a whole, has been implicated in the selection of items for subsequent encoding and the use of retrieval strategies. However,…

  8. Heat Transfer Equation With Delay for Media With Thermal Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Oleksandrovych Vasylenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new model for heat transfer in this paper is proposed. It combines idea of medium with memory and phase-lag model. Equation for a temperature field based on new heat transfer model was obtained and investigated with wave-like solutions. New model was compared with common models for non-stationary heat transfer by its wave-like solutions amplitude attenuation, wave length and phase velocity. It was shown that model with memory is equivalent to a hyperbolic model of heat transfer. While new combined model is equivalent with a phase-lag model for a low frequencies but differs for a high frequencies. Both this models predict possibility of undamped thermal waves, but phase-lag model predict a numerous quantity of undumped thermal waves, while combined model predict undumped wave for a one frequency.

  9. Auditory Verbal Memory Test in Chinese Elderly%听觉词语记忆测验在中国老人中的试用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭起浩; 吕传真; 洪震

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To develop Auditory Verbal Memory Test (AVMT) suitable for Chinese elderly. Method:100 normal elderly and 22 patients with mild to moderate Alz heimer' s disease were evaluated by AVMT, mini mental state examination. 40 person randomly selected from the 100 sample were assessed in follow up by AVMT, Wechsler Memory Scale ( Chinese Revised Version), information and similaritias subtests of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Chinese Revised Version (WAIS- RC) . Results: The correlation between inter- raters was 0.99, test- retest reliability at 3 months interval were 0.87~0.94. Education was a prominent influence factor of memory and recognition of AVMT. There were significant correlation between third recall, short delayed recall and total scores of VMS- RC, between long delayed recall and verbal sceres of WAIS - RC. Semantic clustering strategy showed gradual strongly correlation with measures of recall ability in higher education group. Performance of Alzheimer group was poorer than that of matched normal control. Scores of long delayed re call differed most obviously in group comparison. Conclusion: AVMT had good reliability and validity%目的:编制适用于中国老人记忆评定的中文版听觉词语记忆测验(AVMT)。方法:l00例正常老人和22例轻-中度Alzheimer病(AD)患者完成AVMT和简明精神状态量表,从正常老人样本中随机选择40例完成AVMT复测和韦氏记忆测验(wMS-RC)、韦氏智力测验中文修订版的知识和相似性2个分测验。结果:(1)AVMT一致性为0.99;3个月后复测相关性为0.87~0.94;AVMT历次记忆的相关性为0.66~0.94;(2)AVMT记忆和再认的相关因素为教育程度;(3)第3次回忆和"短延迟回忆"与WMS-RC总分的相关性比其余4次回忆的强;而"长延迟回忆"和语言智力分测验得分的相关性比其余5次回忆的强;(4)AD组记忆和再认得分显著低于正常对照组,尤以延迟回忆及其语义串联得分差异最大

  10. The ecology of self-monitoring effects on memory of verbal productions: Does speaking to someone make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Alexis; Boucher, Victor J

    2015-11-01

    Experiments involving verbal self-monitoring show that memory for spoken words varies with types of sensory feedback: memory is better when words are spoken aloud than when they are lip-synched or covertly produced. Such effects can be explained by the Central Monitoring Theory (CMT) via a process that matches a forward model reflecting expected sensory effects of practiced forms and sensory information during speech. But CMT oversees factors of shared attention as achieved by speaker-listener gaze, and implies that sensory feedback may not affect the learning of unpracticed forms (non-words). These aspects of CMT were examined in two experiments of self-monitoring focusing on oro-sensory feedback. In Experiment 1 we show that varying feedback creates differential effects on memory for spoken words and that speaker-listener gaze alters these effects. Using non-words, Experiment 2 shows the absence of differential feedback effects. The results confirm CMT but suggest the need to refine the theory in terms of processes that mediate attention.

  11. The neurodevelopmental differences of increasing verbal working memory demand in children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Vogan

    2016-02-01

    We used fMRI and a 1-back verbal WM task with six levels of difficulty to examine the neurodevelopmental changes in WM function in 40 participants, twenty-four children (ages 9–15 yr and sixteen young adults (ages 20–25 yr. Children and adults both demonstrated an opposing system of cognitive processes with increasing cognitive demand, where areas related to WM (frontal and parietal regions increased in activity, and areas associated with the default mode network decreased in activity. Although there were many similarities in the neural activation patterns associated with increasing verbal WM capacity in children and adults, significant changes in the fMRI responses were seen with age. Adults showed greater load-dependent changes than children in WM in the bilateral superior parietal gyri, inferior frontal and left middle frontal gyri and right cerebellum. Compared to children, adults also showed greater decreasing activation across WM load in the bilateral anterior cingulate, anterior medial prefrontal gyrus, right superior lateral temporal gyrus and left posterior cingulate. These results demonstrate that while children and adults activate similar neural networks in response to verbal WM tasks, the extent to which they rely on these areas in response to increasing cognitive load evolves between childhood and adulthood.

  12. Absence of verbal recall or memory for symptom acquisition in fear and trauma exposure: a conceptual case for fear conditioning and learned nonuse in assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, A Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Absence of memory or verbal recall for symptom acquisition in fear and trauma exposure, as well as absence of successful coping behavior for life events, is associated with a number of diagnoses, including traumatic brain injury, posttraumatic stress disorder, pain, and anxiety. The difficulty with diagnosis and treatment planning based on the absence of recall, memory, and successful coping behavior is threefold: (1) these assessments do not distinguish between disruption of behavior and lack of capacity, (2) the absence of verbal recall and memory complicates cognitive-based treatment, and (3) a confounding issue is the same absent behavior can be observed at different times and contexts. While memory of the specific details of the initial traumatic event(s) may not be available to verbal report, the existence of time- and context-dependent relationships for the initial as well as subsequent experiences is arguable. The absence of memory or lack of verbal recall does not rule out measurable physiological bodily responses for the initial trauma(s), nor does it help to establish the effects of subsequent experiences for symptom expression. Also, the absence of memory must include the prospect of fear-based learning that does not require or involve the cortex. It is posited that the literatures of fear conditioning and learned nonuse provide complementary illustrations of how the time and context of the initial trauma(s) and subsequent experiences affect behavior, which is not dependent on the effected individual being able to provide a memory-based verbal report. The replicated clinical application demonstrates that, without scientific demonstration, neither neuroanatomy nor verbal report can be assumed sufficient to predict overt behavior or physiologic responses. For example, while commonly assumed to be predictively so, autonomic nervous system innervation is insufficient to define the unique stimulus- and context-dependent physiological responses of an

  13. Synchronization and associative memory of FitzHugh-Nagumo neuronal networks with randomly distributed time delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, J H; Wu, Y J [School of Information Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yu, H J [Department of Mechanics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: jhpeng@ecust.edu.cn

    2008-02-15

    Synchronization and associative memory in a neural network composed of the widely discussed FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons is investigated in this paper. Based on the reality of the microscopic biological structure in the neural system, the couplings among those neurons are accompanied with randomly distributed time delays which models the times needed for pulses propagating on the axons from the presynaptic neurons to the postsynaptic neurons. The memory is represented in the spatiotemporal firing pattern of the neurons, and the memory retrieval is accomplished with the fluctuations of the noise in the system.

  14. Intrinsic default mode network connectivity predicts spontaneous verbal descriptions of autobiographical memories during social processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fei eYang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural systems activated in a coordinated way during rest, known as the default mode network (DMN, also support autobiographical memory (AM retrieval and social processing/mentalizing. However, little is known about how individual variability in reliance on personal memories during social processing relates to individual differences in DMN functioning during rest (intrinsic functional connectivity. Here we examined 18 participants’ spontaneous descriptions of autobiographical memories during a two-hour, private, open-ended interview in which they reacted to a series of true stories about real people’s social situations and responded to the prompt, how does this person’s story make you feel? We classified these descriptions as either containing factual information (semantic AMs or more elaborate descriptions of emotionally meaningful events (episodic AMs. We also collected resting state fMRI scans from the participants and related individual differences in frequency of described AMs to participants’ intrinsic functional connectivity within regions of the DMN. We found that producing more descriptions of either memory type correlated with stronger intrinsic connectivity in the parahippocampal and middle temporal gyri. Additionally, episodic AM descriptions correlated with connectivity in the bilateral hippocampi and medial prefrontal cortex, and semantic memory descriptions correlated with connectivity in right inferior lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in individuals who naturally invoke more memories during social processing, brain regions involved in memory retrieval and self/social processing are more strongly coupled to the DMN during rest.

  15. Divided attention improves delayed, but not immediate retrieval of a consolidated memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Kessler

    Full Text Available A well-documented dissociation between memory encoding and retrieval concerns the role of attention in the two processes. The typical finding is that divided attention (DA during encoding impairs future memory, but retrieval is relatively robust to attentional manipulations. However, memory research in the past 20 years had demonstrated that retrieval is a memory-changing process, in which the strength and availability of information are modified by various characteristics of the retrieval process. Based on this logic, several studies examined the effects of DA during retrieval (Test 1 on a future memory test (Test 2. These studies yielded inconsistent results. The present study examined the role of memory consolidation in accounting for the after-effect of DA during retrieval. Initial learning required a classification of visual stimuli, and hence involved incidental learning. Test 1 was administered 24 hours after initial learning, and therefore required retrieval of consolidated information. Test 2 was administered either immediately following Test 1 or after a 24-hour delay. Our results show that the effect of DA on Test 2 depended on this delay. DA during Test 1 did not affect performance on Test 2 when it was administered immediately, but improved performance when Test 2 was given 24-hours later. The results are consistent with other findings showing long-term benefits of retrieval difficulty. Implications for theories of reconsolidation in human episodic memory are discussed.

  16. Divided attention improves delayed, but not immediate retrieval of a consolidated memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Yoav; Vandermorris, Susan; Gopie, Nigel; Daros, Alexander; Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris

    2014-01-01

    A well-documented dissociation between memory encoding and retrieval concerns the role of attention in the two processes. The typical finding is that divided attention (DA) during encoding impairs future memory, but retrieval is relatively robust to attentional manipulations. However, memory research in the past 20 years had demonstrated that retrieval is a memory-changing process, in which the strength and availability of information are modified by various characteristics of the retrieval process. Based on this logic, several studies examined the effects of DA during retrieval (Test 1) on a future memory test (Test 2). These studies yielded inconsistent results. The present study examined the role of memory consolidation in accounting for the after-effect of DA during retrieval. Initial learning required a classification of visual stimuli, and hence involved incidental learning. Test 1 was administered 24 hours after initial learning, and therefore required retrieval of consolidated information. Test 2 was administered either immediately following Test 1 or after a 24-hour delay. Our results show that the effect of DA on Test 2 depended on this delay. DA during Test 1 did not affect performance on Test 2 when it was administered immediately, but improved performance when Test 2 was given 24-hours later. The results are consistent with other findings showing long-term benefits of retrieval difficulty. Implications for theories of reconsolidation in human episodic memory are discussed.

  17. Global Exponential Stability Criteria for Bidirectional Associative Memory Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Thipcha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global exponential stability for bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time-varying delays is studied. In our study, the lower and upper bounds of the activation functions are allowed to be either positive, negative, or zero. By constructing new and improved Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and introducing free-weighting matrices, a new and improved delay-dependent exponential stability for BAM neural networks with time-varying delays is derived in the form of linear matrix inequality (LMI. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate that the derived condition is less conservative than some existing results given in the literature.

  18. Vividness of visual imagery and incidental recall of verbal cues, when phenomenological availability reflects long-term memory accessibility

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    Amedeo eD'Angiulli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between vivid visual mental images and unexpected recall (incidental recall was replicated, refined and extended. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate mental images from imagery-evoking verbal-cues (controlled on several verbal properties and then, on a trial-by-trial basis, rate the vividness of their images; thirty minutes later, participants were surprised with a task requiring free recall of the cues. Higher vividness ratings predicted better incidental recall of the cues than individual differences (whose effect was modest. Distributional analysis of image latencies through ex-Gaussian modeling showed an inverse relation between vividness and latency. However, recall was unrelated to image latency. The follow-up Experiment 2 showed that the processes underlying trial-by-trial vividness ratings are unrelated to the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ, as further supported by a meta-analysis of a randomly selected sample of relevant literature. The present findings suggest that vividness may act as an index of availability of long-term sensory traces, playing a non-epiphenomenal role in facilitating the access of those memories.

  19. Right frontal lobe mediation of recollection- and familiarity-based verbal recognition memory: evidence from patients with tumor resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Davidson, Patrick S R; Mason, Warren P; Gao, Fuqiang; Binns, Malcolm A; Winocur, Gordon

    2011-12-01

    Medial-temporal, parietal, and pFC regions have been implicated in recollection and familiarity, but existing evidence from neuroimaging and patient studies is limited and conflicting regarding the role of specific regions within pFC in these memory processes. We report a study of 20 patients who had undergone resection of right frontal lobe tumors and 20 matched healthy control participants. The location and extent of lesions were traced on the patients' scans. A process dissociation procedure was employed to yield estimates of the contributions of recollection and familiarity in verbal recognition performance. Group comparisons revealed deficits in recollection but not familiarity in the patient group relative to their healthy counterparts. We found a positive relationship between estimates of familiarity and lesion sizes in the right inferior pFC (BA 11, 47) which was significant upon bootstrap resampling. These results are discussed in terms of prior work linking this area to an overextended sense of familiarity.

  20. Increased prospective memory interference in normal and pathological aging: different roles of motor and verbal processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J L; Cheung, R T F; Chan, Y S; Chu, L W; Lee, T M C

    2013-01-01

    This is a study on prospective memory (PM) and the PM interference effect in normal and pathological aging. One hundred and seven subjects, including 41 healthy young adults, 40 non-demented older adults and 26 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) participated in this study using a laboratory event-based PM task. PM task performance was comparable between the non-demented older and young adults, but impaired in the AD patients. The PM interference effect increased progressively from the healthy young adults, the non-demented older adults, to the AD patients. Path analysis revealed that the possible mechanism mediating the increased PM interference was the slow motor processing speed in normal aging, while it was the slow verbal speed in pathological aging. It is suggested that different neuropsychological mechanisms may underpin the affected performance of PM task in normal and pathological aging.

  1. The Relationships among Verbal Short-Term Memory, Phonological Awareness, and New Word Learning: Evidence from Typical Development and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…

  2. Comparison between Phonological Priming and Semantic Priming in the Short Verbal Memory Span in Male 18-25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Sobhani Rad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The short-term memory (STM has been studied to a great extent so far. Using some strategies and techniques to help the subject to access to his/her memory is important for Speech pathologist. Priming is a process that increases the chance of accessing to some information of memory by means of some simulations. So, primings are some words which facilitate the retrieval of the target words. The purpose of this study is comparing phonological and semantic priming on the short verbal memory span.Materials and Methods: The research was conducted on sixty-four 18-25 year-old male students in Tehran University of Medical sciences. Due to some distortion factors, including bilingualism, stutter-ing, and articulation problem, that can effect the reaction time, were determined as exclusion critenia. In additiion, subjects with difficulty in Wepman auditory discrimination were ruled out. The test was performed via the second version of programmed DMDX software and reaction time was recorded.Results: Semantic tasks and rhyming tasks were retrieved faster than the other tasks in lexical access respectively. There was a significant difference between the semantic and rime tasks but there is no significant difference between alliteration and unrelated tasks.Conclusion: The result of this research indicates that the semantic level is activated faster than the other levels and the phonological level is activated right after that. The alliteration level is the last level that activated. It has some similarities with some other investigations on the reaction time in phono-logical tasks.

  3. The Auditory Verbal Learning Test (Rey AVLT): An Arabic Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharoni, Varda; Natur, Nazeh

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to adapt the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) into Arabic, to compare recall functioning among age groups (6:0 to 17:11), and to compare gender differences on various memory dimensions (immediate and delayed recall, learning rate, recognition, proactive interferences, and retroactive interferences). This…

  4. Independent and Combined Effects of Socioeconomic Status (SES and Bilingualism on Children’s Vocabulary and Verbal Short-Term Memory

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    Natalia Meir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the influence of socioeconomic status (SES and bilingualism on the linguistic skills and verbal short-term memory of preschool children. In previous studies comparing children of low and mid-high SES, the terms “a child with low-SES” and “a child speaking a minority language” are often interchangeable, not enabling differentiated evaluation of these two variables. The present study controls for this confluence by testing children born and residing in the same country and attending the same kindergartens, with all bilingual children speaking the same heritage language (HL-Russian. A total of 120 children (88 bilingual children: 44 with low SES; and 32 monolingual children: 16 with low SES with typical language development, aged 5; 7–6; 7, were tested in the societal language (SL-Hebrew on expressive vocabulary and three repetition tasks [forward digit span (FWD, nonword repetition (NWR, and sentence repetition (SRep], which tap into verbal short-term memory. The results indicated that SES and bilingualism impact different child abilities. Bilingualism is associated with decreased vocabulary size and lower performance on verbal short-term memory tasks with higher linguistic load in the SL-Hebrew. The negative effect of bilingualism on verbal short-term memory disappears once vocabulary is accounted for. SES influences not only linguistic performance, but also verbal short-term memory with lowest linguistic load. The negative effect of SES cannot be solely attributed to lower vocabulary scores, suggesting that an unprivileged background has a negative impact on children’s cognitive development beyond a linguistic disadvantage. The results have important clinical implications and call for more research exploring the varied impact of language and life experience on children’s linguistic and cognitive skills.

