WorldWideScience

Sample records for delayed side effects

  1. Simulator study of the effect of visual-motion time delays on pilot tracking performance with an audio side task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D. R.; Miller, G. K., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of time delay was determined in the visual and motion cues in a flight simulator on pilot performance in tracking a target aircraft that was oscillating sinusoidally in altitude only. An audio side task was used to assure the subject was fully occupied at all times. The results indicate that, within the test grid employed, about the same acceptable time delay (250 msec) was obtained for a single aircraft (fighter type) by each of two subjects for both fixed-base and motion-base conditions. Acceptable time delay is defined as the largest amount of delay that can be inserted simultaneously into the visual and motion cues before performance degradation occurs. A statistical analysis of the data was made to establish this value of time delay. Audio side task provided quantitative data that documented the subject's work level.

  2. Side Effects (Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  3. Source Coding When the Side Information May Be Delayed

    CERN Document Server

    Simeone, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    For memoryless sources, delayed side information at the decoder does not improve the rate-distortion function. However, this is not the case for more general sources with memory, as demonstrated by a number of works focusing on the special case of (delayed) feedforward. In this paper, a setting is studied in which the encoder is potentially uncertain about the delay with which measurements of the side information are acquired at the decoder. Assuming a hidden Markov model for the sources, at first, a single-letter characterization is given for the set-up where the side information delay is arbitrary and known at the encoder, and the reconstruction at the destination is required to be (near) lossless. Then, with delay equal to zero or one source symbol, a single-letter characterization is given of the rate-distortion region for the case where side information may be delayed or not, unbeknownst to the encoder. The characterization is further extended to allow for additional information to be sent when the side ...

  4. Stable Delay of Microstrip Line with Side Grounded Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Gazizov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of transmission lines are addressed. Wave impedance and per-unit-length delay of the microstrip structure with grounded side conductors on three layers are calculated under different parameters of the structure. A line which provides the desired value of wave impedance and constant per-unit-length delay, at the expense of correction of the gaps on different layers, is proposed.

  5. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jacket Fashion Show Contact Us Side Effects of Chemotherapy Each of the chemotherapy drugs available today works in a slightly different ... few rules of thumb when it comes to chemotherapy that should always be kept in mind. Ignore ...

  6. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  7. Side effects of ergotamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyler, WJ

    1996-01-01

    Ergotamine has been used for many years in the treatment of migraine, although there is Little formal clinical evidence that it is significantly more efficacious than placebo. A number of side effects associated with ergotamine have been reported in the literature, including myocardial infarction, i

  8. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  9. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/17/2017; last reviewed 1/17/2017) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  10. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as Pedialyte ® ••Tea (without caffeine) ••Water ••Applesauce ••Bananas ••Crackers ••Cream of wheat or rice cereal ••Eggs •• ... has a series of 18 Chemotherapy Side Effects Sheets at: www.cancer.gov/chemo-side-effects

  11. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  12. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Constipation Take these steps: Eat high-fiber foods such as: ● ● Whole-grain breads and cereals ● ● Fruits and vegetables ● ● Nuts and seeds ...

  13. Side Effects of Side Effects Information in Drug Information Leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, H. Pander; Klaassen, R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study in which drug information leaflets given to patients were improved in two ways, first by adding a short introductory paragraph on the nature of side effects generally, and second by adjusting frequency descriptors to more accurately reflect pretesting of the drug. Explains that participants in the study were less likely to…

  14. Running away from side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, S; Hojman, P; Márquez-Rodas, I

    2015-01-01

    be an integrative complementary intervention to improve physiological, physical and psychological factors that affect survival and quality of life of these patients. For that reason, the main objective of this review is to provide a general overview of exercise benefits in breast cancer patients and recommendations......The number of breast cancer survivors increases every year, thanks to the development of new treatments and screening techniques. However, patients present with numerous side effects that may affect their quality of life. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce some of these side effects......, but in spite of this, few breast cancer patients know and follow the exercise recommendations needed to remain healthy. In this review, we describe the different breast cancer treatments and the related side effects and implications of exercise in relation to these. We propose that exercise could...

  15. The price of ignorance: The impact of side-information on delay for lossless source-coding

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by the context of compressing encrypted sources, this paper considers the general tradeoff between rate, end-to-end delay, and probability of error for lossless source coding with side-information. The notion of end-to-end delay is made precise by considering a sequential setting in which source symbols are revealed in real time and need to be reconstructed at the decoder within a certain fixed latency requirement. Upper bounds are derived on the reliability functions with delay when side-information is known only to the decoder as well as when it is also known at the encoder. When the encoder is not ignorant of the side-information (including the trivial case when there is no side-information), it is possible to have substantially better tradeoffs between delay and probability of error at all rates. This shows that there is a fundamental price of ignorance in terms of end-to-end delay when the encoder is not aware of the side information. This effect is not visible if only fixed-block-length codes a...

  16. The occurrence of new arrhythmias after catheter-ablation of accessory pathway: Delayed arrhythmic side-effect of curative radiofrequency lesion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujović Nebojša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. New arrhythmias (NA may appear late after accessory pathway (AP ablation, but their relation to curative radiofrequency (RF lesion is unknown. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors for NA occurrence after AP ablation and to investigate pro-arrhythmic effect of RF. Methods. Total of 124 patients (88 males, mean age 43±14 years with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and single AP have been followed after successful RF ablation. Post-ablation finding of arrhythmia, not recorded before the procedure, was considered a NA. The origin of NA was assessed by analysis of P-wave and/or QRS-complex morphology, and, thereafter, it was compared with locations of previously ablated APs. Results. Over the follow-up of 4.3±3.9 years, NA was registered in 20 patients (16%. The prevalence of specific NAs was as follows: atrioventricular (AV block 0.8%, atrial premature beats 1.6%, atrial fibrillation 5.4%, atrial flutter 0.8%, sinus tachycardia 4.8%, ventricular premature beats (VPBs 7.3%. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis identified (1 pre-ablation history of pathway-mediated tachyarrhythmias >10 years (HR=3.54, p=0.016 and (2 septal AP location (HR=4.25, p=0.003, as the independent predictors for NA occurrence. In four NA cases (two cases of septal VPBs, one of typical AFL and one of AV-block presumed NA origin was identified in the vicinity of previous ablation target. Conclusion. NAs were found in 16% of patients after AP elimination. In few of these cases, late on-site arrhythmic effect of initially curative RF lesion might be possible. While earlier intervention could prevent NA occurrence, closer follow-up is advised after ablation of septal AP.

  17. Metabolic Side Effects of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cagdas Eker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an alkaline ion being used since 19th century. After its widespread use in psychiatric disorders, observed side effects caused skepticism about its therapeutic efficacy. Despite several disadvantages, lithium is one of the indispensible drugs used in affective disorders, especially in bipolar disorder. It became a necessity for physicians to recognize its side effects since lithium is still accepted as a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Adverse effects of chronic administration of lithium on several organ systems are widely known. In this article metabolic effects of lithium on thyroid and parathyroid glands, body mass index and kidneys will be discussed along with their mechanisms, clinical findings, possible risk factors and treatment. One of the most common side effect of lithium is hypothyroidism. It has the same clinical and biochemical properties as primary hypothyroidism and observed as subclinical hypothyroidism in the first place. Hypothyroidism, even its subclinical form, may be associated with non-response or inadequate response and is indicated as a risk factor for development of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Therefore, hypothyroidism should be screened no matter how severe it is and should be treated with thyroid hormone in the presence of clinical hypothyroidism. Weight gain due to lithium administration disturbs the compliance to treatment and negatively affects the course of the illness. Increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and stroke because of weight gain constitute other centers of problem. Indeed, it is of importance to determine the risk factors before treatment, to follow up the weight, to re-organize nutritional habits and to schedule exercises. Another frequent problematic side effect of lithium treatment is renal dysfunction which clinically present as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with the common symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. Nephrogenic diabetes

  18. Delayed Presentation of Traumatic Right-Sided Diaphragmatic Hernia after Abdominoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline C. Jadlowiec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias are rare and challenging to diagnose. Following trauma, diagnosis may occur immediately or in a delayed fashion. It is believed that left traumatic diaphragmatic hernias are more common as a result of the protective right-sided anatomic lie of the liver. If unrecognized, traumatic diaphragmatic injuries are subject to enlarge over time as a result of the normal pressure changes observed between the thoracic and abdominal cavities. Additionally, abrupt changes to the pressure gradients, such as those which occur with positive pressure ventilation or surgical manipulation of the abdominal wall, can act as a nidus for making an asymptomatic hernia symptomatic. We report our experience with a delayed traumatic right-sided diaphragmatic hernia presenting with large bowel incarceration two months after abdominoplasty. In our review of the literature, we were unable to find any reports of delayed presentation of a traumatic right-sided diaphragmatic hernia occurring acutely following abdominoplasty.

  19. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties......The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...

  20. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... boiled, without the skin ••White rice ••White toast ••Bananas ••Canned fruit such as applesauce, peaches, and pears •• ... has a series of 18 Chemotherapy Side Effects Sheets at: www.cancer.gov/chemo-side-effects

  1. European side markers effect on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, A.; Theeuwes, J.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 new European legislation regarding side-markers for passenger cars became effective. Volvo requested the TNO-Human Factors Research Institute (HFRI) to investigate the possible safety benefit of this European side-markers configuration. A test panel at TNO- HFRI was used to determine the dif

  2. Lymphedema as a Cancer Treatment Side Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigating Cancer Care > Side Effects > Lymphedema Request Permissions Lymphedema Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 05/ ... years after cancer treatment has ended. Symptoms of lymphedema People with lymphedema in their arm or leg ...

  3. Possible Side-Effects from Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her at risk of contracting a potentially deadly disease. Adenovirus vaccine side-effects What are the risks from Adenovirus vaccine? A vaccine, like any medicine, could cause a serious reaction. But the risk ...

  4. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Memory Changes What is causing these changes? Your doctor will work to find out what is causing these problems. They may be caused by ...

  5. Side Effects - Memory or Concentration Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments, such as chemo, may cause difficulty thinking, concentrating, or other cognitive problems. Learn about steps people with cancer can take to manage these side effects. See a list of helpful questions for families to ask the doctor.

  6. Uncommon vancomycin: induced side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Jaime Luís Lopes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin has been used with increased frequency during the past 15 years and the most common toxicity with this drug is the "red man syndrome". Other adverse effects include neutropenia, fever, phlebitis, nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, thrombocytopenia, interstitial nephritis, lacrimation, linear IgA bullous dermatosis, necrotizing cutaneous vasculitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Only two cases of vancomycin-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and one case of pancytopenia have been reported in the medical literature. The treatment for both situations is based on cessation of the vancomycin therapy; in cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, antihistamine and/or steroid agents can be used. This article reports a case of pancytopenia and a case of erythema major associated with neutropenia.

  7. Hematological Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erdogan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics cause less frequently extrapyramidal system symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and hyperprolactinemia than typical antipsychotics. However hematological side effects such as leukopenia and neutropenia could occur during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. These side effects could lead to life threatening situations and the mortality rate due to drug related agranulocytosis is about 5-10%. There are several hypothesis describing the mechanisms underlying drug induced leukopenia and/or neutropenia such as direct toxic effects of these drugs upon the bone marrow or myeloid precursors, immunologic destruction of the granulocytes or supression of the granulopoiesis. Clozapine is the antipsychotic agent which has been most commonly associated with agranulocytosis. A nitrenium ion which is formed by the bioactivation of clozapine is thought to have an important role in the pathophysiogy of this adverse effect. Aside from clozapine, there are several case reports reporting an association between olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, aripiprazole and leukopenia. We did not find any study or case report presenting amisulpride or sulpride related hematological side effects in our literature search. Patients who had hematological side effects during their previous antipsychotic drug treatments and who had lower baseline blood leukocyte counts, have higher risk to develop leukopenia or neutropenia during their current antipsychotic treatment. Once leukopenia and neutropenia develops, drugs thought to be responsible for this side effect should be discontinued or dosages should be lowered. In some cases iniatition of lithium or G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy may be helpful in normalizing blood cell counts. Clinicans should avoid any combination of drugs known to cause hematological side effects. Besides during antipsychotic treatment, infection symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat or

  8. [Side Effects of Occupational Group Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flöge, B; Fay, D; Jöbges, M; Linden, M; Muschalla, B

    2016-12-01

    Background: Occupational therapy is an important co-therapy in psychiatric therapy. It is a common belief that no risks are associated with occupational therapy. Negative effects caused by group therapy, especially occupational therapy, have not been in the focus of research yet. In this study we want to illustrate possible types and intensities of group side effects through occupational therapy. Patients and Methods: Patients of an inpatient rehabilitation facility filled out the Adverse Treatment Reaction Group Checklist. The checklist contains 47 items divided in six dimensions: group size, content, group participants, group outcome and global. The self-rating used a 5-point likert scale (0 = not at all; 4 = very much, extremely stressful) and gives information about types and intensities of the side effects. Results: 88.9 % of 45 patients reported negative effects of occupational group therapy. 28.9 % of the patients rated the side effect as at least severe. Discussion: Occupational therapy is associated with side effects as every other group therapy. Possible side effects caused by group therapy should be considered while planning and implementing occupational therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm....... Alterations of orgasmic function are experienced by approximately 80% after RP. Erectile dysfunction seems to play an important role in waning orgasmic function. OAP is only experienced by a subset of the patients with reported rates varying between 3% and 19%. Sparing of the tips of the seminal vesicles has...... been shown to double the risk of OAP. PS occurs in 15-68% of RP patients. Nerve sparing and preservation of erectile function may help preserve penile length. With regard to all side effects, studies indicate that they are reduced over time. CONCLUSIONS: The sexually related side effects summarized...

  10. Update on side effects from common vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Benjamin J; Katial, Rohit K

    2004-11-01

    Vaccines have had a tremendous impact on public health by reducing morbidity and mortality from a variety of virulent pathogens. However, unintended side effects continue to pose a potential risk that may outweigh the vaccine's protective attributes. In this review, we discuss recent articles and controversies pertaining to vaccine-associated adverse events. Included in the discussion are influenza, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and rotavirus vaccines. The importance and contribution of vaccine constituents (such as thimerosal) to side effects is also reviewed.

  11. The Social Side Effects of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dominik

    About 23% of all adults in the US take acetaminophen during an average week (Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002) because acetaminophen is an effective physical painkiller and easily accessible over the counter. The physiological side effects of acetaminophen are well documented and generally mild when acetaminophen is consumed in the appropriate dosage. In contrast, the psychological and social side effects of acetaminophen are largely unknown. Recent functional neuroimaging research suggests that the experience of physical pain is fundamentally related to the experience of empathy for the pain of other people, indicating that pharmacologically reducing responsiveness to physical pain also reduces cognitive, affective, and behavioral responsiveness to the pain of others. I tested this hypothesis across three double-blind between-subjects drug intervention studies. Two experiments showed that acetaminophen had moderate effects on empathic affect, specifically personal distress and empathic concern, and a small effect on empathic cognition, specifically perceived pain, when facing physical and social pain of others. The same two experiments and a third experiment also showed that acetaminophen can increase the willingness to inflict pain on other people, i.e., actual aggressive behavior. This effect was especially pronounced among people low in dispositional empathic concern. Together, these findings suggest that the physical pain system is more involved in the regulation of social cognition, affect, and behavior than previously assumed and that the experience of physical pain and responsiveness to the pain of others share a common neurochemical basis. Furthermore, these findings suggest that acetaminophen has unappreciated but serious social side effects, and that these side effects may depend on psychological characteristics of the drug consumer. This idea is consistent with recent theory and research on the context-dependency of neurochemical

  12. Methylphenidate Abuse and Psychiatric Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, W. Alexander; Stockton, Gwendolyn G.

    2000-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant drug that has become the primary drug of choice in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Side effects are usually mild and are generally well tolerated by patients. Along with increases in prescribing frequency, the potential for abuse has increased. Intranasal abuse produces effects rapidly that are similar to the effects of cocaine in both onset and type. The clinical picture of stimulant abuse produces a wide ar...

  13. Evaluation of an immunosuppressant side effect instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsett, Rebecca P; Arheart, Kris; Stratta, Robert J; Alloway, Rita; Wicks, Mona N; Gaber, A Osama; Hathaway, Donna K

    2004-09-01

    Clinicians continue to be compelled to evaluate the impact of immunosuppressive medication side effects on the quality of life of transplant recipients. We Were asked to develop an instrument to measure side effects in immunosuppressed transplant recipients. To construct an instrument that measures the impact and severity of side effects of immunosuppressive medications used in transplantation and to assess the reliability and validity of the newly developed instrument called the Memphis Survey. The instrument was constructed by a panel of physicians, nurses, and pharmacists with experience in treating transplant recipients. A small group of kidney transplant recipients (n= 13) provided pilot data for refining and testing the instrument. A national sample of kidney, liver, and heart transplant recipients (n = 505) provided data that were used to further develop the instrument. Factor analysis was used to determine the psychological dimensions underlying the instrument and to guide the construction of scales from the survey items. The instrument scales were then computed from the dataset of 505 transplant recipients to quantify the impact of immunosuppressant side effects on the quality of life of transplant recipients. Analyses showed the final instrument scales to be valid and reliable. Exploratory analysis suggests the need for further testing of the instrument to determine gender differences.

  14. Hallucinatory Side Effects of ADHD Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trial and postmarketing surveillance data for drugs used in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed to determine the frequency of hallucinations and other psychotic side effects, in a study at the US Food and Drug Administration, and Department of Health and Human Services, Maryland.

  15. Demographic side effects of selective hunting in ungulates and carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Jos M; Nilsen, Erlend B; Andreassen, Harry P

    2007-02-01

    Selective harvesting regimes are often implemented because age and sex classes contribute differently to population dynamics and hunters show preferences associated with body size and trophy value. We reviewed the literature on how such cropping regimes affect the demography of the remaining population (here termed demographic side effects). First, we examined the implications of removing a large proportion of a specific age or sex class. Such harvesting strategies often bias the population sex ratio toward females and reduce the mean age of males, which may consequently delay birth dates, reduce birth synchrony, delay body mass development, and alter offspring sex ratios. Second, we reviewed the side effects associated with the selective removal of relatively few specific individuals, often large trophy males. Such selective harvesting can destabilize social structures and the dominance hierarchy and may cause loss of social knowledge, sexually selected infanticide, habitat changes among reproductive females, and changes in offspring sex ratio. A common feature of many of the reported mechanisms is that they ultimately depress recruitment and in some extreme cases even cause total reproductive collapse. These effects could act additively and destabilize the dynamics of populations, thus having a stronger effect on population growth rate than first anticipated. Although more experimental than observational studies reported demographic side effects, we argue that this may reflect the quite subtle mechanisms involved, which are unlikely to be detected in observational studies without rigorous monitoring regimes. We call for more detailed studies of hunted populations with marked individuals that address how the expression of these effects varies across mating systems, habitats, and with population density. Theoretical models investigating how strongly these effects influence population growth rates are also required.

  16. Opiates and elderly: Use and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L Chau

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Diane L Chau1, Vanessa Walker2, Latha Pai3, Lwin M Cho4University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USA 1Division Geriatric Medicine, 2Internal Medicine, 3Psychiatry, 4Geriatric Medicine, Sierra Nevada Healthcare System, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Reno, NV, USAAbstract: The evaluation of pain and the subsequent issue of pain control is a clinical challenge that all healthcare providers face. Pain in the elderly population is especially difficult given the myriad of physiological, pharmacological, and psychological aspects of caring for the geriatric patient. Opiates are the mainstay of pain treatment throughout all age groups but special attention must be paid to the efficacy and side effects of these powerful drugs when prescribing to a population with impaired metabolism, excretion and physical reserve. In a random chart review of 300 US veterans, 44% of those receiving an analgesic also received opioids. The increasing use of opiates for pain management by healthcare practitioners requires that those prescribing opioids be aware of the special considerations for treating the elderly. This article will address the precautions one must take when using opiates in the geriatric population, as well as the side effects and ways to minimize them.Keywords: opiates, pain, elderly, side effects

  17. Effects and Side Effects of Flemish School Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninckx, Maarten; Vanhoof, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increased importance of school inspection in recent years, the current knowledge base does not provide a clear view on the effects and side effects of being inspected. More evidence is needed in more diverse educational contexts. This article responds to this need with a quantitative study on the effects and side effects of school…

  18. [Side effects of third generation progestins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitruk-Ware, R

    1993-04-01

    A large number of publications on oral contraceptives (OC) can be found in the medical literature. These reports deal not only with mode of action or efficacy of OCs but also with side effects. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are not accepted nor acceptable from a population of young women free of disease who expect from their mode of contraception to be fully efficient and devoid from side effects. In most instances, side effects observed with OCs as well as their efficacy are related to the total dose of steroïds contained in the combination, to the balance between the estrogen and the progestin content and to the specific characteristics of the molecules. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality reported in OC users have been related firstly to the ethinylestradiol (EE) and as a first step, the estrogen dose has been reduced in the OCs synthesized in the 70s. Later on, cardiovascular risk has been correlated to lipid profile changes and progestins with androgenic properties have been made responsible for cardiovascular events reported in OC users. In order to minimize the incidence of ADRs and to induce beneficial changes in lipid patterns, new progestational molecules devoid of androgenic properties have been recently synthesized. Three compounds called "third generation" progestins, derived from levonorgestrel are presently available in Europe. These three gonane progestins demonstrate affinity for the androgenic receptor, but when administered together with EE do not oppose the estrogenic effect observed on protein markers such as the Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) or the High Density Lipoprotein (HDL).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. The nocebo effect: patient expectations and medication side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Petrie, Keith J

    2013-09-01

    Expectation of treatment side effects is consistently linked with those symptoms being realised. Patient expectations, including those generated by the informed consent process, can have a large influence on the side effects that patients feel after starting a new medical treatment. Such symptoms may be the result of the nocebo effect, whereby the expectation of side effects leads to them being experienced. Side effects may also be due to the misattribution of pre-existing or unrelated symptoms to the new medication. Medical professionals' own negative beliefs about a treatment, especially generic drugs, may further enhance patients' expectations of adverse effects. The news media may also influence expectations, particularly when media attention is directed towards a health or medication scare. This field of research has ethical and clinical implications for both medical professionals and the news media with respect to the level and type of information about treatment side effects that is provided to patients or members of the public.

  20. Cardiologic side effects of psychotropic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Marano; Gianandrea Traversi; Enrico Romagnoli; Valeria Catalano; Marzia Lotrionte; Antonio Abbate; Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai; Marianna Mazza

    2011-01-01

    Psychotropic drugs can produce cardiovascular side effects associated with a degree of cardiotoxicity.The coexistence of a heart disease complicates the management of mental illness,can contribute to a reduced quality of life and a worse illness course.The co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders in cardiac patients might affect the clinical outcome and morbidity.Moreover,the complex underlying mechanism that links these two conditions remains unclear.This paper discusses the known cardiovascular complications of psychotropic drugs and analyzes the important implications of antidepressive treatment in patients with previous cardiac history.

  1. A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica

    2010-01-01

    The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research...... on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug-side effect pairs. For 199...... drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at http://sideeffects.embl.de....

  2. Esomeprazole induced galactorrhea: a novel side effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipaliya, Nirav; Solanke, Dattatray; Rathi, Chetan; Patel, Ruchir; Ingle, Meghraj; Sawant, Prabha

    2016-02-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most frequently prescribed medications across the globe. Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole, and it is currently the most widely prescribed PPI. The safety profile of esomeprazole is extremely favorable with only minor side effects, like headache and diarrhea, that are encountered in day to day practice. We report a case of a young female with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease who developed galactorrhea after starting esomeprazole therapy. Resolution of galactorrhea after stopping the drug and self-rechallenge by the patient herself with reappearance of galactorrhea confirmed the culprit to be esomeprazole only. We postulate that esomeprazole may have a mild inhibitory effect on CYP3A4, which leads to decreased metabolism of estrogen, thereby increasing serum estrogen levels. Estrogen causes stimulation and production of prolactin release, which results in development of galactorrhea. This is the first case of esomeprazole induced galactorrhea, to the best of our knowledge.

  3. Effect of knee joint angle on side-to-side strength ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Williams, Glenn N

    2014-10-01

    Isometric knee extensor and flexor strength are typically tested at different joint angles due to the differences in length-tension relationships of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles. The efficiency of strength testing can be improved if the same angle can be used to test both the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal angle for isometric knee strength testing by examining the effect of knee angle on side-to-side peak torque ratios. Eighteen active young people (9 males and 9 females) participated in this study. Knee extensor and knee flexor strength were tested on both sides at 30°, 60°, and 90° of knee flexion. The effect of knee flexion angle on side-to-side peak torque ratios, raw torque values, and side-to-side flexor-to-extensor torque ratios were assessed. Side-to-side knee extensor peak torque ratios and knee flexor-to-extensor torque ratios differed significantly by knee flexion angle (p = 0.024 and p = 0.011, respectively), but side-to-side knee flexor peak torque ratios did not differ significantly (p = 0.311). When considering both side-to-side peak torque ratios and flexor-to-extensor torque ratios, the values were more symmetrical (i.e., closer to 100%) only at 60° of knee flexion. Our results indicate that both the knee flexors and the knee extensors can be tested clinically at 60° of knee flexion. Our results also indicate that the hamstrings can be tested at any of the 3 angles if the examiner is interested in side-to-side ratios rather than raw torque values. These results may facilitate more efficient and flexible clinical knee strength testing.

  4. Narrating narcolepsy--centering a side effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The mass-vaccination with Pandemrix was the most important preventive measure in Sweden during the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic of 2009-2010, and covered 60% of the population. From 2010, an increased incidence of the neurological disease narcolepsy was reported, and an association with Pandemrix was affirmed for more than 200 children and young adults. The parental experience of this side effect provided a starting point for a collectively shaped critical narrative to be acted out in public, but also personalized narratives of continual learning about the disease and its consequences. This didactic functionality resulted in active meaning-making practices about how to handle the aftermath--using dark humor, cognitive tricks, and making themselves and their children's bodies both objects and subjects of knowledge. Using material from interviews with parents, this mixing of knowledge work and political work, and the potential for reflective consciousness, is discussed.

  5. Chemotherapy Side Effects: A Cause of Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can chemotherapy side effects increase the risk of heart disease? Answers from Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. Chemotherapy side effects may increase the risk of heart disease, including weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and ...

  6. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Fatigue (Feeling Weak and Very Tired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nurse about other exercises that can help. Stretching, yoga, or Tai Chi help some people. Questions to ... NCI has a series of 18 Chemotherapy Side Effects Sheets at: www.cancer.gov/chemo-side-effects

  7. Is delayed surgery related to worse outcomes in native left-sided endocarditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepsuwan, Thitipong; Rimsukcharoenchai, Chartaroon; Tantraworasin, Apichat; Woragidpoonpol, Surin; Schuarattanapong, Suphachai; Nawarawong, Weerachai

    2016-05-01

    Timing of surgery in the management of infective endocarditis is controversial, and there is still no definite conclusion on how early the surgery should be performed. This study focuses on the outcomes of surgery during the active period of infective endocarditis in consideration of the duration after diagnosis. One hundred and thirty-four patients with active native valve infective endocarditis who underwent surgery from January 2006 to December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. They were divided in 2 groups based on timing of surgery: early group (first week after diagnosis, n = 37) and delayed group (2 to 6 weeks after diagnosis, n = 97). Compared to the delayed group, the early group had significantly more patients in New York Heart Association class IV (81% vs. 43.3%), more mechanically ventilated (54.1% vs. 18.6%), more on inotropic support (62.2% vs. 38.1%), and hence a worse EuroSCORE II (14.8% vs. 8.8%). Operative mortality was comparable (5.4% vs. 10.3%) and 7-year survival was similar (77.4% vs. 74.6%). On multivariable regression analysis, delayed surgery did not impact on short- and long-term outcomes. Preoperative cardiac arrest and infection with Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, or Kingella were risk factors for higher operative mortality. Predictors of poor 7-year survival were diabetes mellitus and acute renal failure. Delayed surgery is not associated with worse outcomes. Both early and delayed approaches are safe and provide acceptable results. Timing of surgery should be tailored to each patient's clinical status, not based on duration of endocarditis alone. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Delayed onset muscle soreness: is massage effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nicole

    2013-10-01

    Despite the widespread occurrence of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), there is little consensus as to the exact cause or which treatments may be most effective at alleviating symptoms. Greater understanding of DOMS can give sports medicine and fitness professionals an opportunity to help prevent or speed recovery of this performance limiting condition. This article will review the DOMS literature, including the potential role of psychosocial factors and explore studies which involve massage therapy as a treatment modality. Articles from PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and references from articles are included in this review. Search words and phrases included delayed onset muscle soreness, repeated bout effect, massage effectiveness, exercise induced muscle damage, and eccentric exercise.

  9. Side effects of endobronchial laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierkesmann, R.; Huzly, A.

    1985-03-01

    Side effects that have occurred in over 250 endobronchial laser treatments are reported. The laser has been used in severe tracheal and in bronchial obstructions. In two cases significant bleeding had to be treated with tamponade. In one patient an emphysema of the mediastinum developed, in 2 further patients a small pneumothorax. Perforation of the airway was not detected and no special treatment was necessary. Three patients with life-threatening tracheal stenoses and one patient with severe stenosis of both the mainstem bronchi due to metastasis in the bifurcation lymph node had a large defect in the tracheal or bronchial wall with a deep necrosis five to twelve weeks after laser treatment; all these patients had extensive radiotherapy in addition. One patient died due to severe respiratory insufficiency, probably caused by smoke intoxication. After the laser treatment, rubber-like fibrin-rich plaques may develop, which can lead to life-threatening obstructions of the airway. It is recommended that laser bronchoscopy should be performed with the rigid bronchoscope. After treatment of tracheal lesion an endoscopic check must be performed within 24 hours. The combination of laser treatment and radiotherapy seems to involve a certain risk of large defects in the bronchial wall due to necrosis of the tumor.

  10. Stereo side information generation in low-delay distributed stereo video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a technique that allows shifting the computational complexity from the encoder to the decoder. One of the core elements of the decoder is the creation of the Side Information (SI), which is a hypothesis of what the to-be-decoded frame looks like. Much work on DVC...

  11. Nursing-led management of side effects of radiation: evidence-based recommendations for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirier P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Patricia PoirierUniversity of Maine School of Nursing, Orono, ME, USAAbstract: It has been estimated that 50%–60% of patients diagnosed with cancer will receive radiation therapy at some point in their treatment. Although radiation therapy can play a significant role in the cure or control of cancer, and the palliation of symptoms, it also has side effects. Side effects of radiation therapy can interfere with patient quality of life and daily functioning. Severe side effects can lead to delays in treatment, potentially affecting the outcome of treatment. All patients receiving radiation therapy are at risk of fatigue and skin reactions in the area of the body being treated. Other side effects of radiation therapy are specific to the part of the body being treated. Radiation therapy to the head and neck area may cause oral mucositis, dryness, and nutritional deficiencies. Radiation therapy to the chest or lung area may lead to difficulty in swallowing and eating. Radiation therapy to the pelvis frequently causes diarrhea. There are many nursing interventions available to manage the side effects of treatment based on best available evidence and expert opinion. Nurses in all settings are essential in helping patients manage the side effects of treatment and maintain their quality of life. The purpose of this review is to provide nurses with evidence-based recommendations and suggestions for managing common acute side effects of radiation therapy.Keywords: evidence-based practice, radiation therapy, side effects, nursing management

  12. Systematic identification of proteins that elicit drug side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Al Banchaabouchi, Mumna; Campillos, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Side effect similarities of drugs have recently been employed to predict new drug targets, and networks of side effects and targets have been used to better understand the mechanism of action of drugs. Here, we report a large-scale analysis to systematically predict and characterize proteins...... that cause drug side effects. We integrated phenotypic data obtained during clinical trials with known drug-target relations to identify overrepresented protein-side effect combinations. Using independent data, we confirm that most of these overrepresentations point to proteins which, when perturbed, cause...... side effects. Of 1428 side effects studied, 732 were predicted to be predominantly caused by individual proteins, at least 137 of them backed by existing pharmacological or phenotypic data. We prove this concept in vivo by confirming our prediction that activation of the serotonin 7 receptor (HTR7...

  13. Statin Side Effects: Weigh the Benefits and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... interact with statins and increase your risk of side effects include: Amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), a medication for irregular heart rhythms Gemfibrozil (Lopid), another variety of cholesterol drug ...

  14. The effectiveness of side marker lamps: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeuwes, J; Alferdinck, J W

    1997-03-01

    The present experiment investigated the effect of small amber lamps mounted near the front and rear on each side of a passenger car-so called side marker lamps-on visual detection and recognition of passenger cars in complex nighttime environments. It was determined whether cars equipped with side marker lamps are detected and recognized earlier and more accurately than cars without side marker lamps. Subjects were presented with slides of natural nighttime scenes in which a car, either with or without side marker lamps, viewed from its side, approaching from a side street, was either present or not. Subjects determined as fast as possible whether a car was present or not. Reaction time measures (speed and accuracy) indicated that both under clear and fog visibility conditions, a car equipped with side marker lamps was detected and recognized earlier and more accurately than a car without side marker lamps. The results indicate that side marker lamps increase both lateral conspicuity and recognizability suggesting that side marker lamps may be effective in reducing the number of nighttime angle collisions.

  15. Effects of Delayed Second Cochlear Implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Rui-ming; WU Xi-hong; JANG Zi-gang; JING Yuan-yuan; LIN Yun-juan; YU Li-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective Since Helms' successful bilateral cochlear implantation with good results in 1996, there have been increasing number of reports on bilateral cochlear implantation. Most second device have been implantated within one year after the first. Considering effects of long time auditory deprivation, it is not clear whether a delayed second cochlear implant serves to add additional benefits and how it may interact with central nervous system plasticity. Methods Three cases who received delayed second cochlear implants at People's Hospital of Peking University from 2002 to 2005 were reviewed. The interval between the first and second implants was longer than 2 years in all three patients. Sound perception, and unilateral/bilateral speech discrimination in quiet and noise were evaluated. In addition, GAP detection test was conducted in one patient. Results In one case,having both implants on provided improved performance compared to using only one implant both in quiet and noise. Presumably due to visual interference from lip-reading or short interval between second implant and testing,one patient showed no improvement from using the second implant either in quiet or noise, while the last case demonstrated additional benefits from the second implant only in quiet. In all three patients, performance in recognizing the four tones in Mandarin was superior over word recognition. Conclusions Considerable plasticity in the cerebral auditory center is preserved, despite long acoustic deprivation in some children who have received unilateral cochlear implant. Delayed second implants can result in significant improvements in some of these children. Visual interference from lip-reading may be an obstacle during retraining. The better recognition of tones in the Mandarin language may represent a different sound discrimination mechanism in the auditory system,although it may also be related to the signal processing mechanisms of the implant used (MED-EL COMBI 40+).

  16. Are peripheral opioid antagonists the solution to opioid side effects?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bates, John J

    2012-02-03

    Opioid medication is the mainstay of therapy for severe acute and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the side effects of these medications can affect patient comfort and safety, thus limiting their proven therapeutic potential. Whereas the main analgesic effects of opioids are centrally mediated, many of the common side effects are mediated via peripheral receptors. Novel peripheral opioid antagonists have been recently introduced that can block the peripheral actions of opioids without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. We review the clinical and experimental evidence of their efficacy in ameliorating opioid side effects and consider what further information might be useful in defining their role. IMPLICATIONS: The major analgesic effects of opioid medication are mediated within the brain and spinal cord. Many of the side effects of opioids are caused by activation of receptors outside these areas. Recently developed peripherally restricted opioid antagonists have the ability to block many opioid side effects without affecting analgesia.

  17. Sneaky side effects and ineffectiveness of an immunotherapy with ipilimumab in a case of metastatic melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecké, Nathalie; Zimmer, Anna; Friesenhahn-Ochs, Bettina; Müller, Cornelia S. L.; Vogt, Thomas; Pföhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ipilimumab is an anti-CTLA-4 antibody that is approved for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma. Side-effects are mostly immune-mediated and in many cases the lack of specific symptoms leads to delayed diagnosis and treatment of adverse events. We present the case of a female patient who experienced an uncommon combination of adverse reactions while undergoing therapy with ipilimumab and where the absence of specificity of the symptoms led to late diagnosis and treatment of side effects. Autoimmune disease was neither associated with tumor response nor with prolonged survival. PMID:27574531

  18. Angular dependence of Wigner time delay: Relativistic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Manson, S. T.; Kkeifets, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Laser assisted photoionization time delay mainly consists of two parts: Wigner time delay, and time delay in continuum-continuum transition. Wigner time delay results from the energy derivative of the phase of the photoionization amplitude (matrix element). In general, the photoionization time delay is not the same in all directions relative to the incident photon polarization, although when a single transition dominates the amplitude, the resultant time delay is essentially isotropic. The relativistic-random-phase approximation is employed to determine the Wigner time delay in photoionization from the outer np subshells of the noble gas atoms, Ne through Xe. The time delay is found to significantly depend on angle, as well as energy. The angular dependence of the time delay is found to be quite sensitive to atomic dynamics and relativistic effects, and exhibit strong energy and angular variation in the neighborhood of Cooper minima. Work supported by DOE, Office of Chemical Sciences and DST (India).

  19. Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation KidsHealth > For Parents > Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation Print A A A What's in ... and can no longer do their jobs efficiently. Chemotherapy (or "chemo") and radiation , the two most common ...

  20. The relationship between rational drug design and drug side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Li, Zhi-xin; Qiu, Cheng-xiang; Wang, Dong; Cui, Qing-hua

    2012-05-01

    Previous analysis of systems pharmacology has revealed a tendency of rational drug design in the pharmaceutical industry. The targets of new drugs tend to be close with the corresponding disease genes in the biological networks. However, it remains unclear whether the rational drug design introduces disadvantages, i.e. side effects. Therefore, it is important to dissect the relationship between rational drug design and drug side effects. Based on a recently released drug side effect database, SIDER, here we analyzed the relationship between drug side effects and the rational drug design. We revealed that the incidence drug side effect is significantly associated with the network distance of drug targets and diseases genes. Drugs with the distances of three or four have the smallest incidence of side effects, whereas drugs with the distances of more than four or smaller than three show significantly greater incidence of side effects. Furthermore, protein drugs and small molecule drugs show significant differences. Drugs hitting membrane targets and drugs hitting cytoplasm targets also show differences. Failure drugs because of severe side effects show smaller network distances than approved drugs. These results suggest that researchers should be prudent on rationalizing the drug design. Too small distances between drug targets and diseases genes may not always be advantageous for rational design for drug discovery.

  1. Side effects of azathioprine in patients with Crohn's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Dirk de; Goullet, M.; Naber, A.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In clinical trials 0-15% of patients discontinued azathioprine due to side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of side effects leading to discontinuation of azathioprine and to determine predictive factors for discontinuation. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort analysis of c

  2. Side effects of vagus nerve stimulation during physical exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, D.M.; de Vos, Cecilia Cecilia Clementine; Vosman, I.; Driesse, M.J.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a treatment option in the case of refractory epilepsy. However, several side effects have been reported, including dyspnea, coughing and bradycardias [JCA 2010: 22;213-222]. Although some patients experience hardly any side effects from the stimulation

  3. The Effects of Delay of Feedback on a Delayed Concept Formation Transfer Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    Delay and completeness of verbal information feedback were investigated within a transfer of learning paradigm involving concept formation. An experiment with 192 undergraduates indicates that, although delay of feedback (up to 30 seconds) slows speed of learning on the initial task, it has positive effects on the transfer task. (SLD)

  4. The incidence of side effects after laser hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Sean W.

    2004-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of lasers for hair removal there is little data published on the incidence of side effects from this treatment. We aimed to generate data on a large number of patients receiving laser hair removal to obtain an accurate assessment of the incidence and type of side effects resulting from treatment. A multicentre prospective study of patients attending for laser hair removal was conducted to determine incidence of side effects in relation to skin type and laser(s) used. Laser hair removal is associated with a low incidence of side effects which are self-limiting in the majority of cases. Highest incidence of side effects was seen in darker skinned patients treated with the long pulsed ruby laser. Laser hair removal is inherently safe. For darker Fitzpatrick skin types the long pulsed Nd:YAG laser is preferred to the ruby laser.

  5. Delay time and Hartman effect in strain engineered graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi, E-mail: xchen@shu.edu.cn; Deng, Zhi-Yong [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 200444 Shanghai (China); Ban, Yue, E-mail: yban@shu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Information Materials, Shanghai University, 200444 Shanghai (China)

    2014-05-07

    Tunneling times, including group delay and dwell time, are studied for massless Dirac electrons transmitting through a one-dimensional barrier in strain-engineered graphene. The Hartman effect, the independence of group delay on barrier length, is induced by the strain effect, and associated with the transmission gap and the evanescent mode. The influence of barrier height/length and strain modulus/direction on the group delay is also discussed, which provides the flexibility to control the group delay with applications in graphene-based devices. The relationship between group delay and dwell time is finally derived to clarify the nature of the Hartman effect.

