WorldWideScience

Sample records for delayed skin reactions

  1. Effect of local allergen priming on early, late, delayed-phase, and epicutaneous skin reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weller, FR; Weller, MS; Jansen, HM; deMonchy, JGR

    1996-01-01

    Allergic disease is renected in a chronic inflammatory response to an allergen. It is thought that local allergen priming underlies this chronicity. To assess the effect of allergen priming on the amplitude and histologic effect of the allergic reaction, four sequential, intracutaneous skin tests we

  2. Unique microRNAs appear at different times during the course of a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Nicholas; Løvendorf, Marianne B; Zibert, John R

    2015-01-01

    Diphencyprone (DPCP) is a hapten that induces delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression and have been implicated in various inflammatory skin diseases, but their role in DTH reactions is not well understood......, and therefore, may inform on the paradoxical ability of DPCP to treat both autoimmune conditions (alopecia areata) and conditions of ineffective immunity (melanoma)....

  3. Drug hypersensitivity reactions involving skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Oliver; Schnyder, Benno; Pichler, Werner J

    2010-01-01

    Immune reactions to drugs can cause a variety of diseases involving the skin, liver, kidney, lungs, and other organs. Beside immediate, IgE-mediated reactions of varying degrees (urticaria to anaphylactic shock), many drug hypersensitivity reactions appear delayed, namely hours to days after starting drug treatment, showing a variety of clinical manifestations from solely skin involvement to fulminant systemic diseases which may be fatal. Immunohistochemical and functional studies of drug-specific T cells in patients with delayed reactions confirmed a predominant role for T cells in the onset and maintenance of immune-mediated delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions (type IV reactions). In these reactions, drug-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are stimulated by drugs through their T cell receptors (TCR). Drugs can stimulate T cells in two ways: they can act as haptens and bind covalently to larger protein structures (hapten-carrier model), inducing a specific immune response. In addition, they may accidentally bind in a labile, noncovalent way to a particular TCR of the whole TCR repertoire and possibly also major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-molecules - similar to their pharmacologic action. This seems to be sufficient to reactivate certain, probably in vivo preactivated T cells, if an additional interaction of the drug-stimulated TCR with MHC molecules occurs. The mechanism was named pharmacological interaction of a drug with (immune) receptor and thus termed the p-i concept. This new concept may explain the frequent skin symptoms in drug hypersensitivity to oral or parenteral drugs. Furthermore, the various clinical manifestations of T cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity may be explained by distinct T cell functions leading to different clinical phenotypes. These data allowed a subclassification of the delayed hypersensitivity reactions (type IV) into T cell reactions which, by releasing certain cytokines and chemokines, preferentially activate and recruit

  4. Tuberculin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in a model of hu-PBMC-SCID mice grafted with autologous skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsicopoulos, A.; Pestel, J.; Fahy, O.; Vorng, H.; Vandenbusche, F.; Porte, H.; Eraldi, L.; Wurtz, A.; Akoum, H.; Hamid, Q.; Wallaert, B.; Tonnel, A. B.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed an animal model to study human delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Previous studies in humans have shown after tuberculin injection the presence of a mononuclear cell infiltration, with almost no eosinophils, associated with a preferential Th-1-type cytokine profile. Human skin graft obtained from tuberculin-reactive donors was grafted onto the back of severe combined immunodeficient mice. After healing, mice were reconstituted intraperitoneally with peripheral mononuclear cells. Tuberculin and diluent were injected intradermally, and skin biopsies were performed 72 hours later. Skin grafts were divided into two parts, one for immunohistochemistry and one for in situ hybridization studies. Immunohistochemistry was performed on cryostat sections using the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase technique. In the tuberculin-injected sites as compared with the diluent-injected sites, there were significant increases in the number of CD45+ pan leukocytes and CD4+, CD8+, CD45RO+ T cells but not in CD68+ monocytes/macrophages and EG2 or MBP+ eosinophils. The activation markers CD25 and HLA-DR were up-regulated in the tuberculin-injected sites. In situ hybridization was performed using 35S-labeled riboprobes for interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5. After tuberculin injection, a preferential Th-1-type cytokine profile was observed with significant increases in the numbers of IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA-expressing cells. These results are similar to those reported after tuberculin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity in humans, suggesting that this model might be useful to study cutaneous inflammatory reaction. Images Figure 4 PMID:9626072

  5. A comparative study of the 'rhodochrous' complex and related taxa by delayed-type skin reactions on guinea pigs and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, I S; Chaparas, S D

    1977-06-01

    Cell extracts prepared by ultrasonic disruption of 17 strains of the 'rhodochrous' complex and related taxa were compared by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and for immunologic relatedness, by skin test reactions. Two organisms, Jensenia canicruria and Nocardia calcarea, gave similar gel patterns and skin test reactions, and are considered to be identical. Extracts of nocardia rubra showed a strong antigenic relationship with those of three Nocardia pellegrino organisms (N325, N324 and N420) previously assigned to the 'rhodochrous' complex. Two Gordona organisms appeared to be less antigenically related to the 'rhodochrous' complex. Extracts of three of four organisms designated Lspi (Rhodococcus coprophilus Rowbotham & Cross 1976) elicited skin test reactions similar to those of the 'rhodochrous' strains. One Lspi strain, N650, showed striking similarities to the 'rhodochrous' complex strain N420 (Nocardia pellegrino).

  6. Unusual acute and delayed skin reactions during and after whole-brain radiotherapy in combination with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib. Two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, B.; Roedel, C.; Weiss, C. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Meissner, M.; Wolter, M. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Department of Dermatology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Besides radiotherapy (RT) and surgery, the introduction of BRAF inhibitors like vemurafenib has provided new opportunities for treatment of patients with metastasized malignant melanomas. RT and vemurafenib are being increasingly used concurrently, although little is known about the potential side effects of this combination. Vemurafenib is known to cause severe cutaneous skin reactions such as phototoxicity and evidence is accumulating that RT may further enhance these side effects. We report two cases of unusual skin reactions occurring during and after treatment with a combination of vemurafenib and whole-brain irradiation in patients with cerebral metastases arising from malignant melanomas. One case report describes excessive acute radiodermatitis which arose during whole-brain irradiation in combination with vemurafenib. The second describes a late skin reaction occurring approximately 30 days after completion of RT. These two case reports show that combination of both treatment modalities is possible, but requires close monitoring of patients and good interdisciplinary collaboration. (orig.) [German] Neben der Strahlentherapie und Chirurgie stellt die Einfuehrung von BRAF-Inhibitoren wie Vemurafenib eine neue Moeglichkeit zur Behandlung von metastasierten malignen Melanomen dar und immer haeufiger kommt eine Kombination aus Strahlentherapie und Vemurafenib zum Einsatz. Bislang ist wenig bekannt ueber potentielle Nebenwirkungen, die sich aus einer Kombination beider Therapieoptionen ergeben koennen. Vemurafenib kann zu schweren kutanen Nebenwirkungen wie z. B. Phototoxizitaet fuehren und es haeufen sich Hinweise, dass die Strahlentherapie diese Nebenwirkungen verstaerken kann. Wir berichten ueber zwei Faelle ungewoehnlicher Hautreaktionen waehrend und nach einer Ganzhirnbestrahlung in Kombination mit Vemurafenib. Ein Fall beschreibt eine akute und ueberschiessende Radiodermatitis unter fortlaufender Radiotherapie und der andere Fall beschreibt eine spaete

  7. Delayed culture of Leishmania in skin biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedet, J P; Pratlong, F; Pradinaud, R; Moreau, B

    1999-01-01

    Between January 1997 and October 1998, 16 skin biopsies collected from 13 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana were inoculated in culture medium after travel for 3-17 days from the place of biopsy to the culture laboratory in France. Each biopsy fragment was introduced near the flame of a Bunsen burner into the transport medium (RPMI medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum) which was maintained at ambient temperature during postal delivery to France. In France the biopsies were ground in sterile saline before being inoculated into NNN culture tubes. The cultures were incubated at 25 degrees C and subcultured every week until the 5th week. The cultures were positive in 9 cases, remained negative in 4, and were contaminated in 3 cases. Positive results were obtained at all seasons and for 3 different Leishmania species. The study indicates that delayed culture can yield useful results from biopsies taken in field conditions.

  8. Endotoxin contamination delays the foreign body reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten, Sander M.; Wubben, Maike; Plantinga, Josee A.; Hennink, Wim E.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    Biomaterials are at continuous risk of bacterial contamination during production and application. In vivo, bacterial contamination of biomaterials delays the foreign body reaction (FBR). Endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), major constituents of the bacterial cell wall, are potent stimulato

  9. [Skin reactions to tattoo ink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Hermanns, J-F; Piérard, G E

    2011-01-01

    Ritual and artistic tattoos rely on the use of numerous pigments which are not all entirely inert once placed in the dermis. The compositions of some tattoo inks are identified. However, new but less well identified compounds appear on the market. Allergic reactions can be present under different aspects. They may correspond to allergic contact dermatitis or to photodermatitis. Other reactions include allergic hypersensitivity reactions as well as lichenoid, granulomatous or pseudolymphoma reactions. Pulsed light and laser are typically used for regular tattoo removal. These procedures are not indicated in inflamed tattoos. Indeed, the pigment dispersed during photolysis may perpetuate the reaction. Pseudotattoos due to the stratum corneum staining are frequently responsible for photoeczema.

  10. Time-delayed electromagnetic radiation reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Faci, Sofiane

    2016-01-01

    The Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac (LAD) equation has proved valuable in describing the motion of radiating electric charges but suffers from runaway, pre-acceleration and other ambiguities. The usual scheme is problematic because of locality, which leads to self-interaction with the propagating radiation (i.e. real photons). Instead, the present heuristic model relies on an infinitesimal time delay between the action of external forces and the inertial reaction by the charge. This yields a new and pathology-free equation of motion whereas the radiated energy-momentum is expressed as an infinite series that generalises Larmor's formula and leads to testable predictions using current and near future ultra-intense lasers. The time-delay hypothesis is to be put in parallel with recently observed delays of order $10^{-18}$s (attosecond) in photoemission by atoms and small molecules. Such behaviour is extended here to elementary charges which are supposed to exhibit delays given by the time taken by light to cross the char...

  11. Anaphylaxis and severe systemic reactions caused by skin contact with persulfates in hair-bleaching products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Margriet; van der Heide, Sicco; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marielouise

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persulfates have been reported to cause both delayed-type and immediate skin reactions. They may also cause immediate reactions of the mucous membranes of the bronchial system through inhalation, leading to asthma and rhinitis. Anaphylactic reactions caused by contact with persulfates ar

  12. Anaphylaxis and severe systemic reactions caused by skin contact with persulfates in hair-bleaching products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Margriet; van der Heide, Sicco; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marielouise

    BACKGROUND: Persulfates have been reported to cause both delayed-type and immediate skin reactions. They may also cause immediate reactions of the mucous membranes of the bronchial system through inhalation, leading to asthma and rhinitis. Anaphylactic reactions caused by contact with persulfates

  13. Adverse skin reactions following intravitreal bevacizumab injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, S; Entabi, M; Lee, N; Stavrakoglou, A

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe two separate cases of skin eruption following intravitreal bevacizumab injection with evidence to suggest that these were adverse drug reactions to bevacizumab. The authors also discuss how each case was treated and report on the final outcome. PMID:22715260

  14. Acute skin reaction suggestive of pembrolizumab-induced radiosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibaud, Vincent; David, Isabelle; Lamant, Laurence; Resseguier, Sarah; Radut, Roxana; Attal, Justine; Meyer, Nicolas; Delord, Jean-Pierre

    2015-12-01

    The combination of localized radiotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors represents a promising therapeutic strategy for various cancers, including metastatic melanoma. Radiation therapy may enhance tumor antigen presentation and cytokine release, which may optimize the systemic antitumor immune response induced by these immunotherapeutic antibodies, with a potential delayed abscopal effect. However, clinical experience of using immune checkpoint inhibitors with concurrent radiotherapy remains scarce. We report here for the first time a case suggestive of acute skin radiosensitization induced by pembrolizumab, with a suggestive time relationship between the completion of ionizing radiation, drug administration, and rapid onset of the skin reaction. This suggests that radiation therapy may also interact rapidly with anti-programmed-death 1 antibodies. Therefore, caution should be exercised when prescribing this combination therapy in advanced cancers.

  15. Persistent Skin Reactions and Aluminium Hypersensitivity Induced by Childhood Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salik, Elaha; Løvik, Ida; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    . Two patients had skin biopsies performed from their skin lesions, and 2 patients had the nodules surgically removed. Forty-two children had a patch-test performed with 2% aluminium chloride hexahydrate in petrolatum and 39 of them (92%) had a positive reaction. The persistent skin reactions were...

  16. A delayed hypersensitivity reaction to a stainless steel crown: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, A; Ozdemir, C E; Yilmaz, Y

    2012-01-01

    Stainless steel crowns are commonly used to restore primary or permanent teeth in pediatric restorative dentistry. Here, we describe a case of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction, which manifested itself as perioral skin eruptions, after restoring the decayed first permanent molar tooth of a 13-year-old Caucasian girl with a preformed stainless steel crown. The eruptions completely healed within one week after removal of the stainless steel crown. The decayed tooth was then restored with a bis-acryl crown and bridge. Since no perioral skin eruptions occurred during the six-month follow-up, we presume that the cause of the perioral skin eruptions was a delayed hypersensitivity reaction, which was triggered by the nickel in the stainless steel crown.

  17. Persistent Skin Reactions and Aluminium Hypersensitivity Induced by Childhood Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salik, Elaha; Løvik, Ida; Andersen, Klaus E; Bygum, Anette

    2016-11-02

    There is increasing awareness of reactions to vaccination that include persistent skin reactions. We present here a retrospective investigation of long-lasting skin reactions and aluminium hypersensitivity in children, based on medical records and questionnaires sent to the parents. In the 10-year period 2003 to 2013 we identified 47 children with persistent skin reactions caused by childhood vaccinations. Most patients had a typical presentation of persisting pruritic subcutaneous nodules. Five children had a complex diagnostic process involving paediatricians, orthopaedics and plastic surgeons. Two patients had skin biopsies performed from their skin lesions, and 2 patients had the nodules surgically removed. Forty-two children had a patch-test performed with 2% aluminium chloride hexahydrate in petrolatum and 39 of them (92%) had a positive reaction. The persistent skin reactions were treated with potent topical corticosteroids and disappeared slowly. Although we advised families to continue vaccination of their children, one-third of parents omitted or postponed further vaccinations.

  18. Reaction diffusion equation with spatio-temporal delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhihong; Rong, Erhua

    2014-07-01

    We investigate reaction-diffusion equation with spatio-temporal delays, the global existence, uniqueness and asymptotic behavior of solutions for which in relation to constant steady-state solution, included in the region of attraction of a stable steady solution. It is shown that if the delay reaction function satisfies some conditions and the system possesses a pair of upper and lower solutions then there exists a unique global solution. In terms of the maximal and minimal constant solutions of the corresponding steady-state problem, we get the asymptotic stability of reaction-diffusion equation with spatio-temporal delay. Applying this theory to Lotka-Volterra model with spatio-temporal delay, we get the global solution asymptotically tend to the steady-state problem's steady-state solution.

  19. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to anthrax vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greidanus, Thomas G; Honl, Beth A

    2002-01-01

    The Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program is a Department of Defense initiative to protect military personnel against the threat of anthrax. Surveillance for adverse events associated with anthrax vaccination has shown that mild local reactions are not uncommon while systemic reactions are extremely rare. We present a case of 26-year-old male with delayed-type hypersensitivity after two doses of anthrax vaccine.

  20. Robotic reactions: delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation.

  1. Robotic reactions: Delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation.

  2. Exact stochastic simulation of coupled chemical reactions with delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaodong

    2007-03-01

    Gillespie's exact stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) [J. Phys. Chem. 81, 2350 (1977)] has been widely used to simulate the stochastic dynamics of chemically reacting systems. In this algorithm, it is assumed that all reactions occur instantly. While this is true in many cases, it is also possible that some chemical reactions, such as gene transcription and translation in living cells, take certain time to finish after they are initiated. Thus, the product of such reactions will emerge after certain delays. Apparently, Gillespie's SSA is not an exact algorithm for chemical reaction systems with delays. In this paper, the author develops an exact SSA for chemical reaction systems with delays, based upon the same fundamental premise of stochastic kinetics used by Gillespie in the development of his SSA. He then shows that an algorithm modified from Gillespie's SSA by Barrio et al. [PLOS Comput. Biol. 2, 1017 (2006)] is also an exact SSA for chemical reaction systems with delays, but it needs to generate more random variables than the author's algorithm.

  3. Modelling population growth with delayed nonlocal reaction in 2-dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Wu, Jianhong; Zhang, Fan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the population growth of a single species living in a two-dimensional spatial domain. New reaction-difusion equation models with delayed nonlocal reaction are developed in two-dimensional bounded domains combining diferent boundary conditions. The important feature of the models is the reflection of the joint efect of the difusion dynamics and the nonlocal maturation delayed efect. We consider and ana- lyze numerical solutions of the mature population dynamics with some wellknown birth functions. In particular, we observe and study the occurrences of asymptotically stable steady state solutions and periodic waves for the two-dimensional problems with nonlocal delayed reaction. We also investigate numerically the efects of various parameters on the period, the peak and the shape of the periodic wave as well as the shape of the asymptotically stable steady state solution.

  4. Case reports: delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, S K; Sears, D A; Werch, J B; Udden, M M; Milam, J D

    1996-10-01

    This article reports the details of delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions in four patients with sickle cell disease. These cases demonstrate the characteristics of the reactions, the significant risks involved, and the principles useful in diagnosis and treatment. Patients with sickle cell disease are at particular risk for delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions because they may be transfused at intervals over many years; they frequently form alloantibodies because of antigenic differences from the donor population; and they may receive emergency care in different hospitals where transfusion records are not available. In addition, exchange transfusions, which are often used for patients with sickle cell disease and which were given in three of these cases, raise the risks through increased exposure to foreign erythrocyte antigens and through an increased volume of erythrocytes susceptible to hemolysis. It was concluded that the hazards of these transfusion reactions justify preventive measures, such as extended erythrocyte phenotyping of patients with sickle cell disease and extended phenotypic matching of transfused cells.

  5. Severe delayed-onset hypersensitivity reactions to amoxicillin in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Chopra, R; Roberts, J.; Warrington, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Amoxicillin, a semisynthetic aminopenicillin, has achieved widespread use in recent years for the treatment of respiratory tract and otic infections. Serious reactions have been relatively infrequent. From July 1986 to June 1987, 11 children aged 6 months to 10 years presented with delayed-onset hypersensitivity reactions. In 10 the symptoms were consistent with a serum-sickness-like illness, including urticaria, angioedema, arthritis and arthralgia. Radioallergosorbent testing for IgE antibo...

  6. Persistent Skin Reactions and Aluminium Hypersensitivity Induced by Childhood Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salik, Elaha; Løvik, Ida; Andersen, Klaus E;

    2016-01-01

    period 2003 to 2013 we identified 47 children with persistent skin reactions caused by childhood vaccinations. Most patients had a typical presentation of persisting pruritic subcutaneous nodules. Five children had a complex diagnostic process involving paediatricians, orthopaedics and plastic surgeons...

  7. Tattoo-Associated Skin Reactions — Clinical Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekete GyL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tatooing has been practiced for thousands of years. It has become a common practice for people of Western countries in the last 10-20 years, where approximately 3-5% of the population has at least one tattoo. Various pigmented substances introduced into the skin may cause the occurrence of adverse irritative, immunological, infectious or other reactions of the skin. We present three clinical cases with adverse reactions after tattooing.

  8. Skin Reactions to Pine Processionary Caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Bonamonte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pine caterpillar, Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff, is a phyto- and xylophagous lepidopteran, responsible for the delay in the growth or the death of various types of pines. Besides nature damage, pine caterpillar causes dermatological reactions in humans by contact with its irritating larvae hairs. Although the dermatitis occurs among outdoor professionals, it is primarily extraprofessional. Contamination generally occurs in pinewoods, rarely in cities. Means of contamination comprise direct contact with the nest or the processional caterpillar and indirect contact with air dispersed hairs. The dermatitis is generally observed in late spring and particularly from April to June, among campers and tourers. The eruption has its onset 1–12 hours after contact with the hairs and presents with intense and continuous itching. Morphologically, it is strophulus-like and consists of papulous, excoriated, and pinkish lesions on an oedematous base. Diagnosis is usually straightforward. The pathogenetic mechanism of the affection is mechanical, pharmacological, and allergic in nature. Besides skin, T. pityocampa Schiff can involve the eyes and rarely the airways. Despite the considerable damages to humans and nature, pine caterpillar infestation is an underestimated problem; medical literature lists few studies, and often relevant information is referred to local media and popular wisdom.

  9. Skin Reactions to pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Pine caterpillar, Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff, is a phyto- and xylophagous lepidopteran, responsible for the delay in the growth or the death of various types of pines. Besides nature damage, pine caterpillar causes dermatological reactions in humans by contact with its irritating larvae hairs. Although the dermatitis occurs among outdoor professionals, it is primarily extraprofessional. Contamination generally occurs in pinewoods, rarely in cities. Means of contamination comprise direct contact with the nest or the processional caterpillar and indirect contact with air dispersed hairs. The dermatitis is generally observed in late spring and particularly from April to June, among campers and tourers. The eruption has its onset 1-12 hours after contact with the hairs and presents with intense and continuous itching. Morphologically, it is strophulus-like and consists of papulous, excoriated, and pinkish lesions on an oedematous base. Diagnosis is usually straightforward. The pathogenetic mechanism of the affection is mechanical, pharmacological, and allergic in nature. Besides skin, T. pityocampa Schiff can involve the eyes and rarely the airways. Despite the considerable damages to humans and nature, pine caterpillar infestation is an underestimated problem; medical literature lists few studies, and often relevant information is referred to local media and popular wisdom.

  10. The use of different concentrations of leishmanial antigen in skin testing to evaluate delayed hypersensitivity in american cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Cuba Cuba

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Three concentrations of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis sonicated whole promastigote antigen (30, 9.6 and 3 ug N in 0.1 ml wereprepared and 0.1 ml of each inoculated intradermally intopatients who live in one endemic leishmaniasis region in Brazil. Patients were divided into groups with active cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL, healed cutaneous leishmaniasis (HCL, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML, and Controls (C. Skin reactions were recorded by measuring induration 48 hours after inoculation. Skin tests using 9.6 ugN/0.1 mlyielded the best diagnostic resultssince 97% of 30 patients with active lesions (cutaneous or mucosal and 83% with HCL showed reactions of 5 mm orgreater as compared with 4% Controls. Tests using 30ug N/O. 1 ml causedan unacceptable levei of skin reactions with necrosis (10% of ACL patients tested and 17% of HCL, respectively. Tests using 3 ug N/O. 1 ml were less sensitive since only 87% of patients with active lesions and 68% with HCL had reactions of 5mm orgreater. The 3 ug N/O. 1 ml dose was utilized to ask the questions whether skin delayed hypersensitivity decreased with time after the initial lesion and whether mucosal involvement is associated with enhaced hypersensitivity to leishmanial antigen. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity was noted only in those patients who had an initial lesion more than 30 years ago. The mean induration of the reaction in 10 patients with ML was 11.3 mm ± 7.15, in 41 patients with HCL, 9.27 mm ± 6.78 and in 20patients with ACL 10. 7 mm ± 6.10 mm. The percent of patients with 5 mm orgreater induration was ML 80%, HCL 71%, ACL 90%. Thus, we could not confirm an association between enhanced delayed hypersensitivity and mucosal involvement in leishmaniasis.

  11. The use of different concentrations of leishmanial antigen in skin testing to evaluate delayed hypersensitivity in american cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Cuba Cuba

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Three concentrations of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis sonicated whole promastigote antigen (30, 9.6 and 3 ug N in 0.1 ml wereprepared and 0.1 ml of each inoculated intradermally intopatients who live in one endemic leishmaniasis region in Brazil. Patients were divided into groups with active cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL, healed cutaneous leishmaniasis (HCL, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML, and Controls (C. Skin reactions were recorded by measuring induration 48 hours after inoculation. Skin tests using 9.6 ugN/0.1 mlyielded the best diagnostic resultssince 97% of 30 patients with active lesions (cutaneous or mucosal and 83% with HCL showed reactions of 5 mm orgreater as compared with 4% Controls. Tests using 30ug N/O. 1 ml causedan unacceptable levei of skin reactions with necrosis (10% of ACL patients tested and 17% of HCL, respectively. Tests using 3 ug N/O. 1 ml were less sensitive since only 87% of patients with active lesions and 68% with HCL had reactions of 5mm orgreater. The 3 ug N/O. 1 ml dose was utilized to ask the questions whether skin delayed hypersensitivity decreased with time after the initial lesion and whether mucosal involvement is associated with enhaced hypersensitivity to leishmanial antigen. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity was noted only in those patients who had an initial lesion more than 30 years ago. The mean induration of the reaction in 10 patients with ML was 11.3 mm ± 7.15, in 41 patients with HCL, 9.27 mm ± 6.78 and in 20patients with ACL 10. 7 mm ± 6.10 mm. The percent of patients with 5 mm orgreater induration was ML 80%, HCL 71%, ACL 90%. Thus, we could not confirm an association between enhanced delayed hypersensitivity and mucosal involvement in leishmaniasis.

  12. Effects of Neutron Skin Thickness in Peripheral Nuclear Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG De-Qing; MA Yu-Gang; CAI Xiang-Zhou; TIAN Wen-Dong; WANG Hong-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Effects of neutron skin thickness in peripheral nuclear collisions are investigated using the statistical abrasion ablation (SAA) model. The reaction cross section, neutron (proton) removal cross section, one-neutron (proton) removal cross section as well as their ratios for nuclei with different neutron skin thickness are studied. It is demonstrated that there are good linear correlations between these observables and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei. The ratio between the (one-)neutron and proton removal cross section is found to be the most sensitive observable of neutron skin thickness. Analysis shows that the relative increase of this ratio could be used to determine the neutron skin size in neutron-rich nuclei.%Effects of neutron skin thickness in peripheral nuclear collisions are investigated using the statistical abrasion ablation (SAA ) model.The reaction cross section,neutron (proton) removal cross section,one-neutron (proton) removal cross section as well as their ratios for nuclei with different neutron skin thickness are studied.It is demonstrated that there are good linear correlations between these observables and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei.The ratio between the (one-)neutron and proton removal cross section is found to be the most sensitive observable of neutron skin thickness.Analysis shows that the relative increase of this ratio could be used to determine the neutron skin size in neutron-rich nuclei.Determining the size and shape of a nucleus is one of the most important subjects since the discovery of atomic nuclei.The rms radii of the neutron (rn) and proton (rp) density distributions are among the most prominent observables for this purpose.Studies for stable nuclei have shown that the nuclear radii are proportional to A1/3,with A being the nuclear mass number.Meanwhile,the density distributions of neutrons and protons in stable nuclei are very similar.

  13. Anaphylaxis and severe systemic reactions caused by skin contact with persulfates in hair-bleaching products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Margriet; van der Heide, Sicco; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise Anna

    2012-06-01

    Persulfates have been reported to cause both delayed-type and immediate skin reactions. They may also cause immediate reactions of the mucous membranes of the bronchial system through inhalation, leading to asthma and rhinitis. Anaphylactic reactions caused by contact with persulfates are rare. The mechanism of immediate reactions caused by persulfates is unclear. To report 2 cases with systemic reactions after skin contact with persulfates, and to propose a test protocol for diagnosing immediate reactions caused by persulfates. Prick tests with serial dilutions of ammonium and potassium persulfate were performed. Patch tests were also performed with the two agents. Persulfate-specific IgE was detected with two different IgE immunoblotting techniques. Prick tests were positive with ammonium and potassium persufate, but no specific IgE was detected in the serum. Patch tests showed early positive reactions to both persulfates in 1 patient. Prick tests and patch tests can be valuable in the testing of patients with a suspicion of an immediate-type reaction caused by persulfates. The mechanism of these reactions remains unclear. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Radiotherapy-induced skin reactions: assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Deborah; Harmer, Victoria

    Radiotherapy, the use of high-energy rays to either kill cancer cells or treat some benign tumours, is undoubtedly a positive intervention. However, as the primary mode of action in radiotherapy treatment is the killing of cells to prevent replication, other non-cancerous cells may be affected. For example, up to 85% of patients will experience some form of skin reaction, which will range from local erythema to moist desquamation. Such reactions are not only distressing and painful for the patient, if severe enough, they may warrant a halt in treatment. This article outlines the aims and nature of radiotherapy, and then discusses the aetiology of skin reactions, risk factors for reaction, and assessment tools. Management interventions will also be shown, with emphasis on silicone dressings.

  15. ENERGY ESTIMATES FOR DELAY DIFFUSION-REACTION EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.A.Ferreira; P.M.da Silva

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider nonlinear delay diffusion-reaction equations with initial and Dirichlet boundary conditions.The behaviour and the stability of the solution of such initial boundary value problems(IBVPs)are studied using the energy method.Simple numerical methods are considered for the computation of numerical approximations to the solution of the nonlinear IBVPs.Using the discrete energy method we study the stability and convergence of the numerical approximations.Numerical experiments are carried out to illustrate our theoretical results.

  16. Delayed-type hypersensitivity, contact sensitivity, and phytohemagglutinin skin-test responses of heat- and cold-stressed calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K W; Greenfield, R E; Evermann, J F; Parish, S M; Perryman, L E

    1982-05-01

    Three-week-old Holstein bull calves were used to investigate the effect of a 2-week chronic heat (35 C) or cold (-5 C) exposure on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to purified protein derivative after sensitization with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis, contact sensitivity (CS) reactions to 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin tests. Heat exposure reduced expression of DTH reactions by 42% and CS reactions by 38% at 24 hours after elicitation of the responses. The PHA-induced skin tests were not affected after 1 week of heat exposure, but this reaction was reduced by 20% after 2 weeks of heat exposure. The immune response of calves exposed to cold air temperatures was more complex. Cold exposure suppressed CS reactions by 39% at the end of both the 1st and 2nd weeks. The PHA response was reduced by 39% after 2 weeks of cold exposure. The DTH response depended on duration of cold exposure. The DTH reaction was increased by 42% after 1 week, but was reduced by 14% after 2 weeks. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental stressors alter host resistance by affecting the immune system. Furthermore, these stress-induced changes in immune events depend on the type of immune response, the nature of the environmental stressor, and the length of time that calves are exposed to the stressor.

  17. Spectral analysis of delayed luminescence as a tool to discriminate between normal and cancer skin cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, F.; Scordino, A.; Tudisco, S.; Privitera, S.; Applegate, L. A.; Niggli, H. J.

    2005-08-01

    Photobiological research in the last decades has shown the existence of Delayed Luminescence in biological tissue, which presents an excitation spectrum with a peak within the UVA region and can be detected with sophisticated photomultiplier systems. Based on these findings, a new and powerful tool able to measure the UV-A-laser-induced Delayed Luminescence emission of cultured cells was developed, with the intention to detect biophysical changes between carcinogenic and normal cells. Indeed noticeable differences have been found in the time resolved emission spectrum of delayed luminescence of cell cultures of human fibroblast and human melanoma. This new, powerful and non-invasive technique, in principle, could be applied in all fields of skin research, such as the investigation of skin abnormalities and to test the effect of products involved in regeneration, anti-aging and UV-light protection in order to prevent skin cancer.

  18. Stability analysis in a car-following model with reaction-time delay and delayed feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yanfei; Xu, Meng

    2016-10-01

    The delayed feedback control in terms of both headway and velocity differences has been proposed to guarantee the stability of a car-following model including the reaction-time delay of drivers. Using Laplace transformation and transfer function, the stable condition is derived and appropriate choices of time delay and feedback gains are designed to stabilize traffic flow. Meanwhile, an upper bound on explicit time delay is determined with respect to the response of desired acceleration. To ensure the string stability, the explicit time delay cannot over its upper bound. Numerical simulations indicate that the proposed control method can restraint traffic congestion and improve control performance.

  19. A time-delayed model for radiation reaction in electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Faci, Sofiane; Satheeshkumar, V H

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a radiating charge is one of the oldest unsettled problems in classical physics. The standard Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac (LAD) equation of motion is known to suffer from several pathologies and ambiguities. This paper briefly reviews these issues, and reports on a new model that fixes these difficulties in a natural way. This model is based on a hypothesis that there is an infinitesimal time delay between action and reaction. This can be related to Feynman's regularization scheme, leading to a quasi-local QED with a natural UV cutoff, hence without the need for renormalization as the divergences are absent. Besides leading to a pathology-free equation of motion, the new model predicts a modification of the Larmor formula that is testable with current and near future ultra-intense lasers.

  20. Serious skin reaction induced by leflunomide in a patient with juvenilechronic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y V Muravjov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of an adverse skin reaction to leflunomide in a pt with juvenile chronic arthri- tis is described. Literature review of leflunomide induced skin reactions is presented. Leflunomide administration guidelines are discussed.

  1. Anti-Kpa-induced severe delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, R; Patel, B; Harrison, J S

    2009-01-01

    Kpa is a low-frequency antigen occurring in less than 2 percent of the Caucasian population. Mild to moderate delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions (DHTR) and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn attributable to anti-Kpa have been reported. Severe overt DHTR has not been reported with anti-Kpa. A case of a severe DHTR attributed to anti-Kpa after multiple RBC transfusions is being reported. A 52-year-old Caucasian woman received multiple units of RBCs for a lower gastrointestinal bleed. She was referred to our institution for hepatic and renal failure, which was supported by laboratory findings of peak LDH, bilirubin, BUN, and creatinine elevations. Hemoglobin had dropped on Day 10 after transfusion. The DAT and antibody screen (ABS) were negative. Initial workup and subsequent ABS were negative. Anti-Kpa was identified when an additional RBC panel was tested. One of the RBC units transfused was incompatible by antihuman globulin (AHG) crossmatch with the patient's plasma and typed positive for Kpa. DHTR was confirmed after extensive workup. The patient responded to supportive therapy and experienced an uneventful recovery. DHTR may not be considered when DAT and ABS are negative. However, correlation of recent transfusion with signs and symptoms should alert the clinician to entertain and investigate a DHTR that should include the AHG crossmatch of all implicated RBC units. The severity of the reaction also raises concerns as to when and what antigen specificity should be considered for inclusion in the antibody screening cells.

  2. Desensitization in delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions -- an EAACI position paper of the Drug Allergy Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, K; Brockow, K; Aberer, W; Gooi, J H C; Demoly, P; Romano, A; Schnyder, B; Whitaker, P; Cernadas, J S R; Bircher, A J

    2013-07-01

    Drug hypersensitivity may deprive patients of drug therapy, and occasionally no effective alternative treatment is available. Successful desensitization has been well documented in delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions. In certain situations, such as sulfonamide hypersensitivity in HIV-positive patients or hypersensitivity to antibiotics in patients with cystic fibrosis, published success rates reach 80%, and this procedure appears helpful for the patient management. A state of clinical tolerance may be achieved by the administration of increasing doses of the previously offending drug. However, in most cases, a pre-existent sensitization has not been proven by positive skin tests. Successful re-administration may have occurred in nonsensitized patients. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of desensitization is needed. Currently, desensitization in delayed hypersensitivity reactions is restricted to mild, uncomplicated exanthems and fixed drug eruptions. The published success rates vary depending on clinical manifestations, drugs, and applied protocols. Slower protocols tend to be more effective than rush protocols; however, underreporting of unsuccessful procedures is very probable. The decision to desensitize a patient must always be made on an individual basis, balancing risks and benefits. This paper reviews the literature and presents the expert experience of the Drug Hypersensitivity Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Treatment of delayed jejunal perforation after irreducible femoral hernia repair with open abdomen management and delayed abdominal closure with skin flap approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri Yetişir

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Delayed bowel perforation may develop after irreducible femoral hernia surgery. OA management with NPT and DAC with skin flap approximation are optimal treatment modalities for the hemodynamically instable patient.

  4. Evaluation of hand function after early excision and skin grafting of burns versus delayed skin grafting: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mohammed T Ahmed; Hassan, Ahmed A

    2011-06-01

    Thermal injury of the hand is characterized by disfigurement and deformity with marked problems because the patient is no longer able to perform the daily living activities and function at school or work. Early excision and grafting (E&G) were introduced to decrease hospital stay, hospital cost, and septic complications and to eliminate burn toxins. In this study, E&G was compared with delayed skin grafting in deep hand burns. 40 patients with deep second- and third- degree hand burns with average burn size less than 30% total body surface area (TBSA) were randomly divided into E&G group and delayed grafting group. All hands in both groups were subjected to pre and post operative program of physiotherapy. Measurement of total active motion (TAM) of each digit and grip strength was recorded pre and post operative. Hand function using Jebsen-Taylor hand function test (JTHFT) was recorded three months after operation in both groups. There were statistically significant differences in both groups regarding to TAM, hand grip strength and Jebsen-Taylor hand function test favoring the E&G group. The study concluded that early excision and skin grafting with physiotherapy gave better results than delayed grafting in terms of preservation of hand function and shortened hospital stay. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Duration of postoperative immunosuppression assessed by repeated delayed type hypersensitivity skin tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J H; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Moesgaard, F;

    1992-01-01

    The duration of postoperative impairment in cell-mediated immunity was assessed by repeated skin testing with seven delayed type common antigens in 15 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery compared to a similar testing regimen in 10 healthy volunteers. All were skin tested four times......, with 72-hour intervals, and in the surgical patients the first test was applied 2 days before surgery, followed by tests on postoperative days 1, 4 and 7. The tests were read after 48 h. Postoperatively, the skin test area decreased on day 3 (p less than 0.01) and recurred to preoperative levels on day 9....... In contrast, the skin test area in the volunteers increased from test to test (p less than 0.001) during the study, confirming a previous finding of a vaccination effect. These results suggest that the postoperative immunosuppression is maintained for about 6-9 days....

  6. Stochastic modeling of biochemical systems with multistep reactions using state-dependent time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianqian; Tian, Tianhai

    2016-08-24

    To deal with the growing scale of molecular systems, sophisticated modelling techniques have been designed in recent years to reduce the complexity of mathematical models. Among them, a widely used approach is delayed reaction for simplifying multistep reactions. However, recent research results suggest that a delayed reaction with constant time delay is unable to describe multistep reactions accurately. To address this issue, we propose a novel approach using state-dependent time delay to approximate multistep reactions. We first use stochastic simulations to calculate time delay arising from multistep reactions exactly. Then we design algorithms to calculate time delay based on system dynamics precisely. To demonstrate the power of proposed method, two processes of mRNA degradation are used to investigate the function of time delay in determining system dynamics. In addition, a multistep pathway of metabolic synthesis is used to explore the potential of the proposed method to simplify multistep reactions with nonlinear reaction rates. Simulation results suggest that the state-dependent time delay is a promising and accurate approach to reduce model complexity and decrease the number of unknown parameters in the models.

  7. Delayed tail loss during the invasion of mouse skin by cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Fang, Zheng-Ming; Lei, Jia-Hui; Guan, Fei; Liu, Wen-Qi; Bartlett, Ann; Whitfield, Phil; Li, Yong-Long

    2012-02-01

    A traditional assumption is that schistosome cercariae lose their tails at the onset of penetration. It has, however, recently been demonstrated that, for Schistosoma mansoni, cercarial tails were not invariably being shed as penetration took place and a high proportion of tails entered human skin under experimental conditions. This phenomenon was termed delayed tail loss (DTL). In this paper, we report that DTL also happens with S. japonicum cercariae during penetration of mouse skin. It occurred at all cercarial densities tested, from as few as 10 cercariae/2·25 cm(2) of mouse skin up to 200 cercariae. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that there was a density-dependent increase in DTL as cercarial densities increased. No such density-dependent enhancement was shown for percentage attachment over the same cercarial density range.

  8. Pathophysiological significance of a reaction in mouse gastrointestinal tract associated with delayed-type hypersensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Gui Yu; Ping Lin; Hui Pan; Lan Xiao; En-Cong Gong; Lin Mei

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the pathophysiological significance of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in mouse gastrointestinal tract induced by an allergen 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB).METHODS: BALB/c mice were randomly divided into control and DTH1-6 groups. After sensitized by DNCB smeared on the abdominal skin, the mice were challenged with DNCB by gavage or enema. The weight, stool viscosity and hematochezia were observed and accumulated as disease active index (DAI) score; the gastrointestinal motility was represented by active charcoal propulsion rate;the colon pathological score was achieved by macropathology and HE staining of section prepared for microscopy; and the leukocyte migration inhibitory factor (LMIF) activity was determined by indirect capillary assay of the absorbance (4) of migrated leukocytes.RESULTS: Active charcoal propulsion rates of small intestine in the DNCB gavages groups were significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). The DAI scores and pathological score in DNCB enema groups were also higher than that in the control group (P<0.05), and there were significant rises in LMIF activity in DNCB enema groups as compared with control groups (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Mouse gastrointestinal DTH reaction could be induced by DNCB, which might facilitate the mechanism underlying the ulcerative colitis.

  9. Early excision and skin grafting versus delayed skin grafting in deep hand burns (a randomised clinical controlled trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Bakhshaeekia, Ali Reza; Marzban, Saeed; Abbasi, Siroos; Ashraf, Ali Reza; Mohammadi, Mohammad Kazem; Toulide-Ie, Hamid Reza; Tavakkolian, Ahmad Reza

    2011-02-01

    Early excision and grafting (E&G) of burn wounds has been reported to decrease hospital stay, hospital costs and septic complications, and some purport reduced mortality while decreasing hospital costs. In today's practice, all burn wounds unlikely to achieve spontaneous closure within 3 weeks are excised and grafted. Early studies did not demonstrate dramatic differences in cosmetic or functional results. This is particularly true with burns of the face, hands and feet. In this study, early excision and skin grafting was compared with delayed skin grafting in deep hand burns. From September 2006 to February 2008, 50 patients with hand burns and average burn size less than 30% total body surface area (TBSA) deep second- and third-degree were randomly divided into early E&G group (group I) and delayed grafting group (group II). Gradual and careful limb and digit range of motion was started on about 10th-14th postoperative day. We used a questionnaire based on the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire to evaluate final functional outcome. Further, hypertrophic scar formation, contracture and deformities were followed and managed accordingly. The most common site of involvement was the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint with frequency of 39% and 40% in groups I and II, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between both groups regarding deformity severity, scar formation, sensation, major activities and overall satisfaction. In treating burns of the hand, the primary goal should always be to restore the functionality of the hand. Although early surgery shortens the healing time and lessens the hospital stay, our results did not show any significant difference between these two methods regarding the function, scar formation, daily activity limitation and overall satisfaction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. BCG skin reaction in Mantoux-negative healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodhi Sukhbir

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis poses a great challenge, especially in children. The response of BCG Test may be different in previously vaccinated children and needs to be considered before interpreting positivity for TB. This study has been carried out to determine the pattern of BCG reaction comparing previously vaccinated with non-vaccinated children. Methods The study was conducted in the healthy school children aged 4–6 years. The BCG skin reaction in Mantoux-negative children was compared between children with and without previous BCG scar. After the Mantoux and BCG Test, the analysis of variance was done as per protocol. Results Out of 50 children previously BCG vaccinated, 39(78% showed exaggerated BCG test responses while out of another 50 children who were not vaccinated for TB, only 9(18% showed exaggerated BCG Test response (p-value Conclusion The present study indicates that normal healthy children may have a mild exaggerated BCG Test response i.e. induration up to 8 mm because of prior BCG vaccination. Therefore, BCG Test, though important should not be the only criteria for start of chemotherapy for TB in children as the side effects of drugs may cause much morbidity. An induration up to 8 mm after the BCG Test can be normal in Indian settings due to exposure to Mycobacterium in environment and/or BCG vaccine.

  11. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms without skin rash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Sasidharanpillai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS or drug hypersensitivity syndrome is considered as a severe cutaneous adverse drug reaction which is most commonly precipitated by aromatic anticonvulsants, lamotrigine, dapsone, allopurinol, minocycline, and salazopyrin. Its clinical manifestations are often variable. On rare occasions, it can present with only systemic involvement without any cutaneous features. A complete drug history is of paramount importance in making an early diagnosis. We report the case of a male patient who presented with fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and hepatitis, 2 weeks after starting salazopyrin. The presence of atypical lymphocytes in the peripheral smear was indicative of a viral infection or a hematological dyscrasia. Bone marrow examination revealed a normocellular marrow with an increase in eosinophil precursors. Investigations for the common causes for fever and hepatitis were negative. The presence of eosinophilia, the temporal relationship of the symptoms with the initiation of treatment with salazopyrin, and the marked improvement on withdrawal of the drug along with the administration of systemic corticosteroids, were features consistent with the diagnosis of DRESS. With the incidence of this condition showing a rising trend, it is important for the clinician to be aware of its variable manifestations, as a delay in diagnosis and treatment can be fatal.

  12. A case of delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction in sickle cell disease patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Ashu; Sidhu, Meena

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is autosomal recessive, genetically transmitted hemoglobinopathy responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. It is prevalent in many parts of India including Central India, where the prevalence in different communities has ranged from 9.4% to 22%. Perioperative management may include transfusion of red blood cells. Hemolytic transfusion reactions can occur, and these can be either acute or delayed. We present a case of delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction in a patient with SCD. PMID:27605854

  13. Evaluating the consistency of location of the most severe acute skin reaction and highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter during radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Chih-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yun; Chang, Gia-Hsin; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective study to evaluate whether the location of the most severe acute skin reaction matches the highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) during adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for patients with breast cancer after breast conservative surgery. To determine whether TLD measurement can reflect the location of the most severe acute skin reaction, 80 consecutive patients were enrolled in this prospective study. We divided the irradiated field into breast, axillary, inframammary fold, and areola/nipple areas. In 1 treatment session when obvious skin reaction occurred, we placed the TLD chips onto the 4 areas and measured the skin dose. We determined whether the highest measured skin dose area is consistent with the location of the most severe skin reaction. The McNemar test revealed that the clinical skin reaction and TLD measurement are more consistent when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the axillary area, and the p = 0.0108. On the contrary, TLD measurement of skin dose is less likely consistent with clinical observation when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the inframammary fold, breast, and areola/nipple areas (all the p > 0.05). Considering the common site of severe skin reaction over the axillary area, TLD measurement may be an appropriate way to predict skin reaction during RT. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Double Back Cut in Post-mastectomy Breast Skin (Fish-Shaped Skin Paddle) in Delayed Pedicled TRAM Flap Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezovsky, Alexander Bogdanov; Pagkalos, Vasileios A; Shoham, Yaron; Krieger, Yuval; Silberstein, Eldad

    2015-08-01

    Breast reconstruction has become standard of care for female patients with breast cancer. The transverse rectus abdominis musculo-cutaneous flap (TRAMf) is the most common method of immediate or delayed autologous breast reconstruction following mastectomy. We share our experience with modified, double back cut of post-mastectomy skin in delayed pedicled TRAMf breast reconstruction, resulting in fish-shaped skin paddle. This sort of back cut is a simple, reliable way to obtain a natural, esthetically pleasant breast mound with inconspicuous hidden scars.

  15. Time delayed K sup + N reactions and exotic baryon resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Kelkar, N G; Khemchandani, K P

    2003-01-01

    Evidence and hints, from both the theoretical and experimental sides, of exotic baryon resonances with B = S, have been with us for the last 30 years. The poor status of the general acceptance of these Z* resonances is partly due to the prejudice against penta-quark baryons and partly due to the opinion that a proof of the existence of exotic states must be rigorous. This can refer to the quality and amount of data gathered, and also to the analytical methods applied in the study of these resonances. It then seems mandatory that all possibilities and aspects be exploited. We do that by analysing the time delay in K sup + N scattering, encountering clear signals of the exotic Z* resonances close to the pole values found in partial wave analyses.

  16. Influence of chemical structure on skin reactions induced by antiepileptic drugs--the role of the aromatic ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-Qing; Shi, Xiao-Bing; Au, Ran; Chen, Fu-Shun; Wang, Fang; Lang, Sen-Yang

    2011-05-01

    Here we assessed whether the presence of an aromatic ring as a commonality in chemical structures of AEDs can explain skin reaction. We found that 164 cases of skin reactions associated with the use of AEDs were reported. Aromatic AEDs were suspected in 88.41% (145/164) of patients with skin reactions versus 59.80% (2316/3873) of patients without skin reactions. The presence of an aromatic ring in the chemical structure was associated with a significant increased risk of skin reactions (adjusted ROR 3.50; 95% CI 2.29, 5.35). Among the aromatic AEDs, skin reactions were significantly associated with carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and oxarbazepine. These results confirm that the presence of an aromatic ring as a common feature in chemical structures of AEDs partly explains AED-skin reactions. Skin reactions were reported triple as frequently with aromatic AEDs than with non-aromatic AEDs.

  17. Skin Reaction in Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Farhood

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The first medical intervention for many breast cancer patients is breast conserving surgery (BCS and/or modified radical mastectomy (MRM. Most of these patients undergo radiation therapy, following surgery. The most common side-effect of breast radiotherapy is skin damage. In the present study, the severity of acute skin changes and the underlying causes were investigated in patients undergoing BCS and radiotherapy. Materials and Methods This prospective, cohort study was performed on 31 female patients, undergoing breast surgery therapy at Shahid Rajaie Babolsar Radiotherapy Center from September 2011 to July 2012. A questionnaire was designed, including the patient’s characteristics, details of radiotherapy technique, and skin damage; the questionnaire was completed for each patient. The obtained results were analysed by performing ANOVA and Fisher's exact tests. Complications were graded using the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG scale. Results Grade 0 or 4 of skin damage was observed in none of the patients. Among the evaluated patients, 58%, 35.5%, and 6.5% of the patients had grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3 of skin damage, respectively. There was no statistically significant relationship between regional skin burns and factors such as average tangential field size, internal mammary field, chemotherapy, prior history of diseases, tamoxifen use, previous radiotherapy in breast area, or skin type (p>0.05. However, there was a significant relationship between skin burns and presence of supraclavicular field (p=0.05. Conclusion Considering the significant relationship between skin burn and supraclavicular field, special attention needs to be paid to factors affecting the treatment planning of supraclavicular field such as field size and photon energy.