  5. Subliminally and Supraliminally Acquired Long-Term Memories Jointly Bias Delayed Decisions

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    Simon Ruch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Common wisdom and scientific evidence suggest that good decisions require conscious deliberation. But growing evidence demonstrates that not only conscious but also unconscious thoughts influence decision-making. Here, we hypothesize that both consciously and unconsciously acquired memories guide decisions. Our experiment measured the influence of subliminally and supraliminally presented information on delayed (30–40 min decision-making. Participants were presented with subliminal pairs of faces and written occupations for unconscious encoding. Following a delay of 20 min, participants consciously (re-encoded the same faces now presented supraliminally along with either the same written occupations, occupations congruous to the subliminally presented occupations (same wage-category, or incongruous occupations (opposite wage-category. To measure decision-making, participants viewed the same faces again (with occupations absent and decided on the putative income of each person: low, low-average, high-average, or high. Participants were encouraged to decide spontaneously and intuitively. Hence, the decision task was an implicit or indirect test of relational memory. If conscious thought alone guided decisions (= H0, supraliminal information should determine decision outcomes independently of the encoded subliminal information. This was, however, not the case. Instead, both unconsciously and consciously encoded memories influenced decisions: identical unconscious and conscious memories exerted the strongest bias on income decisions, while both incongruous and congruous (i.e., non-identical subliminally and supraliminally formed memories canceled each other out leaving no bias on decisions. Importantly, the increased decision bias following the formation of identical unconscious and conscious memories and the reduced decision bias following to the formation of non-identical memories were determined relative to a control condition, where conscious

  6. Verbal Fluency and Early Memory Decline: Results from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kimberly Diggle; Koscik, Rebecca L.; LaRue, Asenath; Clark, Lindsay R.; Hermann, Bruce; Johnson, Sterling C.; Sager, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between phonemic and semantic (category) verbal fluency and cognitive status in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention (WRAP), a longitudinal cohort enriched for family history of Alzheimer’s disease. Participants were 283 WRAP subjects (age 53.1[6.5] years at baseline); who had completed three waves of assessment, over ∼6 years and met psychometric criteria either for “cognitively healthy” (CH) or for psychometric amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using an approach that did not consider fluency scores. CH and aMCI groups differed significantly on phonemic total scores, category total scores, phonemic switching, and category mean cluster size. These results suggest that measures of both phonemic and semantic fluency yield lower scores in persons with evidence of psychometric aMCI compared with those who are CH. Differences have not previously been reported in a group this young, and provide evidence for the importance of including multiple verbal fluency tests targeting preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26025231

  7. Memantine effects on verbal memory in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS): a double-blind brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Chen; Niu, Yu-Qiong; Simon, Christa; Seritan, Andreea L; Chen, Lawrence; Schneider, Andrea; Moghaddam, Shayan T; Hagerman, Paul J; Hagerman, Randi J; Olichney, John M

    2014-11-01

    Older FMR1 premutation carriers may develop fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), a neurodegenerative disorder manifesting cognitive deficits that often subsequently progress to dementia. To date, there is no specific treatment available for FXTAS. Studies have demonstrated the premutation-associated overactivation of glutamatergic receptors in neurons. Memantine, a NMDA receptor antagonist approved for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, thus was tested in the first placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial in FXTAS. Prior event-related brain potential (ERP) studies in FXTAS found reduced N400 repetition effect, a glutamate-related electrophysiological marker of semantic priming, and verbal memory processes. This substudy of the randomized clinical trial of memantine in FXTAS sought to use the N400 repetition effect to evaluate effects of chronic memantine treatment on verbal memory. Subsequent recall and recognition memory tests for the experimental stimuli were administered to characterize verbal memory. Data from 41 patients who completed the 1-year memantine trial (21 on memantine) and also completed longitudinal ERP studies were analyzed. Results showed treatment-associated benefits on both cued-recall memory and N400 repetition effect amplitude. Importantly, improvement in cued recall was positively correlated with amplitude increase of the N400 repetition effect. The placebo group, in contrast, displayed a significant reduction of the N400 repetition effect after 1 year. These results suggest that memantine treatment may have beneficial effects on verbal memory in FXTAS. Additional studies of memantine, perhaps in combination with other therapeutic agents, appear warranted, as symptomatic treatments and neuroprotective treatments are both needed for this recently recognized neurodegenerative disorder.

  8. The effect of binaural beats on verbal working memory and cortical connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A.; Leonessa, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Synchronization in activated regions of cortical networks affect the brain’s frequency response, which has been associated with a wide range of states and abilities, including memory. A non-invasive method for manipulating cortical synchronization is binaural beats. Binaural beats take advantage of the brain’s response to two pure tones, delivered independently to each ear, when those tones have a small frequency mismatch. The mismatch between the tones is interpreted as a beat frequency, which may act to synchronize cortical oscillations. Neural synchrony is particularly important for working memory processes, the system controlling online organization and retention of information for successful goal-directed behavior. Therefore, manipulation of synchrony via binaural beats provides a unique window into working memory and associated connectivity of cortical networks. Approach. In this study, we examined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions during an N-back working memory task, and we measured participant response accuracy and cortical network topology via EEG recordings. Six acoustic stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5 Hz binaural beats, 10 Hz binaural beats, and 15 Hz binaural beats. Main results. We determined that listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during an N-Back working memory task increased the individual participant’s accuracy, modulated the cortical frequency response, and changed the cortical network connection strengths during the task. Only the 15 Hz binaural beats produced significant change in relative accuracy compared to the None condition. Significance. Listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during the N-back task activated salient frequency bands and produced networks characterized by higher information transfer as compared to other auditory stimulation conditions.

  9. Sleep deprivation accelerates delay-related loss of visual short-term memories without affecting precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Natalie; Asplund, Christopher L; Chee, Michael W L

    2013-06-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is an important measure of information processing capacity and supports many higher-order cognitive processes. We examined how sleep deprivation (SD) and maintenance duration interact to influence the number and precision of items in VSTM using an experimental design that limits the contribution of lapses at encoding. For each trial, participants attempted to maintain the location and color of three stimuli over a delay. After a retention interval of either 1 or 10 seconds, participants reported the color of the item at the cued location by selecting it on a color wheel. The probability of reporting the probed item, the precision of report, and the probability of reporting a nonprobed item were determined using a mixture-modeling analysis. Participants were studied twice in counterbalanced order, once after a night of normal sleep and once following a night of sleep deprivation. Sleep laboratory. Nineteen healthy college age volunteers (seven females) with regular sleep patterns. Approximately 24 hours of total SD. SD selectively reduced the number of integrated representations that can be retrieved after a delay, while leaving the precision of object information in the stored representations intact. Delay interacted with SD to lower the rate of successful recall. Visual short-term memory is compromised during sleep deprivation, an effect compounded by delay. However, when memories are retrieved, they tend to be intact.

  10. Memory State Feedback RMPC for Multiple Time-Delayed Uncertain Linear Systems with Input Constraints

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    Wei-Wei Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problem of asymptotic stabilization for a class of discrete-time multiple time-delayed uncertain linear systems with input constraints. Then, based on the predictive control principle of receding horizon optimization, a delayed state dependent quadratic function is considered for incorporating MPC problem formulation. By developing a memory state feedback controller, the information of the delayed plant states can be taken into full consideration. The MPC problem is formulated to minimize the upper bound of infinite horizon cost that satisfies the sufficient conditions. Then, based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii function, a delay-dependent sufficient condition in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI can be derived to design a robust MPC algorithm. Finally, the digital simulation results prove availability of the proposed method.

  11. EXPONENTIAL STABILITY AND PERIODIC SOLUTION OF HYBRID BIDIRECTIONAL ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY NEURAL NETWORKS WITH DISCRETE DELAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢惠琴; 王全义

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the existence, uniqueness, and the global exponential stability of the periodic solution and equilibrium of hybrid bidirectional associative memory neural networks with discrete delays. By ingeniously importing real parameters di > 0 (i = 1, 2,..., n) which can be adjusted, making use of the Lyapunov functional method and some analysis techniques, some new sufficient conditions are established. Our results generalize and improve the related results in [9]. These conditions can be used both to design globally exponentially stable and periodical oscillatory hybrid bidirectional associative neural networks with discrete delays, and to enlarge the area of designing neural networks. Our work has important significance in related theory and its application.

  12. Anatomical Modularity of Verbal Working Memory? Functional Anatomical Evidence from a Famous Patient with Short-Term Memory Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulesu, Eraldo; Shallice, Tim; Danelli, Laura; Sberna, Maurizio; Frackowiak, Richard S. J.; Frith, Chris D.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive skills are the emergent property of distributed neural networks. The distributed nature of these networks does not necessarily imply a lack of specialization of the individual brain structures involved. However, it remains questionable whether discrete aspects of high-level behavior might be the result of localized brain activity of individual nodes within such networks. The phonological loop of working memory, with its simplicity, seems ideally suited for testing this possibility. Central to the development of the phonological loop model has been the description of patients with focal lesions and specific deficits. As much as the detailed description of their behavior has served to refine the phonological loop model, a classical anatomoclinical correlation approach with such cases falls short in telling whether the observed behavior is based on the functions of a neural system resembling that seen in normal subjects challenged with phonological loop tasks or whether different systems have taken over. This is a crucial issue for the cross correlation of normal cognition, normal physiology, and cognitive neuropsychology. Here we describe the functional anatomical patterns of JB, a historical patient originally described by Warrington et al. (1971), a patient with a left temporo-parietal lesion and selective short phonological store deficit. JB was studied with the H215O PET activation technique during a rhyming task, which primarily depends on the rehearsal system of the phonological loop. No residual function was observed in the left temporo-parietal junction, a region previously associated with the phonological buffer of working memory. However, Broca's area, the major counterpart of the rehearsal system, was the major site of activation during the rhyming task. Specific and autonomous activation of Broca's area in the absence of afferent inputs from the other major anatomical component of the phonological loop shows that a certain degree of functional

  13. Anatomical Modularity of Verbal Working Memory? Functional Anatomical Evidence from a Famous Patient with Short-Term Memory Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulesu, Eraldo; Shallice, Tim; Danelli, Laura; Sberna, Maurizio; Frackowiak, Richard S J; Frith, Chris D

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive skills are the emergent property of distributed neural networks. The distributed nature of these networks does not necessarily imply a lack of specialization of the individual brain structures involved. However, it remains questionable whether discrete aspects of high-level behavior might be the result of localized brain activity of individual nodes within such networks. The phonological loop of working memory, with its simplicity, seems ideally suited for testing this possibility. Central to the development of the phonological loop model has been the description of patients with focal lesions and specific deficits. As much as the detailed description of their behavior has served to refine the phonological loop model, a classical anatomoclinical correlation approach with such cases falls short in telling whether the observed behavior is based on the functions of a neural system resembling that seen in normal subjects challenged with phonological loop tasks or whether different systems have taken over. This is a crucial issue for the cross correlation of normal cognition, normal physiology, and cognitive neuropsychology. Here we describe the functional anatomical patterns of JB, a historical patient originally described by Warrington et al. (1971), a patient with a left temporo-parietal lesion and selective short phonological store deficit. JB was studied with the H2(15)O PET activation technique during a rhyming task, which primarily depends on the rehearsal system of the phonological loop. No residual function was observed in the left temporo-parietal junction, a region previously associated with the phonological buffer of working memory. However, Broca's area, the major counterpart of the rehearsal system, was the major site of activation during the rhyming task. Specific and autonomous activation of Broca's area in the absence of afferent inputs from the other major anatomical component of the phonological loop shows that a certain degree of functional

  14. Working Memory Impairment in People with Williams Syndrome: Effects of Delay, Task and Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Courtney, Susan; Street, Whitney; Landau, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with impaired visuospatial representations subserved by the dorsal stream and relatively strong object recognition abilities subserved by the ventral stream. There is conflicting evidence on whether this uneven pattern extends to working memory (WM) in WS. The present studies provide a new perspective, testing WM for a single stimulus using a delayed recognition paradigm in individuals with WS and typically developing children...

  15. Global stability of bidirectional associative memory neural networks with continuously distributed delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 马润年; 许进

    2003-01-01

    Global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point of bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with continuously distributed delays is studied. Under two mild assumptions on the acti-vation functions, two sufficient conditions ensuring global stability of such networks are derived by utiliz-ing Lyapunov functional and some inequality analysis technique. The results here extend some previous results. A numerical example is given showing the validity of our method.

  16. Spatial memory: behavioral determinants of persistence in the watermaze delayed matching-to-place task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Bruno M; Bast, Tobias; Morris, Richard G M

    2013-12-17

    The watermaze delayed matching-to-place (DMP) task was modified to include probe trials, to quantify search preference for the correct place. Using a zone analysis of search preference, a gradual decay of one-trial memory in rats was observed over 24 h with weak memory consistently detected at a retention interval of 6 h, but unreliably at 24 h. This forgetting function in the watermaze was similar to that found using a search-preference measure in a food-reinforced dry-land DMP task in a previous study. In a search for strong and weak encoding conditions, essential for a later behavioral tagging study, three encoding trials gave strong 6-h and 24-h memory when trials were separated by 10 min (spaced training) but not 15 sec (massed training). The use of six encoding trials gave good 6-h memory with both spaced and massed training. With respect to weak encoding, placement on the escape platform, instead of the rat swimming to it, resulted in detectable memory at 30 min but this had faded to chance within 24 h. In contrast to the search-preference measure, latencies to cross the correct place revealed neither the gradual forgetting of place memory nor the benefit of spaced training.

  17. Short-term total sleep deprivation alters delay-conditioned memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Shweta; Jha, Sushil K

    2016-06-01

    Short-term sleep deprivation soon after training may impair memory consolidation. Also, a particular sleep stage or its components increase after learning some tasks, such as negative and positive reinforcement tasks, avoidance tasks, and spatial learning tasks, and so forth. It suggests that discrete memory types may require specific sleep stage or its components for their optimal processing. The classical conditioning paradigms are widely used to study learning and memory but the role of sleep in a complex conditioned learning is unclear. Here, we have investigated the effects of short-term sleep deprivation on the consolidation of delay-conditioned memory and the changes in sleep architecture after conditioning. Rats were trained for the delay-conditioned task (for conditioning, house-light [conditioned stimulus] was paired with fruit juice [unconditioned stimulus]). Animals were divided into 3 groups: (a) sleep deprived (SD); (b) nonsleep deprived (NSD); and (c) stress control (SC) groups. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between groups and days (training and testing) during the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus presentation. Further, Tukey post hoc comparison revealed that the NSD and SC animals exhibited significant increase in performances during testing. The SD animals, however, performed significantly less during testing. Further, we observed that wakefulness and NREM sleep did not change after training and testing. Interestingly, REM sleep increased significantly on both days compared to baseline more specifically during the initial 4-hr time window after conditioning. Our results suggest that the consolidation of delay-conditioned memory is sleep-dependent and requires augmented REM sleep during an explicit time window soon after training. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Delayed onset of a daytime nap facilitates retention of declarative memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E Alger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Learning followed by a period of sleep, even as little as a nap, promotes memory consolidation. It is now generally recognized that sleep facilitates the stabilization of information acquired prior to sleep. However, the temporal nature of the effect of sleep on retention of declarative memory is yet to be understood. We examined the impact of a delayed nap onset on the recognition of neutral pictorial stimuli with an added spatial component. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants completed an initial study session involving 150 neutral pictures of people, places, and objects. Immediately following the picture presentation, participants were asked to make recognition judgments on a subset of "old", previously seen, pictures versus intermixed "new" pictures. Participants were then divided into one of four groups who either took a 90-minute nap immediately, 2 hours, or 4 hours after learning, or remained awake for the duration of the experiment. 6 hours after initial learning, participants were again tested on the remaining "old" pictures, with "new" pictures intermixed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Interestingly, we found a stabilizing benefit of sleep on the memory trace reflected as a significant negative correlation between the average time elapsed before napping and decline in performance from test to retest (p = .001. We found a significant interaction between the groups and their performance from test to retest (p = .010, with the 4-hour delay group performing significantly better than both those who slept immediately and those who remained awake (p = .044, p = .010, respectively. Analysis of sleep data revealed a significant positive correlation between amount of slow wave sleep (SWS achieved and length of the delay before sleep onset (p = .048. The findings add to the understanding of memory processing in humans, suggesting that factors such as waking processing and homeostatic increases in need for sleep over time modulate

  19. WMS-III Logical Memory performance after a two-week delay in temporal lobe epilepsy and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brian D

    2006-11-01

    Conventional memory assessment may fail to identify memory dysfunction that is characterized by intact recall for a relatively brief period but rapid forgetting thereafter. This study assessed immediate memory and retention after 30-minute and two-week delays in a control group (n = 25) and a group of individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, n = 25). For raw free recall, thematic unit, and recognition memory scores from the Wechsler Memory Scale-3rd ed. (WMS-III) Logical Memory (LM) subtest, there were no group x trial interactions and the TLE group performed significantly worse than the controls on all trials. At the individual level, none of the patients (0%) demonstrated isolated free recall impairment at the two-week delay when raw scores were analyzed, and one patient (4%) but also five controls (20%) did so when percent retention scores were examined. In summary, TLE patients did not demonstrate disproportionate forgetting over two weeks on a widely used story memory test.

  20. Memory and assimilation to context in delayed matching-to-sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACHIM ELFERING

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports effects of short-term memory and context stimuli on recognition of visual stimuli. After presentation of a square as the target stimulus, participants had to store the target during a variable delay, until they had to identify the target within a sample of seven squares that differed systematically in size (context variation. Marked context effects (“shifts” that occurred as responses to the test series were obtained when sets of comparison stimuli were arranged asymmetrically with respect to targets. Participants overestimated the size of the target in a set of larger comparison stimuli by choosing a larger stimulus to match the target, and vice versa (Experiment 1. This assimilation effect increased with longer delays between target offset and the onset of comparison stimuli (Experiment 2. Briefer target exposure also induced stronger assimilation (Experiment 3. The results indicated that visual short-term memory modulates (contextual stimulus integration in delayed matching to sample. A working model of memory and contextual effects in matching is discussed.