  6. Propofol effects on atrial fibrillation wavefront delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervigón, Raquel; Moreno, Javier; Millet, José; Pérez-Villacastín, Julián; Castells, Francisco

    2010-08-01

    Since the cardiac activity during atrial fibrillation (AF) may be influenced by autonomic modulations, in this study, a novel method to quantify the effects of the most common anesthetic agent (propofol) in AF ablation procedures is introduced. This study has two main objectives: first, to assess whether the sedation earlier to radio frequency ablation affects the arrhythmia itself, and second, to provide new information that contributes to a better understanding of the influence of the autonomic nervous system on AF. The methodology presented is based on the measurement of synchronization and delay indexes between two atrial activations at adjacent intracavitary electrodes. These parameters aim to estimate whether two activations at different sites may be caused by the same propagating wavefront, or otherwise, are the consequence of independent wavefronts. The results showed that the mentioned indexes have a different behavior at both atria: the right atrium becomes more synchronized with propofol administration, whereas the synchronization index decreases at the left atrium.

  7. In vivo assessment of antiretroviral therapy-associated side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Milton Ramos-Sanchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with side effects, either from the drug itself or in conjunction with the effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here, we evaluated the side effects of the protease inhibitor (PI indinavir in hamsters consuming a normal or high-fat diet. Indinavir treatment increased the hamster death rate and resulted in an increase in triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose serum levels and a reduction in anti-oxLDL auto-antibodies. The treatment led to histopathological alterations of the kidney and the heart. These results suggest that hamsters are an interesting model for the study of the side effects of antiretroviral drugs, such as PIs.

  8. Tunable delay time and Hartman effect in graphene magnetic barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Yue; Wang, Lin-Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Chen, Xi, E-mail: xchen@shu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2015-04-28

    Tunable group delay and Hartman effect have been investigated for massless Dirac electrons in graphene magnetic barriers. In the presence of magnetic field, dwell time is found to be equal to net group delay plus the group delay contributing from the lateral shifts. The group delay times are discussed in both cases of normal and oblique incidence, to clarify the nature of Hartman effect. In addition, the group delay in transmission can be modulated from subluminality to superluminality by adjusting the magnetic field, which may also lead to potential applications in graphene-based microelectronics.

  9. Reported Sildenafil Side Effects in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Leigh Siehr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sildenafil, a phosphodiestase type 5 inhibitor, was approved in 2005 for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH in adults, and is commonly used off-label for pediatric patients. Little is known, however, about sildenafil’s side effects in this population.Methods: Single institution, longitudinal survey-based study performed in an outpatient pediatric cardiology clinic. Pediatric patients on sildenafil (alone or in combination with other PH therapies completed questionnaires regarding frequency of vascular, gastrointestinal, neurologic and hematologic side effects. Results: Between January 2011 and May 2014, 66 pediatric patients with PH on sildenafil filled out 214 surveys, 32 patients (96 surveys on monotherapy, and 43 patients (118 surveys on sildenafil plus an endothelin receptor antagonist (bosentan or ambrisentan and/or a prostacyclin (epoprostenol or treprostinil. Overall, 30% of respondents identified at least one side effect. For all patients on sildenafil, incidence of side effects by system was 37% gastrointestinal, 35% vascular and 22% neurologic. For patients on sildenafil monotherapy, incidence of side effects by system was 24% gastrointestinal, 21% vascular and 18% neurologic compared to patients on combination therapy who reported an incidence of 48% gastrointestinal, 45% vascular and 25% neurologic.Conclusion: Incidence of vascular, gastrointestinal and neurologic side effect in pediatric patients on sildenafil therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension was 30%. Side effects were more common in patients on combination therapy with an endothelin receptor antagonist and/or prostacyclin than in patients on sildenafil monotherapy.

  10. Elementary affine {\\lambda}-calculus with multithreading and side effects

    CERN Document Server

    Madet, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Linear logic provides a framework to control the complexity of higher-order functional programs. We present an extension of this framework to programs with multithreading and side effects focusing on the case of elementary time. Our main contributions are as follows. First, we provide a new combinatorial proof of termination in elementary time for the functional case. Second, we develop an extension of the approach to a call-by-value \\lambda-calculus with multithreading and side effects. Third, we introduce an elementary affine type system that guarantees the standard subject reduction and progress properties. Finally, we illustrate the programming of iterative functions with side effects in the presented formalism.

  11. Side Effects and Complications of Dental Materials on Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Atai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of dental materials has had a great impact on the modern dentistry. The materials ranging from polymers to metals have different applications in dentistry. Besides their important role in healing or improving the function of oral tissues, the materials may show side effects which may, in some cases, lead to severe lesions. In this review the side effects have been summarized considering a new classification for dental materials according to the duration of their applications as temporary or permanent materials. The side effects of the materials are then discussed based on clinical and cellular views.

  12. Liraglutide and DPP-4 inhibitors - side effects comparative clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofte, Luminiţa; Stratmann, Bernd; Quester, Wulf; Bojiţă, Marius Traian; Tschoepe, Diethelm

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the side effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in comparison to those of DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin and vildagliptin), in order to determine their safety, tolerability and therapeutic efficiency. The study was carried out in the "Heart and Diabetes Center NRW" and included overweight patients with type 2 diabetes whose therapeutic regimen was switched to liraglutide or DPP-4 inhibitors. A validated questionnaire method was used to monitor the side effects during the hospitalization period, then again at 3, and 6 months after the beginning of the therapy. The therapy with liraglutide was associated with more side effects than the one with DPP-4 inhibitors. In general, side effects were declining with time, thus only few patients stopped therapy. The incretin therapy turned out to be a safe and effective therapeutic option for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. The Unexpected Side-Effects of Dissonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Ehud; Gilboa, Avi; Amir, Dorit

    2007-01-01

    The effects of dissonant and consonant music on cognitive performance were examined. Situational dissonance and consonance were also tested and determined as the state where one's opinion is contrasted or matched with the majority's opinion, respectively. Subjects performed several cognitive tasks while listening to a melody arranged dissonantly,…

  14. The Unexpected Side-Effects of Dissonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Ehud; Gilboa, Avi; Amir, Dorit

    2007-01-01

    The effects of dissonant and consonant music on cognitive performance were examined. Situational dissonance and consonance were also tested and determined as the state where one's opinion is contrasted or matched with the majority's opinion, respectively. Subjects performed several cognitive tasks while listening to a melody arranged dissonantly,…

  15. Effect of speedup delay on shuttle bus schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We study the bus schedule in the shuttle bus transportation system controlled by speedup. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamic motion of the bus. The motion of a shuttle bus depends on the inflow rate of passengers and the delayed speedup control. The delayed speedup control has an important effect on the dynamic motion of the bus. We present the delayed map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus with the delayed speedup control. The bus motion changes from a stable state, through a periodic state, to a quasi-periodic state by the delayed speedup control. The return map of the tour time displays a smooth closed curve and the bus motion is quasi-periodic. The dynamic transition to the quasi-periodic motion changes greatly with the delay time. We clarify the effect of the delayed speedup control on the bus schedule.

  16. The effects of the framing of time on delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHart, William Brady; Odum, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of the framing of time on delay discounting. Delay discounting is the process by which delayed outcomes are devalued as a function of time. Time in a titrating delay discounting task is often framed in calendar units (e.g., as 1 week, 1 month, etc.). When time is framed as a specific date, delayed outcomes are discounted less compared to the calendar format. Other forms of framing time; however, have not been explored. All participants completed a titrating calendar unit delay-discounting task for money. Participants were also assigned to one of two delay discounting tasks: time as dates (e.g., June 1st, 2015) or time in units of days (e.g., 5000 days), using the same delay distribution as the calendar delay-discounting task. Time framed as dates resulted in less discounting compared to the calendar method, whereas time framed as days resulted in greater discounting compared to the calendar method. The hyperboloid model fit best compared to the hyperbola and exponential models. How time is framed may alter how participants attend to the delays as well as how the delayed outcome is valued. Altering how time is framed may serve to improve adherence to goals with delayed outcomes.

  17. Side effects of chemotherapy in musculoskeletal oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Romantini, Matteo; Angelini, Andrea; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    With recent advances in medical and orthopedic oncology, radiation therapy and single- or multiple-agent perioperative chemotherapy are currently applied as an essential part of the multidisciplinary treatment to improve disease-free and overall survival of patients with primary and metastatic bone and soft tissue tumors. However, these treatments have led to unwanted complications. A better understanding of the effects of various antineoplastic agents on bone, soft tissue, and organs may provide the basis for the more efficacious use of antiproliferative drugs when fracture healing or allograft incorporation is required. This knowledge may also provide a rationale for concurrent treatment with drugs that protect against or compensate for adverse effects in osseous repair resulting from chemotherapy.

  18. Membrane Transporters as Mediators of Cisplatin Effects and Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Ciarimboli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transporters are important mediators of specific cellular uptake and thus, not only for effects, but also for side effects, metabolism, and excretion of many drugs such as cisplatin. Cisplatin is a potent cytostatic drug, whose use is limited by its severe acute and chronic nephro-, oto-, and peripheral neurotoxicity. For this reason, other platinum derivatives, such as carboplatin and oxaliplatin, with less toxicity but still with antitumoral action have been developed. Several transporters, which are expressed on the cell membranes, have been associated with cisplatin transport across the plasma membrane and across the cell: the copper transporter 1 (Ctr1, the copper transporter 2 (Ctr2, the P-type copper-transporting ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B, the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2, and the multidrug extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1. Some of these transporters are also able to accept other platinum derivatives as substrate. Since membrane transporters display a specific tissue distribution, they can be important molecules that mediate the entry of platinum derivatives in target and also nontarget cells possibly mediating specific effects and side effects of the chemotherapeutic drug. This paper summarizes the literature on toxicities of cisplatin compared to that of carboplatin and oxaliplatin and the interaction of these platinum derivatives with membrane transporters.

  19. The SIDER database of drugs and side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl;

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted side effects of drugs are a burden on patients and a severe impediment in the development of new drugs. At the same time, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded during clinical trials are an important source of human phenotypic data. It is therefore essential to combine data on drugs......, targets and side effects into a more complete picture of the therapeutic mechanism of actions of drugs and the ways in which they cause adverse reactions. To this end, we have created the SIDER ('Side Effect Resource', http://sideeffects.embl.de) database of drugs and ADRs. The current release, SIDER 4......, contains data on 1430 drugs, 5880 ADRs and 140 064 drug-ADR pairs, which is an increase of 40% compared to the previous version. For more fine-grained analyses, we extracted the frequency with which side effects occur from the package inserts. This information is available for 39% of drug-ADR pairs, 19...

  20. Strength Training May Prevent Side Effect of Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162473.html Strength Training May Prevent Side Effect of Breast Cancer Surgery ... 9, 2016 FRIDAY, Dec. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Strength training might benefit breast cancer survivors who've undergone ...

  1. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men “I talked with my doctor before treatment. I told him I would like to have children one day. I’m ...

  2. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Mouth and Throat Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Mouth and Throat Changes “My mouth felt sore. I let my nurse know right away. He told me about medicine that can help. He also showed ...

  3. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you start treatment. Ask how chemotherapy could affect your ability to have children. ” Ask what ...

  4. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Skin and Nail Changes “I was glad to learn that most skin and nail problems go away after treatment. For now, my nurse told me about ...

  5. Many Women Mistaken on 'Side Effects' of Breast Cancer Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Many Women Mistaken on 'Side Effects' of Breast Cancer Drug Study shows that normal symptoms of menopause ... therapy, could be a useful approach in encouraging adherence," Sestak said. "This is particularly important for women ...

  6. Parkinsonism as a side effect of infliximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Jakob Nørgaard; Eriksson, Bengt Oluf Mikael

    2016-05-05

    We present a case of a 64-year-old man with Crohn's disease who developed parkinsonism after starting treatment with infliximab (Remicade). The patient had a 30-year history of Crohn's disease with previous surgical procedures and treatment with methotrexate. Treatment was augmented with infliximab, and 3 days after the first dose of 400 mg, a resting tremor began in the left leg. Over 4 months, symptoms progressed and now involved the right leg as well as both hands. There was no clinical effect of infliximab treatment, and the treatment was withdrawn 4 months later. The patient then experienced gradual, but continual, improvement of the resting tremor after withdrawal of infliximab. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a patient developing parkinsonism after starting treatment with infliximab, with symptoms remitting on discontinuation.

  7. Soy and phytoestrogens: possible side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jargin, Sergei V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Phytoestrogens are present in certain edible plants being most abundant in soy; they are structurally and functionally analogous to the estrogens. Phytoestrogens have been applied for compensation of hormone deficiency in the menopause. At the same time, soy products are used in infant food and other foodstuffs. Furthermore, soy is applied as animal fodder, so that residual phytoestrogens and their active metabolites such as equol can remain in meat and influence the hormonal balance of the consumers. There have been only singular reports on modified gender-related behavior or feminization in humans in consequence of soy consumption. In animals, the intake of phytoestrogens was reported to impact fertility, sexual development and behavior. Feminizing effects in humans can be subtle and identifiable only statistically in large populations.

  8. Soy and phytoestrogens: possible side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are present in certain edible plants being most abundant in soy; they are structurally and functionally analogous to the estrogens. Phytoestrogens have been applied for compensation of hormone deficiency in the menopause. At the same time, soy products are used in infant food and other foodstuffs. Furthermore, soy is applied as animal fodder, so that residual phytoestrogens and their active metabolites such as equol can remain in meat and influence the hormonal balance of the consumers. There have been only singular reports on modified gender-related behavior or feminization in humans in consequence of soy consumption. In animals, the intake of phytoestrogens was reported to impact fertility, sexual development and behavior. Feminizing effects in humans can be subtle and identifiable only statistically in large populations.

  9. Sleeptalking! Sleepwalking! Side effects of montelukast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhuja, Samer; Gazizov, Natalya; Alexander, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old Caucasian female presented to the pulmonary clinic for a followup on her asthma. Due to the worsening of allergy-related symptoms, therapy with montelukast 10 mg daily was started and resulted in good relief of the patient's symptoms. In the nights following initiating therapy with montelukast, the patient's mother reported daily parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking and sleepwalking. Montelukast was discontinued, and that resulted in absence of the parasomnias. In a second attempt montelukast was reinstituted to control the patient's symptoms. Parasomnias were immediately reported after resuming therapy. Montelukast was then discontinued indefinitely. Our patient has never had any history of parasomnias, and since the discontinuation of montelukast, parasomnias were never reported again. Parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking or sleepwalking were not previously reported as adverse effects of montelukast. Alternative modalities to treat allergy-related symptoms in patients, who develop parasomnias while receiving montelukast, should be explored.

  10. Side Effects and Complications of Dental Materials on Oral Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Atai; M. Atai

    2007-01-01

    Development of dental materials has had a great impact on the modern dentistry. The materials ranging from polymers to metals have different applications in dentistry. Besides their important role in healing or improving the function of oral tissues, the materials may show side effects which may, in some cases, lead to severe lesions. In this review the side effects have been summarized considering a new classification for dental materials according to the duration of their applications as te...

  11. Sleeptalking! Sleepwalking! Side Effects of Montelukast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Alkhuja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old Caucasian female presented to the pulmonary clinic for a followup on her asthma. Due to the worsening of allergy-related symptoms, therapy with montelukast 10 mg daily was started and resulted in good relief of the patient’s symptoms. In the nights following initiating therapy with montelukast, the patient’s mother reported daily parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking and sleepwalking. Montelukast was discontinued, and that resulted in absence of the parasomnias. In a second attempt montelukast was reinstituted to control the patient’s symptoms. Parasomnias were immediately reported after resuming therapy. Montelukast was then discontinued indefinitely. Our patient has never had any history of parasomnias, and since the discontinuation of montelukast, parasomnias were never reported again. Parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking or sleepwalking were not previously reported as adverse effects of montelukast. Alternative modalities to treat allergy-related symptoms in patients, who develop parasomnias while receiving montelukast, should be explored.

  12. Do Longer Delays Matter? The Effect of Prolonging Delay in CTL Activation

    CERN Document Server

    Gallegos, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The activation of a specific immune response takes place in the lymphoid organs such as the spleen. We present here a simplified model of the proliferation of specific immune cells in the form of a single delay equation. We show that the system can undergo switches in stability as the delay is increased, and we interpret these results in the context of sustaining an effective immune response to a dendritic cell vaccine.

  13. Perceived side effects of oral contraceptives among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S; Goodwin, M S

    1980-11-22

    Knowledge and attitudes of adolescent females regarding the side effects of oral contraceptives were investigated. The data source was a large study of sexual and contraceptive attitudes and experience. The questionnaire responses of 486 single females attending 10 birth control and pregnancy counseling centers in Ontario, Canada were examined. The age range of the subjects was from 13-20; 71% were attending school and 69% were living at home. They were attending the centers in order to obtain contraceptives (55%), to renew OC prescriptions (20%), or to receive pregnancy counseling (25%). 29% of the subjects had used OCs before coming to the clinic, but 91% planned to use OC after their clinic visit. 8% were planning to use an IUD; 1% were planning to use a diaphragm; and less than 1% were planning to have their boyfriend use condoms. 85% of the subjects indicated that they had heard abut side effcts of OCs with weight gain as the best known side effect. Other side effects familiar to many included nausea, circulatory disorders, headaches, emotional changes, menstrual problems and cancer. About 1/2 of the subjects had learned about these side effects from the mass media or female friends, 25% from a school sex education class, 15% from their mothers, and 3% from a physician. Despite knowledge regarding side effects, most of the subjects had positive attitudes toward OCs with 59% believing that the advnatages outweighed any disadvantages.

  14. Effects of delay and probability combinations on discounting in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David J; Dallery, Jesse

    2016-10-01

    To determine discount rates, researchers typically adjust the amount of an immediate or certain option relative to a delayed or uncertain option. Because this adjusting amount method can be relatively time consuming, researchers have developed more efficient procedures. One such procedure is a 5-trial adjusting delay procedure, which measures the delay at which an amount of money loses half of its value (e.g., $1000 is valued at $500 with a 10-year delay to its receipt). Experiment 1 (n=212) used 5-trial adjusting delay or probability tasks to measure delay discounting of losses, probabilistic gains, and probabilistic losses. Experiment 2 (n=98) assessed combined probabilistic and delayed alternatives. In both experiments, we compared results from 5-trial adjusting delay or probability tasks to traditional adjusting amount procedures. Results suggest both procedures produced similar rates of probability and delay discounting in six out of seven comparisons. A magnitude effect consistent with previous research was observed for probabilistic gains and losses, but not for delayed losses. Results also suggest that delay and probability interact to determine the value of money. Five-trial methods may allow researchers to assess discounting more efficiently as well as study more complex choice scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Minimizing side effects of systemic corticosteroids in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids are potent drugs used in management of various inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. The antiinflammatory effects of corticosteroids cannot however be separated from their metabolic effects. Children are more vulnerable to their side effects, particularly the effects on growth, immunity and adrenal suppression. It is essential for the treating physician to be aware of the side effects and the measures to be taken to minimize them. A side effect that is unique to children is growth suppression, which is helped by alternate day treatment. Administration of small doses of prednisolone (10-15 mg/day or < 0.5 mg/kg/day single dose on alternate days, does not slow growth velocity significantly. The potency of dexamethasone and betamethasone in suppressing growth is nearly 18 times higher than that of prednisolone. There is some evidence that the administration of growth hormone can reverse these changes.

  16. Early and Late Side Effects Associated with Photo(chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günseli Öztürk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phototherapy (PUVA ve UVB is a widely used and effective treatment method for a variety of dermatological diseases. Adverse effects associated with phototherapy can be classified as acute and chronic side effects. Acute side effects are mostly related with UV doses and drug intolerance, and include itching, nausea, erythema, edema and phototoxic reactions that sometimes blister formation is seen. Acute side effects are usually moderate and transient. Chronic side effects of phototherapy are early aging of skin, pigmentary changes and increased risk of skin carcinogenesis. The major concern is development of skin cancer. This risk is especially related to long-term exposure and high cumulative doses of PUVA, increase in time and is persistent. Therefore, risk/advantage ratio of phototherapy should be carefully evaluated in each patient, and treatment protocols with minimal UV exposure should be chosen according to the phototherapy guides. Follow-up of the patients for long terms is important in prevention or in reduction of this risk by detecting and treating any premalignant or malignant lesion early. In this article, acute and chronic side effects of phototherapy are reviewed with recent literature findings.

  17. 'Side effects' of health promotion: an example from Austrian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugglberger, Lisa; Flaschberger, Edith; Teutsch, Friedrich

    2014-07-04

    While the existence of side effects of medical interventions is common knowledge and widely investigated, possible unintended effects of health promotion (HP) interventions are only sparsely discussed in the HP literature. Drawing on qualitative evaluation data generated within an on-going process evaluation of a regional health-promoting schools network in Austria, we demonstrate which desirable and undesirable effects HP practice can have for teachers. Thirteen group discussions with teachers (n = 63) and headteachers (n = 9) acting as health coordinators in the network schools were conducted between 2010 and 2013. These data were analysed using systems and thematic analyses. In our example, desirable side effects included health coordinators gaining new relationships, new skills and benefiting from improved infrastructure. The undesirable side effects centred on stress, work overload and frustration, due to the additional work brought about by HP practice, negative reactions by colleagues as well as by technicalities of the network. The undesirable side effects of HP predominated in our study, pointing to several implications like the need to accommodate the concept of HP in the teachers' core responsibilities; the participation of all staff members and students in a whole-school approach toward SHP, and the need for changes on an organizational level. Based on this study, we come to the conclusion that a systematic approach to investigating and analysing side effects of HP is currently lacking in HP research and suggest that theoretical examination and more empirical research is needed.

  18. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women.

  19. Amantadine in the treatment of neuroendocrine side effects of neuroleptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, N; Opler, L A; Kay, S R; Birmaher, B

    1987-04-01

    An open-label reversal drug study was undertaken on 10 neuroleptic-treated schizophrenic inpatients to assess the impact of amantadine hydrochloride on presumed prolactin-mediated neuroendocrine side effects. Measures were conducted across 7 weeks, including a 2-week neuroleptic baseline, a 3-week neuroleptic-plus-amantadine phase, and a 2-week return to the baseline regimen. Significant reduction with amantadine was observed on all six indices of neuroendocrine side effects: serum prolactin levels, body weight, gynecomastia/galactorrhea, breast tenderness, decreased libido, and amenorrhea. Improvement on these parameters was noted for as many as nine or all 10 patients, while in no cases was there worsening. In terms of motor and clinical effects, significant diminution of extrapyramidal and psycho-pathological symptoms was also achieved during this phase. The results suggested that amantadine may be beneficial for the treatment of neuro-endocrine side effects of antipsychotic medication owing to its ability to reverse neuroleptic-induced hyperprolactinemia.

  20. Analysis of Kirk effect of an innovated high side Side-Isolated N-LDMOS device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ciou Jhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ESOA of LDMOS device is very critical for power device performance. Kirk effect is the one of the major problem which leads to poor ESOA performance. The cause of the problem mainly due to the high beta value of parasitic NPN transistor in the p-body. In this study, we proposed a new 3D high side Side–Isolated N-Channel LDMOS which we have obtained not only benchmark Ron and breakdown performance, but also better ESOA without Kirk effect. We have compared the analysis of Kirk effect between the new device and the conventional N–LDMOS structure with LATID technique for the formation of the p–body of both device structures.

  1. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-09-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level, which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently, proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs.

  2. Side effects of clozapine and some other psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Robert J

    2008-05-01

    The recognition, management, and if possible prevention, of major cardiovascular, central nervous system, haematological, and metabolic adverse effects, including diabetes mellitus and weight gain, of antipsychotics and some other drugs used to treat mental illness is a topic of much debate. However, a wide range of other adverse effects, some of which may be life-threatening, may also be encountered. Side-effects reviewed here include: gastrointestinal-associated effects (constipation, hypersalivation, oropharyngeal lesions, nasal congestion, nausea, nocturnal enuresis, and urinary retention), metabolic effects (obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypertension), neuromuscular effects (extrapyramidal side effects, myoclonus, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and pleurothotonus), thermoregulatory effects, effects on the liver, pancreas, and kidney, sexual side effects, and effects on skin and bone. Metabolic factors affecting the incidence of adverse effects to clozapine especially are also discussed. The increasing use of atypical (second generation) antipsychotics and indeed of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has led to a greater appreciation of not only the benefits of these drugs, but also of the spectrum of toxicity that may occur in clinical practice. The adverse effects of antipsychotics are a major factor in promoting poor adherence to, and even discontinuation of, antipsychotic treatment on the one hand, and increasing the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease on the other. As such they merit recognition and either harm minimization strategies (use of the minimum effective dose, or use of lower doses of combinations of antipsychotics), or in extreme cases discontinuation of the offending drug(s).

  3. Misoprostol Induced Convulsion-A Rare Side Effect of Misoprostol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh; Reddy, Kalyani

    2017-01-01

    Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 has wider application in obstetrics gynaecology. It has been recommended in the prophylaxis and treatment of Post Partum Haemorrhage (PPH) by Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (FIGO), World Health Organisation (WHO) and American College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (ACOG). It is a very safe drug associated with transient side-effects like fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. In the present case report patient had an unusual side effect of hyperpyrexia and convulsion after use of misoprostol for prophylaxis against PPH.

  4. Assessing the Effects of Construction Delays on MARA Large Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Hameed Memon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry in Malaysia is facing a serious issue of construction delay causing a significant amount of time over run and cost over run. Various studies have addressed the issue of construction delay, however, most of studies focused on identifying causes of delay. Less attention has been paid of assessing effects of construction delay. Hence this study is aimed to assess effects of construction delay on MARA large projects. Investigation approach for study includes the site study of 30 MARA  large projects selected from various areas of Malaysia and structured questionnaire survey among client, consultant and contractor personnel’s. It is important to note that 90% of MARA projects are experiencing time overrun. Data was analyzed with statistical analysis  to calculate rank of the effects of delays and correlation with spearman formula to identify the interrelationship between attributes of effects. Results showed that time over-run and cost over-run are most significant effects of delay on MARA construction projects. Time over-run has high degree of correlation with cost over-run and moderate degree of correlation with disputes.

  5. Priapism in Antipsychotic Drug Use: A Rare but Important Side Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igne Sinkeviciute

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Priapism is a rare but important side effect of antipsychotic drugs which may evolve into a urological emergency. Most antipsychotic drugs are alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, which is thought to be the principal mechanism involved in antipsychotic-induced priapism. Other aetiologies exist, however. A case is presented with multiple episodes of priapism during the use of several different antipsychotic drugs. The case is representative of many patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, as there were hyperprolactinemia, and illicit drug use, which are known causes of priapism. Moreover, the patient used combinations of antipsychotic drugs. The case thus illustrates the etiological complexity which could delay a diagnosis of antipsychotic-induced priapism, and the problem of establishing a link between priapism and one particular ingredient of a drug combination. The case presents how a treatment regimen was finally established balancing antipsychotic efficacy to acceptable side effects and offers guidance to physicians regarding how antipsychotic-induced priapism may be resolved.

  6. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON ARTIFICIAL ABORTION-INDUCED SIDE EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽颖

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroecupuncture (EA) of acupoints of Ren, Spleen and Stomach Meridians on artificial abortion-induced side effects was observed in 100 artificial abortion women. In comparison with 45 artificial abortion women in the control group (who had not accepted EA treatment), EA possessed significant effects in relieving abdominal pain, reducing vaginal bleeding duration, lowering infection rate and infertility rate after artificial abortion operation.

  7. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Diabetes (Last updated 11/17/2016; last reviewed 11/17/2016) Key Points Diabetes is a disease in which levels of blood glucose (also called blood sugar) are too high. Glucose comes from the ...

  8. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Osteoporosis (Last updated 11/17/2016; last reviewed 11/17/2016) Key Points Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become weak and easy to break. Osteoporosis increases the risk of fractures of ...

  9. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringqvist, Asa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte

    2014-01-01

    psychiatric side effects were retrospectively assessed using the SCL-90-R and questions based on Present State Examination (PSE). Subjects reporting suspected psychotic states were contacted for a personal PSE interview. Electronic records of psychiatric hospitalizations and diagnoses were cross-checked. Long...

  10. Tamoxifen treatment and gynecologic side effects : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, MJE; De Vries, EGE; Willemse, PHB; Ten Hoor, KA; Hollema, H; Van der Zee, AGJ

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on tamoxifen side effects on the female genital tract and psychosexual function in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Data Sources: We used the English-language literature in MEDLINE and reference lists from selected articles. Search terms included: "tamoxife

  11. The Semiosis of "Side Effects" in Genetic Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affifi, Ramsey

    2016-01-01

    Genetic interventions, which include transgenic engineering, gene editing, and other forms of genome modification aimed at altering the information "in" the genetic code, are rapidly increasing in power and scale. Biosemiotics offers unique tools for understanding the nature, risks, scope, and prospects of such technologies, though few in the community have turned their attention specifically in this direction. Bruni (2003, 2008) is an important exception. In this paper, I examine how we frame the concept of "side effects" that result from genetic interventions and how the concept stands up to current perspectives of the role of organism activity in development. I propose that once the role of living systems in constructing and modifying the informational value of their various developmental resources is taken into account, the concept of a "side effect" will need to be significantly revised. Far from merely a disturbance brought about in a senseless albeit complex system, a biosemiotic view would take "side effects" as at least sometimes the organism's active re-organization in order to accommodate or make use of novelty. This insight is nascent in the work of developmental plasticity and niche construction theory (West-Eberhard 2003; Odling-Smee et al. 2003), but it is brought into sharper focus by the explicitly interpretive perspective offered by biosemiotics. Understanding the "side effects" of genetic interventions depends in part on being able to articulate when and where unexpected consequences are a result of semiotic activity at various levels within the system. While a semiotic interpretation of "side effects" puts into question the naive attitude that would see all unintended side effects as indications of disturbance in system functionality, it certainly does not imply that such side effects are of no concern for the viability of the organisms in the system. As we shall see, the fact that such interventions do not respect the translation of information

  12. Effect of Mixed Traffic Flow on Control Delay at Signalized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Mixed Traffic Flow on Control Delay at Signalized Intersections. ... Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice ... There are several methods available for operational analysis including mathematical models and traffic ...

  13. Side effects of sugammadex use in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Sarı

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is accepted that sugammadex show its effectsmore rapidly than the other neuromuscular block antagonistsin many studies, however especially in pediatriccases, it is seen that about its reliability and side effectsare limited in some studies. In our retrospective study,we aimed to present our experiences on sugammadexin terms of its side effects in the pediatric cases in ourhospital for a 1-year period.Methods: The patient files and intraoperative anesthesiarecords, postoperative 24th hour and after postoperative24th hour of the cases that underwent the application ofsugammadex under general anesthesia in pediatric surgeryoperating room in a 1-year period were analyzed.Results: Totally 46 patients received sugammadex; infants(28 days-23 months (n=24, children (2 years-11years (n=16 and adolescent (11-17 years (n=6. Noneof the patients showed hypersensitivity and statisticallysignificant side effects correlated to sugammadex.Conclusion: We think that sugammadex may open newdoors in pediatric patient group with its features. However,more documentation is needed about the safety inpediatric patient group, particularly in infants. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (3: 265-268Key words: Sugammadex, pediatric patient, side effect

  14. PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G FAGHIHI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients.
    Methods: A clinical trial was performed in AI-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan for six months in 2000. 80 patients with mild to moderate facial acne were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 (controls received topical solution of tretinoin 0.05 percent nightly and group 2 (cases received daily oral 100mg of Vit. E in addition. All patients were followed at 1, 4 and 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Children under 12 years old, pregnant or lactating women were excluded.
    Results: At the end of one week, no cutaneous side effects were observed in 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 15 percent (6 of group 2 (P > 0.05. At the end of 4 weeks, 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 60 percent (24 of group 2 were without any cutaneous complications, while at the end of 6 weeks, 35 percent (14 of group 1 in comparison to 75 percent (30 of group 2 were free of any cutaneous side effects (P < 0.05. The most common side effect in both groups was exfoliation.
    Discussion: Daily oral 100 mg of Vit. E has been effective in preventing cutaneous complications of topical tretinoin in acne management, but there is a delay of one week in its onset of action. Meanwhile, Vitamine E is a safe modality with no undesirable effects in acne patients.

  15. Supply-side and demand-side cost sharing in deregulated social health insurance: which is more effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter; Beck, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Microeconomic theory predicts that if patients are fully insured and providers are paid fee-for-service, utilization of medical services exceeds the efficient level ('moral hazard effect'). In Switzerland, both demand-side and supply-side cost sharing have been introduced to mitigate this problem. Analyzing a panel dataset of about 160,000 adults, we find both types of cost sharing to be effective in curtailing the use of medical services. However, when moral hazard mitigation is traded off against risk selection, the minimum-deductible, supply-side cost sharing option ranks first, followed by the medium-deductible demand-side alternative, making the supply-side option somewhat more effective.

  16. Cutaneous side-effects during therapy of melanoma by vemurafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ankudowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vemurafenib is a selective inhibitor of serine-threonine kinase BRAF used in the treatment of advanced melanoma with BRAF mutation. Effectiveness of this drug was confirmed in a large clinical trial, which led to the increase of its usage. During treatment with vemurafenib, particular attention should be paid to the numerous side effects, including those concerning the skin. Vemurafenib is highly toxic to the skin. Skin lesions occurring during the treatment of melanoma with this medicament can be divided into: early (observed 3 to 6 weeks after beginning treatment, late (observed 6 weeks after beginning treatment and hypersensitivity reactions to vemurafenib. Objective. Presentation of vemurafenib toxic effects on the skin and side effects that can be caused by this drug. Case report. We present a 58-year-old woman with metastatic melanoma who was treated with vemurafenib. During the course of therapy, numerous adverse reactions, including inflammatory tumors, emergence of a number of melanocytic naevi, skin horns, alopecia, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and palmar erythrodysesthesia were observed. She was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, an antibiotic, circulation-improving preparations and local moisturizing and keratolytic treatment. The patient remains under the care of oncologists and dermatologists. Conclusions. The new generation anti-cancer drugs bring hope for a cure or prolongation of life, but can also significantly reduce the quality of life by inducing both general and local adverse side effects. Oncological patients should also be taken care of by dermatologists.

  17. UAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study-2: Effects of Communications Delays and Winds in Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Communications Delays and Winds on Air Traffic Controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between UAS and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth East-side airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from self-separation algorithms displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Simulation System. Winds tested did not affect the acceptability ratings. Communications delays tested included 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS.

  18. Efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato Side effects of methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pastura

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Revisar os principais efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato, em curto e longo prazos, no tratamento de crianças com Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção (TDAH. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão de literatura nos últimos doze anos através de pesquisa no Medline e Lilacs. RESULTADOS: Dentre os efeitos colaterais que surgem em curto prazo, prevalecem a redução de apetite, insônia, cefaléia e dor abdominal, sendo a maioria autolimitada, dose-dependente e de média intensidade. Dentre aqueles em longo prazo, são descritas alterações discretas de pressão arterial e freqüência cardíaca e uma possível discreta diminuição da estatura. O abuso e a dependência ao medicamento são observados muito raramente. CONCLUSÕES: O perfil de efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato é seguro, não parecendo justificar o seu uso constrito no Brasil, ante os benefícios robustos amplamente demonstrados na literatura.OBJECTIVE: To review main short-term and long-term side effects of methylphenidate in the treatment of Attention-Deficit Disorder in children. SOURCE OF DATA: a 12-year review in Medline and Lilacs. RESULTS: Among those side effects showed in the short-term, anorexia, insomnia, headache and abdominal pain are the most common ones, being the majority self-limited, dose-dependent and of medium intensity. Long-term side effects consist of mild blood pressure and heart rate increase and possible light growth suppression effect. Abuse and dependency are very rare. CONCLUSIONS: Methylphenidate side effects profile is safe and does not seem to justify its restricted use in Brazil, considering its solid benefits widely demonstrated in literature.

  19. Review about gabapentin misuse, interactions, contraindications and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    The current work is targeted to review the risks of gabapentin misuse, its potential interactions with other drugs, side effects and use contraindications. This review consists of a total of 99 biographical references (from the year 1983 to 2016). A publication search of PubMed was performed from January 1983 to December 2016. It included animal studies, clinical studies, case studies and reviews related to gabapentin misuse, potential interactions, side effects and use contraindications. The search terms were gabapentin, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic. In general, it seems that gabapentin has risks of being misused based on the increased level of prescriptions, related fatalities, recreational misuse and higher doses of self-administration. The main reasons for gabapentin misuse are as follows: getting high, alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms and potentiating methadone effects. Some of the main substances that interact with gabapentin are morphine, caffeine, losartan, ethacrynic acid, phenytoin, mefloquine and magnesium oxide. Some of the side effects caused by gabapentin are teratogenicity, hypoventilation, respiratory failure and myopathy. Finally, reports in general contraindicate the use of gabapentin in conditions such as myasthenia gravis and myoclonus. PMID:28223849

  20. Review about gabapentin misuse, interactions, contraindications and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    The current work is targeted to review the risks of gabapentin misuse, its potential interactions with other drugs, side effects and use contraindications. This review consists of a total of 99 biographical references (from the year 1983 to 2016). A publication search of PubMed was performed from January 1983 to December 2016. It included animal studies, clinical studies, case studies and reviews related to gabapentin misuse, potential interactions, side effects and use contraindications. The search terms were gabapentin, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic. In general, it seems that gabapentin has risks of being misused based on the increased level of prescriptions, related fatalities, recreational misuse and higher doses of self-administration. The main reasons for gabapentin misuse are as follows: getting high, alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms and potentiating methadone effects. Some of the main substances that interact with gabapentin are morphine, caffeine, losartan, ethacrynic acid, phenytoin, mefloquine and magnesium oxide. Some of the side effects caused by gabapentin are teratogenicity, hypoventilation, respiratory failure and myopathy. Finally, reports in general contraindicate the use of gabapentin in conditions such as myasthenia gravis and myoclonus.

  1. Effects of seasonal growth on delayed prey-predator model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gakkhar, Sunita [Department of Mathematics, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)], E-mail: sungkfma@iitr.ernet.in; Sahani, Saroj Kumar [Department of Mathematics, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)], E-mail: sarojdma@iitr.ernet.in; Negi, Kuldeep [Department of Mathematics, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)], E-mail: negikdma@iitr.ernet.in

    2009-01-15

    The dynamic behavior of a delayed predator-prey system with Holling II functional response is investigated. The stability analysis has been carried out and existence of Hopf bifurcation has been established. The complex dynamic behavior due to time delay has been explored. The effects of seasonal growth on the complex dynamics have been simulated. The model shows a rich variety of behavior, including period doubling, quasi-periodicity, chaos, transient chaos, and windows of periodicity.

  2. Drug target identification using side-effect similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Targets for drugs have so far been predicted on the basis of molecular or cellular features, for example, by exploiting similarity in chemical structure or in activity across cell lines. We used phenotypic side-effect similarities to infer whether two drugs share a target. Applied to 746 marketed...... drugs, a network of 1018 side effect-driven drug-drug relations became apparent, 261 of which are formed by chemically dissimilar drugs from different therapeutic indications. We experimentally tested 20 of these unexpected drug-drug relations and validated 13 implied drug-target relations by in vitro...... binding assays, of which 11 reveal inhibition constants equal to less than 10 micromolar. Nine of these were tested and confirmed in cell assays, documenting the feasibility of using phenotypic information to infer molecular interactions and hinting at new uses of marketed drugs....

  3. Suspected side effects to the quadrivalent human papilloma vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Theibel, Ann Cathrine; Pors, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The quadrivalent vaccine that protects against human papilloma virus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 (Q-HPV vaccine, Gardasil) was included into the Danish childhood vaccination programme in 2009. During the past years, a collection of symptoms primarily consistent with sympathetic nervous...... system dysfunction have been described as suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine. METHODS: We present a description of suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine in 53 patients referred to our Syncope Unit for tilt table test and evaluation of autonomic nervous system function. RESULTS: All...... consistency in the reported symptoms as well as between our findings and those described by others. Our findings neither confirm nor dismiss a causal link to the Q-HPV vaccine, but they suggest that further research is urgently warranted to clarify the pathophysiology behind the symptoms experienced...