  18. D-leaping: Accelerating stochastic simulation algorithms for reactions with delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Basil; Chatelain, Philippe; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2009-09-01

    We propose a novel, accelerated algorithm for the approximate stochastic simulation of biochemical systems with delays. The present work extends existing accelerated algorithms by distributing, in a time adaptive fashion, the delayed reactions so as to minimize the computational effort while preserving their accuracy. The accuracy of the present algorithm is assessed by comparing its results to those of the corresponding delay differential equations for a representative biochemical system. In addition, the fluctuations produced from the present algorithm are comparable to those from an exact stochastic simulation with delays. The algorithm is used to simulate biochemical systems that model oscillatory gene expression. The results indicate that the present algorithm is competitive with existing works for several benchmark problems while it is orders of magnitude faster for certain systems of biochemical reactions.

  19. Skin reactions caused by bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gen-di Yin; Xiangli Zeng; Peng Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report a case of intractable skin reactions caused by bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) implantation to improve our under-standing and treatment of BAHA implantation-caused skin reactions. Methods:We reported a case of severe skin reactions caused by BAHA implantation. Related literature were also reviewed. Results:We found grade IV skin reactions, including hyperplasia around the implant, which led to the removal of the BAHA implant 10 months after implantation. The findings indicated poor skin hygiene, allergy to titanium and inadequate surgicals skills as the possible causes of the skin reaction. Conclusion: Skin adverse reactions, usually rare in BAHA implantation patients, may cause implant removal and implantation failure. We suggest to further investigate the mechanisms underlying titanium allergy. Copyright © 2016, PLA General Hospital Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. Production and hosting by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  20. INFLUENCE OF NOISE AND DELAY ON REACTION-DIFFUSION RECURRENT NEURAL NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of the noise and delay upon the stability property of reaction-diffusion recurrent neural networks (RNNs) with the time-varying delay is discussed. The new and easily verifiable conditions to guarantee the mean value exponential stability of an equilibrium solution are derived. The rate of exponential convergence can be estimated by means of a simple computation based on these criteria.

  1. Comprehensive and Alternative Medicine in Preventing Radiotherapy-Induced Adverse Skin Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    TITLE: Comprehensive and Alternative Medicine in Preventing Radiotherapy-Induced Adverse Skin Reactions PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jennifer J. Hu...and Alternative Medicine in Preventing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Radiotherapy-Induced Adverse Skin Reactions 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0493 5c... alternative medicine with anti-inflamm atory properties, Calendula officinalis and Ching Wan Hung, in RT -induced EASRs. W e have tested two animal m

  2. Effects of intrinsic stochasticity on delayed reaction-diffusion patterning systems

    KAUST Repository

    Woolley, Thomas E.

    2012-05-22

    Cellular gene expression is a complex process involving many steps, including the transcription of DNA and translation of mRNA; hence the synthesis of proteins requires a considerable amount of time, from ten minutes to several hours. Since diffusion-driven instability has been observed to be sensitive to perturbations in kinetic delays, the application of Turing patterning mechanisms to the problem of producing spatially heterogeneous differential gene expression has been questioned. In deterministic systems a small delay in the reactions can cause a large increase in the time it takes a system to pattern. Recently, it has been observed that in undelayed systems intrinsic stochasticity can cause pattern initiation to occur earlier than in the analogous deterministic simulations. Here we are interested in adding both stochasticity and delays to Turing systems in order to assess whether stochasticity can reduce the patterning time scale in delayed Turing systems. As analytical insights to this problem are difficult to attain and often limited in their use, we focus on stochastically simulating delayed systems. We consider four different Turing systems and two different forms of delay. Our results are mixed and lead to the conclusion that, although the sensitivity to delays in the Turing mechanism is not completely removed by the addition of intrinsic noise, the effects of the delays are clearly ameliorated in certain specific cases. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  3. [Delayed asthma bronchiale due to epoxy resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authried, Georg; Al-Asadi, Haifaa; Møller, Ulla; Sherson, David Lee

    2013-10-28

    Epoxy resin is a low molecular weight agent, which can cause both acute and delayed allergic reactions. However, it is known causing skin reactions with direct or airborne contact. Rarely it can cause airway reactions like asthma bronchiale. We describe a case of a windmill worker who developed delayed asthma bronchiale due to airborne contact with epoxy resin.

  4. IMMEDIATE AND DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO LATEX GLOVES IN A DENTAL STUDENT. A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyana Stoeva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a case of dental student with immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reaction to latex gloves. Symptoms appeared during the second year of regularly using of latex gloves. The student was with no history of allergies and no previous exposure to latex products.

  5. Travelling Wave Solutions in Delayed Reaction Diffusion Systems with Partial Monotonicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-hua Huang; Xing-fu Zou

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the existence of travelling wave fronts of delayed reaction diffusion systems with partial quasi-monotonicity. We propose a concept of "desirable pair of upper-lower solutions", through which a subset can be constructed. We then apply the Schauder's fixed point theorem to some appropriate operator in this subset to obtain the existence of the travelling wave fronts.

  6. LONG-TIME BEHAVIOR OF A CLASS OF REACTION DIFFUSION EQUATIONS WITH TIME DELAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The present paper devotes to the long-time behavior of a class of reaction diffusion equations with delays under Dirichlet boundary conditions. The stability and global attractability for the zero solution are provided, and the existence, stability and attractability for the positive stationary solution are also obtained.

  7. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Vinicius M. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Muratov, Eugene [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry, A.V. Bogatsky Physical–Chemical Institute NAS of Ukraine, Odessa 65080 (Ukraine); Fourches, Denis [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole [ILS/Contractor supporting the NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Andrade, Carolina H. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Tropsha, Alexander, E-mail: alex_tropsha@unc.edu [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R{sup 2} = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q{sup 2}{sub ext} = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin

  8. Clinical categories of exaggerated skin reactions to mosquito bites and their pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuno, Kazuki; Fujiyama, Toshiharu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Shimauchi, Takatoshi; Ito, Taisuke; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito bites are skin irritating reactions, which usually resolve spontaneously without intensive medical care. However, in certain situations, mosquito bites may form a more vicious reaction, sometimes accompanying fever and systemic symptoms. In such cases, the presence of rare hematological disorders, abnormalities in eosinophils and/or association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may underlie. Importantly, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB), which is characterized by necrotic skin reactions to mosquito bites with various systemic symptoms, is often observed in association with EBV infection and natural killer (NK) cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Exaggerated skin reaction to mosquito bites is also seen in Wells' syndrome. While strong Th2-skewing immune dysregulation is apparent in the patients, they also show robust CD4(+) T cell proliferation in response to mosquito salivary gland extracts, indicating close association between Wells' syndrome and mosquito bites. Similar skin reaction to mosquito bites is also noticed in certain types of B cell neoplasm, although the role of B cells in this peculiar reaction to mosquito bites is yet to be elucidated. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge of exaggerated reaction toward mosquito bites seen in conjunction with these unique hematological disorders, and examine the scientific studies and observations reported in previous literatures to organize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of this distinct disorder.

  9. Skin reactions and quality of life after x-ray therapy of Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, Jette; Mikkelsen, Maria Rudkjaer; Daugbjerg, Helle

    2012-01-01

    controls (P = 0.819). Three months after X-ray therapy eight patients had no skin reactions, 11 had slight atrophy, pigmentation change, and/or some hair loss, four had patch atrophy, moderate telangiectasia, and/or total hair loss. Conclusions. BCC has a negative effect on patients' quality of life....... The study shows that HRQOL normalises shortly after X-ray therapy, despite minor skin manifestations....

  10. Travelling wave and convergence in stage-structured reaction-diffusion competitive models with nonlocal delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Rui [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)]. E-mail: rxu88@yahoo.com.cn; Chaplain, M.A.J. [Department of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Davidson, F.A. [Department of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-15

    In this paper, we first investigate a stage-structured competitive model with time delays, harvesting, and nonlocal spatial effect. By using an iterative technique recently developed by Wu and Zou (Wu J, Zou X. Travelling wave fronts of reaction-diffusion systems with delay. J Dynam Differen Equat 2001;13:651-87), sufficient conditions are established for the existence of travelling front solution connecting the two boundary equilibria in the case when there is no positive equilibrium. The travelling wave front corresponds to an invasion by a stronger species which drives the weaker species to extinction. Secondly, we consider a stage-structured competitive model with time delays and nonlocal spatial effect when the domain is finite. We prove the global stability of each of the nonnegative equilibria and demonstrate that the more complex model studied here admits three possible long term behaviors: coexistence, bistability and dominance as is the case for the standard Lotka-Voltera competitive model.

  11. Systemic hydrocortisone/cortisol induces allergic skin reactions in presensitized subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauerma, A I; Reitamo, S; Maibach, H I

    1991-02-01

    To determine whether systemic hydrocortisone can elicit allergic skin reactions in patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone, we studied four patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate and two patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone-17-butyrate but not to hydrocortisone. Open oral provocation with 100 or 250 mg hydrocortisone in patients with hydrocortisone contact hypersensitivity elicited cutaneous reactions at sites of previous allergic dermatitis caused by hydrocortisone in two patients and at sites of earlier allergic patch test reactions caused by hydrocortisone in the other two patients. Provocations in two patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone-17-butyrate but not to hydrocortisone remained negative. To determine whether the adrenal cortical hormone cortisol, which is identical to hydrocortisone, could induce similar skin reactions, one patient with hydrocortisone contact hypersensitivity underwent adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests; as a control, one hydrocortisone-sensitive patient underwent analogous provocations with placebo. After an 8-hour infusion with the adrenocorticotropic hormone analog tetracosactide, a similar skin reaction to that seen with oral hydrocortisone was observed, whereas provocations with placebo remained negative. We conclude that both oral hydrocortisone and intrinsic cortisol are able to induce allergic skin reactions in presensitized subjects.

  12. Stability of Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion Recurrent Neural Networks with Unbounded Distributed Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuangxia Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stability of reaction-diffusion recurrent neural networks (RNNs with continuously distributed delays and stochastic influence are considered. Some new sufficient conditions to guarantee the almost sure exponential stability and mean square exponential stability of an equilibrium solution are obtained, respectively. Lyapunov's functional method, M-matrix properties, some inequality technique, and nonnegative semimartingale convergence theorem are used in our approach. The obtained conclusions improve some published results.

  13. A modified next reaction method for simulating chemical systems with time dependent propensities and delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David F

    2007-12-01

    Chemical reaction systems with a low to moderate number of molecules are typically modeled as discrete jump Markov processes. These systems are oftentimes simulated with methods that produce statistically exact sample paths such as the Gillespie algorithm or the next reaction method. In this paper we make explicit use of the fact that the initiation times of the reactions can be represented as the firing times of independent, unit rate Poisson processes with internal times given by integrated propensity functions. Using this representation we derive a modified next reaction method and, in a way that achieves efficiency over existing approaches for exact simulation, extend it to systems with time dependent propensities as well as to systems with delays.

  14. Studies on Hypersensitivity—I. Delayed and Arthus-type Skin Reactivity to Protein Conjugates in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacerraf, B.; Gell, P. G. H.

    1959-01-01

    A study has been made of the immunization of guinea pigs with proteins conjugated with picryl, acetyl and ethoxymethylene-phenyloxazolone groups. Immunization by means of complexes of these substances with anti-protein and anti-hapten antisera have also been studied. Antibody production, anaphylactic and Arthus-type sensitivity and delayed skin sensitivity to the conjugates, to the carrier proteins and to unrelated proteins carrying the same haptenic group have been investigated. Immunization with conjugates is found to be followed by the appearance of delayed hypersensitivity to the protein `carrier' in the absence of detectable antibodies against it, although antibodies are produced at that time against the haptenic group itself. Delayed hypersensitivity to the haptenic group has not been detected at any time: blocking it with specific antibody does not lead to the appearance of delayed sensitivity, but merely suppresses antibody formation against that group. Pure delayed sensitivity has been produced against gelatin, both alone and as a conjugate with picryl. Conjugates with homologous serum proteins are shown to provoke only Arthus-type sensitivity and antibody against the haptenic group. These findings are discussed in view of the light they may throw upon the relation of delayed hypersensitivity to antibody production and upon the process of immunization. PMID:13640680

  15. Tattoo-Associated Skin Reaction: The Importance of an Early Diagnosis and Proper Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tattoo is going to be a very common practice especially among young people and we are witnessing a gradual increase of numerous potential complications to tattoo placement which are often seen by physicians, but generally unknown to the public. The most common skin reactions to tattoo include a transient acute inflammatory reaction due to trauma of the skin with needles and medical complications such as superficial and deep local infections, systemic infections, allergic contact dermatitis, photodermatitis, granulomatous and lichenoid reactions, and skin diseases localized on tattooed area (eczema, psoriasis, lichen, and morphea. Next to these inflammatory skin reactions we have to consider also the possibility of the development of cutaneous conditions such as pseudolymphomatous reactions and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. The aim of this study is to underline the importance of an early diagnosis by performing a histological examination especially when we are in front of suspected papulonodular lesions arising from a tattoo, followed by a proper treatment, since cutaneous neoplastic evolution is known to be a rare but possible complication.

  16. Study of apoptosis in skin lesions of leprosy in relation to treatment and lepra reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, C; Gupta, Sachin; Radotra, Bishan D; Arora, Sunil K; Kumar, Bhushan; Dogra, Sunil; Kaur, Inderjeet

    2005-12-01

    In leprosy on treatment, one factor contributing to the healing of skin lesions with minimal fibrosis may be apoptosis of inflammatory cells, even though apoptosis is sparse in leprosy as compared to tuberculosis. The degree of apoptosis in skin lesions of leprosy was studied by histopathologic examination (HPE) and by DNA fragmentation and electrophoresis. The effect of various parameters on apoptosis was noted in untreated disease, during treatment at 3 and 6 months, and in lepra reactions in different parts of the spectrum of leprosy. Of the 31 patients, 13 had paucibacillary (PB) and 18 multibacillary (MB) disease. Twenty one patients were in reaction: 16 had type 1 reaction and 5 had type 2 reaction. The controls included patients with non-granulomatous skin diseases; there were no normal controls, and no separate controls for cases with reaction. Apoptosis occurred more frequently in patients with leprosy as compared to the controls. In both PB & MB lesions, apoptosis was observed to increase progressively with treatment at 3 and 6 months, and was more prominent in the MB cases at 6 months of treatment. When lesions in either type 1 or type 2 reaction were compared to lesions not in reaction, a significant increase in apoptosis (p = 0.014) was found only in lesions with type 2 reaction and those which were at 6 months of treatment. The type of treatment regimen, or oral steroids given for reactions, did not significantly alter the degree of apoptosis. Our observations indicate that increased apoptosis is present in leprosy lesions and that in leprosy it progressively increases with anti-leprosy treatment up to 6 months. If the process of apoptosis in skin lesions is followed up for a longer period of time, the degree of apoptosis may be expected to decline. The study of apoptosis may help to understand the mechanism of clearance of bacilli and resolution of granulomas in leprosy patients.

  17. Iron content of skin before and after thalidomide treatment of lepra reaction. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheskin, J; Gorodetsky, R; Weinreb, A; Loewinger, E

    1981-01-01

    THe concentration of copper, zinc and iron in the skin of patients suffering from lepra reaction was measured by diagnostic X-ray spectrometry (DXS) at the sites of the lesions before and after treatment with thalidomide. The results were compared with the levels of these elements in the skin of healthy individuals. No significant changes in the copper level of leprous skin were found. The zinc levels showed significant elevations in some lesions with no apparent trend. The iron level in the affected areas had highly elevated values in all cases of lepra reaction. However, in contrast to the fast clinical improvement which followed the treatment with thalidomide, the iron levels did not decrease for prolonged periods.

  18. [Clinical application of moving cupping therapy based on skin reaction observation and syndrome differentiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao-Lan; Chen, Bo; Chen, Ze-Lin

    2014-12-01

    The diagnostic evidence on clinical diseases and theoretic basis of moving cupping therapy were ex- plored in the paper. By the observation of the local reaction, such as skin appearance and color, the affected location, duration of sickness and nature of disease were judged. Different moving cupping methods were selected for different disorders. It was discovered that the property of syndromes should be recognized by the palpation on skin and muscle in the moving cupping therapy so that the pathogenesis and treating principle could be carefully determined. The moving cupping therapy is the important component of body surface therapy. Skin reaction observation and syndrome differentiation is the essential guidance of the moving cupping therapy.

  19. Neutralisation of uPA with a monoclonal antibody reduces plasmin formation and delays skin wound healing in tPA-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jögi, Annika; Rønø, Birgitte; Lund, Ida K

    2010-01-01

    Proteolytic degradation by plasmin and metalloproteinases is essential for epidermal regeneration in skin wound healing. Plasminogen deficient mice have severely delayed wound closure as have mice simultaneously lacking the two plasminogen activators, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u......PA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). In contrast, individual genetic deficiencies in either uPA or tPA lead to wound healing kinetics with no or only slightly delayed closure of skin wounds....

  20. Hairy skin exposure to VX in vitro: effectiveness of delayed decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Josse, D; Briançon, S

    2013-02-01

    The chemical warfare agents such as VX represent a threat for both military and civilians, which involves an immediate need of effective decontamination systems. Since human scalp is usually unprotected compared to other body regions covered with clothes, it could be a preferential site of exposure in case of terrorist acts. The purpose of this study was to determine if skin decontamination could be efficient when performed more than 1h after exposure. In addition, the impact of hairs in skin contamination was investigated. By using in vitro skin models, we demonstrated that about 75% of the applied quantity of VX was recovered on the skin surface 2h after skin exposition, which means that it is worth decontaminating even if contamination occurred 2h before. The stratum corneum reservoir for VX was quickly established and persistent. In addition, the presence of hairs modified the percutaneous penetration of the nerve agent by binding of VX to hairs. Hair shaft has thus to be taken into account in the decontamination process. Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and Fuller's Earth (FE) were active in the skin decontamination 45min post-exposure, but RSDL was more efficient in reducing the amount of VX either in the skin or in the hair.

  1. TRAVELING WAVES IN A BIOLOGICAL REACTION-DIFFUSION MODEL WITH STRONG GENERIC DELAY KERNEL AND NON-LOCAL EFFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we consider the reaction diffusion equations with strong generic delay kernel and non-local effect,which models the microbial growth in a flow reactor.The existence of traveling waves is established for this model.More precisely,using the geometric singular perturbation theory,we show that traveling wave solutions exist provided that the delay is sufficiently small with the strong generic delay kernel.

  2. Predicting rare events in chemical reactions: Application to skin cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chiu Fan

    2010-08-01

    In a well-stirred system undergoing chemical reactions, fluctuations in the reaction propensities are approximately captured by the corresponding chemical Langevin equation. Within this context, we discuss in this work how the Kramers escape theory can be used to predict rare events in chemical reactions. As an example, we apply our approach to a recently proposed model on cell proliferation with relevance to skin cancer [P. B. Warren, Phys. Rev. E 80, 030903 (2009)]. In particular, we provide an analytical explanation for the form of the exponential exponent observed in the onset rate of uncontrolled cell proliferation.

  3. No skin reactions to mineral powders in nickel-sensitive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodén, Marie; Nilsson, Gert; Parvardeh, Masomeh; Neimert Carne, Kristina; Berg, Mats

    2012-04-01

    Cosmetic products are known to be able to induce contact dermatitis. Contact dermatitis may also be induced by nickel, and it is estimated that up to 17% of women are allergic to nickel. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether nickel sensitized individuals react to make-up products containing pigments with nickel as an impurity. Twenty-three individuals with a clinical history of nickel allergy and/or with positive patch test reactions to nickel were exposed to mineral make-up products and individual pigments dispersed in alkylbenzoate (50%) in small Finn Chambers® for 48 hr. The skin reactions were evaluated visually and with a non-invasive instrument that quantifies skin erythema. The results showed that 74% of the included individuals showed a visible reaction to the positive control nickel sulfate, and a significant correlation was found between the visual and instrumental readings. However, none of the nickel sensitive individuals reacted to the test products. A subgroup analysis of the 50% most sensitive individuals also confirmed the absence of skin reactions to the powders. The bioavailability of the trace amounts of nickel in the particles was below the level needed to elicit an eczematous reaction in any of the nickel-sensitized individuals. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Different radiation susceptibility among five strains of mice detected by a skin reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakawa, Mayumi; Noda, Shuhei; Ohta, Toshie [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Frontier Research Center] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Published reports about skin reactions to radiotherapy, especially among breast-cancer patients, suggest that there are interindividual differences in the normal tissue response, and genetic factors are thought to be involved in this variation. An analysis of murine strain differences may reveal the mechanism of genetic factors in the extent of normal tissue damage from irradiation for several endpoints. The variation in the radiation susceptibility was observed when the skin of mice from strains A/J, C3H/HeMs, C57BL/6J, C.B.17/Icr-scid and C3H-scid was irradiated with a single dose ranging from 10 to 60 Gy, using Cs-137 gamma rays. The active skin reaction of A/J mice lasted for months. C3H/HeMs mice showed dose-dependent skin damage, and consequently recovered to a state of mild damage within 40 days after local irradiation. The time course of the response in C57BL/6J mice was shorter than in A/J mice. The 2 strains of scid mice exhibited severe damage after irradiation at any dose from 20 to 50 Gy, and did not show any dose dependency. The variation between murine strains in macroscopic and histopathological changes in skin during the progression and resolution of damage caused by irradiation suggests an inter-strain variation in the expression of genes involved in injury, apoptosis, repair, and remodeling. (author)

  5. Polidocanol injection for chemical delay and its effect on the survival of rat dorsal skin flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menevşe, Gülsüm Tetik; TeomanTellioglu, Ali; Altuntas, Nurgül; Cömert, Ayhan; Tekdemir, Ibrahim

    2014-06-01

    Surgical delay is an invasive method requiring a two-stage surgical procedure. Hence, methods that may serve as an alternative to surgical delay have become the focus of interest of research studies. From a conceptual view, any technique that interrupts the blood flow along the edges of a proposed flap will render the flap ischemic and induce a delay phenomenon. Polidocanol (Aethoxysklerol(®)-Kreussler) was initially used as a local anesthetic. Nowadays, it has been used as a sclerosing agent to treat telangiectasias and varicose veins. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of polidocanol injected around the periphery of a random flap as a sclerosing agent on flap delay and survival in a random flap model. A preliminary histopathologic study was performed on two rats to evaluate the sclerosing effect and distribution of polidocanol injection. After the preliminary study, the main study was carried out with three groups: group 1: dorsal flap (n = 10); group 2: dorsal flap + surgical delay (n = 10), group 3: dorsal flap + chemical delay (n = 10). Tissue samples obtained from the flap and injection area revealed destruction of intradermal vessels. The area affected with sclerosis was limited to 0.1 cm beyond the injection site. Mean viable flap areas were 52.1 ± 4.38% (44.0-58.2) in group 1, 64.8 ± 8.92% (57.2-89.2) in group 2, and 71.8 ± 5.18% (64.0-84.0) in group 3. A statistically highly significant difference was found between the surgical delay and chemical delay groups versus the group without delay (p surgical and chemical delay groups (p = 0.056). In conclusion, this study has shown that polidocanol injection around the dorsal flap in the rat is a safe and easy method for nonsurgical delay. The results have shown a flap survival benefit that is superior to controls and equivalent to surgical delay. The clinical application of polidocanol, already in clinical practice for occlusal of telangiectasias, for surgical delay appears

  6. Survey of early complications of primary skin graft and secondary skin graft (delayed) surgery after resection of burn waste in hospitalized burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enshaei, A; Masoudi, N

    2014-09-18

    Burning is the second most common cause of home injuries in Iran that is often the cause of conflicts between children and young adults. Burning can lead to early and late complications that scar and contracture are the most common. Burn waste treatment is done by two methods: excision and then skin graft after the formation of granulation tissue; and excision and graft simultaneously that in this study, these two methods are compared. This was performed as a quasi-experimental analysis and retrospective study on all patients who were hospitalized for burn scar. All patients who have associated with weak eningimmune diseases such as diabetes, acquired immunodeficiency or congenital, taking steroids and patients undergoing chemotherapy etc. are excluded. The method of grafting in patients is primary graft procedure that was compared with patients who are treated using secondary graft. Data collected through review of patients' hospital and clinic chart. The mean burn percentage in the primary repair group was 14.4% and in the delayed repair group was 16.6%, respectively. The incidence of hematoma in both groups was zero. Skin necrosis and graft rejection and infection in the primary repair group was in 3.7% of patients and in the delayed repair group was in 1.2% of cases (P=0.5) CONCLUSION: Based on the findings of this study, no difference was observed between the two methods of excision and primary graft with delayed graft in the incidence of graft rejection. Due to the shorter treatment of primary graft and patient satisfaction and also according to the findings of this study excision and primary graft method seems appropriate method for treating old waste burning. 

  7. Therapeutic efficacy and immunological response of CCL5 antagonists in models of contact skin reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Canavese

    Full Text Available Skin-infiltrating T-cells play a predominant role in allergic and inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and allergic contact dermatitis. These T-cells are attracted by several chemotactic factors including the chemokine CCL5/RANTES, a CC chemokine inducing both the migration and activation of specific leukocyte subsets. CCL5 has been found to be associated with various cell-mediated hypersensitive disorders such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis. We have used two antagonists, the first, Met-CCL5, a dual CCR1/CCR5 antagonist and the second, a variant in which GAG binding is abrogated, (44AANA(47-CCL5, which acts as a dominant negative inhibitor of CCL5. The antagonists were tested in two models of contact skin reaction. The first, irritant contact dermatitis (ICD is a pathological non-specific inflammatory skin condition arising from the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by keratinocytes in response to haptens, usually chemicals. The second, contact hypersensitivity (CHS is a T-cell dependent model, mimicking in part the T-cell-mediated skin diseases such as psoriasis. In both models, the CCL5 antagonists showed therapeutic efficacy by reducing swelling by 50% as well as the reduction of soluble mediators in homogenates derived from challenged ears. These results demonstrate that blocking the receptor or the ligand are both effective strategies to inhibit skin inflammation.

  8. Relationship between severity of the local skin reactions and the rate of local skin reaction resolution in patients treated with ingenol mebutate gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim On SC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shelbi C Jim On,1 Kim Mark Knudsen,2 Torsten Skov,2 Mark Lebwohl,1 1Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2LEO Pharma A/S, Biostatistics, Ballerup, Denmark Background: Ingenol mebutate gel is a topical field treatment for actinic keratosis (AK. The treatment elicits application-site reactions in most patients. This analysis evaluated the relationship between the severity of reactions and the speed of their resolution.  Methods: Patients in Phase III studies were treated for AKs on the face (n=218, scalp (n=56, and trunk and extremities (n=209. All of the patients were treated with either ingenol mebutate gel 0.015% once daily for three consecutive days (face/scalp or ingenol mebutate gel 0.05% once daily for two consecutive days (trunk/extremities. Local skin reactions (LSRs were assessed on a 5-point scale from 0 to 4 in six categories, yielding composite scores in the range of 0 to 24. Results: The composite LSR score on the day after the last application of ingenol mebutate gel was an important predictor of the speed of resolution of LSRs. The rate of resolution was greatest for AKs treated on the face, followed by the scalp, and then the trunk and extremities. All patients were expected to have minimal LSR scores for the face and scalp at 2 weeks, and for the trunk and extremities at 4 weeks. Conclusion: The absolute reduction in LSR scores was proportional to the composite LSR score on the day after the last application of ingenol mebutate gel treatment. The rate of resolution for LSRs was dependent on the anatomic site treated as well as the day 4 composite score. Keywords: ingenol mebutate, local skin reaction, actinic keratosis

  9. Association of XRCC1 variants with acute skin reaction after radiotherapy in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqing; Xia, Jianhong; Li, Hongliang; Dai, Jianrong; Hu, Yimin

    2010-12-01

    After irradiation results in cytotoxic effects by DNA damage, base excision repair (BER) pathway is involved in the repair of single-strand breaks and nonhomologous end joining and homologous repair of double-strand breaks caused by radiotherapy. Alterations in the function of BER DNA repair genes may affect DNA repair proficiency and influence the response of patients with cancer to radiotherapy. The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of BER DNA repair X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1) and risk of radiotherapy-induced ≥grade 2 acute skin reaction in patients with breast cancer was examined. It was found that the risk of ≥grade 2 acute skin toxicity after radiotherapy could be increased by 2.86-fold in patients carrying the XRCC1 -77TC and CC genotypes (p = 0.016). However, the other three coding XRCC1 variants did not influence the risk of ≥grade 2 acute skin toxicity for patients with breast cancer after radiotherapy. Our results suggested that the XRCC1 polymorphism is associated with increased risk of radiation-induced acute skin reaction in a Chinese population.

  10. [Ozone therapy for radiation reactions and skin lesions after neutron therapy in patients with malignant tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikaya, V V; Gribova, O V; Musabaeva, L I; Startseva, Zh A; Simonov, K A; Aleinik, A N; Lisin, V A

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the problem of radiation complications from normal tissues in patients after therapy with fast neutrons of 6.3 MeV. The methods of treatment using ozone technologies in patients with radiation reactions and skin lesions on the areas of irradiation after neutron and neutron-photon therapy have been worked out. Ozone therapy showed its harmlessness and increased efficiency of complex treatment of these patients.

  11. Chronic tattoo reactions cause reduced quality of life equaling cumbersome skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Katrina Hutton; Serup, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Tattoos are often associated with mild complaints, but some people develop complications that may require medical treatment, and the burden of these events has hitherto been neglected. To understand the dimensions and the psychological symptomatology of adverse events both the sensory and affective...... applied to patients with chronic tattoo reactions, tattoo complaints and impact on quality of life that were comparable to patients presenting cumbersome dermatological disease such as psoriasis, eczema and pruritus, which often show widespread effects to the skin, were uncovered. In conclusion, chronic...... tattoo reactions should be ranked as a cumbersome dermatological disease and, accordingly, given priority attention and qualified treatment by the public health care system....

  12. Targeting Senescent Cells : Possible Implications for Delaying Skin Aging: A Mini-Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velarde, Michael C.; Demaria, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells are induced by a wide variety of stimuli. They accumulate in several tissues during aging, including the skin. Senescent cells secrete proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases, a phenomenon called senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which are

  13. Experimental testing of skin reactions to insulin detemir in diabetes patients naïve to insulin detemir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'goshi, Kenichiro; Serup, Jørgen; Blaaholm, Bente

    2011-01-01

    a consistent pattern of inflammation with eosinophilia as typically observed in adverse skin reactions to a variety of medicines. Reactions were interpreted as non-specific biologic responses to the insulin different from direct toxic actions and classical allergic reaction patterns. Only one person registered...

  14. Comparison of Motor Inhibition in Variants of the Instructed-Delay Choice Reaction Time Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoilin, Caroline; Lambert, Julien; Jacob, Benvenuto; Klein, Pierre-Alexandre; Duque, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Using instructed-delay choice reaction time (RT) paradigms, many previous studies have shown that the motor system is transiently inhibited during response preparation: motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex are typically suppressed during the delay period. This effect has been observed in both selected and non-selected effectors, although MEP changes in selected effectors have been more inconsistent across task versions. Here, we compared changes in MEP amplitudes in three different variants of an instructed-delay choice RT task. All variants required participants to choose between left and right index finger movements but the responses were either provided "in the air" (Variant 1), on a regular keyboard (Variant 2), or on a response device designed to control from premature responses (Variant 3). The task variants also differed according to the visual layout (more concrete in Variant 3) and depending on whether participants received a feedback of their performance (absent in Variant 1). Behavior was globally comparable between the three variants of the task although the propensity to respond prematurely was highest in Variant 2 and lowest in Variant 3. MEPs elicited in a non-selected hand were similarly suppressed in the three variants of the task. However, significant differences emerged when considering MEPs elicited in the selected hand: these MEPs were suppressed in Variants 1 and 3 whereas they were often facilitated in Variant 2, especially in the right dominant hand. In conclusion, MEPs elicited in selected muscles seem to be more sensitive to small variations to the task design than those recorded in non-selected effectors, probably because they reflect a complex combination of inhibitory and facilitatory influences on the motor output system. Finally, the use of a standard keyboard seems to be particularly inappropriate because it encourages participants to respond promptly with no

  15. Dynamical Behavior of Delayed Reaction-Diffusion Hopfield Neural Networks Driven by Infinite Dimensional Wiener Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Wang, Linshan; Wang, Yangfan; Wang, Ruili

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we focus on the long time behavior of the mild solution to delayed reaction-diffusion Hopfield neural networks (DRDHNNs) driven by infinite dimensional Wiener processes. We analyze the existence, uniqueness, and stability of this system under the local Lipschitz function by constructing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii function and utilizing the semigroup theory. Some easy-to-test criteria affecting the well-posedness and stability of the networks, such as infinite dimensional noise and diffusion effect, are obtained. The criteria can be used as theoretic guidance to stabilize DRDHNNs in practical applications when infinite dimensional noise is taken into consideration. Meanwhile, considering the fact that the standard Brownian motion is a special case of infinite dimensional Wiener process, we undertake an analysis of the local Lipschitz condition, which has a wider range than the global Lipschitz condition. Two samples are given to examine the availability of the results in this paper. Simulations are also given using the MATLAB.

  16. Wavefronts in time-delayed reaction-diffusion systems. Theory and comparison to experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, Joaquim [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de Girona, Girona (Spain)]. E-mail: joaquim.fort@udg.es; Mendez, Vicenc [Facultat de Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Ssant Cugat del Valles (Spain)]. E-mail: vmendez@csc.unica.edu

    2002-06-01

    We review the recent theoretical progress in the formulation and solution of the front speed problem for time-delayed reaction-diffusion systems. Most of the review is focused on hyperbolic equations. They have been widely used in recent years, because they allow for analytical solutions and yield a realistic description of some relevant phenomena. The theoretical methods are applied to a range of applications, including population dynamics, forest fire models, bistable systems and combustion wavefronts. We also present a detailed account of successful predictions of the models, as assessed by comparison to experimental data for some biophysical systems, without making use of any free parameters. Areas where the work reviewed may contribute to future progress are discussed. (author)

  17. Bifurcation analysis of a delay reaction-diffusion malware propagation model with feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhe; Zhao, Hongyong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-05-01

    With the rapid development of network information technology, information networks security has become a very critical issue in our work and daily life. This paper attempts to develop a delay reaction-diffusion model with a state feedback controller to describe the process of malware propagation in mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSNs). By analyzing the stability and Hopf bifurcation, we show that the state feedback method can successfully be used to control unstable steady states or periodic oscillations. Moreover, formulas for determining the properties of the bifurcating periodic oscillations are derived by applying the normal form method and center manifold theorem. Finally, we conduct extensive simulations on large-scale MWSNs to evaluate the proposed model. Numerical evidences show that the linear term of the controller is enough to delay the onset of the Hopf bifurcation and the properties of the bifurcation can be regulated to achieve some desirable behaviors by choosing the appropriate higher terms of the controller. Furthermore, we obtain that the spatial-temporal dynamic characteristics of malware propagation are closely related to the rate constant for nodes leaving the infective class for recovered class and the mobile behavior of nodes.

  18. Histological analysis of short-term vital reactions in skin wounds: potential applications in forensic work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Obac

    Full Text Available In forensic medical work, in cases with homicide suspicion, it is important to be able to determine with the greatest possible precision when injuries occurred and whether during vital, or post-mortem conditions. Although several markers of vitality can be employed, it has been attested that components of the extra-cellular matrix, such as fibrin, are among the earliest to be evidenced. In the present study, the histological-histochemical Mallory's Trichrome staining method, previously selected was tested to determine the presence of vital reaction in Wistar rats through fibrin accumulation by testing three short reaction time intervals: 15, 30 and 60 minutes after the skin wound infliction. For all time intervals tested, including the shortest (15 minutes, the presence of fibrin at the edges of the skin wound was evidenced. The accumulation of fibrin was, nevertheless, more pronounced at 30 and 60 minutes after the wound. It could be concluded that fibrin is a good marker for vital reaction and that it can be detected very early, within a few minutes after the injury. It is proposed that histological method coupled to the histochemical staining technique here tested can be incorporated into routine forensic work as a tool for evidencing the existence or not of vital reaction.

  19. [Skin reactions on exposure to the pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, J; Vega, J M; Moneo, I

    2011-11-01

    The pine processionary caterpillar is the larval form of the Thaumetopoea pityocampa moth. Mediterranean forests regularly suffer plagues of this insect, which has been moving north as a result of global warming. When the small urticating hairs that develop during the last 3 larval stages are shed and can become airborne. If they come in contact with skin, they can cause a variety of reactions, notably contact urticaria and papular rashes. Irritation can also occur if the hairs lodge in the mucosa of the conjunctiva or in the respiratory tract. Several cases of anaphylactic reactions have been reported in recent years. Mechanical (irritative) mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of lesions, or immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic hypersensitivity reactions may be implicated when the process is rapid, recurrent, and progressively more severe.

  20. Stabilization strategies of a general nonlinear car-following model with varying reaction-time delay of the drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shukai; Yang, Lixing; Gao, Ziyou; Li, Keping

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the stabilization strategies of a general nonlinear car-following model with reaction-time delay of the drivers are investigated. The reaction-time delay of the driver is time varying and bounded. By using the Lyapunov stability theory, the sufficient condition for the existence of the state feedback control strategy for the stability of the car-following model is given in the form of linear matrix inequality, under which the traffic jam can be well suppressed with respect to the varying reaction-time delay. Moreover, by considering the external disturbance for the running cars, the robust state feedback control strategy is designed, which ensures robust stability and a smaller prescribed H∞ disturbance attenuation level for the traffic flow. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  1. Chemical kinetics of multiphase reactions between ozone and human skin lipids: Implications for indoor air quality and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, P S J; Wisthaler, A; Berkemeier, T; Mikoviny, T; Pöschl, U; Shiraiwa, M

    2016-12-10

    Ozone reacts with skin lipids such as squalene, generating an array of organic compounds, some of which can act as respiratory or skin irritants. Thus, it is important to quantify and predict the formation of these products under different conditions in indoor environments. We developed the kinetic multilayer model that explicitly resolves mass transport and chemical reactions at the skin and in the gas phase (KM-SUB-Skin). It can reproduce the concentrations of ozone and organic compounds in previous measurements and new experiments. This enabled the spatial and temporal concentration profiles in the skin oil and underlying skin layers to be resolved. Upon exposure to ~30 ppb ozone, the concentrations of squalene ozonolysis products in the gas phase and in the skin reach up to several ppb and on the order of ~10 mmol m(-3) . Depending on various factors including the number of people, room size, and air exchange rates, concentrations of ozone can decrease substantially due to reactions with skin lipids. Ozone and dicarbonyls quickly react away in the upper layers of the skin, preventing them from penetrating deeply into the skin and hence reaching the blood.

  2. Impact of hypofractionation and tangential beam IMRT on the acute skin reaction in adjuvant breast cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudat, Volker; Nour, Alaa; Ghaida, Salam Abou; Alaradi, Aziz

    2016-07-30

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of multiple prognostic factors on the acute skin reaction in adjuvant breast cancer radiotherapy, in particular the impact of hypofractionation (HF) compared to conventional fractionation (CF) and tangential beam (TB) IMRT compared to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Two-hundred and sixty-six breast cancer patients with postoperative radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery or mastectomy were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were treated with HF (15 fractions of 2.67 Gy; n = 121) or CF (28 fractions of 1.8 Gy or 25 fractions of 2.0 Gy; n = 145) and TB-IMRT (n = 151) or 3DCRT (n = 115). The acute skin reactions were prospectively assessed using the CTCAE v4 grading scale. Ordinal regression analysis was used to assess the impact of possible prognostic factors on the maximal acute skin reaction. Grade 2 skin reactions were observed in 19 % of the patients treated with CF compared to 2 % treated with HF. On univariate analysis, the fractionation regimen, the PTV (breast versus chest wall), the volume of the PTV and the body mass index were significant prognostic factors for the maximum acute skin reaction. On multivariate analysis, the fractionation regimen (p skin reaction compared to CF.

  3. Finite-Time Stability Analysis of Reaction-Diffusion Genetic Regulatory Networks with Time-Varying Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaofei; Zhang, Xian; Wu, Ligang; Shi, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the finite-time stability problem of the delayed genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) with reaction-diffusion terms under Dirichlet boundary conditions. By constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional including quad-slope integrations, we establish delay-dependent finite-time stability criteria by employing the Wirtinger-type integral inequality, Gronwall inequality, convex technique, and reciprocally convex technique. In addition, the obtained criteria are also reaction-diffusion-dependent. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  4. Diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction analysis of skin biopsies in purpura fulminans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beau, Caroline; Vlassova, Natalia; Sarlangue, Jean; Brissaud, Olivier; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Boralevi, Franck

    2013-01-01

    Even though prompt diagnosis and treatment of purpura fulminans (PF) is essential to reduce mortality, early administration of antibiotics may preclude identification of the causative agent by standard bacterial cultures and thus render definitive diagnosis impossible. Here we present a case of an infant with PF and negative bacterial cultures for whom polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of a cutaneous biopsy specimen obtained 4 days after initiation of antibiotics identified the genomic sequence of Neisseria meningitidis genogroup C. When bacterial cultures fail to provide useful information, PCR of skin biopsy specimens can be a valuable diagnostic tool in PF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparison of Motor Inhibition in Variants of the Instructed-Delay Choice Reaction Time Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoilin, Caroline; Lambert, Julien; Jacob, Benvenuto; Klein, Pierre-Alexandre; Duque, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Using instructed-delay choice reaction time (RT) paradigms, many previous studies have shown that the motor system is transiently inhibited during response preparation: motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex are typically suppressed during the delay period. This effect has been observed in both selected and non-selected effectors, although MEP changes in selected effectors have been more inconsistent across task versions. Here, we compared changes in MEP amplitudes in three different variants of an instructed-delay choice RT task. All variants required participants to choose between left and right index finger movements but the responses were either provided “in the air” (Variant 1), on a regular keyboard (Variant 2), or on a response device designed to control from premature responses (Variant 3). The task variants also differed according to the visual layout (more concrete in Variant 3) and depending on whether participants received a feedback of their performance (absent in Variant 1). Behavior was globally comparable between the three variants of the task although the propensity to respond prematurely was highest in Variant 2 and lowest in Variant 3. MEPs elicited in a non-selected hand were similarly suppressed in the three variants of the task. However, significant differences emerged when considering MEPs elicited in the selected hand: these MEPs were suppressed in Variants 1 and 3 whereas they were often facilitated in Variant 2, especially in the right dominant hand. In conclusion, MEPs elicited in selected muscles seem to be more sensitive to small variations to the task design than those recorded in non-selected effectors, probably because they reflect a complex combination of inhibitory and facilitatory influences on the motor output system. Finally, the use of a standard keyboard seems to be particularly inappropriate because it encourages participants to respond promptly

  6. Neutron skin effect of some Mo isotopes in pre-equilibrium reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M H Bölükdemir; E Tel; S Okuducu; N N Akti

    2011-03-01

    The neutron skin effect has been investigated for even isotopes of molybdenum at 25.6 MeV 94−100Mo(, ) reaction using the geometry-dependent hybrid model of pre-equilibrium nuclear reactions. Here the initial neutron/proton exciton numbers were calculated from the neutron/proton densities obtained from an effective nucleon–nucleon interaction of the Skyrme type. Initial exciton numbers from different radii of even Mo isotopes were used to obtain the corresponding neutron emission spectra. In this investigation the calculated results are compared with the experimental data as also with each other. The results using central densities in the geometry-dependent hybrid model are in better agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Chronic tattoo reactions cause reduced quality of life equaling cumbersome skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Katrina Hutton; Serup, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Tattoos are often associated with mild complaints, but some people develop complications that may require medical treatment, and the burden of these events has hitherto been neglected. To understand the dimensions and the psychological symptomatology of adverse events both the sensory and affective impacts, including the effect on quality of life, should be studied. Itch severity and influence on quality of life can be measured objectively. The Itch Severity Scale and Dermatology Life Quality Index scoring systems have been applied to different dermatological diseases. When ISS and DLQI scores were applied to patients with chronic tattoo reactions, tattoo complaints and impact on quality of life that were comparable to patients presenting cumbersome dermatological disease such as psoriasis, eczema and pruritus, which often show widespread effects to the skin, were uncovered. In conclusion, chronic tattoo reactions should be ranked as a cumbersome dermatological disease and, accordingly, given priority attention and qualified treatment by the public health care system. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2014-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2013. Studies on food allergy suggest that (1) 7.6% of the US population is affected, (2) a "healthy" early diet might prevent food allergy, (3) the skin might be an important route of sensitization, (4) allergen component testing might aid diagnosis, (5) the prognosis of milk allergy might be predictable through early testing, (6) oral or sublingual immunotherapy show promise but also have caveats, and (7) preclinical studies show promising alternative modes of immunotherapy and desensitization. Studies on eosinophilic esophagitis show a relationship to connective tissue disorders and that dietary management is an effective treatment for adults. Markers of anaphylaxis severity have been determined and might inform potential diagnostics and therapeutic targets. Insights on serum tests for drug and insect sting allergy might result in improved diagnostics. Genetic and immune-mediated defects in skin epithelial differentiation contribute to the severity of atopic dermatitis. Novel management approaches to treatment of chronic urticaria, including use of omalizumab, are being identified. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pattern formation in a two-component reaction-diffusion system with delayed processes on a network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Julien; Asllani, Malbor; Fanelli, Duccio; Lauwens, Ben; Carletti, Timoteo

    2016-11-01

    Reaction-diffusion systems with time-delay defined on complex networks have been studied in the framework of the emergence of Turing instabilities. The use of the Lambert W-function allowed us to get explicit analytic conditions for the onset of patterns as a function of the main involved parameters, the time-delay, the network topology and the diffusion coefficients. Depending on these parameters, the analysis predicts whether the system will evolve towards a stationary Turing pattern or rather to a wave pattern associated to a Hopf bifurcation. The possible outcomes of the linear analysis overcome the respective limitations of the single-species case with delay, and that of the classical activator-inhibitor variant without delay. Numerical results gained from the Mimura-Murray model support the theoretical approach.

  10. Delayed Diagnosis, Leprosy Reactions, and Nerve Injury Among Individuals With Hansen's Disease Seen at a United States Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Kristoffer E; Jacob, Jesse T; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Kozarsky, Phyllis E; Wu, Henry M; Fairley, Jessica K

    2016-03-01

    Background.  Hansen's disease (HD), or leprosy, is uncommon in the United States. We sought to describe the characteristics of patients with HD in a US clinic, including an assessment of delays in diagnosis and HD reactions, which have both been associated with nerve damage. Methods.  A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients seen at an HD clinic in the southern United States between January 1, 2002 and January 31, 2014. Demographic and clinical characteristics were summarized, including delays in diagnosis, frequency of reactions, and other complications including peripheral neuropathy. Results.  Thirty patients were seen during the study time period. The majority of patients were male (73%) and had multibacillary disease (70%). Brazil, Mexico, and the United States were the most frequent of the 14 countries of origin. Hansen's disease "reactions", severe inflammatory complications, were identified among 75% of patients, and nerve damage was present at diagnosis in 36% of patients. The median length of time between symptom onset and diagnosis was long at 12 months (range, 1-96), but no single factor was associated with a delay in diagnosis. Conclusions.  The diagnosis of HD was frequently delayed among patients referred to our US clinic. The high frequency of reactions and neuropathy at diagnosis suggests that further efforts at timely diagnosis and management of this often unrecognized disease is needed to prevent the long-term sequelae associated with irreversible nerve damage.

  11. Stability Analysis of Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion Cohen-Grossberg Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuangxia Huang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with pth moment exponential stability of stochastic reaction-diffusion Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with time-varying delays. With the help of Lyapunov method, stochastic analysis, and inequality techniques, a set of new suffcient conditions on pth moment exponential stability for the considered system is presented. The proposed results generalized and improved some earlier publications.

  12. The effect of salmeterol and salbutamol on mediator release and skin responses in immediate and late phase allergic cutaneous reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Skov, P S

    1999-01-01

    by suction blister technique. RESULTS: Both beta2-agonists inhibited allergen-induced histamine release and wheal and flare reactions with maximum inhibition of 40-50% at 10(-6) M, a concentration which reduced PGD2 synthesis by approximately 55%. Histamine release by codeine and skin reactions to codeine...

  13. Effects of pretreatment with a urea-containing emollient on nickel allergic skin reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, Natalia; Nyrén, Miruna; Lodén, Marie; Edlund, Fredrik; Emtestam, Lennart

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a moisturizer containing urea on allergic contact dermatitis. Twenty-five nickel-sensitized patients and five controls (non-sensitized volunteers) applied such a moisturizer on the volar side of one forearm twice daily for 20 days, while the other forearm served as the control. After treatment with the moisturizer, patch tests with 0%, 0.5% and 2% NiSO4 in petrolatum were applied in a randomized manner on each arm. After 72 h, the skin reactions were blindly evaluated by clinical scoring and by measuring transepidermal water loss and electrical impedance. After treatment, the baseline transepidermal water loss values were lower and the baseline magnitude impedance index values were higher on the pretreated forearm. According to clinical scoring and measurements with the two physical measurement techniques, the degree of the patch test reactions was equal. All control subjects had negative nickel tests. We concluded that the skin reactivity to nickel in nickel-sensitized patients is not significantly affected by use of the urea-containing moisturizer.