  1. An Incremental Time-delay Neural Network for Dynamical Recurrent Associative Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An incremental time-delay neural network based on synapse growth, which is suitable for dynamic control and learning of autonomous robots, is proposed to improve the learning and retrieving performance of dynamical recurrent associative memory architecture. The model allows steady and continuous establishment of associative memory for spatio-temporal regularities and time series in discrete sequence of inputs. The inserted hidden units can be taken as the long-term memories that expand the capacity of network and sometimes may fade away under certain condition. Preliminary experiment has shown that this incremental network may be a promising approach to endow autonomous robots with the ability of adapting to new data without destroying the learned patterns. The system also benefits from its potential chaos character for emergence.

  2. Investigation of verbal and visual working memory by multi-channel time-resolved functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, D.; Caffini, M.; Re, R.; Zucchelli, L.; Spinelli, L.; Basso Moro, S.; Bisconti, S.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Cutini, S.; Torricelli, A.

    2013-03-01

    Working memory (WM) is fundamental for a number of cognitive processes, such as comprehension, reasoning and learning. WM allows the short-term maintenance and manipulation of the information selected by attentional processes. The goal of this study was to examine by time-resolved fNIRS neural correlates of the verbal and visual WM during forward and backward digit span (DF and DB, respectively) tasks, and symbol span (SS) task. A neural dissociation was hypothesised between the maintenance and manipulation processes. In particular, a dorsolateral/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC) recruitment was expected during the DB task, whilst a lateralised involvement of Brodmann Area (BA) 10 was expected during the execution of the DF task. Thirteen subjects were monitored by a multi-channel, dual-wavelength (690 and 829 nm) time-resolved fNIRS system during 3 minutes long DF and DB tasks and 4 minutes long SS task. The participants' mean memory span was calculated for each task: DF: 6.46+/-1.05 digits; DB: 5.62+/-1.26 digits; SS: 4.69+/-1.32 symbols. No correlation was found between the span level and the heart rate data (measured by pulse oximeter). As expected, DB elicited a broad activated area, in the bilateral VLPFC and the right DLPFC, whereas a more localised activation was observed over the right hemisphere during either DF (BA 10) or SS (BA 10 and 44). The robust involvement of the DLPFC during DB, compared to DF, is compatible with previous findings and with the key role of the central executive subserving in manipulating processes.

  3. Low Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-Beta Concentration Is Associated with Poorer Delayed Memory Recall in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanni Haapalinna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the association of memory performance with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD are inconsistent. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease neuropsychological battery (CERAD-NB is a commonly used validated cognitive tool; however, only few studies have examined its relationship with CSF biomarkers for AD. We studied the correlation of pathological changes in CSF biomarkers with various CERAD-NB subtests and total scores. Methods: Out of 79 subjects (36 men, mean age 70.5 years, 63 had undergone an assessment of cognitive status with CERAD-NB and a CSF biomarker analysis due to a suspected memory disorder, and 16 were controls with no memory complaint.Results: In women we found a significant correlation between CSF amyloid-beta (Aβ1-42 and several subtests measuring delayed recall. Word List Recall correlated with all markers: Aβ1-42 (r = 0.323, p = 0.035, tau (r = -0.304, p = 0.050 and hyperphosphorylated tau (r = -0.331, p = 0.046. No such correlations were found in men. Conclusions: CSF biomarkers correlate with delayed memory scores in CERAD-NB in women, and women may have more actual AD pathology at the time of the investigations than men.

  4. Genetic correlations between brain volumes and the WAIS-III dimensions of verbal comprehension, working memory, perceptual organization, and processing speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posthuma, Daniëlle; Baare, Wim F.C.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.;

    2003-01-01

    to cerebellar volume. Verbal Comprehension was not related to any of the three brain volumes. It is concluded that brain volumes are genetically related to intelligence which suggests that genes that influence brain volume may also be important for intelligence. It is also noted however, that the direction......We recently showed that the correlation of gray and white matter volume with full scale IQ and the Working Memory dimension are completely mediated by common genetic factors (Posthuma et al., 2002). Here we examine whether the other WAIS III dimensions (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization...... to Working Memory capacity (r = 0.27). This phenotypic correlation is completely due to a common underlying genetic factor. Processing Speed was genetically related to white matter volume (r(g) = 0.39). Perceptual Organization was both genetically (r(g) = 0.39) and environmentally (r(e) = -0.71) related...

  5. The role of verbal working memory in bilingual processing%言语工作记忆在双语加工中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党彩萍; 陈洁仪

    2012-01-01

      本文探讨了言语工作记忆在双语者第一语言和第二语言学习中发挥的不同作用,尤其在两种语言的阅读理解、语法理解、口语水平、词汇密度和语言成绩等方面,并推论它在形式不同的语言加工中具有特殊性和普适性%  This paper explores the different roles of the verbal working memory in the first language and second language processing, especially in reading comprehension, grammar understanding, spoken level, vocabulary density and language performance of two languages. At last, the paper infer that verbal working memory has specificity and universality in different forms of language processing.

  6. Effects of Concurrent and Delayed Visual Feedback on Motor Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangxiao; Li, Teng; Yang, Gaofeng; Zhang, Yuru

    2017-02-22

    In many domains, it's important to understand the ways in which humans learn and develop new motor skills effectively and efficiently. For example, in dental operations, the ability to apply a weak force with a required tolerance is a fundamental skill to ensure diagnostic and treatment outcome, but acquiring such a skill is a challenge for novices. In this paper, we focus on motor memory for producing normally applied force by a hand-held probe and we compare the effects of two feedback methods on motor memory consolidation. Fourteen participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a Concurrent Group and a Delayed Group. Participants in the Concurrent Group were trained to apply a target force with concurrent visual feedback, while those in the Delayed Group were trained with delayed visual feedback. The task included two phases: a Training/Testing Phase, and a Retention Phase. The results indicated that participants in the Delayed Group obtained more effective learning outcomes and better retention effects. These findings provide a new perspective to explore the relationship between feedback methods and the cognitive process of motor skill learning, and open a new way to train motor skill using more effective methods than the traditional concurrent feedback approaches.

  7. A lack of correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum level and verbal memory performance in healthy Polish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eWilkosc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain derived neurotrophic factor is considered to be connected with memory and learning through the processes of long term synaptic potentiation and synaptic plasticity. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between precursor BDNF (proBNDF and mature BDNF (mBDNF serum levels and performance on Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT in 150 healthy volunteers. In addition, we have verified the relationships between serum concentration of both forms of BDNF and RAVLT with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. We found no strong evidence for the correlation of proBDNF and mBDNF serum levels with performance on RAVLT in healthy Polish population in early and middle adulthood. We observed the mBDNF serum concentration to be higher in women compared with men. Moreover, we revealed higher mBDNF level to be connected with lower Body Mass Index (BMI. In turn, the results of RAVLT correlated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, such as: age, education, gender, BMI and smoking.

  8. The role of verbal working memory in second language reading fluency and comprehension: A comparison of English and Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye K. PAE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the respective contribution of verbal working memory, which was operationalized as immediate digit and sentence recall, to bilingual children’s reading fluency and comprehension in the first language (L1 and second language (L2. Fifty children from two international sites took part in this study: One group was English-Korean bilinguals in the U.S., while the other was Korean-English bilinguals in Korea. The manifestation of the prediction model varied across the learning contexts or learner groups. L1 forward and backward digit spans accounted for the significant variances in L2 reading fluency and comprehension for the English-speaking children in the U.S., whereas L1 forward digit span was more predictive of L2 reading fluency and comprehension than backward digit span and sentence recall for the Korean-speaking counterparts in Korea. The results were interpreted with respect to the orthographic depth, linguistic differences, and cognitivedemands. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  9. Post-traumatic stress is associated with verbal learning, memory, and psychomotor speed in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Pyra, Maria; Cook, Judith A; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R; Maki, Pauline M

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) women compared with HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women, and deficits in episodic memory are a common feature of both PTSD and HIV infection. We investigated the association between a probable PTSD diagnosis using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) version and verbal learning and memory using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test in 1004 HIV+ and 496 at-risk HIV- women. HIV infection was not associated with a probable PTSD diagnosis (17% HIV+, 16% HIV-; p = 0.49) but was associated with lower verbal learning (p < 0.01) and memory scores (p < 0.01). Irrespective of HIV status, a probable PTSD diagnosis was associated with poorer performance in verbal learning (p < 0.01) and memory (p < 0.01) and psychomotor speed (p < 0.001). The particular pattern of cognitive correlates of probable PTSD varied depending on exposure to sexual abuse and/or violence, with exposure to either being associated with a greater number of cognitive domains and a worse cognitive profile. A statistical interaction between HIV serostatus and PTSD was observed on the fine motor skills domain (p = 0.03). Among women with probable PTSD, HIV- women performed worse than HIV+ women on fine motor skills (p = 0.01), but among women without probable PTSD, there was no significant difference in performance between the groups (p = 0.59). These findings underscore the importance of considering mental health factors as correlates to cognitive deficits in women with HIV.

  10. The path to memory is guided by strategy: distinct networks are engaged in associative encoding under visual and verbal strategy and influence memory performance in healthy and impaired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Jena B; Brewer, James B

    2012-06-01

    Given the diversity of stimuli encountered in daily life, a variety of strategies must be used for learning new information. Relating and encoding visual and verbal stimuli into memory has been probed using various tasks and stimulus types. Engagement of specific subsequent memory and cortical processing regions depends on the stimulus modality of studied material; however, it remains unclear whether different encoding strategies similarly influence regional activity when stimulus type is held constant. In this study, participants encoded object pairs using a visual or verbal associative strategy during fMRI, and subsequent memory was assessed for pairs encoded under each strategy. Each strategy elicited distinct regional processing and subsequent memory effects: middle/superior frontal, lateral parietal, and lateral occipital for visually associated pairs and inferior frontal, medial frontal, and medial occipital for verbally associated pairs. This regional selectivity mimics the effects of stimulus modality, suggesting that cortical involvement in associative encoding is driven by strategy and not simply by stimulus type. The clinical relevance of these findings, probed in a patient with a recent aphasic stroke, suggest that training with strategies utilizing unaffected cortical regions might improve memory ability in patients with brain damage.

  11. Genetic correlations between brain volumes and the WAIS-III dimensions of verbal comprehension, working memory, perceptual organization, and processing speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posthuma, Daniëlle; Baare, Wim F.C.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.

    2003-01-01

    We recently showed that the correlation of gray and white matter volume with full scale IQ and the Working Memory dimension are completely mediated by common genetic factors (Posthuma et al., 2002). Here we examine whether the other WAIS III dimensions (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization...... to Working Memory capacity (r = 0.27). This phenotypic correlation is completely due to a common underlying genetic factor. Processing Speed was genetically related to white matter volume (r(g) = 0.39). Perceptual Organization was both genetically (r(g) = 0.39) and environmentally (r(e) = -0.71) related...

  12. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-based Behavior Therapy vs. Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: Differential Effects on Performance and Verbal Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Lisa Hayley

    Individuals with public speaking phobia experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for public speaking phobia focus on the reduction of anxiety and avoidance, but neglect performance. Additionally, very little is known about the relationship between verbal working memory and social performance under conditions of high anxiety. The current study compared the efficacy of two cognitive behavioral treatments, traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (tCBT) and acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT), in enhancing public speaking performance via coping with anxiety. Verbal working memory performance, as measured by the backwards digit span (BDS), was measured to explore the relationships between treatment type, anxiety, performance, and verbal working memory. We randomized 30 individuals with high public speaking anxiety to a 90-minute ABBT or tCBT intervention. As this pilot study was underpowered, results are examined in terms of effect sizes as well as statistical significance. Assessments took place at pre and post-intervention and included self-rated and objective anxiety measurements, a behavioral assessment, ABBT and tCBT process measures, and backwards digit span verbal working memory tests. In order to examine verbal working memory during different levels of anxiety and performance pressure, we gave each participant a backwards digit span task three times during each assessment: once under calm conditions, then again while experiencing anticipatory anxiety, and finally under conditions of acute social performance anxiety in front of an audience. Participants were asked to give a video-recorded speech in front of the audience at pre- and post-intervention to examine speech performance. Results indicated that all participants experienced a very large and statistically significant decrease in anxiety (both during the speech and BDS

  13. Language and memory abilities of internationally adopted children from China: evidence for early age effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcenserie, Audrey; Genesee, Fred

    2014-11-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if internationally adopted (IA) children from China (M = 10;8) adopted by French-speaking families exhibit lags in verbal memory in addition to lags in verbal abilities documented in previous studies (Gauthier & Genesee, 2011). Tests assessing verbal and non-verbal memory, language, non-verbal cognitive ability, and socio-emotional development were administered to thirty adoptees. Their results were compared to those of thirty non-adopted monolingual French-speaking children matched on age, gender, and socioeconomic status. The IA children scored significantly lower than the controls on language, verbal short-term memory, verbal working memory, and verbal long-term memory. No group differences were found on non-verbal memory, non-verbal cognitive ability, and socio-emotional development, suggesting language-specific difficulties. Despite extended exposure to French, adoptees may experience language difficulties due to limitations in verbal memory, possibly as a result of their delayed exposure to that language and/or attrition of the birth language.

  14. How Linguistic Closure and Verbal Working Memory Relate to Speech Recognition in Noise—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelewijn, Thomas; Zekveld, Adriana A.; Kramer, Sophia E.; Festen, Joost M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to recognize masked speech, commonly measured with a speech reception threshold (SRT) test, is associated with cognitive processing abilities. Two cognitive factors frequently assessed in speech recognition research are the capacity of working memory (WM), measured by means of a reading span (Rspan) or listening span (Lspan) test, and the ability to read masked text (linguistic closure), measured by the text reception threshold (TRT). The current article provides a review of recent hearing research that examined the relationship of TRT and WM span to SRTs in various maskers. Furthermore, modality differences in WM capacity assessed with the Rspan compared to the Lspan test were examined and related to speech recognition abilities in an experimental study with young adults with normal hearing (NH). Span scores were strongly associated with each other, but were higher in the auditory modality. The results of the reviewed studies suggest that TRT and WM span are related to each other, but differ in their relationships with SRT performance. In NH adults of middle age or older, both TRT and Rspan were associated with SRTs in speech maskers, whereas TRT better predicted speech recognition in fluctuating nonspeech maskers. The associations with SRTs in steady-state noise were inconclusive for both measures. WM span was positively related to benefit from contextual information in speech recognition, but better TRTs related to less interference from unrelated cues. Data for individuals with impaired hearing are limited, but larger WM span seems to give a general advantage in various listening situations. PMID:23945955

  15. How linguistic closure and verbal working memory relate to speech recognition in noise--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Jana; Koelewijn, Thomas; Zekveld, Adriana A; Kramer, Sophia E; Festen, Joost M

    2013-06-01

    The ability to recognize masked speech, commonly measured with a speech reception threshold (SRT) test, is associated with cognitive processing abilities. Two cognitive factors frequently assessed in speech recognition research are the capacity of working memory (WM), measured by means of a reading span (Rspan) or listening span (Lspan) test, and the ability to read masked text (linguistic closure), measured by the text reception threshold (TRT). The current article provides a review of recent hearing research that examined the relationship of TRT and WM span to SRTs in various maskers. Furthermore, modality differences in WM capacity assessed with the Rspan compared to the Lspan test were examined and related to speech recognition abilities in an experimental study with young adults with normal hearing (NH). Span scores were strongly associated with each other, but were higher in the auditory modality. The results of the reviewed studies suggest that TRT and WM span are related to each other, but differ in their relationships with SRT performance. In NH adults of middle age or older, both TRT and Rspan were associated with SRTs in speech maskers, whereas TRT better predicted speech recognition in fluctuating nonspeech maskers. The associations with SRTs in steady-state noise were inconclusive for both measures. WM span was positively related to benefit from contextual information in speech recognition, but better TRTs related to less interference from unrelated cues. Data for individuals with impaired hearing are limited, but larger WM span seems to give a general advantage in various listening situations.

  16. Personality differences in mental imagery and the effects on verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Siné; Pfeifer, Gaby

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the effects of extraversion and neuroticism on participants' reported vividness of visual imagery and on their memory performance for concrete and abstract nouns. Groups of extraverts (n = 15) and introverts (n = 15) were selected from a larger original sample and asked to remember a series of concrete and abstract nouns, including a set of lexically ambiguous concrete homonyms (e.g., earth = 1. planet, 2. soil). Extraverts reported more vivid imagery than introverts but this did not translate into better recall for extraverts, even for concrete stimuli. Recall was best for unambiguous concrete nouns, followed by concrete homonyms, then abstract nouns. While initial analyses suggested that there was an interaction between extraversion and the type of word presented, later analyses revealed that neuroticism was the main driver in differences in recall between different word types. While differences in recall were best explained by context availability theory (Schwanenflugel, 1991) rather than dual coding theory (Paivio, 1991), questions remain about the power of either theory to explain the role of individual differences in personality on recall, particularly given that imagery vividness effects were related to extraversion while differences in recall were related to neuroticism. The implications of these findings for future research and theoretical development are discussed.