  4. Suspected side effects to the quadrivalent human papilloma vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Theibel, Ann Cathrine; Pors, Kirsten;

    2015-01-01

    system dysfunction have been described as suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine. METHODS: We present a description of suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine in 53 patients referred to our Syncope Unit for tilt table test and evaluation of autonomic nervous system function. RESULTS: All......INTRODUCTION: The quadrivalent vaccine that protects against human papilloma virus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 (Q-HPV vaccine, Gardasil) was included into the Danish childhood vaccination programme in 2009. During the past years, a collection of symptoms primarily consistent with sympathetic nervous...... consistency in the reported symptoms as well as between our findings and those described by others. Our findings neither confirm nor dismiss a causal link to the Q-HPV vaccine, but they suggest that further research is urgently warranted to clarify the pathophysiology behind the symptoms experienced...

  5. Knowledge of reproductive system cancers, their treatments and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rot, Irena; Ogah, Imhokhai; Wassersug, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    We explored, via an online questionnaire, knowledge of breast and reproductive system cancers in patients and non-patients who access the internet for information on these diseases. We compared that knowledge to the attention the diseases have received in medical research and on the Internet. Data were collected from 690 respondents (37 % male, 63 % female) about their knowledge of prevalence, lethality, treatments and side effects of testicular, prostate, breast, uterine, cervical and ovarian cancers. Most males, but only half of the female participants, were patients themselves. Although participants showed better knowledge of cancers specific to their own sex, both sexes felt familiar with breast cancer and less aware of other cancers. Women were as aware as men of side effects of treatments for male reproductive cancers. Sex differences in awareness appear to reflect different attitudes towards illness, bias toward females as caregivers, and the disproportionate media attention given to breast cancer.

  6. [Rare side effects in management of hyperthyroidism. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohár, Gábor; Kovács, Mónika; Györkös, Andrea; Gasztonyi, Beáta

    2016-05-29

    The authors present the case history of a patient suffering from hyperthyroidism. The diagnostic procedures revealed the presence of propylthiouracyl induced vasculitis with renal involvement, that recovered completely after the withdrawal of propylthiouracyl and corticosteroid treatment. Thereafter, the patient was treated with thiamasol, that caused agranulocytosis with fever. After transient litium carbonate therapy a succesful thyreoidectomy was performed. Cumulative serious side effects of antithyroid drugs are rare. This case highlights some of the challenges and complications encountered in the management of hyperthyroidism.

  7. A Rare Side Effect of Metformin: Metformin-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic agent that is commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While metformin-associated metabolic acidosis is a widely recognized side effect of this drug, metformin-induced hepatotoxicity has been rarely reported in the literature. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old male in whom metformin-associated lactic acidosis and metformin-induced hepatotoxicity developed.

  8. Review about gabapentin misuse, interactions, contraindications and side effects

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Gabriel C.

    2017-01-01

    Gabriel C Quintero Florida State University – Republic of Panama, Clayton, Panama Abstract: The current work is targeted to review the risks of gabapentin misuse, its potential interactions with other drugs, side effects and use contraindications. This review consists of a total of 99 biographical references (from the year 1983 to 2016). A publication search of PubMed was performed from January 1983 to December 2016. It included animal studies, clinical studies, case studies and rev...

  9. Self-Injection-Locked Magnetron as an Active Ring Resonator Side Coupled to a Waveguide With a Delayed Feedback Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliokh, Y. P.; Krasik, Y. E.; Felsteiner, J.

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of the magnetron operation with a feedback loop were performed assuming that the delay of the electromagnetic wave propagating in the loop is constant whereas the phase of the complex feedback reflection coefficient is varied. Results of simulations showed that by a proper adjustment of values of the time delay and phase of reflection coefficient that determines phase matching between the waves in the resonator and feedback loop, one can increase the magnetron's output power significantly without any other additional measures.

  10. Self-injection-locked magnetron as an active ring resonator side coupled to a waveguide with a delayed feedback loop

    CERN Document Server

    Bliokh, Y P; Felsteiner, J

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of the magnetron operation with a feedback loop were performed assuming that the delay of the electromagnetic wave propagating in the loop is constant whereas the phase of the complex feedback reflection coefficient is varied. Results of simulations showed that by a proper adjustment of values of the time delay and phase of reflection coefficient that determines phase matching between the waves in the resonator and feedback loop, one can increase the magnetron's output power significantly without any other additional measures.

  11. Delayed effects of cortisol enhance fear memory of trace conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, S.; Ast, V.A. van; Joëls, M.; Kindt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroids induce rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effects that are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite and complementary ways. It is presently unknown how these time-dependent effects of cortisol affect fear memory of delay and trace conditioning. This distin

  12. Delayed effects of cortisol enhance fear memory of trace conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, S.; Ast, V.A. van; Joëls, M.; Kindt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroids induce rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effects that are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite and complementary ways. It is presently unknown how these time-dependent effects of cortisol affect fear memory of delay and trace conditioning. This distin

  13. Pandemic influenza vaccines and neuraminidase inhibitors: efficacy and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, D

    2011-01-01

    At the time of the outbreak of the pandemic of New Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic influenza vaccines became available via an accelerated registration procedure. In 2005 large stocks of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir were built up in the Netherlands and other western countries. There was considerable doubt about the efficacy of this medicine. Initially reported positive effects of the drug were largely based on unpublished research, which was sponsored by the manufacturer and was partially written by ghostwriters. There now have been reports of rare and serious side effects. The first reports on the severity of the pandemic in Australia and New Zealand indicated a mild course.

  14. Extrapyramidal side effects with low doses of amisulpride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Nikhiles; Singh, Om P; Sen, Subrata

    2014-04-01

    Amisulpride, the newly introduced antipsychotic in India, is claimed to be effective in both positive and negative symptom schizophrenia and related disorders, though it has little or no action on serotonergic receptors. Limbic selectivity and lower striatal dopaminergic receptor binding capacity causes very low incidence of EPS. But, in clinical practice, we are getting EPS with this drug even at lower doses. We have reported three cases of akathisia, acute dystonia, and drug-induced Parkinsonism with low doses of amisulpride. So, we should keep this side effect in mind when using amisulpride. In fact, more studies are required in our country to find out the incidence of EPS and other associated mechanism.

  15. Effect of time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy in a stochastic dynamical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Min-Min; Wang Can-Jun; Mei Dong-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy are investigated in a time-delayed dynamical system driven by correlated noise.Using the Markov approximation of the stochastic delay differential equations and the Schwartz inequality principle,we obtain an analytical expression for the upper bound UB(t) of the time derivative of the information entropy.The results show that there is a critical value of T (delay time),and UB(t) presents opposite behaviours on difference sides of the critical value.For the case of the weak additive noise,T can induce a reentrance transition.Delay time T also causes a reversal behaviour in UB(t)-λ plot,where λ denotes the decree of the correlation between the two noises.

  16. Analysis of wave resonant effects in-between offshore vessels arranged side-by-side

    OpenAIRE

    Dinoi, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    La predicción de la interacción hidrodinámica entre dos cuerpos flotantes en la configuración side-by-side (lado-a-lado) se ha convertido en un importante y complicado problema en los últimos años. Esta situación es relevante cuando se trata de tomar decisiones sobre la viabilidad de una serie de operaciones offshore, principalmente relacionadas con el proceso de transferencia de carga líquida entre dos cascos. Esta tesis se profundiza en algunos aspectos hidrodinámico relevantes que surgen c...

  17. Effects of time delays on bifurcation and chaos in a non-autonomous system with multiple time delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Zhongkui [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)]. E-mail: sunzk205@mail.nwpu.edu.cn; Xu Wei [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)]. E-mail: weixu@nwpu.edu.cn; Yang Xiaoli [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); College of Mathematics and Information Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Fang Tong [Department of Applied Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Time delays are often sources of complex behavior in dynamic systems. Yet its complexity needs to be further explored, particularly when multiple time delays are present. As a purpose to gain insight into such complexity under multiple time delays, we investigate the mechanism for the action of multiple time delays on a particular non-autonomous system in this paper. The original mathematical model under consideration is a Duffing oscillator with harmonic excitation. A delayed system is obtained by adding delayed feedbacks to the original system. Two time delays are involved in such system, one of which in the displacement feedback and the other in the velocity feedback. The time delays are taken as adjustable parameters to study their effects on the dynamics of the system. Firstly, the stability of the trivial equilibrium of the linearized system is discussed and the condition under which the equilibrium loses its stability is obtained. This leads to a critical stability boundary where Hopf bifurcation or double Hopf bifurcation may occur. Then, the chaotic behavior of such system is investigated in detail. Particular emphasis is laid on the effect of delay difference between two time delays on the chaotic properties. A Melnikov's analysis is employed to obtain the necessary condition for onset of chaos resulting from homoclinic bifurcation. And numerical analyses via the bifurcation diagram and the top Lyapunov exponent are carried out to show the actual time delay effect. Both the results obtained by the two analyses show that the delay difference between two time delays plays a very important role in inducing or suppressing chaos, so that it can be taken as a simple but efficient 'switch' to control the motion of a system: either from order to chaos or from chaos to order.

  18. Side-effects of protein kinase inhibitors on ion channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Youn Kyoung Son; Hongzoo Park; Amy L Firth; Won Sun Park

    2013-12-01

    Protein kinases are one of the largest gene families and have regulatory roles in all aspects of eukaryotic cell function. Modulation of protein kinase activity is a desirable therapeutic approach for a number of human diseases associated with aberrant kinase activity, including cancers, arthritis and cardiovascular disorders. Several strategies have been used to develop specific and selective protein kinase modulators, primarily via inhibition of phosphorylation and down-regulation of kinase gene expression. These strategies are effective at regulating intracellular signalling pathways, but are unfortunately associated with several undesirable effects, particularly those that modulate ion channel function. In fact, the side-effects have precluded these inhibitors from being both useful experimental tools and therapeutically viable. This review focuses on the ion channel side-effects of several protein kinase inhibitors and specifically on those modulating K+, Na+ and Ca2+ ion channels. It is hoped that the information provided with a detailed summary in this review will assist the future development of novel specific and selective compounds targeting protein kinases both for experimental tools and for therapeutic approaches.

  19. Phytochemicals that counteract the cardiotoxic side effects of cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Piasek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Almost all clinically used antitumor drugs exhibit toxic side effects affecting heart function. Because of cardiotoxicity during anticancer chemotherapy, effective doses of cytostatics have to be limited, which may worsen antitumor efficacy. The cardiotoxicity induced by cytostatics of the anthracycline group in particular results, among others, from massive stimulation of ROS. It has therefore been suggested that some phytochemicals with high antioxidant potential, when administered together with antitumor agents, could decrease the toxic side effects of chemotherapy and reduce the risk of heart failure. This review summarizes findings of studies undertaken to identify edible plants or phytochemicals isolated from them displaying cardioprotective properties during chemotherapy. Such properties have been shown for such foods as grapes, garlic, tomato, spinach, and beetroot. A protective role on the heart is also displayed by melatonin (a hormone synthesized by the pineal gland, but also present in many edible plants, chalcones (precursors of all known flavonoids, some herbal dietary supplements, vitamins A, C, and E, selenium, and semisynthetic flavonoid 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER. Although to date only a limited number of investigations have been carried out, their results suggest that dietary intervention with antioxidants found in edible plants may be a safe and effective way of alleviating the toxicity of anticancer chemotherapy and preventing heart failure.

  20. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Side Effect Impacted on Quality of Life, and Depressive Symptomatology: A Mixed-Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P; Simoni, Jane M; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien; Zhao, Hongxin

    2013-06-29

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is known for its side effects. In this paper, we describe ART side effects as experienced by Chinese HIV+ individuals. This study presents two stages of a research project, combining qualitative in-depth interviews (29 HIV+ participants) with quantitative statistical data analysis (N = 120). All data was collected between July 2005 to March 2008 at Beijing's Ditan Hospital. Consent was obtained from each participant for the qualitative interview and again for the quantitative survey. During in-depth interviews, Chinese HIV+ patients reported experiencing digestive discomfort, skin rashes, numbness, memory loss, nightmares, and dizziness, which not only brought them physical discomfort, but also interrupted different dimensions of their social lives. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that those who reported more severe side effects also experienced greater depressive mood after controlling for other clinical and psychosocial factors. ART side effects are one of the primary reasons causing HIV+ individuals to delay or stop taking life-saving medication; therefore, clinical interventions are critically needed to assist HIV+ individuals in managing ART side effects. ART side effects reinforced existing negative attitudes toward ART and lead to lower ART adherence. Future research should focus on developing culturally sensitive interventions to enhance HIV+ self-management, to alleviate physical and psychological burden from ART and HIV.

  1. Delayed effects of carcinoma in childhood or adolescence; Spaetfolgen von Krebs im Kindes- und Jugendalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz-Kreisel, Peter; Blettner, Maria [Universitaetsmedizin der Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik (IMBEI)

    2016-08-01

    Due to advances in diagnostics and therapy the survival rate and survival time of juvenile oncologic patients have increased during the last years. About 80% of these patients survive 15 years after diagnosis, dependent on localization, status and some other factors. With increasing survival probability the many questions concerning delayed effects of disease and therapy arise. Especially cardiac and vascular side effects seem to be predominant. The PanCare network (Pan-European network for care of survivors after childhood and adolescent cancer) has evoked several research projects.

  2. [Treatment of endometriosis by aromatase inhibitors: efficacy and side effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, A-C; Legrand, E; Lefebvre-Lacoeuille, C; Hoppe, E; Catala, L; Sentilhes, L; Descamps, P

    2010-05-01

    The recent demonstration that aromatase is expressed at higher levels in endometriosis implants than in normal endometrium has led to pilot studies using inhibitor aromatasis in patients with endometriosis. We conducted a systematic review of the literature and studied the efficacy of aromatase inhibitors on endometriosis. There were seventeen studies (case reports/series) evaluating outcomes of aromatase inhibitors. Studies suggest that aromatase inhibitors alone or co-administered with progestins, oral contraceptives or gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist could reduce pain and endometriosis. There is only one randomized controlled trial comparing aromatase inhibitor+GnRH agonist and GnRH agonist and one study with eighty patients. Side-effects profiles of aromatase inhibitor regimens are favorable; it does not appear a significant bone loss. Aromatase inhibitors seem to have a promising effect on endometriosis but randomized controlled trials are needed to prove their effects and their safety.

  3. Effect of multiple time-delay on vibrational resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarathinam, C; Rajasekar, S; Sanjuán, M A F

    2013-03-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of multiple time-delay on vibrational resonance in a single Duffing oscillator and in a system of n Duffing oscillators coupled unidirectionally and driven by both a low- and a high-frequency periodic force. For the single oscillator, we obtain analytical expressions for the response amplitude Q and the amplitude g of the high-frequency force at which resonance occurs. The regions in parameter space of enhanced Q at resonance, as compared to the case in absence of time-delay, show a bands-like structure. For the two-coupled oscillators, we explain all the features of variation of Q with the control parameter g. For the system of n-coupled oscillators with a single time-delay coupling, the response amplitudes of the oscillators are shown to be independent of the time-delay. In the case of a multi time-delayed coupling, undamped signal propagation takes place for coupling strength (δ) above a certain critical value (denoted as δu). Moreover, the response amplitude approaches a limiting value QL with the oscillator number i. We obtain analytical expressions for both δu and QL.

  4. Antithyroid Drug Side Effects in the Population and in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methimazole (MMI) and Propylthiouracil (PTU) are both associated with birth defects, and may also rarely be associated with agranulocytosis and liver failure. The frequency of these side effects when antithyroid drugs (ATD) are used in the population in general or in pregnancy remains...... of agranulocytosis (1 in pregnancy) and 10 cases of liver failure (1 in pregnancy). This corresponded to 41/11 cases of agranulocytosis/liver failure per 5 million inhabitants during a 10-year period (agranulocytosis: 0.16% of ATD exposed (MMI: 0.11% vs. PTU: 0.27%, p=0.02); liver failure: 0.03% of ATD exposed (MMI......: 0.03% vs. PTU: 0.05%, p=0.4)). The majority (83%) developed the side effect within 3 months of ATD treatment, and 25% during hyperthyroidism relapse. The use of ATD in pregnancy was associated with birth defects in 3.4% of exposed children (44 cases/5 million inhabitants/10 years), and the frequency...

  5. Illegal use patterns, side effects, and analytical methods of ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eunyoung; Kwon, Nam Ji; Feng, Ling-Yi; Li, Jih-Heng; Chung, Heesun

    2016-11-01

    In Asian countries, such as China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, ketamine (KT) is one of the most prevalent illicit use drugs. KT is regulated by various drug-related laws in many countries, such as Korea, Taiwan, China, U.S.A, Netherlands, UK, Australia, Mexico, and Canada. This review research explored pharmacology and side effects of KT, the illicit use patterns of KT, the analytical methods of KT in biological samples, and the concentrations of KT from abusers and non-abusers. Many side effects of KT have been reported mental and physical problems. Although many studies conducted various analytical methods for KT, this research focused on the urine and hair analysis and compared some parameters of samples, instruments, columns, extraction methods, internal standards, LOD/LOQ levels, metabolites, NK/K ratio, cut off values, and m/z values. Our research also compared the concentrations of KT in biological samples from abusers and non-abusers. Many rapid and precise analytical methods for illegal KT use are needed to be developed and applied to real samples. To minimize and prevent harm from KT, the authorities and appropriate agencies require a careful assessment, evaluation, early identification, and surveillance of KT users in both clinical and social settings. In addition, there is a need to construct a stricter legislative management and provide preventive education to younger individuals because illegal KT use is relatively common among the young populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor and UTM Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  7. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti; Bahar, Arifah

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  8. Effects of delayed-onset muscle soreness on masticatory function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, E.; Lobbezoo, F.; Fueki, K.; Naeije, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to clarify the effects of experimentally provoked delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in the jaw-closing muscles on subjective and objective measures of masticatory function. Twenty-one dentate female subjects, without pain-related signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, part

  9. Chaotifying delayed recurrent neural networks via impulsive effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şaylı, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Enes

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, chaotification of delayed recurrent neural networks via chaotically changing moments of impulsive actions is considered. Sufficient conditions for the presence of Li-Yorke chaos with its ingredients proximality, frequent separation, and existence of infinitely many periodic solutions are theoretically proved. Finally, effectiveness of our theoretical results is illustrated by an example with numerical simulations.

  10. Effective multicasting algorithm for dynamic membership with delay constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin; XU Zheng-quan

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an effective heuristic algorithm for dynamic multicast routing with delay-constrained DDMR.The tree constructed by DDMR has the following characteristics: (1) multicast tree changes with the dynamic memberships; (2)the cost of the tree is as small as possible at each node addition/removal event; (3) all of the path delay meet a fixed delay constraint;(4) minimal perturbation to an existing tree. The proposed algorithm is based on "damage" and "usefulness" concepts proposed in previous work, and has a new parameter bf(Balancing Factor) for judging whether or not to rearrange a tree region when membership changes. Mutation operation in Genetic Algorithm (GA) is also employed to find an attached node for a new adding node.Simulation showed that our algorithm performs well and is better than static heuristic algorithms, in term of cost especially.

  11. Delayed effects of cortisol enhance fear memory of trace conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelisse, Sandra; van Ast, Vanessa A; Joëls, Marian; Kindt, Merel

    2014-02-01

    Corticosteroids induce rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effects that are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite and complementary ways. It is presently unknown how these time-dependent effects of cortisol affect fear memory of delay and trace conditioning. This distinction is of special interest because the neural substrates underlying these types of conditioning may be differently affected by time-dependent cortisol effects. Delay conditioning is predominantly amygdala-dependent, while trace conditioning additionally requires the hippocampus. Here, we manipulated the timing of cortisol action during acquisition of delay and trace fear conditioning, by randomly assigning 63 men to one of three possible groups: (1) receiving 10mg hydrocortisone 240 min (slow cort) or (2) 60 min (rapid cort) before delay and trace acquisition, or (3) placebo at both times, in a double-blind design. The next day, we tested memory for trace and delay conditioning. Fear potentiated startle responses, skin conductance responses and unconditioned stimulus expectancy scores were measured throughout the experiment. The fear potentiated startle data show that cortisol intake 240 min before actual fear acquisition (slow cort) uniquely strengthened subsequent trace conditioned memory. No effects of cortisol delivery 60 min prior to fear acquisition were found on any measure of fear memory. Our findings emphasize that slow, presumably genomic, but not more rapid effects of corticosteroids enhance hippocampal-dependent fear memories. On a broader level, our findings underline that basic experimental research and clinically relevant pharmacological treatments employing corticosteroids should acknowledge the timing of corticosteroid administration relative to the learning phase, or therapeutic intervention.

  12. Ocular side effect of tinidazole: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Kauser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular side effects in the form of punctate epithelial erosions with the use of tinidazole - a 5-nitroimidazole group of drugs is very rare. A 32-year-old male was prescribed tablet tinidazole for the treatment of amoebiasis but developed adverse effects in the form of blisters on both upper and lower lips with itching and burning sensation, itching and burning on penile and anal area associated with punctate epithelial erosions of cornea of both the eyes. All these are rare manifestations but punctate epithelial erosions of cornea has never been reported in the literature so far. Punctate epithelial erosions of cornea have not previously been reported and should be added to the list of complications of tinidazole. Hence, this case is being reported .

  13. Neonatal side effects of maternal labetalol treatment in severe preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heida, Karst Y; Zeeman, Gerda G; Van Veen, Teelkien R; Hulzebos, Christian V

    2012-07-01

    Labetalol is often used in severe preeclampsia (PE). Hypotension, bradycardia and hypoglycemia are feared neonatal side effects, but may also occur in (preterm) infants regardless of labetalol exposure. We analyzed the possible association between intrauterine labetalol exposure and such side effects. From 1 January 2003 through 31 March 2008, all infants from mothers suffering severe PE admitted to one tertiary care center were included. Severe PE was defined according to the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP) criteria. Infants exposed to labetalol in utero (labetalol infants) were compared with infants, who were not exposed to labetalol (controls). Neonatal records were reviewed for hypotension (RRheartrate<100/min) and hypoglycaemia (glucose<2.7 mmol/L) in the first 48 postnatal hours. Of 109 infants, 55 had been exposed to labetalol, whereas 54 were not (controls). Gestational age at delivery and birthweight were similar in both groups (31.8 vs. 32.8 weeks (p=0.06) and 1510 vs. 1639 grams (p=0.25), respectively for the labetalol vs. control group). Hypotension occurred significantly more in conjunction with labetalol exposure (16, (29.1%) vs. 4 (7.4%); p=0.003), irrespective of the route of administration. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was present in 9 (56%) of hypotensive labetalol infants compared to 1 (24%) infant in the hypotensive control group (NS). In a multivariate regression model, labetalol exposure, the need for intubation and PDA appeared independently associated with hypotension (P<0.001). Hypoglycemia occurred in 26 (47.3%) of labetalol infants and in 23 (42.6%) of control infants (p=0.62). Bradycardia occurred in 4 (7.3%) of labetalol infants and in 1 (1.9%) of control infants (p=0.18). Hypoglycemia was more common in premature infants (n=45 (48,9%) vs. n=4 (23.5%), p=0.05) in both labetalol and control infants. Hypotension is more common after maternal labetalol exposure, regardless of the dosage and route

  14. Endocrine side effects induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Barnabei, Agnese; Marchetti, Paolo; De Vecchis, Liana; Salvatori, Roberto; Torino, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, progress has been made in cancer immunotherapy by the development of drugs acting as modulators of immune checkpoint proteins, such as the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1), two co-inhibitory receptors that are expressed on T cells upon activation. These molecules play crucial roles in maintaining immune homeostasis by down-regulating T-cell signaling, thereby preventing unbridled T-cell proliferation while maintaining tolerance to self-antigens, such as tumor-associated antigens. CTLA4 blockade through systemic administration of the CTLA4-blocking antibody ipilimumab was shown to confer significant survival benefit and prolonged stable disease in patients affected by advanced cutaneous melanoma. Other immune checkpoint inhibitors are under clinical evaluation. However, immune checkpoint blockade can lead to the breaking of immune self-tolerance, thereby inducing a novel syndrome of autoimmune/autoinflammatory side effects, designated as "immune-related adverse events," mainly including rash, colitis, hepatitis, and endocrinopathies. We searched the medical literature using the words "hypophysitis," "hypopituitarism," "thyroid," "adrenal insufficiency," and "endocrine adverse events" in association with "immune checkpoint inhibitors," "ipilimumab," "tremelimumab," "PD-1," and "PD-1-L." The spectrum of endocrine disease experienced by patients treated with ipilimumab includes most commonly hypophysitis, more rarely thyroid disease or abnormalities in thyroid function tests, and occasionally primary adrenal insufficiency. Hypophysitis has emerged as a distinctive side effect of CTLA4-blocking antibodies, establishing a new form of autoimmune pituitary disease. This condition, if not promptly recognized, may be life-threatening (due to secondary hypoadrenalism). Hypopituitarism caused by these agents is rarely reversible, and prolonged or lifelong substitutive hormonal treatment is often required. The precise

  15. 针对准单边Lipschitz不确定非线性时滞系统的稳定性分析%Stability Analysis for Uncertain Nonlinear Time-delay Systems with Quasi-one-sided Lipschitz Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝乔; 胡广大

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the robust stability of a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems. A quasi-one-sided Lipschitz condition is introduced to estimate the in-fluenee of nonlinear vector function on the stability analy-sis. Delay-independent/delay-dependent stability criteria for-mulated in the form of linear matrix inequalities are pre-sented. Furthermore, these stability criteria are available even if the system parameter is unstable, because the unneces-sary positive quasi-one-sided Lipschitz constant matrix includes much useful information of the nonlinear part. Numerical ex-amplee show the advantage of the results obtained in this paper.

  16. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  17. Psychiatric side effects of mefloquine: applications to forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Block, Jerald; Nevin, Remington Lee

    2013-01-01

    Mefloquine (previously marketed in the United States as Lariam®) is an antimalarial medication with potent psychotropic potential. Severe psychiatric side effects due to mefloquine intoxication are well documented, including anxiety, panic attacks, paranoia, persecutory delusions, dissociative psychosis, and anterograde amnesia. Exposure to the drug has been associated with acts of violence and suicide. In this article, we discuss the history of mefloquine use and describe plausible mechanisms of its psychotropic action. Mefloquine intoxication has not yet been successfully advanced in legal proceedings as a defense or as a mitigating factor, but it appears likely that it eventually will be. Considerations for the application of claims of mefloquine intoxication in forensic settings are discussed.

  18. Side-effects of improving CERN's spam filter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To further improve the fight against spam (unsolicited email), CERN implemented in June a mechanism that returns electronic mail messages to the sender if the originating server is wrongly configured. This "reverse DNS lookup" is an increasingly widespread technique to identify whether the sending e-mail server is legitimate and has a valid host name. This change has nearly doubled the spam rejection efficiency at CERN. However, it has a known side-effect. A small number of correspondents are sending legitimate electronic mail to CERN from mail servers that are incorrectly configured (in technical terms, they do not have a reverse DNS registration). These persons will have their messages returned to them with an error message, provided their sender address is valid. The typical error message that the correspondent receives in such cases is "Relaying denied. No reverse DNS configured for IP". If a correspondent complains to you that emails they are sending you at CERN are being returned with...

  19. An unexpected side-effect of a commonly used drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández González, Francisco; Miranda, Samayra; Santiago Casiano, Mónica; Nieves, José; Adorno, Edgardo; Fernández González, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 68 year-old-female patient with clinical features of drug-induced lupus erythematosus after five years of treatment with amiodarone. She presented generalized skin rash, arthralgia on upper and lower extremities, associated with difficulty to walk. Remarkable laboratory results revealed a positive antinuclear antibody test and a skin rash biopsy showing a superficial and deep perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytes, and eosinophils. Once the etiology of the patient's symptoms was identified, the culprit drug was removed and she had a complete remission of all signs and symptoms. Early diagnose should be recognized for prompt intervention and avoid further complications associated with this rare side-effect.

  20. Price Competition in Two-Sided Markets with Heterogeneous Consumers and Network Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    We model a two-sided market with heterogeneous customers and two heterogeneous network effects. In our model, customers on each market side care differently about both the number and the type of customers on the other side. Examples of two-sided markets are online platforms or daily newspapers. In t

  1. Minoxidil use in dermatology, side effects and recent patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alfredo; Cantisani, Carmen; Melis, Luca; Iorio, Alessandra; Scali, Elisabetta; Calvieri, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Minoxidil, a vasodilator medication known for its ability to slow or stop hair loss and promote hair regrowth, was first introduced, exclusively as an oral drug, to treat high blood pressure. It was however discovered to have the important side-effect of increasing growth or darkening of fine body hairs; this led to the development of a topical formulation as a 2% concentration solution for the treatment of female androgenic alopecia or 5% for treating male androgenic alopecia. Measurable changes disappear within months after discontinuation of treatment. The mechanism by which it promotes hair growth is not fully understood. Minoxidil is a potassium channel opener, causing hyperpolarization of cell membranes and it is also a vasodilator, it is speculated that, by widening blood vessels and opening potassium channels, it allows more oxygen, blood and nutrients to the follicle. This can also cause follicles in the telogen phase to shed, usually soon to be replaced by new, thicker hairs in a new anagen phase. It needs to be applied regularly, once or twice daily, for hair gained to be maintained, and side effects are common. The most common adverse reactions of the topical formulation are limited to irritant and allergic contact dermatitis on the scalp. There have been cases of allergic reactions to the nonactive ingredient propylene glycol, which is found in some topical solution especially if they are galenic. Increased hair loss which can occur during Minoxidil use, is due to the synchronization of the hair cycle that the treatment induces. In this review, we described its mechanism of action, use in dermatology and some patents related to alternative treatment of allergic reactions due to its use.

  2. Radiotherapy and "new" drugs-new side effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Maximilian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Targeted drugs have augmented the cancer treatment armamentarium. Based on the molecular specificity, it was initially believed that these drugs had significantly less side effects. However, currently it is accepted that all of these agents have their specific side effects. Based on the given multimodal approach, special emphasis has to be placed on putative interactions of conventional cytostatic drugs, targeted agents and other modalities. The interaction of targeted drugs with radiation harbours special risks, since the awareness for interactions and even synergistic toxicities is lacking. At present, only limited is data available regarding combinations of targeted drugs and radiotherapy. This review gives an overview on the current knowledge on such combined treatments. Materials and methods Using the following MESH headings and combinations of these terms pubmed database was searched: Radiotherapy AND cetuximab/trastuzumab/panitumumab/nimotuzumab, bevacizumab, sunitinib/sorafenib/lapatinib/gefitinib/erlotinib/sirolimus, thalidomide/lenalidomide as well as erythropoietin. For citation crosscheck the ISI web of science database was used employing the same search terms. Results Several classes of targeted substances may be distinguished: Small molecules including kinase inhibitors and specific inhibitors, antibodies, and anti-angiogenic agents. Combination of these agents with radiotherapy may lead to specific toxicities or negatively influence the efficacy of RT. Though there is only little information on the interaction of molecular targeted radiation and radiotherapy in clinical settings, several critical incidents are reported. Conclusions The addition of molecular targeted drugs to conventional radiotherapy outside of approved regimens or clinical trials warrants a careful consideration especially when used in conjunction in hypo-fractionated regimens. Clinical trials are urgently needed in order to

  3. Corticosteroid-related central nervous system side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Ciriaco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids have been used since the 50s as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs for the treatment of several pathologies such as asthma, allergy, rheumatoid arthritis, and dermatological disorders. Corticosteroids have three principal mechanisms of action: 1 inhibit the synthesis of inflammatory proteins blocking NF-kB, 2 induce the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins by IkB and MAPK phosphatase I, and 3 inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2. The efficacy of glucocorticoids in alleviating inflammatory disorders results from the pleiotropic effects of the glucocorticoid receptors on multiple signaling pathways. However, they have adverse effects: Growth retardation in children, immunosuppression, hypertension, hyperglycemia, inhibition of wound repair, osteoporosis, metabolic disturbances, glaucoma, and cataracts. Less is known about psychiatric or side effects on central nervous system, as catatonia, decreased concentration, agitation, insomnia, and abnormal behaviors, which are also often underestimated in clinical practice. The aim of this review is to highlight the correlation between the administration of corticosteroids and CNS adverse effects, giving a useful guide for prescribers including a more careful assessment of risk factors and encourage the use of safer doses of this class of drugs.

  4. Family Planning in a Sub-district near Kumasi, Ghana: Side Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family Planning in a Sub-district near Kumasi, Ghana: Side Effect Fears, Unintended Pregnancies and Misuse of a Medication as Emergency Contraception. ... having a fear of side effects for hormonal methods (particularly heart palpitations), ...

  5. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do When You Have Loose Stools (Diarrhea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice • White toast Fruits and other foods • Applesauce • Bananas • Canned fruit, such as peaches and pears • Gelatin ( ... series of 9 Radiation Therapy Side Effects Fact Sheets at: www. cancer. gov/ radiation- side- effects

  6. Side effects of normalising radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorten, R; Murray-Smith, R

    1996-05-01

    Normalisation of the basis function activations in a Radial Basis Function (RBF) network is a common way of achieving the partition of unity often desired for modelling applications. It results in the basis functions covering the whole of the input space to the same degree. However, normalisation of the basis functions can lead to other effects which are sometimes less desirable for modelling applications. This paper describes some side effects of normalisation which fundamentally alter properties of the basis functions, e.g. the shape is no longer uniform, maxima of basis functions can be shifted from their centres, and the basis functions are no longer guaranteed to decrease monotonically as distance from their centre increases--in many cases basis functions can 'reactivate', i.e. re-appear far from the basis function centre. This paper examines how these phenomena occur, discusses their relevance for non-linear function approximation and examines the effect of normalisation on the network condition number and weights.

  7. Drug side effect extraction from clinical narratives of psychiatry and psychology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A; Chute, Christopher G; Savova, Guergana K

    2011-12-01

    To extract physician-asserted drug side effects from electronic medical record clinical narratives. Pattern matching rules were manually developed through examining keywords and expression patterns of side effects to discover an individual side effect and causative drug relationship. A combination of machine learning (C4.5) using side effect keyword features and pattern matching rules was used to extract sentences that contain side effect and causative drug pairs, enabling the system to discover most side effect occurrences. Our system was implemented as a module within the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System. The system was tested in the domain of psychiatry and psychology. The rule-based system extracting side effects and causative drugs produced an F score of 0.80 (0.55 excluding allergy section). The hybrid system identifying side effect sentences had an F score of 0.75 (0.56 excluding allergy section) but covered more side effect and causative drug pairs than individual side effect extraction. The rule-based system was able to identify most side effects expressed by clear indication words. More sophisticated semantic processing is required to handle complex side effect descriptions in the narrative. We demonstrated that our system can be trained to identify sentences with complex side effect descriptions that can be submitted to a human expert for further abstraction. Our system was able to extract most physician-asserted drug side effects. It can be used in either an automated mode for side effect extraction or semi-automated mode to identify side effect sentences that can significantly simplify abstraction by a human expert.

  8. [Internal medicine and local anesthesia in dentistry. A review of possible side effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennis, J F

    1996-05-01

    When using local anaesthesia the dentist may be confronted with a variety of side effects, either caused by the anaesthetic solution itself or its additives, including vasoconstrictive drugs such as epinephrine. Early recognition and treatment of these side-effects are essential. Even more important is the possible prevention of such side-effects by a properly taken medical history before using local anaesthesia.

  9. Review of the side-effect profile of buspirone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R E; Marunycz, J D; Alderdice, M T; Napoliello, M J

    1986-03-31

    In 984 patients with generalized anxiety disorder who received buspirone in double-blind studies, the incidence of drowsiness (9 percent) did not differ significantly from that (10 percent) reported in 334 patients who received placebo. A probability value of p less than or equal to 0.10 was the criterion for significance. The incidence of drowsiness in buspirone-treated patients was significantly less than that in each of the groups receiving diazepam (32 percent), clorazepate (26 percent), lorazepam (58 percent), or alprazolam (43 percent). The side effects that did occur significantly more frequently in the buspirone group than in the placebo group were dizziness (9 percent versus 2 percent), headache (7 percent versus 2 percent), nervousness (4 percent versus 1 percent), light-headedness (4 percent versus less than 1 percent), diarrhea (3 percent versus less than 1 percent), paresthesia (2 percent versus less than 1 percent), excitation (2 percent versus less than 1 percent), and sweating/clamminess (1 percent versus 0 percent). The severities of these effects were predominantly rated as only mild or moderate. Fatigue occurred less frequently in buspirone-treated patients than in those receiving any of the benzodiazepines, and weakness occurred more frequently in diazepam-treated patients. Depression occurred less frequently in buspirone-treated patients than in those receiving clorazepate, diazepam, or lorazepam. Impotence occurred only in clorazepate- and lorazepam-treated patients. Decreased libido occurred more frequently in diazepam-treated patients, whereas increased libido was more frequent in clorazepate-treated patients. Nausea was reported more frequently in buspirone-treated patients than in those receiving clorazepate, diazepam, or alprazolam; diarrhea occurred more frequently in the buspirone group than in the diazepam group. The mean daily doses of the various treatments were buspirone, 20 mg; diazepam, 20 mg; clorazepate, 24 mg; lorazepam, 3 mg

  10. Effect of Delay on Children's Delay-Execute Prospective Memory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Peter G.; Vella, Melissa J.; Kliegel, Matthias; Terrett, Gill

    2009-01-01

    To date, little work has been done investigating prospective memory in children, particularly using a delay-execute paradigm. Two experiments were conducted to investigate this issue with children aged 5-11 years. While playing a computer driving game, children's ability to carry out a delayed intention either immediately a target cue appeared or…

  11. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  12. The long-term side effects of radiation therapy for benign brain tumors in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Mefty, O; Kersh, J E; Routh, A; Smith, R R

    1990-10-01

    Radiation therapy plays an integral part in managing intracranial tumors. While the risk:benefit ratio is considered acceptable for treating malignant tumors, risks of long-term complications of radiotherapy need thorough assessment in adults treated for benign tumors. Many previously reported delayed complications of radiotherapy can be attributed to inappropriate treatment or to the sensitivity of a developing child's brain to radiation. Medical records, radiological studies, autopsy findings, and follow-up information were reviewed for 58 adult patients (31 men and 27 women) treated between 1958 and 1987 with radiotherapy for benign intracranial tumors. Patient ages at the time of irradiation ranged from 21 to 87 years (mean 47.7 years). The pathology included 46 pituitary adenomas, five meningiomas, four glomus jugulare tumors, two pineal area tumors, and one craniopharyngioma. Average radiation dosage was 4984 cGy (range 3100 to 7012 cGy), given in an average of 27.2 fractions (range 15 to 45 fractions), over a period averaging 46.6 days. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 31 years (mean 8.1 years). Findings related to tumor recurrence or surgery were excluded. Twenty-two patients had complications considered to be delayed side effects of radiotherapy. Two patients had visual deterioration developing 3 and 6 years after treatment; six had pituitary dysfunction; and 17 had varying degrees of parenchymal changes of the brain, occurring mostly in the temporal lobes and relating to the frequent presentation of pituitary tumors (two of these also had pituitary dysfunction). One clival tumor with the radiographic appearance of a meningioma, developed 30 years post-irradiation for acromegaly. This study unveils considerable delayed sequelae of radiotherapy in a series of adult patients receiving what is considered "safe" treatment for benign brain tumors.

  13. The long-term side effects of radiation therapy for benign brain tumors in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    al-Mefty, O.; Kersh, J.E.; Routh, A.; Smith, R.R. (Univ. of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Radiation therapy plays an integral part in managing intracranial tumors. While the risk:benefit ratio is considered acceptable for treating malignant tumors, risks of long-term complications of radiotherapy need thorough assessment in adults treated for benign tumors. Many previously reported delayed complications of radiotherapy can be attributed to inappropriate treatment or to the sensitivity of a developing child's brain to radiation. Medical records, radiological studies, autopsy findings, and follow-up information were reviewed for 58 adult patients (31 men and 27 women) treated between 1958 and 1987 with radiotherapy for benign intracranial tumors. Patient ages at the time of irradiation ranged from 21 to 87 years (mean 47.7 years). The pathology included 46 pituitary adenomas, five meningiomas, four glomus jugulare tumors, two pineal area tumors, and one craniopharyngioma. Average radiation dosage was 4984 cGy (range 3100 to 7012 cGy), given in an average of 27.2 fractions (range 15 to 45 fractions), over a period averaging 46.6 days. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 31 years (mean 8.1 years). Findings related to tumor recurrence or surgery were excluded. Twenty-two patients had complications considered to be delayed side effects of radiotherapy. Two patients had visual deterioration developing 3 and 6 years after treatment; six had pituitary dysfunction; and 17 had varying degrees of parenchymal changes of the brain, occurring mostly in the temporal lobes and relating to the frequent presentation of pituitary tumors. One clival tumor with the radiographic appearance of a meningioma, developed 30 years post-irradiation for acromegaly. This study unveils considerable delayed sequelae of radiotherapy in a series of adult patients receiving what is considered safe treatment for benign brain tumors. 163 refs.