  14. The efficacy of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity using a brucellin prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus to detect brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.; Muskens, J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Eight-hundred-and-ninety-six cattle belonging to herds officially designated Brucella-free, and 190 cattle belonging to infected herds were tested with the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity (SDTH) test, using brucellin (273) prepared from a rnucoid strain of Brucella abortus. An increase in

  15. The efficacy of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity using a brucellin prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus to detect brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.; Muskens, J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Eight-hundred-and-ninety-six cattle belonging to herds officially designated Brucella-free, and 190 cattle belonging to infected herds were tested with the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity (SDTH) test, using brucellin (273) prepared from a rnucoid strain of Brucella abortus. An increase in skinfol

  16. Reações cutâneas desencadeadas por drogas Skin reactions to drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Cavariani Silvares

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Drogas podem desencadear reações adversas. As manifestações cutâneas são as mais comuns. OBJETIVO: Analisar as farmacodermias e relacionar as drogas envolvidas e os tipos de reações cutâneas mais freqüentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo e descritivo. Avaliados pacientes com diagnóstico inicial de farmacodermia internados na Enfermaria de Dermatologia, no período de janeiro de 1999 a junho de 2004. Incluídos no estudo os pacientes que confirmaram o diagnóstico de farmacodermia, com base em critérios clínicos e histopatológicos, após a análise dos prontuários. RESULTADOS: Tiveram diagnóstico inicial de farmacodermia 121 pacientes. Incluídos 43 pacientes, dos quais 51,2% eram do sexo feminino, e 86% da raça branca. Destes, 48,8% faziam uso de apenas uma medicação, sendo o grupo dos antibióticos o mais utilizado (20,9% e o principal responsável pela farmacodermia(33,3%. O segundo grupo de drogas mais envolvido foi o dos antiinflamatórios (16,7%, seguido pelo dos anticonvulsivantes (13%, e analgésicos/antipiréticos (13%. A forma clínica da erupção cutânea foi exantema maculopapular em 41,9% dos pacientes, eritrodermia em 25,6% e urticária em 23,3%. CONCLUSÃO: O exantema maculopapular foi a principal forma de reação cutânea desencadeada por drogas, e os antibióticos, os medicamentos que mais freqüentemente desencadearam essas reações.BACKGROUND: Drugs may trigger adverse reactions and skin manifestations are the most frequent ones. OBJECTIVE: To assess drug reactions and report the drugs involved and the most frequent types of skin reactions. METHODS: A retrospective and descriptive study. Data of inpatients at the Dermatology Ward with initial diagnosis of adverse drug reactions were evaluated from January 1999 to June 2004. Patients with confirmed diagnosis were included in the study based on clinical and histopathological criteria, after analysis of medical charts. RESULTS: Initial diagnosis

  17. Bifurcations and multiple traffic jams in a car-following model with reaction-time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Krauskopf, Bernd; Wilson, R. Eddie

    2005-11-01

    We investigate an optimal velocity car-following model for n cars on a circular single-lane road, where reaction-time delay of drivers is taken into account. The stability of the uniform flow equilibrium is studied analytically, while bifurcating periodic solutions for different wave numbers are investigated with numerical continuation techniques. This reveals that the periodic solution with the smallest wave number may be stable, and all other periodic solutions are unstable. As n is increased, periodic solutions develop stop- and go-fronts that correspond to rapid deceleration and acceleration between regions of uniformly flowing and stagnant traffic. In terms of the positions of all cars on the ring these fronts are associated with traffic jams. All traffic jams form a traffic pattern that evolves under time, due to slow motion of the fronts. The traffic pattern corresponding to the stable periodic motion of cars is the only stable one. However, we find that other periodic orbits may be unstable only so weakly that they give rise to transient traffic jams that may persist for long times. Eventually, such traffic jams either merge with one another or disperse, until the stable traffic pattern is reached.

  18. Evaluation of apoptosis in skin biopsies of patients of borderline leprosy and lepra type 1 reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Nivedita; Agarwal, Sarla; Sharma, Sonal; Sharma, Satendra; Pandhi, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    The role of apoptosis is not clear in leprosy and lepra reactions. To evaluate frequency of apoptosis in skin lesions of borderline leprosy and Type 1 lepra reaction. Sixty patients with borderline leprosy (30 with clinically diagnosed Type 1 reaction (T1R) (Group I) and 30 without clinical evidence of reaction (Group II)) were analyzed in this prospective study. Apoptosis was detected by two different methods for comparison, that is, histopathologic examination (HPE) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation and electrophoresis. Quantification of apoptotic bodies/10 high power fields (HPF) was also done. Out of 30 cases, apoptosis was detected in 29 cases in Group I and 24 cases in Group II by HPE (P = 0.103), whereas, with the use of DNA electrophoresis it was detected in 24 cases in Group I and 18 cases in Group II (P = 0.091). On quantitative estimation it was found that number of apoptotic bodies are higher in Group I in comparison to Group II (2.77 vs 1.99), which is statistically significant. There was moderate agreement (κ = 0.47) between the two methods of apoptosis detection. Apoptosis was seen more in patients with T1R both qualitatively (statistically nonsignificant) and quantitatively (statistically significant). Clinical significance of this novel finding is that apoptosis can be used as one of the variables for diagnosis of T1R to increase detection rate.

  19. First-aid with warm water delays burn progression and increases skin survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalem, M; Harder, Y; Tschanz, E; Speidel, V; Pittet-Cuénod, B; Wettstein, R

    2013-02-01

    First aid treatment for thermal injuries with cold water removes heat and decreases inflammation. However, perfusion in the ischemic zone surrounding the coagulated core can be compromised by cold-induced vasoconstriction and favor burn progression. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of local warming on burn progression in the rat comb burn model. 24 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either no treatment (control) or application of cold (17 °C) or warm (37 °C) water applied for 20 min. Evolution of burn depth, interspace necrosis, and microcirculatory perfusion were assessed with histology, planimetry, respectively with Laser Doppler flowmetry after 1 h, as well as 1, 4, and 7 days. Consistent conversion from a superficial to a deep dermal burn within 24 h was obtained in control animals. Warm and cold water significantly delayed burn depth progression, however after 4 days the burn depth was similar in all groups. Interspace necrosis was significantly reduced by warm water treatment (62±4% vs. 69±5% (cold water) and 82±3% (control); pcold water and 80±2% for control, pwater provided an additional benefit by improving the microcirculatory perfusion, which translated into increased tissue survival. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cutis laxa with growth and developmental delay, wrinkly skin syndrome and gerodermia osteodysplastica: a report of two unrelated patients and a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Steiner

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two unrelated patients of different sexes are described, both presenting with congenital redundant skin (cutis laxa, growth deficiency, mental retardation and bone dystrophy. Parental consanguinity in both families and a more pronounced severity of the neurological disease in the male patient were present. Both patients were diagnosed in infancy as having De Barsy syndrome, but clinical follow-up revealed that the clinical picture was compatible with the diagnosis of cutis laxa with growth and developmental delay (CLGDD, gerodermia osteodysplastica (GO and wrinkly-skin syndrome (WWS. It has recently been suggested that cutis laxa with growth and developmental delay, gerodermia osteodysplastica and wrinkly skin syndrome are the same condition. A review concerning this diagnosis is also presented.

  1. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Vinicius M. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Muratov, Eugene [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry, A.V. Bogatsky Physical-Chemical Institute NAS of Ukraine, Odessa 65080 (Ukraine); Fourches, Denis [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole [ILS/Contractor Supporting the NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Andrade, Carolina H. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Tropsha, Alexander, E-mail: alex_tropsha@unc.edu [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using Random Forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers was 71–88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR Toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the Scorecard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin sensitization dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin sensitization. • Developed models have higher prediction accuracy than OECD QSAR Toolbox. • Putative

  2. Macrophage peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ deficiency delays skin wound healing through impairing apoptotic cell clearance in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.; Shi, R.; Luo, B.; Yang, X.; Qiu, L; Xiong, J.; Jiang, M; Y. Liu; Zhang, Z; Wu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Skin wound macrophages are key regulators of skin repair and their dysfunction causes chronic, non-healing skin wounds. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) regulates pleiotropic functions of macrophages, but its contribution in skin wound healing is poorly defined. We observed that macrophage PPARγ expression was upregulated during skin wound healing. Furthermore, macrophage PPARγ deficiency (PPARγ-knock out (KO)) mice exhibited impaired skin wound healing with reduced co...

  3. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  4. Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction presenting as a painful crisis in a patient with sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fabron Junior

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA are frequently transfused with red blood cells (RBC. Recently, we reported that the calculated risk of RBC alloimmunization per transfused unit in Brazilian patients with SCA is 1.15%. We describe a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR presenting as a painful crisis in a patient with SCA. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old Brazilian female with homozygous SCA was admitted for a program of partial exchange transfusion prior to cholecystectomy. Her blood group was O RhD positive and no atypical RBC alloantibody was detected using the indirect antiglobulin technique. Pre-transfusional hemoglobin (Hb was 8.7 g/dL and isovolumic partial exchange transfusion was performed using 4 units of ABO compatible packed RBC. Five days after the last transfusion she developed generalized joint pain and fever of 39°C. Her Hb level dropped from 12.0 g/dL to 9.3 g/dL and the unconjugated bilirrubin level rose to 27 mmol/L. She was jaundiced and had hemoglobinuria. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed 48.7% HbS, 46.6% HbA1, 2.7% HbA2, and 2.0% HbF. The patient’s extended RBC phenotype was CDe, K-k+, Kp(a-b+, Fy(a-b-, M+N+s+, Le(a+b-, Di(a-. An RBC alloantibody with specificity to the Rh system (anti-c, titer 1:16.384 was identified by the indirect antiglobulin test. The Rh phenotype of the RBC used in the last packed RBC transfusion was CcDEe. The patient was discharged, asymptomatic, 7 days after admission.

  5. Ranitidine (150 mg daily) inhibits wheal, flare, and itching reactions in skin-prick tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczyk, Maciej; Kupryś, Izabela; Bocheńska-Marciniak, Małgorzata; Górski, Paweł; Kuna, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    H(1)-receptor antagonists are known to suppress reactions in skin-prick tests (SPTs); however, the effect of H(2)-receptor antagonists, which are widely used in our everyday practice, remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of ranitidine on wheal, flare, and itching sensation in SPTs. Twenty-one atopic patients (5 women and 16 men) with an average age of 28.04 years (SD, +/-8.24) were tested with histamine, codeine, negative control solution, and standard allergen extracts. Ranitidine (150 mg daily), loratadine (10 mg daily), or placebo were given to the volunteers for 5 days in a double-blind manner with 14 days of washout period. SPTs were applied to the volar surface of a forearm. There was no difference in wheal, flare, and itching between SPTs performed after placebo and washout period. The analysis revealed a statistically significant suppression of wheal and flare by ranitidine and loratadine (p = 0.013 and solutions tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). We found a significant suppression of itching induced by ranitidine (reduction of 26.85%; p = 0.005) and loratadine (29.6%; p = 0.005) as compared with placebo (p = 0.068 versus washout). Our data show a suppressive effect of ranitidine on the wheal, flare, and itching sensation in SPT. Because the sensitivity and specificity of skin testing requires withholding medication that could change the skin reactivity, it seems important to take into account the possible influence of H(2)-receptor antagonists on allergy diagnosis and therapy.

  6. Comparison of Skin Reaction between MTA (Produced in Iran) and CEM in Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokravi, Marziyeh; Tabarsi, Bahareh; Moghaddamnia, Aliakbar; Sohanfaraji, Alieh; Pourghasem, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Pathological changes in pulp and periapical tissues are addressed by endodontic treatment. The material used in this treatment must be biocompatible. The aim of this study is to compare the skin reaction of Calcium Enriched Mixture (CEM) and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) produced in Iran on rabbit. Sixteen male newzeland albino rabbits weighting 2 kg were used. The animals back hair was shaved, 24 hours before application of each material. The material was applied on two sites (2 × 2 cm) while the third site was used as control. All sites were covered by gauze and bandaged for 4 hours. Then the material's remnants were washed off the sites of application. Observations were performed in 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours after removing the materials. Erythematous surface areas were measured by the morphometric method. After sacrificing animals the skins were dissected and the specimens were prepared for histological evaluation. There were significant differences between CEM and MTA in erythematous surface areas at 1, 24 and 48 hours after removing the materials (pMTA and control sample (p=0.0001) and between MTA and CEM (p=0.035). There was no significant difference between control and CEM (p>0.05). The average erythematous surface areas were wider in MTA sites than CEM sites. As a conclusion it seems that biocompatibility of CEM could be more than MTA.

  7. Delayed allergic dermatitis presenting as a keloid-like reaction caused by sting from an Indo-Pacific Portuguese man-o'-war (Physalia utriculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, B E K; Dayrit, J F; Haddad, V

    2017-03-01

    Cnidarian envenomations are common occurrences in the tropics that can affect holidaymakers. The cutaneous reactions are classified as immediate or delayed types. Delayed allergic reactions are persistently recurring dermatitis, which can occur within 1-4 weeks from the initial sting, and may last for several months. Hypertrophic scar-like or keloid-like reactions are rare, and are believed to be a type IV hypersensitivity reaction to sequestered antigens from stinging filaments. We report an unusual case of delayed allergic dermatitis with keloid-like presentation caused by Physalia utriculus.

  8. Dynamical Analysis of a Delayed Reaction-Diffusion Predator-Prey System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuo Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the analysis of a delayed diffusive predator-prey system under Neumann boundary conditions. The dynamics are investigated in terms of the stability of the nonnegative equilibria and the existence of Hopf bifurcation by analyzing the characteristic equations. The direction of Hopf bifurcation and the stability of bifurcating periodic solution are also discussed by employing the normal form theory and the center manifold reduction. Furthermore, we prove that the positive equilibrium is asymptotically stable when the delay is less than a certain critical value and unstable when the delay is greater than the critical value.

  9. Adaptive synchronization in an array of linearly coupled neural networks with reaction-diffusion terms and time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Teng, Zhidong; Jiang, Haijun

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, the adaptive synchronization in an array of linearly coupled neural networks with reaction-diffusion terms and time delays is discussed. Based on the LaSalle invariant principle of functional differential equations and the adaptive feedback control technique, some sufficient conditions for adaptive synchronization of such a system are obtained. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization method.

  10. Incidence of hypersensitivity skin reactions in patients on full-dose low-molecular-weight heparins during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultinge, L.; Knol, H. M.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Meijer, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) are the most commonly used anticoagulants for the treatment and prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. Hypersensitivity skin reactions associated with the use of LMWH are frequently seen, but are probably underreported. Objective: To eval

  11. Tissue reactions to collagen scaffolds in the oral mucosa and skin of rats: environmental and mechanical factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.G.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Daamen, W.F.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the tissue reactions to implanted collagen scaffolds in the palate and the skin of rats. DESIGN: Crosslinked collagen scaffolds were implanted submucoperiosteally in the palate, and subcutaneously on the skull and on the back of 25 rats and evaluated after up to 16 weeks. On H&

  12. HLA-DR EXPRESSION IS INDUCED ON KERATINOCYTES IN DELAYED-HYPERSENSITIVITY BUT NOT IN ALLERGEN-INDUCED LATE-PHASE REACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELLER, FR; DEJONG, MCJM; WELLER, MS; HEERES, WK; DEMONCHY, JGR; JANSEN, HM

    In view of increasing evidence suggesting an active immunoregulatory role of the skin keratinocytes and the observation that the differentiation of allergen specific T lymphocytes is critical in the development of allergy, we evaluated epidermal expression of HLA-DR antigen in skin reactions induced

  13. Macrophage peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ deficiency delays skin wound healing through impairing apoptotic cell clearance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Shi, R; Luo, B; Yang, X; Qiu, L; Xiong, J; Jiang, M; Liu, Y; Zhang, Z; Wu, Y

    2015-01-15

    Skin wound macrophages are key regulators of skin repair and their dysfunction causes chronic, non-healing skin wounds. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) regulates pleiotropic functions of macrophages, but its contribution in skin wound healing is poorly defined. We observed that macrophage PPARγ expression was upregulated during skin wound healing. Furthermore, macrophage PPARγ deficiency (PPARγ-knock out (KO)) mice exhibited impaired skin wound healing with reduced collagen deposition, angiogenesis and granulation formation. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression in wounds of PPARγ-KO mice was significantly increased and local restoration of TNF-α reversed the healing deficit in PPARγ-KO mice. Wound macrophages produced higher levels of TNF-α in PPARγ-KO mice compared with control. In vitro, the higher production of TNF-α by PPARγ-KO macrophages was associated with impaired apoptotic cell clearance. Correspondingly, increased apoptotic cell accumulation was found in skin wound of PPARγ-KO mice. Mechanically, peritoneal and skin wound macrophages expressed lower levels of various phagocytosis-related molecules. In addition, PPARγ agonist accelerated wound healing and reduced local TNF-α expression and wound apoptotic cells accumulation in wild type but not PPARγ-KO mice. Therefore, PPARγ has a pivotal role in controlling wound macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells to ensure efficient skin wound healing, suggesting a potential new therapeutic target for skin wound healing.

  14. On Asymptotic Behavior for Reaction Diffusion Equation with Small Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunwu Yin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the asymptotic behavior of scalar diffusion equation with small time delay ut-Δu=f(ut,u(t-τ. Roughly speaking, any bounded solution will enter and stay in the neighborhood of one equilibrium when the equilibria are discrete.

  15. Ozone treatment for radiotherapy skin reactions: is there an evidence base for practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Liz; Beaver, Kinta; Foy, Sharon

    2002-12-01

    Clinical staff and researchers working together can do much to bridge the gap between research and practice. This paper reports on the practice of treating severe radiotherapy skin reactions with ozone therapy; a practice that has been in place for a number of years at a specialist oncology hospital in England and perceived to be beneficial in terms of wound healing and pain relief. A multidisciplinary team of clinical staff and researchers questioned the evidence base for this practice and a literature search revealed little support for the effectiveness of this treatment in this particular context. The views of patients receiving ozone therapy were sought and assessment forms were completed to gain objective information on the progress (or otherwise) of wound healing. While patients perceived the ozone treatment to be beneficial in terms of pain relief, it was impossible to isolate the impact of ozone alone as other preparations and treatments were also being given. Patient reports and nursing assessments did not support that ozone was effective at wound healing. A more formal evaluation of this treatment is being planned, supported by the shared governance initiative at the study site and a continued collaboration between clinical staff and researchers.

  16. Fitted Fourier-pseudospectral methods for solving a delayed reaction-diffusion partial differential equation in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, A. M. A.; Bashier, E. B. M.; Hashim, M. H. A.; Patidar, K. C.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we design and analyze a fitted numerical method to solve a reaction-diffusion model with time delay, namely, a delayed version of a population model which is an extension of the logistic growth (LG) equation for a food-limited population proposed by Smith [F.E. Smith, Population dynamics in Daphnia magna and a new model for population growth, Ecology 44 (1963) 651-663]. Seeing that the analytical solution (in closed form) is hard to obtain, we seek for a robust numerical method. The method consists of a Fourier-pseudospectral semi-discretization in space and a fitted operator implicit-explicit scheme in temporal direction. The proposed method is analyzed for convergence and we found that it is unconditionally stable. Illustrative numerical results will be presented at the conference.

  17. Effect of an essential oil mixture on skin reactions in women undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halm, Margo A; Baker, Clarice; Harshe, Val

    2014-12-01

    This pilot study compared the effects of an essential oil mixture versus standard care on skin reactions in breast cancer patients receiving radiation. Using an experimental design, 24 patients were randomized to standard care (i.e., RadiaPlexRx™ ointment) or an essential oil mixture. Products were applied topically three times a day until 1 month postradiation. Weekly skin assessments were recorded and women completed patient satisfaction and quality of life (QOL) instruments at 3-, 6-, and 10-week intervals. No significant differences were found for skin, QOL, or patient satisfaction at interim or follow-up time points. Effect sizes were as follows: skin = .01 to .07 (small-medium effect); QOL = .01 to .04 (small effect); patient satisfaction = .02 (small effect). The essential oil mixture did not provide a better skin protectant effect than standard care. These findings suggest the essential oil mixture is equivalent to RadiaPlexRx, a common product used as standard care since it has been shown to be effective in protecting skin from radiation. Thus, this pilot provides evidence to support botanical or nonpharmaceutical options for women during radiotherapy for breast cancer. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Effects of operating conditions on compositional characteristics and reaction kinetics of liquid derived by delayed coking of nigerian petroleum residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Bello

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal upgrading of Nigerian petroleum residue was studied at relatively low pressure in a delayed coking reactor system. In this work, the intent was to investigate the effects of process variables such as reaction temperature (200(0C to 600(0C, reaction time (0 to 120min, additive concentration loading and additive-to-residue ratio on the amounts and quality of organic liquid product (OLP. The liquid products derived from the delayed coking process were characterized by means of instrumental analysis of gas-liquid chromatography. Results obtained from the analyses of the OLP revealed an upward trend of the conversion process and the selectivity of the aromatic compounds with additive-to-residue ratio (ARR and increase in temperature. This led to maximum yield of 37.2% achieved with ARR of 5 compared to 31% achieved with ordinary thermal conversion. The selectivity for aromatic hydrocarbons was maximum at 83.1wt% the selectivity towards aromatics and aliphatic hydrocarbons were highest for methanol-potassium hydroxide and methanol respectively. In all additive system cases, maximum OLP was produced at an optimum reaction temperature of 370(0C in the delayed coking reactor and at higher residence time. The gaseous product consisted of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide and C1 - C6 hydrocarbons, which amounted to about 20 to 30 wt% of liquid distillate. The information obtained in this study show that the organic liquid products are amenable to characterization procedure and provided the basis for the identification of processes for upgrading Nigerian petroleum residue and such other starting materials such as bitumen or fossil fuel coal liquids.

  19. Stability of Exact and Discrete Energy for Non-Fickian Reaction-Diffusion Equations with a Variable Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the stability of non-Fickian reaction-diffusion equations with a variable delay. It is shown that the perturbation of the energy function of the continuous problems decays exponentially, which provides a more accurate and convenient way to express the rate of decay of energy. Then, we prove that the proposed numerical methods are sufficient to preserve energy stability of the continuous problems. We end the paper with some numerical experiments on a biological model to confirm the theoretical results.

  20. Severe neurologic complication after delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction in 2 children with sickle cell anemia: significant diagnosis and therapeutic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elenga, Narcisse; Mialou, Valérie; Kebaïli, Kamila; Galambrun, Claire; Bertrand, Yves; Pondarre, Corinne

    2008-12-01

    Although delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) has been widely recognized as a serious complication of red blood cell transfusion in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), there is no consensus on its optimal management. Discontinuation of transfusion is recommended, whereas corticosteroids and immunoglobulins are considered to be beneficial. We report 2 children with sickle cell anemia who were diagnosed with DHTR and experienced a subsequent neurologic event in the course of treatment with corticosteroids. The role of corticosteroids as possible precipitating factors of neurologic complications is discussed. Pending a better understanding of the chain of events of DHTR, SCD children with DHTR should receive steroids with great caution.

  1. Exponential Stability for Impulsive BAM Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays and Reaction-Diffusion Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiankun Song

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Impulsive bidirectional associative memory neural network model with time-varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms is considered. Several sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for the addressed neural network are derived by M-matrix theory, analytic methods, and inequality techniques. Moreover, the exponential convergence rate index is estimated, which depends on the system parameters. The obtained results in this paper are less restrictive than previously known criteria. Two examples are given to show the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  2. Exponential Stability for Impulsive BAM Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays and Reaction-Diffusion Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jinde

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulsive bidirectional associative memory neural network model with time-varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms is considered. Several sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for the addressed neural network are derived by M-matrix theory, analytic methods, and inequality techniques. Moreover, the exponential convergence rate index is estimated, which depends on the system parameters. The obtained results in this paper are less restrictive than previously known criteria. Two examples are given to show the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  3. Human alpha rhythms during visual delayed choice reaction time tasks: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Babiloni, Fabio; Carducci, Filippo; Cincotti, Febo; Del Percio, Claudio; Della Penna, Stefania; Franciotti, Raffaella; Pignotti, Sandro; Pizzella, Vittorio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Sabatini, Elisabetta; Torquati, Kathya; Romani, Gian Luca

    2005-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) includes fast and comfortable recording procedures very suitable for the neurophysiological study of cognitive functions in aged people. In this exploratory MEG study in normal young adults, we tested whether very simple short-term memory (STM) demands induce visible changes in amplitude and latency of surface alpha rhythms. Two delayed response tasks were used. In the STM condition, a simple cue stimulus (one bit) was memorized along a brief delay period (3.5-5.5 s). In the control (no short-term memory; NSTM) condition, the cue stimulus remained available along the delay period. To make extremely simple the tasks, the explicit demand was visuospatial but the retention could be also based on phonological and somatomotor coding. Compared to the control condition, the amplitude of the alpha 1 (6-8 Hz) ERD decreased in the left hemisphere, whereas the amplitude of the alpha 2 (8-10 Hz) and alpha 3 (10-12 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) increased in right and left parietal areas, respectively. Furthermore, the latency of the alpha ERD peak was slightly but significantly (P rhythms in normal young adults. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Pattern formation in a reaction-advection model with delay: a continuum approach to myxobacterial rippling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, U.; Bär, M.

    2004-07-01

    Standing wave oscillations of the cell density (rippling) are observed in premature aggregates of developing myxobacteria. Recently the underlying pattern formation mechanism was shown to be based on the interplay between active cell motion and local interactions triggering reversals in the cells' direction of motion. The propagation of information through the system is mediated by the internal state of moving cells rather than by diffusible chemical signals. Discrete cellular automata and coupled-map lattices have been investigated earlier and indicate the importance of a minimum refractory period between subsequent reversals of a cell. In this paper we consider the continuum limit of the process, that yields a set of hyperbolic partial differential equations with a a single discrete time delay. The time delay corresponds to the duration of the mentioned refractory period of the cells. According to linear stability analysis a minimal time delay is required for a wave instability to occur. The results of the continuum model are in reasonable agreement with the findings in the discrete models adding credibility to the earlier studies.

  5. Evaluation of leishmanin skin test reaction in different variants of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Sadeghian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a parasitic disease which has different clinical forms. The aim of this study is to compare the response to leishmanin skin test (LST in three forms of CL including plaque type, lupoid type, and sporotrichoid type. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The patients enrolled in this study had three clinical forms of CL confirmed by positive smear of their lesions and then LST was performed for them. Results were categorized as negative (0-5 mm induration, positive (6-14 mm, and strongly positive (≥15 mm. The data were documented in the patients′ files and analyzed with SPSS windows software version 16 (Inc.Chicago, USA. Results: 200 patients were enrolled in the study. In the group with plaque type, 86% had a positive LST, 13.3% were negative, and 0.7% were strongly positive. In the lupoid group, these figures were 45.8%, 8.4%, 45.8%, respectively. In the sporotrichoid group, LST was positive in 27.3%, negative in 72.7%, and none of the patients had a strongly positive reaction ( P < 0.05. Discussion: The most of the positive LST were belong to plaque and lupoid groups, the most of strongly positive were belong to lupoid, and the most of negative LST were related with sporotrichoid type. Conclusion: It can be suggested that lupoid and sporotrichoid types of CL are parts of a continuous spectrum of the disease with an enhanced cellular immunity in lupoid form and a decreased state in sporotrichoid type.

  6. A pilot study to investigate the effect of a hydration regime upon immediate and 24 h delayed MRI contrast agent reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, William [Medical Imaging, Leighton Hospital, Mid Cheshire Hospital Trust, Middlewich Road, Crewe, Cheshire CW1 4QJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: william.bailey@mcht.nhs.uk; Marshall, Gill [Chair of Faculty Academic Standards International Projects Leader, Faculty of Health and Social Care, St. Martin' s College, Lancaster LA1 3JD (United Kingdom); Coals, Jacqui [Medical Imaging, Leighton Hospital, Mid Cheshire Hospital Trust, Middlewich Road, Crewe, Cheshire CW1 4QJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    Purpose: Adverse reaction rates to gadolinium based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents which occur immediately post-injection are well documented. However little research has investigated delayed reaction rates (i.e. 30 min-24 h). This study evaluated the rate of immediate and delayed adverse reaction rates to a gadolinium based MRI contrast agent (Dotarem) and investigated the effect of a hydration regime on the rate of adverse events. Method: Fifty-eight patients received no preparation, prior to administration of the contrast agent, whilst another 58 underwent a hydration protocol. The patients had their answers to a questionnaire recorded immediately after the scanning procedure and also via a follow-up telephone call 24 h later. Results: In the unprepared group 9 patients (15.5%) experienced immediate adverse events, i.e. within 0-30 min, whereas 24 (41.4%) experienced delayed reactions (30 min-24 h) after administration of the contrast agent. In the hydrated patient group 6 (10.3%) experienced an immediate adverse event, whilst 8 (13.7%) experienced delayed events post-injection. The difference in the total reaction rates for the unprepared and hydrated groups was statistically significant for immediate and delayed reactions. The difference in the rates of delayed headache, nausea, dizziness and problems with the injection site, for the unprepared and hydrated groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: An oral hydration regime administered to patients, both before and after MRI contrast agent administration significantly reduced the total number of immediate and delayed reactions. It also significantly reduced delayed headache, nausea, dizziness and problems at the injection site. Whilst this pilot study had methodological shortcomings, the strength of the relationship demonstrated are worthy of further investigation.

  7. Stability and Bifurcation in a Delayed Reaction-Diffusion Equation with Dirichlet Boundary Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shangjiang; Ma, Li

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of a diffusive equation with time delay subject to Dirichlet boundary condition in a bounded domain. The existence of spatially nonhomogeneous steady-state solution is investigated by applying Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction. The existence of Hopf bifurcation at the spatially nonhomogeneous steady-state solution is derived by analyzing the distribution of the eigenvalues. The direction of Hopf bifurcation and stability of the bifurcating periodic solution are also investigated by means of normal form theory and center manifold reduction. Moreover, we illustrate our general results by applications to the Nicholson's blowflies models with one- dimensional spatial domain.

  8. Human cortical rhythms during visual delayed choice reaction time tasks. A high-resolution EEG study on normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Babiloni, Fabio; Carducci, Filippo; Cappa, Stefano F; Cincotti, Febo; Del Percio, Claudio; Miniussi, Carlo; Vito Moretti, Davide; Rossi, Simone; Sosta, Katiuscia; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2004-08-12

    Neuroimaging cognitive study of aging requires simple tasks ensuring a high rate of correct performances even in stressful neurophysiological settings. Here two simple delayed choice reaction time tasks were used to unveil event-related desynchronization (ERD) of theta (4-6 Hz) and alpha (6-12 Hz) electroencephalographic rhythms across normal aging. In the first condition, a cue stimulus (one bit) was memorized along a brief delay period (3.5-5.5 s). The explicit demand was visuo-spatial, but the retention could be also based on phonological and somatomotor coding. In the second condition, the cue stimulus remained available along the delay period. Correct performances were higher than 95% in both groups and tasks, although they were significantly better in young than elderly subjects (P < 0.03). During the delay period, theta and alpha ERD accompanying correct responses were recognized in the two groups, the alpha ERD being stronger and prolonged during the memory than non-memory task. On the other hand, the fronto-parietal theta and parietal alpha ERD were stronger in young than elderly subjects during both tasks. Notably, the frontal alpha ERD was negligible in elderly subjects. In conclusion, the present simple tasks unveiled in elderly compared to young subjects (i) a weaker involvement of (para)hippocampal-cortical circuits as revealed by theta ERD and (ii) a weaker involvement of "executive" thalamo-cortical circuits as revealed by frontal alpha ERD. These effects might worsen behavioral performances to the simple cognitive tasks with age. The present protocol is promising for the neuroimaging study of pathological aging.

  9. Delayed habituation of the skin-conductance orienting response correlates with impaired performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, R A; Sigal, M; Mintz, M

    1996-11-15

    The skin-conductance orienting response (SCOR) in schizophrenia is often characterized by either nonresponding or delayed habituation to repeated nonsignal tones. These abnormalities are poorly related to other dimensions of schizophrenia. In the present study, we confirmed that about 50% of patients with chronic schizophrenia are SCOR nonresponders. Nonresponders, however, did not differ from responders on postmorbid psychiatric or pharmacological course, and we therefore could not confirm the hypothesis that course of illness follows a more marked pattern of increasing severity in nonresponders. Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was particularly poor in a subgroup of responders who exhibited either delayed habituation and/or dishabituation of SCORs to tones applied after a short rest period. It is possible that pathology of the prefrontal cortex mediates the SCOR abnormalities that characterize schizophrenic patients who perform poorly on the WCST.

  10. Acute and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to infliximab and adalimumab in a patient with Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenholdt, Casper; Svenson, Morten; Bendtzen, Klaus;

    2012-01-01

    infusion, but an acute severe anaphylactoid reaction occurred immediately after start of the infusion. Anti-infliximab IgG antibody concentration was high (100 U/ml) prior to the 8th infusion and up to 1 year after infliximab discontinuation (81 U/ml). Anti-infliximab IgE antibodies were not found...... generated anti-adalimumab IgG antibodies (45 U/ml), as these antibodies appeared to be specific for adalimumab in that infliximab failed to compete with adalimumab/anti-adalimumab antibody binding ex vivo. In conclusion, immunogenicity to infliximab and adalimumab may be associated with both acute...

  11. Neutrophil granule proteins: evidence for the participation in the host reaction to skin microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus after diethylcarbamazine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Peña, E J; Knab, J; Büttner, D W

    1996-10-01

    The participation of neutrophil granulocytes in the cellular reaction to skin microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus was studied by immunohistochemistry. Skin biopsies were obtained from adult Liberian and Ugandan patients with generalized onchocerciasis after exposure to topically applied diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and from untreated patients. After DEC many damaged microfilariae were observed either in dermal infiltrates or in epidermal microabscesses consisting both of neutrophils and eosinophils. Infiltrates and microabscesses contained some intact granulocytes and many neutrophils releasing myeloperoxidase, elastase, lactoferrin, defensin, lysozyme, alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin. Eosinophils discharged peroxidase and cationic proteins. Released granule proteins and remnants of disrupted granulocytes were found on the surface and in close proximity of damaged microfilariae in dermal infiltrates and epidermal microabscesses. In larger microabscesses neutrophils were predominant. These observations show that neutrophils and not only eosinophils recruit, accumulate, localize around and release their helminthotoxic granule proteins such as myeloperoxidase onto or closely around skin microfilariae of O. volvulus after topical DEC administration. The association between these processes and the damage of the microfilariae indicated that neutrophils together with eosinophils attack and damage microfilariae of O. volvulus after DEC treatment in the skin.

  12. Cytokine and Protein Markers of Leprosy Reactions in Skin and Nerves: Baseline Results for the North Indian INFIR Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Diana N. J.; Suneetha, Lavanya; Sagili, Karuna Devi; Chaduvula, Meher Vani; Mohammed, Ismail; van Brakel, Wim; Smith, W. C.; Nicholls, Peter; Suneetha, Sujai

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies investigating the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of leprosy have either been on only small numbers of patients or have not combined clinical and histological data. The INFIR Cohort study is a prospective study of 303 new multibacillary leprosy patients to identify risk factors for reaction and nerve damage. This study characterised the cellular infiltrate in skin and nerve biopsies using light microscopic and immunohistochemical techniques to identify any association of cytokine markers, nerve and cell markers with leprosy reactions. Methodology/Principal Findings TNF-α, TGF-β and iNOS protein in skin and nerve biopsies were detected using monoclonal antibody detection immunohistochemistry techniques in 299 skin biopsies and 68 nerve biopsies taken from patients at recruitment. The tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, modified Fite Faraco, CD68 macrophage cell marker and S100. Conclusions/Significance Histological analysis of the biopsies showed that 43% had borderline tuberculoid (BT) leprosy, 27% borderline lepromatous leprosy, 9% lepromatous leprosy, 13% indeterminate leprosy types and 7% had no inflammation. Forty-six percent had histological evidence of a Type 1 Reaction (T1R) and 10% of Erythema Nodosum Leprosum. TNF-α was detected in 78% of skin biopsies (181/232), iNOS in 78% and TGF-β in 94%. All three molecules were detected at higher levels in patients with BT leprosy. TNF-α was localised within macrophages and epithelioid cells in the granuloma, in the epidermis and in dermal nerves in a few cases. TNF-α, iNOS and TGF-β were all significantly associated with T1R (p<0.001). Sixty-eight nerve biopsies were analysed. CD68, TNF-α and iNOS staining were detectable in 88%, 38% and 28% of the biopsies respectively. The three cytokines TNF-α, iNOS and TGF-β detected by immunohistochemistry showed a significant association with the presence of skin reaction. This study is the first to demonstrate an

  13. Artificial light at night alters delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in response to acute stress in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Kaugars, Katherine E; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-11-01

    Several physiological and behavioral processes rely on precisely timed light information derived from the natural solar cycle. Using this information, traits have adapted to allow individuals within specific niches to optimize survival and reproduction, but urbanization by humans has significantly altered natural habitats. Nighttime light exposure alters immune function in several species, which could lead to decreased fitness or survival, particularly in the face of an environmental challenge. We exposed male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) to five lux of light at night for four weeks, and then administered six hours of acute restraint stress. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response was assessed immediately following stress. Acute restraint increased the DTH reaction in dark nights, but exposure to nighttime light prevented this response. Exposure to light at night prolonged the DTH response in non-stressed control hamsters. These results suggest that light pollution may significantly alter physiological responses in Siberian hamsters, particularly in response to a salient environmental challenge such as stress.

  14. In vivo formation of Maillard reaction free radicals in mouse skin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lloyd, R V; Fong, A J; Sayre, R M

    2001-01-01

    The Maillard browning reaction between carbohydrates and amines is part of an extensive series of reactions that is the basis for the brown color caused by the "sunless tanning" agent dihydroxyacetone...

  15. Evaluation of Lymphocyte Transformation Test Results in Patients with Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions following the Use of Anticonvulsant Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Zahra; Mesdaghi, Mehrnaz; Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Mansouri, Mahboubeh; Taghdiri, Mohammad Mehdi; Kayhanidoost, Zarrintaj; Jebelli, Bita; Shekarriz Foumani, Reza; Babaie, Delara; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Administration of the anticonvulsant drugs phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine and lamotrigine can be associated with severe hypersensitivity reactions. The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) is a method to determine which drug has caused the hypersensitivity reaction. This study was done to evaluate the results of LTT in patients with delayed hypersensitivity reactions following the administration of anticonvulsants. Twenty-four patients with hypersensitivity reactions, e.g. drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug rash and eosinophilia with systemic symptoms (DIHS/DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrosis (TEN), following the administration of anticonvulsant drugs, and 24 patients who had used anticonvulsant drugs but did not have hypersensitivity reactions (the control group) were included in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated. The cells were stimulated with the drugs, phytohemagglutinin as a mitogen and Candida as an antigen (positive controls). Lymphocyte proliferation was measured using the BrdU proliferation assay kit (Roche, Germany). The stimulation index was calculated as the mean ratio of the OD of stimulated cells divided by the OD of unstimulated cells. The results in the case and control groups were compared. Of 24 patients in the test group, 14 (58.3%) had positive LTT results and 10 (41.7%) had negative results. Among patients in the control group, 1 (4.2%) had a positive LTT result and 23 (95.8%) had negative results. Among the patients who had received carbamazepine and phenytoin, there was a significant difference between the results of LTT in the case and control groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.028, respectively). Although patients receiving lamotrigine and phenobarbital had more positive LTT results in the case group than in the control group, these differences were not statistically significant. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of LTT

  16. Estimating Tuberculin Skin Test Reactions among Children and Teenagers Who Received the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccination at Birth: A Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Abedi, Siavosh; Afshari, Mahdi; Moosazadeh, Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Tuberculin skin reaction size is one indicator of bacillus Calmette-Gu?rin (BCG) vaccine efficacy and a way to diagnose latent infection. Several primary studies have examined this issue. Combining the results of these studies using a meta-analysis will provide reliable evidence regarding this indicator for policymakers. This study aimed to estimate the total frequency of different tuberculin skin test reactions among Iranian children and teenagers who received the BCG vaccination ...

  17. An influence of delayed reinforcement on the effectiveness of psychostimulants to enhance indices of attention under a five-choice serial reaction time procedure in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Jonathan M; Katz, Jonathan L

    2013-10-01

    The five-choice serial reaction time (5-CSRT) procedure has been considered a translational tool for assessments of the psychopharmacology of attention in preclinical research. Because greater sensitivity to delayed reinforcement may promote the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, effects of reinforcer delay and psychostimulants on performances under a 5-CSRT procedure were determined. Male rats were trained to respond under a 5-CSRT procedure with different delay-of-reinforcement conditions (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 s), and effects of d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and morphine (as a negative control) were assessed at 0- and 16-s delays. Under nondrug conditions, as the delay increased both response latency and the number of trials in which a response did not occur (omissions) increased, and the percent correct on trials when responses were emitted decreased. Only modest increases in the percent correct were found with psychostimulants during the 0-s delay condition; however, more substantial enhancements were found with a 16-s delay. Consistent effects of both psychostimulants at either delay on omissions and response latency were not observed. Morphine increased omissions and response latency at both delays and decreased the percent correct (16-s delay). Generally, responses during the intertrial interval were not systematically affected under any condition. The current results demonstrate that measures of attention in a 5-CSRT procedure are sensitive to changes in the delay to reinforcer delivery. More important, psychostimulants significantly enhanced a measure of attention only when reinforcers were delayed, which may be reflective of the psychopharmacological mechanisms involved with clinical treatment of ADHD symptoms.

  18. VZV skin-test reaction, but not antibody, is an important predictive factor for postherpetic neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Kyoko; Okazaki, Aiko; Onishi, Fumitake; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Okeda, Masayuki; Yano, Shuichiro; Takao, Yukiko; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamanishi, Koichi; Asada, Hideo

    2015-09-01

    The decline of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is thought to be related to the risk of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) as well as herpes zoster (HZ). However, the relationship between immunological condition and the incidence of PHN is still unclear. We conducted a large-scale prospective cohort study to clarify the relationship between immunological factors for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and the incidence of PHN. We carried out a cohort study on VZV immunity in a population living on an island cluster, Shozu County in Japan, and examined the people who developed HZ during a follow-up period of 3 years, with a focus on the relationship between cell-mediated and humoral immunity and the incidence of PHN. A total of 12,522 people over the age of 50 were enrolled in this study, and 401 registrants were diagnosed with HZ, including 79 PHN cases. We evaluated anatomical location and severity of skin lesion, acute pain severity, presence or absence of abnormal sensations, CMI assessed by VZV skin test, and VZV-specific antibody titer measured by serological tests. The incidence of PHN was significantly associated with a weak response to the VZV skin test, as well as facial or lumbosacral localization of skin rash, severe skin lesion, severe acute pain, and presence of abnormal sensations, but not related to VZV-specific antibody titer. The incidence of PHN is significantly associated with the decline of VZV-specific CMI, but not related to VZV-specific humoral immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Colonization with nontuberculous mycobacteria is associated with positive tuberculin skin test reactions in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtman, Lynn M; Miller, Andrew D; Xia, DongLing; Curran, Elizabeth H; Mansfield, Keith G

    2011-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections can result in significant morbidity and mortality in nonhuman primate colonies. Preventative health programs designed to detect infection routinely include tuberculin skin testing (TST). Because Mammalian Old Tuberculin used for TST contains antigens common to a variety of mycobacterial species, false-positive results can occur in animals sensitized to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Over 11 mo, a large colony of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) demonstrated a 3.6% prevalence of equivocal or positive TST reactions (termed 'suspect reactions'). Culture of gastric aspirates, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and feces revealed a single animal with a positive fecal culture for Mycobacterium gordonae. PCR amplification of M. gordonae DNA in feces collected from animals with suspect TST reactions (demonstrating a 66.7% colonization rate) and colony controls (demonstrating a 14.3% colonization rate) revealed a significant association between suspect TST reactions and intestinal colonization. Gross and histopathologic evaluation revealed a multifocal lymphadenopathy and granulomatous lymphadenitis in 2 of 4 TST-positive marmosets examined. Counter to expectations, granulomatous lymphoid tissue was culture-positive for M. kansasii rather than M. gordonae. Detection of M. gordonae in the feces of TST-suspect animals likely represents an apathogenic intestinal colonization that may serve as an indicator of NTM exposure, whereas evidence of histopathologic disease is associated with the more pathogenic M. kansasii. Although a high index of suspicion for M. tuberculosis should always be maintained, colonization with NTM organisms represents a cause of suspect TST reactions in common marmosets.

  20. Therapeutics interventions with anti-inflammatory creams in post radiation acute skin reactions: a systematic review of most important clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukourakis, Georgios V; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Kouvaris, John; Beli, Ivelina K; Kouloulias, Vassilios E

    2010-06-01

    The majority of cancer patients will receive radiation therapy treatment at some stage during their malignancy. An acute skin reaction represents a common post radiation side effect with different grade of severity. In order to investigate the optimal methods to prevent and manage acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy we have conducted a systematic review on this topic. It seems that skin washing, including gentle washing with water alone with or without mild soap, should be permitted in patients receiving radiation therapy, to prevent acute skin reaction. In addition, a low dose (i.e., 1%) corticosteroid cream may be beneficial in the reduction of itching and irritation. We have concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support or refute specific topical or oral agents for the prevention or management of acute skin reaction. There is a need for further research to review treatments that have produced promising results in the reviewed research studies and to evaluate other commonly recommended topical treatments. The purpose of this patent and literature review is to advocate the current management of acute skin reaction.

  1. Protective effect of transparent film dressing on proton therapy induced skin reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whaley Jonathan T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Proton therapy can result in clinically significant radiation dermatitis. In some clinical scenarios, such as lung or breast cancer, the risk of severe radiation dermatitis may limit beam arrangement and prescription doses. Patients undergoing proton therapy for prostate cancer commonly develop mild radiation dermatitis. Herein, we report the outcomes of two prostate cancer patients whose radiation dermatitis appears to have been substantially diminished by transparent film dressings (Beekley stickers. Methods This is a descriptive report of the skin toxicity observed in two patients undergoing proton therapy for prostate cancer at a single institution in 2011. A phantom dosimetric study was performed to evaluate the impact of a transparent film dressing on a beam’s spread out Bragg peak (SOBP. Results Two patients with low risk prostate cancer were treated with proton therapy to a total dose of 79.2Gy (RBE in 1.8 Gy (RBE fractions using two opposed lateral beams daily. Both patients had small circular (2.5 cm diameter transparent adhesive markers placed on their skin to assist with daily alignment. Patient 1 had markers in place bilaterally for the entirety of treatment. Patient 2 had a marker in place for three weeks on one side and six weeks on the other. Over the course of therapy, both men developed typical Grade 1 radiation dermatitis (asymptomatic erythema on their hips; however, in both patients, the erythema was substantially decreased beneath the markers. Patient 2 demonstrated less attenuation and thus greater erythema in the skin covered for three weeks compared to the skin covered for six weeks. The difference in skin changes between the covered and uncovered skin persisted for at least 1 month. A phantom study of double scattered beam SOBP with and without the marker in the beam path showed no gross dosimetric effect. Conclusions Transparent adhesive markers appear to have attenuated radiation dermatitis in

  2. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: an update on pharmacogenetics studies in drug-induced severe skin reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufini, Sara; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Politi, Cristina; Giardina, Emiliano; Novelli, Giuseppe; Borgiani, Paola

    2015-11-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are severe, life-threatening drug reactions involving skin and membranes mucous, which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and triggered, especially by drug exposure. Different studies have demonstrated that drug response is a multifactorial character and that the interindividual variability in this response depends on both environmental and genetic factors. The last ones have a relevant significance. In fact, the identification of new specific genetic markers involved in the response to drugs, will be of great utility to establish a more personalized therapeutic approach and to prevent the appearance of these adverse reactions. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the Pharmacogenetics studies related to Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis reporting the major genetic factors identified in the last years as associated with the disease and highlighting the use of some of these genomic variants in the clinical practice.

  3. Pt skin coated hollow Ag-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tao; Huang, Jianxing; Lai, Shaobo; Zhang, Size; Fang, Jun; Zhao, Jinbao

    2017-10-01

    The catalytic activity and stability of electrocatalyst is critical for the commercialization of fuel cells, and recent reports reveal the great potential of the hollow structures with Pt skin coat for developing high-powered electrocatalysts due to their highly efficient utilization of the Pt atoms. Here, we provide a novel strategy to prepare the Pt skin coated hollow Ag-Pt structure (Ag-Pt@Pt) of ∼8 nm size at room temperature. As loaded on the graphene, the Ag-Pt@Pt exhibits a remarkable mass activity of 0.864 A/mgPt (at 0.9 V, vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)) towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), which is 5.30 times of the commercial Pt/C catalyst, and the Ag-Pt@Pt also shows a better stability during the ORR catalytic process. The mechanism of this significant enhancement can be attributed to the higher Pt utilization and the unique Pt on Ag-Pt surface structure, which is confirmed by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations and other characterization methods. In conclusion, this original work offers a low-cost and environment-friendly method to prepare a high active electrocatalyst with cheaper price, and this work also discloses the correlation between surface structures and ORR catalytic activity for the hollow structures with Pt skin coat, which can be instructive for designing novel advanced electrocatalysts for fuel cells.

  4. Evaluation of the histologic reactions to commonly used suture materials in the skin and musculature of ball pythons (Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Michael S; Bennett, R Avery; Kinsel, Michael J; Mitchell, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate histologic reactions to 8 suture materials and cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive (CTA) in the musculature and skin of ball pythons. 30 hatchling ball pythons. In each snake, ten 1-cm skin incisions were made (day 0). At 8 sites, a suture of 1 of 8 materials was placed in the epaxial musculature, and the incision was closed with the same material. One incision was closed by use of CTA. No suture material was placed in the tenth incision, which was allowed to heal by second intention (negative control). Snakes (n = 5/group) were euthanized for harvest of treatment-site tissues at days 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90. Skin and muscle sections were examined microscopically and assigned a subjective score (0 to 4) for each of the following: overall severity of inflammation, fibrosis, number of macrophages, number of granulocytes, number of perivascular lymphocytes, and degree of suture fragmentation. Subjective score analysis revealed that CTA did not cause a significant inflammatory response, compared with the negative control. All suture materials caused significantly more inflammation over all time points; for all suture materials, inflammatory response scores were significantly higher than values for the negative control 90 days after implantation. No sutures were completely absorbed by the end of the study period, and several sutures appeared to be in the process of extrusion. In snakes, CTA can be used to close small superficial incisions or lacerations with minimal inflammatory response, and sutures may undergo extrusion from tissues prior to complete absorption.