  17. Hippocampal theta phase-contingent memory retrieval in delay and trace eyeblink conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waselius, Tomi; Pöllänen, Eveliina; Wikgren, Jan; Penttonen, Markku; Nokia, Miriam S

    2017-09-04

    Hippocampal theta oscillations (3-12Hz) play a prominent role in learning. It has been suggested that encoding and retrieval of memories are supported by different phases of the theta cycle. Our previous study on trace eyeblink conditioning in rabbits suggests that the timing of the conditioned stimulus (CS) in relation to theta phase affects encoding but not retrieval of the memory trace. Here, we directly tested the effects of hippocampal theta phase on memory retrieval in two experiments conducted on adult female New Zealand White rabbits. In Experiment 1, animals were trained in trace eyeblink conditioning followed by extinction, and memory retrieval was tested by presenting the CS at troughs and peaks of the theta cycle during different stages of learning. In Experiment 2, animals were trained in delay conditioning either contingent on a high level of theta or at a random neural state. Conditioning was then followed by extinction conducted either at a random state, contingent on theta trough or contingent on theta peak. Our current results indicate that the phase of theta at CS onset has no effect on the performance of the behavioral learned response at any stage of classical eyeblink conditioning or extinction. In addition, theta-contingent trial presentation does not improve learning during delay eyeblink conditioning. The results are consistent with our earlier findings and suggest that the theta phase alone is not sufficient to affect learning at the behavioral level. It seems that the retrieval of recently acquired memories and consequently performing a learned response is moderated by neural mechanisms other than hippocampal theta. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Verbal Short-Term Memory Deficits in Chinese Children with Dyslexia may not be a Problem with the Activation of Phonological Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Yang, Yang; Song, Yao-Wu; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2015-11-01

    This study explored the underlying mechanism of the verbal short-term memory deficit in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia. Twenty-four children with dyslexia and 28 age-matched normal readers participated in the study. They were required to memorize a visually presented series of six Chinese characters and identify them from a list also including code-specific distracters and non-code-specific distracters. Error rates were recorded and were higher for code-specific distracters in all three conditions, revealing phonological, visual, and semantic similarity effects respectively. Group comparisons showed a stronger phonological similarity effect in dyslexic group, suggesting intact activation of phonological representations of target characters. Children with dyslexia also exhibited a greater semantic similarity effect, revealing stronger activation of semantic representations, while visual similarity effects were equivalent to controls. These results suggest that the verbal short-term memory deficit in Chinese dyslexics might not stem from insufficient activation of phonological information. Based the semantic activation of target characters in dyslexics is greater than in controls, it is possible that the memory deficit of dyslexia is related with deficient inhibition of target semantic representations in short-term memory.

  19. The value of embedded measures in detecting suboptimal effort in children: an investigation into the WISC-IV Digit Span and CMS Verbal Memory subtests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Hertza, Jeremy; Segraves, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of test-taking effort that has traditionally been utilized with adults but more recently has demonstrated utility with children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether commonly used neuropsychological measures can be used as embedded measures in detecting effort during testing. Participants (N = 75) who completed neuropsychological evaluations including the TOMM, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Digit Span, Children's Memory Scale (CMS) Verbal Memory, and other neuropsychological measures were divided into two groups: Optimal Effort and Suboptimal Effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Digit Span findings suggest a useful standard score of ≤ 70 resulted in optimal cutoff scores, yielding specificity of 94% and sensitivity of 44%. The CMS Verbal Memory Recall > Recognition scores did not appear as valuable indicating a discrepancy of 20+ points were required for specificity to attain optimal scores of 90% and sensitivity of 11%. This study illustrates the WISC-IV may have good utility in determining optimal effort; however, the CMS may not be as functional.

  20. Role of delayed nonsynaptic neuronal plasticity in long-term associative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemenes, Ildikó; Straub, Volko A; Nikitin, Eugeny S; Staras, Kevin; O'Shea, Michael; Kemenes, György; Benjamin, Paul R

    2006-07-11

    It is now well established that persistent nonsynaptic neuronal plasticity occurs after learning and, like synaptic plasticity, it can be the substrate for long-term memory. What still remains unclear, though, is how nonsynaptic plasticity contributes to the altered neural network properties on which memory depends. Understanding how nonsynaptic plasticity is translated into modified network and behavioral output therefore represents an important objective of current learning and memory research. By using behavioral single-trial classical conditioning together with electrophysiological analysis and calcium imaging, we have explored the cellular mechanisms by which experience-induced nonsynaptic electrical changes in a neuronal soma remote from the synaptic region are translated into synaptic and circuit level effects. We show that after single-trial food-reward conditioning in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis, identified modulatory neurons that are extrinsic to the feeding network become persistently depolarized between 16 and 24 hr after training. This is delayed with respect to early memory formation but concomitant with the establishment and duration of long-term memory. The persistent nonsynaptic change is extrinsic to and maintained independently of synaptic effects occurring within the network directly responsible for the generation of feeding. Artificial membrane potential manipulation and calcium-imaging experiments suggest a novel mechanism whereby the somal depolarization of an extrinsic neuron recruits command-like intrinsic neurons of the circuit underlying the learned behavior. We show that nonsynaptic plasticity in an extrinsic modulatory neuron encodes information that enables the expression of long-term associative memory, and we describe how this information can be translated into modified network and behavioral output.

  1. Coherent Optical Memory with High Storage Efficiency and Large Fractional Delay

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yi-Hsin; Wang, I-Chung; Du, Shengwang; Chen, Yong-Fan; Chen, Ying-Cheng; Yu, Ite A

    2012-01-01

    A high-storage efficiency and long-live quantum memory for photons is an essential component in long-distance quantum communication and optical quantum computation. Here, we report a 78% storage efficiency of light pulses in a cold atomic medium based on the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). At 50% storage efficiency, we obtain a fractional delay of 74, which is the best up-to-date record. The classical fidelity of the recalled pulse is better than 90% and nearly independent of the storage time, as confirmed by the direct measurement of phase evolution of the output light pulse with a beat-note interferometer. Such excellent phase coherence between the stored and recalled light pulses suggests that the current result can be readily applied to single photon wave packets. Our work significantly advances the technology of EIT-based optical memory and may find practical applications in long-distance quantum communication and optical quantum computation.

  2. Correlation of within-individual fluctuation of depressed mood with prefrontal cortex activity during verbal working memory task: optical topography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroki; Aoki, Ryuta; Katura, Takusige; Matsuda, Ryoichi; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies showed that interindividual variations in mood state are associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity. In this study, we focused on the depressed-mood state under natural circumstances and examined the relationship between within-individual changes over time in this mood state and PFC activity. We used optical topography (OT), a functional imaging technique based on near-infrared spectroscopy, to measure PFC activity for each participant in three experimental sessions repeated at 2-week intervals. In each session, the participants completed a self-report questionnaire of mood state and underwent OT measurement while performing verbal and spatial working memory (WM) tasks. The results showed that changes in the depressed-mood score between successive sessions were negatively correlated with those in the left PFC activation for the verbal WM task (ρ = -0.56, p mood changes. We thus demonstrated that PFC activity during a verbal WM task varies depending on the participant's depressed mood state, independent of trait factors. This suggests that using optical topography to measure PFC activity during a verbal WM task can be used as a potential state marker for an individual's depressed mood state.

  3. Correlation of within-individual fluctuation of depressed mood with prefrontal cortex activity during verbal working memory task: optical topography study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroki; Aoki, Ryuta; Katura, Takusige; Matsuda, Ryoichi; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies showed that interindividual variations in mood state are associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity. In this study, we focused on the depressed-mood state under natural circumstances and examined the relationship between within-individual changes over time in this mood state and PFC activity. We used optical topography (OT), a functional imaging technique based on near-infrared spectroscopy, to measure PFC activity for each participant in three experimental sessions repeated at 2-week intervals. In each session, the participants completed a self-report questionnaire of mood state and underwent OT measurement while performing verbal and spatial working memory (WM) tasks. The results showed that changes in the depressed-mood score between successive sessions were negatively correlated with those in the left PFC activation for the verbal WM task (ρ = -0.56, p < 0.05). In contrast, the PFC activation for the spatial WM task did not co-vary with participants' mood changes. We thus demonstrated that PFC activity during a verbal WM task varies depending on the participant's depressed mood state, independent of trait factors. This suggests that using optical topography to measure PFC activity during a verbal WM task can be used as a potential state marker for an individual's depressed mood state.

  4. Hopf bifurcation of an (n + 1) -neuron bidirectional associative memory neural network model with delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Min; Zheng, Wei Xing; Cao, Jinde

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on Hopf bifurcations of neural networks with delays are confined to simplified neural network models consisting of only two, three, four, five, or six neurons. It is well known that neural networks are complex and large-scale nonlinear dynamical systems, so the dynamics of the delayed neural networks are very rich and complicated. Although discussing the dynamics of networks with a few neurons may help us to understand large-scale networks, there are inevitably some complicated problems that may be overlooked if simplified networks are carried over to large-scale networks. In this paper, a general delayed bidirectional associative memory neural network model with n + 1 neurons is considered. By analyzing the associated characteristic equation, the local stability of the trivial steady state is examined, and then the existence of the Hopf bifurcation at the trivial steady state is established. By applying the normal form theory and the center manifold reduction, explicit formulae are derived to determine the direction and stability of the bifurcating periodic solution. Furthermore, the paper highlights situations where the Hopf bifurcations are particularly critical, in the sense that the amplitude and the period of oscillations are very sensitive to errors due to tolerances in the implementation of neuron interconnections. It is shown that the sensitivity is crucially dependent on the delay and also significantly influenced by the feature of the number of neurons. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the main results.

  5. Visual illusions, delayed grasping, and memory: no shift from dorsal to ventral control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, V H; Hesse, C; Kollath, S

    2009-05-01

    We tested whether a delay between stimulus presentation and grasping leads to a shift from dorsal to ventral control of the movement, as suggested by the perception-action theory of Milner and Goodale (Milner, A.D., & Goodale, M.A. (1995). The visual brain in action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.). In this theory the dorsal cortical stream has a short memory, such that after a few seconds the dorsal information is decayed and the action is guided by the ventral stream. Accordingly, grasping should become responsive to certain visual illusions after a delay (because only the ventral stream is assumed to be deceived by these illusions). We used the Müller-Lyer illusion, the typical illusion in this area of research, and replicated the increase of the motor illusion after a delay. However, we found that this increase is not due to memory demands but to the availability of visual feedback during movement execution which leads to online corrections of the movement. Because such online corrections are to be expected if the movement is guided by one single representation of object size, we conclude that there is no evidence for a shift from dorsal to ventral control in delayed grasping of the Müller-Lyer illusion. We also performed the first empirical test of a critique Goodale (Goodale, M.A. (2006, October 27). Visual duplicity: Action without perception in the human visual system. The XIV. Kanizsa lecture, Triest, Italy.) raised against studies finding illusion effects in grasping: Goodale argued that these studies used methods that lead to unnatural grasping which is guided by the ventral stream. Therefore, these studies might never have measured the dorsal stream, but always the ventral stream. We found clear evidence against this conjecture.

  6. Delayed memory effects after intense stress in Special Forces candidates: exploring path processes between cortisol secretion and memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, John; Taylor, Marcus K; Smeets, Tom

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it explores delayed effects of high endogenously evoked cortisol concentrations on visuo-spatial declarative memory. Subsequently, it applies multiple mediation (MM) analyses to reveal path processes between stress and cognitive performance in a sample of 24 male Special Forces (SF) candidates (mean age = 27.0 years, SD = 4.1). The SF candidates were randomly assigned to a control (n = 12) or an intense stress group (n = 12), and cortisol secretion for the intense stress condition was triggered by a brusque 60 min prisoner of war exercise. Stress exposure provoked robust increases in cortisol concentrations and a significant decline in immediate recall performance, measured with the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF). The relative retrieval differences in regard to the ROCF persisted even after a recovery period of 24 h, as both groups showed similar levels of memory decline over 24 h. Next, the study applied a MM design that involved distribution-independent asymptotic and resampling strategies to extend traditional bivariate analyses. MM results showed that ROCF performance was mediated by increases in cortisol concentrations. Considering the studied variables, the current analysis was the first to provide statistical support for the generally accepted thesis that cortisol secretion in itself, rather than subjective strain or the experimental treatment, affects cognitive performance. The revelation of such path processes is important because it establishes process identification and may refine existing paradigms.

  7. [Memory processes in endogenous depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwiłłowicz, W; Radziwiłłowicz, P

    1998-01-01

    The thesis aims to answer the questions about the profile of mental ability in endogenous depression and to decide whether self-estimation of depressive symptoms influences the results achieved by patients in memory tests. Fifty six patients suffering from endogenous depression have been examined. The following methods have been applied: Mini Mental State Examination, Benton Visual Retention Test, Beck Depression Inventory, hold tests: Vocabulary, Information, Comprehension and Digit Span of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, DCS Weidlich. General status of cognitive functions correlates with the profile of specific kinds of memory results, particularly with delayed memory. Self-estimation of depressive symptoms intensity is mostly influenced by memory capacity, visuomotorial factor, functions of perception and lingual factor. High correlation between verbal and non verbal learning shows uniform influence of depression on the process of learning.

  8. Relational and procedural memory systems in the goldfish brain revealed by trace and delay eyeblink-like conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A; Rodríguez-Expósito, B; Durán, E; Martín-Monzón, I; Broglio, C; Salas, C; Rodríguez, F

    2016-12-01

    The presence of multiple memory systems supported by different neural substrata has been demonstrated in animal and human studies. In mammals, two variants of eyeblink classical conditioning, differing only in the temporal relationships between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US), have been widely used to study the neural substrata of these different memory systems. Delay conditioning, in which both stimuli coincide in time, depends on a non-relational memory system supported by the cerebellum and associated brainstem circuits. In contrast, trace conditioning, in which a stimulus-free time gap separates the CS and the US, requires a declarative or relational memory system, thus depending on forebrain structures in addition to the cerebellum. The distinction between the explicit or relational and the implicit or procedural memory systems that support trace and delay classical conditioning has been extensively studied in mammals, but studies in other vertebrate groups are relatively scarce. In the present experiment we analyzed the differential involvement of the cerebellum and the telencephalon in delay and trace eyeblink-like classical conditioning in goldfish. The results show that whereas the cerebellum lesion prevented the eyeblink-like conditioning in both procedures, the telencephalon ablation impaired exclusively the acquisition of the trace conditioning. These data showing that comparable neural systems support delay and trace eyeblink conditioning in teleost fish and mammals suggest that these separate memory systems and their neural bases could be a shared ancestral brain feature of the vertebrate lineage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Thank You For the Music! a Working Memory Examination of the Effect of Musical Elements on Verbal Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esther Kang; Arun Lakshmanan

    2012-01-01

    .... We study the interactive effects of vocal versus instrumental music with other musical elements and show that under specific conditions, different music types may both inhibit or enhance verbal learning...

  10. The activation of visual face memory and explicit face recognition are delayed in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parketny, Joanna; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) are strongly impaired in recognizing faces, but the causes of this deficit are not well understood. We employed event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the time-course of neural processes involved in the recognition of previously unfamiliar faces in DPs and in age-matched control participants with normal face recognition abilities. Faces of different individuals were presented sequentially in one of three possible views, and participants had to detect a specific Target Face ("Joe"). EEG was recorded during task performance to Target Faces, Nontarget Faces, or the participants' Own Face (which had to be ignored). The N250 component was measured as a marker of the match between a seen face and a stored representation in visual face memory. The subsequent P600f was measured as an index of attentional processes associated with the conscious awareness and recognition of a particular face. Target Faces elicited reliable N250 and P600f in the DP group, but both of these components emerged later in DPs than in control participants. This shows that the activation of visual face memory for previously unknown learned faces and the subsequent attentional processing and conscious recognition of these faces are delayed in DP. N250 and P600f components to Own Faces did not differ between the two groups, indicating that the processing of long-term familiar faces is less affected in DP. However, P600f components to Own Faces were absent in two participants with DP who failed to recognize their Own Face during the experiment. These results provide new evidence that face recognition deficits in DP may be linked to a delayed activation of visual face memory and explicit identity recognition mechanisms.

  11. Diminished Memory T-Cell Expansion Due to Delayed Kinetics of Antigen Expression by Lentivectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Furmanov

    Full Text Available Memory CD8(+ T lymphocytes play a central role in protective immunity. In attempt to increase the frequencies of memory CD8(+ T cells, repeated immunizations with viral vectors are regularly explored. Lentivectors have emerged as a powerful vaccine modality with relatively low pre-existing and anti-vector immunity, thus, thought to be ideal for boosting memory T cells. Nevertheless, we found that lentivectors elicited diminished secondary T-cell responses that did not exceed those obtained by priming. This was not due to the presence of anti-vector immunity, as limited secondary responses were also observed following heterologous prime-boost immunizations. By dissecting the mechanisms involved in this process, we demonstrate that lentivectors trigger exceptionally slow kinetics of antigen expression, while optimal activation of lentivector-induced T cells relays on durable expression of the antigen. These qualities hamper secondary responses, since lentivector-encoded antigen is rapidly cleared by primary cytotoxic T cells that limit its presentation by dendritic cells. Indeed, blocking antigen clearance by cytotoxic T cells via FTY720 treatment, fully restored antigen presentation. Taken together, while low antigen expression is expected during secondary immunization with any vaccine vector, our results reveal that the intrinsic delayed expression kinetics of lentiviral-encoded antigen, further dampens secondary CD8(+ T-cell expansion.

  12. Prolonged rote learning produces delayed memory facilitation and metabolic changes in the hippocampus of the ageing human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prendergast Julie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated rehearsal is one method by which verbal material may be transferred from short- to long-term memory. We hypothesised that extended engagement of memory structures through prolonged rehearsal would result in enhanced efficacy of recall and also of brain structures implicated in new learning. Twenty-four normal participants aged 55-70 (mean = 60.1 engaged in six weeks of rote learning, during which they learned 500 words per week every week (prose, poetry etc.. An extensive battery of memory tests was administered on three occasions, each six weeks apart. In addition, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS was used to measure metabolite levels in seven voxels of interest (VOIs (including hippocampus before and after learning. Results Results indicate a facilitation of new learning that was evident six weeks after rote learning ceased. This facilitation occurred for verbal/episodic material only, and was mirrored by a metabolic change in left posterior hippocampus, specifically an increase in NAA/(Cr+Cho ratio. Conclusion Results suggest that repeated activation of memory structures facilitates anamnesis and may promote neuronal plasticity in the ageing brain, and that compliance is a key factor in such facilitation as the effect was confined to those who engaged fully with the training.