  14. Side effects of phenobarbital in epilepsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling-Li; Zeng, Li-Nan; Li, You-Ping

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, phenobarbital, as an antiepileptic drug, has become less popular based on adverse events, especially cognitive and behavioural side effects. Despite the development of better tolerated new generation AEDs, phenobarbital is still widely used particularly in developing countries because of its low cost. The purpose of this review was to: (i) investigate whether phenobarbital can be safely used as an antiepileptic drug and (ii) determine the questions which need to be addressed in order to comprehensively and adequately evaluate the safety of phenobarbital for the treatment of epilepsy. The literature was searched using the Cochrane Central Register of randomised controlled trials (1800-2009), Medline (1966-2009), Embase (1966-2009) and three Chinese databases. Twenty studies were finally included in this systematic review. The determination of adverse effects of combined antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from different studies was complicated by numerous factors including study design, different descriptions of adverse events and a lack of standardised data collection. These factors may also have been responsible for the heterogeneity present in the meta-analysis. The data did not demonstrate any evidence of association between phenobarbital and a higher risk of adverse events. However, phenobarbital appeared to be associated with a higher rate of adverse drug reaction related withdrawal (ADR-related withdraw), compared to carbamazepine, valproic acid and phenytoin. This may have been due to a concern for possible adverse effects of phenobarbital. Phenobarbital was associated with a higher rate of drug withdrawal although there was no evidence to suggest that phenobarbital caused more adverse events compared to carbamazepine, valproic acid or phenytoin. However, in the case of pregnant women, it is important for clinicians to evaluate the benefits and risks of phenobarbital administration before making a final recommendation. Furthermore, unified scales for

  15. Crossings as a side effect of dependency lengths

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The syntactic structure of sentences exhibits a striking regularity: dependencies tend to not cross when drawn above the sentence. Here we investigate two competing hypotheses for the origins of non-crossing dependencies. The traditional hypothesis is that the low frequency of dependency crossings arises from an independent principle of syntax that reduces crossings practically to zero. An alternative to this view is the hypothesis that crossings are a side effect of dependency lengths. According to this view, sentences with shorter dependency lengths should tend to have fewer crossings. We recast the traditional view as a null hypothesis where one of the variables, i.e. the number of crossings, is mean independent of the other, i.e. the sum of dependency lengths. The alternative view is then a positive correlation between these two variables. In spite of the rough estimation of dependency crossings that this sum provides, we are able to reject the traditional view in the majority of languages considered. The...

  16. Central Diabetes Insipidus: A Previously Unreported Side Effect of Temozolomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Lisa; Wexler, Deborah; Miller, Karen K.; Klibanski, Anne; Makimura, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Context: Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent primarily used to treat tumors of the central nervous system. We describe 2 patients with apparent TMZ-induced central diabetes insipidus. Using our institution's Research Patient Database Registry, we identified 3 additional potential cases of TMZ-induced diabetes insipidus among a group of 1545 patients treated with TMZ. Case Presentations: A 53-year-old male with an oligoastrocytoma and a 38-year-old male with an oligodendroglioma each developed symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria approximately 2 months after the initiation of TMZ. Laboratory analyses demonstrated hypernatremia and urinary concentrating defects, consistent with the presence of diabetes insipidus, and the patients were successfully treated with desmopressin acetate. Desmopressin acetate was withdrawn after the discontinuation of TMZ, and diabetes insipidus did not recur. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary and hypothalamus was unremarkable apart from the absence of a posterior pituitary bright spot in both of the cases. Anterior pituitary function tests were normal in both cases. Using the Research Patient Database Registry database, we identified the 2 index cases and 3 additional potential cases of diabetes insipidus for an estimated prevalence of 0.3% (5 cases of diabetes insipidus per 1545 patients prescribed TMZ). Conclusions: Central diabetes insipidus is a rare but reversible side effect of treatment with TMZ. PMID:23928668

  17. [Vascular calcifications, the hidden side effects of vitamin K antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Youssef; Vengadessane, Subashini; Bodeau, Sandra; Gras, Valérie; Bricca, Giampiero; Kamel, Saïd; Liabeuf, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKA, such as fluindione, acenocoumarol or warfarin) remain currently the goal standard medicines for oral prevention or treatment of thromboembolic disorders. They inhibit the cycle of the vitamin K and its participation in the enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of many proteins. The VKA prevent the activation of the vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors limiting thus the initiation of the coagulation cascade. But other proteins are vitamin K-dependent and also remain inactive in the presence of VKA. This is the case of matrix Gla-protein (MGP), a protein that plays a major inhibitory role in the development of vascular calcifications. Several experimental and epidemiological results suggest that the use of the VKA could promote the development of vascular calcifications increasing thus the cardiovascular risk. This risk seems to be higher in patients with chronic kidney disease or mellitus diabetes who are more likely to develop vascular calcifications, and may be due to a decrease of the MGP activity. This review aims at summarizing the data currently available making vascular calcifications the probably underestimated side effects of VKA.

  18. Central diabetes insipidus: a previously unreported side effect of temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faje, Alexander T; Nachtigall, Lisa; Wexler, Deborah; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Makimura, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent primarily used to treat tumors of the central nervous system. We describe 2 patients with apparent TMZ-induced central diabetes insipidus. Using our institution's Research Patient Database Registry, we identified 3 additional potential cases of TMZ-induced diabetes insipidus among a group of 1545 patients treated with TMZ. A 53-year-old male with an oligoastrocytoma and a 38-year-old male with an oligodendroglioma each developed symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria approximately 2 months after the initiation of TMZ. Laboratory analyses demonstrated hypernatremia and urinary concentrating defects, consistent with the presence of diabetes insipidus, and the patients were successfully treated with desmopressin acetate. Desmopressin acetate was withdrawn after the discontinuation of TMZ, and diabetes insipidus did not recur. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary and hypothalamus was unremarkable apart from the absence of a posterior pituitary bright spot in both of the cases. Anterior pituitary function tests were normal in both cases. Using the Research Patient Database Registry database, we identified the 2 index cases and 3 additional potential cases of diabetes insipidus for an estimated prevalence of 0.3% (5 cases of diabetes insipidus per 1545 patients prescribed TMZ). Central diabetes insipidus is a rare but reversible side effect of treatment with TMZ.

  19. [Effect of diazepam on delayed nausea and vomiting caused by anticancer agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, F Z; Zhang, J Q; Qiao, X M; Mao, Y C; Meng, F Y; Liu, H J; Hui, S; Zhu, F X; Shu, W; Hong, J

    1998-02-01

    We conducted an evaluation of the usefulness of antiemetics (5-Hydroxy-tryptamine 3 receptor antagonism, 5HT3RA) combined with diazepam for delayed nausea and vomiting due to anticancer agents in 17 patients with various malignancies (such as lung Ca, breast Ca, esophagus Ca, gastric Ca, colon Ca, and non Hodgkin's disease) for whom chemotherapy was performed with different regimens in the Dept. of Oncologic Chemotherapy, People's Hospital, Beijing Medical University. Antiemetics (5HT3RA) combined with diazepam were given only to cases that had symptoms of nausea and vomiting induced by anticancer agents in the 1st course and invalidity with antiemetics (5HT3RA) alone in this study. Antiemetic (5HT3RA) agents + Dexamethasone were dosed before chemotherapy and also diazepam 5 mg orally after 24 hours (namely, when nausea was observed). Nausea was reduced and vomiting decreased after the antiemetic treatment with 5HT3RA + Dexamethasone and diazepam. These results indicated that 5HT3RA and diazepam combination therapies were more effective than 5HT3 RA + Dexamethasone alone for delayed nausea and vomiting. Further, the antiemetics had characters that a short adminiter time, few times and a take not over dose. The only side effect related to this antiemetic therapy was light somnolence. Antiemetics combined with diazepam might be a useful therapy against delayed nausea and vomiting induced by anticancer agents.

  20. Side Effect Perceptions and Their Impact on Treatment Decisions in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Erika A; Pachur, Thorsten; Colditz, Graham A

    2017-04-01

    Side effects prompt some patients to forego otherwise-beneficial therapies. This study explored which characteristics make side effects particularly aversive. We used a psychometric approach, originating from research on risk perception, to identify the factors (or components) underlying side effect perceptions. Women ( N = 149) aged 40 to 74 years were recruited from a patient registry to complete an online experiment. Participants were presented with hypothetical scenarios in which an effective and necessary medication conferred a small risk of a single side effect (e.g., nausea, dizziness). They rated a broad range of side effects on several characteristics (e.g., embarrassing, treatable). In addition, we collected 4 measures of aversiveness for each side effect: choosing to take the medication, willingness to pay to avoid the side effect (WTP), negative affective attitude associated with the side effect, and how each side effect ranks among others in terms of undesirability. A principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify the components underlying side effect perceptions. Then, for each aversiveness measure separately, regression analyses were used to determine which components predicted differences in aversiveness among the side effects. The PCA revealed 4 components underlying side effect perceptions: affective challenge (e.g., frightening), social challenge (e.g., disfiguring), physical challenge (e.g., painful), and familiarity (e.g., common). Side effects perceived as affectively and physically challenging elicited the highest levels of aversiveness across all 4 measures. Understanding what side effect characteristics are most aversive may inform interventions to improve medical decisions and facilitate the translation of novel biomedical therapies into clinical practice.

  1. The effect of irradiating adaxial or abaxial side on photosynthesis of rose leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Paradiso, R.; Marcelis, L. F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In many cropping systems most of the light irradiates the adaxial side of leaves. However, in cropping systems with intra canopy lighting a reasonable fraction of light may irradiate even the abaxial side of the leaves. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiating the abaxial leaf side compared to irradiating the adaxial side, in rose plants grown in glasshouse with the bending technique. The instantaneous effects on the optical properties and the light respons...

  2. Side effects of aesthetic therapy by lasers and IPL source: a dark side of the correct management of the patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarbski, George V.

    2004-09-01

    A medical practice by laser or IPL device means professional experience, reputation, strong economical investment, while a patient needs results for the bill he pays. In front of a publicity of non-invasive solutions for a broad base of clinical applications, the everyday practice offers embarrassing side effects about which it is better to prepare the users. Inefficiency, hypo-hyper-pigmentations, scars show that we need to have clear instructions and experienced studies, before emphasizing good results.

  3. 78 FR 6025 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E) Temporary Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Part 1005 RIN 3170-AA33 Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E) Temporary Delay of Effective Date... Financial Protection (Bureau) is issuing this final rule to delay the February 7, 2013, effective date of... delaying the effective date of the 2012 Final Rule pending the finalization of a proposal, published...

  4. Review of experimental methods for evaluating effective delayed neutron fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Yoshihiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    The International Effective Delayed Neutron Fraction ({beta}{sub eff}) Benchmark Experiments have been carried out at the Fast Critical Assembly of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute since 1995. Researchers from six countries, namely France, Italy, Russia, U.S.A., Korea, and Japan, participate in this FCA project. Each team makes use of each experimental method, such as Frequency Method, Rossi-{alpha} Method, Nelson Number Method, Cf Neutron Source Method, and Covariance Method. In this report these experimental methods are reviewed. (author)

  5. Delayed Effects of Graduate Education on Increased Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Simister

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ‘Human Capital Theory’ shows that education is a vital part of improving productivity.  This paper investigates effects of tertiary education (post-school education: at universities, higher-education colleges, and similar institutions on how productive an employee is.  A problem with such research is to identify which variable is the cause, and which is the effect.  This paper uses time-series regression analysis of World Bank data, on the fraction of a country’s workforce with tertiary education, and productivity.  This paper also uses Britain as a case study: the British Household Panel Study shows what happens to a graduate in the years after they leave university.  The delayed effects of education on output makes clear that education is a cause (rather than an effect of improvements in productivity.  In conclusion, university-level education is beneficial to economic growth.

  6. Effect of Time Delay on Recognition Memory for Pictures: The Modulatory Role of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the modulatory role of emotion in the effect of time delay on recognition memory for pictures. Participants viewed neutral, positive and negative pictures, and took a recognition memory test 5 minutes, 24 hours, or 1 week after learning. The findings are: 1) For neutral, positive and negative pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h delay. For neutral and positive pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 1-week delay was lower than in the 24-h delay; for negative pictures, overall recognition in the 24-h and 1-week delay did not significantly differ. Therefore negative emotion modulates the effect of time delay on recognition memory, maintaining retention of overall recognition accuracy only within a certain frame of time. 2) For the three types of pictures, recollection and familiarity in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h and the 1-week delay. Thus emotion does not appear to modulate the effect of time delay on recollection and familiarity. However, recollection in the 24-h delay was higher than in the 1-week delay, whereas familiarity in the 24-h delay was lower than in the 1-week delay. PMID:24971457

  7. Uncommon side effect of MMF in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balal, M; Demir, E; Paydas, Saime; Sertdemir, Y; Erken, U

    2005-01-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a potent immunosuppressive agent used in renal transplantation. Gastrointestinal and hematological side effects are commonly observed, but hepatotoxicity has not been reported. In this study, we assessed MMF-related hepatotoxicity in renal transplant recipients. A total of 124 renal transplantation recipients (RTRs) were evaluated for elevated liver enzymes associated with MMF, and 79 patients were enrolled to the study. Patients used MMF 2 g/day. The patients who had progressive increase in liver enzymes after renal transplantation and their AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, bilirubin levels, hepatitis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), abdominal ultrasonography, duration of hepatotoxicity, and decreased dosage or withdrawal of MMF were recorded. Also, we evaluated their liver enzymes while the patients were on the waiting list. Of the 79 patients, 11 patients (13.9%) had a progressive increase in liver enzymes. The median (min-max) age of the patients with MMF-hepatotoxicity was 29 (19-54) and 72.7% of them were male. None of the patients had hepatitis B or C, CMV infection, or other possible causes for elevated liver enzymes and their abdominal ultrasonography were normal. High liver enzyme levels regressed after the withdrawal (n=6) or reduce dosage (n=5) of MMF. The median time of the increase in liver enzymes was 28 (4-70) days and after 50% reduction or withdrawal of MMF, returned to normal values in 16 (4-210) days. The median levels of ALT in waiting list (I), before (II), and after (III) reduction dosage or withdrawal of MMF were 22.0 (3-22), 222.0 (51-508), and 33.0 (21-64) U/L, respectively (p I-II=0.004,p I-II=0.013, andp II-III=0.005). There were no differences for ALP, GGT, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin levels. Also, the correlation between recovery time of ALT and persistence time of ALT elevation before adjustment of MMF was significant (r=0.739, p=0.009). Consequently, after renal transplantation, hepatotoxicity can occur due to a

  8. Effect of early or delayed treatment upon healing of mandibular fractures: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Niels Ulrich; Hillerup, Søren; Kofod, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The possible relation between treatment delay and healing complications in mandibular fracture treatment (excluding condylar fractures) was reviewed systematically. Twenty-two studies were identified. No randomized studies focused on the effect of immediate or delayed treatment. The main focus...

  9. Effects of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in financial system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiang-Cheng [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China); Li, Chun [Department of Computer Science, Puer Teachers' College, Puer 665000 (China); Mei, Dong-Cheng, E-mail: meidch@ynu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China)

    2014-06-13

    The effect of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in finance system was investigated. The time delay is introduced into the Heston model driven by the extrinsic and intrinsic periodic information for stock price. The signal power amplification (SPA) was calculated by numerical simulation. The results indicate that an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance in the behaviors of SPA as a function of long-run variance of volatility or cross correlation coefficient between noises for both cases of intrinsic and extrinsic periodic information. Moreover, in both cases, being a critical value in the delay time, when the delay time takes value below the critical value, reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing, however, when the delay time takes value above the critical value, the reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing. - Highlights: • The effects of delay time on stochastic resonance of the stock prices was investigated. • There is an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance • The reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value below the critical value • The reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value above the critical value.

  10. An approach to normal forms of Kuramoto model with distributed delays and the effect of minimal delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Ben, E-mail: niubenhit@163.com [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Guo, Yuxiao [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Heterogeneous delays with positive lower bound (gap) are taken into consideration in Kuramoto model. On the Ott–Antonsen's manifold, the dynamical transitional behavior from incoherence to coherence is mediated by Hopf bifurcation. We establish a perturbation technique on complex domain, by which universal normal forms, stability and criticality of the Hopf bifurcation are obtained. Theoretically, a hysteresis loop is found near the subcritically bifurcated coherent state. With respect to Gamma distributed delay with fixed mean and variance, we find that the large gap decreases Hopf bifurcation value, induces supercritical bifurcations, avoids the hysteresis loop and significantly increases in the number of coexisting coherent states. The effect of gap is finally interpreted from the viewpoint of excess kurtosis of Gamma distribution. - Highlights: • Heterogeneously delay-coupled Kuramoto model with minimal delay is considered. • Perturbation technique on complex domain is established for bifurcation analysis. • Hysteresis phenomenon is investigated in a theoretical way. • The effect of excess kurtosis of distributed delays is discussed.

  11. A study of the effect of group delay distortion on an SMSK satellite communications channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of group delay distortion on an SMSK satellite communications channel have been investigated. Software and hardware simulations have been used to determine the effects of channel group delay variations with frequency on the bit error rate for a 220 Mbps SMSK channel. These simulations indicate that group delay distortions can significantly degrade the bit error rate performance. The severity of the degradation is dependent on the amount, type, and spectral location of the group delay distortion.

  12. Computational drug repositioning based on side-effects mined from social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Nugent

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug repositioning methods attempt to identify novel therapeutic indications for marketed drugs. Strategies include the use of side-effects to assign new disease indications, based on the premise that both therapeutic effects and side-effects are measurable physiological changes resulting from drug intervention. Drugs with similar side-effects might share a common mechanism of action linking side-effects with disease treatment, or may serve as a treatment by “rescuing” a disease phenotype on the basis of their side-effects; therefore it may be possible to infer new indications based on the similarity of side-effect profiles. While existing methods leverage side-effect data from clinical studies and drug labels, evidence suggests this information is often incomplete due to under-reporting. Here, we describe a novel computational method that uses side-effect data mined from social media to generate a sparse undirected graphical model using inverse covariance estimation with ℓ1-norm regularization. Results show that known indications are well recovered while current trial indications can also be identified, suggesting that sparse graphical models generated using side-effect data mined from social media may be useful for computational drug repositioning.

  13. Strong delayed interactive effects of metal exposure and warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debecker, Sara; Dinh, Khuong Van; Stoks, Robby

    2017-01-01

    As contaminants are often more toxic at higher temperatures, predicting their impact under global warming remains a key challenge for ecological risk assessment. Ignoring delayed effects, synergistic interactions between contaminants and warming, and differences in sensitivity across species......’ ranges could lead to an important underestimation of the risks. We addressed all three mechanisms by studying effects of larval exposure to zinc and warming before, during, and after metamorphosis in Ischnura elegans damselflies from high- and lowlatitude populations. By integrating these mechanisms...... was especially remarkable in high-latitude animals, as they appeared almost insensitive to zinc during the larval stage. Second, the well-known synergism between metals and warming was manifested not only during the larval stage but also after metamorphosis, yet notably only in low-latitude damselflies...

  14. Therapeutic effects and side effects in patients with major depression treated with sulpiride once a day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, T; Asakura, M; Tsuneizumi, T; Satoh, Y; Shinozuka, T; Hasegawa, K

    1994-05-01

    The effects of once a day dose of sulpiride efficacy and safety was evaluated in patients with major depressive disorder. The patients received sulpiride once a day in the morning or in the evening. There were no significant differences between two groups in the mean measures of efficacy. Side effects were rare and all of a mild degree. The most common side effects were sedation, constipation, and dryness of mouth. Out of regard for the administrative and psychological advantage of the once a day dosage this form should be preferred in the treatment of major depression.

  15. Contagion effects in a chartist fundamentalist model with time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibeh, Ghassan

    2007-08-01

    In this paper two models of speculative markets are developed to study the effects of feedback mechanisms in financial markets. In the first model, a crash market model couples a linear chartist-fundamentalist model with time delays with a log-periodic market index I(t) through direct coupling. Numerical solutions to the model show that asset prices exhibit significant persistence as a result of the coupling to the log-periodic market index. An extension to include endogenous wealth dynamics shows that the chartists benefit from the persistent dynamics induced by the coupling. The second model is a two-asset model represented by a 2-dimensional delay-differential equation. Asset one price exhibits limit cycle dynamics while in the second market asset prices follow stable damped oscillations. The markets are coupled through a diffusive coupling term. Solutions to the coupled model show that the dynamics of asset two changes fundamentally with the price now exhibiting a limit cycle. The stable converging dynamics is replaced with limit cycle oscillations around the fundamental.

  16. Clinical Effects of Gemifloxacin on the Delay of Tuberculosis Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seo Yun; Yim, Jae-Joon; Park, Jong Sun; Park, Sung Soo; Heo, Eun Young; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Chung, Hee Soon

    2013-01-01

    Although gemifloxacin has low in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the effect of gemifloxacin on the delay of tuberculosis (TB) treatment has not been validated in a clinical setting. The study group included patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB who initially received gemifloxacin for suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Two control groups contained patients treated with other fluoroquinolones or nonfluoroquinolone antibiotics. Sixteen cases were treated with gemifloxacin for suspected CAP before TB diagnosis. Sixteen and 32 patients were treated with other fluoroquinolones and nonfluoroquinolones, respectively. The median period from the initiation of antibiotics to the administration of anti-TB medication was nine days in the gemifloxacin group, which was significantly different from the other fluoroquinolones group (35 days). The median times for the nonfluoroquinolone group and the gemifloxacin group were not significantly different. There were no significant differences between the gemifloxacin and other fluoroquinolone group in terms of symptomatic and radiographic improvements. However, the frequency of radiographic improvement in the other fluoroquinolones group tended to be higher than in the gemifloxacin group. Gemifloxacin might be the preferred fluoroquinolone for treating CAP, to alleviate any concerns about delaying TB treatment. PMID:23486643

  17. The clinical studies on the cased of side effect of CF Herbal Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kye-Sung Kang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to examine the patterns and to prevent the side effects of CF Herbal Acupuncture treatment Methods : We observed 10 patients who complained the side effects of Herbal acupuncture CF and 2 healthy men for the sake of examine the cause from the August 17 to 24, 2001. Results 1. All of the patients complained severe pain, redish, and edema on the side of injections 2. We were able to witness decrease in pain, redish, and edema, after 2days of injection. After 4days, we were unable to any side effects. 3. According to the clinical studies, we came to determine that the CF herbal abstract which caused the side effects were manufactured between 4 to 13 days, August 4. We assume these side effects were caused by minute quantity of toxin remaining in the screw pressor mixed with the CF herbal abstract.

  18. Effect of Small Transmission Delay on Human Behavior in Audio Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Mochizuki, Kaname

    Transmission delay in audio communications is a well-known obstacle to achieving smooth communication. However, it is not known what kinds of effects are caused by small delays. We hypothesized that the small delay in the listener's responses disturbs the speaker's “verbal conditioning, ” where the verbal behavior of the speaker varies in accordance with the listener's responses. We examined whether the small delays in the listener's responses disturb the speaker's verbal conditioning using an artificial-grammar learning task. The results suggested that a 300-ms delay disturbed the participants' verbal conditioning although they were not adequately aware of the delay.

  19. Yoga-Based Rehabilitation Program in Reducing Physical and Emotional Side Effects in Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Alopecia; Anxiety; Breast Carcinoma; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Colorectal Carcinoma; Depression; Fatigue; Lung Carcinoma; Nausea and Vomiting; Pain; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Sleep Disorder; Weight Change

  20. Side-gate modulation effects on high-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiaolong; Ye, Weiguang; Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Han, Tianyi; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Wang, Ning, E-mail: phwang@ust.hk [Department of Physics and the William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-12-15

    High-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors with double side-gates of graphene have been experimentally realized. The double side-gates can effectively modulate the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbon capacitors. By applying anti-symmetric side-gate voltages, we observed significant upward shifting and flattening of the V-shaped capacitance curve near the charge neutrality point. Symmetric side-gate voltages, however, only resulted in tilted upward shifting along the opposite direction of applied gate voltages. These modulation effects followed the behavior of graphene nanoribbons predicted theoretically for metallic side-gate modulation. The negative quantum capacitance phenomenon predicted by numerical simulations for graphene nanoribbons modulated by graphene side-gates was not observed, possibly due to the weakened interactions between the graphene nanoribbon and side-gate electrodes caused by the Ga{sup +} beam etching process.

  1. Side-effects of fluticasone in asthmatic children : no effects after dose reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, MJ; van der Veer, E; Postma, DS; Arends, LR; de Vries, TW; Brand, PLP; Duiverman, EJ

    2004-01-01

    To assess long-term effects and side-effects of fluticasone propionate (FP), a 2-yr study was performed, comparing a step-down dose approach (1,000 mug.day(-1), with reductions every 2 months to 500, 200 and 100 mug.day(-1) for the remainder of the study) versus a constant dose (200 mug.day(-1)). In

  2. Norms Inform Mental State Ascriptions: A Rational Explanation for the Side-Effect Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttich, Kevin; Lombrozo, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind, the capacity to understand and ascribe mental states, has traditionally been conceptualized as analogous to a scientific theory. However, recent work in philosophy and psychology has documented a "side-effect effect" suggesting that moral evaluations influence mental state ascriptions, and in particular whether a behavior is…

  3. Impact of brand or generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Martin, Leslie R; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg; Petrie, Keith J

    2016-02-01

    Branding medication with a known pharmaceutical company name or product name bestows on the drug an added assurance of authenticity and effectiveness compared to a generic preparation. This study examined the impact of brand name and generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects. 87 undergraduate students with frequent headaches took part in the study. Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, each participant took tablets labeled either as brand name "Nurofen" or "Generic Ibuprofen" to treat each of 4 headaches. In reality, half of the tablets were placebos, and half were active ibuprofen (400 mg). Participants recorded their headache pain on a verbal descriptor and visual analogue scale prior to taking the tablets, and again 1 hour afterward. Medication side effects were also reported. Pain reduction following the use of brand name labeled tablets was similar in active ibuprofen or a placebo. However, if the tablets had a generic label, placebo tablets were significantly less effective compared to active ibuprofen. Fewer side effects were attributed to placebo tablets with brand name labeling compared to the same placebo tablets with a generic label. Branding of a tablet appears to have conferred a treatment benefit in the absence of an active ingredient, while generic labeled tablets were substantially less effective if they contained no active ingredient. Branding is also associated with reduced attribution of side effects to placebo tablets. Future interventions to improve perceptions of generics may have utility in improving treatment outcomes from generic drugs. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Metabolic disturbances, side effect profile and effectiveness of clozapine in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Data on effect of clozapine on metabolic syndrome in adolescent patients with psychosis are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with psychotic disorders prior to clozapine and while receiving clozapine. Secondary aims were to study the effectiveness and side effect profile of clozapine. Materials and Methods: Thirteen child and adolescent patients were evaluated at baseline, 3 months, and a follow-up beyond 6 months. Assessments were made for metabolic profile, effectiveness by positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS, and side effects. Results: Prior to starting of clozapine, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 23%. After 3 months on clozapine, 38.5% (5/13 patients fulfilled criteria of metabolic syndrome and further on follow-up beyond 6 months (with last observation carried forward 46.2% (6/13 had developed metabolic syndrome. There was a significant reduction in PANSS scores at 3 months and follow-up more so in those who developed metabolic syndrome at 3 months. Among the other side effects, hypersalivation was the most common side effect (100% followed by sedation (69%. Conclusion: Half the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents on clozapine can be attributed to other factors prior to starting of clozapine, and another half can be attributed to clozapine. Clozapine is effective in an adolescent population.

  5. Influence of Electro-Acupuncture on the Side Effects of Fluoxetine on Depression Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lan-ying; LU Qian; WANG Ling-ling; WANG Xin-zhong

    2009-01-01

    The authors set up two groups, the treatment group and the control group, to observe the influence of electro-acupuncture on the side effects produced by fluoxetine in the treatment of depression. The result showed that electro-acupuncture had a certain action in reducing the side effects of fluoxetine and it is more effective along with the prolonging of the administration duration.

  6. Reirradiation on recurrent cervical cancer case: Treatment response and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, M. F.; Supriana, N.; Nuranna, L.; Prihartono, J.

    2017-08-01

    Management of recurrent cervical cancer by reirradiation after radiation treatment remains controversial. In Indonesia, there is currently no data about reirradiation tumor response and side effects. This study aims to assess the tumor response to and side effects of reirradiation, the effect of time interval between first radiation treatment and cancer recurrence on the tumor response and side effects, and the effect of tumor size on tumor response. A cohort retrospective study with no comparison was done with the Radiotherapy Department at Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. Participants were recurrent cervical cancer patients undergoing reirradiation. Data was collected from patients’ medical records and follow-up phone calls. Twenty-two patients participated in this study. Nine patients (40.9%) had complete responses, 10 patients (45.5%) had partial responses, 1 patient (4.5%) had a stable response, and 2 patients (9.1%) had tumor progressions. In general, 15 patients (68.2%) had no to light side effects (grade 0-2 RTOG) and 7 patients (31.8%) had severe side effects (grade 3-4 RTOG). Four patients (18.1%) had severe gastrointestinal acute side effects, 6 patients (27.3%) had severe gastrointestinal late side effects, 2 patients (9.1%) had severe urogenital side effects, and there were no patients had severe urogenital late side effects. There was no significant difference in tumor response between patients with time interval between first radiation treatment and recurrence of 4 cm. Reirradiation can be considered as a modality in recurrent cervical cancer management since good tumor response was achieved and the majority of patients had no to light side effects (grade 0-2 RTOG). This study found no correlation between tumor response, side effects, and time gap between first radiation treatment and recurrence of 4 cm.

  7. The effect of process delay on dynamical behaviors in a self-feedback nonlinear oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chenggui; Ma, Jun; Li, Chuan; He, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    The delayed feedback loops play a crucial role in the stability of dynamical systems. The effect of process delay in feedback is studied numerically and theoretically in the delayed feedback nonlinear systems including the neural model, periodic system and chaotic oscillator. The process delay is of key importance in determining the evolution of systems, and the rich dynamical phenomena are observed. By introducing a process delay, we find that it can induce bursting electric activities in the neural model. We demonstrate that this novel regime of amplitude death also exists in the parameter space of feedback strength and process delay for the periodic system and chaotic oscillator. Our results extend the effect of process delay in the paper of Zou et al.(2013) where the process delay can eliminate the amplitude death of the coupled nonlinear systems.

  8. Slipping during side-step cutting: anticipatory effects and familiarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza Castelo; Silva, Priscila Brito; Lund, Morten Enemark; Farina, Dario; Kersting, Uwe Gustav

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify whether the expectation of perturbations while performing side-step cutting manoeuvres influences lower limb EMG activity, heel kinematics and ground reaction forces. Eighteen healthy men performed two sets of 90° side-step cutting manoeuvres. In the first set, 10 unperturbed trials (Base) were performed while stepping over a moveable force platform. In the second set, subjects were informed about the random possibility of perturbations to balance throughout 32 trials, of which eight were perturbed (Pert, 10cm translation triggered at initial contact), and the others were "catch" trials (Catch). Center of mass velocity (CoMVEL), heel acceleration (HAC), ground reaction forces (GRF) and surface electromyography (EMG) from lower limb and trunk muscles were recorded for each trial. Surface EMG was analyzed prior to initial contact (PRE), during load acceptance (LA) and propulsion (PRP) periods of the stance phase. In addition, hamstrings-quadriceps co-contraction ratios (CCR) were calculated for these time-windows. The results showed no changes in CoMVEL, HAC, peak GRF and surface EMG PRE among conditions. However, during LA, there were increases in tibialis anterior EMG (30-50%) concomitant to reduced EMG for quadriceps muscles, gluteus and rectus abdominis for Catch and Pert conditions (15-40%). In addition, quadriceps EMG was still reduced during PRP (pmodulation of muscle activity towards anticipating potential instability in the lower limb joints and assure safety to complete the task.

  9. Pharmacogenomic and clinical data link non-pharmacokinetic metabolic dysregulation to drug side effect pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Daniel C.; Filipp, F. V.; Bordbar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug side effects cause a significant clinical and economic burden. However, mechanisms of drug action underlying side effect pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we integrate pharmacogenomic and clinical data with a human metabolic network and find that non-pharmacokinetic metabolic pathways...... dysregulated by drugs are linked to the development of side effects. We show such dysregulated metabolic pathways contain genes with sequence variants affecting side effect incidence, play established roles in pathophysiology, have significantly altered activity in corresponding diseases, are susceptible...... to metabolic inhibitors and are effective targets for therapeutic nutrient supplementation. Our results indicate that metabolic dysregulation represents a common mechanism underlying side effect pathogenesis that is distinct from the role of metabolism in drug clearance. We suggest that elucidating...

  10. Current Status of the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Cervantes, Paige E.

    2013-01-01

    The Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS) is currently the best established and most researched measure of drug side effects in the intellectual disability (ID) literature. Initial research was conducted on its psychometric properties such as reliability and validity. More recent research studies have used the measure to determine the…

  11. Comparison of the Efficacy and Side Effects of Chlorhexidine Mouthrinses with (Hexidine and without (Epimax Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mogharehabed

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although Epimax mouthwash did not show any side effects, it was less suitable and caused more dental stain. Ethanol-free Hexidine mouthwash seems to be more proper for gingivitis, but its side effects are required to be taken into consideration.

  12. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain:patient report vs. systematic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Torsten; Christrup, Lona Louring; Højsted, Jette;

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatme...

  13. Incidence of ocular side effects of topical beta blockers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van L.M.; Keizer, de R.J.W.; Polak, B.C.P.; Elzenaar, P.R.; Haeringen, van N.J.; Kijlstra, A.

    2000-01-01

    Background - Several ocular side effects including uveitis, have been reported following topical β blocker treatment for glaucoma and ocular hypertension. The incidence of these side effects was investigated in the Netherlands. Methods - A prospective observational design was used whereby monthly qu

  14. PROBLEMS OF PROJECTS AND EFFECTS OF DELAYS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haseeb

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of project delays is a fact that occurs mostly in construction industry of Pakistan. Delays are always measured as expensive to all parties concerned in the projects and very often it will result in clash, claims, total desertion and much difficult for the feasibility and it slows the growth of construction sector. For analyzing the causes of delay, an appraisal on construction project’s time performance was conducted. The main objective of this study is the identification of factors of delay and their effects on the success and completion of project. The most common factor of delay are natural disaster in Pakistan like flood and earthquake and some others like financial and payment problems, improper planning, poor site management, insufficient experience, shortage of materials and equipment etc. This paper covers the delay factors and causes of delay and some suggestion for reducing these delays in large construction projects in Pakistan.

  15. Individual benefits of nestling begging: experimental evidence for an immediate effect, but no evidence for a delayed effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessells, C Kate M; Riebel, Katharina; Draganoiu, Tudor Ion

    2011-06-23

    The evolutionary stability of honest signalling by offspring is thought to require that begging displays be costly, so the costs and benefits of begging--and whether they are experienced individually or by the whole brood--are crucial to understanding the evolution of begging behaviour. Begging is known to have immediate individual benefits (parents distribute more food to intensely begging individuals) and delayed brood benefits (parents increase provisioning rate to the brood), but the possibility of delayed individual benefits (previous begging affects the current distribution of food) has rarely, if ever, been researched. We did this using playback of great tit Parus major chick begging and a control sound from either side of the nest. Male parents fed chicks close to the speaker more when great tit chick begging, but not other stimuli, was played back. In contrast, there was no effect of playback at the previous visit on the chicks that male parents fed. We have thus demonstrated an immediate individual benefit to begging, but found no evidence of a delayed individual benefit in this species.

  16. The study of CD side to side error in line/space pattern caused by post-exposure bake effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Guo, Eric; Ge, Haiming; Lu, Max; Wu, Yijun; Tian, Mingjing; Yan, Shichuan; Wang, Ran

    2016-10-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, as the design rule has decreased, the ITRS roadmap requires crucial tighter critical dimension (CD) control. CD uniformity is one of the necessary parameters to assure good performance and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit (IC) [1] [2], and towards the advanced technology nodes, it is a challenge to control CD uniformity well. The study of corresponding CD Uniformity by tuning Post-Exposure bake (PEB) and develop process has some significant progress[3], but CD side to side error happening to some line/space pattern are still found in practical application, and the error has approached to over the uniformity tolerance. After details analysis, even though use several developer types, the CD side to side error has not been found significant relationship to the developing. In addition, it is impossible to correct the CD side to side error by electron beam correction as such error does not appear in all Line/Space pattern masks. In this paper the root cause of CD side to side error is analyzed and the PEB module process are optimized as a main factor for improvement of CD side to side error.

  17. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Jonsson, T; Højsted, J

    2015-01-01

    , the mean number of symptoms reported by the patient group (12.3) was significantly higher than those reported by the controls (6.8) (P side effects caused by analgesics, and out of those 61.3% were reported as acceptable and 38.......7% as unacceptable side effects. In the QSSE-33, the mean number of symptoms reported by the patient group was 13.6. Out of the total number of symptoms, 46.3% were reported to be side effects caused by analgesics, and out of those 56.4% were reported as acceptable and 43.6% as unacceptable side effects. CONCLUSIONS......: This new and shorter screening tool QSSE-33 may substitute the original QSSE-41 and in clinical use, contribute substantially to a more comprehensive and detailed understanding of symptoms/side effects and may consequently lead to improved therapies....

  18. Unloading Effect on Delayed Hydride Cracking in Zirconium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Sung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    It is well-known that a tensile overload retards not only the crack growth rate (CGR) in zirconium alloys during the delayed hydride cracking (DHC) tests but also the fatigue crack growth rate in metals, the cause of which is unclear to date. A considerable decrease in the fatigue crack growth rate due to overload is suggested to occur due either to the crack closure or to compressive stresses or strains arising from unloading of the overload. However, the role of the crack closure or the compressive stress in the crack growth rate remains yet to be understood because of incomplete understanding of crack growth kinetics. The aim of this study is to resolve the effect of unloading on the CGR of zirconium alloys, which comes in last among the unresolved issues as listed above. To this end, the CGRs of the Zr-2.5Nb tubes were determined at a constant temperature under the cyclic load with the load ratio, R changing from 0.13 to 0.66 where the extent of unloading became higher at the lower R. More direct evidence for the effect of unloading after an overload is provided using Simpson's experiment investigating the effect on the CGR of a Zr-2.5Nb tube of the stress states of the prefatigue crack tip by unloading or annealing after the formation of a pre-fatigue crack

  19. Solar radiation management - on feasibility, side effects, and reaching the 2 degree target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Hannele; Laakso, Anton; Ekholm, Tommi; Maalick, Zubair; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM), i.e. artificially increasing the reflectivity of the Earth, has been suggested as a fast-response, low-cost method to mitigate the impacts of potential rapid future climate change. We have used 1) large eddy simulations as well as an aerosol-climate model and an earth system model to investigate the feasibility and side effects of two types of SRM (marine cloud brightening and stratospheric sulfur injections) and 2) a sequential decision-making approach to determine strategies that combine emission reductions and an uncertain SRM option to limit global mean temperature increase to 2 degree. Regarding stratospheric injections, we find that a large explosive volcanic eruption taking place while SRM is in full force would result in overcooling of the planet, as expected; however, the radiative and climate effects would be clearly smaller than could be expected from the sum of the effects from volcanic eruption alone or SRM alone. In addition, the stratospheric sulphur load would recover from the eruption faster under SRM and natural conditions. If the eruption took place in the high latitudes, the resulting global forcing would be highly dependent on the season of the eruption. Furthermore, regarding marine cloud brightening we find that the spraying of sea water drops leads to cooling due to evaporation and leads to delay in particle dispersion. This delay enhances particle scavenging, and can influence the efficacy of cloud seeding. In terms of combining emission reductions and SRM to reach the 2° C warming target, we find that before the termination risk for SRM can be completely excluded, the acceptable greenhouse gas emission pathways remain only slightly higher than in scenarios without SRM. More generally, the uncertainties in SRM start time, acceptable magnitude and sustainability mean that it can be only a limited substitute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions. If an additional constraint for CO2 concentration to

  20. Effects of side walls on facade flame entrainment and flame height from opening in compartment fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu L.H.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of the side wall effects on facade flames ejected from the opening (such as a window of an under-ventilated room fire. Experiments are carried out in a reduced-scale experimental setup, consisting of a cubic fire compartment having an opening with a vertical facade wall and two side walls normal to the façade wall. By changing the distance of the two side walls, the facade flame heights for different opening conditions (width, height are recorded by a CCD camera. It is found that as the distance of the two side walls decreases the behavior the flame height can be distinguished into two regimes characterized by the dimensionless excess heat release rate, $skew5dot{Q}_{ex}^{ast}$ See Formula in PDF , outside the opening: (a for the “wall fire” (skew5dot{Q}_{ex}^{ast }$See Formula in PDF ≤ 1.3 , the flame height is shown to change little with decrease of side wall distance as the dominant entrainment is from the front direction (normal to the facade wall independent of the side wall distances; (b for the “axis-symmetrical fire” (\\skew5dot{Q}_{ex}^{ast}$ > 1.3, the flame height increases significantly with a decrease in side wall distance as both the entrainment from the two side directions (parallel to the facade wall and that from the front direction (normal to the facade wall together apply. A global physically based non-dimensional factor K is then brought forward based on the side wall constraint effect on the facade flame entrainment to characterize the side wall effect on the flame height, by accounting for the dimensionless excess heat release rate, the characteristic length scales of the opening as well as the side wall separation distance. The experimental data for different opening dimensions and side wall distances collapse by using this global non-dimensional factor.