  5. Immune Reactions against Gene Gun Vaccines Are Differentially Modulated by Distinct Dendritic Cell Subsets in the Skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Stefanie Weber

    Full Text Available The skin accommodates multiple dendritic cell (DC subsets with remarkable functional diversity. Immune reactions are initiated and modulated by the triggering of DC by pathogen-associated or endogenous danger signals. In contrast to these processes, the influence of intrinsic features of protein antigens on the strength and type of immune responses is much less understood. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of distinct DC subsets in immune reactions against two structurally different model antigens, E. coli beta-galactosidase (betaGal and chicken ovalbumin (OVA under otherwise identical conditions. After epicutaneous administration of the respective DNA vaccines with a gene gun, wild type mice induced robust immune responses against both antigens. However, ablation of langerin+ DC almost abolished IgG1 and cytotoxic T lymphocytes against betaGal but enhanced T cell and antibody responses against OVA. We identified epidermal Langerhans cells (LC as the subset responsible for the suppression of anti-OVA reactions and found regulatory T cells critically involved in this process. In contrast, reactions against betaGal were not affected by the selective elimination of LC, indicating that this antigen required a different langerin+ DC subset. The opposing findings obtained with OVA and betaGal vaccines were not due to immune-modulating activities of either the plasmid DNA or the antigen gene products, nor did the differential cellular localization, size or dose of the two proteins account for the opposite effects. Thus, skin-borne protein antigens may be differentially handled by distinct DC subsets, and, in this way, intrinsic features of the antigen can participate in immune modulation.

  6. Assessment of more than 1,000 implanted percutaneous bone conduction devices: skin reactions and implant survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Catharina A J; Faber, Hubert T; de Wolf, Maarten J F; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; Cremers, Cor W R J; Hol, Myrthe K S

    2012-02-01

    This study assesses soft tissue reactions and implant stability of 1,132 percutaneous titanium implants (970 patients) for bone conduction devices (BCDs). In addition, it examines BCD usage and comparisons between different patient groups. Retrospective survey. Mean follow-up time of 4.6 years. Tertiary care referral center. The surveyed cohort was divided into 3 different age groups (children, adults, and the elderly). In addition, 4 groups with variable loading times (i.e., the time between placement of the implant and loading the BCD sound processor) were identified as well as a subgroup of patients with mental retardation. Soft tissue reactions around the percutaneous implants as classified by the Holgers grading system, implant failure, and revision surgery rates. In 95.5% of the 7,415 observations of 1,132 implants, there were no adverse soft tissue reactions. Implant loss was 8.3%. Significantly more soft tissue reactions and implant failures were observed in children compared with adults and the elderly (p < 0.05). Implant survival was lower in patients with mental retardation compared with patients without mental retardation (p = 0.001). The loading time did not influence the occurrence of soft tissue reactions and implant survival rates. Children and patients with mental retardation are the most vulnerable to soft tissue reactions and implant losses. Additional and more frequent care needs to be given during outpatient consultations. Because loading as early as 3 to 5 weeks did not negatively affect skin reactions or implant survival, full BCD installation can occur earlier without risk.

  7. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway delays TLR-induced skin allograft rejection in mice: cholinergic pathway modulates alloreactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Sadis

    Full Text Available Activation of innate immunity through Toll-like receptors (TLR can abrogate transplantation tolerance by revealing hidden T cell alloreactivity. Separately, the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway has the capacity to dampen macrophage activation and cytokine release during endotoxemia and ischemia reperfusion injury. However, the relevance of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR-dependent anti-inflammatory pathway in the process of allograft rejection or maintenance of tolerance remains unknown. The aim of our study is to investigate whether the cholinergic pathway could impact T cell alloreactivity and transplant outcome in mice. For this purpose, we performed minor-mismatched skin allografts using donor/recipient combinations genetically deficient for the α7nAChR. Minor-mismatched skin grafts were not rejected unless the mice were housed in an environment with endogenous pathogen exposure or the graft was treated with direct application of imiquimod (a TLR7 ligand. The α7nAChR-deficient recipient mice showed accelerated rejection compared to wild type recipient mice under these conditions of TLR activation. The accelerated rejection was associated with enhanced IL-17 and IFN-γ production by alloreactive T cells. An α7nAChR-deficiency in the donor tissue facilitated allograft rejection but not in recipient mice. In addition, adoptive T cell transfer experiments in skin-grafted lymphopenic animals revealed a direct regulatory role for the α7nAChR on T cells. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the cholinergic pathway regulates alloreactivity and transplantation tolerance at multiple levels. One implication suggested by our work is that, in an organ transplant setting, deliberate α7nAChR stimulation of brain dead donors might be a valuable approach for preventing donor tissue inflammation prior to transplant.

  8. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway delays TLR-induced skin allograft rejection in mice: cholinergic pathway modulates alloreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadis, Claude; Detienne, Sophie; Vokaer, Benoît; Charbonnier, Louis-Marie; Lemaître, Philippe; Spilleboudt, Chloé; Delbauve, Sandrine; Kubjak, Carole; Flamand, Véronique; Field, Kenneth A; Goldman, Michel; Benghiat, Fleur S; Le Moine, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Activation of innate immunity through Toll-like receptors (TLR) can abrogate transplantation tolerance by revealing hidden T cell alloreactivity. Separately, the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway has the capacity to dampen macrophage activation and cytokine release during endotoxemia and ischemia reperfusion injury. However, the relevance of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)-dependent anti-inflammatory pathway in the process of allograft rejection or maintenance of tolerance remains unknown. The aim of our study is to investigate whether the cholinergic pathway could impact T cell alloreactivity and transplant outcome in mice. For this purpose, we performed minor-mismatched skin allografts using donor/recipient combinations genetically deficient for the α7nAChR. Minor-mismatched skin grafts were not rejected unless the mice were housed in an environment with endogenous pathogen exposure or the graft was treated with direct application of imiquimod (a TLR7 ligand). The α7nAChR-deficient recipient mice showed accelerated rejection compared to wild type recipient mice under these conditions of TLR activation. The accelerated rejection was associated with enhanced IL-17 and IFN-γ production by alloreactive T cells. An α7nAChR-deficiency in the donor tissue facilitated allograft rejection but not in recipient mice. In addition, adoptive T cell transfer experiments in skin-grafted lymphopenic animals revealed a direct regulatory role for the α7nAChR on T cells. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the cholinergic pathway regulates alloreactivity and transplantation tolerance at multiple levels. One implication suggested by our work is that, in an organ transplant setting, deliberate α7nAChR stimulation of brain dead donors might be a valuable approach for preventing donor tissue inflammation prior to transplant.

  9. Enhancement of visual scoring of skin irritant reactions using cross-polarized light and parallel-polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farage, Miranda A

    2008-03-01

    Polarized light has been used as an aid in visualizing various skin conditions, including acne vulgaris, rosacea, photoageing, lentigo simplex, and basal cell carcinoma. The use of parallel-polarized and cross-polarized light was evaluated in mild irritant reactions to determine, if this increases the ability to detect very early stages or low levels of irritation. Low concentrations of sodium lauryl sulfate (0.01% and 0.1%) were patched on human volunteers for 2, 6, and 24 hr, daily for 2-3 days in a modification of the standard patch test. Feminine protection products were evaluated in the behind-the-knee (BTK) test. Erythema reactions were scored by unaided visual assessment and using a polarized light visualization system. In the 24-hr patch test, mean erythema assessed with polarized light was consistent with results of unaided visual scoring. Under milder conditions (2- and 6-hr patches), and in the BTK, significant differences from pretreatment levels of erythema were apparent earlier in the series of treatments compared with unaided scoring. In addition, subsurface scoring demonstrated that changes were still present under the skin surface even after unaided visual scoring indicated recovery. Low (subclinical) levels of irritation can be detected using enhanced visual scoring, indicating this non-invasive method has the potential to increase the sensitivity of our clinical studies.

  10. Two-eyed versus one-eyed salamanders: does binocularity enhance the optically evoked skin blanching reactions of Ambystoma larvae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, P; Schneider, C W

    1990-08-01

    A wide variety of visual functions show increases attributable to binocularity, and the question pursued here was whether a second eye enhances the visually stimulated skin blanching reaction of the larval salamander. Dermal melanin spots (produced by the aggregations of melanosomes within dermal melanophores and which contract or expand to lighten or darken the skin) were measured in eyeless (controls), one-eyed and two-eyed Ambystoma punctatum larvae after chronic adaptation of the subjects to a white background (i.e., stimulus conditions for maximum blanching). The eyeless subjects showed no blanching (thus remained dark) in white cups, and they exhibited melanin spots 7 or 8 times the size of those of the other two groups. All one-eyed or two-eyed subjects exhibited blanching reactions; planometric comparison revealed a significantly larger melanin spot area for one-eyed than for two-eyed animals; i.e., the binocular condition permitted greater contraction of the pigment spots than did the monocular condition. Analytical data compared favorably with independently ascertained pigmentation indices. The results indicate that a second eye quantitatively elevates the blanching maximum of a larval salamander.

  11. Can host reaction animal models be used to predict and modulate skin regeneration?

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, T.C; Reis, R. L.; Marques, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    The study of host reactions in the biomedical and tissue engineering (TE) fields is a key issue but somehow set aside where TE constructs are concerned. Every day new biomaterials and TE constructs are being developed and presented to the scientific community. The combination of cells and biomolecules with scaffolding materials, as TE constructs, make the isolation and the understanding of the effect of each one those elements over the overall host reaction difficult. Eventually, ...

  12. 精制蟒蛇油延缓皮肤衰老的实验研究%Experimental Research of Refined Python Oil in Delaying Skin Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任薇; 龙彦纲; 黄国鑫; 武文; 梁海春; 赵学军; 苏子仁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of refined python oil on delaying D-galactose-induced skin aging in mice. Methods Kunming mice were randomized into high-, middle- and low-dose python oil groups (in the dosage of 10. 0, 5.0, and 2. 5 mL/kg respecitively), model group, normal group and positive control group (vitamin E, 50mg for each mouse). Except for the normal group, mice in the other groups were given daily subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (1g /kg) on the mice nape and back to induce sub-acute aging, and simultaneously were given skin application of the corresponding drugs for 42 continuous days. After treatment, the mice nape and back skin was sampled for the examination of water content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The skin histological features were also examined. Results In the model group water content and SOD activity were decreased, and MDA content was increased ( P < 0. 01 compared with those in the normal group). Water content and SOD activity were increased, MDA content was decreased, and the pathological changes of the skin were improved in python oil groups and positive control group (P < 0. 01 compared with those in the model group). Conclusion Python oil exerts certain effect on delaying skin aging, and its mechanism is probably related with the increase of water content and SOD activity, and with the decrease of MDA content.%[目的]观察精制蟒蛇油对D-半乳糖所致衰老小鼠皮肤组织的延缓衰老作用.[方法]选用昆明种小鼠,随机分为蟒蛇油高、中、低剂量组(中药高、中、低剂量组,剂量分别为10、5、2.5 mL/kg),维生素E组(剂量为50 mg/只),模型组和正常对照组;除正常对照组外,其他组均采用颈背部皮下注射D-半乳糖(剂量为1g/kg)法复制亚急性衰老模型,同时各组皮肤涂布给药,连续42 d.取各组小鼠背部皮肤检测含水量、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力和丙二醛(MDA)含量,并进行组织病理

  13. Bioelectrocatalytic sensor for triglycerides in human skin sebum based on enzymatic cascade reaction of lipase, glycerol kinase and glycerophosphate oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chi Yong; Han, Yong Duk; Yoon, Jae Ho; Yoon, Hyun C

    2014-04-10

    We report the development of an electrochemical biosensor for the quantification of triglycerides in human skin sebum, based on a multienzyme cascade reaction. The presence of excessive triglycerides in human sebum is one of the leading causes of various skin ailments. However, to the best of our knowledge, no bioelectrocatalytic approach for the quantification of sebum triglycerides has been made. In order to develop triglyceride biosensor, we fabricated a multienzyme-associated electrode incorporating lipase, glycerol kinase, and glycerophosphate oxidase. Enzymes were deposited by electrostatic force and further stabilized via crosslinking between enzymes and polymer matrices. The enzyme-modified biosensing electrode maintained its bioelectrocatalytic activity for five days. An additional constraint was the limited solubility of sebum triglycerides in aqueous electrolytes, impeding the analysis. To address this issue, triglyceride samples were prepared in the form of micelles, enabling efficient sample preparation for biosensor signaling. Calibration tests revealed that the designed assay had a detection range of 15-200mg/dL of micellar triglyceride, which covered the required determination range. The developed biosensing approach was successfully used to determine triglyceride concentrations in real sebum samples of unknown triglyceride content.

  14. Role of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 in skin reaction induced by transdermal application of propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, I; Hosaka, K; Maruo, H; Saeki, Y; Kamiyama, M; Konno, C; Gemba, M

    2000-02-01

    Dermal application of propranolol (PRL) induced formation of erythema and edema, and pseudoeosinophil infiltration in epidermis and dermis at the application site in guinea pigs. We investigated the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) at the application site of PRL and the role of these inflammatory chemical mediators in the occurrence of the skin reactions. PGE2 was found to be produced at the application site slightly after the accumulation of PRL released from the adhesive bandage in the patch test, and the amount of PGE2 increased continuously, with a peak value obtained at 24 h after application. The time-course changes resembled those of delta a* value, the index of erythema formation determined by colorimetric measurement, and edema formation. The production of PGE2 by dermal application of PRL was suppressed by local pretreatment with dexamethasone or indomethacin. However, no notable production of LTB4 was observed at the application site of PRL.

  15. A shock tube and laser absorption study of ignition delay times and OH reaction rates of ketones: 2-Butanone and 3-buten-2-one

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2014-03-01

    Ketones are potential biofuel candidates and are also formed as intermediate products during the oxidation of large hydrocarbons or oxygenated fuels, such as alcohols and esters. This paper presents shock tube ignition delay times and OH reaction rates of 2-butanone (C2H5COCH3) and 3-buten-2-one (C2H3COCH3). Ignition delay measurements were carried out over temperatures of 1100-1400K, pressures of 3-6.5atm, and at equivalence ratios (F{cyrillic}) of 0.5 and 1. Ignition delay times were monitored using two different techniques: pressure time history and OH absorption near 306nm. The reaction rates of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with these two ketones were measured over the temperature range of 950-1400K near 1.5atm. The OH profiles were monitored by the narrow-line-width ring-dye laser absorption of the well-characterized R1(5) line in the OH A-X (0, 0) band near 306.69nm. We found that the ignition delay times of 2-butanone and 3-buten-2-one mixtures scale with pressure as P-0.42 and P-0.52, respectively. The ignition delay times of 3-buten-2-one were longer than that of 2-butanone for stoichiometric mixtures, however, for lean mixtures (F{cyrillic}=0.5), 2-butanone had longer ignition delay times. The chemical kinetic mechanism of Serinyel et al. [1] over-predicted the ignition delay times of 2-butanone at all tested conditions, however, the discrepancies were smaller at higher pressures. The mechanism was updated with recent rate measurements to decrease discrepancy with the experimental data. A detailed chemistry for the oxidation of 3-buten-2-one was developed using rate estimation method and reasonable agreements were obtained with the measured ignition delay data. The measured reaction rate of 2-butanone with OH agreed well with the literature data, while we present the first high-temperature measurements for the reaction of OH with 3-buten-2-one. The following Arrhenius expressions are suggested over the temperature range of 950-1450K: kC2H5COCH3+OH=6.78×1013exp

  16. The association between Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination (1331 SSI) skin reaction and subsequent scar development in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Ladekarl, Monica; Zingmark, Vera; Kjærgaard, Jesper; Jensen, Trine Mølbæk; Jensen, Signe Kjeldgaard; Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Andersen, Andreas; Pryds, Ole; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Benn, Christine Stabell; Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2017-08-03

    The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) against tuberculosis is administered intradermally, and vaccination is often followed by a scar at the injection site. Among BCG-vaccinated individuals, having a scar has been associated with lower mortality. We aimed to examine the impact of vaccination technique for scarring in a high income setting, by assessing the associations between the post injection reaction, the wheal size, and the probability of developing a scar, and scar size. This study was nested within a clinical multicenter study randomizing 4262 infants to either BCG vaccination (BCG 1331 SSI) or no intervention. In this substudy, including 492 vaccinated infants, the immediate post BCG vaccination reaction was registered as either wheal (a raised, blanched papule at the injection site), bulge (a palpable element at the injection site), or no reaction. The presence or absence of a BCG scar and the size the scar was measured at 13 months of age. Of 492 infants included, 87% had a wheal after vaccination, 11% had a bulge, and 2% had no reaction. The mean wheal size was 3.8 mm (95% confidence interval 3.7-3.9). Overall, 95% (442/466, 26 lost to follow-up) of BCG-vaccinated infants had a scar at 13 months of age. In infants with a wheal, the probability of developing a scar was 96%, declining to 87% in the case of a bulge, and to 56% in the case of no reaction (p for same probability = 0.03). Wheal size was positively correlated with the probability of getting a scar and scar size. Scarring after BCG vaccination has been associated with lower infant mortality. In a high-income setting, we found that correct injection technique is highly important for the development of a BCG scar and that registration of the category of BCG skin reaction (as wheal, bulge, or no reaction) may be used to identify infants at risk of scar failure. Finally, the wheal size was positively associated with both the probability of getting a scar and scar size. The study was

  17. Ignition delays, heats of combustion, and reaction rates of aluminum alkyl derivatives used as ignition and combustion enhancers for supersonic combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas W., III; Schwab, S. T.; Harlowe, W. W.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the design of supersonic combustors which will be required in order to achieve the needed reaction rates in a reasonable sized combustor. A fuel additive approach, which is the focus of this research, is the use of pyrophorics to shorten the ignition delay time and to increase the energy density of the fuel. Pyrophoric organometallic compounds may also provide an ignition source and flame stabilization mechanism within the combustor, thus permitting use of hydrocarbon fuels in supersonic combustion systems. Triethylaluminum (TEA) and trimethylaluminum (TMA) were suggested for this application due to their high energy density and reactivity. The objective here is to provide comparative data for the ignition quality, the energy content, and the reaction rates of several different adducts of both TEA and TMA. The results of the experiments indicate the aluminum alkyls and their more stable derivatives reduce the ignition delay and total reaction time to JP-10 jet fuel. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of ignition delay and total reaction time of the blends of the adducts are significantly lower than in neat JP-10.

  18. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Skin Snips by Microscopy and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Implications for Monitoring and Evaluation Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Elizabeth A; Cama, Vitaliano A; Lakwo, Thomson; Mekasha, Sindeaw; Abanyie, Francisca; Sleshi, Markos; Kebede, Amha; Cantey, Paul T

    2016-04-01

    Microscopic evaluation of skin biopsies is the monitoring and evaluation (M and E) method currently used by multiple onchocerciasis elimination programs in Africa. However, as repeated mass drug administration suppresses microfilarial loads, the sensitivity and programmatic utility of skin snip microscopy is expected to decrease. Using a pan-filarial real-time polymerase chain reaction with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA), we evaluated 1) the use of a single-step molecular assay for detecting and identifying Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in residual skin snips and 2) the sensitivity of skin snip microscopy relative to qPCR-MCA. Skin snips were collected and examined with routine microscopy in hyperendemic regions of Uganda and Ethiopia (N= 500 each) and "residual" skin snips (tissue remaining after induced microfilarial emergence) were tested with qPCR-MCA. qPCR-MCA detected Onchocerca DNA in 223 residual snips: 139 of 147 microscopy(+) and 84 among microscopy(-) snips, suggesting overall sensitivity of microscopy was 62.3% (139/223) relative to qPCR-MCA (75.6% in Uganda and 28.6% in Ethiopia). These findings demonstrate the insufficient sensitivity of skin snip microscopy for reliable programmatic monitoring. Molecular tools such as qPCR-MCA can augment sensitivity and provide diagnostic confirmation of skin biopsies and will be useful for evaluation or validation of new onchocerciasis M and E tools.

  19. Local skin reaction following an accidental injection from a BCG vaccine in a healthcare worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Mittal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to blood-borne pathogens from sharp injuriescontinue to pose a significant risk to healthcare workers(HCW. The number of sharps injuries sustained by HCW is stillunclear, primarily due to under-reporting of events.Healthcare professionals are at risk of sustaining such injuriesfrom hollow-bore needles. Sharps injuries are associated withrisk of infection with blood-borne pathogens such as humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV hepatitisC virus (HCV and other live organisms. Here we are reportinga case of an adverse reaction in a HCW due to an accidentalsharps injury by a needle used to administer the BacillusCalmittee Gurien (BCG vaccine.

  20. Epicoccum allergy: skin reaction patterns and spore/mycelium disparities recognized by IgG and IgE ELISA inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, J; Chapman, J; Burge, H; Muilenberg, M; Solomon, W

    1987-07-01

    Comparable degrees of skin reactivity were observed towards spore and mycelium extracts from two isolates of Epicoccum and to one preparation of Alternaria in 35 rural and 120 university patients. The best experimental extracts detected Epicoccum sensitivity in 70% of the group tested while the commercial extract detected sensitivity in only 6%. Skin reaction correlations were greatest within isolates (eg, spore-A/mycelium-A), then for specific fungus parts (eg, spore-A/spore-B), then between isolates and parts (spore-A/mycelium-B). High correlations were found between individual IgG and IgE ELISA values for all antigens using serum from Epicoccum skin-reactive patients. ELISA inhibition results suggested that significant cross-reactivity exists between Epicoccum and Alternaria antigens recognized by IgG but not by IgE. ELISA inhibition cross-reaction patterns among Epicoccum antigens were comparable to skin reactions while IgG patterns showed little variability. Further characterization of spore/mycelium and interstrain recognition patterns among different immunoglobulin isotypes will be necessary before complete standardization of extracts from different parts of fungi will be possible. The use of spore material for skin testing and treatment of Epicoccum sensitivity appears to be both premature and unnecessary at this time.

  1. Successful removal of hyperkeratotic-lichenoid reaction to red ink tattoo with preservation of the whole tattoo using a skin grafting knife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, Boštjan

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of tattoo body decorations, reports of medical complications with tattoos have increased in parallel. Although tattoo reactions can resolve spontaneously, they often last for months or even years, despite the various treatment methods. In our case, we present the successful removal of hyperkeratotic-lichenoid reaction to red ink using a simple and cheap skin grafting knife. The entire tattoo was preserved with a good aesthetic result with minimal scarring.

  2. Assessment of local skin reactions with a sequential regimen of cryosurgery followed by ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, in patients with actinic keratosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg G

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gary Goldenberg,1 Brian Berman2,3 1Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, 2Center for Clinical and Cosmetic Research, Aventura, FL, 3Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: Lesion-directed and field-directed therapies are used to treat actinic keratosis (AK. Therapeutic approaches that combine both types of therapies may improve the successful elimination of AKs. A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of topical field treatment with ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, after cryosurgery to AKs on the face and scalp. Patients with 4–8 visible discrete AKs in a 25-cm2 contiguous area received cryosurgery of all AKs at baseline. After a 3-week healing period, patients applied ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, or vehicle gel once daily for 3 consecutive days to the treatment area. The incidence, severity, and time course of the development and resolution of local skin reactions were measured from baseline to week 11. Local skin reactions peaked shortly after completion of ingenol mebutate treatment and generally resolved within 2 weeks. The mean (95% confidence interval composite score (maximum range, 0–24 for these reactions was higher in patients with treatment of AKs on the face, 9.3 (8.5–10.1, as compared with the scalp, 5.8 (4.3–7.4. Erythema and flaking/scaling were the major contributors to the composite local skin reaction score. These results show that local skin reactions associated with ingenol mebutate treatment of the face or scalp are well tolerated after recent cryosurgery. Keywords: ingenol mebutate gel, actinic keratosis, field therapy, local skin reaction

  3. Structure-activity relationship of a series of 17 parabens and related compounds for histamine release in rat peritoneal mast cells and skin allergic reaction in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uramaru, Naoto; Inoue, Toshio; Watanabe, Yoko; Shigematsu, Hidenari; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    Parabens, which are a homologous series of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, have been used as preservatives in cosmetics, medicines and foods because of their antimicrobial activity. However, parabens in cosmetics have been suspected to cause allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, we examined paraben-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and skin reaction in guinea pigs using a series of 17 parabens with different alcohol side chains, ranging from methylparaben to dodecylparaben. Octylparaben showed the greatest histamine release-inducing activity from mast cells, and the activity was decreased in shorter- and longer-side-chain parabens. Octyl benzoate, octyl o-hydroxybenzoate and phenyloctane caused no significant degranulation of mast cells, whereas octyl m-hydroxybenzoate, octyl p-hydroxybenzoate and octyl phenol induced concentration-related degranulation. Metabolites of these parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) did not show histamine release-inducing activity. In the guinea pig skin reaction test, heptylparaben induced a typical strong skin reaction, while butylparaben induced a typical weak skin reaction, and methylparaben and dodecylparaben were inactive. Metabolites of parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) were also inactive. These results indicate that interaction of parabens with rat mast cells requires a minimum length and adequate lipophilicity of the alkyl side chain. Since metabolites of parabens were inactive, parabens appear to be direct-acting allergens.

  4. Comparison of acute skin reaction following morning versus late afternoon radiotherapy in patients with breast cancer who have undergone curative surgical resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jae Myoung; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Hyojung; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Seol, Seung Won; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kil, Won-Ho

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the relationship between the time of radiotherapy (RT) and treatment outcomes in breast cancer. Patients with pathologic T1-2N0-1 breast cancer who received adjuvant RT in the morning (before 10:00 AM) or late afternoon (after 3:00 PM) were eligible for inclusion in this study. We retrospectively compared the clinicopathologic characteristics, acute skin reaction, and survival outcomes according to the time of RT. The median follow-up duration was 83 months (range, 10-131 months). From the 395 eligible patients, 190 (48.1%) and 205 (51.9%) patients were classified into the morning RT group and the afternoon RT group, respectively. The clinicopathologic characteristics were relatively well balanced between the treatment groups, except for pathologic N-stage (P = 0.0409). Grade 2 or higher acute skin reaction according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria was observed in 39 (9.9%) patients, with a higher frequency in the afternoon RT group than the morning RT group (13.7% vs 5.8%, respectively; P = 0.0088). There was no difference in the failure patterns or survival outcomes between the treatment groups. RT in late afternoon was associated with increased Grade 2 or more skin reaction after RT for breast cancer patients, but treatment outcomes did not differ according to the time of RT. Individualized considerations for treatment should be taken into account to reduce the risk of skin reactions.

  5. Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction with multiple alloantibody (Anti S, N, K and a monospecific autoanti-JK b in intermediate β-thalassemia patient in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Dolatkhah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It appears that delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions may occur several days after the administration of donor red cells is true even though they have been shown to be compatible in cross match tests by the antiglobulin technique. A specific case was observed in our center, which confirms the fact. The patient was a 37-year-old male suffering from intermediate β-thalassemia. He had a history of two previous transfusions, with unknown transfusion reaction. In the last transfusion, laboratory data showed: Hb 7.8 g/dL and Hematocrit (Hct 24.2%. The patient received two units of cross matched, compatible concentrated red blood cells (RBCs. After eight days a severe reaction was observed with clinical evidence of tachycardia, fatigue, fever, back pain, chest discomfort, jaundice, nausea and anorexia. Accordingly delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction was suspected, and anti-RBC antibodies were tested. Laboratory tests revealed the presence of three alloantibodies: Anti-N, anti-S, anti-K, and a monospecific autoanti-JK b .

  6. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of UV-A- and UV-B-induced delayed and early mutations in V79 Chinese hamster cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, Jostein; Noordhuis, Paul; Stokke, Trond; Svendsrud, Debbie Hege; Kvam, Egil

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that approximately 10% of V79 Chinese hamster fibroblast populations clonally derived from single cells immediately after irradiation with either ultraviolet B (UV-B, 290-320 nm, mainly 311 nm) or ultraviolet A (UV-A, 320-400 nm, mainly 350-390 nm) radiation exhibit genomic instability. The instability is revealed by relatively high mutation frequencies in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) gene up to 23 cell generations after irradiation. These delayed mutant clones exhibited higher levels of oxidative stress than normal cells. Therefore, persistently increased oxidative stress has been proposed as a mechanism for UV-induced genomic instability. This study investigates whether this mechanism is reflected in the deletion spectrum of delayed mutant clones. Eighty-eight percent of the delayed mutant clones derived from UV-A-irradiated populations were found to have total deletion of the hprt gene. Correspondingly, 81% of UV-A-induced early mutations (i.e. detected shortly after irradiation) also had total deletions. Among delayed UV-B-induced mutant clones, 23% had total deletions and 8% had deletion of one exon, whereas all early UV-B events were either point mutations or small deletions or insertions. In conclusion, the multiplex polymerase chain reaction deletion screen showed that there were explicit differences in the occurrence of large gene alterations between early and delayed mutations induced by UV-B radiation. For UV-A radiation the deletion spectra were similar for delayed and early mutations. UV-A radiation is, in contrast to UV-B radiation, only weakly absorbed by DNA and probably induces mutation almost solely via production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the present results support the hypothesis that persistent increase in oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of UV-induced genomic instability.

  7. Smoking as an independent risk factor for severe skin reactions due to adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Lena; Johansson, Hemming; Hatschek, Thomas; Bergenmar, Mia

    2013-10-01

    Risk factors for severe acute radiation skin reactions (ARSR) have been described with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for the development of severe ARSR in women undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer. 390 women were assessed at the first and final RT sessions and at followup. ARSR were measured by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/The Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Acute Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria (RTOG/EORTC scale). Patients reported symptoms using visual analogue scale (VAS). Health related quality of life was assessed by EORTC QLQ-C30 and sleep disturbances by the MOS-Sleep questionnaire. Clinical data included smoking status (carbon monoxide in expired air), body mass index (BMI) and treatment data. RT dose, ≥ 50 Gy (mean difference 1.9 CI: 1.0 to 3.5, p = 0.040), high BMI (mean difference 4.3 CI: 2.2 to 8.3, p < 0.001) and smoking (mean difference 2.5 CI. 1.1 to 5.7, p = 0.027) were the factors strongest related to severe ARSR. Patients' with severe ARSR reported higher levels of pain and increased sleeping problems. To stop smoking during RT is the best decision patients can make to reduce the risk for severe ARSR since smoking is an independent risk factor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation-induced stress response in peripheral blood of breast cancer patients differs between patients with severe acute skin reactions and patients with no side effects to radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiöld, Sara; Naslund, Ingemar; Brehwens, Karl; Andersson, Arja; Wersall, Peter; Lidbrink, Elisabet; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats; Wojcik, Andrzej; Haghdoost, Siamak

    2013-08-30

    The aim of the study was to compare the radiation-induced oxidative stress response in blood samples from breast cancer patients that developed severe acute skin reactions during the radiotherapy, with the response in blood samples from patients with no side effects. Peripheral blood was collected from 12 breast cancer patients showing no early skin reactions after radiotherapy (RTOG grade 0) and from 14 breast cancer patients who developed acute severe skin reactions (RTOG grade 3-4). Whole blood was irradiated with 0, 5 and 2000mGy γ-radiation and serum was isolated. The biomarker for oxidative stress, 8-oxo-dG, was analyzed in the serum by a modified ELISA. While a significant radiation-induced increase of serum 8-oxo-dG levels was observed in serum of the RTOG 0 patients, no increase was seen in serum of the RTOG 3-4 patients. The radiation induced increase in serum 8-oxo-dG levels after 5mGy did not differ significantly from the increase observed for 2000mGy in the RTOG 3-4 cohort, thus no dose response relation was observed. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) value of 0.97 was obtained from the radiation-induced increase in 8-oxo-dG indicating that the assay could be used to identify patients with severe acute adverse reactions to radiotherapy. The results show that samples of whole blood from patients, classified as highly radiosensitive (RTOG 3-4) based on their skin reactions to radiotherapy, differ significantly in their oxidative stress response to ionizing radiation compared to samples of whole blood from patients with no skin reactions (RTOG 0). Extracellular 8-oxo-dG is primarily a biomarker of nucleotide damage and the results indicate that the patients with severe acute skin reactions differ in their cellular response to ionizing radiation at the level of induction of oxidative stress or at the level of repair or both. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simulation of delayed γ-ray emission following photofission reactions induced by pulsed bremsstrahlung x-rays using MCNPX and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xianfei; Yang, Haori

    2016-12-01

    There is a great demand to develop non-destructive techniques to identify and quantify Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in homeland security and nuclear safeguards applications. Passive assay could be extremely challenging in some scenarios. Active interrogation technique based on photofission has been identified as one of the promising approaches. In radiation detection system design based on such technique, it is highly desired to have abilities to accurately and efficiently simulate delayed γ-rays emitted from photofission reactions. In this work, simulation results were compared with measurement outcomes to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the code MCNPX 2.7.0 in the simulation of delayed γ-rays from photofission of uranium and plutonium samples. First, high-energy delayed γ-rays (Eγ 2.7-4.5 MeV) from photofission of 238U were simulated and validated against the energy spectra measured in between linac pulses. Second, low-energy delayed γ-ray spectra (Eγ 0.6-2.7 MeV) measured with a list-mode system after irradiation of 239Pu were used in the validation.

  10. Delayed type hypersensitivity reaction as indicator of cellular immune competence in broiler chickens exposed to dietary corticosterone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Gielkens, A.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments were performed to evaluate the delayed type hypersensitivity test against keyhole limpet haemocyanin as a parameter to measure stress-induced cellular immune suppression. The test was optimised for broiler chickens and evaluated in a stress model in which plasma corticosterone

  11. Delayed type hypersensitivity reaction as indicator of cellular immune competence in broiler chickens exposed to dietary corticosterone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Gielkens, A.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments were performed to evaluate the delayed type hypersensitivity test against keyhole limpet haemocyanin as a parameter to measure stress-induced cellular immune suppression. The test was optimised for broiler chickens and evaluated in a stress model in which plasma corticosterone leve

  12. Mittag-Leffler synchronization of fractional neural networks with time-varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms using impulsive and linear controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Ivanka; Stamov, Gani

    2017-09-08

    In this paper, we propose a fractional-order neural network system with time-varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms. We first develop a new Mittag-Leffler synchronization strategy for the controlled nodes via impulsive controllers. Using the fractional Lyapunov method sufficient conditions are given. We also study the global Mittag-Leffler synchronization of two identical fractional impulsive reaction-diffusion neural networks using linear controllers, which was an open problem even for integer-order models. Since the Mittag-Leffler stability notion is a generalization of the exponential stability concept for fractional-order systems, our results extend and improve the exponential impulsive control theory of neural network system with time-varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms to the fractional-order case. The fractional-order derivatives allow us to model the long-term memory in the neural networks, and thus the present research provides with a conceptually straightforward mathematical representation of rather complex processes. Illustrative examples are presented to show the validity of the obtained results. We show that by means of appropriate impulsive controllers we can realize the stability goal and to control the qualitative behavior of the states. An image encryption scheme is extended using fractional derivatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exponential synchronization of generalized neural networks with mixed time-varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms via aperiodically intermittent control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Qintao

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the exponential synchronization problem of generalized reaction-diffusion neural networks with mixed time-varying delays is investigated concerning Dirichlet boundary conditions in terms of p-norm. Under the framework of the Lyapunov stability method, stochastic theory, and mathematical analysis, some novel synchronization criteria are derived, and an aperiodically intermittent control strategy is proposed simultaneously. Moreover, the effects of diffusion coefficients, diffusion space, and stochastic perturbations on the synchronization process are explicitly expressed under the obtained conditions. Finally, some numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed control strategy and show different synchronization dynamics under a periodically/aperiodically intermittent control.

  14. Influence of Double-Strand Break Repair on Radiation Therapy-Induced Acute Skin Reactions in Breast Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Fernandes, Donald Jerard [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shirdi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Goutham, Hassan Venkatesh [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Sharan, Krishna [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shirdi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath [Manipal Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu [Division of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao, E-mail: satishraomlsc@gmail.com [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Curative radiation therapy (RT)-induced toxicity poses strong limitations for efficient RT and worsens the quality of life. The parameter that explains when and to what extent normal tissue toxicity in RT evolves would be of clinical relevance because of its predictive value and may provide an opportunity for personalized treatment approach. Methods and Materials: DNA double-strand breaks and repair were analyzed by microscopic γ-H2AX foci analysis in peripheral lymphocytes from 38 healthy donors and 80 breast cancer patients before RT, a 2 Gy challenge dose of x-ray exposed in vitro. Results: The actual damage (AD) at 0.25, 3, and 6 hours and percentage residual damage (PRD) at 3 and 6 hours were used as parameters to measure cellular radiosensitivity and correlated with RT-induced acute skin reactions in patients stratified as non-overresponders (NOR) (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grade <2) and overresponders (OR) (RTOG grade ≥2). The results indicated that the basal and induced (at 0.25 and 3 hours) γ-H2AX foci numbers were nonsignificant (P>.05) between healthy control donors and the NOR and OR groups, whereas it was significant between ORs and healthy donors at 6 hours (P<.001). There was a significantly higher PRD in OR versus NOR (P<.05), OR versus healthy donors (P<.001) and NOR versus healthy donors (P<.01), supported further by the trend analysis (r=.2392; P=.0326 at 6 hours). Conclusions: Our findings strongly suggest that the measurement of PRD by performing γ-H2AX foci analysis has the potential to be developed into a clinically useful predictive assay.

  15. Inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein and radiotherapy-induced early adverse skin reactions in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Takita, Cristiane; Wright, Jean; Reis, Isildinha M; Zhao, Wei; Lally, Brian E; Hu, Jennifer J

    2014-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in American women. Postsurgery adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) significantly reduced the local recurrence rate. However, many patients develop early adverse skin reactions (EASR) that impact quality of life and treatment outcomes. We evaluated an inflammatory biomarker, C-reactive protein (CRP), in predicting RT-induced EASRs in 159 patients with breast cancer undergoing RT. In each patient, we measured pre- and post-RT plasma CRP levels using a highly sensitive ELISA CRP assay. RT-induced EASRs were assessed at weeks 3 and 6 using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (v3.0). Associations between EASRs and CRP levels were assessed using logistic regression models after adjusting for potential confounders. RT-induced grade 2+ EASRs were observed in 8 (5%) and 80 (50%) patients at weeks 3 and 6 (end of RT), respectively. At the end of RT, a significantly higher proportion of African Americans developed grade 3 EASRs (13.8% vs. 2.3% in others); grade 2+ EASRs were significantly associated with: change of CRP > 1 mg/L [odds ratio (OR), 2.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-5.95; P = 0.04], obesity (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.03-4.21; P = 0.04), or combined both factors (OR, 5.21; 95% CI, 1.77-15.38; P = 0.003). This is the first study to demonstrate that an inflammatory biomarker CRP is associated with RT-induced EASRs, particularly combined with obesity. Future larger studies are warranted to validate our findings and facilitate the discovery and development of anti-inflammatory agents to protect normal tissue from RT-induced adverse effects and improve quality of life in patients with breast cancer undergoing RT. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Human atopic dermatitis skin-derived T cells can induce a reaction in mouse keratinocytes in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Britta C; Blom, Lars; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    In atopic dermatitis (AD), the inflammatory response between skin infiltrating T cells and keratinocytes is fundamental to the development of chronic lesional eczema. The aim of this study was to investigate whether skin-derived T cells from AD patients could induce an inflammatory response in mice...

  17. Penicillin allergy: anti-penicillin IgE antibodies and immediate hypersensitivity skin reactions employing major and minor determinants of penicillin.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, R K; Joglekar, S A; Tomas, E

    1980-01-01

    300 children considered to have had adverse reactions to penicillin were examined. Informed consent was obtained from the parents. Skin tests were conducted by the scratch/prick and intradermal techniques, using benzylpenicilloyl polylysine conjugate and a mixture of minor determinants of penicillin. Specific anti-penicillin IgE antibodies were estimated by the radioallergosorbent test. There was a good correlation between the two methods. The overall frequency of positive tests was 19%. 11 c...

  18. Utility of a single nasal polymerase chain reaction assay in predicting absence of skin and environmental contamination in hospitalized patients with past methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Dubert M; Wagner, Matthew; Carson, Grace; Hanish, Christine; Thompson, Jody; Orr, Megan; Roth, Felix; Carson, Paul J

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated hospitalized patients with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for persistent colonization and need for contact precautions. Up to 3 daily cultures of nares, skin, and any present wounds were compared with a single nasal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Most patients (76.2%) were no longer colonized with MRSA. A single PCR assay was sufficient to exclude persistent colonization and environmental contamination and remove the contact precautions.

  19. Applicability of the {sup 9}Be(d,n){sup 10}B reaction to AB-BNCT skin and deep tumor treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capoulat, M.E., E-mail: capoulat@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA. Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Avenida Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Minsky, D.M.; Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA. Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Avenida Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    In the range of low bombarding energies (less than about 1.5 MeV) the {sup 9}Be(d,n){sup 10}B reaction produces neutron spectra that can be moderated depending on the choice of the target thickness and the deuteron bombarding energy. In this work, a Monte Carlo simulation study to determine the capability of this reaction to deliver enough dose to efficiently control both skin and deep seated tumors has been performed by means of MCNP calculations using eight optimized {sup 9}Be targets.

  20. Ignition delays, heats of combustion, and reaction rates of aluminum alkyl derivatives used as ignition and combustion enhancers for supersonic combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, T. W., III; Harlowe, W. W.; Schwab, S.

    1992-01-01

    The work was based on adapting an apparatus and procedure developed at Southwest Research Institute for rating the ignition quality of fuels for diesel engines. Aluminum alkyls and various Lewis-base adducts of these materials, both neat and mixed 50/50 with pure JP-10 hydrocarbon, were injected into the combustion bomb using a high-pressure injection system. The bomb was pre-charged with air that was set at various initial temperatures and pressures for constant oxygen density. The ignition delay times were determined for the test materials at these different initial conditions. The data are presented in absolute terms as well as comparisons with the parent alkyls. The relative heats of reaction of the various test materials were estimated based on a computation of the heat release, using the pressure data recorded during combustion in the bomb. In addition, the global reaction rates for each material were compared at a selected tmperature and pressure.

  1. Effects of coupling strength and space on the dynamics of coupled toggle switches in stochastic gene networks with multiple-delayed reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andre S.

    2007-06-01

    Genetic toggle switches (TSs) are one of the best studied small gene regulatory networks (GRNs), due to their simplicity and relevant role. They have been interpreted as decision circuits in cell differentiation, a process long hypothesized to be bistable [1], or as cellular memory units [2]. In these contexts, they must be reliable. Once a “decision” is made, the system must remain stable. One way to gain stability is by duplicating the genes of a TS and coupling the two TSs. Using a recent modeling strategy of GRNs, driven by a delayed stochastic simulation algorithm (delayed SSA) that allows modeling transcription and translation as multidelayed reactions, we analyze the stability of systems of coupled TSs. For this, we introduce the coupling strength (C) , a parameter to characterize the GRN structure, against which we compare the GRN stability (S) . We first show that time delays in transcription, associated to the promoter region release, ensure bistability of a TS, given no cooperative binding or self-activation reactions. Next, we couple two TSs and measure their toggling frequencies as C varies. Three dynamical regimes are observed: (i) for weak coupling, high frequency synchronized oscillations, (ii) for average coupling, low frequency synchronized oscillations, and (iii) for strong coupling the system becomes stable after a transient, in one of two steady states. The system stability, S , goes through a first order phase transition as C increases, in the average coupling regime. After, we study the effects of spatial separation in two compartments on the dynamics of two coupled TSs, where spatial separation is modeled as normally distributed random time delayed reactions. The phase transition of S , as C increases, occurs for lower values of C than when the two TSs are in the same compartment. Finally, we couple weakly and homogeneously several TSs within a single compartment and observe that as the number of coupled TSs increases, the system goes

  2. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  3. Negativity is the main cause of reaction-time delay in an emotional Stroop study with picture/word stimuli.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutmuller, A.D.; Brokken, D.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if the emotion triggered by viewing a picture can be determined by measuring reaction times. We investigated this by using the emotional Stroop task. Emotional Stroop entails presenting two stimuli, in our case pictures and superimposed words, with different em

  4. Penicillin allergy: anti-penicillin IgE antibodies and immediate hypersensitivity skin reactions employing major and minor determinants of penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, R K; Joglekar, S A; Tomas, E

    1980-11-01

    300 children considered to have had adverse reactions to penicillin were examined. Informed consent was obtained from the parents. Skin tests were conducted by the scratch/prick and intradermal techniques, using benzylpenicilloyl polylysine conjugate and a mixture of minor determinants of penicillin. Specific anti-penicillin IgE antibodies were estimated by the radioallergosorbent test. There was a good correlation between the two methods. The overall frequency of positive tests was 19%. 11 children showed cutaneous reactivity only to the minor determinants mixture. Positive results were found more often in those with accelerated adverse reactions, particularly anaphylaxis, serum sickness, angio-oedema, or urticaria. The validity of penicillin-negative results was confirmed by drug challenge in 56 subjects, only 2 of whom showed a slight skin rash. Of 5 patients with positive tests, inadvertent administration of penicillin produced accelerated urticaria in all. 14 of 42 children with positive tests had lost hypersensitivity to penicillin one year later. In a separate group of 50 children with a history of adverse response to ampicillin, the overall frequency of positive tests was 12%; 38% showed evidence of recent E-B virus infection. It was concluded that penicillin allergy is often overdiagnosed. The diagnosis can be reliably confirmed by skin tests using major and minor determinants of benzylpenicillin and by the radioallergosorbent test; such hypersensitivity is not permanent.

  5. Genetic Variants in CD44 and MAT1A Confer Susceptibility to Acute Skin Reaction in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram; Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao; Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Fernandes, Donald Jerard; Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath; Suga, Tomo; Shoji, Yoshimi; Nakayama, Fumiaki; Imai, Takashi; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneity in radiation therapy (RT)-induced normal tissue toxicity is observed in 10% of cancer patients, limiting the therapeutic outcomes. In addition to treatment-related factors, normal tissue adverse reactions also manifest from genetic alterations in distinct pathways majorly involving DNA damage-repair genes, inflammatory cytokine genes, cell cycle regulation, and antioxidant response. Therefore, the common sequence variants in these radioresponsive genes might modify the severity of normal tissue toxicity, and the identification of the same could have clinical relevance as a predictive biomarker. The present study was conducted in a cohort of patients with breast cancer to evaluate the possible associations between genetic variants in radioresponsive genes described previously and the risk of developing RT-induced acute skin adverse reactions. We tested 22 genetic variants reported in 18 genes (ie, NFE2L2, OGG1, NEIL3, RAD17, PTTG1, REV3L, ALAD, CD44, RAD9A, TGFβR3, MAD2L2, MAP3K7, MAT1A, RPS6KB2, ZNF830, SH3GL1, BAX, and XRCC1) using TaqMan assay-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the end of RT, the severity of skin damage was scored, and the subjects were dichotomized as nonoverresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade skin reactions. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed significant (P=.0107) gene-gene interactions between MAT1A and CD44. Furthermore, an increase in the total number of risk alleles was associated with increasing occurrence of overresponses (P=.0302). The genetic polymorphisms in radioresponsive genes act as genetic modifiers of acute normal tissue toxicity outcomes after RT by acting individually (rs8193), by gene-gene interactions (MAT1A and CD44), and/or by the additive effects of risk alleles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Skin-lightening cosmetics: frequent, potentially severe adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Skin-lightening cosmetics are used by many women and men around the world. The products contain a variety of substances, which are often unknown to the users. Most of these products include topical corticosteroids, hydroquinone and mercury salts. Many other substances may be added. Several surveys and cohort studies, including several thousand individuals, have shown that regular application of skin-lightening cosmetics to large surface areas can have irreversible cutaneous adverse effects, such as patchy hyper- or hypopigmentation, skin atrophy, stretch marks and delayed wound healing, and can also mask or, on the contrary, promote or reactivate skin infections. Cases of skin cancer have been attributed to skin-lightening cosmetics. A Senegalese cohort study of 147 women showed a statistically significant increase in the risk of hypertension and diabetes linked to the use of skin-lightening agents. Other systemic adverse effects attributed to skin-lightening cosmetics include Cushing's syndrome, adrenal insufficiency, nephrotic syndrome, neurological disorders, and ocular disorders. Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have also been attributed to these products. Many skin-lightening cosmetics contain substances that can harm the unborn child. For example, tretinoin is teratogenic while salicylic acid is feto-toxic. In practice, users are often unaware of the risk of severe adverse effects associated with skin-lightening cosmetics. Users should be informed of these adverse effects and encouraged to stop using these products, especially when skin disorders appear.

  7. A Review of the Use of Topical Calendula in the Prevention and Treatment of Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-04-23

    Calendula is a topical agent derived from a plant of the marigold family Calendula Officinalis. Containing numerous polyphenolic antioxidants, calendula has been studied in both the laboratory and clinical setting for the use in treating and preventing radiation induced skin toxicity. Despite strong evidence in the laboratory supporting calendula's mechanism of action in preventing radiation induced skin toxicity, clinical studies have demonstrated mixed results. In light of the controversy surrounding the efficacy of calendula in treating and preventing radiodermatitis, the topic warrants further discussion.

  8. A Review of the Use of Topical Calendula in the Prevention and Treatment of Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyson Kodiyan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Calendula is a topical agent derived from a plant of the marigold family Calendula Officinalis. Containing numerous polyphenolic antioxidants, calendula has been studied in both the laboratory and clinical setting for the use in treating and preventing radiation induced skin toxicity. Despite strong evidence in the laboratory supporting calendula’s mechanism of action in preventing radiation induced skin toxicity, clinical studies have demonstrated mixed results. In light of the controversy surrounding the efficacy of calendula in treating and preventing radiodermatitis, the topic warrants further discussion.