  13. Prolonged rote learning produces delayed memory facilitation and metabolic changes in the hippocampus of the ageing human brain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Richard Ap

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Repeated rehearsal is one method by which verbal material may be transferred from short- to long-term memory. We hypothesised that extended engagement of memory structures through prolonged rehearsal would result in enhanced efficacy of recall and also of brain structures implicated in new learning. Twenty-four normal participants aged 55-70 (mean = 60.1) engaged in six weeks of rote learning, during which they learned 500 words per week every week (prose, poetry etc.). An extensive battery of memory tests was administered on three occasions, each six weeks apart. In addition, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to measure metabolite levels in seven voxels of interest (VOIs) (including hippocampus) before and after learning. RESULTS: Results indicate a facilitation of new learning that was evident six weeks after rote learning ceased. This facilitation occurred for verbal\\/episodic material only, and was mirrored by a metabolic change in left posterior hippocampus, specifically an increase in NAA\\/(Cr+Cho) ratio. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that repeated activation of memory structures facilitates anamnesis and may promote neuronal plasticity in the ageing brain, and that compliance is a key factor in such facilitation as the effect was confined to those who engaged fully with the training.

  14. Some well-posedness and general stability results in Timoshenko systems with infinite memory and distributed time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesmia, Aissa

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we consider a Timoshenko system in one-dimensional bounded domain with infinite memory and distributed time delay both acting on the equation of the rotation angle. Without any restriction on the speeds of wave propagation and under appropriate assumptions on the infinite memory and distributed time delay convolution kernels, we prove, first, the well-posedness and, second, the stability of the system, where we present some decay estimates depending on the equal-speed propagation case and the opposite one. The obtained decay rates depend on the growths of the memory and delay kernels at infinity. In the nonequal-speed case, the decay rate depends also on the regularity of initial data. Our stability results show that the only dissipation resulting from the infinite memory guarantees the asymptotic stability of the system regardless to the speeds of wave propagation and in spite of the presence of a distributed time delay. Applications of our approach to specific coupled Timoshenko-heat and Timoshenko-wave systems as well as the discrete time delay case are also presented.

  15. The episodicity of verbal reports of personally significant autobiographical memories: vividness correlates with narrative text quality more than with detailedness or memory specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena

    2013-01-01

    How can we tell from a memory report whether a memory is episodic or not? Vividness is required by many definitions, whereas detailedness, memory specificity, and narrative text type are competing definitions of episodicity used in research. We explored their correlations with vividness in personally significant autobiographical memories to provide evidence to support their relative claim to define episodic memories. In addition, we explored differences between different memory types and text types as well as between memories with different valences. We asked a lifespan sample (N = 168) of 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 40-, and 65-year-olds of both genders (N = 27, 29, 27, 27, 28, 30) to provide brief oral life narratives. These were segmented into thematic memory units. Detailedness of person, place, and time did not correlate with each other or either vividness, memory specificity, or narrative text type. Narrative text type, in contrast, correlated both with vividness and memory specificity, suggesting narrative text type as a good criterion of episodicity. Emotionality turned out to be an even better predictor of vividness. Also, differences between narrative, chronicle, and argument text types and between specific versus more extended and atemporal memories were explored as well as differences between positive, negative, ambivalent, neutral, contamination, and redemption memory reports. It is concluded that temporal sequentiality is a central characteristic of episodic autobiographical memories. Furthermore, it is suggested that the textual quality of memory reports should be taken more seriously, and that evaluation and interpretation are inherent aspects of personally significant memories.

  16. Dissociation of Cross-Sectional Trajectories for Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Working Memory Development in Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Jane; Beck, Sarah R.; Heald, Mary; Powis, Laurie; Oliver, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) impairments might amplify behavioural difference in genetic syndromes. Murine models of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) evidence memory impairments but there is limited research on memory in RTS. Individuals with RTS and typically developing children completed WM tasks, with participants with RTS completing an IQ assessment and…

  17. Activation and Binding in Verbal Working Memory: A Dual-Process Model for the Recognition of Nonwords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klauss; Lange, Elke B.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents a mathematical model of short-term recognition based on dual-process models and the three-component theory of working memory [Oberauer, K. (2002). Access to information in working memory: Exploring the focus of attention. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28", 411-421]. Familiarity arises…

  18. Semantic contribution to verbal short-term memory: are pleasant words easier to remember than neutral words in serial recall and serial recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Catherine; Syssau, Arielle

    2008-01-01

    In the four experiments reported here, we examined the role of word pleasantness on immediate serial recall and immediate serial recognition. In Experiment 1, we compared verbal serial recall of pleasant and neutral words, using a limited set of items. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 with an open set of words (i.e., new items were used on every trial). In Experiments 3 and 4, we assessed immediate serial recognition of pleasant and neutral words, using item sets from Experiments 1 and 2. Pleasantness was found to have a facilitation effect on both immediate serial recall and immediate serial recognition. This study supplies some new supporting arguments in favor of a semantic contribution to verbal short-term memory performance. The pleasantness effect observed in immediate serial recognition showed that, contrary to a number of earlier findings, performance on this task can also turn out to be dependent on semantic factors. The results are discussed in relation to nonlinguistic and psycholinguistic models of short-term memory.

  19. Delayed Match Retrieval: a novel anticipation-based visual working memory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Guillory, Sylvia B; Blaser, Erik

    2016-11-01

    We tested 8- and 10-month-old infants' visual working memory (VWM) for object-location bindings - what is where - with a novel paradigm, Delayed Match Retrieval, that measured infants' anticipatory gaze responses (using a Tobii T120 eye tracker). In an inversion of Delayed-Match-to-Sample tasks and with inspiration from the game Memory, in test trials, three face-down virtual 'cards' were presented. Two flipped over sequentially (revealing, e.g. a swirl pattern and then a star), and then flipped back face-down. Next, the third card was flipped to reveal a match (e.g. a star) to one of the previously seen, now face-down cards. If infants looked to the location where the (now face-down) matching card had been shown, this was coded as a correct response. To encourage anticipatory looks, infants subsequently received a reward (a brief, engaging animation) presented at that location. Ten-month-old infants performed significantly above chance, showing that their VWM could hold object-location information for the two cards. Overall, 8-month-olds' performance was at chance, but they showed a robust learning trend. These results corroborate previous findings (Kaldy & Leslie, 2005; Oakes, Ross-Sheehy & Luck, 2006) and point to rapid development of VWM for object-location bindings. However, compared to previous paradigms that measure passive gaze responses to novelty, this paradigm presents a more challenging, ecologically relevant test of VWM, as it measures the ability to make online predictions and actively localize objects based on VWM. In addition, this paradigm can be readily scaled up to test toddlers or older children without significant modification. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Attenuation of ketamine-induced impairment in verbal learning and memory in healthy volunteers by the AMPA receptor potentiator PF-04958242.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, M; DeMartinis, N; Huguenel, B; Gaudreault, F; Bednar, M M; Shaffer, C L; Gupta, S; Cahill, J; Sherif, M A; Mancuso, J; Zumpano, L; D'Souza, D C

    2017-02-28

    There is a need to develop treatments for cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). The significant role played by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in both the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and in neuronal plasticity suggests that facilitation of NMDAR function might ameliorate CIAS. One strategy to correct NMDAR hypofunction is to stimulate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) as AMPAR and NMDAR functioning are coupled and interdependent. In rats and nonhuman primates (NHP), AMPAR potentiators reduce spatial working memory deficits caused by the nonselective NMDAR antagonist ketamine. The current study assessed whether the AMPAR potentiator PF-04958242 would attenuate ketamine-induced deficits in verbal learning and memory in humans. Healthy male subjects (n=29) participated in two randomized treatment periods of daily placebo or PF-04958242 for 5 days separated by a washout period. On day 5 of each treatment period, subjects underwent a ketamine infusion for 75 min during which the effects of PF-04958242/placebo were assessed on ketamine-induced: (1) impairments in verbal learning and recall measured by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test; (2) impairments in working memory on a CogState battery; and (3) psychotomimetic effects measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Clinician-Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale. PF-04958242 significantly reduced ketamine-induced impairments in immediate recall and the 2-Back and spatial working memory tasks (CogState Battery), without significantly attenuating ketamine-induced psychotomimetic effects. There were no pharmacokinetic interactions between PF-04958242 and ketamine. Furthermore, PF-04958242 was well tolerated. 'High-impact' AMPAR potentiators like PF-04958242 may have a role in the treatment of the cognitive symptoms, but not the positive or negative symptoms, associated with schizophrenia. The excellent concordance between the

  1. A working memory "theory of relativity": elasticity in temporal, spatial, and modality dimensions conserves item capacity in radial maze, verbal tasks, and other cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, R B

    1999-03-15

    It is remarkable that working memory (WM) capacity for numbers of items remains modest, at approximately 7+/-2 (the so-called "magical number"), across a wide variety of kinds of material. Indeed, consideration of radial maze studies together with more traditional memory research shows that WM capacity remains fairly constant whether the items are verbal or visuospatial, and that this same capacity is true of other species as of humans. In contrast to their limited numerousness, WM items are extremely flexible in ways that are here brought under the heading of "dimensionality." Therefore, the physical items represented in WM, can vary widely in any quantitative characteristic and in the temporal pace at which they are encountered. Combinatorial considerations suggest that WM numerousness results from evolution of a middle ground between a sterile parsimony and an overwhelming excess, for organizing neurocognitive associations. Such natural selection seems likely to have worked opportunistically to yield diverse characteristics of neuronal tissue, from subcellular components to properties of ensembles, which converge on the required cognitive properties of WM. Priming and implicit memory may play supporting roles with WM. These intermediate-term memory phenomena allow certain kinds of background information to be accumulated at higher volume than seems possible from the textbook, "modal model" of memory. By expediting attentional focus on subsets of information already in long-term memory, priming may help WM chunks to emerge in limited number as appropriately scaled "figures" from the primed "ground." The larger neuronal dynamic patterns that embody these cognitive phenomena must regulate their microscopic component systems, automatically selecting those having parameters of temporal persistence, rhythm, and connectivity patterns that are pertinent to the current task. Relevant neural phenomena may include "Hebbian" associativity and persistence of firing patterns

  2. 阅读障碍儿童的言语工作记忆缺陷%The deficit of verbal working memory in dyslexia children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张微; 宋红艳; 刘翔平

    2010-01-01

    目的 探索阅读障碍儿童的言语工作记忆缺陷的特点.方法 采用言语工作记忆的经典范式n-back任务对比17名正常儿童和15名阅读障碍儿童在3种更新难度下的记忆成绩(正确率).结果 在更新0次、1次和2次水平,阅读障碍儿童的记忆成绩正确率[(81.7±7.0)%,(70.8±12.0)%,(60.0±7.0)%]均显著低于正常儿童[(88.6±6.0)%,(83.5±7.0)%,(75.6±9.0)%,P<0.01],在更新效应(随着更新难度增加,工作记忆成绩下降的幅度上,阅读障碍儿童[(25.9±12.0)%]明显大于正常儿童[(14.2±12.0)%,P<0.01].结论 更新0次的成绩落后表明了阅读障碍儿童在记忆的基础性加工上的缺陷,更大的更新效应说明阅读障碍儿童在言语工作记忆的执行加工,即更新操作上的明显缺陷.%Objective To explore the deficit features of verbal working memory of dyslexia children by comparing with normal children. Methods Seventeen normal children and fifteen dyslexia children finished the classic verbal n-back task which involved three memory updating difficulty levels. Results Dyslexia children ((81.7±7.0)%,(70.8±12.0)%,(60.0±7.0)%)performed worse than NC ((88. 6 ±6. 0)% , (83. 5 ± 7.0)% ,(75.6 ±9.0)%)in all memory updating levels(n = 0,1 ,2) (P<0.01). In the performances related to memory updating operating,when the difficulty of the updating rised dyslexia children(25. 9 ± 12. 0)% revealed greater decline than normal children(14.2 ± 12.0)% (P<0.01). Conclusion Dyslexia children demonstrate the deficit in the basic level of working memory, which was showed as the bad performance of n-back task in updating level zero, and also they had problems in memory updating,which was showed as the greater updating effect. Memory updating was regarded as the advanced procession of verbal working memory.

  3. A Lipidomics Approach to Assess the Association between Plasma Sphingolipids and Verbal Memory Performance in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Undertaking Cardiac Rehabilitation: A C18:0 Signature for Cognitive Response to Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mahwesh; Herrmann, Nathan; Dinoff, Adam; Mielke, Michelle M; Oh, Paul I; Shammi, Prathiba; Cao, Xingshan; Venkata, Swarajya Lakshmi Vattem; Haughey, Norman J; Lanctôt, Krista L

    2017-06-03

    Early subtle deficits in verbal memory, which may indicate early neural risk, are common in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). While exercise can improve cognition, cognitive response to exercise is heterogeneous. Sphingolipids have been associated with the development and progression of CAD, and impairments in sphingolipid metabolism may play roles in neurodegeneration and in the neural adaptation response to exercise. In this study, change in plasma concentrations of sphingolipids was assessed in relation to change in verbal memory performance and in other cognitive domains among CAD subjects undertaking a 6-month cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. Patients with CAD (n = 120, mean age = 64±6 y, 84% male, years of education = 16±3) underwent CR with neuropsychological assessments and blood collected at baseline, 3-, and 6-months. Z-scores based on age, gender, and education were combined for verbal memory, visuospatial memory, processing speed, executive function, and global cognition tasks to calculate cognitive domain Z-scores. Plasma sphingolipid concentrations were measured from fasting blood samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Mixed models were used to identify sphingolipids significantly associated with performance in verbal memory and other cognitive domains, adjusting for potential confounders. Lower ceramide C18:0 concentrations were significantly associated with improvement in verbal memory performance (b[SE] = -0.51 [0.25], p = 0.04), visuospatial memory (b[SE] = -0.44 [0.22], p = 0.05), processing speed (b[SE] = -0.89 [0.32], p = 0.007), and global cognition (b[SE] = -1.47 [0.59], p = 0.01) over 6 months of CR. Plasma ceramide C18:0 concentrations may be a sensitive marker of cognitive response to exercise in patients with CAD.

  4. Using a Process Dissociation Approach to Assess Verbal Short-Term Memory for Item and Order Information in a Sample of Individuals with a Self-Reported Diagnosis of Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Xuan, Yifu; Jarrold, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have examined whether difficulties in short-term memory for verbal information, that might be associated with dyslexia, are driven by problems in retaining either information about to-be-remembered items or the order in which these items were presented. However, such studies have not used process-pure measures of short-term memory for item or order information. In this work we adapt a process dissociation procedure to properly distinguish the contributions of item and order processes to verbal short-term memory in a group of 28 adults with a self-reported diagnosis of dyslexia and a comparison sample of 29 adults without a dyslexia diagnosis. In contrast to previous work that has suggested that individuals with dyslexia experience item deficits resulting from inefficient phonological representation and language-independent order memory deficits, the results showed no evidence of specific problems in short-term retention of either item or order information among the individuals with a self-reported diagnosis of dyslexia, despite this group showing expected difficulties on separate measures of word and non-word reading. However, there was some suggestive evidence of a link between order memory for verbal material and individual differences in non-word reading, consistent with other claims for a role of order memory in phonologically mediated reading. The data from the current study therefore provide empirical evidence to question the extent to which item and order short-term memory are necessarily impaired in dyslexia.

  5. Using a process dissociation approach to assess verbal short-term memory for item and order information in a sample of individuals with a self-reported diagnosis of dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have examined whether difficulties in short-term memory for verbal information, that might be associated with dyslexia, are driven by problems in retaining either information about to-be-remembered items or the order in which these items were presented. However, such studies have not used process-pure measures of short-term memory for item or order information. In this work we adapt a process dissociation procedure to properly distinguish the contributions of item and order processes to verbal short-term memory in a group of 28 adults with a self-reported diagnosis of dyslexia and a comparison sample of 29 adults without a dyslexia diagnosis. In contrast to previous work that has suggested that individuals with dyslexia experience item deficits resulting from inefficient phonological representation and language-independent order memory deficits, the results showed no evidence of specific problems in short-term retention of either item or order information among the individuals with a self-reported diagnosis of dyslexia, despite this group showing expected difficulties on separate measures of word and non-word reading. However, there was some suggestive evidence of a link between order memory for verbal material and individual differences in non-word reading, consistent with other claims for a role of order memory in phonologically-mediated reading. The data from the current study therefore provide empirical evidence to question the extent to which item and order short-term memory are necessarily impaired in dyslexia.