  1. Electronic properties of amino acid side chains: quantum mechanics calculation of substituent effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Donard S

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic properties of amino acid side chains such as inductive and field effects have not been characterized in any detail. Quantum mechanics (QM calculations and fundamental equations that account for substituent effects may provide insight into these important properties. PM3 analysis of electron distribution and polarizability was used to derive quantitative scales that describe steric factors, inductive effects, resonance effects, and field effects of amino acid side chains. Results These studies revealed that: (1 different semiempirical QM methods yield similar results for the electronic effects of side chain groups, (2 polarizability, which reflects molecular deformability, represents steric factors in electronic terms, and (3 inductive effects contribute to the propensity of an amino acid for α-helices. Conclusion The data provide initial characterization of the substituent effects of amino acid side chains and suggest that these properties affect electron density along the peptide backbone.

  2. The effect of distributed time-delays on the synchronization of neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachhvah, Ajay Deep

    2017-01-01

    Here we investigate the synchronization of networks of FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons coupled in scale-free, small-world and random topologies, in the presence of distributed time delays in the coupling of neurons. We explore how the synchronization transition is affected when the time delays in the interactions between pairs of interacting neurons are non-uniform. We find that the presence of distributed time-delays does not change the behavior of the synchronization transition significantly, vis-a-vis networks with constant time-delay, where the value of the constant time-delay is the mean of the distributed delays. We also notice that a normal distribution of delays gives rise to a transition at marginally lower coupling strengths, vis-a-vis uniformly distributed delays. These trends hold across classes of networks and for varying standard deviations of the delay distribution, indicating the generality of these results. So we conclude that distributed delays, which may be typically expected in real-world situations, do not have a notable effect on synchronization. This allows results obtained with constant delays to remain relevant even in the case of randomly distributed delays.

  3. Effects of Alkylthio and Alkoxy Side Chains in Polymer Donor Materials for Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chaohua; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2016-02-01

    Side chains play a considerable role not only in improving the solubility of polymers for solution-processed device fabrication, but also in affecting the molecular packing, electron affinity and thus the device performance. In particular, electron-donating side chains show unique properties when employed to tune the electronic character of conjugated polymers in many cases. Therefore, rational electron-donating side chain engineering can improve the photovoltaic properties of the resulting polymer donors to some extent. Here, a survey of some representative examples which use electron-donating alkylthio and alkoxy side chains in conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cell applications will be presented. It is envisioned that an analysis of the effect of such electron-donating side chains in polymer donors would contribute to a better understanding of this kind of side chain behavior in solution-processed conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cells.

  4. The effect of caffeine ingestion on delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Caitlin F; Hatfield, Disa L; Riebe, Deborah A

    2013-11-01

    The beneficial effects of caffeine on aerobic activity and resistance training performance are well documented. However, less is known concerning caffeine's potential role in reducing perception of pain and soreness during exercise. In addition, there is no information regarding the effects of caffeine on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine ingestion on muscle soreness, blood enzyme activity, and performance after a bout of elbow flexion/extension exercise. Nine low-caffeine-consuming males (body mass: 76.68 ± 8.13 kg; height: 179.18 ± 9.35 cm; age: 20 ± 1 year) were randomly assigned to ingest either caffeine or placebo 1 hour before completing 4 sets of 10 bicep curls on a preacher bench, followed by a fifth set in which subjects completed as many repetitions as possible. Soreness and soreness on palpation intensity were measured using three 0-10 visual analog scales before exercise, and 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after exercise. After a washout period, subjects crossed over to the other treatment group. Caffeine ingestion resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower levels of soreness on day 2 and day 3 compared with placebo. Total repetitions in the final set of exercise increased with caffeine ingestion compared with placebo. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion immediately before an upper-body resistance training out enhances performance. A further beneficial effect of sustained caffeine ingestion in the days after the exercise bout is an attenuation of DOMS. This decreased perception of soreness in the days after a strenuous resistance training workout may allow individuals to increase the number of training sessions in a given time period.

  5. Prices and network effects in two-sided markets: the Belgian newspaper industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Cayseele, P.; Vanormelingen, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the two-sided nature of the newspaper industry. We explicitly take into account cross network effects that exist between advertisers and newspaper readers. On one side, advertisers' demand for publicity space depends on the number of newspaper readers and their

  6. Prices and network effects in two-sided markets: the Belgian newspaper industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Cayseele, P.; Vanormelingen, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the two-sided nature of the newspaper industry. We explicitly take into account cross network effects that exist between advertisers and newspaper readers. On one side, advertisers' demand for publicity space depends on the number of newspaper readers and their characteristic

  7. The effect of irradiating adaxial or abaxial side on photosynthesis of rose leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paradiso, R.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In many cropping systems most of the light irradiates the adaxial side of leaves. However, in cropping systems with intra canopy lighting a reasonable fraction of light may irradiate even the abaxial side of the leaves. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiating the

  8. The effect of irradiating adaxial or abaxial side on photosynthesis of rose leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paradiso, R.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In many cropping systems most of the light irradiates the adaxial side of leaves. However, in cropping systems with intra canopy lighting a reasonable fraction of light may irradiate even the abaxial side of the leaves. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiating the

  9. The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummer, R.J.M.; Schoenmakers, E.A.J.M.; Kemerink, G.J.; Heidendal, G.A.K.; Sanders, D.G.M.; Stockbrügger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND: Cisapride has an established prokinetic effect in patients with delayed gastric emptying. However, rectal administration of the drug might be preferred in patients with either dysphagia or nausea due to gast

  10. The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummer, R.J.M.; Schoenmakers, E.A.J.M.; Kemerink, G.J.; Heidendal, G.A.K.; Sanders, D.G.M.; Stockbrügger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND: Cisapride has an established prokinetic effect in patients with delayed gastric emptying. However, rectal administration of the drug might be preferred in patients with either dysphagia or nausea due to

  11. Predicting drug side-effect profiles: a chemical fragment-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Edouard; Stoven, Véronique; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro

    2011-05-18

    Drug side-effects, or adverse drug reactions, have become a major public health concern. It is one of the main causes of failure in the process of drug development, and of drug withdrawal once they have reached the market. Therefore, in silico prediction of potential side-effects early in the drug discovery process, before reaching the clinical stages, is of great interest to improve this long and expensive process and to provide new efficient and safe therapies for patients. In the present work, we propose a new method to predict potential side-effects of drug candidate molecules based on their chemical structures, applicable on large molecular databanks. A unique feature of the proposed method is its ability to extract correlated sets of chemical substructures (or chemical fragments) and side-effects. This is made possible using sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA). In the results, we show the usefulness of the proposed method by predicting 1385 side-effects in the SIDER database from the chemical structures of 888 approved drugs. These predictions are performed with simultaneous extraction of correlated ensembles formed by a set of chemical substructures shared by drugs that are likely to have a set of side-effects. We also conduct a comprehensive side-effect prediction for many uncharacterized drug molecules stored in DrugBank, and were able to confirm interesting predictions using independent source of information. The proposed method is expected to be useful in various stages of the drug development process.

  12. Psychopharmacology of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects and Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmirzaei, Javad; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad A; Hamzei, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children which manifests with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Several drugs are used in treatment of ADHD. Stimulants, atomoxetine, anti-depressants, and bupropion are common medications used in the treatment of ADHD. Stimulants are widely used as the first line treatment in children with ADHD. Their mechanism of action is the release of dopamine and norepinephrine in central nervous system. Methylphenidate is the most common stimulant used for the treatment of ADHD. Methylphenidate significantly reduces ADHD symptoms in children both at home and school and improves their social skills. Methylphenidate is safe in healthy children and has shown to have no cardiac side effects in these patients. Other medications include: Atomoxetine, Amphetamines, Clonidine, Melatonin, and anti-depressants. Effects, side effects, and mechanism of action these drugs have been discussed in this paper.

  13. Effect of delayed cord clamping on very preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiruvolu, Arpitha; Tolia, Veeral N; Qin, Huanying; Stone, Genna Leal; Rich, Diana; Conant, Rhoda J; Inzer, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Despite significant proposed benefits, delayed umbilical cord clamping (DCC) is not practiced widely in preterm infants largely because of the question of feasibility of the procedure and uncertainty regarding the magnitude of the reported benefits, especially intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) vs the adverse consequences of delaying the neonatal resuscitation. The objective of this study was to determine whether implementation of the protocol-driven DCC process in our institution would reduce the incidence of IVH in very preterm infants without adverse consequences. We implemented a quality improvement process for DCC the started in August 2013 in infants born at ≤32 weeks' gestational age. Eligible infants were left attached to the placenta for 45 seconds after birth. Neonatal process and outcome data were collected until discharge. We compared infants who received DCC who were born between August 2013 and August 2014 with a historic cohort of infants who were born between August 2012 and August 2013, who were eligible to receive DCC, but whose cord was clamped immediately after birth, because they were born before the protocol implementation. DCC was performed on all the 60 eligible infants; 88 infants were identified as historic control subjects. Gestational age, birthweight, and other demographic variables were similar between both groups. There were no differences in Apgar scores or admission temperature, but significantly fewer infants in the DCC cohort were intubated in delivery room, had respiratory distress syndrome, or received red blood cell transfusions in the first week of life compared with the historic cohort. A significant reduction was noted in the incidence of IVH in the DCC cohort compared with the historic control group (18.3% vs 35.2%). After adjustment for gestational age, an association was found between the incidence of IVH and DCC with IVH was significantly lower in the DCC cohort compared with the historic cohort; an odds ratio of 0

  14. 单面与双面信息广告重复效应的实证研究%An Empirical Study on One-sided VS Two-sided Advertising's Repetition Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代祺; 梁樑

    2011-01-01

    By introducing the variable of business ethics perception and integrating Optimal Arousal Theory, Processing Fluency Model, Attribution Theory and Two Factor Theory, the study compares the repetition effects differences between one and two-sided advertisements. Using inter-group experiment design, the results suggest that two-sided advertisements are processed less fluently than one-sided ones, but the percentage of accurate recall and advertisement response are higher than its counterpart. The repetition effects are inverted U shape for one-side advertisements and monotonic increase for two-sided advertisements. Thus, the wearing out effects of two-sided advertisements is delayed. The diversity in perception of business ethics play important role in determining this differences.%通过引入企业道德感知变量,并在整合最优唤醒理论、加工流畅模型、归因理论和两因素理论的基础上,深入剖析了单、双面信息广告重复效应的差异.研究结果表明:双面信息广告比单面信息广告加工更困难,但消费者对其广告正确回忆率更高,广告反应也更积极.单面信息广告的重复效应呈现先增后减的倒U趋势,而双面信息广告的重复效应呈单调递增趋势,疲劳效应延迟出现.消费者对企业道德感知的差异在很大程度上决定了单、双面信息广告重复效应的差异.

  15. The effects of massage on delayed onset muscle soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, J; Sforzo, G; Swensen, T

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of massage on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Methods: Eighteen volunteers were randomly assigned to either a massage or control group. DOMS was induced with six sets of eight maximal eccentric contractions of the right hamstring, which were followed 2 h later by 20 min of massage or sham massage (control). Peak torque and mood were assessed at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h postexercise. Range of motion (ROM) and intensity and unpleasantness of soreness were assessed at 6, 24, and 48 h postexercise. Neutrophil count was assessed at 6 and 24 h postexercise. Results: A two factor ANOVA (treatment v time) with repeated measures on the second factor showed no significant treatment differences for peak torque, ROM, neutrophils, unpleasantness of soreness, and mood (p > 0.05). The intensity of soreness, however, was significantly lower in the massage group relative to the control group at 48 h postexercise (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Massage administered 2 h after exercise induced muscle injury did not improve hamstring function but did reduce the intensity of soreness 48 h after muscle insult. PMID:12547748

  16. Medication side effects among people with epilepsy taking phenobarbital in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elafros, Melissa A; Bui, Esther; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2014-11-01

    Phenobarbital remains one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs worldwide, yet there are limited data regarding side effects associated with its use in routine clinical care settings in low-income countries. Available data suggests that phenobarbital is as effective as other first-line drugs for treating tonic-clonic seizures, but side effect reports differ widely between high and low-income settings. A better understanding of phenobarbital side effect profile and severity in low-income settings is warranted given its role in efforts to decrease the epilepsy treatment gap. We used the Liverpool adverse events profile (LEAP) to assess side effects in consecutive patients with epilepsy on phenobarbital seeking care in rural Zambia. Data regarding age, gender, medication dose, and medication adherence were also collected. T-tests and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess predictors of LEAP score and medication adherence. Thirty-five patients receiving a mean dose of 2.1mg/kg/day (SD: 2.78 mg/kg/day) of phenobarbital were assessed. All participants reported at least one side effect in the previous four weeks with a median of 6 symptoms (IQR: 4-8) and a mean side effects score of 28/76 (SD: 5.38). Over half reported sleepiness and dizziness. Memory problems and depression were also common (both 46%). Total LAEP score was not associated with age (p=0.88), gender (p=0.17), or phenobarbital dose (p=0.13). Medication adherence was not associated with side effects total score (p=0.56). Rural Zambian adults taking phenobarbital at doses recommended by the World Health Organization report a significant number of side effects. The most common side effects reported were similar to those reported in high-income countries. The significant burden of phenobarbital-associated side effects in this African cohort is in contrast to data from non-randomized clinical trials in China that reported phenobarbital to be well-tolerated with few side effects. Additional

  17. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Lipodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lipodystrophy can be upsetting and affect a person’s self-esteem. Because of lipodystrophy, a person may decide to ... Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents/Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Agents From the Department ...

  18. Lymphadenitis as a Rare Side Effect of H1N1 Vaccine in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Gundogdu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 5-year-old boy who had the complaint of swelling and pain on the right vaccine shot and right axillary areas. The right axillary area was diagnosed as reactive lymphadenitis, which we believe is a rare local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. The key message to take away from this case is that the patient had lymphadenitis as a local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. Lymphadenitis should be reported as a possible local side effect of the swine flu vaccine.

  19. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain: patient report vs. systematic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Torsten; Christrup, Lona Louring; Højsted, J

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatment....... We aimed to investigate the symptoms reported by chronic non-cancer pain patients after open-ended questioning vs. a systematic assessment using a list of symptoms, and to assess whether the patients could distinguish between the symptoms and the side effects induced by analgesics....

  20. Factors associated with the perception of side-effects relating to the use of contraceptive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Erasmus

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited research has been done in South Africa regarding the incidence of side-effects and perceptions of these among users of contraceptives. Numerous knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP surveys have been conducted by the Human Sciences Research Council (Erasmus 1981a; Erasmus 1981b; Erasmus 1982 ; Groenewald 1978 ; Lótter, Van Tonder 1976; Mostert, Malherbe 1974; Mostert 1974; Strydom 1981; Van der Merwe 1982 and in some of these studies questions concerning side-effects were included to determine reasons for discontinuation of specific contraceptive methods. The literature concerning research on side-effects related to contraceptive use usually pertains either to clinical studies

  1. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke Todokoro; Hirotaka Itakura; Takashi Ibe; Shoji Kishi

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of a...

  2. Effect of Overlaid Material on Optical Transmission of Side-Polished Fiber Made by Wheel Side Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Chen; Chun-He Bai

    2008-01-01

    The performance of optical power transmission through a side-polished fiber on which materials of different refractive indices were overlaid is investigated. The experiments show that the transmitted optical power through the side-polished fiber varies with the refractive index of the overlaid material. The result of our experiments fits well the theoretical calculation.Side-polished fiber manufactured by wheel polishing method can be used not only to control optical power transmission through the fiber core but also as a refractive index sensor.

  3. Backreaction effects on the matter side of Einstein's field equations

    CERN Document Server

    Floerchinger, Stefan; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have derived a novel and compact expression for how perturbations in the matter fields of the cosmological fluid can lead to deviations from the standard Friedmann equations. Remarkably, the dissipative damping of velocity perturbations by bulk and shear viscosity in the dark sector can modify the expansion history of the universe on arbitrarily large scales. In universes in which this effect is sufficiently sizeable, it could account for the acceleration of the cosmological expansion. But even if dark matter should be less viscous and if the effect would be correspondingly smaller, it may have observable consequences in the era of precision cosmology. Here, we review the origin of this backreaction effect and possibilities to constrain it further.

  4. Effect of Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair on Nerve Regeneration, Schwann Cell Function and Target Muscle Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Samuel; Wiberg, Rebecca; McGrath, Aleksandra M.; Novikov, Lev N.; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikova, Liudmila N.; Kingham, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques for peripheral nerve repair, functional restitution remains incomplete. The timing of surgery is one factor influencing the extent of recovery but it is not yet clearly defined how long a delay may be tolerated before repair becomes futile. In this study, rats underwent sciatic nerve transection before immediate (0) or 1, 3, or 6 months delayed repair with a nerve graft. Regeneration of spinal motoneurons, 13 weeks after nerve repair, was assessed using retrograde labeling. Nerve tissue was also collected from the proximal and distal stumps and from the nerve graft, together with the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. A dramatic decline in the number of regenerating motoneurons and myelinated axons in the distal nerve stump was observed in the 3- and 6-months delayed groups. After 3 months delay, the axonal number in the proximal stump increased 2–3 folds, accompanied by a smaller axonal area. RT-PCR of distal nerve segments revealed a decline in Schwann cells (SC) markers, most notably in the 3 and 6 month delayed repair samples. There was also a progressive increase in fibrosis and proteoglycan scar markers in the distal nerve with increased delayed repair time. The yield of SC isolated from the distal nerve segments progressively fell with increased delay in repair time but cultured SC from all groups proliferated at similar rates. MG muscle at 3- and 6-months delay repair showed a significant decline in weight (61% and 27% compared with contra-lateral side). Muscle fiber atrophy and changes to neuromuscular junctions were observed with increased delayed repair time suggestive of progressively impaired reinnervation. This study demonstrates that one of the main limiting factors for nerve regeneration after delayed repair is the distal stump. The critical time point after which the outcome of regeneration becomes too poor appears to be 3-months. PMID:23409189

  5. Liraglutide and DPP-4 inhibitors – side effects comparative clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIMOFTE, LUMINIŢA; STRATMANN, BERND; QUESTER, WULF; BOJIŢĂ, MARIUS TRAIAN; TSCHOEPE, DIETHELM

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the side effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in comparison to those of DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin and vildagliptin), in order to determine their safety, tolerability and therapeutic efficiency. The study was carried out in the “Heart and Diabetes Center NRW” and included overweight patients with type 2 diabetes whose therapeutic regimen was switched to liraglutide or DPP-4 inhibitors. A validated questionnaire method was used to monitor the side effects during the hospitalization period, then again at 3, and 6 months after the beginning of the therapy. The therapy with liraglutide was associated with more side effects than the one with DPP-4 inhibitors. In general, side effects were declining with time, thus only few patients stopped therapy. The incretin therapy turned out to be a safe and effective therapeutic option for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26527929

  6. Performance outcomes and unwanted side effects associated with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are increasingly popular among athletes and others. Advertising for these products typically features images conjuring great muscle power and endurance; however, the scientific literature provides sparse evidence for an ergogenic role of energy drinks. Although the composition of energy drinks varies, most contain caffeine; carbohydrates, amino acids, herbs, and vitamins are other typical ingredients. This report analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on prolonged submaximal (endurance) exercise as well as on short-term strength and power (neuromuscular performance). It also analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on the fluid and electrolyte deficit during prolonged exercise. In several studies, energy drinks have been found to improve endurance performance, although the effects could be attributable to the caffeine and/or carbohydrate content. In contrast, fewer studies find an ergogenic effect of energy drinks on muscle strength and power. The existing data suggest that the caffeine dose given in studies of energy drinks is insufficient to enhance neuromuscular performance. Finally, it is unclear if energy drinks are the optimal vehicle to deliver caffeine when high doses are needed to improve neuromuscular performance.

  7. Side effects of pain and analgesia in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirkof, Paulin

    2017-03-22

    This review highlights selected effects of untreated pain and of widely used analgesics such as opioids, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and antipyretics, to illustrate the relevance of carefully planned, appropriate and controlled analgesia for greater reproducibility in animal experiments involving laboratory rodents.

  8. Severe akathisia as a side effect of metoclopramide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. van Gool (Arthur); J.K. Doorduijn (Jeanette); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCase description A case of severe metoclopramide-induced akathisia in a breast cancer patient being treated with chemotherapy is presented, eventually culminating in hospital admission. In retrospect, this adverse effect was not recognized for several weeks because the prescription had n

  9. Alcoholics Anonymous: A Wonderful Medication with Some Possible Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machell, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Describes Alcoholics Anonymous as an effective self-help treatment modality for many alcoholics. Notes that organization would seem to initially necessitate "tolerated unhealthiness" psychologically to help consolidate sobriety, suggesting abstinence first, psychological healthiness second regimen. Suggests that psychotherapists learn to…

  10. NEW APPLICATIONS OF ADAPTOGENS TO REDUCE RADIATION SIDE EFFECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, S N; Antipina, U D; Arzhakova, L I; Protodyakonov, S V

    2015-01-01

    One of the live medical issues today is to find medication to prevent adverse effects of ionizing radiation on the immune and hematopoietic systems. In Yakutia where in most of its regions the overall environmental situation is getting worse due to the development of natural deposits including radioactive deposits, this problem remains vital. The purpose of this work is to study radioprotective properties of adaptogens in the case of the hematopoietic system under irradiation. The studies were conducted on certain groups of hybrid mice. We used the methods of radiation exposure by a radiological apparatus RUM-25 on hybrid mice followed by studying the cellularity of bone marrow, spleen and thymus. The functional activity of all compartments of early hematopoiesis (bone marrow hematopoiesis) was identified by the exogenous colony forming method. The study found that the extracts of reindeer and moose antlers have a stimulating effect on the functional activity of the hematopoietic precursors in response to radiation. The study medication stimulates regeneration processes in the thymus and bone marrow after irradiation. Further, the adaptogens stimulatory effect on CFU functional activity was identified. The most pronounced effect has the extracts of reindeer antlers "Epsorin".

  11. Effects of SNS Activation on SSRI-Induced Sexual Side Effects Differ by SSRI

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrold, Tierney K.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2009-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with significant sexual side effects. By definition, all SSRIs increase overall serotonin (5HT) by binding to serotonin autoreceptors (5HTI A); however, each SSRI has a unique portfolio of secondary binding properties to other neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine (NE). As 5HTI A receptors mediate NE neurotransmission, SSRIs that are highly selective for 5HTI A are more likely to reduce NE efficiency; however, in SSRIs that are...

  12. Ayurveda for chemo-radiotherapy induced side effects in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metri, Kashinath; Bhargav, Hemant; Chowdhury, Praerna; Koka, Prasad S

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy drugs and radiotherapy are highly toxic and both damage adjacent healthy cells. Side effects may be acute (occurring within few weeks after therapy), intermediate or late (occurring months or years after the therapy). Some important side effects of chemotherapy are: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mucositis, alopecia, constipation etc; whereas radiation therapy though administered locally, can produce systemic side effects such as fatigue, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, alteration in the taste, sleep disturbance, headache, anemia, dry skin, constipation etc. Late complications of these therapies also include pharyngitis, esophagitis, laryngitis, persistent dysphagia, fatigue, hepatotoxicity, infertility and cognitive deficits. These arrays of side effects have a devastating effect on the quality of life of cancer survivors. Due to the inadequacy of most of the radio-protectors and chemo-protectors in controlling the side effects of conventional cancer therapy the complementary and alternative medicines have attracted the view of researchers and medical practitioners more recently. This review aims at providing a comprehensive management protocol of above mentioned chemo-radiotherapy induced side effects based on Ayurveda, which is an ancient system of traditional medicine practiced in Indian peninsula since 5000 BC. When the major side effects of chemo-radiotherapy are looked through an ayurvedic perspective, it appears that they are the manifestations of aggravated pitta dosha, especially under the group of disorders called Raktapitta (haemorrhage) or Raktadushti (vascular inflammation). Based on comprehensive review of ancient vedic literature and modern scientific evidences, ayurveda based interventions are put forth. This manuscript should help clinicians and people suffering from cancer to combat serious chemo-radiotherapy related side effects through simple but effective home-based ayurveda remedies. The remedies described are commonly available and

  13. Being green on sulphur: Targets, measures and side-effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    deep-sea trades. Even though the amounts of SOx produced by ships are substantially lower than CO2, SOx emissions are highly undesirable as they cause acid rain and undesirable health effects in humans and animals. To mitigate these adverse environmental effects, the international shipping community...... has taken substantial policy measures. With the introduction of new limits for the content of sulphur in marine fuels in Northern European and North American sea areas, short-sea companies operating in these areas will face substantial additional cost. As of 1/1/2015, international regulations...... stipulate, among other things, a 0.1%limit in the sulphur content of marine fuels, or equivalent measures limiting the percent of SOx emissions to the same amount. As low-sulphur fuel is substantially more expensive than HFO, there is little or no room within these companies current margins to absorb...

  14. The psychological side effects of acebutolol and atenolol.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M. J.; Jones, D.M.; Dart, A M; Henderson, A H

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the psychological effects of acebutolol and atenolol in sixteen patients with essential hypertension. The drugs were administered in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind manner, in single daily doses of 100 mg atenolol, 400 mg acebutolol or placebo for periods of 6 weeks, each drug period being separated by a placebo period. At each 2 weekly clinic visit, a questionnaire designed for assessment of state anxiety and state arousal was administered for self-completion....

  15. Time delay and profit accumulation effect on a mine-based uranium market clearing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auzans, Aris [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Teder, Allan [School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu, Narva mnt 4, EE-51009 Tartu (Estonia); Tkaczyk, Alan H., E-mail: alan@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Improved version of a mine-based uranium market clearing model for the front-end uranium market and enrichment industries is proposed. • A profit accumulation algorithm and time delay function provides more realistic uranium mine decision making process. • Operational decision delay increased uranium market price volatility. - Abstract: The mining industry faces a number of challenges such as market volatility, investment safety, issues surrounding employment and productivity. Therefore, computer simulations are highly relevant in order to reduce financial risks associated with these challenges. In the mining industry, each firm must compete with other mines and the basic target is profit maximization. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the world uranium (U) supply by simulating financial management challenges faced by an individual U mine that are caused by a variety of regulation issues. In this paper front-end nuclear fuel cycle tool is used to simulate market conditions and the effects they have on the stability of U supply. An individual U mine’s exit or entry in the market might cause changes in the U supply side which can increase or decrease the market price. In this paper we offer a more advanced version of a mine-based U market clearing model. The existing U market model incorporates the market of primary U from uranium mines with secondary uranium (depleted uranium DU), enriched uranium (HEU) and enrichment services. In the model each uranium mine acts as an independent agent that is able to make operational decisions based on the market price. This paper introduces a more realistic decision making algorithm of individual U mine that adds constraints to production decisions. The authors added an accumulated profit model, which allows for the profits accumulated to cover any possible future economic losses and the time-delay algorithm to simulate delayed process of reopening a U mine. The U market simulation covers time period 2010

  16. Metabolic side effects and pharmacogenetics of second-generation antipsychotics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Angela M; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly being used to treat children for a range of mental health conditions, for example, anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. SGA treatment is associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and elevated blood pressure, in some, but not all children. This review provides an overview of the potential role of pharmacogenomics in predisposing a child to unhealthy weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects with SGA treatment. Specifically, the review includes a synopsis of the evidence for cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children, illustrating the extent and depth of the problem; summarizes the potential long-term consequences of developing cardiometabolic risk during childhood and highlights genetic variants that may be useful in predicting cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children.

  17. Oesophagus side effects related to the treatment of oesophageal cancer or radiotherapy of other thoracic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebahr, Sonja; Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Nestle, Ursula; Brunner, Thomas B

    2016-08-01

    The oesophagus as a serial organ located in the central chest is frequent subject to "incidental" dose application in radiotherapy for several thoracic malignancies including oesophageal cancer itself. Especially due to the radiosensitive mucosa severe radiotherapy induced sequelae can occur, acute oesophagitis and strictures as late toxicity being the most frequent side-effects. In this review we focus on oesophageal side effects derived from treatment of gastrointestinal cancer and secondly provide an overview on oesophageal toxicity from conventional and stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy to the thoracic area in general. Available data on pathogenesis, frequency, onset, and severity of oesophageal side effects are summarized. Whereas for conventional radiotherapy the associations of applied doses to certain volumes of the oesophagus are well described, the tolerance dose to the mediastinal structures for hypofractionated therapy is unknown. The review provides available attempts to predict the risk of oesophageal side effects from dosimetric parameters of SBRT.

  18. Incidence of neuropsychiatric side effects of efavirenz in HIV-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... be at a higher risk of developing neuropsychiatric side effects. A South African study ... Five public-sector primary healthcare clinics in the. Eastern Cape ... efavirenz use as well as the subsequent management of the patient.

  19. Vaccine demand driven by vaccine side effects: dynamic implications for SIR diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero

    2010-05-21

    For infections for which the perceived risk of serious disease is steadily low, the perceived risk of suffering some vaccine side effects might become the driving force of the vaccine demand. We investigate the dynamics of SIR infections in homogeneously mixing populations where the vaccine uptake is a decreasing function of the current (or past) incidence, or prevalence, of vaccine side effects. We define an appropriate model where vaccine side-effects are modelled as functions of the age since vaccination. It happens that the vaccine uptake follows its own dynamics independent of epidemiological variables. We show the conditions under which the vaccine uptake lands on a globally stable equilibrium, or steadily oscillates, and the implications of such behaviour for the dynamics of epidemiological variables. We finally report some unexpected scenarios caused by trends in vaccine side effects.

  20. Impact of duration of therapy on side effect profile of anti- HCV protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... Keywords: Interferon, Ribavirin, Side effects, Duration of therapy, Outcomes of therapy ... problems, anemia and pulmonary fibrosis [6]. ..... Saeed A. Impact of cigarette smoking on response to.

  1. [Side effects analyses in consideration of renal function for S-1-administered patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Mina; Kimura, Michio; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Yasuda, Tadashi

    2011-06-01

    Although many analyses of S-1 side effects are reported, there are no reports where the analyses of side effects were performed in consideration of renal function, which is an important index of medication dose. Therefore, we investigated side effects in consideration of renal function. The subjects were 163 patients administered S-1 at the Department of Surgery of Ogaki Municipal Hospital, between October 2008 and December 2009. The frequency and severity of side effects were high and serious in the groupwhose creatinine clearance was low. A significant difference was observed among 3 groups with regard to thrombocytopenia and dehydration. In conclusion, we think that pharmacists must take renal function into consideration when administering medication, to keepclose medicinal guidance, and to actively observe progress.

  2. The Effects of Download Delay on Performance and End-User Satisfaction in an Internet Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Erica S.; Hantula, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study of university students that investigated the effects of a variable unique to Internet-based learning, namely download delay of instructional materials. Discusses a simulated online teaching tool that measured the effects of download delay of images on test performance, time spent on the material, end-user satisfaction, and…

  3. GLOBAL EXPONENTIAL STABILITY OF HOPFIELD NEURAL NETWORKS WITH VARIABLE DELAYS AND IMPULSIVE EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhi-chun; XU Dao-yi

    2006-01-01

    A class of Hopfield neural network with time-varying delays and impulsive effects is concerned. By applying the piecewise continuous vector Lyapunov function some sufficient conditions were obtained to ensure the global exponential stability of impulsive delay neural networks. An example and its simulation are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the results.

  4. Impacts of Wake Effect and Time Delay on the Dynamic Analysis of Wind Farms Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fouly, Tarek H. M.; El-Saadany, Ehab F.; Salama, Magdy M. A.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the impacts of proper modeling of the wake effects and wind speed delays, between different wind turbines' rows, on the dynamic performance accuracy of the wind farms models. Three different modeling scenarios were compared to highlight the impacts of wake effects and wind speed time-delay models. In the first scenario,…

  5. Effect of electric field, stress and environment on delayed fracture of a PZT-5 ferroelectric ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yi; SU; Yanjing; CHU; Wuyang; QIAO; Lijie

    2005-01-01

    The combined effect of electric and mechanical loading on fracture of a PZT-5 ferroelectric ceramic in silicone oil has been investigated using a single edge notched specimen. The results show that the fracture toughness and the threshold stress intensity factor of delayed fracture in silicone oil, i.e. stress corrosion cracking, decrease linearly with the increasing applied electric field, either positive or negative. For the PZT-5 ferroelectric ceramics, delayed fracture in silicone oil under sustained positive or negative field can occur, and the threshold field for delayed fracture under sustained positive or negative field decreases linearly with applied stress intensity factor. The combined effect of electric and mechanical loading on delayed fracture in silicone oil includes fieldenhancing delayed fracture under sustained load and stress-enhancing delayed fracture in silicone oil under sustained field.

  6. The acute side effects of bright light therapy: a placebo-controlled investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeny Botanov

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of numerous clinical and non-clinical applications of bright light therapy (LT in recent decades, the prevalence and severity of LT side effects have not yet been fully explicated. A few adverse LT effects-headache, eye strain, irritability, and nausea-have been consistently reported among depressed individuals and other psychiatric cohorts, but there exists little published evidence regarding LT side effects in non-clinical populations, who often undergo LT treatment of considerably briefer duration. Accordingly, in the present study we examined, in a randomized sample of healthy young adults, the acute side effects of exposure to a single 30-minute session of bright white light (10,000 lux versus dim red light (< 500 lux. Across a broad range of potential side effects, repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed no significant group-by-time (Pre, Post interactions. In other words, bright light exposure was not associated with a significantly higher incidence of any reported side effect than was the placebo control condition. Nevertheless, small but statistically significant increases in both eye strain and blurred vision were observed among both the LT and control groups. Overall, these results suggest that the relatively common occurrence of adverse side effects observed in the extant LT literature may not fully extend to non-clinical populations, especially for healthy young adults undergoing LT for a brief duration.

  7. Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0374 TITLE: Autism and Obesity : Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zohreh...SUBTITLE Autism and Obesity : Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...on the BMI data into obese , overweight, healthy and underweight categories. [3] Using a rigorous literature search dbSNP search, we collected data on

  8. Body-drug assemblages: theorizing the experience of side effects in the context of HIV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marilou; Holmes, Dave

    2016-10-01

    Each of the antiretroviral drugs that are currently used to stop the progression of HIV infection causes its own specific side effects. Despite the expansion, multiplication, and simplification of treatment options over the past decade, side effects continue to affect people living with HIV. Yet, we see a clear disconnect between the way side effects are normalized, routinized, and framed in clinical practice and the way they are experienced by people living with HIV. This paper builds on the premise that new approaches are needed to understand side effects in a manner that is more reflective of the subjective accounts of people living with HIV. Drawing on the work of Deleuze and Guattari, it offers an original application of the theory of 'assemblage'. This theory offers a new way of theorizing side effects, and ultimately the relationship between the body and antiretroviral drugs (as technologies). Combining theory with examples derived from empirical data, we examine the multiple ways in which the body connects not only to the drugs but also to people, things, and systems. Our objective is to illustrate how this theory dares us to think differently about side effects and allows us to originally (re)think the experience of taking antiretroviral drugs. © 2016 The Authors. Nursing Philosophy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Severe side effects of health migration: stress and anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo, L M; Bazzari, M; Caprino, D

    2012-12-01

    A great deal of immigrants of very sick children treated in our country are unable to elaborate an effective coping strategy and a methodology of resilience. Their culture and communication difficulties do not allow them to build a strong self help system. Herein, we report five stories of mothers and children who were cared for in our Children's Hospital. Anger; this is quite a common emotion among many immigrant parents of sick children with high risk diseases who have been treated in our hospital for long periods of time. They live together in community housing with families from other countries, and of different religions and habits. Anger affects their personal and social well-being. Self-blame is a common expression of their condition, and they are unable to make helpful self sacrifices. They feel anger as a result of what has happened to them, and they do not have the abilities they need to activate a good defence mechanism. Resilience is completely unknown to them. In most cases, their relatives do not intend to help them. These mothers are far from their families and habits, they are alone with their child, they suffer but their relatives push them to go back home and to renounce to the hope of cure given by the physicians. They experience a loss in their self-monitoring ability to build a coping strategy and resilience. In these cases their display of anger is often exaggerated. The anger of the immigrants is an additional problem for physicians and other caregivers working in hospitals which treat immigrant children.

  10. Side effects of oxysterols: cytotoxicity, oxidation, inflammation, and phospholipidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vejux

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxysterols are 27-carbon atom molecules resulting from autoxidation or enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol. They are present in numerous foodstuffs and have been demonstrated to be present at increased levels in the plasma of patients with cardiovascular diseases and in atherosclerotic lesions. Thus, their role in lipid disorders is widely suspected, and they might also be involved in important degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, and age-related macular degeneration. Since atherosclerosis is associated with the presence of apoptotic cells and with oxidative and inflammatory processes, the ability of some oxysterols, especially 7-ketocholesterol and 7β-hydroxycholesterol, to trigger cell death, activate inflammation, and modulate lipid homeostasis is being extensively studied, especially in vitro. Thus, since there are a number of essential considerations regarding the physiological/pathophysiological functions and activities of the different oxysterols, it is important to determine their biological activities and identify their signaling pathways, when they are used either alone or as mixtures. Oxysterols may have cytotoxic, oxidative, and/or inflammatory effects, or none whatsoever. Moreover, a substantial accumulation of polar lipids in cytoplasmic multilamellar structures has been observed with cytotoxic oxysterols, suggesting that cytotoxic oxysterols are potent inducers of phospholipidosis. This basic knowledge about oxysterols contributes to a better understanding of the associated pathologies and may lead to new treatments and new drugs. Since oxysterols have a number of biological activities, and as oxysterol-induced cell death is assumed to take part in degenerative pathologies, the present review will focus on the cytotoxic activities of these compounds, the corresponding cell death signaling pathways, and associated events (oxidation, inflammation, and phospholipidosis.

  11. Understanding the Delayed-Keyword Effect on Metacomprehension Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W.; Dunlosky, John; Griffin, Thomas D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The typical finding from research on metacomprehension is that accuracy is quite low. However, recent studies have shown robust accuracy improvements when judgments follow certain generation tasks (summarizing or keyword listing) but only when these tasks are performed at a delay rather than immediately after reading (K. W. Thiede & M. C. M.…

  12. Digital TV, the effect of delay when watching football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekuria, R.N.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Bulterman, D.C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Hearing a neighbor cheer for a goal seconds before you see it can be very annoying. Currently, many people that upgrade their TV service from analog to digital TV are experiencing this. We briefly describe causes of these (relative) delays. To support this with practical evidence, we report field me

  13. Side effects of a dopamine agonist therapy for Parkinson’s disease: a mini-review of clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovac, Josip Anđelo

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine agonists (DA) are therapeutic agents that are commonly used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). They can reduce undesired motor fluctuations and delay the administration of levodopa therapy. However, this drug family is associated with specific side effects that can significantly diminish the quality of life among PD patients. Some of them impose significant risks for individuals who have a history of cardiovascular diseases, psychosis, and depression, or those older patients who suffer from renal or hepatic insufficiency. Various pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations need to be taken into account when administering DA therapy. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of DA therapeutic modalities for PD. PMID:27505015

  14. Effectiveness of carbohydrate feeding in delaying fatigue during prolonged exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, E F; Coggan, A R

    1984-01-01

    Prolonged exercise in the fasted state frequently results in a lowering of blood glucose concentration, and when the intensity is moderate (i.e. 60-80% of VO2 max), muscle often becomes depleted of glycogen. The extent to which carbohydrate feedings contribute to energy production, and their effectiveness for improving endurance during prolonged exercise, are reviewed in this article. Prolonged exercise (i.e. greater than 2 hours) results in a failure of hepatic glucose output to keep pace with muscle glucose uptake. As a result, blood glucose concentration frequently declines below 2.5 mmol/L. Despite this hypoglycaemia, fewer than 25% of subjects display symptoms suggestive of central nervous system dysfunction. Since fatigue rarely results from hypoglycaemia alone, the effectiveness of carbohydrate feeding should be judged by its potential for muscle glycogen sparing. Carbohydrate feeding during moderate intensity exercise postpones the development of fatigue by approximately 15 to 30 minutes, yet it does not prevent fatigue. This observation agrees with data suggesting that carbohydrate supplementation reduces muscle glycogen depletion. It is not certain whether carbohydrate feeding increases muscle glucose uptake throughout moderate exercise or if glucose uptake is higher only during the latter stages of exercise. In contrast to moderate intensity exercise, carbohydrate feeding during low intensity exercise (i.e. less than 45% of VO2 max) results in hyperinsulinaemia. Consequently, muscle glucose uptake and total carbohydrate oxidation are increased by approximately the same amount. The amount of ingested glucose which is oxidised is greater than the increase in total carbohydrate oxidation and therefore endogenous carbohydrate is spared. The majority of sparing appears to occur in the liver, which is reasonable since muscle glycogen is not utilised to a large extent during mild exercise. Although carbohydrate feedings prevent hypoglycaemia and are readily

  15. Effects of Nonlinear Time-Delay on a Stochastic Asymmetric System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiu-Yun; ZHU Chun-Lian; JIA Ya; LI Jia-Rong

    2006-01-01

    We numerically investigate the effects of nonlinear time-delay on the stochastic system. With the delay time increasing, it is found that the peak of probability distribution in low steady states is decreased, and the peak of probability distribution in high steady states is increased. The mean of state variable, the normalized variance, and the normalized autocorrelation function which quantifies the concentrated degree are slowly varied for small delay time. However, the mean of state variable is rapidly increased, and the normalized variance and the normalized autocorrelation function is rapidJy decreased for large delay time.