  9. Left is where the L is right. Significantly delayed reaction time in limb laterality recognition in both CRPS and phantom limb pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersmann, Annika; Haarmeyer, Golo Sung; Blankenburg, Markus; Frettlöh, Jule; Krumova, Elena K; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Maier, Christoph

    2010-12-17

    The body schema is based on an intact cortical body representation. Its disruption is indicated by delayed reaction times (RT) and high error rates when deciding on the laterality of a pictured hand in a limb laterality recognition task. Similarities in both cortical reorganisation and disrupted body schema have been found in two different unilateral pain syndromes, one with deafferentation (phantom limb pain, PLP) and one with pain-induced dysfunction (complex regional pain syndrome, CRPS). This study aims to compare the extent of impaired laterality recognition in these two groups. Performance on a test battery for attentional performance (TAP 2.0) and on a limb laterality recognition task was evaluated in CRPS (n=12), PLP (n=12) and healthy subjects (n=38). Differences between recognising affected and unaffected hands were analysed. CRPS patients and healthy subjects additionally completed a four-day training of limb laterality recognition. Reaction time was significantly delayed in both CRPS (2278±735.7ms) and PLP (2301.3±809.3ms) compared to healthy subjects (1826.5±517.0ms), despite normal TAP values in all groups. There were no differences between recognition of affected and unaffected hands in both patient groups. Both healthy subjects and CRPS patients improved during training, but RTs of CRPS patients (1874.5±613.3ms) remain slower (p<0.01) than those of healthy subjects (1280.6±343.2ms) after four-day training. Despite different pathomechanisms, the body schema is equally disrupted in PLP and CRPS patients, uninfluenced by attention and pain and cannot be fully reversed by training alone. This suggests the involvement of complex central nervous system mechanisms in the disruption of the body schema.

  10. Aberrant Behaviours of Reaction Diffusion Self-organisation Models on Growing Domains in the Presence of Gene Expression Time Delays

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.

    2010-03-23

    Turing\\'s pattern formation mechanism exhibits sensitivity to the details of the initial conditions suggesting that, in isolation, it cannot robustly generate pattern within noisy biological environments. Nonetheless, secondary aspects of developmental self-organisation, such as a growing domain, have been shown to ameliorate this aberrant model behaviour. Furthermore, while in-situ hybridisation reveals the presence of gene expression in developmental processes, the influence of such dynamics on Turing\\'s model has received limited attention. Here, we novelly focus on the Gierer-Meinhardt reaction diffusion system considering delays due the time taken for gene expression, while incorporating a number of different domain growth profiles to further explore the influence and interplay of domain growth and gene expression on Turing\\'s mechanism. We find extensive pathological model behaviour, exhibiting one or more of the following: temporal oscillations with no spatial structure, a failure of the Turing instability and an extreme sensitivity to the initial conditions, the growth profile and the duration of gene expression. This deviant behaviour is even more severe than observed in previous studies of Schnakenberg kinetics on exponentially growing domains in the presence of gene expression (Gaffney and Monk in Bull. Math. Biol. 68:99-130, 2006). Our results emphasise that gene expression dynamics induce unrealistic behaviour in Turing\\'s model for multiple choices of kinetics and thus such aberrant modelling predictions are likely to be generic. They also highlight that domain growth can no longer ameliorate the excessive sensitivity of Turing\\'s mechanism in the presence of gene expression time delays. The above, extensive, pathologies suggest that, in the presence of gene expression, Turing\\'s mechanism would generally require a novel and extensive secondary mechanism to control reaction diffusion patterning. © 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  11. An integrative review of skin assessment tools used to evaluate skin injury related to external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Carol R; McGuiness, William; O'Rourke, Geraldine A

    2017-04-01

    To review literature associated with external beam radiotherapy and skin damage. A focus of the literature search is to highlight and discuss the myriad of skin assessment tools that are available to the clinician when assessing skin injury in patients receiving external beam radiation therapy. It is apparent that despite considerable work being progressed in the development of individualised skin assessment tools, uptake and use is poor. These tools are designed to assist the clinician in the evaluation of damaged skin and predict the radiation wound development pathway. An integrated review can be used to address a mature or new and emerging topic through a systematic methodology, which is either theoretical or empirical, gained from research, practice or policy initiatives (Whittemore & Knafl, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52, 2005, 546). This review is particularly concerned with the employment of skin assessment tools by clinicians in patients with radiation damaged skin. Using the search terms synonyms for radiation, skin and epidermal damage, PubMed/MEDLINE, Medical Complete and Web of Science databases were searched. Consulting professional peers was employed as part of the inclusion and exclusion process. There is a high level of unpredictability about which patient will have an uncomplicated course of external beam radiotherapy. Variables may include, but are not limited to, an acute reaction, a delayed reaction resulting in actual skin damage or no visible skin disturbance. The skin assessment tools that are readily available are not regularly referenced in clinical practice when attempting to manage the many side effects of radiation therapy. Skin assessment tools require ongoing clinical validation, so they can be used to guide practitioners to undertake further assessment of skin integrity. The current body of knowledge suggests clinicians caring for patients receiving therapeutic radiotherapy should consider integrating a recognised patient assessment

  12. Hyperhemolytic Syndrome complicating a Delayed Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction due to anti-P1 alloimmunization, in a pregnant woman with HbO-Arabβ-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Bezirgiannidou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hyperhemolytic Syndrome or Hyperhemolytic Transfusion Reaction (HHTR, a life-threatening subset of Delayed Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction (DHTR is characterized by destruction of both transfused and autologous erythrocytes evidenced by a fall in post transfusion hemoglobin below the pre-transfusion level. Case report: We describe a case of DHTR due to anti-P1 alloimmunization manifesting with hyperhemolysis in a 30-year-old Greek Pomak woman with thalassemia intermedia (HbO-Arab/β-thalassemia, during the11th week of her first gestation. She was successfully managed with avoidance of further transfusions and administration of IVIG and corticosteroids. Conclusion: A high index of suspicion for HHTR is of vital importance among clinicians especially since optimal methods for its prevention and treatment remain yet to be defined. Early recognition of HHTR leading to prompt cessation of additional transfusions and initiation of immunosuppressive treatment can be life-saving, especially in clinical settings where limited therapeutic options are available, such as in pregnancy.

  13. Astrophysical S-factor of the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be reaction measured at low energy via prompt and delayed gamma detection

    CERN Document Server

    Confortola, F; Costantini, H; Formicola, A; Gyürky, Gy; Bezzon, P; Bonetti, R; Broggini, C; Corvisiero, P; Elekes, Z; Fülöp, Z; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Laubenstein, M; Lemut, A; Limata, B; Lozza, V; Marta, M; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Roca, V; Rolfs, C; Alvarez, C Rossi; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P

    2007-01-01

    Solar neutrino fluxes depend both on astrophysical and on nuclear physics inputs, namely on the cross sections of the reactions responsible for neutrino production inside the Solar core. While the flux of solar 8B neutrinos has been recently measured at Superkamiokande with a 3.5% uncertainty and a precise measurement of 7Be neutrino flux is foreseen in the next future, the predicted fluxes are still affected by larger errors. The largest nuclear physics uncertainty to determine the fluxes of 8B and 7Be neutrinos comes from the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be reaction. The uncertainty on its S-factor is due to an average discrepancy in results obtained using two different experimental approaches: the detection of the delayed gamma rays from 7Be decay and the measurement of the prompt gamma emission. Here we report on a new high precision experiment performed with both techniques at the same time. Thanks to the low background conditions of the Gran Sasso LUNA accelerator facility, the cross section has been measured at Ec...

  14. Evaluation of key histologic variables in skin biopsies of patients of borderline leprosy with type 1 lepra reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Nivedita; Agarwal, Sarla; Sharma, Sonal; Sharma, Satendra; Pandhi, Deepika

    2014-01-01

    Leprosy remains an important health problem mainly in the African and South-East Asia regions. Type 1 reaction is an immune-mediated phenomenon known to complicate at least 30% of patients of leprosy. Diagnosing type 1 reaction correctly is important for timely institution of therapy to prevent and treat neuropathy-associated disability and morbidity. There is paucity of literature on definitive criteria for histologic diagnosis of type 1 reaction. This study was conducted to determine the key histologic variables for diagnosing type 1 reaction. This was a prospective study recruiting 104 patients with borderline leprosy. Three pathologists blinded to the clinical diagnosis independently assessed the cases. The agreement between each histological variable and clinical diagnosis was then calculated by using Cohen's kappa (Κ) coefficient. Histological diagnosis of type 1 reaction was given to 27 (67.5%) of 40 clinically diagnosed cases of type 1 reaction cases. Histological variables chosen as key variables for histological diagnosis of type 1 reaction were presence of giant cells, dermal edema, intragranuloma edema, granuloma fraction 31-50%, and presence of medium to large giant cells. This study has shown that T1R are still underdiagnosed histologically in comparison with clinical assessments. The key variables for diagnosing type 1 reaction were proposed.

  15. Evaluation of key histologic variables in skin biopsies of patients of borderline leprosy with type 1 lepra reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Patnaik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy remains an important health problem mainly in the African and South-East Asia regions. Type 1 reaction is an immune-mediated phenomenon known to complicate at least 30% of patients of leprosy. Diagnosing type 1 reaction correctly is important for timely institution of therapy to prevent and treat neuropathy-associated disability and morbidity. There is paucity of literature on definitive criteria for histologic diagnosis of type 1 reaction. This study was conducted to determine the key histologic variables for diagnosing type 1 reaction. Methods: This was a prospective study recruiting 104 patients with borderline leprosy. Three pathologists blinded to the clinical diagnosis independently assessed the cases. The agreement between each histological variable and clinical diagnosis was then calculated by using Cohen′s kappa (Κ coefficient. Results: Histological diagnosis of type 1 reaction was given to 27 (67.5% of 40 clinically diagnosed cases of type 1reaction cases. Histological variables chosen as key variables for histological diagnosis of type 1 reaction were presence of giant cells, dermal edema, intragranuloma edema, granuloma fraction 31-50%, and presence of medium to large giant cells. Conclusion: This study has shown that T1R are still underdiagnosed histologically in comparison with clinical assessments. The key variables for diagnosing type 1 reaction were proposed.

  16. Concurrent hand-foot skin reaction and hair depigmentation with sunitinib: Report of a case and literature review of kinase inhibitors and blocking antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchi Bansal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinase inhibitors have revolutionized cancer therapy by becoming the first-line agents for advanced solid malignancies replacing the traditional chemotherapeutic agents. Cutaneous side-effects with these drugs are common, but owing to their infrequent use in Indian patients, our current knowledge of toxicity is scanty and primarily based on the western literature. Cutaneous reactions can adversely affect patients′ quality of life (QoL and can lead to dose modifications and treatment interruptions. The report discusses concurrent hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR and hair depigmentation in an Indian patient being treated with sunitinib for advanced renal cell carcinoma. The pathogenesis and treatment strategies for this characteristic phenomenon and other cutaneous toxicities of kinase inhibitors have also been reviewed.

  17. Concurrent Hand-Foot Skin Reaction and Hair Depigmentation With Sunitinib: Report of a Case and Literature Review of Kinase Inhibitors and Blocking Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Shuchi; Sardana, Kabir; Singh, Kishore; Garg, Vijay K

    2014-01-01

    Kinase inhibitors have revolutionized cancer therapy by becoming the first-line agents for advanced solid malignancies replacing the traditional chemotherapeutic agents. Cutaneous side-effects with these drugs are common, but owing to their infrequent use in Indian patients, our current knowledge of toxicity is scanty and primarily based on the western literature. Cutaneous reactions can adversely affect patients’ quality of life (QoL) and can lead to dose modifications and treatment interruptions. The report discusses concurrent hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) and hair depigmentation in an Indian patient being treated with sunitinib for advanced renal cell carcinoma. The pathogenesis and treatment strategies for this characteristic phenomenon and other cutaneous toxicities of kinase inhibitors have also been reviewed. PMID:25484390

  18. Modulation of atopy patch test reactions by topical treatment of human skin with a fatty acid-rich emollient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billmann-Eberwein, C; Rippke, F; Ruzicka, T; Krutmann, J

    2002-01-01

    Measures directed at improving the skin barrier function are thought to be effective in preventing reexacerbation of atopic dermatitis, but direct proof of a prophylactic effect of emollients has been elusive. In the present study, the atopy patch test has been employed as a model for the initiation phase of atopic dermatitis in order to assess whether pretreatment of non-lesional skin with a fatty acid-rich emollient (Eucerin Omega Creme) has a prophylactic effect in patients with atopic dermatitis. Pretreatment of test sites with Eucerin Omega Creme either prevented or diminished the development of eczema, as compared with untreated control test sites in the same patients (n = 38). These studies indicate that the use of fatty acid-rich emollients prevents the development of atopic eczema. They also demonstrate that the atopy patch test can be used to assess the capacity of a given regimen to exert prophylactic effects in this disease. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  20. Lipodystrophy in Insulin-Treated Subjects and Other Injection-Site Skin Reactions: Are We Sure Everything is Clear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Sandro; Strollo, Felice; Ceriello, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Physicians and patients have long been aware of skin lesions at the sites of insulin injections, referred to as lipodystrophy that can present as lipoatrophy (LA) or lipohypertrophy (LH). However, the reported prevalence of these different skin lesions varies widely, emphasizing the need for a correct identification method. In this short review we discuss LA and LH and also take into account other skin lesions, such as bruising, as well as different needle injuries, including those associated with the subcutaneous injection of pegvisomant (a drug aimed at counteracting the high levels of growth hormone associated with acromegaly), long-acting exenatide (a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist), and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha biologic agents (used against Crohn's disease). In these latter cases specific studies are warranted to understand the pathophysiological background and possible prevention. However, the most common lesion is still insulin injection site-related LD, so a strong effort has to be made to avoid the confusion generated by previously misleading classifications which were barely able to reliably distinguish between LA and LH.

  1. High frequency of skin reactions in patients with leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals: a comparative approach using historical controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed data from historical controls treated with meglumine antimoniate to compare the frequency of adverse events observed in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with the same dose of meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals in an endemic area of the State of Bahia, Brazil. Group A patients were treated in 2000 with the drug produced by Eurofarma Laboratórios Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil (lot A and group B patients were treated in 1996 with the reference drug produced by Rhodia Farma Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil (lot B. We observed an unusual higher frequency of skin reactions in group A patients. However, all type of adverse events observed in group A were also observed in group B. The physico-chemical analysis of these lots revealed that lot A had lower pH and higher concentration of total and trivalent antimony, lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Our findings suggest that the skin reactions could be attributed to heavy metal contamination of lot A.

  2. High frequency of skin reactions in patients with leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals: a comparative approach using historical controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Flores M, Rico Marlon de Moraes; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Macêdo, Vanize de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed data from historical controls treated with meglumine antimoniate to compare the frequency of adverse events observed in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with the same dose of meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals in an endemic area of the State of Bahia, Brazil. Group A patients were treated in 2000 with the drug produced by Eurofarma Laborat rios Ltda., S o Paulo, Brazil (lot A) and group B patients were treated in 1996 with the reference drug produced by Rhodia Farma Ltda., S o Paulo, Brazil (lot B). We observed an unusual higher frequency of skin reactions in group A patients. However, all type of adverse events observed in group A were also observed in group B. The physico-chemical analysis of these lots revealed that lot A had lower pH and higher concentration of total and trivalent antimony, lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Our findings suggest that the skin reactions could be attributed to heavy metal contamination of lot A.

  3. Allergic reactions in red tattoos: Raman spectroscopy for 'fingerprint' detection of chemical risk spectra in tattooed skin and culprit tattoo inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M; Serup, J

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. Twelve dermatome shave biopsies from allergic reactions in red tattoos were analysed with Raman spectroscopy (A 785-nm 300 mW diode laser). These were referenced to samples of 10 different standard tattoo ink stock products, three of these identified as the culprit inks used by the tattooist and thus by history the source of the allergy. Three primary aromatic amine (PAA) laboratory standards (aniline, o-anisidine and 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine) were also studied. Application of Raman spectroscopy to the shave biopsies was technically feasible. In addition, all ten inks and the three PAA standards could be discriminated. 10/12 shave biopsies provided clear fingerprint Raman signals which differed significantly from background skin, and Raman spectra from 8/12 biopsies perfectly matched spectra from the three culprit ink products. The spectrum of one red ink (a low cost product named 'Tattoo', claimed to originate from Taiwan, no other info on label) was identified in 5/12 biopsies. Strong indications of the inks 'Bright Red' and 'Crimson Red' were seen in three biopsies. The three PAA's could not be unambiguously identified. This study, although on a small-scale, demonstrated Raman spectroscopy to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Specific IgG Antibodies (Total and Subclasses against Saffron Pollen: A Study of Their Correlation with Specific IgE and Immediate Skin Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol-Reza Varasteh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Zaaferan, botanical name Crocus sativus, is the most expensive spice in the world. It is derived from the dried stigma and pistil of the purple saffron crocus flowers. Iran is the largest saffron producer accounting for more than 80% of the world's production. Saffron contains an aeroallergen that causes reactive respiratory allergic reactions in atopic subjects. IgG antibody to allergens in the serum of allergic patients is not routinely measured. In this study in order to find out more about mechanism of allergy against saffron pollen, specific antibodies (IgE and IgG, total and subclasses in atopic subjects were assayed. We used an ELISA assay for measuring specific IgE and IgG against saffron pollen extract in the sera of 38 atopic subjects (test group and 20 non allergic subjects (control group. The optical densities were compared between allergic subjects and non-allergic individuals. The prick test with saffron pollen extract was used to evaluate the cutaneous and specific antibody responses in the allergic subjects. The correlation was determined by statistical analysis. Specific saffron pollen IgE and IgG subclasses were found significantly higher in the allergic subjects than the control group. The immediate skin reaction was found positive in 70% of the test group. We report here, the existence of a positive correlation between specific IgE and skin reaction by prick test in atopic subjects (R=0.433. A negative correlation between specific IgE and IgG4 subclass was also found (R=-0.576. These data may be useful to understand the mechanism of allergy to saffron and may help in clarifying clinical manifestations and to prevent IgE production as well as therapeutic application.

  5. 延期植皮术联合牵引术在重度关节瘢痕挛缩畸形中的应用%The application of delayed skin grafting combined traction in severe joint cicatricial contracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐子寒; 张振信; 王本峰; 孙要文; 郭亚东; 高文杰; 秦高平

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨在重度关节瘢痕挛缩畸形治疗中,采用延期植皮术联合牵引术的效果.方法 2000年3月至2013年5月,临床治疗25例.对重度关节瘢痕挛缩畸形患者,一期行瘢痕切除松解术,术中保留关节部位的血管、神经、肌腱等重要组织,创面用脱细胞猪皮生物敷料覆盖、包扎.术后行关节部位持续皮牵引7~14d,待关节恢复到伸直位,即行二期自体皮移植术.结果 25例患者二期植皮术后2~3周创面一期愈合,皮片完全成活、色泽及弹性良好,关节屈伸基本正常.经3个月至11年的随访,除1例肩关节功能锻炼不积极,效果欠佳,其余均无瘢痕增生、挛缩,关节功能恢复满意.结论 延期植皮术联合牵引术可有效提高皮片成活率、减轻瘢痕形成,关节功能得到良好恢复,提高了患者生活质量.%Objective To investigate the effect of delayed skin grafting combined traction in severe joint cicatricial contracture.Methods At the first stage,the joint cicatricial contracture was released completely with protection of vessels,nerves and tendons.The wound was covered with allogenetic skin or biomaterials.After skin traction for 7-14 days,the joint could reach the extension position.Then the skin graft was performed on the wound.25 cases were treated from Mar.2000 to May.2013.Results Primary healing was achieved at the second stage in all the cases.The skin graft had a satisfactory color and elasticity.Joint function was normal.All the patients were followed up for 3 months to 11 years with no hypertrophic scar and contraction relapse,except for one case who didn' t have enough active exercise on shoulder joint.Conclusion Delayed skin grafting combined traction can effectively increase the skin graft survival rate and improve the joint function recovery.

  6. Genetics of host response to Leishmania tropica in mice - different control of skin pathology, chemokine reaction, and invasion into spleen and liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Kobets

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of genus Leishmania. The frequent involvement of Leishmania tropica in human leishmaniasis has been recognized only recently. Similarly as L. major, L. tropica causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans, but can also visceralize and cause systemic illness. The relationship between the host genotype and disease manifestations is poorly understood because there were no suitable animal models. METHODS: We studied susceptibility to L. tropica, using BALB/c-c-STS/A (CcS/Dem recombinant congenic (RC strains, which differ greatly in susceptibility to L. major. Mice were infected with L. tropica and skin lesions, cytokine and chemokine levels in serum, and parasite numbers in organs were measured. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Females of BALB/c and several RC strains developed skin lesions. In some strains parasites visceralized and were detected in spleen and liver. Importantly, the strain distribution pattern of symptoms caused by L. tropica was different from that observed after L. major infection. Moreover, sex differently influenced infection with L. tropica and L. major. L. major-infected males exhibited either higher or similar skin pathology as females, whereas L. tropica-infected females were more susceptible than males. The majority of L. tropica-infected strains exhibited increased levels of chemokines CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5. CcS-16 females, which developed the largest lesions, exhibited a unique systemic chemokine reaction, characterized by additional transient early peaks of CCL3 and CCL5, which were not present in CcS-16 males nor in any other strain. CONCLUSION: Comparison of L. tropica and L. major infections indicates that the strain patterns of response are species-specific, with different sex effects and largely different host susceptibility genes.

  7. Detection of living Sarcoptes scabiei larvae by reflectance mode confocal microscopy in the skin of a patient with crusted scabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Assi; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Ingber, Arieh; Enk, Claes D.

    2012-06-01

    Scabies is an intensely pruritic disorder induced by a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The diagnosis of scabies is established clinically and confirmed by identifying mites or eggs by microscopic examination of scrapings from the skin or by surface microscopy using a dermatoscope. Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy is a novel technique used for noninvasive imaging of skin structures and lesions at a resolution compatible to that of conventional histology. Recently, the technique was employed for the confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of scabies. We demonstrate the first ever documentation of a larva moving freely inside the skin of a patient infected with scabies.

  8. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  9. Analysis of T-lymphocyte subtypes of the peripheral blood and skin delayed-type hypersensitivity in patients with hyper-IgE syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobing Lei; Shengshun Tan; Weihui Zeng; Junmin Wang; Panjian Zhang; Yuan Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the function of cellular immunity in patients with hyper-IgE syndrome (HIE). Methods:T-lymphocyte subtypes of the peripheral blood and cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to two recall antigens, tetanus toxoid (TT) and purified protein derivative(PPD), were measured in five patients with HIE and 15 healthy controls, respectively. Results: The CD4+ cell counts in HIE group were significantly lower than those in control group ( P < 0.01). In contrast, CD8 + cells were significantly higher than those in the control ( P < 0.01). The induration sizes of DTH response to two recall antigens were smaller in HIE group than those in the control group ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion: There was an immunologic dysfunction of T lymphocytes in the patients with HIE.

  10. Skin and Systemic Manifestations of Jellyfish Stings in Iraqi Fishermen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Al-Rubiay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jellyfish stings are common worldwide with an estimated 150 million cases annually,and their stings cause a wide range of clinical manifestations from skin inflammation to cardiovascularand respiratory collapse. No studies on jellyfish stings have been carried out in Basra, Iraq.Objectives: To describe the immediate and delayed skin reactions to White Jellyfish (Rhizostomasp. stings and the types of local treatment used by fishermen. Methods and Materials: 150fishermen were enrolled at three Marine stations in Basra, Iraq. Demographic data, types of skinreactions, systemic manifestations and kinds of treatments were collected. Results: Overall, 79% offishermen in all three Marine stations gave a history of having been stung. The common sites of singswere the hands and arms followed by the legs. Most fishermen claimed that stings led to skinreactions within 5 minutes. The presenting complaints were itching, burning sensation, anderythematic wheals. A few days after the sting, new groups of painless and itchy erythematousmonomorphic papular rashes developed at the site of the sting in 62% of cases as a delayed type ofskin reaction that resolved spontaneously. The local remedies commonly used by the fishermen wereseawater, tap water and ice. A few fishermen considered stings as insignificant and did not think therewas a need to seek medical help. Conclusions: We conclude that jellyfish causes many stingsamong fishermen in the Basra region. Their stings lead to immediate and delayed skin reactions. Selftreatmentby topical remedies is common.

  11. Staining of skin with dihydroxyacetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WITTGENSTEIN, E; BERRY, H K

    1960-09-30

    The reaction of skin with dihydroxyacetone to produce a brown "artificial tan" appears to proceed through combination with free amino groups in skin proteins, and particularly by combination of dihydroxyacetone with the free guanido group in arginine.

  12. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Release and Suppression of Caspases by Gamma-Tocotrienol Prevent Apoptosis and Delay Aging in Stress-Induced Premature Senescence of Skin Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Makpol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the molecular mechanism of γ-tocotrienol (GTT in preventing cellular aging by focusing on its anti-apoptotic effect in stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS model of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs. Results obtained showed that SIPS exhibited senescent-phenotypic characteristic, increased expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal and promoted G0/G1 cell cycle arrest accompanied by shortening of telomere length with decreased telomerase activity. Both SIPS and senescent HDFs shared similar apoptotic changes such as increased Annexin V-FITC positive cells, increased cytochrome c release and increased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P<0.05. GTT treatment resulted in a significant reduction of Annexin V-FITC positive cells, inhibited cytochrome c release and decreased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P<0.05. Gene expression analysis showed that GTT treatment down regulated BAX mRNA, up-regulated BCL2A1 mRNA and decreased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression (P<0.05 in SIPS. These findings suggested that GTT inhibits apoptosis by modulating the upstream apoptosis cascade, causing the inhibition of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria with concomitant suppression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. In conclusion, GTT delays cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts through the inhibition of intrinsic mitochondria-mediated pathway which involved the regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes and proteins.

  13. Usefulness of intradermal test and patch test in the diagnosis of nonimmediate reactions to metamizol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, E; Ruiz, A; Moreno, E; Laffond, E; Dávila, I; Lorente, F

    2007-12-01

    Metamizole is a pyrazolone derivative, and its most common reactions are IgE-mediated reaction and idiosyncratic reactions. Non-immediate reactions are poorly described and there are very few reports on non-immediate reactions to pyrazolones. We evaluated 12 patients (nine men) who consulted for a non-immediate reaction after metamizol administration. We performed cutaneous tests (skin prick tests and immediate and delayed intradermal tests) and epicutaneous tests, and, if necessary, an oral challenge test. All skin prick and intradermal tests, if necessary, were negative in immediate reading. Delayed intradermal tests were positive in six of 10 patients (60%) and epicutaneous tests were positive in four of 11 patients (36%). Three cases (25%), were diagnosed by a positive oral challenge test. Delayed-reading intradermal tests and patch tests are useful tools in the diagnosis of nonimmediate reactions to pyrazolones and should be considered the first step when evaluating these type of reactions. Intradermal test appears to be more sensitive than patch test. The positivity of skin tests suggests an immunological reaction, probably mediated by T lymphocytes, but further studies are required.

  14. Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodine based contrast media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellin, Marie-France; Stacul, Fulvio; Webb, Judith A W

    2011-01-01

    DEFINITION: Late adverse reactions (LAR) to contrast media (CM) are defined as reactions occurring 1 h to 1 week after exposure. NEED FOR REVIEW: In view of more prospective studies of LAR and new data about their pathophysiology, the Contrast Medium Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society...... or delayed reading intradermal). The main risk factors for LAR are a previous reaction to contrast medium, a history of allergy, and interleukin-2 treatment. Most skin reactions are mild or moderate and self-limiting. MANAGEMENT: Management is symptomatic and similar to the management of other drug...

  15. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Skin KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Skin Print A A ... are really dead skin cells. continue Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  16. 海洋胶原肽抗皮肤老化作用的实验研究%Effects of marine collagen peptide on delaying the skin aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴新荣; 杨睿悦; 张召锋; 许雅君; 韩晓龙; 王军波; 李勇

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effect of marine collagen peptides(MCPs)on the skin of aged mice induced by D.galactose.Methods Subchronic toxicity study was conducted while Dgalactose induced subacute aging model was established.D-galactose dose of 0.125 g/kg body weight was intraperitoneally injected daily for 90 days.Marine collagen peptide 0.225,0.450,1.350 g/kg body weight were administered by oral gavage. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase(CAT) activity and malondiadehyde (MDA) content in blood serum were measured,along with cutaneous histopathology examination.Results Epidermal thickness was significantly higher in MCPs treated group. Number and activity of fibroblast in MCPs treated dermis was increased prominently.The activity of SOD in 0.225,0.450.1.350 g/kgbw MCPs treated groups were 455.52±11.39,460.15±18.09,468.59±27.25 U/ml respectively,each of which was significantly higher than that in model control group;the activity of serum CAT in 0.225.1.350 g/kgbw MCPs treated groups (21.33±4.82,21.69±1.68 U/ml) were obviously increased compared with that in model control group (17.14±2.81 U/ml);MDA level in 0.450,1.350 g/kgbw MCPs treated groups were 5.67±0.93,5.76±1.02 nmol/ml respectively,each of which was significantly lower than that in model control group(7.63±1.37 nmol/ml).Conclusions The results showed that MCPs might play a protective role on skin aging by improving the activity of antioxidant.%目的 探讨海洋胶原肽抗皮肤衰老的作用及机制.方法 清洁级SD大鼠,每日腹腔注射D-半乳糖(0.125 g/kg)建立皮肤衰老模型,同时灌胃给予海洋胶原肽(0.225、0.450、1.350g/kg),连续进行90 d后,测定大鼠血清中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性及丙二醛(MDA)含量,并观察皮肤组织形态学改变.结果 海洋胶原肽干预后,动物皮肤表皮变厚,真皮层中成纤维细胞增多且活跃,3个海洋胶原肽干预组血清中抗氧化酶SOD的活性分别为(455.52

  17. Clinical evaluation of MPT-64 and MPT-59, two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for skin test reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T; Jensen, B N; Ravn, P

    1996-01-01

    : In a small scale clinical investigation, skin reactions to these antigens were compared to reactions to tuberculin PPD RT23 in 1) patients with active tuberculosis, 2) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects with close contact with tuberculous patients, and 3) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects without contact...... of the experimental skin test antigens had properties superior to tuberculin PPD RT23 in humans. The failure of MPT-64 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in the majority of tuberculosis patients is discussed, in view of the potent reactivity to MPT-64 in tuberculous guinea pigs.......SETTING: Department of Pulmonary Medicine P, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MPT-64 and MPT-59 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions following intradermal administration. DESIGN...

  18. Natural Oil-Based Emulsion Containing Allantoin Versus Aqueous Cream for Managing Radiation-Induced Skin Reactions in Patients With Cancer: A Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Raymond Javan, E-mail: email.rchan@gmail.com [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia); School of Nursing, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove (Australia); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove (Australia); Mann, Jennifer; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Cheuk, Robyn; Blades, Rae [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Keogh, Samantha [National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Research Excellence in Nursing, Centre for Health Practice Innovation–Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Nathan (Australia); Poole, Christopher [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Walsh, Christopher [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of a natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin versus aqueous cream for preventing and managing radiation-induced skin reactions. Methods and Materials: A total of 174 patients were randomized and participated in the study. Patients received either cream 1 (the natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin) or cream 2 (aqueous cream). Skin toxicity, pain, itching, and skin-related quality of life scores were collected for up to 4 weeks after radiation treatment. Results: Patients who received cream 1 had a significantly lower average level of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events at week 3 (P<.05) but had statistically higher average levels of skin toxicity at weeks 7, 8, and 9 (all P<.001). Similar results were observed when skin toxicity was analyzed by grades. With regards to pain, patients in the cream 2 group had a significantly higher average level of worst pain (P<.05) and itching (P=.046) compared with the cream 1 group at week 3; however, these differences were not observed at other weeks. In addition, there was a strong trend for cream 2 to reduce the incidence of grade 2 or more skin toxicity in comparison with cream 1 (P=.056). Overall, more participants in the cream 1 group were required to use another topical treatment at weeks 8 (P=.049) and 9 (P=.01). Conclusion: The natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin seems to have similar effects for managing skin toxicity compared with aqueous cream up to week 5; however, it becomes significantly less effective at later weeks into the radiation treatment and beyond treatment completion (week 6 and beyond). There were no major differences in pain, itching, and skin-related quality of life. In light of these results, clinicians and patients can base their decision on costs and preferences. Overall, aqueous cream seems to be a more preferred option.

  19. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Delayed puberty can be a source of great concern and anxiety, although it usually is caused by a self-limiting variant of the normal physiological timing named constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Delayed puberty can, however, also be the first presentation of a permanent condition ...... mineral density) and psychological (e.g., low self-esteem) and underline the importance of careful clinical assessment of the patients.......Delayed puberty can be a source of great concern and anxiety, although it usually is caused by a self-limiting variant of the normal physiological timing named constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Delayed puberty can, however, also be the first presentation of a permanent condition...

  20. Delayed fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    Delayed fission is a nuclear decay process that couples {beta} decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes {beta} decay and thereby populates excited states in the daughter. If these states are of energies comparable to or greater than the fission barrier of the daughter, then fission may compete with other decay modes of the excited states in the daughter. In this paper, mechanism and some experiments of the delayed fission will be discussed. (author)

  1. Traveling Fronts in Schoner Reaction-diffusion Equation in Competitive Model with Nonlocal Delays%非局部时滞Schoner竞争反应扩散方程的行波解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢溪庄

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author proposed and considered a Schoner reaction-diffusion equation in competing model with nonlocal delays . Each species in the discrete delay type model has a corresponding constant maturation time. Only the adult members are involved competition and immature members are in the absence of competition. We established the existence of traveling wave fronts connecting two boundary equilibriums. The approach used in this paper is the upper-lower solutions technique and monotone iteration by Wang, Li and Ruan for reaction-diffusion systems with spatio-temporal delays.%构造并研究了一类具有非局部时滞Schoner竞争反应扩散模型.每一个种群的成熟期是一个常数,而且只有成年种群存在竞争,幼年的种群并不存在竞争,此外种群个体在空间区域中的运动是随机行走的.我们利用Wang,Li和Ruan建立的具有非局部时滞的反应扩散系统的波前解存在性理论,证明了连接两个边界平衡解的行波解的存在性.

  2. Reacción tisular a materiales de sutura no absorbibles en piel de equinos Tissue reaction to nonabsorbable suture materials in horse skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Maldonado

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó clínica e histológicamente el grado de reacción tisular frente a cuatro materiales de sutura no absorbibles (lino, nylon, caprolactam polimerizado y polipropileno, implantados en la piel de 8 equinos. Se determinó clínicamente el edema provocado y la ausencia o presencia de exudado a los 5 y 10 días de haber sido implantados los materiales de sutura, además al 10º día se realizó una biopsia para determinar histológicamente el grado de reacción tisular. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el lino causó un mayor edema al día 5, mientras que al día 10 el nylon y caprolactam provocaron un menor de edema. Con respecto a la presencia o ausencia de exudado, al día 5 la sutura de nylon fue la única que no presentó exudado en ninguno de los 8 ejemplares, sin embargo, al día 10, salvo un ejemplar que presentó exudado en todos los materiales, el nylon, caprolactam y polipropileno no presentaron exudado. En cuanto a la evaluación histológica tanto el nylon como el caprolactam mostraron menor grado de reacción tisular. En conclusión, el lino resultó tener el mayor grado de reacción tisular durante el presente estudio, y el nylon si bien es similar al caprolactam y polipropileno respecto a la reacción tisular, causó una menor cantidad de equinos con presencia de exudado que los otros materiales utilizados.The degree of tissue reaction of 4 nonabsorbable suture materials (linen, nylon, polymerized caprolactum and polypropylene implanted into health skin of 8 horses was clinically and histologically evaluated. Cutaneous oedema and absence or presence of the exudation were clinically evaluated 5 and 10 days following suture material implantation. Biopsies were taken to histologically evaluate tissue reaction at 10 days. The results obtained showed that linen caused more oedema by the 5th day, whereas the nylon and caprolactum had less oedema on the 10th day. With respect to the presence or absence of exudation, nylon was

  3. An attempt to induce transient immunosuppression pre-erythrocytapheresis in a girl with sickle cell disease, a history of severe delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions and need for hip prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Cattoni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on a case of delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR occurred 7 days after an erythrocytapheresis or eritroexchange procedure (EEX treated with rituximab and glucocorticoids in a 15-years old patient with sickle cell disease. EEX was performed despite a previous diagnosis of alloimmunization, in order to reduce hemoglobin S rate before a major surgery for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. A first dose of rituximab was administered before EEX. However, rituximab couldn’t prevent DHTR that occurred with acute hemolysis, hemoglobinuria and hyper-bilirubinemia. A further dose of rituximab and three boli of methylprednisolone were given after the onset of the reaction. It is likely that the combined use of rituximab and steroids managed to gradually improve both patient’s general conditions and hemoglobin levels. Nor early or late side effects were registered in a 33-months follow-up period. This report suggests the potential effectiveness and safety of rituximab in combination with steroids in managing and mitigating the symptoms of delayed post-transfusional hemolytic reactions in alloimmunized patients affected by sickle cell disease with absolute need for erythrocytapheresis.

  4. Delayed fluorescence in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsev, Vasilij; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Chernev, Petko; Strasser, Reto J

    2009-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a very efficient photochemical process. Nevertheless, plants emit some of the absorbed energy as light quanta. This luminescence is emitted, predominantly, by excited chlorophyll a molecules in the light-harvesting antenna, associated with Photosystem II (PS II) reaction centers. The emission that occurs before the utilization of the excitation energy in the primary photochemical reaction is called prompt fluorescence. Light emission can also be observed from repopulated excited chlorophylls as a result of recombination of the charge pairs. In this case, some time-dependent redox reactions occur before the excitation of the chlorophyll. This delays the light emission and provides the name for this phenomenon-delayed fluorescence (DF), or delayed light emission (DLE). The DF intensity is a decreasing polyphasic function of the time after illumination, which reflects the kinetics of electron transport reactions both on the (electron) donor and the (electron) acceptor sides of PS II. Two main experimental approaches are used for DF measurements: (a) recording of the DF decay in the dark after a single turnover flash or after continuous light excitation and (b) recording of the DF intensity during light adaptation of the photosynthesizing samples (induction curves), following a period of darkness. In this paper we review historical data on DF research and recent advances in the understanding of the relation between the delayed fluorescence and specific reactions in PS II. An experimental method for simultaneous recording of the induction transients of prompt and delayed chlorophyll fluorescence and decay curves of DF in the millisecond time domain is discussed.

  5. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Skin Biopsy KidsHealth > For Teens > Skin Biopsy Print A A ... español Biopsia de piel What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would Need One? In a biopsy, ...

  6. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  7. 一类时间周期的时滞反应扩散模型的空间动力学研究%Spatial dynamics of a class of delayed nonlocal reaction-diffusion model with time period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智诚; 王双明

    2013-01-01

    利用动力系统方法及持久性理论研究了一类时间周期的时滞非局部反应扩散单种群增长模型,建立了解的全局存在性以及一致持久性。%The paper was concerned with a class of delayed nonlocal reaction-diffusion equation with a time period, which modelled the growth of a single species. By using the monotone dynamical system method and practice persistence theory, the global existence and uniform persistence of solutions were established.

  8. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  9. Investigation and Analysis on Adverse Skin Reactions to Cosmetics in Community Residents%上海市部分社区居民化妆品皮肤不良反应的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利红; 李竹; 崔文广; 吴立明; 苏瑾

    2011-01-01

    [目的]初步了解上海市中心城区20-59岁人群化妆品皮肤不良反应的发生情况及分布特点,试图找出重点人群,为进一步的研究提供数据基础.[方法]采用分层随机抽样的方式,抽取上海市中心城区1200名20-59岁社区居民作为研究对象,采用问卷调查的方式收集化妆品皮肤不良反应情况及相关信息,汇总数据并进行统计分析.[结果]在收集的1164份有效问卷中,10.7%的被调查者生平有过化妆品皮肤不良反应的经历,5.07%的被调查者在过去一年中经历过化妆品皮肤不良反应.各年龄组之间有过化妆品皮肤不良反应经历的比例差异无统计学意义.20-29岁组、30-39岁组及总体(20-59岁)的男性与女性之间有过化妆品皮肤不良反应经历的比例差异有统计学意义.自我判断为皮肤敏感的被调查者有化妆品皮肤不良反应经历的比例高于自我判断为皮肤不敏感的被调查者;自述有过敏史的被调查者有化妆品皮肤不良反应经历的比例高于自述无过敏史的被调查者.[结论]本研究获取的上海市中心城区20-59岁人群化妆品皮肤不良反应经历的比例低于国外的相关报道.人群中皮肤敏感者所占的比例、有过敏史者所占的比例可能影响该人群经历过化妆品皮肤不良反应者所占的比例.%[ Objective ] To take a pilot study on the adverse skin reactions to cosmetics in the 20-59 years old people in Shanghai and analyze their characteristics, in order to find out the target population and provide the basis for further study. [ Methods ] Through stratified random sampling, 1200 people between 20 and 59 years old were recruited and answered the questionnaires for the information about adverse skin reactions to cosmetics, and then the data were arranged and analyzed. [ Results ] A total of 1 164 valid questionnaires were collected, in which 10.7% of respondents experienced adverse skin reactions to cosmetics over

  10. The Prospect of Orem Self-care Theory to Delay the Degradation Reaction of Parkinson's Disease%O rem 自护理论消除帕金森退化反应的应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李连红; 曲晓彤; 尹安春

    2014-01-01

    由于帕金森的发病率逐年上升,并对患者生理、心理、社会等方面造成影响,本文对国内外O rem自护理论消除退化反应的相关文献以及在帕金森疾病中的应用前景进行报道。使用检索电子数据库以及查阅期刊文献。结果发现随着疾病的进展,帕金森会诱发机体一系列的退化反应,这严重影响了患者的生理、心理以及生活质量。大量文献报道了O rem自护理论在消除高血压、糖尿病等慢性疾病退化反应中的应用,但很少文献提及O rem自护理论在消除帕金森退化反应中的应用。笔者认为O rem自护理论有望在消除帕金森退化反应中应用。%It has showed an upward trend year by year that the Parkinson's disease lead to function impairment and the function impairment plays an important role in patients .In this study we reviewed the Orem self-care theory ,degradation reaction and their relationship of the patient to Parkinson's disease at home and abroad .This article searched electronic databases and consult journal literature .The Parkinson's disease resulted in different degrees of degradation reaction , which affected people's physiology ,psychosocial adaptation and quality of life .It is found that the Orem self-care theory has been used to delay the degradation reaction of hypertension and diabetes . However ,it is seldom reported that the Orem self-care theory would has been applied to delay the degradation reaction of Parkinson's disease .It is expected that the Orem self-care theory would be used to delay the degradation reaction of Parkinson's disease .

  11. 乳腺癌保乳术后放疗所致的皮肤反应及护理%Skin Reactions and Nursing after Breast Conservative Surgery of Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海涛

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe and analyze skin reactions and nursing after breast conservative surgery of breast cancer and take appropriate measures. Method:80 patients with breast cancer were selected,and breast conservative radical cure operated. The total amount was 60 to 70 Gy,6 to 7 weeks completed. During the process,partial skin reactions were closely observed and appropriate measures were taken. Result:The results demonstrate that 80 patients were given radiotherapy on time,without fester,infections and level 4 skin reactions. The health of patients was obviously enhanced and improved. Conclusion:It does exists the skin reactions after radiotherapy of breast conservative surgery,however,the patients will feel less painful with fewer partial skin reactions and health improved greatly if timely and appropriate measures are taken.%  目的:观察分析乳腺癌保乳术后放疗所致的皮肤反应,制定相应的护理对策。方法:对80例适应保乳的乳腺癌患者术后行根治性放疗,总量60~70 Gy,6~7周完成,观察局部皮肤反应,制定相应护理措施。结果:80例全部按时完成放疗,无溃烂和感染,无4级皮肤反应发生,明显改善患者的生存质量,提高治疗效果。结论:乳腺癌保乳术后放疗所致的皮肤反应是存在的,但是,采取及时有效的护理干预,能减轻局部皮肤反应,减轻患者痛苦,提高疗效,提高生存质量。

  12. Research of the relationship on different skin reaction and the efficacy of natural moxibustion therapy%天灸疗法中不同皮肤反应与疗效关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易玉珍; 蔡友锦; 何冠蘅; 阮经文

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察天灸疗法中不同皮肤反应程度与疗效之间的关系,探讨天灸治疗的皮肤护理方法.方法:随机抽取2010年7月~2011年1月在我科接受天灸治疗的85例患者,采用问卷调查结合电话随访的形式进行回顾性分析,调查其皮肤反应程度与疗效的关联性.结果:不同皮肤反应程度相对应的疗效之间比较无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:皮肤反应强弱程度与疗效之间不存在明显差异.因此,实施天灸疗法应根据患者的个体差异,灵活掌握贴敷时间,在保障疗效的同时,又不增加患者痛苦.%Objective:To observe the relationship between skin reaction degree and the efficacy of natural moxibustion therapy,and to explore methods of skin care during natural moxibustion treatment. Methods: A retrospective analysis were conducted on 85 patients,who were selected randomly,received natural moxibustion therapy at our department form Jul. 2010 to Jan. 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire survey combined with telephone follow -up. Results:There were no significant differences between skin reaction degree and treatment efficacy(P >0. 05). Conclusion:There were no significant differences between the efficacy and skin reaction degree. Therefore,the implementation of natural moxibustion therapy should be based on individual differences , mastering sticking time flexibly to reduce patients pain without affecting treatment efficacy.

  13. 随机时滞反应扩散广义细胞神经网络的均值指数稳定性%Exponential Stability of Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion General Cellular Neural Network with Time-Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凤燕

    2012-01-01

    研究了一类反应扩散广义时滞细胞神经网络在噪声干扰下的指数稳定性.利用Ito公式,Holder不等式,M矩阵性质和微分不等式技巧,给出了系统均值指数稳定的充分条件,并且判断方法简单易操作.最后给出了主要定理的两个应用实例,表明结论的有效性.%The exponential stability of a class of reaction-diffusion general cellular neural network with time delay and noise perturbation is studied. Using the Ito formula, Holder inequality, M-matric properties and a skill of differential inequality, some sufficient conditions are given to guarantee the mean value exponential stability of the equilibrium for the stochastic reaction-diffusion general cellular neural network with time delay and the sufficient conditions are easier to operate. In the end, two examples are given to illustrate the main theoretical results.

  14. Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Skin ... (bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin and tissues beneath) are typical childhood skin infections. The usual bacterial culprits in skin ...

  15. Skin Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  16. Effect of Dangguibohyul-Tang, a Mixed Extract of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis, on Allergic and Inflammatory Skin Reaction Compared with Single Extracts of Astragalus membranaceus or Angelica sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Yeon Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dangguibohyul-tang (DBT, herbal formula composed of Astragalus membranaceus (AM and Angelica sinensis (AS at a ratio of 5 : 1, has been used for the treatment of various skin diseases in traditional medicine. We investigated the effect of DBT on allergic and inflammatory skin reaction in atopic dermatitis-like model compared to the single extract of AM or AS. DBT treatment showed the remission of clinical symptoms, including decreased skin thickness and scratching behavior, the total serum IgE level, and the number of mast cells compared to DNCB group as well as the single extract of AM- or AS-treated group. Levels of cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β and inflammatory mediators (NF-κB, phospho-IκBα, and phospho-MAPKs were significantly decreased in AM, AS, and DBT groups. These results demonstrated that AM, AS, and DBT may have the therapeutic property on atopic dermatitis by inhibition of allergic and inflammatory mediators and DBT formula; a mixed extract of AM and AS based on the herb pairs theory especially might be more effective on antiallergic reaction as compared with the single extract of AM or AS.

  17. Study on acute toxicity test of an environment-friendly high-performance delayed-release deodorizer and its irritating effect on broken skin%环保型高效缓释除臭剂急性毒性和一次破损皮肤刺激试验的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余大为; 胡萍; 翟育忠; 何晓军; 马永华; 魏仲梅; 许小红

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解环保型高效缓释除臭剂的急性毒性强度和对破损皮肤刺激或腐蚀作用.方法:NY1109.6.3.1、6.3.2-2006.结果:小鼠的急性毒性试验采用最大耐受剂量法,一次灌胃给予5000 mg/kgBW,14 d观察期内未见明显中毒症状和死亡.家兔一次破损皮肤刺激试验均无刺激症状.结论:环保型高效缓释除臭剂属实际无毒,对皮肤无刺激性.%Objective:To investigate the acute toxicity of an environment - friendly high - performance delayed - release deodorizer and its irritating or corroding effect on broken skin.Methods: This study was carried out as per NY1109.6.3.1,6.3.2-2006 in General Technical Guidelines on Microbial Fertilizer Biosafety.Results: The maximum tolerated dose method was used for acute toxicity test of the environment - friendly high - performance delayed - release deodorizer in mice.No apparent toxic symptom or death was found in the 14d observation period following gastric administration of a single dose of 5000 mg/kg · BW.No skin irritating symptom was exhibited in the single -dose broken skin irritating test.Conclusion: The environment -friendly high- performance delayed -release deodorizer is practically non -toxic and has no skin irritating effect.

  18. Chemical burn or reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000059.htm Chemical burn or reaction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chemicals that touch skin can lead to a reaction on the skin, throughout the body, or both. ...

  19. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  20. Cost-effectiveness and total costs of three alternative strategies for the prevention and management of severe skin reactions attributable to thiacetazone in the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive patients with tuberculosis in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorkom, J; Kibuga, D K

    1996-02-01

    In Kenya, the National Leprosy Tuberculosis Programme (NLTP) used previously reported data from Nairobi to compare the cost-effectiveness and total costs of a hypothetical strategy with three intervention strategies for the prevention and management of severe skin reactions caused by thiacetazone in treating HIV-positive patients with tuberculosis (TB). The hypothetical strategy was continued use of thiacetazone despite adverse skin reactions. The intervention strategies included patient education about possible side effects of anti-TB drugs (discontinue use if skin rash develops, report situation to clinic, replace thiacetazone with ethambutol when other skin diseases have been excluded), abandonment of thiacetazone and replacement with ethambutol, and HIV testing and pre- and post-test counseling. NLTP currently used the education strategy. It assumed a mortality rate of 5%. When the HIV prevalence rate is 1-90%, the education strategy is the most cost-effective strategy. In terms of total costs, the education strategy was also the most inexpensive strategy regardless of the HIV prevalence. At an HIV prevalence rate greater than 65%, the abandonment of thiacetazone strategy was the cheapest strategy. When the assumed mortality rate was 3%, the cost per averted death for the education strategy was reduced from about US$120 to about US$80 and the education strategy became the most cost-effective strategy over the entire range of HIV prevalence. In addition, the cost of HIV testing significantly increased the cost per averted death. Thus, the findings of this study are truly sensitive to different program conditions. Based on these findings, the authors recommended that the education strategy be applied with a range of HIV prevalence of 1-45%, that HIV testing be applied with a range of 46-72%, and that total abandonment be applied with an HIV prevalence greater than 72%.