  6. Verbal Learning Processes in Patients with Glioma of the Left and Right Temporal Lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Kyle R.; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Ziu, Mateo; Wefel, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research supports the utility of process variables in understanding mechanisms underlying memory impairments. The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) was administered to 84 patients with left (LTL, n = 58) or right temporal lobe glioma (RTL, n = 26) prior to surgical resection. Primary HVLT-R measures of learning and memory and numerous learning process indices were computed. Both groups exhibited frequent memory impairment (>30%), with greater severity in the LTL group. Patients with LTL glioma also exhibited lower semantic clustering scores than RTL patients, which were highly associated with Total Recall (ρ = 0.83) and Delayed Recall (ρ = 0.68). Learning slope and a novel measure of learning efficiency were also significantly associated with primary memory measures, though scores were similar across the LTL and RTL groups. While lesions to either temporal lobe impact verbal memory, semantic encoding appears to depend upon the integrity of LTL structures in particular. PMID:26537777

  7. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impairs encoding but not retrieval of verbal information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Mohini; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Addy, Peter H; Schnakenberg-Martin, Ashley M; Williams, Ashley H; Carbuto, Michelle; Elander, Jacqueline; Pittman, Brian; Andrew Sewell, R; Skosnik, Patrick D; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2017-10-03

    Cannabis and agonists of the brain cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) produce acute memory impairments in humans. However, the extent to which cannabinoids impair the component processes of encoding and retrieval has not been established in humans. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether the administration of Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis, impairs encoding and/or retrieval of verbal information. Healthy subjects were recruited from the community. Subjects were administered the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) either before administration of THC (experiment #1) (n=38) or while under the influence of THC (experiment #2) (n=57). Immediate and delayed recall on the RAVLT was compared. Subjects received intravenous THC, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized manner at doses known to produce behavioral and subjective effects consistent with cannabis intoxication. Total immediate recall, short delayed recall, and long delayed recall were reduced in a statistically significant manner only when the RAVLT was administered to subjects while they were under the influence of THC (experiment #2) and not when the RAVLT was administered prior. THC acutely interferes with encoding of verbal memory without interfering with retrieval. These data suggest that learning information prior to the use of cannabis or cannabinoids is not likely to disrupt recall of that information. Future studies will be necessary to determine whether THC impairs encoding of non-verbal information, to what extent THC impairs memory consolidation, and the role of other cannabinoids in the memory-impairing effects of cannabis. Cannabinoids, Neural Synchrony, and Information Processing (THC-Gamma) http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00708994 NCT00708994 Pharmacogenetics of Cannabinoid Response http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00678730 NCT00678730. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The effect of hormone replacement therapy on mood and everyday memory in younger mid-life women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christine; Pachana, Nancy A; Bristow, Virginia

    2006-11-01

    Research on the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on both mood and memory indicates that oestrogen may enhance verbal memory in younger mid-aged women. This study examined the effect of HRT on everyday memory, while accounting for mood changes, in women between ages 40 and 60. A within-subjects comparison of 17 women, showed that mood, everyday memory, working memory, and delayed verbal memory improved after 3 months of HRT use. The improvement in memory was not mediated by mood, but changes in mood were moderated by exercise habits. The results suggest that verbal memory in particular may be enhanced by HRT in this age group, and everyday memory is an important construct to consider in future research.

  9. Auditory Verbal Working Memory as a Predictor of Speech Perception in Modulated Maskers in Listeners with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Rebecca E.; Mattys, Sven L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Background noise can interfere with our ability to understand speech. Working memory capacity (WMC) has been shown to contribute to the perception of speech in modulated noise maskers. WMC has been assessed with a variety of auditory and visual tests, often pertaining to different components of working memory. This study assessed the…

  10. Association between Early Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms and Current Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and…

  11. Memory performance on the California Verbal Learning Test of children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vago, Chiara; Bulgheroni, Sara; Franceschetti, Silvana; Usilla, Arianna; Riva, Daria

    2008-11-01

    Verbal learning and retrieval, as well as the use of learning strategies, were assessed in 24 children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) and 16 controls, using the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version. Neuropsychological data were correlated with EEG features. Compared with age-matched controls, the children with BECTS younger than 10 exhibited significant learning difficulties and were less efficient in using a semantic clustering strategy, whereas no such difference emerged for subjects older than 10. This suggests that the capacity for spontaneous use of a more efficient strategy matures later in children with BECTS. Moreover, the majority of those younger than 10 had multifocal anomalies, suggesting that the difficulties encountered might be caused by the presence of additional foci.

  12. MMAPDNG: A new, fast code backed by a memory-mapped database for simulating delayed γ-ray emission with MCNPX package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tak Pui; Ludewigt, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    The simulation of the emission of beta-delayed gamma rays following nuclear fission and the calculation of time-dependent energy spectra is a computational challenge. The widely used radiation transport code MCNPX includes a delayed gamma-ray routine that is inefficient and not suitable for simulating complex problems. This paper describes the code "MMAPDNG" (Memory-Mapped Delayed Neutron and Gamma), an optimized delayed gamma module written in C, discusses usage and merits of the code, and presents results. The approach is based on storing required Fission Product Yield (FPY) data, decay data, and delayed particle data in a memory-mapped file. When compared to the original delayed gamma-ray code in MCNPX, memory utilization is reduced by two orders of magnitude and the ray sampling is sped up by three orders of magnitude. Other delayed particles such as neutrons and electrons can be implemented in future versions of MMAPDNG code using its existing framework.

  13. Attention, memory and verbal learning and their relation to schizotypal traits in unaffected parents of schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Caparrós

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este estudio ex post facto es comparar las diferencias de las alteraciones cognitivas y su relación con los rasgos de la personalidad esquizotípica entre un grupo de padres no afectados de pacientes esquizofrénicos y un grupo control. Se han evaluado 52 padres biológicos no afectados de pacientes esquizofrénicos y 52 padres no afectados de sujetos no afectados en medidas de atención (Continuous Performance Test- Identical Pairs Version, CPT-IP, memoria y aprendizaje verbal (California Verbal Learning Test, CVLT así como en rasgos de personalidad esquizotípica (Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences, O-LIFE. Los padres de los pacientes con esquizofrenia se diferencian de los padres del grupo control en los errores de omisión del Continuous Performance Test- Identical Pairs, en una medida de recuerdo y en dos índices de contraste del California Verbal Learning Test. No existe un patrón definido de la relación entre las medidas cognitivas y los rasgos de esquizotipia.

  14. Memory delay and haptic feedback influence the dissociation of tactile cues for perception and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarpanah Jazi, Shirin; Hosang, Stephanie; Heath, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    The somatosensory processing model (SPM) asserts that dissociable cortical processing streams mediate tactile perceptions and actions via relative and absolute cues, respectively (Dijkerman and de Haan, 2007). Accordingly, we sought to determine whether the introduction of a memory delay and/or physically touching a target object (i.e., haptic feedback) differentially influences the cues supporting tactile perceptions and actions. Participants used their right hand to manually estimate (i.e., perceptual task) or grasp (i.e., action task) differently sized objects placed on the palm of their left limb in conditions wherein the target object was available for the duration of the response (i.e., closed-loop condition), or was removed prior to response cuing (i.e., memory-guided condition). As well, trials were performed in conditions wherein the physical object was available (i.e., haptic feedback) or unavailable (i.e., no haptic feedback) to touch. Notably, we computed just-noticeable-difference (JND) scores to determine whether the aforementioned tasks and conditions adhered to - or violated - the relative properties of Weber's law. JNDs for manual estimations adhered to Weber's law across each condition - a finding supporting the SPM's contention that an immutable and relative percept supports tactile perceptions. In turn, JNDs for grasping violated Weber's law only when haptic feedback was available. Such a finding indicates that haptic feedback supports the absolute calibration between a tactile defined object and the required motor output. What is more, our study highlights that multiple somatosensory cues (i.e., tactile and haptic) support goal-directed grasping.

  15. Effects of alprazolam and bromazepam on visual search and verbal recognition memory in humans: a study with event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münte, T F; Gehde, E; Johannes, S; Seewald, M; Heinze, H J

    1996-01-01

    The effects of two benzodiazepines (alprazolam and bromazepam) on performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in visual search and verbal recognition memory paradigms were tested in a placebo-controlled double-blind paradigm employing 12 young healthy subjects. Both drugs exerted similar effects on performance and electrophysiological measures. Reaction times and hit rates were adversely affected in both paradigms. The ERP pattern in the visual search experiment suggested an impairment in selective attention (reduction of N1 component) and of automatic feature registration (posterior N2 reduction). In the world recognition experiment a dramatic reduction of the N400 component was seen under benzodiazepines. This is interpreted as reflecting an impaired ability to perform context integration processes.

  16. Visuospatial working memory for locations, colours, and binding in typically developing children and in children with dyslexia and non-verbal learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Tripodi, Doriana; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-03-01

    This study examined forward and backward recall of locations and colours and the binding of locations and colours, comparing typically developing children - aged between 8 and 10 years - with two different groups of children of the same age with learning disabilities (dyslexia in one group, non-verbal learning disability [NLD] in the other). Results showed that groups with learning disabilities had different visuospatial working memory problems and that children with NLD had particular difficulties in the backward recall of locations. The differences between the groups disappeared, however, when locations and colours were bound together. It was concluded that specific processes may be involved in children in the binding and backward recall of different types of information, as they are not simply the resultant of combining the single processes needed to recall single features.

  17. Effects of transdermal nicotine on learning, memory, verbal fluency, concentration, and general health in a healthy sample at risk for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, M N; Price, I R

    2001-12-01

    Nicotinic receptor loss has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The present study investigated the effects of chronic low-dose transdermal nicotine in a cohort of nondemented, healthy volunteers (mean age 63 years). The majority of subjects (85%) had a first-degree relation with dementia. Subjects were tested using a before, during, and after design on a battery of tests known to be sensitive to early cognitive decline. A mixed pattern of results was seen, with significant changes occurring with verbal learning, object learning, delayed recall, and word retrieval. Nicotine had no effect on measures of concentration or psychomotor speed. The effects were most noticeable in subjects at the lower end of baseline test performance on the tasks used. The results are discussed with reference to the relationship between strategic nicotinic receptor loss and measurable psychometric change. The potential therapeutic role of nicotinic agonists in preclinical "at risk" individuals is supported by the results of this study.

  18. Slow down and remember to remember! A delay theory of prospective memory costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Andrew; Loft, Shayne; Remington, Roger W

    2015-04-01

    Event-based prospective memory (PM) requires a deferred action to be performed when a target event is encountered in the future. Individuals are often slower to perform a concurrent ongoing task when they have PM task requirements relative to performing the ongoing task in isolation. Theories differ in their detailed interpretations of this PM cost, but all assume that the PM task shares limited-capacity resources with the ongoing task. In what was interpreted as support of this core assumption, diffusion model fits reported by Boywitt and Rummel (2012) and Horn, Bayen, and Smith (2011) indicated that PM demands reduced the rate of accumulation of evidence about ongoing task choices. We revaluate this support by fitting both the diffusion and linear ballistic accumulator (Brown & Heathcote, 2008) models to these same data sets and 2 new data sets better suited to model fitting. There was little effect of PM demands on evidence accumulation rates, but PM demands consistently increased the evidence required for ongoing task response selection (response thresholds). A further analysis of data reported by Lourenço, White, and Maylor (2013) found that participants differentially adjusted their response thresholds to slow responses associated with stimuli potentially containing PM targets. These findings are consistent with a delay theory account of costs, which contends that individuals slow ongoing task responses to allow more time for PM response selection to occur. Our results call for a fundamental reevaluation of current capacity-sharing theories of PM cost that until now have dominated the PM literature.

  19. The contralateral delay activity as a neural measure of visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Roy; Balaban, Halely; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K

    2016-03-01

    The contralateral delay activity (CDA) is a negative slow wave sensitive to the number of objects maintained in visual working memory (VWM). In recent years, a growing number of labs started to use the CDA in order to investigate VWM, leading to many fascinating discoveries. Here, we discuss the recent developments and contribution of the CDA in various research fields. Importantly, we report two meta-analyses that unequivocally validate the relationship between the set-size increase in the CDA amplitude and the individual VWM capacity, and between the CDA and filtering efficiency. We further discuss how the CDA was used to study the role of VWM in visual search, multiple object tracking, grouping, binding, and whether VWM capacity allocation is determined by the items' resolution or instead by the number of objects regardless of their complexity. In addition, we report how the CDA has been used to characterize specific VWM deficits in special populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Clonidine treatment delays postnatal motor development and blocks short-term memory in young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvino-Núñez, Cristina; Domínguez-del-Toro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    During the development of the nervous system, the perinatal period is particularly sensitive as neuronal connections are still forming in the brain of the neonate. Alpha2-adrenergic receptors are overexpressed temporarily in proliferative zones in the developing brain, reaching a peak during the first postnatal week of life. Both stimulation and blocking of these receptors during this period alter the development of neural circuits, affecting synaptic connectivity and neuronal responses. They even affect motor and cognitive skills later on in the adult. It's especially important to look for the early neurological consequences resulting from such modifications, because they may go unnoticed. The main objective of the present study has been to reaffirm the importance of the maturation of alpha-adrenergic system in mice, by carrying out a comprehensive examination of motor, behavioral and cognitive effects in neonates, during early postnatal development, following chronic administration of the drug Clonidine, an alpha2 adrenergic system agonist. Our study shows that mice treated postnatally with clonidine present a temporal delay in the appearance of developmental markers, a slow execution of vestibular reflexes during first postnatal week of life and a blockade of the short term memory in the novel object recognition task. Shortly after the treatment the startle response is hyperreactive.

  1. Subjective Memory Ability and Long-Term Forgetting in Patients Referred for Neuropsychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Sieberen P; Geurts, Sofie; de Werd, Maartje M E

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the memory complaints of patients who are not impaired on formal memory tests may reflect accelerated forgetting. We examined this hypothesis by comparing the 1-week delayed recall and recognition test performance of outpatients who were referred for neuropsychological assessment and who had normal memory performance during standard memory assessment with that of a non-patient control group. Both groups performed equally in verbal learning and delayed recall. However, after 1 week, the patients performed worse than controls on both recall and recognition tests. Although subjective memory ability predicted short-term memory function in patients, it did not predict long-term delayed forgetting rates in either the patients or controls. Thus, long-term delayed recall and recognition intervals provided no additional value to explain poor subjective memory ability in the absence of objective memory deficits.

  2. Theory of mind and emotion recognition skills in children with specific language impairment, autism spectrum disorder and typical development: group differences and connection to knowledge of grammatical morphology, word-finding abilities and verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukusa, Soile; Mäkinen, Leena; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Social perception skills, such as understanding the mind and emotions of others, affect children's communication abilities in real-life situations. In addition to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is increasing knowledge that children with specific language impairment (SLI) also demonstrate difficulties in their social perception abilities. To compare the performance of children with SLI, ASD and typical development (TD) in social perception tasks measuring Theory of Mind (ToM) and emotion recognition. In addition, to evaluate the association between social perception tasks and language tests measuring word-finding abilities, knowledge of grammatical morphology and verbal working memory. Children with SLI (n = 18), ASD (n = 14) and TD (n = 25) completed two NEPSY-II subtests measuring social perception abilities: (1) Affect Recognition and (2) ToM (includes Verbal and non-verbal Contextual tasks). In addition, children's word-finding abilities were measured with the TWF-2, grammatical morphology by using the Grammatical Closure subtest of ITPA, and verbal working memory by using subtests of Sentence Repetition or Word List Interference (chosen according the child's age) of the NEPSY-II. Children with ASD scored significantly lower than children with SLI or TD on the NEPSY-II Affect Recognition subtest. Both SLI and ASD groups scored significantly lower than TD children on Verbal tasks of the ToM subtest of NEPSY-II. However, there were no significant group differences on non-verbal Contextual tasks of the ToM subtest of the NEPSY-II. Verbal tasks of the ToM subtest were correlated with the Grammatical Closure subtest and TWF-2 in children with SLI. In children with ASD correlation between TWF-2 and ToM: Verbal tasks was moderate, almost achieving statistical significance, but no other correlations were found. Both SLI and ASD groups showed difficulties in tasks measuring verbal ToM but differences were not found in tasks measuring non-verbal Contextual ToM. The

  3. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  4. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  5. Failure of delayed nonsynaptic neuronal plasticity underlies age-associated long-term associative memory impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Shawn N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment associated with subtle changes in neuron and neuronal network function rather than widespread neuron death is a feature of the normal aging process in humans and animals. Despite its broad evolutionary conservation, the etiology of this aging process is not well understood. However, recent evidence suggests the existence of a link between oxidative stress in the form of progressive membrane lipid peroxidation, declining neuronal electrical excitability and functional decline of the normal aging brain. The current study applies a combination of behavioural and electrophysiological techniques and pharmacological interventions to explore this hypothesis in a gastropod model (Lymnaea stagnalis feeding system that allows pinpointing the molecular and neurobiological foundations of age-associated long-term memory (LTM failure at the level of individual identified neurons and synapses. Results Classical appetitive reward-conditioning induced robust LTM in mature animals in the first quartile of their lifespan but failed to do so in animals in the last quartile of their lifespan. LTM failure correlated with reduced electrical excitability of two identified serotonergic modulatory interneurons (CGCs critical in chemosensory integration by the neural network controlling feeding behaviour. Moreover, while behavioural conditioning induced delayed-onset persistent depolarization of the CGCs known to underlie appetitive LTM formation in this model in the younger animals, it failed to do so in LTM-deficient senescent animals. Dietary supplementation of the lipophilic anti-oxidant α-tocopherol reversed the effect of age on CGCs electrophysiological characteristics but failed to restore appetitive LTM function. Treatment with the SSRI fluoxetine reversed both the neurophysiological and behavioural effects of age in senior animals. Conclusions The results identify the CGCs as cellular loci of age-associated appetitive

  6. Verbal Short-Term Memory in Individuals with Congenital Articulatory Disorders: New Empirical Data and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesimo, G. A.; Galloni, F.; Bonanni, R.; Sabbadini, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: To investigate the nature of the articulatory rehearsal mechanism of the Articulatory Loop in Baddeley's Working Memory model, it seems particularly important to study individuals who developed a deficit (dysarthria) or total abolition (anarthria) of the ability to articulate language following a cerebral lesion. Method: In this study,…

  7. Neural bases of prospective memory: a meta-analysis and the "Attention to Delayed Intention" (AtoDI) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cona, Giorgia; Scarpazza, Cristina; Sartori, Giuseppe; Moscovitch, Morris; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2015-05-01

    Remembering to realize delayed intentions is a multi-phase process, labelled as prospective memory (PM), and involves a plurality of neural networks. The present study utilized the activation likelihood estimation method of meta-analysis to provide a complete overview of the brain regions that are consistently activated in each PM phase. We formulated the 'Attention to Delayed Intention' (AtoDI) model to explain the neural dissociation found between intention maintenance and retrieval phases. The dorsal frontoparietal network is involved mainly in the maintenance phase and seems to mediate the strategic monitoring processes, such as the allocation of top-down attention both towards external stimuli, to monitor for the occurrence of the PM cues, and to internal memory contents, to maintain the intention active in memory. The ventral frontoparietal network is recruited in the retrieval phase and might subserve the bottom-up attention captured externally by the PM cues and, internally, by the intention stored in memory. Together with other brain regions (i.e., insula and posterior cingulate cortex), the ventral frontoparietal network would support the spontaneous retrieval processes. The functional contribution of the anterior prefrontal cortex is discussed extensively for each PM phase.