  16. Effects of SNS activation on SSRI-induced sexual side effects differ by SSRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrold, Tierney K; Meston, Cindy M

    2009-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with significant sexual side effects. By definition, all SSRIs increase overall serotonin (5HT) by binding to serotonin autoreceptors (5HT(IA)); however, each SSRI has a unique portfolio of secondary binding properties to other neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine (NE). As 5HT(IA) receptors mediate NE neurotransmission, SSRIs that are highly selective for 5HT(IA) are more likely to reduce NE efficiency; however, in SSRIs that are less selective for 5HT(IA), this could be counteracted by secondary binding to NE. Norepinephrine is the major neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which has been shown to mediate genital arousal in women; thus, it is possible that increasing SNS activity in women taking SSRIs that are highly selective for 5HT(IA) may counteract sexual side effects in those women. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a reanalysis of Meston (2004)'s 8-week, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study of the effects of ephedrine (50 mg taken 1 h prior to sexual activity) on self-reported sexual functioning of women taking paroxetine (N = 5), sertraline (N = 7), or fluoxetine (N = 7). As predicted, women taking SSRIs, which are highly selective for 5HT(IA) (sertraline, paroxetine), showed improvement in sexual arousal and orgasm. By contrast, women taking SSRIs, which are less selective for 5HT(IA) relative to NE (fluoxetine), showed no change or decrease in sexual functioning. These findings have implications for treating certain SSRI-induced sexual side effects.

  17. Cognitive effects of radiation emitted by cellular phones: the influence of exposure side and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Roy; Eliyahu, Ilan; Hareuveny, Ronen; Margaliot, Menachem; Meiran, Nachshon

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the time dependence effects of exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted by standard GSM cellular phones on the cognitive functions of humans. A total of 48 healthy right-handed male subjects performed a spatial working memory task (that required either a left-hand or a right-hand response) while being exposed to one of two GSM phones placed at both sides of the head. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Each group was exposed to one of three exposure conditions: left-side of the head, right-side, or sham-exposure. The experiment consisted of 12 blocks of trials. Response times (RTs) and accuracy of the responses were recorded. It was found that the average RT of the right-hand responses under left-side exposure condition was significantly longer than those of the right-side and sham-exposure groups averaged together during the first two time blocks. These results confirmed the existence of an effect of exposure on RT, as well as the fact that exposure duration (together with the responding hand and the side of exposure) may play an important role in producing detectable RFR effects on performance. Differences in these parameters might be the reason for the failure of certain studies to detect or replicate RFR effects. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. The Effects of popcorn time on Netflix in a two–sided market

    OpenAIRE

    Ghini, Matteo Blomberg

    2016-01-01

    My thesis discusses the effects on legal streaming agents of entry of free, but illegal, substitutes, in a two–sided video streaming market. Legal streaming agents rely on support from two very different, but inevitably linked, groups: studios and consumers, while their free counterparts rely on support only from consumers. As a result, the pricing decisions for legal streaming agents are far more complex than those of firms operating in regular single–sided markets and of firms ...

  19. The Effect of D-Cycloserine on Immediate vs. Delayed Extinction of Learned Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Julia M.; Richardson, Rick

    2010-01-01

    We compared the effect of D-cycloserine (DCS) on immediate (10 min after conditioning) and delayed (24 h after conditioning) extinction of learned fear in rats. DCS facilitated both immediate and delayed extinction when the drug was administered after extinction training. However, DCS did not facilitate immediate extinction when administered prior…

  20. The Effects of Inflation and Interest Rates on Delay Discounting in Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Kentaro

    2006-01-01

    Interest and inflation rates may be major determinants of delay discounting, but these variables have not been controlled in past experiments because they depend on macroeconomic conditions. This study uses a computer game-like task to investigate the effects of inflation rates on people's subjective valuation of delayed rewards. During the task,…

  1. Connected cruise control: modelling, delay effects, and nonlinear behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor

    2016-08-01

    Connected vehicle systems (CVS) are considered in this paper where vehicles exchange information using wireless vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. The concept of connected cruise control (CCC) is established that allows control design at the level of individual vehicles while exploiting V2V connectivity. Due to its high level of modularity the proposed design can be applied to large heterogeneous traffic systems. The dynamics of a simple CVS is analysed in detail while taking into account nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics as well as in the controller. Time delays that arise due to intermittencies and packet drops in the communication channels are also incorporated. The results are summarised using stability charts which allow one to select control gains to maintain stability and ensure disturbance attenuation when the delay is below a critical value.

  2. Predicting Drugs Side Effects Based on Chemical-Chemical Interactions and Protein-Chemical Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A drug side effect is an undesirable effect which occurs in addition to the intended therapeutic effect of the drug. The unexpected side effects that many patients suffer from are the major causes of large-scale drug withdrawal. To address the problem, it is highly demanded by pharmaceutical industries to develop computational methods for predicting the side effects of drugs. In this study, a novel computational method was developed to predict the side effects of drug compounds by hybridizing the chemical-chemical and protein-chemical interactions. Compared to most of the previous works, our method can rank the potential side effects for any query drug according to their predicted level of risk. A training dataset and test datasets were constructed from the benchmark dataset that contains 835 drug compounds to evaluate the method. By a jackknife test on the training dataset, the 1st order prediction accuracy was 86.30%, while it was 89.16% on the test dataset. It is expected that the new method may become a useful tool for drug design, and that the findings obtained by hybridizing various interactions in a network system may provide useful insights for conducting in-depth pharmacological research as well, particularly at the level of systems biomedicine.

  3. Quantitative prediction of drug side effects based on drug-related features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanqing; Zhang, Wen

    2017-09-01

    Unexpected side effects of drugs are great concern in the drug development, and the identification of side effects is an important task. Recently, machine learning methods are proposed to predict the presence or absence of interested side effects for drugs, but it is difficult to make the accurate prediction for all of them. In this paper, we transform side effect profiles of drugs as their quantitative scores, by summing up their side effects with weights. The quantitative scores may measure the dangers of drugs, and thus help to compare the risk of different drugs. Here, we attempt to predict quantitative scores of drugs, namely the quantitative prediction. Specifically, we explore a variety of drug-related features and evaluate their discriminative powers for the quantitative prediction. Then, we consider several feature combination strategies (direct combination, average scoring ensemble combination) to integrate three informative features: chemical substructures, targets, and treatment indications. Finally, the average scoring ensemble model which produces the better performances is used as the final quantitative prediction model. Since weights for side effects are empirical values, we randomly generate different weights in the simulation experiments. The experimental results show that the quantitative method is robust to different weights, and produces satisfying results. Although other state-of-the-art methods cannot make the quantitative prediction directly, the prediction results can be transformed as the quantitative scores. By indirect comparison, the proposed method produces much better results than benchmark methods in the quantitative prediction. In conclusion, the proposed method is promising for the quantitative prediction of side effects, which may work cooperatively with existing state-of-the-art methods to reveal dangers of drugs.

  4. Predicting drug side-effect profiles: a chemical fragment-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoven Véronique

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug side-effects, or adverse drug reactions, have become a major public health concern. It is one of the main causes of failure in the process of drug development, and of drug withdrawal once they have reached the market. Therefore, in silico prediction of potential side-effects early in the drug discovery process, before reaching the clinical stages, is of great interest to improve this long and expensive process and to provide new efficient and safe therapies for patients. Results In the present work, we propose a new method to predict potential side-effects of drug candidate molecules based on their chemical structures, applicable on large molecular databanks. A unique feature of the proposed method is its ability to extract correlated sets of chemical substructures (or chemical fragments and side-effects. This is made possible using sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA. In the results, we show the usefulness of the proposed method by predicting 1385 side-effects in the SIDER database from the chemical structures of 888 approved drugs. These predictions are performed with simultaneous extraction of correlated ensembles formed by a set of chemical substructures shared by drugs that are likely to have a set of side-effects. We also conduct a comprehensive side-effect prediction for many uncharacterized drug molecules stored in DrugBank, and were able to confirm interesting predictions using independent source of information. Conclusions The proposed method is expected to be useful in various stages of the drug development process.

  5. Is AL-438 likely to have fewer side effects than the glucocorticoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggrell, Sheila

    2003-07-01

    The glucocorticoids are effective anti-inflammatory agents but their use may be limited by systemic side effects. AL-438 and prednisolone inhibit binding to glucocorticoid and mineralcorticoid receptors with similar potency. In rat models of acute and chronic inflammation, AL-438 was effective but less potent than prednisolone. In fasted overnight rats, prednisolone was hyperglycaemic but AL-438 was not. Prednisolone also inhibited bone formation in rats, whereas AL-438 did not. The differing profile of AL-438 relative to prednisolone may be due to altered interactions between the receptor and selected co-activators. AL-438 may have lesser side effects than prednisolone.

  6. Effect of levomepromazine on EEG and on clinical side effects after lumbar myelography with metrizamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standnes, B.; Oftedal, S.I.; Weber, H. (Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo (Norway))

    1982-01-01

    In patients with lumbago-sciatica levomepromazine is a potent supplement to analgesics in pain treatment. The hypothesis that neuroleptics increase the risk of epileptic seizures after metrizamide myelography was not comfirmed in a series of 77 patients, 26 with and 51 without levomepromazine medication, before and after lumbar metrizamide myelography. No differences existed between the groups with regard to the appearance of EEG abnormalities such as slow waves or spikes. Mild side effects were more frequent in the levomepromazine group, except nausea and vomiting. Lumbar metrizamide epidurography in 30 patients did not cause any abnormal EEG.

  7. Endocrine side-effects of anti-cancer drugs: thyroid effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illouz, Frédéric; Braun, Doreen; Briet, Claire; Schweizer, Ulrich; Rodien, Patrice

    2014-09-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are currently used by most oncologists. Among their side effects, thyroid dysfunctions are nowadays clearly observed. Whereas changes in thyroid function tests have been originally described with sunitinib, we now know that many TKIs can induce hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. In this study, the various molecules implicated in thyroid dysfunctions are analysed and the latest data on physiopathological mechanisms are approached in order to propose a strategy of thyroid monitoring of patients on TKI therapy. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  8. A phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Bradley

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT is accompanied by a number of adverse side effects including reduced bone mass and increased risk for fracture, reduced lean mass and muscle strength, mood disturbance and increased fat mass compromising physical functioning, independence, and quality of life. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effects of long term exercise on reversing musculoskeletal-related side effects, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors in men receiving androgen deprivation for their prostate cancer. Specifically, we aim to investigate the effects of a 12-month exercise program designed to load the musculoskeletal system and reduce cardiovascular and diabetes disease progression on the following primary endpoints: 1 bone mineral density; 2 cardiorespiratory function and maximal oxygen capacity; 3 body composition (lean mass and fat mass; 4 blood pressure and cardiovascular function; 5 lipids and glycemic control; and 6 quality of life and psychological distress. Methods/Design Multi-site randomized controlled trial of 195 men (65 subjects per arm undergoing treatment for prostate cancer involving ADT in the cities of Perth and Brisbane in Australia. Participants will be randomized to (1 resistance/impact loading exercise, (2 resistance/cardiovascular exercise groups and (3 usual care/delayed exercise. Participants will then undergo progressive training for 12 months. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months (end of the intervention. Discussion The principal outcome of this project will be the determination of the strength of effect of exercise on the well established musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and insulin metabolism side effects of androgen deprivation in prostate cancer patients. As this project is much longer term than previous investigations in the area of exercise and cancer, we will gain knowledge as to the continuing effects of

  9. Mobile Phone Based System Opportunities to Home-based Managing of Chemotherapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Applying mobile base systems in cancer care especially in chemotherapy management have remarkable growing in recent decades. Because chemotherapy side effects have significant influences on patient’s lives, therefore it is necessary to take ways to control them. This research has studied some experiences of using mobile phone based systems to home-based monitor of chemotherapy side effects in cancer. Methods: In this literature review study, search was conducted with keywords like cancer, chemotherapy, mobile phone, information technology, side effects and self managing, in Science Direct, Google Scholar and Pub Med databases since 2005. Results: Today, because of the growing trend of the cancer, we need methods and innovations such as information technology to manage and control it. Mobile phone based systems are the solutions that help to provide quick access to monitor chemotherapy side effects for cancer patients at home. Investigated studies demonstrate that using of mobile phones in chemotherapy management have positive results and led to patients and clinicians satisfactions. Conclusion: This study shows that the mobile phone system for home-based monitoring chemotherapy side effects works well. In result, knowledge of cancer self-management and the rate of patient’s effective participation in care process improved. PMID:27482134

  10. Side-effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, M; Böddeker, I R; Decker, T; Buch, M; Vogel, M; Labek, G; Maier, M; Loew, M; Maier-Boerries, O; Fischer, J; Betthäuser, A; Rehack, H C; Kanovsky, W; Müller, I; Gerdesmeyer, L; Rompe, J D

    2002-05-01

    Apart from a few observational reports, there are no studies on the side-effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of insertion tendopathies. Within the framework of a randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blind, multicentre study to test the effectiveness of ESWT in the case of lateral epicondylitis (LE), side-effects were systematically recorded. A total of 272 patients from 15 centres was allocated at random to active ESWT (3 x 2000 pulses, energy flux density ED(+) 0.04 to 0.22 mJ/mm(2) under local anaesthesia) or placebo ESWT. In all, 399 ESWT and 402 placebo treatments were analysed. More side-effects were documented in the ESWT group (OR = 4.3, CI = [2.9; 6.3]) than in the placebo group. Most frequently, transitory reddening of the skin (21.1%), pain (4.8%) and small haematomas (3.0%) were found. Migraine was registered in four and syncopes in three instances after ESWT. ESWT for LE with an energy flux density of ED(+) 0.04 to 0.22 mJ/mm(2) is a treatment method which has very few side-effects. The possibility of migraine being triggered by ESWT and the risk of a syncope should be taken into account in the future. No physical shock wave parameters could be definitely identified as the cause of the side-effects observed.

  11. The Effects of Pitch Shifts on Delay-Induced Changes in Vocal Sequencing in a Songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Conor W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Like human speech, vocal behavior in songbirds depends critically on auditory feedback. In both humans and songbirds, vocal skills are acquired by a process of imitation whereby current vocal production is compared to an acoustic target. Similarly, performance in adulthood relies strongly on auditory feedback, and online manipulations of auditory signals can dramatically alter acoustic production even after vocalizations have been well learned. Artificially delaying auditory feedback can disrupt both speech and birdsong, and internal delays in auditory feedback have been hypothesized as a cause of vocal dysfluency in persons who stutter. Furthermore, in both song and speech, online shifts of the pitch (fundamental frequency) of auditory feedback lead to compensatory changes in vocal pitch for small perturbations, but larger pitch shifts produce smaller changes in vocal output. Intriguingly, large pitch shifts can partially restore normal speech in some dysfluent speakers, suggesting that the effects of auditory feedback delays might be ameliorated by online pitch manipulations. Although birdsong provides a promising model system for understanding speech production, the interactions between sensory feedback delays and pitch shifts have not yet been assessed in songbirds. To investigate this, we asked whether the addition of a pitch shift modulates delay-induced changes in Bengalese finch song, hypothesizing that pitch shifts would reduce the effects of feedback delays. Compared with the effects of delays alone, combined delays and pitch shifts resulted in a significant reduction in behavioral changes in one type of sequencing (branch points) but not another (distribution of repeated syllables). PMID:28144622

  12. The Effects of Pitch Shifts on Delay-Induced Changes in Vocal Sequencing in a Songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, MacKenzie; Berthiaume, Emily A; Kelly, Conor W; Sober, Samuel J

    2017-01-01

    Like human speech, vocal behavior in songbirds depends critically on auditory feedback. In both humans and songbirds, vocal skills are acquired by a process of imitation whereby current vocal production is compared to an acoustic target. Similarly, performance in adulthood relies strongly on auditory feedback, and online manipulations of auditory signals can dramatically alter acoustic production even after vocalizations have been well learned. Artificially delaying auditory feedback can disrupt both speech and birdsong, and internal delays in auditory feedback have been hypothesized as a cause of vocal dysfluency in persons who stutter. Furthermore, in both song and speech, online shifts of the pitch (fundamental frequency) of auditory feedback lead to compensatory changes in vocal pitch for small perturbations, but larger pitch shifts produce smaller changes in vocal output. Intriguingly, large pitch shifts can partially restore normal speech in some dysfluent speakers, suggesting that the effects of auditory feedback delays might be ameliorated by online pitch manipulations. Although birdsong provides a promising model system for understanding speech production, the interactions between sensory feedback delays and pitch shifts have not yet been assessed in songbirds. To investigate this, we asked whether the addition of a pitch shift modulates delay-induced changes in Bengalese finch song, hypothesizing that pitch shifts would reduce the effects of feedback delays. Compared with the effects of delays alone, combined delays and pitch shifts resulted in a significant reduction in behavioral changes in one type of sequencing (branch points) but not another (distribution of repeated syllables).

  13. A novel design for randomized immuno-oncology clinical trials with potentially delayed treatment effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei He

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The semi-parametric proportional hazards model is widely adopted in randomized clinical trials with time-to-event outcomes, and the log-rank test is frequently used to detect a potential treatment effect. Immuno-oncology therapies pose unique challenges to the design of a trial as the treatment effect may be delayed, which violates the proportional hazards assumption, and the log-rank test has been shown to markedly lose power under the non-proportional hazards setting. A novel design and analysis approach for immuno-oncology trials is proposed through a piecewise treatment effect function, which is capable of detecting a potentially delayed treatment effect. The number of events required for the trial will be determined to ensure sufficient power for both the overall log-rank test without a delayed effect and the test beyond the delayed period when such a delay exists. The existence of a treatment delay is determined by a likelihood ratio test with resampling. Numerical results show that the proposed design adequately controls the Type I error rate, has a minimal loss in power under the proportional hazards setting and is markedly more powerful than the log-rank test with a delayed treatment effect.

  14. Time Delay Effects on Coupled Limit Cycle Oscillators at Hopf Bifurcation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, D V R; Johnston, G L

    1998-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the effect of time delay on the collective dynamics of coupled limit cycle oscillators at Hopf bifurcation. For a simple model consisting of just two oscillators with a time delayed coupling, the bifurcation diagram obtained by numerical and analytical solutions shows significant changes in the stability boundaries of the amplitude death, phase locked and incoherent regions. A novel result is the occurrence of amplitude death even in the absence of a frequency mismatch between the two oscillators. Similar results are obtained for an array of N oscillators with a delayed mean field coupling and the regions of such amplitude death in the parameter space of the coupling strength and time delay are quantified. Some general analytic results for the N tending to infinity (thermodynamic) limit are also obtained and the implications of the time delay effects for physical applications are discussed.

  15. Side-effects of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: clinical evolution and predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guehl, D; Cuny, E; Benazzouz, A; Rougier, A; Tison, F; Machado, S; Grabot, D; Gross, C; Bioulac, B; Burbaud, P

    2006-09-01

    Chronic bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an alternative treatment for disabling forms of Parkinson's disease when on-off fluctuations and levodopa-induced dyskinesias compromise patients' quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of side-effects during the first year of follow-up and search for clinical predictive factors accounting for their occurrence. We compared the frequency of side-effects at 3 and 12 months after surgery in a cohort of 44 patients. The off-medication scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II, III, axial symptoms, disease duration and age at surgery were retained for correlation analysis. Dysarthria/hypophonia, weight gain and postural instability were the most frequent chronic side-effects. Whereas dysarthria/hypophonia remained stable over time, weight gain and postural instability increased during the first year post-op. High axial and UPDRS II scores at surgery were predictive of dysarthria/hypophonia. Age and axial score at surgery were positively correlated with postural instability. Despite the occurrence of side-effects, the benefit/side-effects ratio of STN stimulation was largely positive during the first year of follow-up. Age, intensity of axial symptoms and UDPRS II off-medication score before surgery are predictive factors of dysarthria/hypophonia and postural instability after surgery.

  16. Side effects induced by the acute levodopa challenge in Parkinson’s Disease and atypical parkinsonisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostile, Giovanni; Dibilio, Valeria; Sciacca, Giorgia; Contrafatto, Donatella; Cicero, Calogero Edoardo; Raciti, Loredana; Luca, Antonina; Zappia, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Acute levodopa challenge may be performed to predict levodopa chronic responsiveness. The aim of the study was to investigate frequency of side effects during the acute levodopa challenge in PD and atypical parkinsonisms. Methods We enrolled 34 de novo PD patients and 29 patients affected by atypical parkinsonisms (Multiple System Atrophy, MSA, n = 10; Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, PSP, n = 12 and Corticobasal Degeneration, CBD, n = 7) who underwent an acute levodopa challenge. Side effects occurring during test were recorded. Results Side effects were more frequent among atypical parkinsonisms as unique group when compared to PD patients (64.3% versus 23.5%; p-value 0.002) with an adjusted OR of 4.36 (95%CI 1.40–13.5). Each atypical parkinsonisms showed almost double occurrence of side effects (MSA 90%, PSP 41.7% and CBD 57%). Conclusions Side effects during acute levodopa challenge may be frequent in atypical parkinsonisms. This information could be useful in order to better prepare the patient for the test. Furthermore, it could represent a useful cue in differential diagnosis with PD. PMID:28207803

  17. Does contraceptive treatment in wildlife result in side effects? A review of quantitative and anecdotal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Meeghan E; Cameron, Elissa Z

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of contraceptive treatments has been extensively tested, and several formulations are effective at reducing fertility in a range of species. However, these formulations should minimally impact the behavior of individuals and populations before a contraceptive is used for population manipulation, but these effects have received less attention. Potential side effects have been identified theoretically and we reviewed published studies that have investigated side effects on behavior and physiology of individuals or population-level effects, which provided mixed results. Physiological side effects were most prevalent. Most studies reported a lack of secondary effects, but were usually based on qualitative data or anecdotes. A meta-analysis on quantitative studies of side effects showed that secondary effects consistently occur across all categories and all contraceptive types. This contrasts with the qualitative studies, suggesting that anecdotal reports are insufficient to investigate secondary impacts of contraceptive treatment. We conclude that more research is needed to address fundamental questions about secondary effects of contraceptive treatment and experiments are fundamental to conclusions. In addition, researchers are missing a vital opportunity to use contraceptives as an experimental tool to test the influence of reproduction, sex and fertility on the behavior of wildlife species.

  18. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jaial [Dept. of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

  19. EFFECTS OF SMALL-SIDED GAMES ON PHYSICAL CONDITIONING AND PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Katis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine, first, the movement actions performed during two different small-sided games and, second, their effects on a series of field endurance and technical tests. Thirty-four young soccer players (age: 13 ± 0.9 yrs; body mass: 62.3 ± 15.1 kg; height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m participated in the study. Small-sided games included three-a-side (3 versus 3 players and six-a-side (6 versus 6 players games consisting of 10 bouts of 4 min duration with 3 min active recovery between bouts. Soccer player performance was evaluated using five field tests: a 30m sprint, b throw-in for distance, c Illinois Agility Test, d dribbling the ball and e horizontal jump before, in the middle and after the implementation of both game situations. Heart rate was monitored during the entire testing session. Each game was also filmed to measure soccer movements within the game. The ANOVA analysis indicated that the three-a- side games displayed significantly higher heart rate values compared with the six-a-side games (p < 0.05. The number of short passes, kicks, tackles, dribbles and scoring goals were significantly higher during the three-a-side compared with the six-a-side game condition (p < 0. 05 while players performed more long passes and headed the ball more often during the six-a-side (p < 0.05. After the three-a-side games, there was a significant decline in sprint and agility performance (p < 0.05, while after both game conditions significant alterations in the throw-in and the horizontal jump performance were observed (p < 0.05. The results of the present study indicated that three-a-side games provide higher stimulus for physical conditioning and technical improvement than six-a-side games and their use for training young soccer players is recommended

  20. Managing patients with side effects and adverse events to immunoglobulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Gholamreza; Abolhassani, Hassan; Asgardoon, Mohammad Hossein; Shaghaghi, Shiva; Negahdari, Babak; Mohammadi, Javad; Rezaei, Nima; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin therapy has not only served as a lifesaving approach for the prevention and treatment of infections in primary and secondary immunodeficiency diseases, but has also been used as an immunomodulatory agent for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders and to provide passive immunity for some infectious diseases. Most of the adverse effects associated with immunoglobulin therapy are mild, transient and self-limiting. However, serious side effects also occur. Therefore, to minimize the adverse events of immunoglobulin therapy, specialist review of patient clinical status and immunoglobulin products, in addition to selection of appropriate treatment strategy for the management of patients with associated side effects and adverse events, are crucial.

  1. Histopathological study into side-effect toxicity of some drugs used in treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Shazly, M O; Afify, M M; el-Dieb, M K

    1989-03-01

    The effect of cis-chlorodiamine platinum (cisplatin) on different tissues of rat was studied. Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity were clearly observed both clinically and histologically. The minimising action of penicillamine as a chelating agent and/or lasix as a diuretic on the toxic side-effect of cisplatin was also studied. Both agents succeeded in reducing the toxic side-effect of cisplatin to some extent but failed to reduce mortality among the experimental animals. The study has also manifested liver and heart to be additional organs susceptible to damage, following cisplatin treatment.

  2. Study of the intravaginal insert (IVI): acceptability, side effects, and post-coital spermicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M; Asch, R H

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe their experience with a group of 49 sexually active, already protected women in order to evaluate the acceptability, side effects and post-coital spermicidal activity of a new vaginal contraceptive. The intravaginal insert (IVI) consists of a polyester resin plug (sponge) containing a 5% solution of nonoxynol-9 bound in a cold formation process, and having a cotton loop attached to the lower end. The results of this study indicate that this new vaginal contraceptive is free of major side effects, is well accepted by users, and has strong spermicidal and mechanical activity. Future clinical testing in order to try its anti-conceptive effectiveness is warranted.

  3. Effects of Time Delay on Intracellular Ca2+ Concentration Oscillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Yang-Jun; HUANG Zu-Qia

    2001-01-01

    Based on the SS-model [Somogyi R and Stucki J W J. Biol. Chem. 266 (1991) 11 068] for the generation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration oscillations, we consider a time delay for the binding kinetics of the Ca2+ channel and find a significant phenomenon that the oscillation takes two quite different modes when a parameter of the system crosses a threshold. One is a quick oscillation mode and the other is a slow oscillation mode. The oscillation frequencies of these modes differ from each other by more than ten times. The change of oscillation form with parameters and its critical behaviour are illustrated by numerical simulation results.

  4. Side effects can enhance treatment response through expectancy effects: an experimental analgesic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Chantal; Kirsch, Irving; Zion, Sean R; Lee, Yvonne C; Jensen, Karin B; Sadler, Pamela; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Edwards, Robert R

    2017-02-04

    In randomized controlled trials, medication side effects may lead to beliefs that one is receiving the active intervention and enhance active treatment responses, thereby increasing drug-placebo differences. We tested these hypotheses with an experimental double-blind randomized controlled trial of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with and without the addition of atropine to induce side effects. One hundred healthy volunteers were told they would be randomized to either combined analgesics that might produce dry mouth or inert placebos. In reality, they were randomized double blind, double-dummy to 1 of the 4 conditions: (1) 100 mg diclofenac + 1.2 mg atropine, (2) placebo + 1.2 mg atropine, (3) 100 mg diclofenac + placebo, or (4) placebo + placebo, and tested with heat-induced pain. Groups did not differ significantly in demographics, temperature producing moderate pain, state anxiety, or depression. Analgesia was observed in all groups; there was a significant interaction between diclofenac and atropine, without main effects. Diclofenac alone was not better than double-placebo. The addition of atropine increased pain relief more than 3-fold among participants given diclofenac (d = 0.77), but did not enhance the response to placebo (d = 0.09). A chain of mediation analysis demonstrated that the addition of atropine increased dry mouth symptoms, which increased beliefs that one had received the active medication, which, in turn, increased analgesia. In addition to this indirect effect of atropine on analgesia (via dry mouth and beliefs), analyses suggest that among those who received diclofenac, atropine directly increased analgesia. This possible synergistic effect between diclofenac and atropine might warrant future research.

  5. Age-related differences in renal side-effects of radiation and chemotherapy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.T.M. Jongejan (Mieke)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe improved life-expectancy of cancer patient has brought to light late sequelae of oncology therapy. This is especially true for pediatric patients. Renal damage is one of the adverse side-effects of anti-tumor therapy that may occur. Studies conceming damaging effects of radiotherapy

  6. Cardiovascular Side Effects of Atomoxetine and Its Interactions with Inhibitors of the Cytochrome P450 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence. Classically, stimulants have been used in the treatment of this condition. Atomoxetine (Strattera; Eli Lilly and Company is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, one of the first medications in the nonstimulant class of medications that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine is a phenoxypropylamine derivative and is structurally related to the antidepressant fluoxetine. The common side effects reported with the use of atomoxetine include mainly GI disturbances. Cardiovascular side effects are less commonly reported. The increase in the noradrenergic tone may explain some of the side effects noted with the use of this medication. Here, we present a case of a patient who presented with syncope, orthostatic hypotension, and tachycardia and discuss the various clinical implications based on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug.

  7. Metabolic and Endocrine Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Tahiroglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available omorbid psychiatric disorders, frequent hospitalization, multiple outpatient treatment, prior history of hypertension, obesity and lipid dysregulation are associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in children. Side effects of antipsychotic drugs and their management have recently become a major subject of research due to enhanced antipsychotic drug usage in child and adolescents. Prevention strategies are usually preferred to secondary or tertiary strategies in the management of metabolic syndrome associated with antipsychotic drugs. Clinicians should present multidisciplinary approach to endocrine and metabolic side effects due to antipsychotic use in pediatric patient groups and avoid multiple drug use in such patients. In this paper, we briefly reviewed metabolic side effects of second generation antipsychotic drugs in child and adolescent population, possible mechanisms of susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and pharmacological and non pharmacological treatment approach to prevention of weight gain.

  8. Effect of delayed umbilical cord clamping on blood gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Javier; Desantes, Domingo; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Rubio, Juan; Diago Almela, Vicente J; Perales, Alfredo

    2012-05-01

    To ascertain if there are differences in umbilical cord blood gas analysis between immediate and delayed cord clamping. In a prospective observational study on 60 vaginally delivered healthy term newborns, we sampled umbilical cord blood immediately after delivery and at the time umbilical cord pulsation spontaneously ceased. There were significant decreases in pH, oxygen saturation (sO(2)), glycemia, oxygen content (ctO(2)), bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) and base excess (BE). Lactate and [Formula: see text] increased. Delayed cord clamping pH correlated with immediate cord clamping pH, [Formula: see text] , ctHb, sO(2) and time (r(2)=0.77, pcord clamping lactate was associated with immediate cord clamping lactate and time (r(2)=0.83, pcord clamping alters acid-base parameters and lactate values compared to immediate cord clamping. Those variations depend mainly on time, prior pH and lactate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of side-artifacts on the elastic modulus of trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Un, Kerem; Bevill, Grant; Keaveny, Tony M

    2006-01-01

    Determining accurate density-mechanical property relationships for trabecular bone is critical for correct characterization of this important structure-function relation. When testing any excised specimen of trabecular bone, an unavoidable experimental artifact originates from the sides of the specimen where peripheral trabeculae lose their vertical load-bearing capacity due to interruption of connectivity, a phenomenon denoted here as the 'side-artifact'. We sought in this study to quantify the magnitude of such side-artifact errors in modulus measurement and to do so as a function of the trabecular architecture and specimen size. Using parametric computational analysis of high-resolution micro-CT-based finite-element models of cores of elderly human vertebral trabecular bone, a specimen-specific correction factor for the side-artifact was quantified as the ratio of the side-artifact-free apparent modulus (Etrue) to the apparent modulus that would be measured in a typical experiment (Emeasured). We found that the width over which the peripheral trabeculae were mostly unloaded was between 0.19 and 0.58 mm. The side-artifact led to an underestimation error in Etrue of over 50% in some specimens, having a mean (+/-SD) of 27+/-11%. There was a trend for the correction factor to linearly increase as volume fraction decreased (p=0.001) and as mean trabecular separation increased (perror increased substantially as specimen size decreased. Two methods used for correcting for the side-artifact were both successful in bringing Emeasured into statistical agreement with Etrue. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of almost all literature data on trabecular bone mechanical properties since they indicate that such properties need to be adjusted to eliminate the substantial effects of side-artifacts in order to provide more accurate estimates of in situ behavior.

  10. The delaying effect of stigma on mental health help-seeking in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Sunera M; Deane, Frank P; McLeod, Hamish J

    2017-03-01

    Mental health stigma has been associated with delays in seeking treatment. To describe perceived stigma experienced by patients and carers in Sri Lanka and to determine the effects of stigma on help-seeking delay. Survey of outpatients and family carers (n = 118 dyads) attending two psychiatric hospitals in Sri Lanka, using the Disclosure and Discrimination subscales of the Stigma Scale. Stigma was positively related to help-seeking delay for carers but not patients. Public stigma experienced by carers accounted for 23% of the variance in help-seeking delay. Reducing stigma may reduce help-seeking delays during the course of treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Bubbling effect in the electro-optic delayed feedback oscillator coupled network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingfeng; Lin, Jun; Miao, Suoxia

    2017-03-01

    Synchronization in the optical systems coupled network always suffers from bubbling events. In this paper, we numerically investigate the statistical properties of the synchronization characteristics and bubbling effects in the electro-optic delayed feedback oscillator coupled network with different coupling strength, delay time and gain coefficient. Furthermore, we compare our results with the synchronization properties of semiconductor laser (SL) coupled network, which indicates that the electro-optic delayed feedback oscillator can be better to suppress the bubbling effects in the synchronization of coupled network under the same conditions.

  12. Side-group size effects on interfaces and glass formation in supported polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenjie; Song, Jake; Hsu, David D.; Keten, Sinan

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies on glass-forming polymers near interfaces have emphasized the importance of molecular features such as chain stiffness, side-groups, molecular packing, and associated changes in fragility as key factors that govern the magnitude of Tg changes with respect to the bulk in polymer thin films. However, how such molecular features are coupled with substrate and free surface effects on Tg in thin films remains to be fully understood. Here, we employ a chemically specific coarse-grained polymer model for methacrylates to investigate the role of side-group volume on glass formation in bulk polymers and supported thin films. Our results show that bulkier side-groups lead to higher bulk Tg and fragility and are associated with a pronounced free surface effect on overall Tg depression. By probing local Tg within the films, however, we find that the polymers with bulkier side-groups experience a reduced confinement-induced increase in local Tg near a strongly interacting substrate. Further analyses indicate that this is due to the packing frustration of chains near the substrate interface, which lowers the attractive interactions with the substrate and thus lessens the surface-induced reduction in segmental mobility. Our results reveal that the size of the polymer side-group may be a design element that controls the confinement effects induced by the free surface and substrates in supported polymer thin films. Our analyses provide new insights into the factors governing polymer dynamics in bulk and confined environments.

  13. Design and analysis of clinical trials in the presence of delayed treatment effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Tony; Liu, Mengling; Shnaidman, Michael; Ying, Zhiliang

    2016-05-20

    In clinical trials with survival endpoint, it is common to observe an overlap between two Kaplan-Meier curves of treatment and control groups during the early stage of the trials, indicating a potential delayed treatment effect. Formulas have been derived for the asymptotic power of the log-rank test in the presence of delayed treatment effect and its accompanying sample size calculation. In this paper, we first reformulate the alternative hypothesis with the delayed treatment effect in a rescaled time domain, which can yield a simplified sample size formula for the log-rank test in this context. We further propose an intersection-union test to examine the efficacy of treatment with delayed effect and show it to be more powerful than the log-rank test. Simulation studies are conducted to demonstrate the proposed methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of the effectiveness of kinesiotaping in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness of the biceps brachii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available biological regeneration in athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the application of lymphatic kinesiotaping in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness of biceps brachii.

  15. Effect of coefficient changes on stability of linear retarded systems with constant time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, L. K.

    1977-01-01

    A method is developed to determine the effect of coefficient changes on the stability of a retarded system with constant time delays. The method, which uses the tau-decomposition method of stability analysis, is demonstrated by an example.

  16. Effects of intrinsic stochasticity on delayed reaction-diffusion patterning systems

    KAUST Repository

    Woolley, Thomas E.

    2012-05-22

    Cellular gene expression is a complex process involving many steps, including the transcription of DNA and translation of mRNA; hence the synthesis of proteins requires a considerable amount of time, from ten minutes to several hours. Since diffusion-driven instability has been observed to be sensitive to perturbations in kinetic delays, the application of Turing patterning mechanisms to the problem of producing spatially heterogeneous differential gene expression has been questioned. In deterministic systems a small delay in the reactions can cause a large increase in the time it takes a system to pattern. Recently, it has been observed that in undelayed systems intrinsic stochasticity can cause pattern initiation to occur earlier than in the analogous deterministic simulations. Here we are interested in adding both stochasticity and delays to Turing systems in order to assess whether stochasticity can reduce the patterning time scale in delayed Turing systems. As analytical insights to this problem are difficult to attain and often limited in their use, we focus on stochastically simulating delayed systems. We consider four different Turing systems and two different forms of delay. Our results are mixed and lead to the conclusion that, although the sensitivity to delays in the Turing mechanism is not completely removed by the addition of intrinsic noise, the effects of the delays are clearly ameliorated in certain specific cases. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  17. Extending Software Transactional Memory in Clojure with Side-Effects and Transaction Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kejser; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2016-01-01

    do however not support execution of code with side-effects and provide no methods for synchronising threads. Additional concurrency mechanisms on top of STM are needed for these use cases, increasing the complexity of the code. We present multiple constructs allowing functions with side-effects...... to be executed as part of a transaction. These constructs are made accessible through a uniform interface, making them interchangeable. We present constructs providing explicit control of transactions. Through these constructs transactions can synchronise threads based on the current program state, abort...

  18. A study on the side effects of adoption of risk informed regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Pyeong; Lee, Kyeong Jin; Cheong, Wun Gwan; Song, Jong Sun; Na, Man Gyun; Paek, Won Phil; Yeom, Yu Seon; Hwang, Jeong Rae; Oh, Su Jin [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The objective of this project is to analyze the side effects of adoption of Risk Informed Regulation. To do so, critical issues of RIR are derived, and develop reasonable strategy to adopt RIR system. The final research goal of this project is to develop a reasonable strategy to adopt RIR system. The scope of this project is to survey the trends of RIR system of advanced nations, and study the side effects, i.e, safety aspects, economical aspects, safety regulation system aspects, and public acceptance aspects of adopting the RIR system. Also, several possible problems which can be made by adopting RIR system are analyzed.

  19. Management of side effects of BCR/ABL-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm therapies. Focus on anagrelide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antelo, María Luisa; de Las Heras, Natalia; Gonzalez Porras, Jose Ramón; Kerguelen, Ana; Raya, Jose María

    2015-12-01

    Although hydroxyurea is considered the first-line cytoreductive therapy in high-risk patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia, approximately 20-25% of patients develop resistance or intolerance and they need an alternative therapy. Anagrelide is the treatment of choice in patients with essential thrombocythemia intolerant or with resistance to hydroxyurea. Anagrelide is usually well tolerated. Although there is concern about the increased risk of cardiac side effects, in most cases these are mild, and easily manageable. In this paper, the available evidence about the management of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, with a special focus on the side effects of drug therapies is reviewed.