  1. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...... wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms....

  2. Application ofevidence-based nursing care in skin reactions after postoperation radiotherapy of breast cancer%循证护理在乳癌术后放疗皮肤反应中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明芝; 孙明英; 代红伟; 任清梅; 田玉爱

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the application of evidence-basednursing care and postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer patients with skin reactions and effective means of intervention. Methods According to the specific conditions of 76 cases of cutaneous reactions in patients, propose nursing issue, collect relevant evidence,combined with the actual developmentand work outpractical nursing care plan, and take the appropriatenursing intervention. Results 76 patients with skin reactions after the intervention,were able to mitigate,to alleviate the suffering. The patient can completeradiation therapy successfully andachieve an effective expose dose. Conclusion Using evidence-based nursingcareto identify the factors of skin damage for breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy, explore scientific and integrity nursing programs, can improve the quality of care.%目的 应用循证护理探讨乳癌术后放疗患者皮肤反应的有效干预方法.方法 根据76例患者产生皮肤反应的具体情况,提出护理问题,收集相关证据,结合实际制订切实可行的护理计划,采取相应的护理措施.结果 76例患者干预后皮肤反应均得以缓解,减轻了患者的痛苦,患者能顺利完成放射治疗,达到有效的照射剂量.结论 应用循证护理找出乳癌放疗患者皮肤损伤因素,采用循证护理寻求科学完整的护理方案,有助于提高护理质量.

  3. Allergic urticaria: A case report of rare skin allergy with a common mouthwash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viresh Chopra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is a widely used antiseptic and disinfectant in medical and non-medical environments. Compared to its ubiquitous use, allergic contact dermatitis from chlorhexidine has rarely been reported and so its sensitization rate seems to be low. Chlorhexidine has been used for more than 50 years but it was only in the last two decades, that reports of immediate- type reactions to chlorhexidine were seen. Reactions ranging from localized urticaria to anaphylactic shock and hypersensitivity reactions, including delayed hypersensitivity reactions such as contact dermatitis, fixed drug eruptions, and photosensitivity reactions, began to appear more frequently. However the prevalence of contact urticaria and anaphylaxis due to chlorhexidine remains to be unknown. In this case report we have reported a case of urticaria due to oral use of chlorhexidine. The adverse reaction was confirmed by a skin prick test.

  4. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are round and lie directly under squamous cells. Melanocytes are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. It also protects the ...

  5. Skin turgor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arm or abdomen is checked. The skin is held for a few seconds then released. Skin with ... University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  6. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  7. Smoking and skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  8. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  9. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reaction to leflunomide: A report of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shastri Veeranna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Medications used to treat human ailments are known to cause cutaneous reactions which may vary in their severity. Leflunomide, an immunomodulating agent recently introduced to treat rheumatoid arthritis, is reported to cause severe cutaneous reactions. We are reporting five such cases. All our patients were started on leflunomide for rheumatoid arthritis, 4-6 weeks before the onset of cutaneous reaction and were admitted to the hospital with the common complaints of fever, skin rash and generalized weakness. All of them had characteristic pattern of events such as delayed onset of reaction, widespread and long lasting skin rash and internal organ involvement. These features suggest a possibility of drug hypersensitivity syndrome to leflunomide. Careful dosing and periodic monitoring of patients treated with leflunomide for possible adverse drug reaction is recommended.

  10. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  11. Ingesting a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, B-vitamins, amino acids, creatine, and beta-alanine before exercise delays fatigue while improving reaction time and muscular endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spradley Brandon D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the pre-workout supplement Assault™ (MusclePharm, Denver, CO, USA on upper and lower body muscular endurance, aerobic and anaerobic capacity, and choice reaction time in recreationally-trained males. Subjective feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness, and focus were measured to examine associations between psychological factors and human performance. Methods Twelve recreationally-trained males participated in a 3-week investigation (mean +/- SD, age: 28 +/- 5 y, height: 178 +/- 9 cm, weight: 79.2 +/- 15.7 kg, VO2max: 45.7 +/- 7.6 ml/kg/min. Subjects reported to the human performance laboratory on three separate occasions. All participants completed a baseline/familiarization day of testing that included a maximal graded exercise test for the determination of aerobic capacity (VO2max, one-rep maximum (1-RM for bench and leg press to determine 75% of 1-RM, choice reaction tests, and intermittent critical velocity familiarization. Choice reaction tests included the following: single-step audio and visual, one-tower stationary protocol, two-tower lateral protocol, three-tower multi-directional protocol, and three-tower multi-directional protocol with martial arts sticks. Subjects were randomly assigned to ingest either the supplement (SUP or the placebo (PL during Visit 2. Subjects were provided with the cross-over treatment on the last testing visit. Testing occurred 20 min following ingestion of both treatments. Results Significant (p Conclusions Ingesting the SUP before exercise significantly improved agility choice reaction performance and lower body muscular endurance, while increasing perceived energy and reducing subjective fatigue. These findings suggest that the SUP may delay fatigue during strenuous exercise.

  12. Adverse reactions to intravenous iodinated contrast media: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruv J. Modi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse reactions to intravenous iodinated contrast media may be classified as general and organ-specific, such as contrast-induced nephrotoxicity. General adverse reactions may be sub classified into acute and delayed types. Acute general adverse reactions can range from transient minor reactions to life-threatening severe reactions. This study was done to determine clinical adverse effects of the iodinated contrast media. Methods: Data of 899 consecutive patients at C.U. Shah Medical College and Hospital, Surendranagar, who received sodium meglumine diatrizoate intravenous iodinated contrast media during the period of May 2011 to April 2012, were collected for any adverse drug reactions. Results: Out of 899, 189 patients developed adverse contrast reactions. The incidences of mild, moderate and severe adverse reactions were 19.47%, 1.33% and 0.28%, respectively. There were no differences in the incidence of adverse reactions according to gender (males 21.1%; females 20.7%; p= >0.05 or age (p= >0.05. The incidence of adverse reactions was significantly higher in patients with a history of previous reactions (50% than in those with no history (21.25%; p= <0.05. Conclusions: The skin was the most commonly affected site of reactions. In reactions, mild forms were more common compared to moderate and severe. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(3.000: 211-215

  13. One-step duplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection of swinepox and vaccinia viruses in skin lesions of swine with poxvirus-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medaglia, Maria Luiza G; Sá, Natália M B; Correa, Isadora A; Costa, Luciana J; Damaso, Clarissa R

    2015-07-01

    Infection of pigs with swinepox virus (SWPV) was reported in Brazil in 2011. SWPV causes a systemic pustular disease in pigs and the symptoms are clinically indistinguishable from those caused by vaccinia virus (VACV) infection. Pigs infected with VACV have been reported in various countries; however, VACV is endemic in Brazil, India and other countries, where it affects mainly dairy cows, dairy buffaloes and dairy workers causing localized pustules. The transmission of VACV to other susceptible hosts has also been detected in Brazil. Therefore, VACV should be investigated as a possible etiologic agent of pustular skin disorders in pigs. This work describes the development of a one-step duplex assay to detect swinepox and vaccinia viruses simultaneously in skin lesions of pigs with generalized pustular disease. The investigation of VACV infection in pigs is important in countries where this zoonosis is endemic and should be differentiated from SWPV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Type 2 leprosy reaction with Sweet's syndrome-like presentation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaratti, Francielle Chiavelli; Daxbacher, Egon Luiz Rodrigues; Neumann, Antonielle Borges Faria; Jeunon, Thiago

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease characterized by manifestations in the peripheral nerves and skin. The course of the disease may be interrupted by acute phenomena called reactions. This article reports a peculiar case of type 2 leprosy reaction with Sweet's syndrome-like features as the first clinical manifestation of leprosy, resulting in a delay in the diagnosis due to unusual clinical presentation. The patient had clinical and histopathological features reminiscent of Sweet's syndrome associated with clusters of vacuolated histiocytes containing acid-fast bacilli isolated or forming globi. Herein, it is discussed how to recognize type 2 leprosy reaction with Sweet's syndrome features, the differential diagnosis with type 1 leprosy reaction and the treatment options. When this kind of reaction is the first clinical presentation of leprosy, the correct diagnosis might be not suspected clinically, and established only with histopathologic evaluation. PMID:27438203

  15. Preventive transposition of anterior tibial myofascial flaps for tibial fractures with delayed skin necrosis%预防性胫前肌-筋膜瓣转位在并发延迟皮肤坏死的胫骨骨折患者的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简超; 陶圣祥; 谭金海; 丁帆; 许刚; 阿米特

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of preventive transposition of anterior tibial myofas-cial flaps for tibial fractures complicated with severe skin and soft tissue injuries and delayed necrosis. Methods Fourteen cases of tibial fractures with severe skin and soft tissue injuries were selected for one-stage fixation combined with preventive transposition of anterior tibial myofascial flaps. The skin was cov-ered with grafts followed after the occurrence of delayed necrosis. Wound healing,fracture healing and com-plications were closely observed. Results All wounds got healed without any infective complications. Thir-teen cases were followed up and all fractures healed without bone exposure,osteomyelitis and other compli-cations. One case was lost to follow-up. Conclusion Preventive transposition of anterior tibial myofascial flaps is a safe,simple and effective management for the treatment of tibial fractures with delayed skin nec-rosis and avoidance of related complications.%目的:探讨预防性胫骨前肌-筋膜瓣转位在胫骨骨折合并重度皮肤软组织损伤发生延迟坏死病例中应用的临床疗效。方法对14例合并重度皮肤软组织损伤的胫骨骨折患者行Ⅰ期骨折固定联合预防性胫前肌-筋膜瓣转位术,发生皮肤延迟坏死后予以植皮,观察其伤口愈合情况、随访骨折愈合及并发症情况。结果14例患者伤口均愈合,无感染并发症,随访13例,骨折均愈合,无骨外露、骨髓炎等并发症,1例失访。结论预防性胫前肌-筋膜瓣转位是一种安全、简便、有效的治疗并发延迟皮肤坏死的胫骨骨折的措施。

  16. Multiple application delayed onset contact urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1984-01-01

    An unusual type of contact urticaria to formalin is described, based on 4 patients and experiments in 14 volunteers. The contact urticaria appeared on healthy skin only following repeated open applications or after a single application on slightly diseased skin. The possible relation...... of this phenomenon for patients claiming textile intolerance is discussed. Further tests are required to reveal the mechanism of this delayed onset contact urticaria to formalin....

  17. Introduction of rapid methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus polymerase chain reaction testing and antibiotic selection among hospitalized patients with purulent skin infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terp, Sophie; Krishnadasan, Anusha; Bowen, William; Joo, Julianne; Furoy, Daniel; Chan, Joseph; Moran, Gregory; Talan, David

    2014-04-01

    Introduction of a rapid methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) polymerase chain reaction assay, with physician education and pharmacist guidance, did not significantly reduce excessive empiric prescription of MRSA-active antibiotics despite the test's accuracy and potential to substantially reduce inappropriate antibiotic use.

  18. A prospective, double-blind, split-subject study on local skin reactions after administration of human menopausal gonadotrophin preparations to healthy female volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odink, J.; Zuiderwijk, P.B.M.; Schoen, E.D.; Gan, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate local reactions after the intracutaneous (i.c.) administration of two human menopausal gonadotrophin preparations. For this purpose, 20 healthy female volunteers received six i.c. injections simultaneously, viz. three different batches of both Humegon (Organon,

  19. Oily skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  20. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body. Without skin, people's muscles, bones, and organs would be hanging out all over the place. Skin holds everything together. It also: protects our bodies helps keep our bodies at just the right temperature allows us to have the sense of touch Don't Miss Your Epidermis The ...

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis in psoriasis patients: typical, delayed, and non-interacting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Quaranta

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is characterized by an apoptosis-resistant and metabolic active epidermis, while a hallmark for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is T cell-induced keratinocyte apoptosis. Here, we induced ACD reactions in psoriasis patients sensitized to nickel (n = 14 to investigate underlying mechanisms of psoriasis and ACD simultaneously. All patients developed a clinically and histologically typical dermatitis upon nickel challenge even in close proximity to pre-existing psoriasis plaques. However, the ACD reaction was delayed as compared to non-psoriatic patients, with a maximum intensity after 7 days. Whole genome expression analysis revealed alterations in numerous pathways related to metabolism and proliferation in non-involved skin of psoriasis patients as compared to non-psoriatic individuals, indicating that even in clinically non-involved skin of psoriasis patients molecular events opposing contact dermatitis may occur. Immunohistochemical comparison of ACD reactions as well as in vitro secretion analysis of lesional T cells showed a higher Th17 and neutrophilic migration as well as epidermal proliferation in psoriasis, while ACD reactions were dominated by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and a Th2 signature. Based on these findings, we hypothesized an ACD reaction directly on top of a pre-existing psoriasis plaque might influence the clinical course of psoriasis. We observed a strong clinical inflammation with a mixed psoriasis and eczema phenotype in histology. Surprisingly, the initial psoriasis plaque was unaltered after self-limitation of the ACD reaction. We conclude that sensitized psoriasis patients develop a typical, but delayed ACD reaction which might be relevant for patch test evaluation in clinical practice. Psoriasis and ACD are driven by distinct and independent immune mechanisms.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis in psoriasis patients: typical, delayed, and non-interacting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Maria; Eyerich, Stefanie; Knapp, Bettina; Nasorri, Francesca; Scarponi, Claudia; Mattii, Martina; Garzorz, Natalie; Harlfinger, Anna T; Jaeger, Teresa; Grosber, Martine; Pennino, Davide; Mempel, Martin; Schnopp, Christina; Theis, Fabian J; Albanesi, Cristina; Cavani, Andrea; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Ring, Johannes; Eyerich, Kilian

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is characterized by an apoptosis-resistant and metabolic active epidermis, while a hallmark for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is T cell-induced keratinocyte apoptosis. Here, we induced ACD reactions in psoriasis patients sensitized to nickel (n = 14) to investigate underlying mechanisms of psoriasis and ACD simultaneously. All patients developed a clinically and histologically typical dermatitis upon nickel challenge even in close proximity to pre-existing psoriasis plaques. However, the ACD reaction was delayed as compared to non-psoriatic patients, with a maximum intensity after 7 days. Whole genome expression analysis revealed alterations in numerous pathways related to metabolism and proliferation in non-involved skin of psoriasis patients as compared to non-psoriatic individuals, indicating that even in clinically non-involved skin of psoriasis patients molecular events opposing contact dermatitis may occur. Immunohistochemical comparison of ACD reactions as well as in vitro secretion analysis of lesional T cells showed a higher Th17 and neutrophilic migration as well as epidermal proliferation in psoriasis, while ACD reactions were dominated by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and a Th2 signature. Based on these findings, we hypothesized an ACD reaction directly on top of a pre-existing psoriasis plaque might influence the clinical course of psoriasis. We observed a strong clinical inflammation with a mixed psoriasis and eczema phenotype in histology. Surprisingly, the initial psoriasis plaque was unaltered after self-limitation of the ACD reaction. We conclude that sensitized psoriasis patients develop a typical, but delayed ACD reaction which might be relevant for patch test evaluation in clinical practice. Psoriasis and ACD are driven by distinct and independent immune mechanisms.

  3. A double-blind randomised controlled trial of a natural oil-based emulsion (Moogoo Udder Cream® containing allantoin versus aqueous cream for managing radiation-induced skin reactions in patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation-induced skin reaction (RISR is one of the most common and distressing side effects of radiotherapy in patients with cancer. It is featured with swelling, redness, itching, pain, breaks in skin, discomfort, and a burning sensation. There is a lack of convincing evidence supporting any single practice in the prevention or management of RISR. Methods/Designs This double-blinded randomised controlled trial aims to investigate the effects of a natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin (as known as Moogoo Udder Cream® versus aqueous cream in reducing RISR, improving pain, itching and quality of life in this patient group. One group will receive Moogoo Udder Cream®. Another group will receive aqueous cream. Outcome measures will be collected using patient self-administered questionnaire, interviewer administered questionnaire and clinician assessment at commencement of radiotherapy, weekly during radiotherapy, and four weeks after the completion of radiotherapy. Discussion Despite advances of radiologic advances and supportive care, RISR are still not well managed. There is a lack of efficacious interventions in managing RISR. While anecdotal evidence suggests that Moogoo Udder Cream® may be effective in managing RISR, research is needed to substantiate this claim. This paper presents the design of a double blind randomised controlled trial that will evaluate the effects of Moogoo Udder Cream® versus aqueous cream for managing in RISR in patients with cancer. Trial registration ACTRN 12612000568819

  4. Shark Skin Bristling as a Passive Mechanism for Separation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelus, Jennifer; Lang, Amy; Jones, Emily

    2011-11-01

    The skin of fast-swimming sharks is proposed to have mechanisms to reduce drag and delay flow separation. The skin of fast-swimming and agile sharks is covered with small teeth-like denticles on the order of 0.2 mm. The shortfin mako is one of the fastest and most agile ocean predators creating the need to minimize its pressure drag by controlling flow separation. Biological studies of the shortfin mako skin have shown the passive bristling angle of their denticles to exceed 50 degrees in areas on the flank corresponding to the locations likely to experience separation first. It is proposed that reversing flow, as occurs at the onset of separation in a turbulent boundary layer, would activate denticle bristling and hinder local separation from leading to global separation over the shark. This study focuses on the denticle reaction to various reversed flow conditions using a pulsating jet. Mako shark skin was subjected to numerous reversed flow velocities to determine the bristling onset velocity. Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) and digital video were used to determine the flow conditions and denticle behavior. The effect of reversed flow velocity on denticle bristling and its relation to separation control will be discussed. Research funded by NSF (award 0932352).

  5. Drug silica nanocomposite: preparation, characterization and skin permeation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilloni, Martina; Ennas, Guido; Casu, Mariano; Fadda, Anna Maria; Frongia, Francesca; Marongiu, Francesca; Sanna, Roberta; Scano, Alessandra; Valenti, Donatella; Sinico, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate silica nanocomposites as topical drug delivery systems for the model drug, caffeine. Preparation, characterization, and skin permeation properties of caffeine-silica nanocomposites are described. Caffeine was loaded into the nanocomposites by grinding the drug with mesoporous silica in a ball mill up to 10 h and the efficiency of the process was studied by XRPD. Formulations were characterized by several methods that include FTIR, XRPD, SEM and TEM. The successful loading of caffeine was demonstrated by XRPD and FTIR. Morphology was studied by SEM that showed particle size reduction while TEM demonstrated formation of both core-shell and multilayered caffeine-silica structures. Solid-state NMR spectra excluded chemical interactions between caffeine and silica matrix, thus confirming that no solid state reactions occurred during the grinding process. Influence of drug inclusion in silica nanocomposite on the in vitro caffeine diffusion into and through the skin was investigated in comparison with a caffeine gel formulation (reference), using newborn pig skin and vertical Franz diffusion cells. Results from the in vitro skin permeation experiments showed that inclusion into the nanocomposite reduced and delayed caffeine permeation from the silica nanocomposite in comparison with the reference, independently from the amount of the tested formulation.

  6. 一类非局部时滞捕食者-食饵扩散模型的空间动力学%Spatial dynamics of a non-local and delayed reaction-diffusion predator-prey model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠文

    2015-01-01

    A nonlocal and time-delayed reaction-diffusion predator-prey model was studied, where prey individuals undergo two stages, i.e. immature and mature, and the conversion of consumed from prey biomass to predator biomass has a retardation. The growth of the prey population obeys general Beverton-Holt function. By discussing the principal eigenvalue of nonlocal elliptic problems, we showed an explicit expression of the principal eigenvalue, the sufficient conditions for the uniform persistence and global extinction for the model could be established. By the fluctuation method, the global attractivity of the unique positive constant steady state was obtained.%考虑一类带阶段结构的扩散捕食者食饵模型,其中食饵个体经历两个生命阶段,未成熟和成熟阶段,捕食者生物量的转化有一个延迟,食饵生物量的增长遵循一般化的Beverton-Holt函数。就非局部椭圆特征问题的主特征值,建立一致持久性与全局灭绝性。利用波动方法,给出唯一正常数稳态解的全局吸引性。

  7. Positive Skin Test or Specific IgE to Penicillin Does Not Reliably Predict Penicillin Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tannert, Line Kring; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Skov, Per Stahl

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: According to guidelines, patients are diagnosed with penicillin allergy if skin test (ST) result or specific IgE (s-IgE) to penicillin is positive. However, the true sensitivity and specificity of these tests are presently not known. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical relevance......, but deemed allergic on the basis of a recent anaphylactic reaction or delayed reactions to skin testing. Another sample of convenience of 18 patients, 17 overlapping with the 25 challenged, with initial skin testing and s-IgE (median, 25; range, 3-121), months earlier (T-1), was repeat skin tested and had s......-IgE measured (T0), and then skin tested and had s-IgE measured 4 weeks later (T1). RESULTS: Only 9 (36%) of 25 were challenge positive. There was an increased probability of being penicillin allergic if both ST result and s-IgE were positive at T0. Positive ST result or positive s-IgE alone did not predict...

  8. Evaluation of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with Slit Skin Smear Examination (SSS) to Confirm Clinical Diagnosis of Leprosy in Eastern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Keshav; Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Agarwal, Sudha; Khanal, Basudha

    2016-01-01

    Background Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in slit skin smear (SSS) is a gold standard technique for the leprosy diagnosis. Over recent years, molecular diagnosis by using PCR has been increasingly used as an alternative for its diagnosis due to its higher sensitivity. This study was carried out for comparative evaluation of PCR and SSS microscopy in a cohort of new leprosy cases diagnosed in B. P. Koirala Institute of health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Methodology/Principal Findings In this prospective crossectional study, 50 new clinically diagnosed cases of leprosy were included. DNA was extracted from SSS and PCR was carried out to amplify 129 bp sequence of M. leprae repetitive element. Sensitivity of SSS and PCR was 18% and 72% respectively. Improvement of 54% case detection by PCR clearly showed its advantage over SSS. Furthermore, PCR could confirm the leprosy diagnosis in 66% of AFB negative cases indicating its superiority over SSS. In the paucibacillary (PB) patients, whose BI was zero; sensitivity of PCR was 44%, whereas it was 78% in the multibacillary patients. Conclusions/Significance Our study showed PCR to be more sensitive than SSS microscopy in diagnosing leprosy. Moreover, it explored the characteristic feature of PCR which detected higher level of early stage(PB) cases tested negative by SSS. Being an expensive technique, PCR may not be feasible in all the cases, however, it would be useful in diagnosis of early cases of leprosy as opposed to SSS. PMID:28027305

  9. Evaluation of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR with Slit Skin Smear Examination (SSS to Confirm Clinical Diagnosis of Leprosy in Eastern Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Siwakoti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in slit skin smear (SSS is a gold standard technique for the leprosy diagnosis. Over recent years, molecular diagnosis by using PCR has been increasingly used as an alternative for its diagnosis due to its higher sensitivity. This study was carried out for comparative evaluation of PCR and SSS microscopy in a cohort of new leprosy cases diagnosed in B. P. Koirala Institute of health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.In this prospective crossectional study, 50 new clinically diagnosed cases of leprosy were included. DNA was extracted from SSS and PCR was carried out to amplify 129 bp sequence of M. leprae repetitive element. Sensitivity of SSS and PCR was 18% and 72% respectively. Improvement of 54% case detection by PCR clearly showed its advantage over SSS. Furthermore, PCR could confirm the leprosy diagnosis in 66% of AFB negative cases indicating its superiority over SSS. In the paucibacillary (PB patients, whose BI was zero; sensitivity of PCR was 44%, whereas it was 78% in the multibacillary patients.Our study showed PCR to be more sensitive than SSS microscopy in diagnosing leprosy. Moreover, it explored the characteristic feature of PCR which detected higher level of early stage(PB cases tested negative by SSS. Being an expensive technique, PCR may not be feasible in all the cases, however, it would be useful in diagnosis of early cases of leprosy as opposed to SSS.

  10. Evaluation of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with Slit Skin Smear Examination (SSS) to Confirm Clinical Diagnosis of Leprosy in Eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwakoti, Shraddha; Rai, Keshav; Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Agarwal, Sudha; Khanal, Basudha

    2016-12-01

    Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in slit skin smear (SSS) is a gold standard technique for the leprosy diagnosis. Over recent years, molecular diagnosis by using PCR has been increasingly used as an alternative for its diagnosis due to its higher sensitivity. This study was carried out for comparative evaluation of PCR and SSS microscopy in a cohort of new leprosy cases diagnosed in B. P. Koirala Institute of health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. In this prospective crossectional study, 50 new clinically diagnosed cases of leprosy were included. DNA was extracted from SSS and PCR was carried out to amplify 129 bp sequence of M. leprae repetitive element. Sensitivity of SSS and PCR was 18% and 72% respectively. Improvement of 54% case detection by PCR clearly showed its advantage over SSS. Furthermore, PCR could confirm the leprosy diagnosis in 66% of AFB negative cases indicating its superiority over SSS. In the paucibacillary (PB) patients, whose BI was zero; sensitivity of PCR was 44%, whereas it was 78% in the multibacillary patients. Our study showed PCR to be more sensitive than SSS microscopy in diagnosing leprosy. Moreover, it explored the characteristic feature of PCR which detected higher level of early stage(PB) cases tested negative by SSS. Being an expensive technique, PCR may not be feasible in all the cases, however, it would be useful in diagnosis of early cases of leprosy as opposed to SSS.

  11. The effect of diode laser treatment for hair removal of post-auricular reconstruction with autologous costal cartilage grafts and delaying postauricular skin flap%半导体激光治疗耳后延迟皮瓣加自体肋软骨立体支架法耳再造术后耳廓多毛疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴子涵; 李高峰; 谭军; 丁卫; 张帆

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察半导体激光对耳后延迟皮瓣加自体肋软骨立体支架法耳再造术后耳廓多毛的治疗效果。方法:使用美国科医人(Lumenis)公司Lightsheer 800 nm半导体激光进行治疗。耳后延迟皮瓣加自体肋软骨立体支架法耳再造术III期手术后1~3个月开始行激光脱毛治疗。结果:19例患者通过1~7次的脱毛治疗,均取得了良好的效果,治疗期间无严重的不良反应。结论:Lightsheer 800 nm半导体激光对耳后延迟皮瓣加自体肋软骨立体支架法耳再造术后耳廓多毛的治疗效果良好,使再造耳的形态更美观。%Objective To observe the effect of diode laser treatment for hair removal of post-auricular reconstruction with autologous costal cartilage grafts and delaying postauricular skin flap. Methods To use Lightsheer,800nm diode laser to perform the treatment.Hair removal treatment was performed after the third phase operation of auricular reconstruction with autologous costal cartilage grafts and delaying postauricular skin flap. Results All of 19 patients got good result after hair removal treatment after 1 to 7 times.No serious complications occur during treatment. Conclusion Lightsheer,800nm diode laser is a safe and effective treatment of hair removal after auricular reconstruction with autologous costal cartilage grafts and delaying postauricular skin flap. That makes the shape of reconstructive ear preferable.

  12. Is skin penetration a determining factor in skin sensitization ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary:Background. It is widely accepted that substances that cannot penetrate through the skin will not be sensitisers. Thresholds based on relevant physicochemical parameters such as a LogKow > 1 and a MW 1 is a true requirement for sensitisation.Methods. A large dataset of substances that had been evaluated for their skin sensitisation potential, together with measured LogKow values was compiled from the REACH database. The incidence of skin sensitisers relative to non-skin sensitisers below and above the LogKow = 1 threshold was evaluated. Results. 1482 substances with associated skin sensitisation outcomes and measured LogKow values were identified. 305 substances had a measured LogKow skin sensitisation above and below the LogKow = 1 threshold. Reaction chemistry considerations could explain the skin sensitisation observed for the 38 sensitisers with a LogKow skin sensitisation potential and potency. Using the REACH data extracted to test out the validity of common assumptions in the skin sensitization AOP. Builds on trying to develop a proof of concept IATA

  13. Skin protection in the prevention of skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Occupational skin diseases comprise a wide spectrum of conditions. Under epidemiological aspects, occupational contact dermatitis that is usually manifested on the hands is the most frequent occupational skin disease with an estimated average incidence rate of 0.7-1.5 cases per 1,000 workers per year. Irritant dermatitis is due to individual susceptibility and the exposure to irritants such as wet work combined with detergents or other hydrophilic irritants or solvents at the workplace. Chronic irritant dermatitis is a risk factor for delayed-type sensitization and subsequently allergic contact dermatitis. It is therefore the prevention of chronic or cumulative irritant dermatitis that is the decisive factor in the prevention of occupational skin disease. Within prevention programs at the workplace, skin protection plays an important, but limited role. Others are technical and organizational means to avoid or reduce skin exposure to irritants and allergens. Educational measures to increase the awareness of workers for workplace hazards and to motivate them to use skin protection measures appropriately are just as important as the careful selection of skin protection materials.

  14. Aging skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L

    1995-01-16

    Aging of the skin is a composite of actinic damage, chronologic aging, and hormonal influences. The majority of changes associated with aging, such as wrinkles and solar lentigines ("liver spots"), are due to photoaging and reflect cumulative sun exposure as well as skin pigmentation. Classically, chronologic aging includes those cutaneous changes that occur in non-sun-exposed areas, such as the buttocks, and are observed in both men and women. A clinical example would be soft tissue sagging due to elastic fiber degeneration. In women, investigations into the effect of hormones on aging of the skin have concentrated on estrogens; in men, there have been a limited number of studies on the influence of testosterone. The latter have shown an age-dependent decrease in tissue androgens in pubic skin, but not scrotal or thigh skin. To date, age has not been shown to have an effect on androgen receptor binding, although a decrease in foreskin 5 alpha-reductase activity with increasing age has been described. In fibroblast cultures from foreskins, there have been conflicting results as to whether 5 alpha-reductase activity decreases in an age-dependent manner. Some of the skin changes that have been categorized as secondary to chronologic aging, such as decreased sebaceous gland activity and decreased hair growth, may actually represent a decline in the concentration of tissue androgens with increasing age. The influence of androgens on age-related changes in keratinocyte and fibroblast function remains speculative.

  15. Delay equations and radiation damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicone, C.; Kopeikin, S. M.; Mashhoon, B.; Retzloff, D. G.

    2001-06-01

    Starting from delay equations that model field retardation effects, we study the origin of runaway modes that appear in the solutions of the classical equations of motion involving the radiation reaction force. When retardation effects are small, we argue that the physically significant solutions belong to the so-called slow manifold of the system and we identify this invariant manifold with the attractor in the state space of the delay equation. We demonstrate via an example that when retardation effects are no longer small, the motion could exhibit bifurcation phenomena that are not contained in the local equations of motion.

  16. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  17. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  18. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy priorities AADA Health System Reform Principles Drug pricing and availability CVS dermatologic formulary restrictions Access to ... Skin care for men Skin care on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin of ...

  19. Delayed childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, H H

    1985-06-01

    In many Western nations, including England and Wales, Sweden, and the US, there is a current trend towards delayed childbearing because of women's pursuit of a career, later marriage, a longer interval between marriage and the 1st birth, and the increasing number of divorcees having children in a 2nd marriage. Wives of men in social classes I and II in England and Wales are, on average, having their 1st child at 27.9 years, 1.6 years later than in 1973, and in social classes IV and V, 1.0 years later than in 1973, at a mean age of 23.7 years. Consequently, the total period fertility rate for British women aged 30-34 years, 35-39 years, and 40 and over increased by 4%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, between 1982-83, in contrast to reductions of 2% and 3%, respectively, in the 15-19 year and 20-24 year age groups, with the 25-29-year-olds remaining static. The average maternal mortality for all parties in England and Wales during 1976-78 was 106/million for adolescents, 70.4/million for 20-24 year-olds, and 1162/million for those aged 40 years and older. The specific obstetric and allied conditions which increase with age are the hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, abortion, cardiac disease, caesarean section, ruptured uterus, and amniotic fluid embolism. The Swedish Medical Birth Registry of all live births and perinatal deaths since 1973 has shown that the risk of late fetal death is significantly greater in women aged 30-39 years than in those of the same parity and gravidity aged 20-24 years. The risk of giving birth to low birth weight babies preterm and at term and of premature labor are similarly increased. The early neonatal death rate also was increased for primigravidas and nulliparas in the 30-39 year age group but not in parous women. This is, in part, due to the rise in incidence of fetal abnormalities with advancing maternal age because of chromosomal and nonchromosomal anomalies. These also appear to be the cause of the

  20. DRESS with delayed onset acute interstitial nephritis and profound refractory eosinophilia secondary to Vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Meara Paloma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS is a relatively rare clinical entity; even more so in response to vancomycin. Methods Case report. Results We present a severe case of vancomycin-induced DRESS syndrome, which on presentation included only skin, hematological and mild liver involvement. The patient further developed severe acute interstitial nephritis, eosinophilic pneumonitis, central nervous system (CNS involvement and worsening hematological abnormalities despite immediate discontinuation of vancomycin and parenteral corticosteroids. High-dose corticosteroids for a prolonged period were necessary and tapering of steroids a challenge due to rebound-eosinophilia and skin involvement. Conclusion Patients with DRESS who are relatively resistant to corticosteroids with delayed onset of certain organ involvement should be treated with a more prolonged corticosteroid tapering schedule. Vancomycin is increasingly being recognized as a culprit agent in this syndrome.

  1. Cutaneous reactions to heparin therapy: when are they caused by heparin allergy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Zisa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the incidence and causes of heparin-induced skin lesions. The most commonly reported causes are delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. We describe 3 patients who were referred to our staff between March and October 2009 for suspected heparin allergies. All were scheduled to undergo major surgery (cardiovascular or orthopedic. Materials and methods: All 3 patients reported the development of itchy, erythematous rashes a few days after the subcutaneous administration of heparin (nadroparin calcium in cases 1 and 2, unspecified in case 3. Each of them underwent a diagnostic work-up for heparin allergy, which included prick and intradermal tests with commonly used heparins and patch testing with undiluted heparins and disinfectants. Results: Patch tests with disinfectants were negative in all 3 cases. In case 2, all allergological tests were negative. In cases 1 and 3, delayed positivity emerged for nadroparin calcium and at least one other heparin tested. Intravenous and/or subcutaneous provocation testing was done with an alternative heparin which produced negative results in skin tests (heparin sodium in case 1, pentasaccharide fondaparinux in case 3. In both cases the alternative drug was tolerated. After our evaluation, all 3 patients underwent surgery with no heparin-related complications. Discussion: The presenting clinical features in these 3 cases provided no information on which reactions were likely to be allergic: all 3 patients presented with similar local delayed reaction. The allergic reactions were identified only after cutaneous testing.

  2. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Leishmania DNA in skin biopsy samples in Sri Lanka where the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis is Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Renu; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sirimanna, Ganga; Opathella, Nandimithra; Maingon, Rhaiza D C; Chandrasekharan, Vishvanath

    2015-12-01

    Leishmania donovani is the known causative agent of both cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. CL is considered to be under-reported partly due to relatively poor sensitivity and specificity of microscopic diagnosis. We compared robustness of three previously described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods to detect Leishmania DNA in 38 punch biopsy samples from patients presented with suspected lesions in 2010. Both, Leishmania genus-specific JW11/JW12 KDNA and LITSR/L5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 PCR assays detected 92% (35/38) of the samples whereas a KDNA assay specific forL. donovani (LdF/LdR) detected only 71% (27/38) of samples. All positive samples showed a L. donovani banding pattern upon HaeIII ITS1 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. PCR assay specificity was evaluated in samples containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and human DNA, and there was no cross-amplification in JW11/JW12 and LITSR/L5.8S PCR assays. The LdF/LdR PCR assay did not amplify M. leprae or human DNA although 500 bp and 700 bp bands were observed in M. tuberculosis samples. In conclusion, it was successfully shown in this study that it is possible to diagnose Sri Lankan CL with high accuracy, to genus and species identification, using Leishmania DNA PCR assays.

  3. Hypersensitivity reactions and contrast medium injection: Are they always related?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany); Alfke, Heiko [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Luedenscheid, Luedenscheid (Germany); Klose, Klaus Jochen [Department of Radiology, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Background: Hypersensitivity (allergic or non-allergic) reactions that occur after contrast medium (CM) injection are usually related to the CM. Recent studies, and case reports lack the analysis of alternate causes that could be also responsible in individual cases. Patients and methods: We investigated the individual relevant factor/causative agent of adult patients with hypersensitivity reactions that occurred in radiological units during CM-enhanced procedures (CT, angiography, urography, or MR-examinations). Both immediate and non-immediate (delayed) reactions were included. To find out the relevant agent a detailed patients' history was carefully analyzed. In addition, the records were retrospectively reviewed, and if indicated and possible laboratory (e.g. basophil activation test) and skin tests (e.g. prick) and/or provocations with CM-injections under routine conditions were performed. Results: 38 patients (men n = 21) suspected for CM-hypersensitivity reactions were identified. These reactions were in most cases mild (n = 21), moderate reactions occurred in 13 cases, and four patients had severe reactions. In 28 patients the reactions were induced by the CM (iodinated CM in 25 cases). Four patients had reactions that were not CM-related (latex allergy, adenosine reaction, vasovagal reaction, unknown cause) and in six cases the reaction was partly CM-related (immunological activation was present due to the patients' diseases). Conclusion: Our data support the hypothesis that in CM-enhanced procedures not only contrast materials but also a broad range of other factors may also induce hypersensitivity reactions. Therefore, the number of CM-induced hypersensitivity is smaller than initially suspected. The knowledge of the cause of a reaction is essential to effectively prevent its recurrence and to improve safety aspects in patients undergoing CM-injection. Larger trials should be performed to more specifically assess alternate causes in patients

  4. Mechanisms regulating skin immunity and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasparakis, Manolis; Haase, Ingo; Nestle, Frank O

    2014-05-01

    Immune responses in the skin are important for host defence against pathogenic microorganisms. However, dysregulated immune reactions can cause chronic inflammatory skin diseases. Extensive crosstalk between the different cellular and microbial components of the skin regulates local immune responses to ensure efficient host defence, to maintain and restore homeostasis, and to prevent chronic disease. In this Review, we discuss recent findings that highlight the complex regulatory networks that control skin immunity, and we provide new paradigms for the mechanisms that regulate skin immune responses in host defence and in chronic inflammation.

  5. Skin temperature during sunbathing--relevance for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2014-08-01

    It has been found that exposure to heat and infrared radiation (IR) can be carcinogenic, and that a combination of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and IR possibly amplifies carcinogenesis. To investigate how the skin temperature is affected by sunbathing, we measured the skin temperature on 20 healthy volunteers over 6 days' sun holiday in Egypt. Temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer gun at 8 skin sites on the volunteers while they were indoors in the morning and when sunbathing during the day. Skin temperatures were higher during sunbathing (33.5 °C ± 2.1 °C) (mean ± SD) than when indoors in the morning (32.6 °C ± 1.4 °C) (mean ± SD) (P < 0.0001). The average skin temperature for men was higher than for women by 0.40 °C in the morning (P = 0.02) and by 0.44 °C during sunbathing (P < 0.0001). Our results show that sunbathing has an impact on skin temperature, which possibly by activation of the heat shock response, is likely to contribute to the immediate and delayed effects of UV in a way that has to be found out in future studies.

  6. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  7. Management of Acute Skin Trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joel W. Beam

    2010-01-01

    @@ Acute skin trauma (ie, abrasions, avulsions, blisters, incisions, lacerations, and punctures) is common among individuals involved in work, recreational, and athletic activities. Appropriate management of these wounds is important to promote healing and lessen the risk of cross-contamination and infection. Wound management techniques have undergone significant changes in the past 40 years but many clinicians continue to manage acute skin trauma with long-established, traditional techniques (ie, use of hydrogen peroxide, adhesive strips/patches, sterile gauze, or no dressing) that can delay healing and increase the risk of infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss evidence-based cleansing, debridement, and dressing techniques for the management of acute skin trauma.

  8. Skin cancer in skin of color: an update on current facts, trends, and misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battie, Claire; Gohara, Mona; Verschoore, Michèle; Roberts, Wendy

    2013-02-01

    For many fair-skinned individuals around the world, skin cancer is the leading malignancy. Although skin cancer comprises only 1% to 2% of all malignancies in those with darker complexions, the mortality rates in this subgroup are substantially higher when compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This discrepancy is largely as a result of delayed detection/treatment, and a false perception among patient and physician that brown skin confers complete protection against skin cancer. Recent studies show that 65% of surveyed African Americans never wore sunscreen, despite living in sunny climates, and that more than 60% of minority respondents erroneously believed that they were not at risk for skin cancer. Dark skin offers some protection from ultraviolet (UV) light. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in skin of color, a phenomenon that is accentuated by mixed heritage. Ethnicity does not confer skin type anymore. People of color do experience sunburn, and from a biological point of view, all skin types appear to be sensitive to UV-induced DNA damage, with an inverse relationship between skin color and sensitivity to UV light. Our population is changing rapidly, and within the next few decades minority populations will become the majority. It is therefore imperative to educate both physicians and patients on the perceived immunity against cutaneous malignancies, the need for sun protection, and the clinical signs of skin cancer in non-Caucasian people, so that future unnecessary mortality can be avoided.

  9. ESAT-6/CFP10 skin test predicts disease in M. tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldingh, Karin; Andersen, Peter

    2008-04-23

    Targeted preventive chemotherapy of individuals with progressive subclinical (incipient) disease before it becomes contagious would break the chain of tuberculosis transmission in high endemic regions. We have studied the ability of a skin test response to ESAT-6 and CFP10 (E6/C10) to predict later development of tuberculosis disease in the guinea pig model. Guinea pigs, either vaccinated with BCG or unvaccinated, were infected with a low dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the aerosol route and the development of delayed type hypersensitivity responses to E6/C10 and to purified protein derivative (PPD) were followed until the onset of clinical disease. We demonstrated a negative correlation between the size of the skin test response and the time to the onset of clinical disease; a large E6/C10 skin test response correlated to a shorter survival time post skin testing, while a small E6/C10 skin test reaction correlated with a longer survival time (r = -0.6 and Pskin test based on E6/C10 that will allow the identification of individuals with incipient disease, who have the highest risk of developing active tuberculosis in the near future.

  10. Cutaneous Tuberculosis Occurring After a Skin Cut in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoc, Gulsen; Kepenekli Kadayifci, Eda; Karaaslan, Ayse; Atici, Serkan; Yakut, Nurhayat; Ocal Demir, Sevilya; Akbas, Gamze; Zeliha Cinel, Leyla; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    Tuberculosis is a common problem in Turkey, and cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Herein, the authors describe a case of cutaneous tuberculosis (lupus vulgaris) occurring after contact with a sheep. A 15-year-old boy was admitted to Marmara University School of Medicine Pendik Training and Research Hospital (Istanbul, Turkey) with delayed wound healing on the left index finger and left axillary lymphadenopathy. His medical history was unremarkable except for a wound incurred when he slaughtered a sheep 3 months before. One month after this injury, the patient developed enlargement of the left axillary lymph node on the side of the wounded extremity, and the wound turned a dark black color. The biopsy specimens obtained from the wounded skin and lymph nodes showed granulomatous reaction, but acid-fast bacilli (AFB) could not be shown with Ehrlich-Ziehl Neelsen staining. The patient tested positive in an interferon-gamma release assay. Computerized tomography scans of the thorax were normal, and early morning gastric lavage specimen was negative for AFB. The wound and axillary lymphadenopathy disappeared after institution of anti-tuberculosis therapy. Tuberculosis infection must be considered in chronic skin lesions with granulomatous reaction occurring in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis.

  11. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Skin Cancer ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  12. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  13. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures The ...

  14. Influência do tempo e do meio de transporte no isolamento de fungos patogênicos de biópsias de pele Effects of time delay and transportation on isolation of pathogenic fungi from skin biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Taglialegna

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Não está definido como o meio de transporte e o intervalo de tempo até o processamento final interferem no isolamento de fungos patogênicos em material obtido de biópsias de pele. OBJETIVOS: Determinar o efeito da inoculação tardia de biópsias de pele, transportadas em diferentes meios líquidos, na taxa de isolamento de fungos patogênicos. MÉTODOS: De 47 pacientes com lesões cutâneas suspeitas de micoses invasivas obtiveram-se 278 biópsias das lesões. Cada biópsia foi transportada em frascos com caldo Sabouraud com cloranfenicol ou solução salina de cloreto de sódio e inoculada em ágar Sabouraud após 48-72 horas (precoce ou após 72 horas até sete dias (tardio, constituindo-se quatro grupos de estudo. RESULTADOS: As medianas das taxas de isolamento dos quatro grupos de esporotricose foram 100% e de paracoccidioidomicose foram 84% e 50% nos grupos precoces/solução salina ou caldo Sabouraud e 64% e 84% nos grupos tardios/solução salina ou caldo Sabouraud, respectivamente (p=0,88. Baixas taxas de contaminação resultaram em especificidade diagnóstica de 82% para doenças não fúngicas. CONCLUSÕES: Biópsias de pele podem ser transportadas em caldo Sabouraud ou solução salina por períodos de até sete dias, à temperatura ambiente, sem afetar a viabilidade dos fungos.BACKGROUND: It is not clear how culture media used during transport and the interval between the biopsy procedure and final processing can affect the successful isolation of fungi. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of late inoculation of skin biopsies, transported in different sterile fluids, on the isolation rate of pathogenic fungi. METHODS: A total of 278 punch biopsy specimens were collected from 47 patients with suspected lesions of invasive mycoses. Each biopsy was transported in vials with Sabouraud medium with chloramphenicol or saline solution and finally inoculated on Sabouraud agar and 2

  15. Skin Bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Samira M.

    2015-01-01

    In this project, I aim to investigate the reasoning behind the practice of skin bleaching by analyzing the documentary ”Dark Girls”, to gain a better understanding of race and colorism issues. Also this project tries to see if there is a connection with history and if this has been a part of making the european beauty ideal determine the choices black’s make in regards to beauty.

  16. Cutaneous skin tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  17. Clinical evaluation of MPT-64 and MPT-59, two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for skin test reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T; Jensen, B N; Ravn, P;

    1996-01-01

    SETTING: Department of Pulmonary Medicine P, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MPT-64 and MPT-59 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions following intradermal administration. DESIGN......: In a small scale clinical investigation, skin reactions to these antigens were compared to reactions to tuberculin PPD RT23 in 1) patients with active tuberculosis, 2) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects with close contact with tuberculous patients, and 3) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects without contact...... with tuberculous patients. Tests for in vitro reactivity to these antigens were carried out in similar groups. RESULTS: All subjects gave positive reaction to tuberculin PPD RT23, whereas approximately half of the subjects in each of the three groups reacted to MPT-59. Two subjects (one patient with tuberculosis...

  18. Inflammatory Skin Conditions Associated With Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Aragüés, I; Pulido Pérez, A; Suárez Fernández, R

    2017-04-01

    Radiotherapy for cancer is used increasingly. Because skin cells undergo rapid turnover, the ionizing radiation of radiotherapy has collateral effects that are often expressed in inflammatory reactions. Some of these reactions-radiodermatitis and recall phenomenon, for example-are very familiar to dermatologists. Other, less common radiotherapy-associated skin conditions are often underdiagnosed but must also be recognized. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Human leukocyte mobilization and morphology in nickel contact allergy using a skin chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D

    1981-01-01

    An improved skin chamber technique has been devised and used for quantitative evaluation of the leukocyte mobilization rate (LMR). The method was applied in 10 nickel-hypersensitive patients exposed to nickel sulphate. Each patient served as his own control and for additional control purpose, 5...... healthy individuals without nickel hypersensitivity were studied. The kinetics of the mobilized leukocytes were followed over a 48-hour period. After an initial lag phase of 2-4 hours, maximum migration was observed from the 24th to the 48th hour, with a wide interindividual variability in the number...... is a valuable means for quantitative evaluation of leukocyte mobilization and morphology in skin exudates during exposure to an allergen in delayed hypersensitivity reactions....

  20. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Beppu, H.; Hirose, K.; Yamada, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author).

  1. The Right Delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datadien, A.H.R.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    Axonal conduction delays should not be ignored in simulations of spiking neural networks. Here it is shown that by using axonal conduction delays, neurons can display sensitivity to a specific spatio-temporal spike pattern. By using delays that complement the firing times in a pattern, spikes can ar

  2. Skin Keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin.

  3. Re-visiting Hypersensitivity Reactions to Taxanes: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Matthieu; Castells, Mariana C

    2015-10-01

    Taxanes (a class of chemotherapeutic agents) are an important cause of hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) in cancer patients. During the last decade, the development of rapid drug desensitization has been key to allow patients with HSRs to taxanes to be safely re-treated although the mechanisms of these HSRs are not fully understood. Earlier studies suggested that solvents, such as Cremophor EL used to solubilize paclitaxel, were responsible for HSRs through complement activation, but recent findings have raised the possibility that some of these HSRs are IgE-mediated. Taxane skin testing, which identifies patients with an IgE-mediated sensitivity, appears as a promising diagnostic and risk stratification tool in the management of patients with HSRs to taxanes. The management of patients following a HSR involves risk stratification and re-exposure could be performed either through rapid drug desensitization or graded challenge based on the severity of the initial HSR and the skin test result. Rapid drug desensitization has been shown to be an effective and safe method to re-introduce taxanes in hundreds of patients, including those with life-threatening HSRs. Patients with non-severe delayed skin HSRs may benefit from rapid drug desensitization since they may be at increased risk for an immediate HSR upon re-exposure. This review focuses on the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and novel mechanisms of immediate HSRs to taxanes. A new management strategy for HSRs to taxanes based on skin testing and rapid drug desensitization is proposed.