  8. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM.

  9. Computerized Spatial-Delayed Recognition Span Task: a specific tool to assess visuospatial working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina eSatler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new tablet device version (IOS platform of the Spatial Delayed Recognition Span Task (SDRST was developed with the aim of investigating visuospatial Working Memory (WM abilities based on touchscreen technology. This new WM testing application will be available to download for free in Apple Store app (SDRST app. In order to verify the feasibility of this computer-based task, we conducted three experiments with different manipulations and groups of participants. We were interested in investigating if (1 the SDRST is sensitive enough to tap into cognitive differences brought by ageing and dementia; (2 different experimental manipulations work successfully; (3 cortical brain activations seen in other WM tasks are also demonstrated here; and (4 non-human primates are able to answer the task. Performance (scores and response time was better for young than older adults and higher for the latter when compared to Alzheimer’s disease patients. All groups performed better with facial stimuli than with images of scenes and with emotional than with neutral stimuli. Electrophysiology data showed activation on prefrontal and frontal areas of scalp, theta band activity on the midline area, and gamma activity in left temporal area. There are all scalp regions known to be related to attention and WM. Besides those data, our sample of adult captive capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus answered the task above chance level. Taken together, these results corroborate the reliability of this new computer-based SDRST as a measure of visuospatial WM in clinical and non-clinical populations as well as in non-human primates. Its tablet app allows the task to be administered in a wide range of settings, including hospitals, homes, schools, laboratories, universities, and research institutions.

  10. Delayed Memory Effects after Intense Stress in Special Forces Candidates: Exploring Path Processes between Cortisol Secretion and Memory Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    semi- permeable blood–brain barrier that functions as a brain-protective interface and possesses various carrier-mediated transport systems for small...elementary to more complex memory functions . Finally, although this study mathematically identified cortisol secretion as the principal mediator... amylase ) would be highly rec- ommended to fully identify the path processes between stress and memory recall. Evidently, the MM procedure should be

  11. The memory fitness program: cognitive effects of a healthy aging intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Karen J; Siddarth, Prabha; Gaines, Jean M; Parrish, John M; Ercoli, Linda M; Marx, Katherine; Ronch, Judah; Pilgram, Barbara; Burke, Kasey; Barczak, Nancy; Babcock, Bridget; Small, Gary W

    2012-06-01

    Age-related memory decline affects a large proportion of older adults. Cognitive training, physical exercise, and other lifestyle habits may help to minimize self-perception of memory loss and a decline in objective memory performance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 6-week educational program on memory training, physical activity, stress reduction, and healthy diet led to improved memory performance in older adults. A convenience sample of 115 participants (mean age: 80.9 [SD: 6.0 years]) was recruited from two continuing care retirement communities. The intervention consisted of 60-minute classes held twice weekly with 15-20 participants per class. Testing of both objective and subjective cognitive performance occurred at baseline, preintervention, and postintervention. Objective cognitive measures evaluated changes in five domains: immediate verbal memory, delayed verbal memory, retention of verbal information, memory recognition, and verbal fluency. A standardized metamemory instrument assessed four domains of memory self-awareness: frequency and severity of forgetting, retrospective functioning, and mnemonics use. The intervention program resulted in significant improvements on objective measures of memory, including recognition of word pairs (t([114]) = 3.62, p healthy lifestyle program can improve both encoding and recalling of new verbal information, as well as self-perception of memory ability in older adults residing in continuing care retirement communities.

  12. Memory in children with symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina A. Guimarães

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, memory deficit is not so well understood as it is in adults. The aim of this study was to identify and describe memory deficits in children with symptomatic TLE, and to verify the influence of epilepsy variables on memory. We evaluated 25 children with TLE diagnosed on clinical, EEG and MRI findings. Twenty-five normal children were compared with the patients. All children underwent a neuropsychological assessment to estimate intellectual level, attention, visual perception, handedness, and memory processes (verbal and visual: short-term memory, learning, and delayed recall. The results allowed us to conclude: besides memory deficits, other neuropsychological disturbances may be found in children with TLE such as attention, even in the absence of overall cognitive deficit; the earlier onset of epilepsy, the worse verbal stimuli storage; mesial lesions correlate with impairment in memory storage stage while neocortical temporal lesions correlate with retrieval deficits.

  13. Delayed emergence of effects of memory-enhancing drugs: implications for the dynamics of long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondadori, C; Hengerer, B; Ducret, T; Borkowski, J

    1994-01-01

    Many theories of memory postulate that processing of information outlasts the learning situation and involves several different physiological substrates. If such physiologically distinct mechanisms or stages of memory do in fact exist, they should be differentially affected by particular experimental manipulations. Accordingly, a selective improvement of the processes underlying short-term memory should be detectable only while the information is encoded in the short-term mode, and a selective influence on long-term memory should be detectable only from the moment when memory is based on the long-term trace. Our comparative study of the time course of the effects of the cholinergic agonist arecoline, the gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor antagonist CGP 36742, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril, and the nootropic oxiracetam, four substances with completely different primary sites of action, show that the memory-enhancing effects consistently come into evidence no sooner than 16-24 h after the learning trial. On the one hand, this finding suggests that all these substances act by way of the same type of mechanism; on the other hand, it demonstrates that the substrate modulated by the compounds forms the basis of memory only after 16-24 h. From the observation that animals also show clear signs of retention during the first 16 h--i.e., before the effects of the substances are measurable--it can be inferred that retention during this time is mediated by other mechanisms that are not influenced by any of the substances. Images PMID:8134347

  14. The novel dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) derivative BNN27 counteracts delay-dependent and scopolamine-induced recognition memory deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos; Gravanis, Achille

    2017-04-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the neurosteroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) are involved in cognition. BNN27 is a novel 17C spiroepoxy-DHEA derivative, which devoid of steroidogenic activity. The neuroprotective effects of BNN27 have been recently reported. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of BNN27 on recognition memory in rats. For this purpose, the novel object task (NOT), a procedure assessing non-spatial recognition memory and the novel location task (NLT), a procedure evaluating spatial recognition memory were used. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of BNN27 (3 and 10mg/kg) antagonized delay-dependent deficits in the NOT in the normal rat, suggesting that this DHEA derivative affected acquisition, storage and retrieval of information. In addition, BNN27 (3 and 10mg/kg, i.p.) counteracted the scopolamine [0.2mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)]-induced non-spatial and spatial recognition memory deficits. These findings suggest that BNN27 may modulate different aspects of recognition memory, potentially interacting with the cholinergic system, relevant to cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dissociations in the effect of delay on object recognition: evidence for an associative model of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shu K E; Robinson, Jasper; Jennings, Dómhnall J; Bonardi, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Rats were administered 3 versions of an object recognition task: In the spontaneous object recognition task (SOR) animals discriminated between a familiar object and a novel object; in the temporal order task they discriminated between 2 familiar objects, 1 of which had been presented more recently than the other; and, in the object-in-place task, they discriminated among 4 previously presented objects, 2 of which were presented in the same locations as in preexposure and 2 in different but familiar locations. In each task animals were tested at 2 delays (5 min and 2 hr) between the sample and test phases in the SOR and object-in-place task, and between the 2 sample phases in the temporal order task. Performance in the SOR was poorer with the longer delay, whereas in the temporal order task performance improved with delay. There was no effect of delay on object-in-place performance. In addition the performance of animals with neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal hippocampus was selectively impaired in the object-in-place task at the longer delay. These findings are interpreted within the framework of Wagner's (1981) model of memory.

  16. Do Children with Phonological Delay Have Phonological Short-Term and Phonological Working Memory Deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Rebecca; Eadie, Patricia; Liow, Susan Rickard; Dodd, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    While little is known about why children make speech errors, it has been hypothesized that cognitive-linguistic factors may underlie phonological speech sound disorders. This study compared the phonological short-term and phonological working memory abilities (using immediate memory tasks) and receptive vocabulary size of 14 monolingual preschool…

  17. Do Children with Phonological Delay Have Phonological Short-Term and Phonological Working Memory Deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Rebecca; Eadie, Patricia; Liow, Susan Rickard; Dodd, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    While little is known about why children make speech errors, it has been hypothesized that cognitive-linguistic factors may underlie phonological speech sound disorders. This study compared the phonological short-term and phonological working memory abilities (using immediate memory tasks) and receptive vocabulary size of 14 monolingual preschool…

  18. Partially Overlapping Sensorimotor Networks Underlie Speech Praxis and Verbal Short-Term Memory: Evidence from Apraxia of Speech Following Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory eHickok

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that motor planning and programming of speech articulation and verbal short-term memory (vSTM depend on partially overlapping networks of neural regions. We evaluated this proposal by testing 76 individuals with acute ischemic stroke for impairment in motor planning of speech articulation (apraxia of speech; AOS and vSTM in the first day of stroke, before the opportunity for recovery or reorganization of structure-function relationships. We also evaluate areas of both infarct and low blood flow that might have contributed to AOS or impaired vSTM in each person. We found that AOS was associated with tissue dysfunction in motor-related areas (posterior primary motor cortex, pars opercularis; premotor cortex, insula and sensory-related areas (primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, parietal operculum/auditory cortex; while impaired vSTM was associated with primarily motor-related areas (pars opercularis and pars triangularis, premotor cortex, and primary motor cortex. These results are consistent with the hypothesis, also supported by functional imaging data, that both speech praxis and vSTM rely on partially overlapping networks of brain regions.

  19. Global cognitive impairment should be taken into account in SPECT-neuropsychology correlations: the example of verbal memory in very mild Alzheimer's disease

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    Rodriguez, G.; Brugnolo, A.; Girtler, N.; Nobili, F. [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Endocrinological and Metabolic Sciences, Genoa (Italy); Morbelli, S.; Piccardo, A. [University of Genoa, Section of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Calvini, P. [University of Genoa, INFN and Department of Physics, Genoa (Italy); Dougall, N.J.; Ebmeier, K.P. [University of Edinburgh, Division of Psychiatry, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Baron, J.C. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Stroke Unit, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-01

    To examine the impact of severity of global cognitive impairment on SPECT-neuropsychology correlations, we correlated a verbal memory test with brain perfusion in patients with very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), taking into account the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score as an index of global cognitive impairment. Twenty-nine outpatients (mean age 78.2{+-}5.5 years) affected by very mild, probable AD underwent brain SPECT with {sup 99m}Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer and a word list learning test. SPM99 was used for voxel-based correlation analysis after normalisation to mean cerebellar counts (height threshold: p<0.01). In a first analysis, only age and years of education were inserted as nuisance covariates, while in a second analysis the MMSE score was inserted as well. In the first analysis, two clusters of significant correlation were found in both hemispheres, mainly including regions of the right hemisphere, such as the inferior parietal lobule, the middle temporal gyrus and the posterior cingulate. Significant correlation in the left hemisphere was observed in the lingual lobule, the parietal precuneus and the posterior cingulate. After taking into consideration the MMSE, the largest cluster of correlation was found in the left hemisphere, including the parietal gyrus angularis, the posterior cingulate and the middle temporal gyrus. (orig.)

  20. Fold-Hopf bifurcation in a simplified four-neuron BAM (bidirectional associative memory) neural network with two delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural network with four neurons and two delays is considered in the present paper.A linear stability analysis for the trivial equilibrium is firstly employed to provide a possible critical point at which a zero and a pair of pure imaginary eigenvalues occur in the corresponding characteristic equation.A fold-Hopf bifurcation is proved to happen at this critical point by the nonlinear analysis.The coupling strength and the delay are considered as bifurcation parameters to investigate the dynamical behaviors derived from the fold-Hopf bifurcation.Various dynamical behaviours are qualitatively classified in the neighbourhood of the fold-Hopf bifurcation point by using the center manifold reduction (CMR) together with the normal form.The bifurcating periodic solutions are expressed analytically in an approximate form.The validity of the results is shown by their consistency with the numerical simulation.

  1. Memory State-Feedback Stabilization for a Class of Time-Delay Systems with a Type of Adaptive Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stabilization of a class of systems with time delay is studied using adaptive control. With the help of the “error to error” technique and the separated “descriptor form” technique, the memory state-feedback controller is designed. The adaptive controller designed can guarantee asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system via a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. Some sufficient conditions are derived for the stabilization together with the linear matrix inequality (LMI design approach. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control design methodology is demonstrated in numerical simulations.

  2. Delayed wave of c-Fos expression in the dorsal hippocampus involved specifically in persistence of long-term memory storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katche, Cynthia; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Slipczuk, Leandro; Goldin, Andrea; Izquierdo, Ivan A; Cammarota, Martin; Medina, Jorge H

    2010-01-05

    Memory formation is a temporally graded process during which transcription and translation steps are required in the first hours after acquisition. Although persistence is a key characteristic of memory storage, its mechanisms are scarcely characterized. Here, we show that long-lasting but not short-lived inhibitory avoidance long-term memory is associated with a delayed expression of c-Fos in the hippocampus. Importantly, this late wave of c-Fos is necessary for maintenance of inhibitory avoidance long-term storage. Moreover, inhibition of transcription in the dorsal hippocampus 24 h after training hinders persistence but not formation of long-term storage. These findings indicate that a delayed phase of transcription is essential for maintenance of a hippocampus-dependent memory trace. Our results support the hypothesis that recurrent rounds of consolidation-like events take place late after learning in the dorsal hippocampus to maintain memories.

  3. Impact of hippocampal subfield histopathology in episodic memory impairment in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comper, Sandra Mara; Jardim, Anaclara Prada; Corso, Jeana Torres; Gaça, Larissa Botelho; Noffs, Maria Helena Silva; Lancellotti, Carmen Lúcia Penteado; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze preoperative visual and verbal episodic memories in a homogeneous series of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) submitted to corticoamygdalohippocampectomy and its association with neuronal cell density of each hippocampal subfield. The hippocampi of 72 right-handed patients were collected and prepared for histopathological examination. Hippocampal sclerosis patterns were determined, and neuronal cell density was calculated. Preoperatively, two verbal and two visual memory tests (immediate and delayed recalls) were applied, and patients were divided into two groups, left and right MTLE (36/36). There were no statistical differences between groups regarding demographic and clinical data. Cornu Ammonis 4 (CA4) neuronal density was significantly lower in the right hippocampus compared with the left (p=0.048). The groups with HS presented different memory performance - the right HS were worse in visual memory test [Complex Rey Figure, immediate (p=0.001) and delayed (p=0.009)], but better in one verbal task [RAVLT delayed (p=0.005)]. Multiple regression analysis suggested that the verbal memory performance of the group with left HS was explained by CA1 neuronal density since both tasks were significantly influenced by CA1 [Logical Memory immediate recall (p=0.050) and Logical Memory and RAVLT delayed recalls (p=0.004 and p=0.001, respectively)]. For patients with right HS, both CA1 subfield integrity (p=0.006) and epilepsy duration (p=0.012) explained Complex Rey Figure immediate recall performance. Ultimately, epilepsy duration also explained the performance in the Complex Rey Figure delayed recall (p<0.001). Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) hippocampal subfield was related to immediate and delayed recalls of verbal memory tests in left HS, while CA1 and epilepsy duration were associated with visual memory performance in patients with right HS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Marc A; Moore, David J; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K

    2011-08-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised) and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African Americans than for Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and were unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings.

  5. Memories of an emotional and a nonemotional event: effects of aging and delay interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Krendl, Anne C; Corkin, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The present study compared the memory of young and older adults for details pertaining to two public events of close temporal proximity but varying emotional import-the Columbia shuttle explosion and the 2003 Super Bowl. Participants responded to surveys sent within 2 weeks of these events and then again 7 months later, providing information about event-related details (i.e., of the events themselves) and personal details (i.e., of the reception event). Both age groups rated the shuttle tragedy as significantly more emotional than the Super Bowl, and although older adults often had poorer memory overall, both age groups remembered more about the shuttle than they did about the Super Bowl. Further, the age discrepancy (young adults remembering more than older adults) was less pronounced for the shuttle than for the Super Bowl. Thus, older adults' memories appear to benefit from the emotional salience of real-life events.

  6. [The Relationship of Verbal Working Memory and Theory of Mind in First Degree Relatives of Patients With Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Mehmet Onur; Devrimci Özgüven, Halise; Sakarya, Ayşegül; Baskak, Bora; Özel Kızıl, Erguvan Tuğba; Sakarya, Direnç; Haran, Seda

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare Theory of Mind (ToM) functions and investigate the relationship between ToM functions and verbal working memory (VWM) in first degree relatives of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia patients. The sample consisted of first degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder (n=22), schizophrenia (n=28), and age, gender, education and total IQ matched healthy volunteers (n=27) without a family history of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. We administered Auditory Consonants Test (ACT) to evaluate VWM, first and second order false belief tests (ToM-1, ToM-2), Faux Pas Test (FPT), Hinting Test (HT) to evaluate different domains of ToM functions. Both relative groups performed significantly lower in all components of ToM and VWM tests compared to the control group. When VWM scores were employed as covariate in the analyses, the FPT difference between the groups remained significant, HT difference regressed to a marginal level, and the difference between ToM-1 and ToM-2 disappeared. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the presence of ToM impairment among first degree relatives of bipolar disorder patients similar to relatives of schizophrenia patients. VWM performance seems to affect first and second order ToM functions in relatives of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. On the other hand, FPT and HT domains seem to be independent of VWM performances in these groups. FPT and HT impairments may be familial vulnerability markers that are independent from neurocognitive impairment.