  20. Exponential stability of cellular neural networks with multiple time delays and impulsive effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Dong; Wang Hui; Yang Dan; Zhang Xiao-Hong; Wang Shi-Long

    2008-01-01

    In this work,the stability issues of the equilibrium points of the cellular neural networks with multiple time delays and impulsive effects are investigated.Based on the stability theory of Lyapunov-Krasovskii,the method of linear matrix inequality (LMI) and parametrized first-order model transformation,several novel conditions guaranteeing the delaydependent and the delay-independent exponential stabilities are obtained.A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.

  1. [Side effects of chemotherapy in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and concomitant diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, O D

    2003-01-01

    As many as 395 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis concurrent with other illnesses were examined. It has been ascertained that in 57.8 percent of cases there occurs a side effect in the wake of the antituberculous drug administration. The following were recognized as ill effects of the drugs employed--allergic reactions, candidiasis, disbacteriosis, toxic reactions,--in 25.44%, 3.07%, 7.02%, and 64.47% of cases respectively. Revealed in the above series was a marked side effect on the digestive organs, neurotoxic reactions, toxic effect on the cardiovascular system in 28.08%, 15.35%, 10.53% of cases respectively. The most frequently seen side effect was due to rifampicin (23.25%), streptomycin (18.42%), isoniazid (17.08%). The least number of complications was with taking etambutol--3.94%. In 43.42% of cases, the identified side effect necessitates withdrawal of the drug, in 56.58% of cases, the management of the concomitant medical problems, a change in routes of administration of medicines, and combined employment of antihistaminic drugs and hyposensitizing methodological approaches to the management of the condition permitted carrying on with the therapy instituted.

  2. Usage and Perceived Side Effects of Personal Protective Measures against Mosquitoes among Current Users in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Charu; Kumar, Rajesh; Meena, G S; Singh, M M; Sahoo, Jyotiranjan; Ingle, G K

    2014-01-01

    Background. Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The use of personal protective measures (PPM) like mats, bednets, screening, repellents, liquid vaporizers, mosquito coils, and so forth has been advocated as an effective tool in control of mosquito-borne diseases, but data about the safety profile of personal protective measures is still scarce. Objective. To study the usage and side effects of personal protective measures against mosquitoes among current users in Delhi. Materials and Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study among 350 adult individuals selected by systematic sampling method. Data was collected using pretested semistructured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square/Fisher's Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P value Personal protective measures were used by 219 (62.5%) subjects. Liquid vaporizer was the most preferred method (41.4%). Most common perceived side effect of personal protective measures was headache (7.7%). Other perceived side effects were cough (3.2%), sore throat (2.7%), allergy (1.3%), and eye irritation (0.9%) predominantly among coil users. Conclusion. There is a need to have a close watch for side effects of personal protective measures among users. Further research is also needed to develop safe and effective personal protective measures against mosquitoes.

  3. Effect of delay of reinforcement on superstitious inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudski, J M

    2000-06-01

    Temporal contiguity is positively associated with ease of detecting contingencies. When actions and outcomes are not contiguous, intervening responses might be strengthened by adventitious reinforcement. In the current study, participants engaged in a task where pressing 1 of 10 keys was reinforced either immediately or after various delays. Outcomes were scheduled either according to an FR 1 or FR 2 schedule. Participants also answered a question designed to assess their illusion of control. As the latency between the instrumental response and the reinforcer increased, participants attributed less importance to the instrumental response, attributed more importance to other nonessential responses, and began to show stereotyped patterns of responding. The illusion of control was positively related to the intricacy of such patterns. Results are discussed in terms of a contiguity which implies causality heuristic and the relationship of superstition with adventitious reinforcement and illusion of control.

  4. Real World Data Driven Evolution of Volvo Cars' Side Impact Protection Systems and their Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Lindman, Magdalena; Svanberg, Bo; Carlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the outcome of the continuous improved occupant protection over the last two decades for front seat near side occupants in side impacts based on a real world driven working process. The effectiveness of four generations of improved side impact protection are calculated based on data from Volvo's statistical accident database of Volvo Cars in Sweden. Generation I includes vehicles with a new structural and interior concept (SIPS). Generation II includes vehicles with structural improvements and a new chest airbag (SIPSbag). Generation III includes vehicles with further improved SIPS and SIPSbag as well as the new concept with a head protecting Inflatable Curtain (IC). Generation IV includes the most recent vehicles with further improvements of all the systems plus advanced sensors and seat belt pretensioner activation. Compared to baseline vehicles, vehicles of generation I reduce MAIS2+ injuries by 54%, generation II by 61% and generation III by 72%. For generation IV effectiveness figures cannot be calculated because of the lack of MAIS2+ injuries. A continuous improved performance is also seen when studying the AIS2+ pelvis, abdomen, chest and head injuries separately. By using the same real world driven working process, future improvements and possibly new passive as well as active safety systems, will be developed with the aim of further improved protection to near side occupants in side impacts.

  5. Dark Side of Clarity: Its Effect on Knowledge Production and Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Wolfberg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Law enforcement decision-makers rely on intelligence analysts to produce intelligence products that are clear. Yet, intelligence analysts live in a world characterised by ambiguity and information overload. This paper examines the intellectual journey that leads to clarity of thought, and the effect of the dark side of clarity on producing knowledge for decision-making. The paper asked, how does the dark side of clarity manifest itself to analyst and decision-maker? The result is counterintuitive; while the bright side of clarity is expected, and demanded because of its benefit to decision-making, the dark side of clarity co-exists in the shadows of certainty and makes it difficult to think critically. Neither analyst nor decision-maker is likely aware of this negative effect. To make this dark side of clarity visible, recommendations are made that begin with raising analyst awareness by augmenting existing training. Then, decision-maker awareness can be approached through training and facilitated coaching.

  6. Effects of alkyl side chains on properties of aliphatic amino acids probed using quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Aravindhan; Wang, Feng; Brunger, Michael; Prince, Kevin

    2011-09-01

    Effects of alkyl side chains (R-) on the electronic structural properties of aliphatic amino acids are investigated using quantum mechanical approaches. The carbon (C 1s) binding energy spectra of the aliphatic amino acids are derived from the C 1s spectrum of glycine (the parent spectrum) by the addition of spectral peaks, depending on the alkyl side chains, appearing in the lower energy region IP aliphatic amino acids owing to perturbations depending on the size and structure of the alkyl chains. The pattern of the N 1s and O 1s spectra in glycine is retained in the spectra of the other amino acids with small shifts to lower energy, again depending on the alkyl side chain. The Hirshfeld charge analyses confirm the observations. The alkyl effects on the valence binding energy spectra of the amino acids are concentrated in the middle valence energy region of 12-16 eV, and hence this energy region of 12-16 eV is considered as the `fingerprint' of the alkyl side chains. Selected valence orbitals, either inside or outside of the alkyl fingerprint region, are presented using both density distributions and orbital momentum distributions, in order to understand the chemical bonding of the amino acids. It is also observed that the HOMO-LUMO energy gaps of the aliphatic amino acids are reduced with the growth of the alkyl side chain.

  7. Exploring the Process of Conveying Information about Side Effects: A Qualitative Study among Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Kairuz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored how a sample of Australian pharmacists would convey information about the side effects of a medicine, if they were to counsel a patient. A qualitative method was selected and written responses to a case-based scenario were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The grounded theory approach elicited a fluid and dynamic model for side effect counselling. The study identified strategies for counselling, such as encouraging adherence through emphasising the benefits of the medication, referral to the prescriber, and providing empathy and reassurance to ease anxiety and address concerns. Pharmacists acknowledged the potential for risk, although only a minority used numerical descriptors. The final themes or outcomes were that pharmacists aim to allay fears, minimise harm and promote medication use when counselling about side effects. Professional empathy, the acknowledgment of patient concerns, and the importance of providing tailored information to promote medication adherence, emerged as features of the quality use of medicines. This study contributes to existing literature by identifying the role of allaying patients’ fears when conveying side effect information. It also describes a process to convey tailored information. Implications for practice include the importance of effective use of communication strategies to encourage adherence, as the appropriate use of medication can lead to positive health outcomes.

  8. Supplementation with Vitamin B6 Reduces Side Effects in Cambodian Women Using Oral Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivorn Var

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects. Aim: In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo. Results: The intervention participants (n = 577 reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434. Conclusion: Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption.

  9. Relationships among morphine metabolism, pain and side effects during long-term treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gertrud; Christrup, Lona Louring; Sjøgren, Per

    2003-01-01

    The two metabolites of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), have been studied intensively in animals and humans during the past 30 years in order to elucidate their precise action and possible contribution to the desired effects and side effects seen after...... found evidence for a contributory effect of M6G to the overall effects observed after morphine administration. Several studies have demonstrated that administration of M6G is accompanied by fewer and a milder degree of opioid-like side effects than observed after morphine administration, but most...... that M6G may be a more potent analgesic than morphine. Results from human studies regarding the analgesic effect of M6G are not unanimous. The potency ratio between systemic M6G and morphine in humans has not been settled, but is probably lower than previously assumed. Hitherto, only a few studies have...

  10. Polidocanol injection for chemical delay and its effect on the survival of rat dorsal skin flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menevşe, Gülsüm Tetik; TeomanTellioglu, Ali; Altuntas, Nurgül; Cömert, Ayhan; Tekdemir, Ibrahim

    2014-06-01

    Surgical delay is an invasive method requiring a two-stage surgical procedure. Hence, methods that may serve as an alternative to surgical delay have become the focus of interest of research studies. From a conceptual view, any technique that interrupts the blood flow along the edges of a proposed flap will render the flap ischemic and induce a delay phenomenon. Polidocanol (Aethoxysklerol(®)-Kreussler) was initially used as a local anesthetic. Nowadays, it has been used as a sclerosing agent to treat telangiectasias and varicose veins. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of polidocanol injected around the periphery of a random flap as a sclerosing agent on flap delay and survival in a random flap model. A preliminary histopathologic study was performed on two rats to evaluate the sclerosing effect and distribution of polidocanol injection. After the preliminary study, the main study was carried out with three groups: group 1: dorsal flap (n = 10); group 2: dorsal flap + surgical delay (n = 10), group 3: dorsal flap + chemical delay (n = 10). Tissue samples obtained from the flap and injection area revealed destruction of intradermal vessels. The area affected with sclerosis was limited to 0.1 cm beyond the injection site. Mean viable flap areas were 52.1 ± 4.38% (44.0-58.2) in group 1, 64.8 ± 8.92% (57.2-89.2) in group 2, and 71.8 ± 5.18% (64.0-84.0) in group 3. A statistically highly significant difference was found between the surgical delay and chemical delay groups versus the group without delay (p surgical and chemical delay groups (p = 0.056). In conclusion, this study has shown that polidocanol injection around the dorsal flap in the rat is a safe and easy method for nonsurgical delay. The results have shown a flap survival benefit that is superior to controls and equivalent to surgical delay. The clinical application of polidocanol, already in clinical practice for occlusal of telangiectasias, for surgical delay appears

  11. Antipsychotic Medication in Children and Adolescents : A Descriptive Review of the Effects on Prolactin Level and Associated Side Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. Method: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapin

  12. Antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents: a descriptive review of the effects on prolactin level and associated side effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Boot, A.M.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. METHOD: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapin

  13. Antipsychotic Medication in Children and Adolescents : A Descriptive Review of the Effects on Prolactin Level and Associated Side Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. Method: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapin

  14. Antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents: a descriptive review of the effects on prolactin level and associated side effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Boot, A.M.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. METHOD: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapin

  15. Treatment side effects and follow-up of malignant melanoma; Therapienebenwirkungen und Nachsorge bei malignem Melanom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, T. [Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Zentralinstitut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Loquai, C. [Universitaetsmedizin der Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Hautklinik und Poliklinik, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-01-30

    Side effects in the therapy of malignant melanoma are primarily of importance for radiologists in advanced tumor stages. The available treatment options and their respective side effect profiles have undergone a profound change in recent years after the introduction of modern oncological therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) with an increasing focus on individual tumor biology and differ significantly from those of classical chemotherapy. The immunotherapeutic agents, in particular ipilimumab, take on a special position because of their specific immune-mediated mechanisms of action and the associated side effects, so-called immune-related adverse events (irAE). The majority of the treatment effects are manifested on the skin (> 50 %) and are generally not detectable by diagnostic radiology. Only a comparatively small proportion of treatment side effects is detectable with diagnostic imaging (15-20 %) but as in the example of therapy-induced colitis with ipilimumab, may be rapidly fatal. In addition to colitis (10-20 %) further therapy side effects apparent in diagnostic imaging are hypophysitis (1.8-17 %), thyroiditis (0.8 %), myositis (1.7 %), fasciitis and sarcoid-like lymph node alterations (6.8 %). To detect radiologically detectable side effects early on and to delineate them especially from tumor progression and (opportunistic) infections, detailed knowledge of the therapeutic methods for melanoma, the mechanisms of action and in particular the sometimes very specific side effects is imperative for radiologists. (orig.) [German] Nebenwirkungen der Therapie des malignen Melanoms sind fuer den Radiologen primaer in fortgeschrittenen Tumorstadien von Bedeutung. Die zur Verfuegung stehenden Therapieoptionen und ihre jeweiligen Nebenwirkungsprofile haben sich in den letzten Jahren nach Einfuehrung moderner onkologischer Therapieoptionen, die sich zunehmend an der individuellen Tumorbiologie orientieren (zielgerichtete Therapie, Immuntherapie), einem

  16. Of ants and men the unexpected side effects of complexity in society

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G

    2014-01-01

    Why do things go wrong? Why, despite all the planning and care in the world, do things go from bad to worse? This book argues that it is because we are like the ants. Just as ants create an anthill without being aware of it, unintended side effects of human activity create all manner of social trends and crises. The book traces the way these trends emerge and the role they play in some of the major issues of our time. One of the greatest challenges today is the complexity of our social and economic systems. Every action has side effects that people often ignore or fail to see. The book examines the ways in which limitations in our thinking and behaviour lead to unintended side effects. It looks at the role played by complex networks of interactions. Finally, it looks at the way side effects of new technologies, especially computers and communication, have created an Information Revolution, the full repercussions of which are yet to be seen. In our race to create new technologies and sustain indefinite economi...

  17. Pharmacy customers' knowledge of side effects of purchased medicines in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, Veronika J.; Taxis, Katja; Dreser, Anahi

    2009-01-01

    To analyse pharmacy customers' knowledge and information sources about side effects of medicines they purchased and factors associated with this knowledge. Cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews with customers of 52 randomly selected community pharmacies in Morelos state, Mexico. Cust

  18. Spontaneous Recovery of Previously Extinguished Behavior as an Alternative Explanation for Extinction-Related Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Raymond J.; Mays, Nicole M.

    2007-01-01

    Extinction is accepted as a viable intervention for behaviors that are hypothesized to be maintained by contingent attentional reinforcement. However, it is frequently acknowledged that extinction has potential numerous side effects, including the generation of aggressive behavior. This explanation does not provide a behavioral conceptualization…

  19. Patient satisfaction and side effects in primary care: An observational study comparing homeopathy and conventional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurneysen André

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is part of a nationwide evaluation of complementary medicine in Switzerland (Programme Evaluation of Complementary Medicine PEK and was funded by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The main objective of this study is to investigate patient satisfaction and perception of side effects in homeopathy compared with conventional care in a primary care setting. Methods We examined data from two cross-sectional studies conducted in 2002–2003. The first study was a physician questionnaire assessing structural characteristics of practices. The second study was conducted on four given days during a 12-month period in 2002/2003 using a physician and patient questionnaire at consultation and a patient questionnaire mailed to the patient one month later (including Europep questionnaire. The participating physicians were all trained and licensed in conventional medicine. An additional qualification was required for medical doctors providing homeopathy (membership in the Swiss association of homeopathic physicians SVHA. Results A total of 6778 adult patients received the questionnaire and 3126 responded (46.1%. Statistically significant differences were found with respect to health status (higher percentage of chronic and severe conditions in the homeopathic group, perception of side effects (higher percentage of reported side effects in the conventional group and patient satisfaction (higher percentage of satisfied patients in the homeopathic group. Conclusion Overall patient satisfaction was significantly higher in homeopathic than in conventional care. Homeopathic treatments were perceived as a low-risk therapy with two to three times fewer side effects than conventional care

  20. Acceptance and side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: evaluation of a new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, F W; Heesen, W F; Smit, A J; May, J F; Lie, K I; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1996-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring is probably becoming a clinically useful procedure for the evaluation of hypertensive patients. Previous reports have shown that the devices are safe and serious side effects are rare. Discomfort and inconveniences associated with its use are more frequent. In this study, patient acceptance of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was compared with acceptance of other diagnostic procedures and their side effects were assessed. Patients were asked to fill in a form and 129 of 166 patients responded. The acceptance was measured with a visual analogue scale which ranged from 'very annoying' on the left to 'not annoying at all' on the right. All forms were collected anonymously. Mean distance (cm) of the visual likert scale was 8.6 to 9.4 for the diagnostic procedures frequently used in routine patient care. Ambulatory BP measurement (ABPM) scored 6.1 cm. Reported side effects (in 27% of patients) were: plan (9%), skin irritation (8%), noisy device (8%), inconvenience with work (3%), haematoma (2%) and other (4%). Reports from the patients on sleep quality were: 23% normal, 61% minor disturbance, 14% had sleep, and 2% did not sleep at all. It can be concluded that ambulatory BP monitoring was the diagnostic procedure with the lowest patient acceptance. Side effects of this new technology were reported by 27% of patients. However, risks are relatively minor. Sleep disturbances were very frequent and was a serious problem for 16% of patients.

  1. Local therapeutic efficacy with reduced systemic side effects by rapamycin-loaded subcapsular microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, Lucas L; van Vuuren, Stefan H; Kazazi-Hyseni, Filis; Ramazani, Farshad; Nguyen, Tri Q; Veldhuis, Gert J; Maarseveen, Erik M; Zandstra, Jurjen; Zuidema, Johan; Duque, Luisa F; Steendam, Rob; Popa, Eliane R; Kok, Robbert Jan; Goldschmeding, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Kidney injury triggers fibrosis, the final common pathway of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The increase of CKD prevalence worldwide urgently calls for new therapies. Available systemic treatment such as rapamycin are associated with serious side effects. To study the potential of local antifibrotic

  2. The incidence, management, and evolution of rapamycin-related side effects in kidney transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J.C.; Boucher, A.; Dandavino, R.; Collette, S.; Senecal, L.; Hebert, M.J.; Girardin, C.; Cardinal, H.

    2014-01-01

    Conversion from a calcineurin-inhibitor-based immunosuppression to a rapamycin-based immunosuppression may preserve kidney graft function. The side effects of rapamycin can limit its usefulness, but their management and evolution are rarely reported in clinical trials. We performed a retrospective c

  3. Are sexual side effects of prolactin-raising antipsychotics reducible to serum prolactin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, Henderikus; van den Bosch, Rob; Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Sytema, Sjoerd; van Os, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which sexual side effects (SSE) are associated with prolactin-raising antipsychotics, and to what degree such SSE are reducible to serum prolactin levels. Method: A large sample (n = 264) of patients treated for 6 weeks with protactin-raising and prolactin-sparing

  4. Chemotherapy-Related Side Effects in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Indonesia: Parental Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitaresmi, M.N.; Mostert, S.; Purwanto, I.; Gundy, C.; Sutaryo, N.N.; Veerman, A.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Noncompliance with prescribed medication has been associated with increased chance of relapse and poor outcome. Side effects may be an important cause of noncompliance. Fifty-one parents of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a tertiary care hospital in Indonesia were interviewed about the

  5. Chemotherapy-Related Side Effects in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Indonesia: Parental Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitaresmi, M.N.; Mostert, S.; Purwanto, I.; Gundy, C.; Sutaryo, N.N.; Veerman, A.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Noncompliance with prescribed medication has been associated with increased chance of relapse and poor outcome. Side effects may be an important cause of noncompliance. Fifty-one parents of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a tertiary care hospital in Indonesia were interviewed about the

  6. Are sexual side effects of prolactin-raising antipsychotics reducible to serum prolactin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, Henderikus; van den Bosch, Rob; Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Sytema, Sjoerd; van Os, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which sexual side effects (SSE) are associated with prolactin-raising antipsychotics, and to what degree such SSE are reducible to serum prolactin levels. Method: A large sample (n = 264) of patients treated for 6 weeks with protactin-raising and prolactin-sparing

  7. Exacerbation of Bloody Diarrhea as a Side Effect of Mesalamine Treatment of Active Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Shimodate

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesalamine has been used as the first-line therapy for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC because of its efficacy and fewer side effects. However, earlier study showed that mesalamine occasionally causes diarrhea. We are presenting a patient with active UC in whom bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever occurred and the symptoms were aggravated after administration of mesalamine. In order to clarify the reason of symptoms aggravation, drug lymphocyte stimulation test and rechallenge trial with mesalamine were performed. The results indicated the possibility that aggravation was related to allergic reaction and was dose-dependent. Furthermore, we examined colonoscopic views but there was no remarkable change in before and after rechallenge trial. Based on the above result, the patient was diagnosed with mesalamine intolerance. In order to differentiate whether the exacerbation of bloody diarrhea is due to the side effects of the mesalamine or a true relapse of UC, taking careful history before and after increasing mesalamine dosage as well as being aware of side effects of mesalamine are required. Clinicians should be aware of diarrhea as a side effect of mesalamine particularly after onset of mesalamine formulation, change in mesalamine formulation, or change in mesalamine dose.

  8. Benzodiazepine Behavioral Side Effects: Review and Implications for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachnik, John E.; Hanzel, Thomas E.; Sevenich, Robert; Harder, Stuart R.

    2002-01-01

    A literature review found behavioral side effects occurred for 13% of 446 individuals with mental retardation who were prescribed benzodiazepine for either behavioral or psychiatric conditions (n=138, 17.4%), epilepsy (n=20, 15.4%), or other medical conditions such as myoclonus or cerebral palsy (n=100, 2%). Implications of nonrecognition are…

  9. Movement disorders in patients with schizophrenia and in their siblings: symptoms, side effects and mechanical measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on several aspects of movement disorders in patients with schizophrenia and in their unaffected siblings. The main hypothesis is that movement disorders are not just side effects of antipsychotic medication but may also be symptoms of the illness itself and are related to the (ge

  10. Benzodiazepine Behavioral Side Effects: Review and Implications for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachnik, John E.; Hanzel, Thomas E.; Sevenich, Robert; Harder, Stuart R.

    2002-01-01

    A literature review found behavioral side effects occurred for 13% of 446 individuals with mental retardation who were prescribed benzodiazepine for either behavioral or psychiatric conditions (n=138, 17.4%), epilepsy (n=20, 15.4%), or other medical conditions such as myoclonus or cerebral palsy (n=100, 2%). Implications of nonrecognition are…

  11. Ipsilateral coordination at preferred rate: effects of age, body side and task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Impe, Annouchka; Coxon, James P; Goble, Daniel J; Wenderoth, Nici; Swinnen, Stephan Patrick

    2009-10-01

    Functional imaging studies have shown that elderly individuals activate widespread additional brain networks, compared to young subjects, when performing motor tasks. However, the parameters that effect this unique neural activation, including the spatial distribution of this activation across hemispheres, are still largely unknown. Here, we examined the effect of task complexity and body side on activation differences between older and younger adults while performing cyclical flexion-extension movements of the ipsilateral hand and foot. In particular, easy (isodirectional) and more difficult (non-isodirectional) coordination patterns were performed with either the left or right body side at a self-selected, comfortable rate. Even in the absence of imposed pacing the older group activated a larger brain network, suggestive of increased attentional deployment for monitoring the spatial relationships between the simultaneously moving segments and enhanced sensory processing and integration. Evidence of age-dependent underactivation was also found in contralateral M1, SMA and bilateral putamen, possibly reflecting a functional decline of the basal ganglia-mesial cortex pathway in the older group. An ANOVA model revealed significant main effects of task complexity and body side. However the interaction of these factors with age did not reach significance. Consequently, we conclude that under self-paced conditions, task complexity and body side did not have a modulatory effect on age-related brain activation.

  12. Tremor side effects of salbutamol, quantified by a laser pointer technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nizet, T.; Broeders, M.E.A.C.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study tremor side effects of salbutamol an easily applicable, quick and low-priced method is needed. A new method using a commercially available, pen-shaped laser pointer was developed. Aim of the study was to determine sensitivity, reproducibility, reference values and the agreement w

  13. Prevalence, side effects and awareness about energy drinks among the female university students in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value

  14. Pharmacy customers' knowledge of side effects of purchased medicines in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, Veronika J.; Taxis, Katja; Dreser, Anahi

    To analyse pharmacy customers' knowledge and information sources about side effects of medicines they purchased and factors associated with this knowledge. Cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews with customers of 52 randomly selected community pharmacies in Morelos state, Mexico.

  15. An investigation into the predictive value of cascade impactor results for side effects of inhaled salbutamol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weda, M; Zanen, P; de Boer, A H; Barends, D M; Frijlink, H W

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the Multistage Liquid Impinger (MSLI) and the Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI) with respect to their power to predict differences in side effects of salbutamol delivered by a dry powder inhaler. Three preparations with the same nominal dose and the same inhaler de

  16. Pattern of statin use changes following media coverage of its side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Liisberg, Kasper Bering; Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle

    2017-01-01

    and whether the user is new (incident) or long term (prevalent). AIM: The aim of this study is to explore whether a Danish newspaper article featuring the side effects of statins affects statin discontinuation in incident versus prevalent users, with the reason for prescription also taken into account...

  17. Clinical management of clozapine patients in relation to efficacy and side-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, D; Holzbach, R; Perro, C; Hippius, H

    1992-05-01

    Medical charts of 480 schizophrenic in-patients (581 treatments) were analysed to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of clozapine. Clozapine treatment lasted for mean 49 (s.d. 38) days. Of the sample, 11.0% showed worsening or no change, 31.5% slight improvement, 53.0% marked improvement and 4.5% almost total reduction of symptoms. At least one major side-effect occurred in 68.0% of patients. A combination of clozapine with classical neuroleptics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines or lithium is tolerated by most patients, but increases the incidence of some side-effects. Clozapine treatment had to be discontinued because of severe side-effects in 8.6% of patients. In 81 schizophrenic out-patients, clozapine significantly reduced the days of in-patient treatment and number of hospital readmissions. Two patients developed leucopenia but had no complications after clozapine withdrawal. This study indicates a satisfactory benefit/risk ratio and compliance in most of the patients.

  18. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  19. Sexual side effects in patients using long-acting depot antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Marte; De Boer, M.K.; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexual dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia may be related to the disease itself, as well as to psychosocial factors, physical health and the use of psychotropic medications. Sexual side effects have a considerable impact on quality of life and are a major factor in non-adherence t

  20. The role of hypothalamic pathways in the metabolic side effects of Olanzapine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girault, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as Olanzapine (Ola) induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these undesired side effects are currently unknown. In this thesis, we showed that both acute and chronic administration of Ola

  1. Effect of side transmission of power ultrasonic on structure of AZ81 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海波; 翟启杰; 戚飞鹏; 龚永勇

    2004-01-01

    In order to promote the application of power ultrasonic in metallurgic industry, ultrasonic vibration is introduced from the side of AZ81 ingot by adopting the automatic-attracting amplitude transformer horn which has independently been designed and produced, and the effect of the side transmission of ultrasonic on the solidification structure of metal is investigated. The results show that under this experimental condition, power ultrasonic can greatly improve the solidification structure of AZ81 magnesium alloy. Compared with the traditional modification methods in which inoculants are added into melt, power ultrasonic has a better performance. The present research gives us a new way for the application of ultrasonic refinement technique.

  2. Effect of Phase Response Curve Skew on Synchronization with and without Conduction Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eCanavier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A central problem in cortical processing including sensory binding and attentional gating is how neurons can synchronize their responses with zero or near-zero time lag. For a spontaneously firing neuron, an input from another neuron can delay or advance the next spike by different amounts depending upon the timing of the input relative to the previous spike. This information constitutes the phase response curve (PRC. We present a simple graphical method for determining the effect of PRC shape on synchronization tendencies and illustrate it using type 1 PRCs, which consist entirely of advances (delays in response to excitation (inhibition. We obtained the following generic solutions for type 1 PRCs, which include the pulse coupled leaky integrate and fire model. For pairs with mutual excitation, exact synchrony can be stable for strong coupling because of the stabilizing effect of the causal limit region of the PRC in which an input triggers a spike immediately upon arrival. However, synchrony is unstable for short delays, because delayed inputs arrive during a refractory period and cannot trigger an immediate spike. Right skew destabilizes antiphase and enables modes with time lags that grow as the conduction delay is increased. Therefore, right skew favors near-synchrony at short conduction delays and a gradual transition between synchrony and antiphase for pairs coupled by mutual excitation. For pairs with mutual inhibition, zero time lag synchrony is stable for conduction delays ranging from zero to a substantial fraction of the period for pairs. However, for right skew there is a preferred antiphase mode at short delays. In contrast to mutual excitation, left skew destabilizes antiphase for mutual inhibition so that synchrony dominates at short delays as well. These pairwise synchronization tendencies constrain the synchronization properties of neurons embedded in larger networks.

  3. Multivariate Analysis of Side Effects of Drug Molecules Based on Knowledge of Protein Bindings and ProteinProtein Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Funatsu, Kimito

    2014-12-01

    Here, we examined the relationships between 969 side effects associated with 658 drugs and their 1368 human protein targets using our hybrid approaches. Firstly, L-shaped PLS (LPLS) was used to construct a multivariate model of side effects and protein bindings of drug molecules. LPLS is an extension of standard PLS regression, where, in addition to the response matrix Y and the regressor matrix X, an extra data matrix Z is constructed that summarizes the background information of X. X and Y are matrices comprising drugs-target proteins, and drugs-side effects, respectively. The Z matrix is the proteinprotein interaction data. From the loading plot of Y, we could identify two remarkable side effects (urinary incontinence and increased salivation) From the corresponding loading plot of X, the responsible protein targets causing each side effect could be estimated (sodium channels and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors). The loading plot of the Z matrix indicated that the GABA receptors interact with each other and they heavily influence the side effect of increased salivation. Secondly, Bayesian classifier methods were separately applied to the cases of the two side effects. That is, the Bayesian classifier method was used to classify drug molecules as binding or not binding to the responsible protein targets associated with each side effect. Using atom-coloring techniques, it was possible to estimate which fragments on the drug molecule might cause the specific side effects. This information is valuable for drug design to avoid specific side effects.

  4. The delay effect on outcome evaluation: results from an Event-related Potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen eQu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies demonstrate that the timing of receiving gains or losses affects decision-making, a phenomenon known as temporal discounting, as participants are inclined to prefer immediate rewards over delayed ones and vice versa for losses. The present study used the event-related potential (ERP technique with a simple gambling task to investigate how delayed rewards and losses affected the brain activity in outcome evaluations made by 20 young adults. Statistical analysis revealed a larger feedback related negativity (FRN effect between loss and gain following immediate outcomes than following future outcomes. In addition, delay impacted FRN only in gain conditions, with delayed winning eliciting a more negative FRN than immediatewinning. These results suggest that temporal discounting and sign effect could be encoded in the FRN in the early stage of outcome evaluation.

  5. Effect of Flow Rate of Side-Type Orifice Intake on Withdrawn Water Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Side-type orifice intake is a type of selective withdrawal facility used in managing reservoirs to mitigate the negative effects of low-temperature water. Based on the temperature data of a thermal stratified reservoir in China, an experiment was conducted in flume to study the influence of intake flow rate on withdrawn water temperature with different temperature distributions. Results indicated that withdrawn water temperature changed with different flow rates. The temperature change was determined by the water temperature gradients above and below the intake, whereas the change trend of temperature depended on the difference between the water temperature gradient above and below the intake. We likewise proposed a new equation with which the withdrawn water temperature of a thermal stratified reservoir using a side-type orifice could be calculated. These findings could be directly applied to the design and operation of side-type orifice intake in thermal stratified reservoirs.

  6. Effect of flow rate of side-type orifice intake on withdrawn water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueping; Li, Guangning; Han, Yunpeng

    2014-01-01

    Side-type orifice intake is a type of selective withdrawal facility used in managing reservoirs to mitigate the negative effects of low-temperature water. Based on the temperature data of a thermal stratified reservoir in China, an experiment was conducted in flume to study the influence of intake flow rate on withdrawn water temperature with different temperature distributions. Results indicated that withdrawn water temperature changed with different flow rates. The temperature change was determined by the water temperature gradients above and below the intake, whereas the change trend of temperature depended on the difference between the water temperature gradient above and below the intake. We likewise proposed a new equation with which the withdrawn water temperature of a thermal stratified reservoir using a side-type orifice could be calculated. These findings could be directly applied to the design and operation of side-type orifice intake in thermal stratified reservoirs.

  7. Novel endomorphin-1 analogs with C-terminal oligoarginine-conjugation display systemic antinociceptive activity with less gastrointestinal side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang-lin; Qiu, Ting-ting; Diao, Yu-xiang; Zhang, Yao; Gu, Ning

    2015-09-01

    In recent study, in order to improve the bioavailability of endomorphin-1 (EM-1), we designed and synthesized a series of novel EM-1 analogs by replacement of L-Pro(2) by β-Pro, D-Ala or Sar, together with C-terminal oligoarginine-conjugation. Our results indicated that the introduction of D-Ala and β-Pro in position 2, along with oligoarginine-conjugation, didn't significantly decrease the μ-affinity and in vitro bioactivity, and the enhancement of arginine residues did not markedly influence the μ-affinity of these analogs. All analogs displayed a significant enhancement of stability, which may be due to increased resistance to proline-specific enzymatic degradation. Moreover, following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration, analogs 1, 2, 4 and 5 produced significant antinociception and increased duration of action, with the ED50 values being about 1.8- to 4.2-fold less potent than that of EM-1. In addition, our results indicated that no significant antinociceptive activity of EM-1 was seen following subcutaneous (s.c.) injection, whereas analogs 1, 2, 4 and 5 with equimolar dose induced significant and prolonged antinociception by an opioid and central mechanism. Herein, we further examined the gastrointestinal transit and colonic propulsive latencies of EM-1 and its four analogs administered centrally and peripherally. I.c.v. administration of EM-1 and analogs 1, 2, 4 and 5 significantly delayed gastrointestinal transit and colonic bead propulsion in mice, but the inhibitory effects induced by these analogs were largely attenuated. It is noteworthy that no significant gastrointestinal side effects induced by these four analogs were observed after s.c. administration. Our results demonstrated that combined modifications of EM-1 with unnatural amino acid substitutions and oligoarginine-conjugation gave an efficient strategy to improve the analgesic profile of EM-1 analogs but with less gastrointestinal side effects when administered peripherally.

  8. The Effects of Test Trial and Processing Level on Immediate and Delayed Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of test trial and processing level on immediate and delayed retention. A 2 × 2 × 2 mixed ANOVAs was used with two between-subject factors of test trial (single test, repeated test) and processing level (shallow, deep), and one within-subject factor of final recall (immediate, delayed). Seventy-six college students were randomly assigned first to the single test (studied the stimulus words three times and took one free-recall test) and the repeated test trials (studied the stimulus words once and took three consecutive free-recall tests), and then to the shallow processing level (asked whether each stimulus word was presented in capital letter or in small letter) and the deep processing level (whether each stimulus word belonged to a particular category) to study forty stimulus words. The immediate test was administered five minutes after the trials, whereas the delayed test was administered one week later. Results showed that single test trial recalled more words than repeated test trial in immediate final free-recall test, participants in deep processing performed better than those in shallow processing in both immediate and delayed retention. However, the dominance of single test trial and deep processing did not happen in delayed retention. Additional study trials did not further enhance the delayed retention of words encoded in deep processing, but did enhance the delayed retention of words encoded in shallow processing. PMID:28344679

  9. The Effects of Test Trial and Processing Level on Immediate and Delayed Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sau Hou Chang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of test trial and processing level on immediate and delayed retention. A 2 × 2 × 2 mixed ANOVAs was used with two between-subject factors of test trial (single test, repeated test and processing level (shallow, deep, and one within-subject factor of final recall (immediate, delayed. Seventy-six college students were randomly assigned first to the single test (studied the stimulus words three times and took one free-recall test and the repeated test trials (studied the stimulus words once and took three consecutive free-recall tests, and then to the shallow processing level (asked whether each stimulus word was presented in capital letter or in small letter and the deep processing level (whether each stimulus word belonged to a particular category to study forty stimulus words. The immediate test was administered five minutes after the trials, whereas the delayed test was administered one week later. Results showed that single test trial recalled more words than repeated test trial in immediate final free-recall test, participants in deep processing performed better than those in shallow processing in both immediate and delayed retention. However, the dominance of single test trial and deep processing did not happen in delayed retention. Additional study trials did not further enhance the delayed retention of words encoded in deep processing, but did enhance the delayed retention of words encoded in shallow processing.

  10. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic activities, and side effects of some pyrazole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domiati, Souraya; El-Mallah, Ahmed; Ghoneim, Asser; Bekhit, Adnan; El Razik, Heba Abd

    2016-08-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are associated with several side effects, such as gastrointestinal mucosal damage, renal toxicity, and cardiovascular side effects. Aiming to find a novel analgesic/anti-inflammatory drug with minimal side effects, the present study was designed to screen and evaluate some newly synthesized pyrazole derivatives. Anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton-pellet-induced granuloma, COX-1/COX-2 selectivity using thin layer chromatography, and analgesic using hot plate and tail flick tests as well as ulcerogenic and renal side effects of the ten compounds were assessed. The results of the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema showed that the carboxyphenylhydrazone derivative (N9) was more potent than the chlorophenyl counterpart (N8) with a relative activity compared to celecoxib of 1.08 and -0.13, respectively, after 1 h. Even though this is true, N9 caused significant increase in the ulcer index, creatinine, and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels. The cotton granuloma test showed that the carboxyphenylhydrazone derivative (N7) was also more potent than its chlorophenyl counterpart (N6) with a relative activity compared to celecoxib of 1.13 and 0.86, respectively. Moreover, adding an acetyl not only increased the anti-inflammatory activity from a relative activity compared to celecoxib of 0.57-1.17 for the compounds X4 and N5, respectively, in the granuloma test, but also increased the selectivity toward COX-2 from 0.197 to 47.979. As a conclusion, from the ten compounds analyzed, N5 and N7 showed promising results as anti-inflammatory/analgesic agents with low ulcerogenicity and nephrotoxicity and thus should be further analyzed to determine the ED50 and other side effects.

  11. [Study of IUD side-effects indicated in hysteroscopic and pathologic examinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, E Q

    1991-02-01

    The IUD is the most extensively used method of contraception among Chinese women. 7-15% of IUD users stopped using the method because of side effects such as irregular menstrual bleeding, spotting, and cramps. This study of the causes of IUD side effects examined 80 women who had had an IUD for over 6 months and experienced side effects for over 3 months and 40 women requesting IUD removal for nonmedical reasons were chosen as the controls. The conditions of the IUDs and their positions inside the uterine cavity were observed. Endometrial tissue structure was also taken. The differences in age, parity, occupation, number of previous IUD insertions, previous experience of abortion, and duration of use of the current IUD between the case and the control groups were not statistically significant. 49% of cases had irregular menstruation 6 months prior to IUD insertion compared with 2.5% among the controls. 38% of cases had size and position of IUD that were incompatible with the shape of the uterine cavity while 10% of the controls had the same situation. Pathological changes of endometria were observed in 52 cases and 8 controls. It is concluded that women with a history of anemia, heart condition, irregular menstruation, and abdominal surgery as well as those with uterine polyps or cysts are more likely to experience side effects. Screening for these contraindications should be conducted before IUD insertion. Patients who experienced IUD side effects persistently after treatment might have a dislocated IUD or an IUD incompatible with the uterine cavity. Pathological changes of endometria might be associated with the mechanic compression of an IUD or because of the operator's skill of insertion. Stereoscopic examinations also discovered cases with gynecological problems that were unrelated to the presence of an IUD.

  12. [Current prevention and treatment strategies for osteoporosis. Fracture-oriented, effective, low side effects and inexpensive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, R; Bartl, C

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis is still an underdiagnosed and insufficiently therapied widespread disease in Germany. Of the estimated 7 million osteoporosis patients only 1.5 million receive a guideline conform diagnosis and even less receive appropriate treatment. Some 90 % of patients are provided with analgesics but only 10 % receive an effective therapy, although efficacious, well-tested and affordable medications are available. In addition, approximately one half of the patients terminate treatment after only 1 year although according to the results of recent studies the duration of therapy should be at least 3-5 years. In view of the increasing average life expectancy, a consistent management for prevention of fractures associated with osteoporosis is always most important for society, even if only for reasons of costs. Achievement of this target depends on four circumstances: clarification of the origin of osteoporosis and fractures (bone consciousness), prophylaxis of bone loss and fractures (primary prevention), consistent guideline conform diagnostics and therapy (secondary and tertiary prevention) and cooperation of all disciplines in medicine (bone is everybody's business). This article describes the current state of diagnostics (bone density measurement with dual X-ray absorptiometry, FRAX®), prophylaxis of fractures (screening program) and therapy (use of economic and effective medications with low side effects). Novel medications are already undergoing clinical testing and a "healing" of bone reduction with restoration of the normal bone structure is to be expected.