  4. Measurement of interstitial cetirizine concentrations in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Church, M K; Rihoux, J P

    1999-01-01

    cetirizine levels increased within 30 min to reach peak values of 315+/-10 and 786+/-45 ng/ml 90-120 min after administration of 10 and 20 mg of cetirizine. This was followed by a slow decline. In the skin, dialysate cetirizine levels (non-protein-bound fraction only) peaked at 1.6+/-0.1 and 2.4+/-0.3 ng...... profile of cetirizine in skin dialysate paralleled the inhibition of skin reactions, but no significant correlations were found between individual cetirizine levels in skin or plasma with wheal and flare reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Cetirizine concentrations in the skin could be monitored by the microdialysis...

  5. An Analytical Delay Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Yinghua; LI Zhongcheng

    1999-01-01

    Delay consideration has been a majorissue in design and test of high performance digital circuits. Theassumption of input signal change occurring only when all internal nodesare stable restricts the increase of clock frequency. It is no longertrue for wave pipelining circuits. However, previous logical delaymodels are based on the assumption. In addition, the stable time of arobust delay test generally depends on the longest sensitizable pathdelay. Thus, a new delay model is desirable. This paper explores thenecessity first. Then, Boolean process to analytically describe thelogical and timing behavior of a digital circuit is reviewed. Theconcept of sensitization is redefined precisely in this paper. Based onthe new concept of sensitization, an analytical delay model isintroduced. As a result, many untestable delay faults under thelogical delay model can be tested if the output waveforms can be sampledat more time points. The longest sensitizable path length is computedfor circuit design and delay test.

  6. Bioavailability of natural carotenoids in human skin compared to blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Martina C; Darvin, Maxim E; Vollert, Henning; Lademann, Jürgen

    2010-10-01

    Skin functions and structure are significantly influenced by nutrients. Antioxidants protect the supportive layer of the skin against any damaging irradiation effects and the action of free radicals. A lack of suitable methods means that the pharmacokinetic properties of systemically applied carotenoids transferred into the skin remain poorly understood. In this study, a natural kale extract or placebo oil were given orally to 22 healthy volunteers for 4 weeks. Carotenoid bioaccessibility was evaluated using non-invasive resonance Raman spectroscopy on the palm and forehead skin. For the analysis of the blood serum, the standard HPLC method was used. The blood and skin levels of the carotenoids increased significantly during the study but compared to the blood serum values, increases in skin were delayed and depended on the dermal area as well as on the carotenoid. Lycopene, measured as being low in the extract, increases more in the skin compared to the blood indicating that the natural mixture of the extract stabilizes the antioxidative network in the skin. After supplementation had ended, the carotenoids decreased much faster in the blood than in the skin. The delayed decrease in the skin may indicate a peripheral buffer function of the skin for carotenoids.

  7. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can ... rarely, younger children can develop skin cancer. How can people with dark skin get skin cancer? Although ...

  8. Delay Aversion in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Empirical Investigation of the Broader Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsakou, Paraskevi; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Thompson, Margaret; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Delay-related motivational processes are impaired in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Here we explore the impact of ADHD on the performance of three putative indices of Delay Aversion (DAv): (i) the choice for immediate over delayed reward; (ii) slower reaction times following delay; and (iii) increased…

  9. Skin sensitization: Modeling based on skin metabolism simulation and formation of protein conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Sabcho; Low, Lawrence; Patlewicz, Grace

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) system for estimating skin sensitization potency has been developed that incorporates skin metabolism and considers the potential of parent chemicals and/or their activated metabolites to react with skin proteins. A training set of diverse...... chemicals was compiled and their skin sensitization potency assigned to one of three classes. These three classes were, significant, weak, or nonsensitizing. Because skin sensitization potential depends upon the ability of chemicals to react with skin proteins either directly or after appropriate metabolism......, a metabolic simulator was constructed to mimic the enzyme activation of chemicals in the skin. This simulator contains 203 hierarchically ordered spontaneous and enzyme controlled reactions. Phase I and phase II metabolism were simulated by using 102 and 9 principal transformations, respectively. The covalent...

  10. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  11. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  12. Cutaneous adverse drug reaction type erythema multiforme major induced by eslicarbazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot, Andreu; Gimenez-Arnau, Ana

    2014-10-01

    Severe skin reactions occur less frequently with eslicarbazepine (ESL) than with the other aromatic anticonvulsants. We report the first case of cutaneous adverse drug reaction (CADR) to ESL and co-sensitization between ESL and betalactams. A 41-year-old white woman developed focal epilepsy due to a meningioma that was removed. As post-operatory complication, she suffered meningitis as well as a maculo-papular erythema caused by the treatment with meropenem. Subsequently, ESL was started and gradually increased until 800 mg/day. Twenty-five days later, the patient developed an Erythema Multiforme Major (EMM). Strong positive immediate reaction was induced by prick test with carbamazepine (CBZ) and ESL at 0.01 and 0.1% within 15 and 30 minutes; however the delayed reading at 48 hours was negative. The patient was not carrier of the HLA alleles A3101 and B1502 associated with CBZ induced EMM. The hypersensitivity pathogenic mechanism of EMM is unclear and a delayed hypersensitivity process is speculated. However, the patch and intradermal tests in our patient did not show a delayed reaction but an immediate cutaneous one. A first allergic episode may elicit a massive nonspecific activation of the immune system, providing an enhanced expression of co-stimulatory molecules that decreases the level of tolerance to other drugs. When prescribing ESL, we suggest ruling out previous CADR, especially to CBZ and oxcarbazepine but also other chemically unrelated drugs such as beta-lactams.

  13. Delayed emergence after anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzabazis, Alexander; Miller, Christopher; Dobrow, Marc F; Zheng, Karl; Brock-Utne, John G

    2015-06-01

    In most instances, delayed emergence from anesthesia is attributed to residual anesthetic or analgesic medications. However, delayed emergence can be secondary to unusual causes and present diagnostic dilemmas. Data from clinical studies is scarce and most available published material is comprised of case reports. In this review, we summarize and discuss less common and difficult to diagnose reasons for delayed emergence and present cases from our own experience or reference published case reports/case series. The goal is to draw attention to less common reasons for delayed emergence, identify patient populations that are potentially at risk and to help anesthesiologists identifying a possible cause why their patient is slow to wake up.

  14. American Dream Delayed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Miller, Robert A.

    This paper investigates the delay in homeownership and a subsequent reduction in homeownership rate observed over the past decades. We focus on the delay in giving birth to children and increased labor market participation as contributing factors to homeownership dynamics for prime-age female hou...

  15. [Arthropod bite reactions and pyodermias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengge, U R

    2008-08-01

    Tourists in the tropics often develop reactions to bites or stings of mosquitoes, fleas, mites, ants, bedbugs, beetles, larva, millipedes, spiders and scorpions. In addition, they may have fresh or salt water exposure to sponges, corals, jellyfish and sea urchins with resultant injury and inflammation. Bacterial skin infections (pyodermias) can follow bites or stings as well as mechanical trauma. The most common bacteria involved in skin infections are staphylococci and streptococci. For tourists, bacterial infections are often complicating a pruritic bite reaction and scratching. It is important to know the cause of the bite reaction and pyoderma in order to take appropriate therapeutic measures.

  16. Skin Care and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It becomes thinner, ... to make it feel and look better. Dry Skin and Itching Click for more information Many older ...

  17. [The psychoimmunological network og panic disorders, agoraphobia and allergic reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Traub, S

    1995-02-01

    While treating panic and agoraphobia patients with behaviour therapy, a high frequency of allergic reaction of the IgE-mediated type I was observed. Panic disorder, agoraphobia, allergic disorder, and vasomotor reactions are briefly discussed in the framework of psycho-endocrino-immunological research. A pilot study had shown a high correlation between panic disorder with and without agoraphobia and allergic reaction. A controlled study was then planned to test the hypothesized psychoimmunological relationship. 100 allergic patients, 79 panic/agoraphobic patients, and 66 controls underwent psychodiagnostic and allergic screening. 70% of the anxiety patients responded to test allergens with IgE-mediated type-I immediate reactions in comparison to 28% of the control persons. Another 15% of the panic patients reacted to nickle compound with type-IV delayed skin reactions (7% of the controls). Conversely, 10% of the allergic patients suffered from panic disorder (45% had experienced panic attacks) in contrast to 2% of the controls (24% of these reported panic attacks). The relative risk for allergic patients to develop panic disorder with and without agoraphobia is obviously five times as high as for controls. With this assumption of a psychoimmunological preparedness in mind, a behavioural medical diagnostic and therapeutic concept seems more adequate in coping both with panic/agoraphobia and allergic disorder.

  18. Lichenoid red tattoo reaction: histological and immunological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcovich, Simone; Carbone, Teresa; Avitabile, Simona; Nasorri, Francesca; Fucci, Nadia; Cavani, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As tattooing practices increase, delayed-type inflammatory reactions represent an uncommon adverse event to tattoo pigments. Different reaction patterns, such as eczematous, lichenoid, granulomatous and pseudolymphomatous reactions, have been previously reported, especially in association with metals contained in red tattoo pigments. We report a lichenoid papular reaction to an organic red tattoo ink, characterized by an intense mononuclear infiltrate dominated by CD8(+) T cells and CD56(+) lymphocytes and distributed in the superficial dermis around the red pigment and in the epidermis. Cytofluorimetric analysis of the lesional skin infiltrate confirmed the high frequency of cytotoxic CD8(+ )T cells and CD56(+)CD16(-) lymphocytes, most of which release type 1 cytokines. Chemical analysis of the red tattoo pigment confirmed its organic nature and the presence of intermediate reactive compounds. The lichenoid tissue reaction to red organic tattoo pigment showed the prototypical features of a cytotoxic inflammatory response to foreign substances (xenobiotics). The chemically unstable and reactive nature of modern tattoo pigments has to be taken into account by the clinician as well by the tattoo recipients.

  19. The trauma of peer abuse: Effects of relational peer victimization and social anxiety disorder on physiological and affective reactions to social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eIffland

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social exclusion elicits emotional distress, negative mood and physiological stress. Recent studies showed that these effects were more intense and persisting in socially anxious subjects. The present study examined whether the abnormal reactions of socially anxious subjects can be traced back to previous experiences of relational peer victimization during childhood and adolescence. Methods: Participants (N = 74 were patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder as well as healthy controls. The patient and control groups were subdivided into two subgroups according to the subject’s reports about previous relational peer victimization. Immediate and delayed physiological (skin conductance level and heart rate and affective reactions to a simulated social exclusion in a ball-toss game (Cyberball were recorded.Results: Overall, subjects’ immediate reactions to social exclusion were an increase in skin conductance and a reduction of positive affect. Regardless of the diagnostic status, subjects with a history of relational peer victimization showed a more intense self-reported affective change that was accompanied by a blunted skin conductance response. However, the mood of the subjects with a history of peer victimization recovered during a 15 min waiting period. A diagnosis of social anxiety disorder did not affect the reactions to social exclusion on any measure.Conclusions: Findings indicate that stress reactions to social exclusion depend more on previous experiences of peer victimization than on a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. The findings indicate that memories of negative social experiences can determine the initial stress reaction to social threats.

  20. Beyond Linear Delay Multipliers in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddik Belkoura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Delays are considered one of the most important burdens of air transport, both for their social and environmental consequences and for the cost they cause for airlines and passengers. It is therefore not surprising that a large effort has been devoted to study how they propagate through the system. One of the most important indicators to assess such propagation is the delay multiplier, a ratio between outbound and inbound average delays; in spite of its widespread utilisation, its simplicity precludes capturing all details about the dynamics behind the diffusion process. Here we present a methodology that extracts a more complete relationship between the in- and outbound delays, distinguishing a linear and a nonlinear phase and thus yielding a richer description of the system’s response as a function of the delay magnitude. We validate the methodology through the study of a historical data set of flights crossing the European airspace and show how its most important airports have heterogeneous ways of reacting to extreme delays and that this reaction strongly depends on some of their global properties.

  1. commensurate point delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Sen

    2005-01-01

    nominal controller is maintained. In the current approach, the finite spectrum assignment is only considered as a particular case of the designer's choice of a (delay-dependent arbitrary spectrum assignment objective.

  2. Numerical Bifurcation Analysis of Delayed Recycle Stream in a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadhar, Nalwala Rohitbabu; Balasubramanian, Periyasamy

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we present the stability analysis of delay differential equations which arise as a result of transportation lag in the CSTR-mechanical separator recycle system. A first order irreversible elementary reaction is considered to model the system and is governed by the delay differential equations. The DDE-BIFTOOL software package is used to analyze the stability of the delay system. The present analysis reveals that the system exhibits delay independent stability for isothermal operation of the CSTR. In the absence of delay, the system is dynamically unstable for non-isothermal operation of the CSTR, and as a result of delay, the system exhibits delay dependent stability.

  3. [Influence of perlite sand on the skin in experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracheva, E E; Iatsyna, I V; Lapina, N E; Ianin, V A; Antoshina, L I; Zhadan, I Iu; Krasavina, E K

    2012-01-01

    In the present work influence of perlite sand has been studied on a skin of Sprague-Dawley male rat (300-350 g). The biopsy of intact rat skin has been used as control. Contact of the perlite sand with animals' skin causes the reaction of an inflammation amplifying with increase of duration of the influence of substance. Therefore, despite an inert chemical compound, long contact with perlite sand in conditions of production can promote development of skin diseases. From the result of this investigation it is concluded that perlite sand causes irritating action on the skin and it is necessary to apply additional protective means to workers contacting to this substance.

  4. Late reaction, persistent reaction and doubtful allergic reaction: The problems of interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Nilendu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard method of patch test reading is to read the test site for any positive allergy at 48hr and then again at 72/96 hr. A late reading on the seventh day is also advised to exclude the irritant reaction (IR and to notice some delayed development of allergic reaction. However, multiple visits are often difficult for the patient; therefore, this late reading is sometimes omitted. Here a case of plantar hyperkeratosis, due to allergic contact dermatitis, is reported with some insight into interpretation of the patch test. The patient showed delayed patch test reaction to formaldehyde and colophony, which has never been reported before.

  5. Time Delay Cosmography

    OpenAIRE

    Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational time delays, observed in strong lens systems where the variable background source is multiply-imaged by a massive galaxy in the foreground, provide direct measurements of cosmological distance that are very complementary to other cosmographic probes. The success of the technique depends on the availability and size of a suitable sample of lensed quasars or supernovae, precise measurements of the time delays, accurate modeling of the gravitational potential of the main deflector,...

  6. 注射用头孢哌酮钠-舒巴坦钠致严重迟发型过敏反应1例%One Case of Serious Delayed Hypersensitivity Reaction Induced by Cefoperazone Sodium and Sulbactam Sodium for Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立新; 熊建群; 朱志宏

    2014-01-01

    A 72-year-old male patient with pulmonary infection was admitted to hospital. Serious delayed hypersensi-tivity reaction occurred after he received intravenous administration of cefoperazone sodium and sulbactam sodium for injec-tion. This article discussed the reason of the adverse drug reactions and reminded clinicians to pay more attention to the drug adverse reactions in the use of cefoperazone sodium and sulbactam sodium for injection,so as to provide a reference for clin-ical medication and rational drug use.%1例72岁男性患者因右下肺感染入院,静脉滴注头孢哌酮钠-舒巴坦钠后出现严重迟发型过敏反应。通过对头孢哌酮钠-舒巴坦钠致不良反应的原因进行探讨,为临床合理用药提供参考。

  7. Innocuous skin cooling modulates perception and neurophysiological correlates of brief CO2 laser stimuli in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Hicham; Plaghki, Léon

    2005-10-01

    The present study examined the influence of innocuous skin cooling on the perception and neurophysiological correlates of brief noxious CO2 laser stimuli. In nine normal subjects, brief CO2 laser pulses of four different intensities (duration 50 ms; diameter 5 mm; intensity range 5.8-10.6 mJ/mm2) were delivered at random every 5-10 s on the dorsum of the hand. Innocuous skin cooling was performed by a thermode (20 degrees C; 3x3 cm) with a central hole for the laser test stimuli. Quality and intensity (VAS) of perceptions, reaction times and laser evoked potentials (LEPs) were examined. Signal detection theory analysis was performed to evaluate discrimination performance and decision criterion. During innocuous skin cooling, detection threshold increased from 4.8+/-1.81 to 8.2+/-1.05 mJ/mm2 and pain threshold from 8.7+/-1.53 to 13.5+/-1.57 mJ/mm2. proportion of detected stimuli decreased from 87% to 48% and pain reports from 42% to 10%. The well localized 'pricking' sensation mediated by Adelta-nociceptors almost vanished. The intensity of sensations (VAS scores) was considerably reduced. Sensory discriminative performance was significantly depressed but decision criterion remained unchanged. Reaction times were delayed. The late-LEPs, correlates of Adelta-nociceptor activations, were also significantly depressed while the ultra-late LEPs, correlates of C-nociceptors, were not affected. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that innocuous skin cooling interfered with the sensory processing of laser heat stimuli and more prominently with those related to Adelta-nociceptive input.

  8. Evolving factor analysis-based method for correcting monitoring delay in different batch runs for use with PLS: On-line monitoring of a transesterification reaction by ATR-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Marcello G; Garcia, Camila M; Schuchardt, Ulf; Poppi, Ronei J

    2008-01-15

    In this work, the base-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol was monitored on-line using mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) and the yield of fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel) was obtained by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The MIRS monitoring carried out for 12min, was performed using a cylindrical internal reflectance cell of PbSe in the range of 3707-814cm(-1) with eight co-added scans. Two different data treatment strategies were used: in the first, the models were built using the raw data and in the other, evolving factor analysis (EFA) was used to overcome the sensor time delay due to the on-line analysis, producing significantly better results. In addition, models based on partial least squares (PLS) using three batches for calibration and another for validation were compared with models with just one batch for calibration and three for validation. The models were compared between each other using root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and root mean square prediction difference (RMSPD), obtaining relative errors under 3%.

  9. The skin microbiome: Associations between altered microbial communities and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Dixit, Shreya; Farrer, Andrew G; Cooper, Alan J; Cooper, Alan J

    2015-11-01

    A single square centimetre of the human skin can contain up to one billion microorganisms. These diverse communities of bacteria, fungi, mites and viruses can provide protection against disease, but can also exacerbate skin lesions, promote disease and delay wound healing. This review addresses the current knowledge surrounding the healthy skin microbiome and examines how different alterations to the skin microbial communities can contribute to disease. Current methodologies are considered, changes in microbial diversity and colonisation by specific microorganisms are discussed in the context of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne vulgaris and chronic wounds. The recent impact of modern Westernised lifestyles on the human skin microbiome is also examined, as well as the potential benefits and pitfalls of novel therapeutic strategies. Further analysis of the human skin microbiome, and its interactions with the host immune system and other commensal microorganisms, will undoubtedly elucidate molecular mechanisms for disease and reveal gateways for novel therapeutic treatment strategies.

  10. [Sarcoidosis of the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Y; Ogawa, H

    1994-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is characterized by formation of epithelioid-cell tubercules, without caseation, of the affected organ systems. The mediastinum, peripheral lymph nodes and eyes, in addition to the skin, are most frequently affected. Between 10% and 30% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis in Japan have skin lesions. Skin sarcoidosis is morphologically classified into three basic groups, erythema nodosum, scar sarcoidosis and skin sarcoid. Skin sarcoid is characterized by specific cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis, and may take nodular, plaque, angiolupoid, subcutaneous and some other forms. Clinical manifestations of the cutaneous lesions are usually asymptomatic and polymorphous. Skin biopsy is, however, often highly useful for confirming a diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  11. Anaphylactic Reactions to Oligosaccharides in Red Meat: a Syndrome in Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Hana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective While most allergic responses to food are directed against protein epitopes and occur within 30 minutes of ingesting the allergen, recent studies suggest that delayed reactions may occur, sometimes mediated by IgE antibodies directed against carbohydrate moieties. The objective of this review is to summarize the clinical features and management of delayed hypersensitivity reactions to mammalian meat mediated by IgE antibodies to galactose-alpha 1,3-galactose (alpha-gal, an oligosaccharide. Methods A PubMed search was conducted with MeSH terms: galactosyl-(1,3 galactose, oligosaccharides, cetuximab, allergy/hypersensitivity, and anaphylaxis. Reported cases with alpha-gal-mediated reactions were reviewed. This research study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of East Tennessee State University. Results Thirty-two cases of adults presenting with red-meat induced allergy thought to be related to oligosaccharides have been reported in the literature so far, making this a rare and evolving syndrome. Most of these patients demonstrated delayed reactions to beef, as was seen in the case reported by us in this manuscript. IgE specific to alpha-gal was identified in most patients with variable response to skin testing with beef and pork. Inhibition studies in some cases showed that the IgE antibodies to beef were directed towards alpha-gal in the meat rather than the protein. The patients often reported history of tick bites, the significance of which is unclear at present. Reactions to cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody, are mediated by a similar mechanism, with IgE antibodies directed against an alpha-gal moiety incorporated in the drug structure. Conclusion Alpha-gal is an oligosaccharide recently incriminated in delayed anaphylactic reactions to mammalian meats such as to beef, pork, and lamb. It appears that anaphylactic reactions to the anti-cancer biological agent, cetuximab, may be linked mechanistically to the same

  12. Fluoroscopically Guided Interventional Procedures: A Review of Radiation Effects on Patients’ Skin and Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ters below the skin . The build-up of dose below the surface can minimize injury of skin . This is often called skin sparing . Because orthovoltage...radiation ther- apy does not exhibit skin sparing , clini- cal radiation therapy with orthovoltage equipment was prescribed in a manner that... skin reaction in deep therapy as a function of size of the fi eld: a law for radiotherapy [in German] . Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr 1955 ; 82 : 387

  13. 一类具有时滞的模糊反应扩散神经网络的自适应同步研究%Adaptive Synchronization for a Class of Fuzzy Cellular Neural Networks with Time Delays and Reaction Diffusion Terms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦丽华; 刘艳; 樊小琳

    2012-01-01

    The adaptive synchronization of delayed fuzzy cellular neural networks with reaction diffusion terms has been considered. Under two different kinds of boundary conditions, based on the LaSalle invariant principle of functional differential equations and the adaptive feedback control technique, some sufficient conditions for adaptive synchronization of a system are obtained.%研究了一类具有时滞的模糊反应扩散神经网络的自适应同步,在两种不同的边界条件下,利用泛函微分方稃的LaSalle不峦原王单以及反馈榨制的方法.得到了系缔同步的充分条件.

  14. DNA repair, immunosuppression, and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarosh, Daniel B

    2004-11-01

    UV radiation (UVR) produces erythema within the first 24 hours of exposure, suppression of the immune system within the first 10 days, and, for many people, over the course of decades, skin cancer. Although UVR damages many skin targets, DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) is an important mediator of these sequelae. The action spectrum for erythema parallels the action spectrum for CPD formation in skin, and in the absence of repair, as in the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), skin cancer rates are dramatically increased. DNA repair in skin can be enhanced by the delivery of DNA repair enzymes encapsulated in liposomes. Used in this way, photoreactivation of CPDs greatly diminishes erythema and the suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). UV endonucleases delivered by liposomes also prevent UV-induced suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity. In a clinical study of patients with XP, T4 endonuclease V (T4N5) liposome lotion applied for one year reduced the rates of actinic keratosis (AK) and skin cancer compared with placebo. These results showed that strategies to increase sun protection should include measures to reduce DNA damage and increase the rate of DNA repair.

  15. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  16. Reações de hipersensibilidade imediatas após uso intravenoso de soros antivenenos: valor prognóstico dos testes de sensibilidade intradérmicos Immediate hypersensitivity reactions following intravenous use of antivenom sera: predictive value of hypersensitivity skin test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Cupo

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram admitidos no Hospital das Clínicas da FMRPUSP, durante os anos de 1983 a 1988, 494 pacientes vítimas de acidentes ofídicos e escorpiônicos que receberam soro antiveneno (SAV e nos quais foi avaliada a freqüência e tipo das manifestações imediatas, bem como o valor prognóstico do teste de sensibilidade. Do total de pacientes vítimas de ofidismo, 82 (25,6% apresentaram reações imediatas, das quais as mais comuns foram as cutâneas, isoladas (40% ou associadas com sintomas respiratórios (19%, seguidas de manifestações gastrintestinais (17%. Choque anafilático foi detectado em 10 pacientes (12%. Em relação aos acidentes escorpiônicos, reações imediatas foram observadas em 13 pacientes (7,5%, também com predomínio de lesões cutâneas. Sintomatologia cardiocirculatória foi detectada em apenas 1 paciente. Devido ao baixo valor preditivo positivo (31,8% e à baixa sensibilidade (54,6%, propomos que o teste de sensibilidade intradérmico seja abolido da rotina de atendimento de urgência aos pacientes vítimas de acidentes por animais peçonhentos. Anti-histamínicos (bloqueadores dos receptores H1 e H2 e corticosteróides devem ser administrados por via parenteral anteriormente à soroterapia, no sentido de prevenir ou minimizar as reações de hipersensibilidade imediatas que podem ocorrer. O soro antiveneno deve ser sempre administrado por via intravenosa, de preferência sem diluição, gota a gota, durante 15 a 30 minutos, sob contínua supervisão da equipe médica.The frequency and class of immediate-type hypersensitivity manifestations were studied in 494 snakebitten and scorpion stung patients who were treated with intravenous injections of antivenom sera. These patients were admitted to HC-FMRPUSP from 1983 to 1988. The effectiveness of a hypersensitivity skin test was also investigated. Eighty two out of 320 patients admitted following snake bites (25.6% had immediate-type reactions consisting of isolated skin

  17. RSDL decontamination of human skin contaminated with the nerve agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thors, L; Lindberg, S; Johansson, S; Koch, B; Koch, M; Hägglund, L; Bucht, A

    2017-03-05

    Dermal exposure to low volatile organophosphorus compounds (OPC) may lead to penetration through the skin and uptake in the blood circulation. Skin decontamination of toxic OPCs, such as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents, might therefore be crucial for mitigating the systemic toxicity following dermal exposure. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) has been shown to reduce toxic effects in animals dermally exposed to the nerve agent VX. In the present study, an in vitro flow-through diffusion cell was utilized to evaluate the efficacy of RSDL for decontamination of VX exposed to human epidermis. In particular, the impact of timing in the initiation of decontamination and agent dilution in water was studied. The impact of the lipophilic properties of VX in the RSDL decontamination was additionally addressed by comparing chemical degradation in RSDL and decontamination efficacy between the VX and the hydrophilic OPC triethyl phosphonoacetate (TEPA). The epidermal membrane was exposed to 20, 75 or 90% OPC diluted in deionized water and the decontamination was initiated 5, 10, 30, 60 or 120min post-exposure. Early decontamination of VX with RSDL, initiated 5-10min after skin exposure, was very effective. Delayed decontamination initiated 30-60min post-exposure was less effective but still the amount of penetrated agent was significantly reduced, while further delayed start of decontamination to 120min resulted in very low efficacy. Comparing RSDL decontamination of VX with that of TEPA showed that the decontamination efficacy at high agent concentrations was higher for VX. The degradation mechanism of VX and TEPA during decontamination was dissected by (31)P NMR spectroscopy of the OPCs following reactions with RSDL and its three nucleophile components. The degradation rate was clearly associated with the high pH of the specific solution investigated; i.e. increased pH resulted in a more rapid degradation. In addition, the solubility of the OPC in RSDL

  18. Learning about Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information, in skin cells, creating "misspellings" in their genetic code and, as a result, alter the function of those cells. Cancers generally are caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. With skin cancer, the environment plays a ...

  19. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Items Awareness Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly ... use this video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly ...

  20. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  1. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  2. Bleeding into the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003235.htm Bleeding into the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bleeding into the skin can occur from broken blood ...

  3. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  4. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  5. Ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu Ramineni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ofloxacin is a commonly used antimicrobial agent to combat various infections. The adverse profile of quinolones includes gastrointestinal symptoms, which are the most frequent, neuropsychiatric symptoms, hematologic abnormalities are less common. We report a rare case of ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction in a 57 year old female patient with complaints of rashes over the axilla, upper limb and back, abdomen, thorax associated with exfoliation of skin all over the axilla associated with severe itching. Based on history and clinical examination patient was diagnosed as ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction and was successfully treated with antihistamines and corticosteroids. Pharmacovigilance should be a part of patient care in order to reduce occurrence of adverse drug reaction and also encourage practitioners in reporting so as to gather more and more data regarding adverse drug reactions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 349-351

  6. Comparison and Evaluation of Several Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus Allergen Extracts for Skin Prick Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-lu Sun; Rui-qi Wang; Jia Yin; Liang-lu Wang; Hong-yu Zhang; Hong Li; Yu-xiang Zhi; Li-ping Wen; Kai Guan; Jian-qing Gu; Hai-juan He; Ying Zhao; Wei Zhang; Guo-qiang Sun

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of several Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen extracts for skin prick test (SPT) in patients allergic to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.Methods Two hundred and nineteen patients enrolled in Peking Union Medical College Hospital underwent SPT and serum specific IgE assay to detect the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen. Three kinds of house dust mite allergen extracts were used for SPT, including the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract prepared by our laboratory (group A), standardized Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract (group B), and mixed extracts of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoidesfarinae (group C). Human serum spe-cific IgE result was regarded as the reference standard for diagnosis of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergy.The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of SPT with the extracts of three groups.Results SPT results showed that the median wheal diameter of group A, group B, and group C was 0.43, 0.35, and 0.28 cm, respectively, with significant difference among three groups (P0.05). There was no local urticaria or systemic allergic reactions following the procedure of SPT. Local reaction was observed in 5 patients and delayed reaction was in 2 patients of group A. As for group B and C, local reaction occurred in 3 cases and delayed reaction in 2 cases in each group. The area un-der ROC curve of SPT with extract in group A, group B, and group C was 0.765, 0.801, and 0.782, respec-tively. Based on the detection results of serum specific IgE, the sensitivity of SPT in diagnosis of Dermato-phagoides pteronyssinus allergy with extract of group A, group B, and group C was 92.40/0, 87.00/0, and 81.5%,and the specificity was 60.6%, 73.2%, and 74.8%, respectively.

  7. Time Delay Cosmography

    CERN Document Server

    Treu, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational time delays, observed in strong lens systems where the variable background source is multiply-imaged by a massive galaxy in the foreground, provide direct measurements of cosmological distance that are very complementary to other cosmographic probes. The success of the technique depends on the availability and size of a suitable sample of lensed quasars or supernovae, precise measurements of the time delays, accurate modeling of the gravitational potential of the main deflector, and our ability to characterize the distribution of mass along the line of sight to the source. We review the progress made during the last 15 years, during which the first competitive cosmological inferences with time delays were made, and look ahead to the potential of significantly larger lens samples in the near future.

  8. Prediction of delayed subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K.

    A predictive model of delayed subsidence is discussed. A numerical implementation is tested on one of the best-described study areas, Allegheny County in Pennsylvania. In planning insurance of restitution measures, a predictive model is of value in estimating the magnitude of the problem and the size of long-term budgetary commitments. Contrary to active subsidence, which occurs concurrently with mining operations, or is completed within a few days following coal extraction, delayed subsidence may take many years to appear at the surface after coal mines are abandoned. There are two principal morphological types of delayed subsidence: troughs, which are shallow depressions, and sinks, which are steep-sided crown pits. Both types are damaging to surface structures, and a variety of methods were introduced to deal with the problem, ranging from subsidence insurance to site restitution.

  9. Time delay cosmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.

    2016-07-01

    Gravitational time delays, observed in strong lens systems where the variable background source is multiply imaged by a massive galaxy in the foreground, provide direct measurements of cosmological distance that are very complementary to other cosmographic probes. The success of the technique depends on the availability and size of a suitable sample of lensed quasars or supernovae, precise measurements of the time delays, accurate modeling of the gravitational potential of the main deflector, and our ability to characterize the distribution of mass along the line of sight to the source. We review the progress made during the last 15 years, during which the first competitive cosmological inferences with time delays were made, and look ahead to the potential of significantly larger lens samples in the near future.

  10. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology.

  11. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Experts do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is ...

  12. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  13. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  14. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing

  15. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing

  16. On skin expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion.

  17. PPD skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test; Mantoux test Images Tuberculosis in the kidney Tuberculosis in the lung Positive PPD skin test PPD skin test References Chernecky CC, Berger ... test, purified protein derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, tuberculosis test) - diagnostic. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. ...

  18. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  19. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil?

    OpenAIRE

    Charlier Corinne; Denooz Raphaël; Macarenko Elena; Xhauflaire-Uhoda Emmanuelle; Piérard Gérald E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical setting...

  20. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil?

    OpenAIRE

    Charlier Corinne; Denooz Raphaël; Macarenko Elena; Xhauflaire-Uhoda Emmanuelle; Piérard Gérald E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical setting...

  1. Delayed Random Relays

    CERN Document Server

    Ohira, Toru

    2016-01-01

    We present here a system with collection of random walks relaying a signal in one dimension with a presence of a delay. We are interested in the time for a signal to travel from one end (start) to the other end (finish) of the lined group of random walkers. It is found that there is an optimal number of walkers for the signal to travel fastest if the delay is present. We discuss implications of this model and associated behaviors to physical and biological systems.

  2. Approximation of distributed delays

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Hao; Eberard, Damien; Simon, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We address in this paper the approximation problem of distributed delays. Such elements are convolution operators with kernel having bounded support, and appear in the control of time-delay systems. From the rich literature on this topic, we propose a general methodology to achieve such an approximation. For this, we enclose the approximation problem in the graph topology, and work with the norm defined over the convolution Banach algebra. The class of rational approximates is described, and a constructive approximation is proposed. Analysis in time and frequency domains is provided. This methodology is illustrated on the stabilization control problem, for which simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  3. Allergic reactions to vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert A

    2013-09-01

    Anaphylactic reactions to vaccines are rare but do occur, and have been reported for nearly every vaccine. And while the reaction rate per each dose of vaccine is low, this is a common clinical question due in large part to the enormous numbers of vaccines administered. Reactions are most often due to vaccine constituents rather than the microbial components of the vaccine, but in many instances, the specific ingredient triggering the reaction cannot be definitively identified. Evaluation of patients with suspected vaccine reactions should begin by determining whether the symptoms and timing of the reaction were consistent with a true allergic reaction, followed by an assessment to determine whether the patient needs further doses of the vaccine in question, or similar vaccines, in the future. Skin and serologic testing to vaccines and vaccine constituents can then be performed to further assess the potential cause of the reaction and to develop a plan for future immunizations. Specific guidelines for the administration of influenza vaccines to egg allergic patients have been revised to allow virtually all patients to receive this vaccine in a straightforward manner. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cost of delay and endogenous price leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Pastine, Tuvana

    2004-01-01

    We study the effects of discounting in a standard endogenous price leadership model. We show that there will be occasional changes in the identity of the leader with any cost of delay or discounting, however small. By analyzing the incentives that induce a firm to take up the leader position, we derive positive predictions about which firm will lead most price changes. Firms with shorter reaction times will be more likely to become the price leader, as will firms with lower cost o...

  5. Reduced ultraviolet irradiation delays subsequent squamous cell carcinomas in hairless mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Lerche, Catharina M; Poulsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), and UV prophylaxis is essential to prevent skin cancer. It is unclear whether patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) may benefit from reduced UV exposures in terms of delaying the development of new...... tumors. The objective was to evaluate the significance of discontinued or reduced UV exposure for the development of subsequent skin tumors. METHODS: Seven groups of mice (n = 175) were irradiated with UV doses of 2 and 4 standard erythema doses (SED) that were continued, reduced or discontinued...... at the time of appearance of the first skin tumor. RESULTS: The development of new tumors was delayed, corresponding to the degree of reductions in UV dose in an inversely linear manner. Discontinuation of UV doses delayed the median times to the second tumor by 24 days (2 SED, P = 0.0549) and 33.5 days (4...

  6. Machine Learning Approaches for Predicting Human Skin Sensitization Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of ICCVAM’s top priorities is the development and evaluation of non-animal approaches to identify potential skin sensitizers. The complexity of biological events necessary for a substance to elicit a skin sensitization reaction suggests that no single in chemico, in vit...

  7. Machine Learning Approaches for Predicting Human Skin Sensitization Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of ICCVAM’s top priorities is the development and evaluation of non-animal approaches to identify potential skin sensitizers. The complexity of biological events necessary for a substance to elicit a skin sensitization reaction suggests that no single in chemico, in vit...

  8. Delay Bounds for Multiclass FIFO

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yuming; Misra, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    FIFO is perhaps the simplest scheduling discipline. For single-class FIFO, its delay guarantee performance has been extensively studied: The well-known results include a stochastic delay bound for $GI/GI/1$ by Kingman and a deterministic delay bound for $D/D/1$ by Cruz. However, for multiclass FIFO, few such results are available. To fill the gap, we prove delay bounds for multiclass FIFO in this work, considering both deterministic and stochastic cases. Specifically, delay bounds are present...

  9. 鼻咽癌同期放化疗中急性皮肤黏膜反应的临床观察及其相关因素分析%Clinical observation of acute skin and oral mucous membrane reactions in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with concurrent radiochemotherapy and correlated factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成灏; 吴慧; 卢晓旭; 徐靖

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨鼻咽癌患者同期放化疗中急性皮肤及黏膜反应的影响因素,对主要相关因素进行分析.方法 对85例接受同期放化疗的鼻咽癌患者进行研究,观察并记录BMI、每周放疗剂量、口腔黏膜及颈部皮肤反应情况、血常规等15项临床指标及实验室指标,并进行单因素分析和多因素分析,筛选决定性影响因素.结果 与急性放射性口腔黏膜反应发生密切相关的危险因素,有吸烟史(OR=3.467,P<0.05)和原发灶GTV单次量>2.15 Gy(OR =3.393,P<0.05);与急性放射性皮肤反应发生密切相关的危险因素,有糖尿病史(OR=87.859,P<0.05),放疗前1周血红蛋白值> 130 g/L(OR=21.404,P<0.05).结论 对于同期放化疗的鼻咽癌患者,吸烟史和原发灶GTV单次量为急性放射性口腔黏膜反应的独立影响因素,糖尿病史和放疗前1周的血红蛋白值为急性放射性皮肤反应的独立影响因素.%Objective To observe the acute skin and mucous membrane reactions in patients treated with concurrent radiochemotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma,and to analyze the influencing factors.Methods A total of 85 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases treated with concurrent radiochemotherapy were enrolled in the study.Fifteen clinical and laboratory indexes,including BMI,radiation dose,degree of acute oral mucous and skin reactions and blood routine test were observed weekly.Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were performed to assess the factors,and screen the independent factors.Results Multiple-factor analysis showed that the risk factors cloesly related with acute radioactive oral mucosa reactions were smoking history(OR =3.467,P < 0.05),single-dose of gross tumor volume (GTV) >2.15 Gy(OR =3.393,P < 0.05),while those with acute radiation skin reactions were diabetes history(OR =87.859,P < 0.05) and hemoglobin values 1 week before radiotherapy > 130 g/L (OR =21.404,P < 0.05).Conclusions In the patients treated

  10. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  11. Delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Bo; Che, Xiangming; Li, Xuqi; Qiu, Guanglin; He, Shicai; Fan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (TDHs) are sometimes difficult to identify at an early stage and can consequently result in diagnostic delays with life-threatening outcomes. It is the aim of this case study to highlight the difficulties encountered with the earlier detection of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias. Methods: Clinical data of patients who received treatment for delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernias in registers of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from 1998 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Six patients were included in this study. Left hemidiaphragm was affected in all of them. Most of the patients had a history of traffic accident and 1 a stab-penetrating injury. The interval from injury to developing symptoms ranged from 2 to 11 years (median 5 years). The hernial contents included the stomach, omentum, small intestine, and colon. Diaphragmatic injury was missed in all of them during the initial managements. All patients received operations once the diagnosis of delayed TDH was confirmed, and no postoperative mortality was detected. Conclusions: Delayed TDHs are not common, but can lead to serious consequences once occurred. Early detection of diaphragmatic injuries is crucial. Surgeons should maintain a high suspicion for injuries of the diaphragm in cases with abdominal or lower chest traumas, especially in the initial surgical explorations. We emphasize the need for radiographical follow-up to detect diaphragmatic injuries at an earlier stage. PMID:27512848

  12. 'No delays achiever'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  13. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  14. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  15. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  16. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z About Melanoma Skin Cancer What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma ... Policy . About Melanoma Skin Cancer What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma ...

  17. Electrochemical monitoring of native catalase activity in skin using skin covered oxygen electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocchi, Sarah; Björklund, Sebastian; Svensson, Birgitta; Engblom, Johan; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas

    2017-07-15

    A skin covered oxygen electrode, SCOE, was constructed with the aim to study the enzyme catalase, which is part of the biological antioxidative system present in skin. The electrode was exposed to different concentrations of H2O2 and the amperometric current response was recorded. The observed current is due to H2O2 penetration through the outermost skin barrier (referred to as the stratum corneum, SC) and subsequent catalytic generation of O2 by catalase present in the underlying viable epidermis and dermis. By tape-stripping the outermost skin layers we demonstrate that SC is a considerable diffusion barrier for H2O2 penetration. Our experiments also indicate that skin contains a substantial amount of catalase, which is sufficient to detoxify H2O2 that reaches the viable epidermis after exposure of skin to high concentrations of peroxide (0.5-1mM H2O2). Further, we demonstrate that the catalase activity is reduced at acidic pH, as compared with the activity at pH 7.4. Finally, experiments with often used penetration enhancer thymol shows that this compound interferes with the catalase reaction. Health aspect of this is briefly discussed. Summarizing, the results of this work show that the SCOE can be utilized to study a broad spectrum of issues involving the function of skin catalase in particular, and the native biological antioxidative system in skin in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Delay-independent stabilization for teleoperation with time varying delay

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Namerikawa, Toru

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the stability for nonlinear teleoperation with time varying communication delays. The proposed method is passivity-based controllers with time varying gains which depend on the rate of change of time varying delay. In our proposed method, stability condition is independent of the magnitude of the communication delay and the damping of the system. The delay-independent stability is shown via Lyapunov stability methods. Several experimental results show the effectiveness o...

  19. Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, S.; Pathak, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.B. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Dept. of Dermatology, Boston, MA (United States); Cuevas, J. [Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara, Dept. of Pathology, Guadalajara (Spain); Villarrubia, V.G. [I.F. Cantabria SA, Medical Dept., Immunology Sect., Madrid (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8{+-}0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75{+-}0.5 and 6.8{+-}1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au). 50 refs.

  20. [Striated and delayed nephrography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlois, O; Padovani, J; Faure, F; Devred, P; Grangier, M L; Panuel, M

    1985-10-01

    About a case of striated and delayed nephrogram seen on a diabetic child, authors come back to the different etiologies. Among them, the tubular precipitation of Tamm-Horsfall protein seems to be given like on the right possibilities. Whatever is its etiology, the mechanism of striated appearance is always the same, being founded on the radiated disposal of the collecting ducts and on a tubular stasis beeing with iodine concentration.

  1. Theoretical Delay Time Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Nelemans, Gijs; Bours, Madelon

    2012-01-01

    We briefly discuss the method of population synthesis to calculate theoretical delay time distributions of type Ia supernova progenitors. We also compare the results of the different research groups and conclude that although one of the main differences in the results for single degenerate progenitors is the retention efficiency with which accreted hydrogen is added to the white dwarf core, this cannot explain all the differences.

  2. Theoretical Delay Time Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Bours, Madelon

    2013-01-01

    We briefly discuss the method of population synthesis to calculate theoretical delay time distributions of Type Ia supernova progenitors. We also compare the results of different research groups and conclude that, although one of the main differences in the results for single degenerate progenitors is the retention efficiency with which accreted hydrogen is added to the white dwarf core, this alone cannot explain all the differences.

  3. Geometric Time Delay Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Vallisneri, Michele

    2005-01-01

    The space-based gravitational-wave observatory LISA, a NASA-ESA mission to be launched after 2012, will achieve its optimal sensitivity using Time Delay Interferometry (TDI), a LISA-specific technique needed to cancel the otherwise overwhelming laser noise in the inter-spacecraft phase measurements. The TDI observables of the Michelson and Sagnac types have been interpreted physically as the virtual measurements of a synthesized interferometer. In this paper, I present Geometric TDI, a new an...

  4. Time-Delay Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Dhurandhar Sanjeev V.; Tinto Massimo

    2005-01-01

    Equal-arm interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (...

  5. Delayed antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurling, Geoffrey Kp; Del Mar, Chris B; Dooley, Liz; Foxlee, Ruth; Farley, Rebecca

    2017-09-07

    Concerns exist regarding antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) owing to adverse reactions, cost, and antibacterial resistance. One proposed strategy to reduce antibiotic prescribing is to provide prescriptions, but to advise delay in antibiotic use with the expectation that symptoms will resolve first. This is an update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2007, and updated in 2010 and 2013. To evaluate the effects on clinical outcomes, antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance, and patient satisfaction of advising a delayed prescription of antibiotics in respiratory tract infections. For this 2017 update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2017), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infection Group's Specialised Register; Ovid MEDLINE (2013 to 25 May 2017); Ovid Embase (2013 to 2017 Week 21); EBSCO CINAHL Plus (1984 to 25 May 2017); Web of Science (2013 to 25 May 2017); WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (1 September 2017); and ClinicalTrials.gov (1 September 2017). Randomised controlled trials involving participants of all ages defined as having an RTI, where delayed antibiotics were compared to immediate antibiotics or no antibiotics. We defined a delayed antibiotic as advice to delay the filling of an antibiotic prescription by at least 48 hours. We considered all RTIs regardless of whether antibiotics were recommended or not. We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. Three review authors independently extracted and collated data. We assessed the risk of bias of all included trials. We contacted trial authors to obtain missing information. For this 2017 update we added one new trial involving 405 participants with uncomplicated acute respiratory infection. Overall, this review included 11 studies with a total of 3555 participants. These 11 studies involved acute respiratory infections including acute otitis media (three studies

  6. Attracting and Invariant Sets of Stochastic Reaction-diffusion Cohen-Grossberg Neural Networks with Time-varying Delays%变时滞Cohen - Grossberg随机反应扩散神经网络的吸引集和不变集

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雁

    2012-01-01

    Since Cohen-Crossberg neural network was first proposed by M. Cohen and S. Grossberg(IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybernet, 1983 ,SMC-13 -.815-826.), many researchers have done extensive studies on this subject due to their extensive applications in many fields such as associative memory, signal and image processing and combinatorial optimization. Because of the random perturbation and reaction-diffusion, the equilibrium point of stochastic reacnon-diflusion Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with delays sometimes does not exist. So,we should study the existence of attracting set and invariant set of it. In this paper, we establish a method to study the existence of attracting set and invariant set of stochastic reaction-diffusion Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with delays. By using Ito formula, the properties of M-cone and inequality technique, we obtain some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence of attracting set and invariant set of stochastic reaction-diffusion Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with delays. The sufficient conditions are easily checked in practice by simple algebra methods and have a wider adaptive range. Examples are also given to illustrate the efficiency of the obtained results.%从M.Cohen和S.Grossberg(IEEE Trans Sys Man Cyber,1983,13:815 -826.)提出Cohen - Grossberg神经网络以来,由于它在信号和图像处理、联想记忆、组合优化等中的广泛应用,因此受到了广泛的关注和研究.由于随机干扰和反应扩散,时滞Cohen - Grossberg随机反应扩散神经网络的平衡点往往不存在,这时,往往研究其吸引集和不变集的存在性.建立了一种研究时滞Cohen - Grossberg随机反应扩散神经网络的吸引集与不变集的方法.通过应用Ito公式、时滞微分不等式技巧和M-矩阵性质,获得了判定变时滞Cohen - Grossberg随机反应扩散神经网络存在吸引集和不变集的充分条件.所获得的充分条件在实践当中可以用简单的代数方法验证,因此有

  7. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  8. Aquaporins in the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravi; Kevin Heard, L; Chen, Xunsheng; Bollag, Wendy B

    2017-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the body, serving as an important barrier between the internal milieu and the external environment. The skin is also one of the first lines of defense against microbial infection and other hazards, and thus, the skin has important immune functions . This organ is composed of many cell types, including immune-active dendritic cells (epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells), connective tissue-generating dermal fibroblasts and pigment-producing melanocytes. Comprising the outer skin layer are the epidermal keratinocytes, the predominant cell of this layer, the epidermis , which provides both a mechanical barrier and a water -permeability barrier. Recent data suggest that aquaporins, a family of barrel-shaped proteins surrounding internal pores that allow the passage of water and, in some family members, small solutes such as glycerol , play critical roles in regulating various skin parameters. The involvement of different aquaporin family members in skin function is discussed.

  9. Type II lepra reaction--an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Avas Chandra; Sen, Sumit; Banerjee, Sabyasachi; Mukhopadhyay, Jotideb

    2012-06-01

    Type II lepra reaction usually present with skin lesions. We report a 23 years old male patient presented with fever for two weeks with no visible skin lesion suggestive of leprosy and with no history of either completion or concurrent anti leprosy drug treatment was eventually turned out to be a case of Hansen's presenting with type II lepra reaction.

  10. Delay in atomic photoionization

    CERN Document Server

    Kheifets, A S

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the time delay between emission of photoelectrons from the outer valence $ns$ and $np$ sub-shells in noble gas atoms following absorption of an attosecond XUV pulse. By solving the time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation and carefully examining the time evolution of the photoelectron wave packet, we establish the apparent "time zero" when the photoelectron leaves the atom. Various processes such as elastic scattering of the photoelectron on the parent ion and many-electron correlation affect the quantum phase of the dipole transition matrix element, the energy dependence of which defines the emission timing. This qualitatively explains the time delay between photoemission from the $2s$ and $2p$ sub-shells of Ne as determined experimentally by attosecond streaking [{\\em Science} {\\bf 328}, 1658 (2010)]. However, with our extensive numerical modeling, we were only able to account for less than a half of the measured time delay of $21\\pm5$~as. We argue that the XUV pulse alone cannot produce such a larg...