  7. Working Memory Impairment in People with Williams Syndrome: Effects of Delay, Task and Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Courtney, Susan; Street, Whitney; Landau, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with impaired visuospatial representations subserved by the dorsal stream and relatively strong object recognition abilities subserved by the ventral stream. There is conflicting evidence on whether this uneven pattern in WS extends to working memory (WM). The present studies…

  8. A Reduction in Delay Discounting by Using Episodic Future Imagination and the Association with Episodic Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaochen; Kleinschmidt, Helena; Martin, Jason A.; Han, Ying; Thelen, Manuela; Meiberth, Dix; Jessen, Frank; Weber, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Delay discounting (DD) refers to the phenomenon that individuals discount future consequences. Previous studies showed that future imagination reduces DD, which was mediated by functional connectivity between medial prefrontal valuation areas and a key region for episodic memory (hippocampus). Future imagination involves an initial period of construction and a later period of elaboration, with the more elaborative latter period recruiting more cortical regions. This study examined whether elaborative future imagination modulated DD, and if so, what are the underlying neural substrates. It was assumed that cortical areas contribute to the modulation effect during the later period of imagination. Since future imagination is supported by episodic memory capacity, we additionally hypothesize that the neural network underlying the modulation effect is related to individual episodic memory capacity. Twenty-two subjects received an extensive interview on personal future events, followed by an fMRI DD experiment with and without the need to perform elaborative future imagination simultaneously. Subjects' episodic memory capacity was also assessed. Behavioral results replicate previous findings of a reduced discount rate in the DD plus imagination condition compared to the DD only condition. The behavioral effect positively correlated with: (i) subjective value signal changes in midline brain structures during the initial imagination period; and (ii) signal changes in left prefrontoparietal areas during the later imagination period. Generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analyses reveal positive correlations between the behavioral effect and functional connectivity among the following areas: right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left hippocampus; left inferior parietal cortex (IPC) and left hippocampus; and left IPC and bilateral occipital cortices. These changes in functional connectivity are also associated with episodic memory capacity. A hierarchical

  9. Memory processes in delayed spatial discriminations: response intentions or response mediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urcuioli, P J; DeMarse, T B

    1997-05-01

    Pigeons were trained on a pair-comparison task in which left versus right choices were reinforced following different sequences of two center-key stimuli. Choice accuracy was higher when retention intervals occurred after the entire sequence than when they separated the two stimuli comprising it, and this effect occurred independently of whether the initial and terminal stimuli came from the same or different dimensions. The initial stimulus from the prior trial was a source of proactive interference only in groups for which the retention interval separated the two sequence stimuli. By contrast, differential delay-interval behavior was observed only in groups for which the retention interval followed presentation of the entire sequence. These results indicate that coding processes in delayed discriminations are influenced by the location of the retention interval, and that response mediation affects retention performances if the reinforced choice can be determined prior to the interval.

  10. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  11. Task-irrelevant distractors in the delay period interfere selectively with visual short-term memory for spatial locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Francesco; Scott, Jerry; Aron, Adam R; Ester, Edward F

    2017-07-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables the representation of information in a readily accessible state. VSTM is typically conceptualized as a form of "active" storage that is resistant to interference or disruption, yet several recent studies have shown that under some circumstances task-irrelevant distractors may indeed disrupt performance. Here, we investigated how task-irrelevant visual distractors affected VSTM by asking whether distractors induce a general loss of remembered information or selectively interfere with memory representations. In a VSTM task, participants recalled the spatial location of a target visual stimulus after a delay in which distractors were presented on 75% of trials. Notably, the distractor's eccentricity always matched the eccentricity of the target, while in the critical conditions the distractor's angular position was shifted either clockwise or counterclockwise relative to the target. We then computed estimates of recall error for both eccentricity and polar angle. A general interference model would predict an effect of distractors on both polar angle and eccentricity errors, while a selective interference model would predict effects of distractors on angle but not on eccentricity errors. Results showed that for stimulus angle there was an increase in the magnitude and variability of recall errors. However, distractors had no effect on estimates of stimulus eccentricity. Our results suggest that distractors selectively interfere with VSTM for spatial locations.

  12. Superior digit memory of abacus experts: an event-related functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Michimata, Chikashi; Kaminaga, Tatsuro; Honda, Manabu; Sadato, Norihiro

    2002-12-01

    Abacus experts exhibit superior short-term memory for digits, but the underlying neurophysiological mechanism remains unknown. Using event-related fMRI, we examined the brain activity of abacus experts and non-experts during the memory retention period of a delayed match-to-sample task using digits as stimuli. In controls, activity was greater in cortical areas related to verbal working memory, including Broca's area. In contrast, in experts, activity was greater in cortical areas related to visuo-spatial working memory, including the bilateral superior frontal sulcus and superior parietal lobule. This provides neurophysiological evidence that abacus experts utilize a visuo-spatial representation for digit memory.

  13. The language used in describing autobiographical memories prompted by life period visually presented verbal cues, event-specific visually presented verbal cues and short musical clips of popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zator, Krysten; Katz, Albert N

    2017-07-01

    Here, we examined linguistic differences in the reports of memories produced by three cueing methods. Two groups of young adults were cued visually either by words representing events or popular cultural phenomena that took place when they were 5, 10, or 16 years of age, or by words referencing a general lifetime period word cue directing them to that period in their life. A third group heard 30-second long musical clips of songs popular during the same three time periods. In each condition, participants typed a specific event memory evoked by the cue and these typed memories were subjected to analysis by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program. Differences in the reports produced indicated that listening to music evoked memories embodied in motor-perceptual systems more so than memories evoked by our word-cueing conditions. Additionally, relative to music cues, lifetime period word cues produced memories with reliably more uses of personal pronouns, past tense terms, and negative emotions. The findings provide evidence for the embodiment of autobiographical memories, and how those differ when the cues emphasise different aspects of the encoded events.

  14. Nonlinear Memory Capacity of Parallel Time-Delay Reservoir Computers in the Processing of Multidimensional Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Henriques, Julie; Larger, Laurent; Ortega, Juan-Pablo

    2016-07-01

    This letter addresses the reservoir design problem in the context of delay-based reservoir computers for multidimensional input signals, parallel architectures, and real-time multitasking. First, an approximating reservoir model is presented in those frameworks that provides an explicit functional link between the reservoir architecture and its performance in the execution of a specific task. Second, the inference properties of the ridge regression estimator in the multivariate context are used to assess the impact of finite sample training on the decrease of the reservoir capacity. Finally, an empirical study is conducted that shows the adequacy of the theoretical results with the empirical performances exhibited by various reservoir architectures in the execution of several nonlinear tasks with multidimensional inputs. Our results confirm the robustness properties of the parallel reservoir architecture with respect to task misspecification and parameter choice already documented in the literature.

  15. Eye tracking, cortisol, and a sleep vs. wake consolidation delay: combining methods to uncover an interactive effect of sleep and cortisol on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Kelly A; Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-06-18

    Although rises in cortisol can benefit memory consolidation, as can sleep soon after encoding, there is currently a paucity of literature as to how these two factors may interact to influence consolidation. Here we present a protocol to examine the interactive influence of cortisol and sleep on memory consolidation, by combining three methods: eye tracking, salivary cortisol analysis, and behavioral memory testing across sleep and wake delays. To assess resting cortisol levels, participants gave a saliva sample before viewing negative and neutral objects within scenes. To measure overt attention, participants' eye gaze was tracked during encoding. To manipulate whether sleep occurred during the consolidation window, participants either encoded scenes in the evening, slept overnight, and took a recognition test the next morning, or encoded scenes in the morning and remained awake during a comparably long retention interval. Additional control groups were tested after a 20 min delay in the morning or evening, to control for time-of-day effects. Together, results showed that there is a direct relation between resting cortisol at encoding and subsequent memory, only following a period of sleep. Through eye tracking, it was further determined that for negative stimuli, this beneficial effect of cortisol on subsequent memory may be due to cortisol strengthening the relation between where participants look during encoding and what they are later able to remember. Overall, results obtained by a combination of these methods uncovered an interactive effect of sleep and cortisol on memory consolidation.

  16. Eye Tracking, Cortisol, and a Sleep vs. Wake Consolidation Delay: Combining Methods to Uncover an Interactive Effect of Sleep and Cortisol on Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Kelly A.; Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Payne, Jessica D.

    2014-01-01

    Although rises in cortisol can benefit memory consolidation, as can sleep soon after encoding, there is currently a paucity of literature as to how these two factors may interact to influence consolidation. Here we present a protocol to examine the interactive influence of cortisol and sleep on memory consolidation, by combining three methods: eye tracking, salivary cortisol analysis, and behavioral memory testing across sleep and wake delays. To assess resting cortisol levels, participants gave a saliva sample before viewing negative and neutral objects within scenes. To measure overt attention, participants’ eye gaze was tracked during encoding. To manipulate whether sleep occurred during the consolidation window, participants either encoded scenes in the evening, slept overnight, and took a recognition test the next morning, or encoded scenes in the morning and remained awake during a comparably long retention interval. Additional control groups were tested after a 20 min delay in the morning or evening, to control for time-of-day effects. Together, results showed that there is a direct relation between resting cortisol at encoding and subsequent memory, only following a period of sleep. Through eye tracking, it was further determined that for negative stimuli, this beneficial effect of cortisol on subsequent memory may be due to cortisol strengthening the relation between where participants look during encoding and what they are later able to remember. Overall, results obtained by a combination of these methods uncovered an interactive effect of sleep and cortisol on memory consolidation. PMID:24962611

  17. Memory abilities in children with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, S; Brizzolara, D; Carlesimo, G A; Pezzini, G; Volterra, V

    1996-09-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic condition characterised by intellectual disability, typical facial dysmorphology and several medical anomalies. A specific neuropsychological profile with a dissociation between language (relatively preserved) and visuo-spatial abilities (more seriously impaired) has been hypothesised in these children. Memory abilities of these patients have not been adequately investigated, although they may substantially contribute to better understanding their neuropsychological profile. The present study aimed at investigating verbal and spatial memory in patients with WS (N = 16). Their performance was compared with that of normally developing children on tasks of verbal and spatial span and immediate and delayed recall of verbal and visuo-perceptual materials. Memory abilities of WS children appear to be characterised by defective visuo-spatial memory, both in the short-term and long-term domain, and a dissociation between normal short- but deficient long-term verbal learning. Results are interpreted by supporting the thesis that intellectual disability reflects the defective functioning of a complex system in which some cognitive competencies may be disrupted more than others (Detterman, 1987; Vicari, Albertini and Caltagirone, 1992).

  18. The Transfer of Acquired Spatial Associations Relies on Verbal Working Memory%习得性空间联结的迁移依赖于语义工作记忆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 陈安涛

    2012-01-01

    The Simon effect refers to the fact that responses are faster when the stimulus location corresponds to the location of the assigned response than when it does not, which is a robust phenomenon. However, practicing with an incompatible mapping from location to responses can eliminate or even reverse a subsequent Simon effect. But, it is still unclear about how the acquired incompatible association was represented in the working memory (WM). In the present study, we conducted two experiments to investigate this question through using practice-transfer design combined with dual-task paradigm. Subjects first received sufficient practice with an incompatible mapping from location to response, i.e., pressing right key to left stimulus or left key to right stimuli, then were randomly transferred to the single task (only Simon task) or one of two dual-tasks (concurrent spatial WM load + Simon tasks; concurrent verbal WM load + Simon tasks) 5 minutes later. In Experiment 1, the dual-tasks were traditional configuration: the stimuli of the verbal WM load task were true Chinese characters, and the stimuli of the spatial WM load task were pseudo-characters. In the two dual-tasks. Subjects were asked to memorize the four locations or the seven characters, and they expected to have a recognition test after having completed the Simon tasks. If the probe was in the same location as one of the pseudo-characters or identical to one of the seven characters presented in the memory display, subjects were to press the "1" key with the left middle finger. Otherwise, they were to press the "0" key with the right middle finger, and the proportions of the two responses were 50% and 50%, respectively. The results showed a reversal Simon effect in the single task, which is consistent with previous findings. Importantly, the results showed that the verbal WM load eliminated the reversal Simon effect, but the spatial WM load had no influence on the reversal Simon effect. However, the

  19. Implicit Memory in Monkeys: Development of a Delay Eyeblink Conditioning System with Parallel Electromyographic and High-Speed Video Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Kishimoto

    Full Text Available Delay eyeblink conditioning, a cerebellum-dependent learning paradigm, has been applied to various mammalian species but not yet to monkeys. We therefore developed an accurate measuring system that we believe is the first system suitable for delay eyeblink conditioning in a monkey species (Macaca mulatta. Monkey eyeblinking was simultaneously monitored by orbicularis oculi electromyographic (OO-EMG measurements and a high-speed camera-based tracking system built around a 1-kHz CMOS image sensor. A 1-kHz tone was the conditioned stimulus (CS, while an air puff (0.02 MPa was the unconditioned stimulus. EMG analysis showed that the monkeys exhibited a conditioned response (CR incidence of more than 60% of trials during the 5-day acquisition phase and an extinguished CR during the 2-day extinction phase. The camera system yielded similar results. Hence, we conclude that both methods are effective in evaluating monkey eyeblink conditioning. This system incorporating two different measuring principles enabled us to elucidate the relationship between the actual presence of eyelid closure and OO-EMG activity. An interesting finding permitted by the new system was that the monkeys frequently exhibited obvious CRs even when they produced visible facial signs of drowsiness or microsleep. Indeed, the probability of observing a CR in a given trial was not influenced by whether the monkeys closed their eyelids just before CS onset, suggesting that this memory could be expressed independently of wakefulness. This work presents a novel system for cognitive assessment in monkeys that will be useful for elucidating the neural mechanisms of implicit learning in nonhuman primates.

  20. Memory functioning in individuals with traumatic brain injury: an examination of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlozzi, Noelle E; Grech, Julie; Tulsky, David S

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the construct validity of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). One hundred individuals with TBI (n = 35 complicated mild/moderate TBI; n = 65 severe TBI) and 100 matched controls from the WMS-IV normative dataset completed the WMS-IV. Multivariate analyses indicated that severe TBI participants had poorer performance than matched controls on all index scores and subtests. Individuals with complicated mild/moderate TBI performed more poorly than controls on all index scores, as well as on tests of visual memory (Designs I and II; Visual Reproduction I and II) and visual working memory (Spatial Addition; Symbol Span), but not on auditory verbal memory tests (Logical Memory I and II; Verbal Paired Associates I and II). After controlling for time since injury, severe TBI participants had significantly lower scores than the complicated mild/moderate TBI on 4 of the 5 WMS-IV index scores (Auditory Memory, Visual Memory, Immediate Memory, Delayed Memory) and 4 of the 10 WMS-IV subtests (Designs I and II, Verbal Pairs II, Logical Memory II). Effect sizes for index and subtest scores were generally moderate for the complicated mild/moderate group and moderate-to-large for the severe TBI group. Findings provide support for the construct validity of the WMS-IV in individuals with TBI.

  1. Specific cerebral networks for maintenance and response organization within working memory as evidenced by the 'double delay/double response' paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volle, E; Pochon, J B; Lehéricy, S; Pillon, B; Dubois, B; Levy, R

    2005-07-01

    Most of the working memory (WM) tasks used in functional imaging studies are based on the principle of the delayed response in which both the storage and the response organization are present during the delay period. It is therefore difficult to isolate activation specific to the storage function from that specific to the organization of the response. To determine the specific neural networks associated with these two WM operations, we performed a functional MRI study in healthy subjects using a new paradigm, 'the double delay/double response' tasks. This paradigm isolates maintenance from response organization by dividing the delay into two separate parts, the first being dedicated to memory, while the second includes response organization. Activation within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) followed a relative hemispheric dissociation: activation related to maintenance was predominant in the right DLPFC but was only detected when the load exceeded three items. Activation related to response organization was predominant in the left DLPFC, regardless of whether this response was based on information held in WM ('memory guided') or was independent of WM ('visually-guided'). These results suggest that activation of the DLPFC, should be interpreted in terms of executive processing for both maintenance and response organization.

  2. Verbal Fluency Deficits Co-Occur with Memory Deficits in Geriatric Patients at Risk for Dementia: Implications for the Concept of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Cottingham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the notion that patients at high risk for progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD display relatively isolated memory deficits by assessing the relationship between memory and fluency performances in a sample of 92 geriatric subjects with cognitive complaints and normal to mild clinical presentations. Patient groups were formed on the basis of memory test scores. Patients with normal memory scores also performed normally on fluency tests, and their fluency scores were significantly higher than those of patients with low memory performances. Patients falling between these two groups in memory abilities also displayed intermediate level fluency performances. Whereas the normal memory group performed at equivalent levels on semantic and phonemic fluency tasks, both the impaired memory group and the intermediate group displayed relatively greater weaknesses in semantic fluency. This pattern is similar to that seen in AD. Since the impaired memory patients meet criteria for Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment, these findings suggest that memory deficits in “pre-clinical” AD are likely to be accompanied by fluency weaknesses, with semantic fluency weaknesses predominating.

  3. Reading aloud and solving simple arithmetic calculation intervention (Learning therapy improves inhibition, verbal episodic memory, focus attention, and processing speed in healthy elderly people: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eNouchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious reports have described that simple cognitive training using reading aloud and solving simple arithmetic calculations, so-called learning therapy, can improve executive functions and processing speed in the older adults. Nevertheless, it is not well-known whether learning therapy improve a wide range of cognitive functions or not. We investigated the beneficial effects of learning therapy on various cognitive functions in healthy older adults.MethodsWe used a single-blinded intervention with two groups (learning therapy group: LT and waiting list control group: WL. Sixty-four elderly were randomly assigned to LT or WL. In LT, participants performed reading Japanese aloud and solving simple calculations training tasks for 6 months. WL did not participate in the intervention. We measured several cognitive functions before and after 6 months intervention periods.ResultsCompared to WL, results revealed that LT improved inhibition performance in executive functions (Stroop: LT (Mean = 3.88 vs. WL (Mean = 1.22, adjusted p =.013 and reverse Stroop LT (Mean = 3.22 vs. WL (Mean = 1.59, adjusted p =.015, verbal episodic memory (logical memory: LT (Mean = 4.59 vs. WL (