  11. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

  12. Common food colorants and allergic reactions in children: Myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feketea, Gavriela; Tsabouri, Sophia

    2017-09-01

    Various additives, including food colorants (FCs), are used in the food industry to make food appealing to consumers and to add variety. Despite the widespread usage of FCs, adverse reactions related to their consumption, including reactions triggered by immune (immediate and delayed-type hypersensitivity) and non-immune (intolerance) mechanisms, are considered rare. There is a discrepancy between the perception of patients and parents (7.4%) and the reported prevalence of adverse reactions to additives (0.01-0.23%), which is higher in atopic individuals (2-7%). Documented reactions are mild, involving mainly the skin, and, rarely, anaphylaxis. A major problem in diagnosing reactions to FCs is identification of the offending agent(s), which is based on careful dietary history taking. Allergy testing is usually unrevealing, except for reaction to some natural colorants. Treatment consists of avoidance of the offending colorant as no successful desensitization procedures have been reported. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Real-time trace gas sensing of ethylene, propanal and acetaldehyde from human skin in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeskops, B.W.M.; Steeghs, M.M.L.; Swam, K. van; Cristescu, S.M.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Harren, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Trace gases emitted by human skin in vivo are monitored non-invasively and in real time using laser-based photoacoustic detection and proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry. A small quartz cuvette is placed on the skin to create a headspace from which a carrier gas transports the skin emissions

  14. Real-time trace gas sensing of ethylene, propanal and acetaldehyde from human skin in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeskops, B.W.M.; Steeghs, M.M.L.; Swam, K. van; Cristescu, S.M.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Harren, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Trace gases emitted by human skin in vivo are monitored non-invasively and in real time using laser-based photoacoustic detection and proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry. A small quartz cuvette is placed on the skin to create a headspace from which a carrier gas transports the skin emissions

  15. Diagnosis of O. volvulus infection via skin exposure to diethylcarbamazine: clinical evaluation of a transdermal delivery technology-based patch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Awadzi, K; Opoku, Nicholas O; Attah, Simon K; Lazdins-Helds, Janis K; Kuesel, Annette C

    2015-01-01

    .... The Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) had established procedures to detect O. volvulus infections via the localized skin reaction induced by killing of microfilariae upon skin exposure to diethylcarbamazine via a patch (OCP-patch...

  16. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Delayed Speech or Language Development KidsHealth > For Parents > Delayed Speech or Language Development ... child is right on schedule. Normal Speech & Language Development It's important to discuss early speech and language ...

  17. Basophils and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Granata, Francescopaolo; Marone, Gianni

    2014-05-01

    Since their discovery in 1879, basophils have been viewed as circulating blood granulocytes with limited immune function. New research tools for their functional analysis in vivo have revealed previously unrecognized roles for basophils in several skin disorders. Human basophils infiltrate different skin lesions and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases ranging from chronic idiopathic urticaria to systemic lupus erythematosus. In mouse models, basophils participate in IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation of the skin and have a protective role in tick infestation. In this review, we discuss critical advances in our understanding of basophil biology and their roles in the pathophysiology of skin disorders.

  18. Skin Images Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali E. Zaart

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Image segmentation is a fundamental step in many applications of image processing. Skin cancer has been the most common of all new cancers detected each year. At early stage detection of skin cancer, simple and economic treatment can cure it mostly. An accurate segmentation of skin images can help the diagnosis to define well the region of the cancer. The principal approach of segmentation is based on thresholding (classification that is lied to the problem of the thresholds estimation. Approach: The objective of this study is to develop a method to segment the skin images based on a mixture of Beta distributions. We assume that the data in skin images can be modeled by a mixture of Beta distributions. We used an unsupervised learning technique with Beta distribution to estimate the statistical parameters of the data in skin image and then estimate the thresholds for segmentation. Results: The proposed method of skin images segmentation was implemented and tested on different skin images. We obtained very good results in comparing with the same techniques with Gamma distribution. Conclusion: The experiment showed that the proposed method obtained very good results but it requires more testing on different types of skin images.

  19. Hipersensitivity Reactions to Corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbegal, L; DeLeon, F J; Silvestre, J F

    2016-03-01

    Corticosteroids are widely used drugs in the clinical practice, especially by topic application in dermatology. These substances may act as allergens and produce immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Allergic contact dermatitis is the most frequent presentation of corticosteroid allergy and it should be studied by patch testing in specific units. The corticosteroids included in the Spanish standard battery are good markers but not ideal. Therefore, if those makers are positive, it is useful to apply a specific battery of corticosteroids and the drugs provided by patients. Immediate reactions are relatively rare but potentially severe, and it is important to confirm the sensitization profile and to guide the use of alternative corticosteroids, because they are often necessary in several diseases. In this article we review the main concepts regarding these two types of hypersensitivity reactions in corticosteroid allergy, as well as their approach in the clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Maity, Niladri; Nema, Neelesh K; Sarkar, Birendra K

    2011-12-15

    Skin aging involves degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in both the epidermal and dermal layers, it leaves visible signs on the surface of skin and the physical properties of the skin are modified. Chronological aging is due to passage of time, whereas premature aging occurred due to some environmental factors on skin produces visible signs such as irregular dryness, dark/light pigmentation, sallowness, severe atrophy, telangiectases, premalignant lesions, laxity, leathery appearance and deep wrinkling. There are several synthetic skincare cosmetics existing in the market to treat premature aging and the most common adverse reactions of those include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, phototoxic and photo-allergic reactions. Recent trends in anti-aging research projected the use of natural products derived from ancient era after scientific validation. Ample varieties of phytomolecules such as aloin, ginsenoside, curcumin, epicatechin, asiaticoside, ziyuglycoside I, magnolol, gallic acid, hydroxychavicol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, etc. scavenges free radicals from skin cells, prevent trans-epidermal water loss, include a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher contribute to protect skin from wrinkles, leading to glowing and healthy younger skin. Present era of treating aging skin has become technologically more invasive; but herbal products including botanicals are still relevant and combining them with molecular techniques outlined throughout this review will help to maximize the results and maintain the desired anti-skin aging benefits.

  1. Evaluation of delayed hypersensitivity: from PPD to poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstreich, D L

    1993-01-01

    Intact cell mediated immunity (CMI) requires a complex interaction between lymphocytes, macrophages, and cytokines. The presence of functional CMI can be easily tested in vivo by delayed hypersensitivity (DTH) skin testing. Delayed hypersensitivity skin testing has been commonly used in three ways; anergy screening, testing for infection with intracellular pathogens, and testing for sensitivity to contact allergens. Accurate anergy screening requires intradermal testing with four or more common recall antigens such as Candida albicans, tetanus toxoid, mumps, and purified protein derivative. Problems of antigen potency and availability can be overcome by using a multiple time test-like device that contains seven different recall antigens (Multitest CMI). Although testing for infection was once common, it is now only recommended for tuberculosis screening because most other antigens are either not predictive of infection or not commercially available. Accurate testing for contact allergy requires careful attention to technique, and limitation of allergens to the 20 antigens that are approved by the American Academy of Dermatology.

  2. Ranitidine prevents postoperative transfusion-induced depression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F;

    1989-01-01

    The influence of perioperative blood transfusion on postoperative depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and the effect of ranitidine on transfusion-induced changes in postoperative CMI were investigated. CMI was assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common...... ranitidine, 50 mg intravenously every 6 hours for 72 hours, received perioperative blood transfusion. Eleven of these patients could be matched to 11 transfused patients not receiving perioperative ranitidine. Ranitidine prevented postoperative reduction in skin test response (+6% vs -55%, p less than 0.......0001). It is concluded that perioperative transfusion with whole blood amplifies the postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity and that transfusion-induced postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity may be prevented by perioperative ranitidine treatment....

  3. The Role of Carotenoids in Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theognosia Vergou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The human skin, as the boundary organ between the human body and the environment, is under the constant influence of free radicals (FR, both from the outside in and from the inside out. Carotenoids are known to be powerful antioxidant substances playing an essential role in the reactions of neutralization of FR (mainly reactive oxygen species ROS. Carotenoid molecules present in the tissue are capable of neutralizing several attacks of FR, especially ROS, and are then destroyed. Human skin contains carotenoids, such as α-, γ-, β-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and their isomers, which serve the living cells as a protection against oxidation. Recent studies have reported the possibility to investigate carotenoids in human skin quickly and non-invasively by spectroscopic means. Results obtained from in-vivo studies on human skin have shown that carotenoids are vital components of the antioxidative protective system of the human skin and could serve as marker substances for the overall antioxidative status. Reflecting the nutritional and stress situation of volunteers, carotenoids must be administered by means of antioxidant-rich products, e.g., in the form of fruit and vegetables. Carotenoids are degraded by stress factors of any type, inter alia, sun radiation, contact with environmental hazards, illness, etc. The kinetics of the accumulation and degradation of carotenoids in the skin have been investigated.

  4. Delay Choice vs. Delay Maintenance: Different Measures of Delayed Gratification in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Macchitella, Luigi; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification involves two components: (i) delay choice (selecting a delayed reward over an immediate one), and (ii) delay maintenance (sustaining the decision to delay gratification even if the immediate reward is available during the delay). In primates, two tasks most commonly have explored these components, the Intertemporal choice task and the Accumulation task. It is unclear whether these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. Here, we compared the performance of the same capuchin monkeys, belonging to two study populations, between these tasks. We found only limited evidence of a significant correlation in performance. Consequently, in contrast to what is often assumed, our data provide only partial support to the hypothesis that these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. PMID:23544770

  5. Softness sensor system for simultaneously measuring the mechanical properties of superficial skin layer and whole skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Masashi; Fukuda, Toru; Arakawa, Naomi; Kawasoe, Tomoyuki; Omata, Sadao

    2013-02-01

    Few attempts have been made to distinguish the softness of different skin layers, though specific measurement of the superficial layer would be useful for evaluating the emollient effect of cosmetics and for diagnosis of skin diseases. We developed a sensor probe consisting of a piezoelectric tactile sensor and a load cell. To evaluate it, we firstly measured silicone rubber samples with different softness. Then, it was applied to human forearm skin before and after tape-stripping. A VapoMeter and skin-surface hygrometer were used to confirm removal of the stratum corneum. A Cutometer was used to obtain conventional softness data for comparison. Both the piezoelectric tactile sensor and the load cell could measure the softness of silicone rubber samples, but the piezoelectric tactile sensor was more sensitive than the load cell when the reaction force of the measured sample was under 100 mN in response to a 2-mm indentation. For human skin in vivo, transepidermal water loss and skin conductance were significantly changed after tape-stripping, confirming removal of the stratum corneum. The piezoelectric tactile sensor detected a significant change after tape-stripping, whereas the load cell did not. Thus, the piezoelectric tactile sensor can detect changes of mechanical properties at the skin surface. The load cell data were in agreement with Cutometer measurements, which showed no change in representative skin elasticity parameters after tape-stripping. These results indicate that our sensor can simultaneously measure the mechanical properties of the superficial skin layer and whole skin. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Afatinib-Associated Cutaneous Toxicity: A Correlation of Severe Skin Reaction with Dramatic Tumor Response in a Woman with Exon 19 Deletion Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are biological factors used in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) that are positive for EGFR mutations. Afatinib is one such drug that has been approved for use in this capacity. Cutaneous toxicity is the second most commonly reported adverse event with the use of afatinib. A 39-year-old woman with inoperative right lung adenocarcinoma was initially treated with afatinib. She not only developed a severe papulopustular eruption but also had a dramatic reduction of her tumor. Her cutaneous symptoms and lesions were effectively treated with oral and topical corticosteroids, oral antibiotics, and oral antihistamines. After one month of afatinib treatment, her tumor was resected, and there was no evidence of metastases. Afatinib-induced cutaneous toxicity has a positive correlation with tumor response to anti-neoplastic therapy. Supplemental systemic and topical treatments can be initiated to palliate adverse skin events in order to enable adequate duration of treatment with afatinib.

  7. Afatinib-Associated Cutaneous Toxicity: A Correlation of Severe Skin Reaction with Dramatic Tumor Response in a Woman with Exon 19 Deletion Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Lindsay P; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-09-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are biological factors used in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) that are positive for EGFR mutations. Afatinib is one such drug that has been approved for use in this capacity. Cutaneous toxicity is the second most commonly reported adverse event with the use of afatinib. A 39-year-old woman with inoperative right lung adenocarcinoma was initially treated with afatinib. She not only developed a severe papulopustular eruption but also had a dramatic reduction of her tumor. Her cutaneous symptoms and lesions were effectively treated with oral and topical corticosteroids, oral antibiotics, and oral antihistamines. After one month of afatinib treatment, her tumor was resected, and there was no evidence of metastases. Afatinib-induced cutaneous toxicity has a positive correlation with tumor response to anti-neoplastic therapy. Supplemental systemic and topical treatments can be initiated to palliate adverse skin events in order to enable adequate duration of treatment with afatinib.

  8. Delaying information search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we examined factors that may temporarily attenuate information search. People are generally curious and dislike uncertainty, which typically encourages them to look for relevant information. Despite these strong forces that promote information search, people sometimes deliberately delay obtaining valuable information. We find they may do so when they are concerned that the information might interfere with future pleasurable activities. Interestingly, the decision to search or to postpone searching for information is influenced not only by the value and importance of the information itself but also by well-being maintenance goals related to possible detrimental effects that negative knowledge may have on unrelated future plans.

  9. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  10. Dark Skin No Shield from Deadly Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166194.html Dark Skin No Shield From Deadly Skin Cancer Death rates from melanoma are higher for people of color, skin expert says To use the sharing features on ...

  11. Parasites and the skin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-11

    Jun 11, 2009 ... remind you of those rare and wonderful infestations that you might never see. ... from a burrow, mounted on a glass slide. The findings are ... Parasitic infections may be confined to the skin or may have skin involvement as part ...

  12. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der E.; Zeng, X.; Masen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is fre

  13. Deformable skinning on bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Petersen, Kim Steen; Jakobsen, Bjarke

    2001-01-01

    Applying skin to a model is a relatively simple task to implement. Nonetheless it seems that no good resource exists that describes both the concepts and math necessary to understand and implement skinning. The intention of this article is an attempt to give a thoroughly description...

  14. Dynamical Models of Dyadic Interactions with Delay

    CERN Document Server

    Bielczyk, Natalia; Płatkowski, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    When interpersonal interactions between individuals are described by the (discrete or continuous) dynamical systems, the interactions are usually assumed to be instantaneous: the rates of change of the actual states of the actors at given instant of time are assumed to depend on their states at the same time. In reality the natural time delay should be included in the corresponding models. We investigate a general class of linear models of dyadic interactions with a constant discrete time delay. We prove that in such models the changes of stability of the stationary points from instability to stability or vice versa occur for various intervals of the parameters which determine the intensity of interactions. The conditions guaranteeing arbitrary number (zero, one ore more) of switches are formulated and the relevant theorems are proved. A systematic analysis of all generic cases is carried out. It is obvious that the dynamics of interactions depend both on the strength of reactions of partners on their own sta...

  15. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  16. In vitro culture of skin-homing T lymphocytes from inflammatory skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Karen; C Mogensen, Søren; Thestrup-Pedersen, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    -chain studies by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that all T lymphocytes had access to the skin compartment. Single-stranded conformational analysis showed clonally expanded T cells numbering between 40 and 60 clones. After approximately 2 months of growth, the mean CD4+ : CD8+ ratio...

  17. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C.; Lapresle, J. (Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France))

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. ..gamma..EG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed.

  18. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2016-08-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency.

  19. Modeling how shark and dolphin skin patterns control transitional wall-turbulence vorticity patterns using spatiotemporal phase reset mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Hellum, Aren M.

    2014-10-01

    Many slow-moving biological systems like seashells and zebrafish that do not contend with wall turbulence have somewhat organized pigmentation patterns flush with their outer surfaces that are formed by underlying autonomous reaction-diffusion (RD) mechanisms. In contrast, sharks and dolphins contend with wall turbulence, are fast swimmers, and have more organized skin patterns that are proud and sometimes vibrate. A nonlinear spatiotemporal analytical model is not available that explains the mechanism underlying control of flow with such proud patterns, despite the fact that shark and dolphin skins are major targets of reverse engineering mechanisms of drag and noise reduction. Comparable to RD, a minimal self-regulation model is given for wall turbulence regeneration in the transitional regime--laterally coupled, diffusively--which, although restricted to pre-breakdown durations and to a plane close and parallel to the wall, correctly reproduces many experimentally observed spatiotemporal organizations of vorticity in both laminar-to-turbulence transitioning and very low Reynolds number but turbulent regions. We further show that the onset of vorticity disorganization is delayed if the skin organization is treated as a spatiotemporal template of olivo-cerebellar phase reset mechanism. The model shows that the adaptation mechanisms of sharks and dolphins to their fluid environment have much in common.

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The ...

  1. Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... removed. That is the most common form of skin cancer and not as dangerous as melanoma. Photo: Corbis ...

  2. Type II lepra reaction: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, S; D'Cruz, S; Mohan, H; Singh, R; Ram, J; Sachdev, A

    2006-01-27

    Ulcers with maculo-papular rash are an unusual presenting feature of leprosy. They occur as result of neuropathy, type-2 lepra reaction or Lucio's phenomenon. The hall mark of type-2 reaction is erythema nodosum. Very rarely it manifests as ulcerative skin lesions. We describe one such unusual case of a young male who presented with multiple ulcers and maculo-papular rash over the legs, chest and abdomen. In addition to this, he had fever, heart murmur, pulmonary infiltrates, neuropathy, and deranged liver function. A clinical differential diagnosis of infective endocarditis and systemic nectrozing vasculitis was made. Skin biopsy showed dense inflammation with lepra bacilli consistent with type-2 lepra reaction.

  3. Ranitidine prevents postoperative transfusion-induced depression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F;

    1989-01-01

    The influence of perioperative blood transfusion on postoperative depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and the effect of ranitidine on transfusion-induced changes in postoperative CMI were investigated. CMI was assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common...... delayed-type antigens in 83 consecutive patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery. Sixty-six of these patients were randomly divided into ranitidine or no-ranitidine-treatment groups, and the remaining 17 patients were operated on without ranitidine. Thus, 50 patients were operated on without.......0001). It is concluded that perioperative transfusion with whole blood amplifies the postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity and that transfusion-induced postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity may be prevented by perioperative ranitidine treatment....

  4. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  5. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  6. Archaea on human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Probst

    Full Text Available The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  7. Skin and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  8. Dramatic robustness of a multiple delay dispersed interferometer to spectrograph errors: how mixing delays reduces or cancels wavelength drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, David J.; Linder, E.; Wishnow, E.; Edelstein, J.; Sirk, M.; Muirhead, P.; Lloyd, J.; Kim, A.

    2016-08-01

    We describe demonstrations of remarkable robustness to instrumental noises by using a multiple delay externally dispersed interferometer (EDI) on stellar observations at the Hale telescope. Previous observatory EDI demonstrations used a single delay. The EDI (also called "TEDI") boosted the 2,700 resolution of the native TripleSpec NIR spectrograph (950-2450 nm) by as much as 10x to 27,000, using 7 overlapping delays up to 3 cm. We observed superb rejection of fixed pattern noises due to bad pixels, since the fringing signal responds only to changes in multiple exposures synchronous to the applied delay dithering. Remarkably, we observed a 20x reduction of reaction in the output spectrum to PSF shifts of the native spectrograph along the dispersion direction, using our standard processing. This allowed high resolution observations under conditions of severe and irregular PSF drift otherwise not possible without the interferometer. Furthermore, we recently discovered an improved method of weighting and mixing data between pairs of delays that can theoretically further reduce the net reaction to PSF drift to zero. We demonstrate a 350x reduction in reaction to a native PSF shift using a simple simulation. This technique could similarly reduce radial velocity noise for future EDI's that use two delays overlapped in delay space (or a single delay overlapping the native peak). Finally, we show an extremely high dynamic range EDI measurement of our ThAr lamp compared to a literature ThAr spectrum, observing weak features ( 0.001x height of nearest strong line) that occur between the major lines. Because of individuality of each reference lamp, accurate knowledge of its spectrum between the (unfortunately) sparse major lines is important for precision radial velocimetry.

  9. Individual skin care during radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, J.S. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie (Radioonkologie), Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel (Germany); Budach, W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Eberhard-Carls-Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Doerr, W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Medizinische Fakultaet Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: In many clinical settings, the irradiated patient feels additional discomfort by the inhibition of washing the treatment portals and interruption of his adapted skin care habits. Material and methods: An analysis of the scientific recommendations as well as an analysis of the skin dose to the irradiated portals has been performed. An individual scheme for skin care under radiation has been developed. Results: A substantial decrease of the skin dose is achieved in many modern radiation techniques. The consequent reduction of severe skin reactions allowed the use of water and mild soaps as has been approved within many radiotherapy departments. This has lead to an individualized concept for skin care under radiation treatment including the allowance of gentle washing. The skin marks may be saved by using highly tolerable adhesive plasters or small tattoo points, if they are not superfluous by using masks or single referee points instead of marks for the field borders. Conclusions: The individualized concept for skin care during radiation may offer improved life quality to the patient and may decrease the acute reactions of the skin at least in some cases. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: In vielen klinischen Situationen erfaehrt der bestrahlte Patient zusaetzliche Belastungen durch das frueher ausgesprochene Waschverbot der Bestrahlungsfelder wie auch durch die Unterbrechung seiner langjaehrigen Hygienegewohnheiten. Material und Methoden: Es wurde eine Analyse der wissenschaftlichen Empfehlungen wie auch der heutzutage bei modernen Bestrahlungstechniken auftretenden Hautdosis durchgefuehrt. Ein individuelles Schema zur Pflege der bestrahlten Haut wurde entwickelt. Ergebnisse: Durch eine Verringerung der Hautdosis und damit der Inzidenz schwerer Hautreaktionen bei modernen Bestrahlungstechniken wird mittlerweile in vielen Abteilungen das `Waschverbot` fuer bestrahlte Haut gelockert. Dies hat zu einem individualisierten Hautpflegekonzept unter der Bestrahlung

  10. Allergic reactions in red tattoos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve...... to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets....

  11. Synchronizing time delay systems using variable delay in coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambika, G., E-mail: g.ambika@iiserpune.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune 411 021 (India); Amritkar, R.E., E-mail: amritkar@prl.res.in [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Delay and anticipation in coupling function varies with system dynamics. > Delay or anticipation of the synchronized state is independent of system delay. > Stability analysis developed is quite general. > We demonstrate enhanced security in communication. > Generalized synchronization possible over a wide range of parameter mismatch. - Abstract: We present a mechanism for synchronizing time delay systems using one way coupling with a variable delay in coupling that is reset at finite intervals. We present the analysis of the error dynamics that helps to isolate regions of stability of the synchronized state in the parameter space of interest for single and multiple delays. We supplement this by numerical simulations in a standard time delay system like Mackey Glass system. This method has the advantage that it can be adjusted to be delay or anticipatory in synchronization with a time which is independent of the system delay. We demonstrate the use of this method in communication using the bi channel scheme. We show that since the synchronizing channel carries information from transmitter only at intervals of reset time, it is not susceptible to an easy reconstruction.

  12. Small delay approximation of stochastic delay differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillouzic, Steve; L'heureux, Ivan; Longtin, André

    1999-04-01

    Delay differential equations evolve in an infinite-dimensional phase space. In this paper, we consider the effect of external fluctuations (noise) on delay differential equations involving one variable, thus leading to univariate stochastic delay differential equations (SDDE's). For small delays, a univariate nondelayed stochastic differential equation approximating such a SDDE is presented. Another approximation, complementary to the first, is also obtained using an average of the SDDE's drift term over the delayed dynamical variable, which defines a conditional average drift. This second approximation is characterized by the fact that the diffusion term is identical to that of the original SDDE. For small delays, our approach yields a steady-state probability density and a conditional average drift which are in close agreement with numerical simulations of the original SDDE. We illustrate this scheme with the delayed linear Langevin equation and a stochastic version of the delayed logistic equation. The technique can be used with any type of noise, and is easily generalized to multiple delays.

  13. Eicosanoids in skin inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Eicosanoids play an integral part in homeostatic mechanisms related to skin health and structural integrity. They also mediate inflammatory events developed in response to environmental factors, such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and inflammatory and allergic disorders, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. This review article discusses biochemical aspects related to cutaneous eicosanoid metabolism, the contribution of these potent autacoids to skin inflammation and related conditions, and considers the importance of nutritional supplementation with bioactives such as omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and plant-derived antioxidants as means of addressing skin health issues.

  14. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting.

  15. Leishmania Skin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    2009, a dose of 50µg will be used in the design of a phase III clinical trial. 15. SUBJECT TERMS LtSTA = Leishmania tropica Skin Test Antigen 16...2010 on a Leishmania Skin Test (LtSTA) developed from the promastigotes of Leishmania tropica . During this period a phase IIB study was in progress...diluent. The final product is referred to as Leishmania tropica Skin Test Antigen (LtSTA). Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of the Drug Product

  16. Delay tolerant networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Longxiang; Luan, Tom H

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents emerging and promising communication methods for network reliability via delay tolerant networks (DTNs). Different from traditional networks, DTNs possess unique features, such as long latency and unstable network topology. As a result, DTNs can be widely applied to critical applications, such as space communications, disaster rescue, and battlefield communications. The brief provides a complete investigation of DTNs and their current applications, from an overview to the latest development in the area. The core issue of data forward in DTNs is tackled, including the importance of social characteristics, which is an essential feature if the mobile devices are used for human communication. Security and privacy issues in DTNs are discussed, and future work is also discussed.

  17. [Lipid parameters of the skin, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata during immersion stress in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribanov, G A; Kostiuk, N V; Abramov, Iu V; Bykov, V A; Rebrov, L B; Volodina, T V; Pertsov, S S

    1999-01-01

    The influence of short-form water immersion stress of rats on lipids in the skin, the cerebellum and the medulla oblongata was studied. The level of total lipids and absolute and relative contents of the main lipid fractions (phospholipids, nonesterified cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters) were measured. Stress induced delayed changes of the lipid component of the skin. The first significant changes of lipid fractions were only observed 20 h later after the stress procedure. These changes were retained (being at nearly constant levels) till the end of the second day. The decrease in contents of total lipids and esterified cholesterol was revealed in the cerebellum of stressed rats (in comparison to these levels in control rats). These results suggest the involvement of cholesterol metabolic system in the stress reaction. The content of total lipids decreased also in the medulla oblongata. However, levels of the main lipid fractions changed differently. The content of diglycerides increased and the content of cholesterol decreased. The data obtained suggest that degradation of triglycerides is the principle pathway of metabolic conversions of lipids. Free fatty acids formed during these processes are probably involved in the synthesis of phospholipids and cholesterol esters. The data indicate absolutely different mechanisms of interrelations between individual lipid fractions in the brain regions studied. Various roles of the brain structures in the stress response of the body may account for the differences revealed.

  18. Photooxidative reactions of psoralens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potapenko, A.Ya.; Sukhorukov, V.L. (Vtoroj Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-08-31

    The mechanism and biological significance of photooxidative reactions of psoralens are reviewed. Skin-photosensitizing activities of bifunctional and monofunctional psoralens are compared. Antioxidants tocopherols and butilated hydroxytoluene inhibit photochemical reactions of psoralens responsible for induction of erythema. The same antioxidants do not inhibit PUVA-therapy of psriasis. Though psoralens can generate singlet oxygen under UVA-irradiation (315 - 400 nm), nevertheless singlet oxygen does not play a significant role in 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) sensitized photooxidation of tocopherol or dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). SH-compounds enhance the rate of 8-MOP sensitized photooxidation of DOPA by a factor of four, simultaneously the rate of oxidation of SH-groups is enhanced many fold in the presence of DOPA. Under UVA-irradiation in organic solvents psoralens are photooxidized. Dimeric photooxidized psoralens are easily destructed in water medium, their destruction induce oxidation of unsaturated lipids and DOPA.

  19. 三伏贴引起皮肤严重水疱反应的多种因素分析%Various Factors of Serious Skin Blister Reaction Caused by Dog-days Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巴艳东; 魏瑞仙; 吕虎军; 徐永和

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析不同民族、年龄、性别、贴敷时间、压力等因素对穴位贴敷患者皮肤的影响,从而指导临床治疗. 方法:查阅我院近3年门诊进行三伏贴患者的治疗随访记录,整理数据,通过统计分析不同民族、年龄、性别、贴敷时间、压力等因素导致患者起疱的相关性. 结果:蒙古族患者起疱率11 .4%明显高于其他民族患者起疱率5.1%,统计差异有显著性(P0.05);41~65岁患者起疱率9.4%明显高于66~90岁起疱率3%、15~40岁起疱率3 .8%,经软件统计差异三者无显著性差异( P>0 .05 );不同贴敷次数出现起疱的比例,第2次贴敷起疱占78 .3%明显高于首次贴敷起疱的21 .7%;贴敷起疱还与贴敷的时间、局部的压力有关,贴敷时间延长、敷贴压力增大均可能导致皮肤起疱. 结论:除了白芥子比例过大可导致皮肤起疱外,起疱还与民族、年龄、贴敷时间、压力等因素有关,蒙古族贴敷患者起疱率明显高于其他民族患者起疱率,可能与其基因、饮食等因素有关;41~65岁患者是起疱高发人群;贴敷的时间越长、局部压力越大起疱的可能性就大,反之就小. 起疱率与性别差异无明显关系.%Objective:To analyze the influence of different factors on the skin of plaster therapy ,including dif-ferent nationalities,age,gender,sticking time and pressure,to guied the clinical treatment.Methods:Check Dog-days paste patients'records in our hospital in recent 3 years,and organize the data through statistical anal-ysis of different nationalities, age, gender, stick time, pressure and other factors on blisters .Results:Among Mongolia nationality the blistering rate was 11 .4% with a significantly higher rate than that in other ethnic groups with blistering rate 5.1%(P0 .05 );among 41~65 years old patients the blistering rate was 9.4%which was significantly higher than that of 66-90 years of blistering rate of 3%;among 15~40 years the blistering rate was 3

  20. Control of skin colour and polyphenol oxidase activity in santol fruit by dipping in organic acid solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benjawan, Chutichudet; Chutichudet, P

    2009-01-01

    .... The experiment aimed to determine an effective natural organic acid that would delay the unattractive skin browning of santol fruit, while at the same time not damaging the quality of the fruit...

  1. Automatic Activity and Reaction Time in Relation to Extraversion and Behavioral Impulsivity in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Theodore P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Forty-five children and adolescents had skin conductance recorded during a presentation of tones and a reaction time test and were assessed for extraversion. Found that extraversion was negatively correlated with skin conductance response magnitudes to all stimuli--somewhat more strongly for reaction-time stimuli--and with reaction time. (HTH)

  2. The Role of Fibroblast Growth Factor Binding Protein 1 in Skin Carcinogenesis and Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcel Oliver; Garman, Khalid Ammar; Lee, Yong Gu

    2017-01-01

    of the epidermis associated with a decreased transepidermal water loss and increased pro-inflammatory gene expression in the skin was detected. Also, skin carcinogen challenge by DMBA/TPA resulted in delayed and reduced papillomatosis in KO mice. This was paralleled by delayed healing of skin wounds and reduced...... angiogenic sprouting in subcutaneous matrigel plugs. Heterozygous GFP-knock-in mice revealed rapid induction of gene expression during papilloma induction and during wound healing. Examination of WT skin grafted onto Fgfbp1 GFP knockin reporter hosts and bone marrow transplants from the GFP reporter model...... into WT hosts revealed that circulating Fgfbp1-expressing cells migrate into healing wounds. We conclude that tissue-resident and circulating Fgfbp1-expressing cells modulate skin carcinogenesis and inflammation....

  3. On the Gravitomagnetic Time Delay

    OpenAIRE

    Ciufolini, I.; Kopeikin, S.; Mashhoon, B.; Ricci, F

    2002-01-01

    We study the gravitational time delay in ray propagation due to rotating masses in the linear approximation of general relativity. Simple expressions are given for the gravitomagnetic time delay that occurs when rays of radiation cross a slowly rotating shell and propagate in the field of a distant rotating source. Moreover, we calculate the local gravitational time delay in the Goedel universe. The observational consequences of these results in the case of weak gravitational lensing are disc...

  4. Demographic determinants of delayed divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L Y; Heaton, T B

    1989-01-01

    This study identifies factors that predict delayed divorce in the US. The findings show that factors which influence marital stability in general also correlate with delayed divorce in the same direction. Wife's age at marriage, age of the youngest child, wife's religion, region of residence, and metropolitan residence have substantial effects of delayed divorce, but the effects of race, parental divorce, premarital pregnancy, and socioeconomic status are small.

  5. Location Estimation using Delayed Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Nørgård, Peter Magnus

    1998-01-01

    When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new techn...... technique to a sensor fusion system for estimating the location of an autonomous guided vehicle. The system fuses encoder and vision measurements in an extended Kalman filter. Results from experiments in a real environment are reported...

  6. [Skin-picking disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated.

  7. Skin picking disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Keuthen, Nancy J; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J

    2012-11-01

    Although skin picking has been documented in the medical literature since the 19th century, only now is it receiving serious consideration as a DSM psychiatric disorder in discussions for DSM-5. Recent community prevalence studies suggest that skin picking disorder appears to be as common as many other psychiatric disorders, with reported prevalences ranging from 1.4% to 5.4%. Clinical evaluation of patients with skin picking disorder entails a broad physical and psychiatric examination, encouraging an interdisciplinary approach to evaluation and treatment. Approaches to treatment should include cognitive-behavioral therapy (including habit reversal or acceptance-enhanced behavior therapy) and medication (serotonin reuptake inhibitors, N-acetylcysteine, or naltrexone). Based on clinical experience and research findings, the authors recommend several management approaches to skin picking disorder.

  8. Aging changes in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stress Other causes of skin changes: Allergies to plants and other substances Climate Clothing Exposures to industrial and household chemicals Indoor heating Sunlight can cause: Loss of elasticity (elastosis) ...

  9. Radiation therapy -- skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000735.htm Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. When you have radiation treatment for cancer, you may have some changes ...

  10. Scalded skin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Severe bloodstream infection ( septicemia ) Spread to deeper skin infection ( cellulitis ) When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your provider or go to the emergency room if you have symptoms of this disorder. Prevention ... Alternative Names Ritter disease; Staphylococcal ...

  11. Skin Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Partners for Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalitions References Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Trends Behavior Rates What CDC Is Doing Skin Cancer Prevention Progress Report The Burning Truth Initiative A ...

  12. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have roughly the same number of ...

  13. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  14. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  15. Skin graft - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/presentations/100100.htm Skin graft - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... 2017 Updated by: Debra G. Wechter, MD, FACS, general surgery practice specializing in breast cancer, Virginia Mason ...

  16. Impairments in Skin Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, Rose W

    2017-09-01

    Altered skin integrity increases the chance of infection, impaired mobility, and decreased function and may result in the loss of limb or, sometimes, life. Skin is affected by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors can include altered nutritional status, vascular disease issues, and diabetes. Extrinsic factors include falls, accidents, pressure, immobility, and surgical procedures. Ensuring skin integrity in the elderly requires a team approach and includes the individual, caregivers, and clinicians. The twenty-first century clinician has several online, evidence-based tools to assist with optimal treatment plans. Understanding best practices in addressing skin integrity issues can promote positive outcomes with the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Designing pliable structural Skins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Peters, Brady; Nielsen, Stig Anton;

    2013-01-01

    Structural stability can be formed through structured or seemingly unstructured approaches to fold, plead or crumble paper. This paper reports on two projects that showcase how computational design approaches can help to widen the understanding and use of structural skins....

  18. An elastic second skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  19. Occupational skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, Vera; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Alfonso, Jose Hernan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal...... diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, skin diseases) in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To retrieve information and compare the current state of national frameworks and pathways to manage patients with occupational skin disease with regard to prevention, diagnosis, treatment...... in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD 1206 (StanDerm) (www.standerm.eu). RESULTS: Besides a national health service or a statutory health insurance, most European member states implemented a second insurance scheme specifically geared at occupational diseases [insurance against occupational risks...

  20. Skin lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... procedure will leave a small indented area. This type of biopsy is often done when a skin cancer is ... may have stitches to close the area. This type of biopsy is often done to diagnose rashes . EXCISIONAL BIOPSY ...

  1. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card ...

  2. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  3. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  4. Improved polymerase chain reaction-based method to detect early-stage epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin biopsy specimens of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubert, Pascal; Baur Chaubert, Audrey S; Sattler, Ursula; Forster, Ursula; Bornand, Valérie; Suter, Maja; Welle, Monika

    2010-01-01

    In the dog, early-stage epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma (ETCL) can clinically and histologically mimic a large range of inflammatory dermatoses and often progresses rapidly to a more aggressive tumor stage. Early diagnosis of ETCL is essential to proceed with a specific oncologic therapy that is favorable for the prognosis. In the present study, an improved method for the detection of T-cell receptor gamma (TCRgamma) rearrangement was developed by designing a new set of consensus primers to amplify the different forms of rearranged canine TCRgamma gene sequences by polymerase chain reaction. The amplicons were analyzed by conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which requires minimal specific equipment and may be performed in almost every pathology laboratory at low costs. The method proved to be highly specific and sensitive to detect early ETCL in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens, providing an efficient tool for veterinary pathologists to distinguish early neoplastic from reactive cutaneous T-cell infiltrates (tumor-specific marker) or to discriminate T-cell lymphoma from B-cell lymphomas or nonlymphoid neoplasms (T-cell lineage marker). By direct sequencing analysis of amplified TCRgamma gene sequences, ETCL was found to rearrange exclusively the joining (J) 4 region, which suggests specific biology for primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Also, a novel (seventh) functional J region in the TCRgamma gene, localized approximately 2.3 kb upstream of J5, was identified.

  5. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    period of delay can potentially be attributed to several events falling within both parties' spheres of responsibility, commonly termed concurrent delay, is rarely regulated in construction contracts in spite of its common occurrence. This book analyses both the theoretical foundations and the practical......Delay is one of the issues most frequently encountered in today’s construction industry; it causes significant economic damage to all parties involved. Construction contracts, standard and bespoke, almost invariably consider delay from a perspective of single liability. If the event causing...

  6. Time Delay of CGM Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773

  7. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    Delay is one of the issues most frequently encountered in today’s construction industry; it causes significant economic damage to all parties involved. Construction contracts, standard and bespoke, almost invariably consider delay from a perspective of single liability. If the event causing...... period of delay can potentially be attributed to several events falling within both parties' spheres of responsibility, commonly termed concurrent delay, is rarely regulated in construction contracts in spite of its common occurrence. This book analyses both the theoretical foundations and the practical...

  8. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers.

  9. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-22

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  10. Skin Cancer - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Skin Cancer: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Cáncer de piel: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Ukrainian (українська ) Expand Section Skin Cancer - українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Characters ...

  11. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-04-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body.

  12. DOSHIC PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivprasad Chiplunkar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The balance of dosha  represents the healthy state and imbalance will cause various diseases. In normalcy doshas will be performing their own functions and individual doshas will be having their own specific sites. By telling the various sthana of each dosha, different function that is taken up by individual dosha in different sites has been highlighted.By mentioning ‘sparshanendriyam’ as one of the sthana of vata dosha the sensory functions of skin to vata dosha has been emphasised. By mentioning ‘sparshanam’ as one of the sthana of pittadosha, the function of colouring/pigmentation of skin, which is majorly carried out  by melanocytes by secreting melanin pigment has been highlighted. Meda is one among the sthanas of kapha dosha; this can be considered as the adipose tissue of skin/below skin. Since sweda is mala of meda it can be also considered as the secretions from the eccrine glands.With respect to skin, sensory functions, both tactile and thermal is carried out by vata dosha more specifically vyana vata, pigmentation to the skin carried out by meloncytes by secreting melanin, it is nothing but function of pitta dosha more specifically brajaka pitta with the help of udana vata and finally production of sweat in sweat glands is the function of kapha. So there is the need for further study and research regarding the sthanas of all three doshas in different structures/organs in the body and its physiology.

  13. Zinc and skin biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Youichi; Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Shimada, Shinji

    2016-12-01

    Of all tissues, the skin has the third highest abundance of zinc in the body. In the skin, the zinc concentration is higher in the epidermis than in the dermis, owing to a zinc requirement for the active proliferation and differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes. Here we review the dynamics and functions of zinc in the skin as well as skin disorders associated with zinc deficiency, zinc finger domain-containing proteins, and zinc transporters. Among skin disorders associated with zinc deficiency, acrodermatitis enteropathica is a disorder caused by mutations in the ZIP4 transporter and subsequent zinc deficiency. The triad acrodermatitis enteropathica is characterized by alopecia, diarrhea, and skin lesions in acral, periorificial, and anogenital areas. We highlight the underlying mechanism of the development of acrodermatitis because of zinc deficiency by describing our new findings. We also discuss the accumulating evidence on zinc deficiency in alopecia and necrolytic migratory erythema, which is typically associated with glucagonomas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Anaphylactic reaction following hair bleaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babilas, P; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2005-12-01

    Ammonium persulphate is a potent bleach and oxidizing agent that is commonly present in hair bleaches. Because bleaching is so commonly performed, hairdressers often develop allergic contact dermatitis to ammonium persulphate. In addition to this delayed reaction, asthma and rhinitis may develop as immediate reactions in those exposed to the fumes. Severe anaphylactic reactions are rare. We report a 24-year-old woman who acquired dermatitis following contact with bleaching substances while working as a hairdresser. After changing her profession, the dermatitis disappeared. Following the private use of a hairdressing bleach containing ammonium persulphate, she suffered a severe anaphylactic reaction with unconsciousness. The patient also developed an anaphylactic reaction three hours following patch testing with the hairdresser battery. The rub test with ammonium persulphate (2.5%) in a 1:100 solution was positive.

  15. Manifestações de padrão tuberculóide reacional na hanseníase dimorfa: estudo histoquímico e imuno-histoquímico comparativo, em biópsias cutâneas, entre reações tipo 1 ocorridas antes e durante a poliquimioterapia Manifestations of reactional tuberculoid pattern in borderline leprosy: comparative, histochemical and immunohistochemical study, in skin biopsies, between type 1 reactions ocurred before and during multidrugtherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaison Antonio Barreto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Na hanseníase dimorfa é comum a ocorrência de reações tipo 1 antes, durante ou depois da poliquimioterapia (PQT. Trabalhos recentes sugerem que a reação tipo 1 seria um desequilíbrio imunológico entre citocinas pró-inflamatórias e antiinflamatórias. OBJETIVOS: Compreender melhor a fisiopatologia das reações tipo 1. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se biópsias cutâneas de 10 indivíduos com hanseníase dimorfa-tuberculóide reacional não tratada (DTR e 10 dimorfos em reação reversa após o início da PQT (DRR, comparando-se os parâmetros morfológicos e imunológicos por meio de colorações HE e Faraco-Fite, e técnicas imuno-histoquímicas (CD4, CD8, CD20, CD79a, CD57, iNOS, IL-10, LAM e BCG. RESULTADOS: Houve, nos DRR, mais macrófagos multivacuolados, maior marcação nos macrófagos para a enzima óxido nítrico sintase induzível (iNOS e menos linfócitos T CD8+ (pBACKGROUND: Type 1 reactions are common in borderline leprosy, and can occur before, during or after multidrugtherapy (MDT. Recent papers suggest that these reactions could be a result of an imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory citokines. OBJECTIVE: To understand better the physiopathology of type 1 reactions. METHODS: We studied skin biopsies from 10 non-treated patients with reactional borderline tuberculoid leprosy (BTR and 10 from borderline leprosy with reversal reactions after the beginning of MDT (BRR, to compare morphological and immunological parameters by routine staining (H-E and Faraco-Fite and immunohistochemical technics (CD4, CD8, CD20, CD79a, CD57, iNOS, IL-10, LAM and BCG. RESULTS: We found, in BRR group, stronger staining for iNOS into macrofages, fewer CD8+ T cells and more multivacuolated macrofages than BTR group (p<0,05. Despite the presence of viable bacilli in BTR and its absence in BRR, there weren't differences in baciloscopy and staining for mycobacterial antigens (LAM and BCG between the groups. The number of IL-10

  16. Reaction Graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅育熙

    1998-01-01

    The paper proposes reaction graphs as graphical representations of computational objects.A reaction graph is a directed graph with all its arrows and some of its nodes labeled.Computations are modled by graph rewriting of a simple nature.The basic rewriting rules embody the essence of both the communications among processes and cut-eliminations in proofs.Calculi of graphs are ideentified to give a formal and algebraic account of reaction graphs in the spirit of process algebra.With the help of the calculi,it is demonstrated that reaction graphs capture many interesting aspects of computations.

  17. Comparison of skin decontamination efficacy of commercial decontamination products following exposure to VX on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thors, L; Koch, M; Wigenstam, E; Koch, B; Hägglund, L; Bucht, A

    2017-08-01

    The decontamination efficacy of four commercially available skin decontamination products following exposure to the nerve agent VX was evaluated in vitro utilizing a diffusion cell and dermatomed human skin. The products included were Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), the Swedish decontamination powder 104 (PS104), the absorbent Fuller's Earth and the aqueous solution alldecontMED. In addition, various decontamination procedures were assessed to further investigate important mechanisms involved in the specific products, e.g. decontamination removal from skin, physical removal by sponge swabbing and activation of degradation mechanisms. The efficacy of each decontamination product was evaluated 5 or 30 min after dermal application of VX (neat or diluted to 20% in water). The RSDL-lotion was superior in reducing the penetration of VX through human skin, both when exposed as neat agent and when diluted to 20% in water. Swabbing with the RSDL-sponge during 2 min revealed decreased efficacy compared to applying the RSDL-lotion directly on the skin for 30 min. Decontamination with Fuller's Earth and alldecontMED significantly reduced the penetration of neat concentration of VX through human skin. PS104-powder was insufficient for decontamination of VX at both time-points, independently of the skin contact time of PS104. The PS104-slurry (a mixture of PS104-powder and water), slightly improved the decontamination efficacy. Comparing the time-points for initiated decontamination revealed less penetrated VX for RSDL and Fuller's Earth when decontamination was initiated after 5 min compared to 30 min post-exposure, while alldecontMED displayed similar efficacy at both time-points. Decontamination by washing with water only resulted in a significant reduction of penetrated VX when washing was performed 5 min after exposure, but not when decontamination was delayed to 30 min post-exposure of neat VX. In conclusion, early initiated decontamination with the

  18. Detection of human papillomavirus in nonmelanoma skin cancer lesions and healthy perilesional skin in kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat-García, J; Morales Suárez-Varela, M; Vilata-Corell, J J; Marquina-Vila, A

    2014-04-01

    The influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) on the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is a topic of debate. HPV types from the beta genus (HPV-β) have been most frequently associated with the development of skin cancer. To analyze the prevalence and range of HPV types in NMSC lesions and healthy perilesional skin in immunodepressed and immunocompetent patients and to evaluate the influence of various clinical factors on the prevalence of HPV in skin cancer. Nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to detect HPV in 120 NMSC samples obtained by biopsy from 30 kidney transplant recipients and 30 immunocompetent patients. In all cases, a sample was taken from the tumor site and the surrounding healthy skin. Potential confounders were assessed and the data analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. HPV DNA was detected in 44 (73.3%) of the 60 samples from immunodepressed patients and in 32 (53.3%) of the 60 samples from immunocompetent patients (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2-9.6). In both groups of patients, HPV was more common in healthy perilesional skin than in lesional skin. HPV-β was the most common type isolated. We found a wide range of HPV types (mostly HPV-β) in the skin of kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients with skin cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  19. Vesicular Contact Reaction May Progress into Erythema Multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Szulczyńska-Gabor, Joanna; Teresiak-Mikołajczak, Ewa; Szyfter-Harris, Joanna; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika

    2016-12-01

    Dear Editor, Erythema multiforme is considered an acute skin condition, characterized by a self-limiting and sometimes recurrent course. It is regarded as a type IV hypersensitivity reaction associated with certain infections, medications, and other various triggers. Allergic contact dermatitis is in turn a delayed type of induced allergy as a result of cutaneous contact with a specific allergen to which the patient develops specific sensitivity. This type of cutaneous reaction is associated with inflammation manifesting with erythema, edema, and vesicles. A 27-year old female patient presented with a 3-day history of erythematous and vesicular lesions which developed 24 hours after cesarean section. Initially the lesions were localized in the area of surgery (mainly the abdomen and upper thighs) and on the next day progressed to the buttocks and lumbar area. The patient was referred to the Outpatient Clinic and was treated with antihistamines, but her dermatological state deteriorated rapidly. At the day of admission to the Department of Dermatology, numerous erythematous and vesicular lesions were present on the skin of the abdomen, thighs, and back (Figure 1, a), but the skin of the neck, chest, and extremities was also covered with erythematous and edematous patches. On the second day of hospitalization, we observed the evolution of lesions localized within the chest and extremities into an erythema multiforme-like targetoid eruption (Figure 1, b). Initially the patient was treated with intravenous injections of dexamethasone and ceftriaxone and orally with second-generation antihistamines (in four-fold doses), followed by intravenous metyloprednisolone pulse-therapy (total dose of 3 g). As the new vesicobullous lesions started to appear on the face and arms, we introduced cyclosporine A orally 400 mg daily. We could then observe gradual remission, but on the seventh day of hospitalization the patient developed a massive labial herpes simplex infection and had

  20. Atopic dermatitis and skin allergies - update and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, A; Feichtner, K

    2013-12-01

    During the last few years, an impressive amount of experimental studies and clinical trials have dealt with a variety of distinct topics in allergic skin diseases - especially atopic dermatitis. In this update, we discuss selected recent data that provide relevant insights into clinical and pathophysiological aspects of allergic skin diseases or discuss promising targets and strategies for the future treatment of skin allergy. This includes aspects of barrier malfunction and inflammation as well as the interaction of the cutaneous immune system with the skin microbiome and diagnostic procedures for working up atopic dermatitis patients. Additionally, contact dermatitis, urticaria, and drug reactions are addressed in this review. This update summarizes novel evidence, highlighting current areas of uncertainties and debates that will stimulate scientific discussions and research activities in the field of atopic dermatitis and skin allergies in the future.