  13. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-09-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF-TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF-TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability.

  14. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-01-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)–TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. PMID:26327690

  15. Evidences of possible side effects of neuroleptic drugs:A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prashant Tiwari; Rajnikant Panik; Arin Bhattacharya; Dheeraj Ahirwar; Anish Chandy

    2012-01-01

    The premise that chronic neuroleptic treatment may induce decline in some schizophrenic patients has received considerable attention. This effect, typically called super sensitivity psychosis, has been accredited to neuroleptic induced changes in mesolimbic or mesocortical dopaminergic receptors. Both typical and atypical antipsychotics generations of medication tend to block receptors in the brain's dopamine pathways which offers a number of harmful and undesired (adverse) effects including lowered life expectancy, extrapyramidal effects on motor control including akathisia (an inability to sit still), trembling, and muscle weakness weight gain, decrease in brain volume, enlarged breasts e.g. gynecomastia in men and milk discharge in men and women (galactorrhea due to hyperprolactinaemia), lowered white blood cell count (agranulocytosis), involuntary repetitive body movements (tardive dyskinesia), diabetes, and sexual dysfunction. In evaluating the risk of neuroleptic medication, the occurrence of its common side effects and uneasiness connected with these side effects should be determined. However, research has not established that neuroleptics cause the projected effect, and considerations of mechanism have not been alienated from those of causation. The focus of research in this area should be the concern or repudiation of a causal relationship between chronic neuroleptic use and psychotic relapse, even though at hand article would eradicate to researchers to find out a compiled revision on probable side effects of neuroleptic drugs.

  16. Side effects of pharmacotherapy on bone with long-acting gonadorelin agonist triptorelin for paraphilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeveen, John; Van der Veer, Eveline

    2008-03-01

    There have been limited research studies concerning the use of libido inhibitors for the treatment of patients with a paraphilia. Observational studies suggest that agents that lower testosterone are an effective treatment for paraphilia. We report a case of hormonal treatment of paraphilia that was associated with side effects. A 35-year-old man with a paraphilia was treated with long-acting gonadorelin. The desired result was reduced preoccupation with sexuality, but there were various side effects including a serious amount of bone loss. We believe that more attention should be given to the adverse effects of long-term treatment with triptorelin. In our view the drug regime needs to be revised.

  17. Choice between delayed food and immediate opioids in rats: treatment effects and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panlilio, Leigh V; Secci, Maria E; Schindler, Charles W; Bradberry, Charles W

    2017-09-04

    Addiction involves maladaptive choice behavior in which immediate drug effects are valued more than delayed nondrug rewards. To model this behavior and extend our earlier work with the prescription opioid oxycodone, we allowed rats to choose between immediate intravenous delivery of the short-acting opioid remifentanil and delayed delivery of highly palatable food pellets. Treatment drugs were tested on a baseline where remifentanil was preferred over food. Treatment with a high dose of the opioid antagonist naltrexone decreased but did not reverse the preference for remifentanil. Treatment with the serotonin 5-HT2C agonist lorcaserin decreased remifentanil and food self-administration nonselectively. Across conditions in which the alternative to delayed food was either a moderate dose of oxycodone, a moderate or high dose of remifentanil, a smaller more immediate delivery of food, or timeout with no primary reinforcement, choice was determined by both the length of the delay and the nature of the alternative option. Delayed food was discounted most steeply when the alternative was a high dose of remifentanil, which was preferred over food when food was delayed by 30 s or more. Within-subject comparisons showed no evidence for trait-like impulsivity or sensitivity to delay across these conditions. Choice was determined more by the current contingencies of reinforcement than by innate individual differences. This finding suggests that people might develop steep delay-discounting functions because of the contingencies in their environment, and it supports the use of contingency management to enhance the relative value of delayed nondrug reinforcers.

  18. Side effects of antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Velimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic hepatitis C currently represents a global health problem, which is expected to be reduced by pegylated-interferon and ribavirin therapy. Material and Methods. We examined 88 patients with chronic hepatitis C, divided into three groups according to their comorbidity: the patients without comorbidity were in group I, group II included the patients on dialysis, and group III included the patients with hemophilia. Results. A significant difference was found in the percentage of achieved sustained virological response between the patients on dialysis and other patients, p<0.05. Having analyzed the therapy adverse effects, we observed a significantly higher decrease of erythrocytes count, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in dialysis patients compared to others (p<0.01. The patients on hemodialysis predominantly had anemia and leukopenia, while thrombocytopenia was equally present in all groups. The dominant clinical side effect was flu-like syndrome, present in more than a half of patients. Discussion. The therapy positive effect is usually accompanied with adverse effects. The lowest therapeutic response was recorded in group II, due to the virus genotype 1. A significant decrease in hematological parameters was determined in all patients. The most common clinical adverse effect was flu-like syndrome, later manifestations included: weight loss, alopecia, insomnia and irritability. Side effects like psychosis, thyroid gland dysfunction or psoriasis were not recorded. Conclusion. A significant decrease in the value of all these hematological parameters was found in all groups of patients. Clinical side effects were present in 60% of patients. Side effects did not lead to discontinuation of therapy, but only to modification of drug doses.

  19. Gastrointestinal side effects associated with novel therapies in patients with multiple myeloma: consensus statement of the IMF Nurse Leadership Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa C; Bertolotti, Page; Curran, Kathleen; Jenkins, Bonnie

    2008-06-01

    The novel immunomodulatory drugs lenalidomide and thalidomide and the novel proteasome inhibitor bortezomib can cause gastrointestinal side effects, including constipation, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, which can have a deleterious effect on quality of life and interfere with optimal therapy. The International Myeloma Foundation's Nurse Leadership Board developed this consensus statement for the management of gastrointestinal side effects associated with novel therapies to be used by healthcare providers in any medical setting. It includes grading criteria and general recommendations for assessing and managing the side effects. Although constipation, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting are expected side effects associated with novel therapies for multiple myeloma, they are manageable with appropriate medical interventions.

  20. Coping with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life from the perspective of cancer patients: A qualitative empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte Pallesen; Nielsen, Lene Lyngø

    Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how patients cope with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life. Background Patients receiving cancer treatment experience acute side effects and need individualized information and guidance in order to manage treatment......-related adverse events in everyday life. However development in cancer treatment and the societal demands for efficiency may limit the possibility for individualized support. Methods Nine patients were interviewed from March to July 2009 to explore the patients’ experience of coping with side effects in daily...... their identity but the side effects can control the daily life. Patients do not always possess the knowledge of how to handle the side effects and adaptation to the institutional efficiency can lead to lack of confidence and feelings of responsibility and guilt concerning coping with these side effects...

  1. [The effects of captopril and metoprolol on blood pressure and side effects in patients with mild to moderate hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornerup, H J; Korsager, S

    1989-04-03

    A material of 76 patients from general practice treated with diuretics for mild to moderate hypertension were randomized to supplementary treatment with captopril (39 patients) and metoprolol (37 patients), respectively, on account of diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mmHg. Satisfactory regulation of the blood pressure (diastolic blood pressure less than or equal to 90 mmHg) and acceptable wellbeing was obtained in 29 patients in the captopril group and in 23 patients in the metoprolol group. Six patients in the captopril group were excluded on account of absence of effect on the blood pressure and four dropped out on account of side effects. In the metoprolol group, nine patients were excluded on account of absence of effect on the blood pressure and five on account of side effects. This difference was not significant. In the captopril group, 14 side effects were registered in eight patients while 23 side effects were observed in 15 patients in the metoprolol group. This difference was not statistically significant, p greater than 0.05 (risk for type 2 error = 60%). It is concluded that captopril + a diuretic is just as effective a form of treatment of slight to moderate hypertension as metoprolol + a diuretic and that treatment with captopril + a diuretic is associated with so few side effects that it may be considered as an alternative first choice of treatment in cases of slight to moderate hypertension.

  2. Effects of time-delayed feedback on the properties of self-sustained oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risau-Gusman, S.

    2016-10-01

    Most self-sustained oscillations in biological systems and in technical applications are based on a feedback loop, and it is usually important to know how they will react when an external oscillatory force is applied. Here we investigate the effects that the introduction of a time delay in the feedback can have in the entrainment properties of self-sustained oscillators. To do this, we derive analytic expressions for the periodic trajectories and their asymptotic stability, for a generic external oscillatory force. This allows us to show that, for large quality factors, the resonance frequency does not depend on the feedback delay. When the external force is harmonic, it is shown that the largest entrainment range does not correspond to the time delay that gives the maximal response of the unforced oscillator. In fact, that delay gives the shortest entrainment range.

  3. Effect of Magnetic Activity on Ionospheric Time Delay at Low Latitude

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumi Bhattacharya; Smita Dubey; Rajesh Tiwari; P. K. Purohit; A. K. Gwal

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of magnetic activity on ionospheric time delay at low latitude Station Bhopal (geom. lat. 23.2°N, geom. long. 77.6°E) using dual frequency (1575.42 and 1227.60 MHz) GPS measurements. Data from GSV4004A GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC monitor (GISTM) have been chosen to study these effects. This paper presents the results of ionospheric time delay during quiet and disturbed days for the year 2005. Results show that maximum delay is observed during quiet days in equinoxial month while the delays of disturbed period are observed during the months of winter. We also study the ionospheric time delay during magnetic storm conditions for the same period. Results do not show any clear relationship either with the magnitude of the geomagnetic storm or with the main phase onset (MPO) of the storm. But most of the maximum ionospheric time delay variations are observed before the main phase onset (MPO) or sudden storm commencement (SSC) as compared to storm days.

  4. The effect and design of time delay in feedback control for a nonlinear isolation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuting; Xu, Jian; Fu, Jiangsong

    2017-03-01

    The optimum value of time delay of active control used in a nonlinear isolation system for different types of external excitation is studied in this paper. Based on the mathematical model of the nonlinear isolator with time-delayed active control, the stability, response and displacement transmissibility of the system are analyzed to obtain the standards for appropriate values of time delay and control strengths. The effects of nonlinearity and time delay on the stability and vibration response are discussed in details. For impact excitation and random excitation, the optimal value of time delay is obtained based on the vibration dissipation time via eigenvalues analysis, while for harmonic excitation, the optimal values are determined based on multiple vibration properties including natural frequency, amplitude death region and effective isolation region by the Averaging Method. This paper establishes the relationship between the parameters and vibration properties of a nonlinear isolation system which provides the guidance for optimizing time-delayed active control for different types of excitation in engineering practices.

  5. Effect of unsignaled delays between stimuli in a chain schedule on responding and resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matthew C; Gomez, Belen E

    2008-03-01

    Behavioral momentum theory is an evolving theoretical account of the strength of behavior. One challenge for the theory is determining the role of signal stimuli in determining response strength. This study evaluated the effect of an unsignaled delay between the initial link and terminal link of a two-link chain schedule on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of reinforcement. Pigeons were presented two different signaled delay to reinforcement schedules. Both schedules employed a two-link chain schedule with a variable interval 120-s initial link followed by a 5-s fixed time terminal link schedule. One of the schedules included a 5-s unsignaled delay between the initial link and the terminal link. Resistance to change was assessed with two separate disruption procedures: extinction and adding a variable time 20-s schedule of reinforcement to the inter-component interval. Baseline responding was lower in the schedule with the unsignaled delay but resistance to change for the initial link was unaffected by the unsignaled delay. The results suggest that not all unsignaled delays are equal in their effect on resistance to change.

  6. Effects of the pelvic compression belt on gluteus medius, quadratus lumborum, and lumbar multifidus activities during side-lying hip abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Suhn-Yeop; Oh, Duck-Won

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effect of the pelvic compression belt on the electromyographic (EMG) activities of gluteus medius (GM), quadratus lumborum (QL), and lumbar multifidus (LM) during side-lying hip abduction. Thirty-one volunteers (15 men and 16 women) with no history of pathology volunteered for this study. Subjects were instructed to perform hip abduction in side-lying position with and without applying the pelvic compression belt. The pelvic compression belt was adjusted just below the anterior superior iliac spines with the stabilizing pressure using elastic compression bands. Surface EMG data were collected from the GM, QL, and LM of the dominant limb. Significantly decreased EMG activity in the QL (without the pelvic compression belt, 60.19±23.66% maximal voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]; with the pelvic compression belt, 51.44±23.00% MVIC) and significantly increased EMG activity in the GM (without the pelvic compression belt, 26.71±12.88% MVIC; with the pelvic compression belt, 35.02±18.28% MVIC) and in the LM (without the pelvic compression belt, 30.28±14.60% MVIC; with the pelvic compression belt, 37.47±18.94% MVIC) were found when the pelvic compression belt was applied (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences of the EMG activity between male and female subjects. The findings suggest that the pelvic compression belt may be helpful to prevent unwanted substitution movement during side-lying hip abduction, through increasing the GM and LM and decreasing the QL.

  7. Effects of AV-delay optimization on hemodynamic parameters in patients with VDD pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Nürnberg, Michael; Volker, Romana; Pachinger, Linda; Jarai, Rudolf; Freynhofer, Matthias K; Wojta, Johann; Huber, Kurt; Weiss, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) delay optimization improves hemodynamics and clinical parameters in patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy and dual-chamber-pacemakers (PM). However, data on optimizing AV delay in patients treated with VDD-PMs are scarce. We, therefore, investigated the acute and chronic effects of AV delay optimization on hemodynamics in patients treated with VDD-PMs due to AV-conduction disturbances. In this prospective, single-center interventional trial, we included 64 patients (38 men, 26 women, median age: 77 (70-82) years) with implanted VDD-PM. AV-delay optimization was performed using a formula based on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG). Hemodynamic parameters (stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP)) were measured at baseline and follow-up after 3 months using impedance cardiography. Using an ECG formula for AV-delay optimization, the AV interval was decreased from 180 (180-180) to 75 (75-100) ms. At baseline, AV-delay optimization led to a significant increase of both SV (71.3 ± 15.8 vs. 55.3 ± 12.7 ml, p AV delay vs. nominal AV interval, respectively) and CO (5.1 ± 1.4 vs. 3.9 ± 1.0 l/min, p AV-delay optimization in patients treated with VDD-PMs exhibits immediate beneficial effects on hemodynamic parameters that are sustained for 3 months.

  8. Brief Exposure to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Side-Effect Symptoms in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, R Eric; Goodfellow, Linda

    2016-01-01

    No study has tested the effectiveness of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions to reduce persistent nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to determine if CBT could reduce nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients with HIV on ART. Men ages 40 to 56 years on ART (n = 18) at a suburban HIV clinic were randomly assigned to a control group or the CBT intervention. Usual adherence education and side-effect management were provided to both groups. Symptoms, health perception, medication adherence, and side-effect-reducing medication use were measured at four time points over 3 months. Participants in the intervention group rated usual fatigue and worst fatigue at 60 days, and nausea duration at 90 days significantly lower than controls (p HIV undergoing ART.

  9. Association between addressing antiseizure drug side effects and patient-reported medication adherence in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura LMVR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lidia M V R Moura,1 Thiago S Carneiro,1 Andrew J Cole,1 John Hsu,2,3 Barbara G Vickrey,4 Daniel B Hoch1 1Department of Neurology, 2Mongan Institute for Health Policy, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 4Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background and aim: Adherence to treatment is a critical component of epilepsy management. This study examines whether addressing antiepileptic drug (AED side effects at every visit is associated with increased patient-reported medication adherence.Patients and methods: This study identified 243 adults with epilepsy who were seen at two academic outpatient neurology settings and had at least two visits over a 3-year period. Demographic and clinical characteristics were abstracted. Evidence that AED side effects were addressed was measured through 1 phone interview (patient-reported and 2 medical records abstraction (physician-documented. Medication adherence was assessed using the validated Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4. Complete adherence was determined as answering “no” to all questions.Results: Sixty-two (25% patients completed the interviews. Participants and nonparticipants were comparable with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics; however, a smaller proportion of participants had a history of drug-resistant epilepsy than nonparticipants (17.7% vs 30.9%, P=0.04. Among the participants, evidence that AED side effects were addressed was present in 48 (77% medical records and reported by 51 (82% patients. Twenty-eight (45% patients reported complete medication adherence. The most common reason for incomplete adherence was missed medication due to forgetfulness (n=31, 91%. There was no association between addressing AED side effects (neither physician-documented nor patient-reported and complete medication adherence (P=0.22 and 0.20.Discussion and

  10. Side effects in melanoma patients receiving adjuvant interferon alfa-2b therapy: a nurse's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Krista M; Vona, Karen; Madden, Kathleen; McGettigan, Suzanne; Braun, Ilana M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the toxicity profile of adjuvant interferon (IFN) alfa-2b in melanoma patients from a nursing perspective and to summarize practical information to guide the effective management of common IFN toxicities to improve patient comfort. This is a narrative summary of both research and review articles identified by searching PubMed, National Cancer Institute, and American Cancer Society websites. It also assesses recognized guidelines on the management of adjuvant IFN toxicity relevant to nurses who are caring for patients receiving adjuvant IFN therapy. Adjuvant high-dose IFN alfa-2b (HDI) as compared with observation significantly prolongs relapse-free survival in patients with melanoma at high risk for recurrence after surgical resection; however, treatment compliance and patient quality of life can be compromised by its toxicity profile. HDI toxicities affect a number of organ systems and the majority of patients will experience some side effects. Common toxicities such as flu-like symptoms, fatigue, anorexia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and laboratory abnormalities are discussed, along with both pharmacological and nonpharmacological management strategies. The considerable side effects of HDI can be managed using established strategies. Oncology nurses play a significant role in the management of patients with melanoma receiving adjuvant HDI, and their prompt recognition of side effects, together with an understanding of effective pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions, will improve patient comfort; this has the potential to positively influence treatment adherence and completion of the recommended treatment course.

  11. Usage and Perceived Side Effects of Personal Protective Measures against Mosquitoes among Current Users in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Kohli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The use of personal protective measures (PPM like mats, bednets, screening, repellents, liquid vaporizers, mosquito coils, and so forth has been advocated as an effective tool in control of mosquito-borne diseases, but data about the safety profile of personal protective measures is still scarce. Objective. To study the usage and side effects of personal protective measures against mosquitoes among current users in Delhi. Materials and Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study among 350 adult individuals selected by systematic sampling method. Data was collected using pretested semistructured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square/Fisher’s Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results. Out of 350 families selected, 210 belonged to rural area and 140 to urban area. Personal protective measures were used by 219 (62.5% subjects. Liquid vaporizer was the most preferred method (41.4%. Most common perceived side effect of personal protective measures was headache (7.7%. Other perceived side effects were cough (3.2%, sore throat (2.7%, allergy (1.3%, and eye irritation (0.9% predominantly among coil users. Conclusion. There is a need to have a close watch for side effects of personal protective measures among users. Further research is also needed to develop safe and effective personal protective measures against mosquitoes.

  12. Memory for medication side effects in younger and older adults: The role of subjective and objective importance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friedman, Michael C; McGillivray, Shannon; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    .... In the present experiments, we investigated the degrees to which younger and healthy older adults remembered medication side effects that were subjectively or objectively important to remember...

  13. A psychosocial perspective of medication side effects, experiences, coping approaches and implications for adherence in hypertension management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kretchy, Irene A; Owusu-Daaku, Frances T; Danquah, Samuel A; Asampong, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether psychosocial variables influenced patients' perception and experience of side effects of their medicines, how they coped with these experiences and the impact on medication...

  14. The effect of probiotics supplementation on Helicobacter pylori eradication rates and side effects during eradication therapy: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yini Dang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses reported that probiotics improve the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori eradication during antibiotic therapy, while results regarding a possible reduction of side effects remained inconclusive. Moreover, the effectiveness of different strains of probiotics has not been studied so far. It is further conceivable that probiotics will produce additional effects only if antibiotics are relatively ineffective. METHODS: This meta-analysis includes eligible randomized controlled trials examining effects of probiotics supplementation on eradication rates (ER and side effects, published up to May 2014. Sub-group analysis was performed to compare different probiotic strains and antibiotic therapies with different effectiveness in controls (ER 80%. Publication bias was assessed with funnel plots and Harbord's test. The quality of the trials was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 4459 patients met the inclusion criteria in case of eradication rates of which 20 assessed total side effects in addition. Overall, the pooled eradication rate in probiotics supplementation groups was significantly higher than in controls (ITT analysis: RR 1.122, 95% CI 1.086-1.159, PP analysis: RR 1.114, 95% CI 1.070-1.159. Sub group-analysis could, however, confirm this finding only for four individual strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei DN-114001, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Bifidobacterium infantis 2036 and for relatively ineffective antibiotic therapies. There was a significant difference between groups in the overall incidence of side effects (RR 0.735, 95% CI 0.598-0.902. This result was, however, only confirmed for non-blinded trials. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled data suggest that supplementation with specific strains of probiotics compared with eradication therapy may be considered an option for increasing eradication rates, particularly when antibiotic

  15. Delayed immune mediated adverse effects to hyaluronic acid fillers: report of five cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ora Bitterman-Deutsch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA fillers in cosmetic medicine have been considered relatively safe, though fillers used in European countries and throughout the world are not necessarily approved by the Food and Drug Administration. As their use continues to expand worldwide, physicians in a wide range of medical specialties are authorized to perform HA injections, including general medicine practitioners and even dentists. An increasing number of reports have appeared regarding side effects to these products. It is now known that reactions to Hyaluronic acid are related not only to technical faults of the injections, but also to immune responses, including delayed hypersensitivity and granulomatous reactions. Herein, we describe five cases treated by a variety of treatment modalities, all with delayed reactions to different brands of hyaluronic acid fillers. As there is currently no standardization of treatment options of adverse effects, these cases accentuate the debate regarding the approach to the individual patient and the possible need for pre-testing in patients with an atopic tendency.

  16. Prevalence, side effects and awareness about energy drinks among the female university students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value Sattam bin Abdulaziz have reported to consume energy drinks regularly with several adverse effects. The government of Saudi Arabia should take serious initiatives towards organizing effective awareness programs specifically in universities and colleges to control the consumption of energy drinks and educate on the adverse effects.

  17. The Fresnel-Fizeau effect and the atmospheric time delay in geodetic VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    M., Kopeikin S

    2015-01-01

    The Fresnel-Fizeau effect is a special relativistic effect that makes the speed of light dependent on the velocity of a transparent, moving medium. We present a theoretical formalism for discussing propagation of electromagnetic signals through the moving Earth atmosphere with taking into account the Fresnel-Fizeau effect. It provides the rigorous relativistic derivation of the atmospheric time delay equation in the consensus model of geodetic VLBI observations which was never published before. The paper confirms the atmospheric time delay of the consensus VLBI model used in IERS Standards, and provides a firm theoretical basis for calculation of even more subtle relativistic corrections.

  18. Fear appeals and treatment side-effects: an effective combination for HIV prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, S; Batrouney, C; Murphy, D

    2007-01-01

    Recent rises in the incidence of HIV infections among gay men in Australia have produced widespread discussion about appropriate health promotion responses. This has sometimes included calls for a return to fear-based campaigns, exemplified by the Grim Reaper advertisements in HIV. This paper discusses results from four focus groups that tested mock campaign material based on an appeal to fear. Five different poster images were tested among groups distinguished by age and HIV serostatus. Three posters used side-effects from treatments as the fear trigger and two used death from AIDS. A number of themes arose in response to the material including 'othering', shame and scepticism about HIV treatments. The meanings of these themes are explored in the light of current health-promotion theory. This data demonstrates that fear is an ineffective tool for HIV health promotion. It further demonstrates that feelings of shame and stigma are likely to be exacerbated in gay men, leading to poorer health outcomes in various ways.

  19. Side Effects of Transfusion of G6PD Deficient Blood in Neonates and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Nabavizadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common metabolic disease of red blood cells. It affects about 35 millions people in the entire world. Its incidence in IRAN is estimated to be 10-14.9%. Transfusion of G6PD deficient blood produces many untoward side effects in recipients. Despite the high incidence of the disease and such risks, blood donors are not screened routinely for this enzyme deficiency. This study performed on effects of G6PD deficient blood in patients admitted in Pediatric & Neonatal ward of Yasouj Emam Sajjad Hospital for detection of proposed side effects. Materials & Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 261 bags of blood during transfusion and the samples were checked for G6PD. Also patients receiving G6PD deficient blood were checked for hemoglobin, serum bilirubin and hemoglobinuria. Factors that tend to hemolysis in G6PD deficient patient were mentioned.Results: 37 (14.7% of samples were G6PD deficient. 81% of donors had at least a risk factor that tend to hemolysis in G6PD deficient state. Side effects of transfusion of G6PD deficient blood included: non significant elevation of hemoglobin (55.9%, hemoglobinuria (35.3% and increase in serum bilirubin (8.8%. Conclusion: It is recommended that in areas where G6PD deficiency is endemic, donors’ blood must be screened before transfusion.

  20. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todokoro, Daisuke; Itakura, Hirotaka; Ibe, Takashi; Kishi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of afatinib therapy. A 75-year-old Japanese male ex-smoker with EGFR-mutated NSCLC underwent afatinib therapy for multiple metastases. At 2 weeks, bilateral conjunctivitis developed. Topical medication and a 1-week afatinib washout period resulted in the improvement of the conjunctivitis. However, 3 days after the resumption of afatinib, the patient developed unilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis in his right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement indicated a decimal visual acuity of 0.2, while the slit-lamp findings were characterized by granulomatous inflammation, keratic precipitates, Koeppe nodules and posterior synechiae. There was no evidence suggesting other intraocular inflammatory disease or metastatic tumor. The left eye was intact. The use of topical medication including steroids and a washout of afatinib resulted in a gradual subsiding of the anterior uveitis. After resolution of the anterior uveitis, oral afatinib was resumed. BCVA of the right eye finally recovered to a decimal acuity of 1.0. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility that side effects associated with afatinib could cause granulomatous anterior uveitis.

  1. Image-guided preoperative prediction of pyramidal tract side effect in deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, C.; Zhao, Y.; Sauleau, P.; Malrain, C.; Jannin, P.; Haegelen, C.

    2016-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the medial globus pallidus is a surgical procedure for treating patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Its therapeutic effect may be limited by the presence of pyramidal tract side effect (PTSE). PTSE is a contraction time-locked to the stimulation when the current spreading reaches the motor fibers of the pyramidal tract within the internal capsule. The lack of side-effect predictive model leads the neurologist to secure an optimal electrode placement by iterating clinical testing on an awake patient during the surgical procedure. The objective of the study was to propose a preoperative predictive model of PTSE. A machine learning based method called PyMAN (for Pyramidal tract side effect Model based on Artificial Neural network) that accounted for the current of the stimulation, the 3D electrode coordinates and the angle of the trajectory, was designed to predict the occurrence of PTSE. Ten patients implanted in the medial globus pallidus have been tested by a clinician to create a labeled dataset of the stimulation parameters that trigger PTSE. The kappa index value between the data predicted by PyMAN and the labeled data was .78. Further evaluation studies are desirable to confirm whether PyMAN could be a reliable tool for assisting the surgeon to prevent PTSE during the preoperative planning.

  2. Animal models for predicting the efficacy and side effects of antipsychotic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H. Gobira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of antipsychotic drugs represents an important approach for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, their efficacy is limited to certain symptoms of this disorder, and they induce serious side effects. As a result, there is a strong demand for the development of new drugs, which depends on reliable animal models for pharmacological characterization. The present review discusses the face, construct, and predictive validity of classical animal models for studying the efficacy and side effects of compounds for the treatment of schizophrenia. These models are based on the properties of antipsychotics to impair the conditioned avoidance response and reverse certain behavioral changes induced by psychotomimetic drugs, such as stereotypies, hyperlocomotion, and deficit in prepulse inhibition of the startle response. Other tests, which are not specific to schizophrenia, may predict drug effects on negative and cognitive symptoms, such as deficits in social interaction and memory impairment. Regarding motor side effects, the catalepsy test predicts the liability of a drug to induce Parkinson-like syndrome, whereas vacuous chewing movements predict the liability to induce dyskinesia after chronic treatment. Despite certain limitations, these models may contribute to the development of more safe and efficacious antipsychotic drugs.

  3. Extinction and permanence in delayed stage-structure predator-prey system with impulsive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang Guoping [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Yulin Normal University, Yulin, Guangxi 537000 (China) and Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)], E-mail: g.p.pang@163.com; Wang Fengyan [Department of Mathematics, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China); College of Science, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian 361021 (China); Chen Lansun [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Based on the classical stage-structured model and Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, an impulsive delayed differential equation to model the process of periodically releasing natural enemies at fixed times for pest control is proposed and investigated. We show that the conditions for global attractivity of the 'pest-extinction' ('prey-eradication') periodic solution and permanence of the population of the model depend on time delay. We also show that constant maturation time delay and impulsive releasing for the predator can bring great effects on the dynamics of system by numerical analysis. As a result, the pest maturation time delay is considered to establish a procedure to maintain the pests at an acceptably low level in the long term. In this paper, the main feature is that we introduce time delay and pulse into the predator-prey (natural enemy-pest) model with age structure, exhibit a new modelling method which is applied to investigate impulsive delay differential equations, and give some reasonable suggestions for pest management.

  4. Effects of delayed polymerization time and bracket manipulation on orthodontic resin modified glass ionomer adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Danielle Wiggins

    This study examined the effect of varying delayed polymerization times in combination with bracket manipulation on shear bond strength (SBS), degree of conversion (DC), and adhesive remnant index (ARI) score when using a resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) adhesive. Specimens were divided into three groups of clinically relevant delay times (0.5, 2, and 4-min) to simulate the delay that frequently occurs between bracket placement and manipulation and subsequent light curing. Based on an analysis of variance (alpha=.05), the SBS was not significantly different between the three groups. While one of the goals of this study was to be the first study to quantify DC of RMGI using Raman microspectroscopy, several challenges, including weak peak signal with and without fluorescence, were encountered and as a result, DC could not be determined. A significant difference (p<0.05) in ARI score was detected between the 0.5-min and 4.0-min delay groups with more adhesive remaining on the bracket with increasing delay time. A Spearman correlation between SBS and ARI indicated no positive association between SBS and ARI measures across delay times. The results of this study suggest that clinically relevant delay times of 0.5, 2, and 4-min do not negatively impact the SBS of a RMGI adhesive. However, with increasing delay time, the results suggest that more adhesive might remain on the bracket during debonding. With more adhesive remaining on the bracket, this could be beneficial in that less adhesive needs to be removed from enamel by grinding at the time of bracket removal when orthodontic treatment is completed.

  5. Extending Software Transactional Memory in Clojure with Side-Effects and Transaction Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kejser; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2016-01-01

    do however not support execution of code with side-effects and provide no methods for synchronising threads. Additional concurrency mechanisms on top of STM are needed for these use cases, increasing the complexity of the code. We present multiple constructs allowing functions with side......-effects to be executed as part of a transaction. These constructs are made accessible through a uniform interface, making them interchangeable. We present constructs providing explicit control of transactions. Through these constructs transactions can synchronise threads based on the current program state, abort...... additional capabilities to Clojure's STM implementation without violating its ACI properties. Through a usability evaluation with a small sample size we show that using these constructs reduces both the number of lines of code and the development time compared to Clojure 1.8. Last we demonstrate through...

  6. Liposomal Formulation of Bevasizuamb for Intravitreal Administration: Increased Half-Life, Decreased Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Zarei Ghanavati

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Intravitreal injection is the common method for treatment of the posterior segment eye diseases. The advantage of intravitreal injection is achieving the desired concentration of drug inside the eye and reduction of drug side effects. Unfortunately, repeated intravitreal injections can cause several ocular complications including; vitreous hemorrhage, endophthalmitis, retinal detachment and cataract. For this reason, it seems the usage of sustained release drug delivery systems is helpful. Bevacizumab (Avastin®, antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF monoclonal antibody, is used for the treatment of different ocular diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration, neovascular glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusions, etc. For reduction of drug side effects and improvement of drug half-life after intravitreal administration, we suggest preparation of liposomal bevacizumab as novel drug delivery system and comparison of this new formulation with conventional formulation in the market.

  7. The side effect profile of buspirone in comparison to active controls and placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R E; Casten, G P; Alms, D R; Benes, C O; Marunycz, J D

    1982-12-01

    Animal studies and the original study comparing buspirone with diazepam and placebo indicated that sedative-hypnotic side effects and impairment in psychomotor function would be less with buspirone than with diazepam. This was borne out by the present double-blind study in which almost 700 patients received buspirone. Mean daily doses were buspirone, 20 mg; diazepam, 20 mg; and clorazepate, 24 mg. Sedation, lethargy, and depression were significantly less with buspirone than with diazepam or clorazepate and were comparable to placebo. There was no indication that other types of side effects would differ significantly from those seen with the benzodiazepines. Nervousness, headache, and dizziness were experienced more frequently with buspirone than with placebo.

  8. The metrizamide study in neuroradiologic diagnosis: The clinical utility and side effects of the metrizamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kounn Sik; Choo, In Wook; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    The retrospective analysis on the clinical utility and side effects of the metrizamide myelography and metrizamide CT cisternography were made in 292 patients. Metrizamide CT proved valuable in the diagnosis of intraspinal neoplasms with total block in myelography, demonstrating the upper margin of the neoplasms in a large number (75%) of the cases with neoplasm. Metrizamide study also clearly showed the nature and extent of the congenital anomalies such as spinal dysraphism, the exact site of leakage in CSF rhinorrhoea, the extent of the syringomyelia, and arachnoid cyst. Metrizamide CT was also helpful in the diagnosis of spinal stenosis, spinal trauma and infectious disease of the spine. The most common side effects were transient minor meningeal irritations (headache, nausea, vomiting and dizziness) which persisted no more than 48 hours in most of the patients. Five patients developed major complications such as grand mal seizure, toxic psychosis or aspetic meningitis.

  9. An Uncommon Side Effect of Bupropion: A Case of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Tak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP is a rare inflammatory dermatosis characterized by multiple nonfollicular pustules that occur on erythematous skin. Despite its similarity to pustular psoriasis and association with fever and leukocytosis, AGEP typically heals quickly. Etiologically, drugs and viruses have been suspected in most cases. Here, we present a case of AGEP, in a woman, that developed 1 day after starting bupropion for smoking cessation, as a rare side effect of the treatment.

  10. Two-Sided Network Effects: A Theory of Information Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey G. Parker; Van Alstyne, Marshall W.

    2005-01-01

    How can firms profitably give away free products? This paper provides a novel answer and articulates trade-offs in a space of information product design. We introduce a formal model of two-sided network externalities based in textbook economics---a mix of Katz and Shapiro network effects, price discrimination, and product differentiation. Externality-based complements, however, exploit a different mechanism than either tying or lock-in even as they help to explain many recent strategies such ...

  11. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  12. Exacerbation of Bloody Diarrhea as a Side Effect of Mesalamine Treatment of Active Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi Shimodate; Kunihiro Takanashi; Eriko Waga; Tomoki Fujita; Shinichi Katsuki; Masafumi Nomura

    2011-01-01

    Mesalamine has been used as the first-line therapy for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) because of its efficacy and fewer side effects. However, earlier study showed that mesalamine occasionally causes diarrhea. We are presenting a patient with active UC in whom bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever occurred and the symptoms were aggravated after administration of mesalamine. In order to clarify the reason of symptoms aggravation, drug lymphocyte stimulation test and...

  13. Specific side effects of long-term imipramine management of panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavissakalian, Matig; Perel, James; Guo, Shenyang

    2002-04-01

    In a recent study, the authors suggested that tachycardia, dry mouth, and sweating continued to burden patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia who have shown marked and stable response to 6 months of imipramine treatment at the fixed, weight-adjusted dose of 2.25 mg/kg/day. Although sexual dysfunction and weight gain were not a significant burden in that study, they are important problems in long-term treatment with antidepressant drugs. In the present study, in the context of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1-year discontinuation and maintenance study of 53 patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia who respond to imipramine, the authors examine the extent and the specificity of these five side effects of imipramine maintenance using data at pretreatment, at the end of 24 weeks of open imipramine treatment (or month 0 of randomization), and at months 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 of randomized treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling and repeated measures of analyses of variance in subsamples of completers confirmed that dry mouth, sweating, and increased heart rate constitute a significant and specific enduring burden of imipramine maintenance treatment. The data also revealed that weight gain is a significant and specific side effect of 1-year imipramine maintenance treatment; however, the likelihood of reporting sexual dysfunction decreased over time, with no difference between the placebo and imipramine maintenance conditions. The results are discussed in the context of previous studies of imipramine side effects in the management of depression and the available literature of sexual and weight side effects of antidepressant medications in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  14. Side-effects of cidofovir in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekema, Ferdinand I; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2008-08-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a chronic and difficult to treat disease of the larynx. In 1998, the first article was published that described the use of the antiviral substance cidofovir to treat this disease. Although the results are promising, there remains some concern about the potential carcinogenicity of cidofovir. There is a demand for a qualitative review of the side-effects of this medicine. In this review, the side-effects of cidofovir are investigated. Special attention was given to the potential carcinogenicity of cidofovir. For this review a search is performed in PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles in which the use of intralesional cidofovir for patients with RRP is described. Eventually, 31 articles could be included for this review. In these articles a total of 188 patients with RRP were described who underwent therapy with intralesional cidofovir. Five of these patients have developed dysplasia of the larynx during the treatment with cidofovir. This is a percentage of 2.7. This percentage is concurrent with the incidence of spontaneous malignant degeneration of RRP (2-3%). Based on this review, it can be concluded that the use of intralesional cidofovir does not increase the risk of laryngeal dysplasia. Apart from the articles that describe the intralesional administration of cidofovir, some articles have been published in which the use of intravenous cidofovir is described as a therapy for RRP. Therefore, a summary is given on the side-effects of intralesional cidofovir as well as a summary on the reported side-effects of the intravenous administration of cidofovir. Based on the outcomes of this review, recommendations are given for a safe use of cidofovir for treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in the future.

  15. Consumption of Energy Drinks Among Lebanese Youth: A Pilot Study on the Prevalence and Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar,; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab ,Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background: The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. Objectives: This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. Patients and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged...

  16. Minimizing quality deteriorations of refrigerated foodstuffs as a side effect of defrosting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization scheme for traditional refrigeration systems with hysteresis controllers and scheduled defrosts. It aims at minimizing the side effect of defrost cycles on the storage quality of refrigerated foodstuffs in supermarkets. By utilizing the thermal mass of air...... and products inside a display cabinet, this optimization scheme forces the compressor to work harder and cool down more prior to the scheduled defrosts, thus guaranteeing the product temperature after defrost cycles still to be within a controlled safe level....

  17. Side effects of the hepatitis C treatment at the ABC application center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Thamy Jay; Lara, Paulo Henrique Schmidt; Morimoto, Tauy Pereira; Higasiaraguti, Mauricio; Perejão, Andréia Maruzo; Ayub, Munir Akar

    2012-01-01

    To review and compare side effects of hepatitis C treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin at the CRIE of the Hospital Mário Covas (Santo André), São Paulo, Brazil, from February 23 to May 5, 2011. Cross-sectional study through questionnaire, with a non-probability sample comprised of 340 patients that had received at least one dose of the medication. Side effects presented were fatigue (82.9%), arthralgia and/or myalgia (76.8%), weight loss (71.8%), headache (67.6%), listlessness (65.9%), depression and/or irritability (64.4%), itching (60.6%), fever (59.1%), alopecia (51.5%), dry cough (34.1%), nausea (11.7%), inappetence (11.7%), and dizziness (7.9%). Up to 19 symptoms were reported during treatment. Only four patients (1.2%) did not present side effects. When comparing the types of interferon, it was observed that alpha-2b caused an average of 8.01 symptoms per patient, while alpha-2a was responsible for an average of 7.50 symptoms. Patients using interferon alpha-2b showed more fever, weight loss, headache, arthralgia and/or myalgia, fatigue, listlessness, depression and/or irritability, and dry cough than patients using alpha-2a, who had more alopecia and itching. The study shows a high morbidity related to the treatment, as only 1.2% of the patients showed no side effects. In the sample, the pegylated interferon alpha-2b was responsible for higher prevalence of fever and weight loss when compared to alpha-2a, and this was a statistically significant relation (p < 0.05).

  18. An Uncommon Side Effect of Bupropion: A Case of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Tak; Cengiz Koçak; Gülben Sarıcı; Nazlı Dizen Namdar; Mehtap Kıdır

    2015-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare inflammatory dermatosis characterized by multiple nonfollicular pustules that occur on erythematous skin. Despite its similarity to pustular psoriasis and association with fever and leukocytosis, AGEP typically heals quickly. Etiologically, drugs and viruses have been suspected in most cases. Here, we present a case of AGEP, in a woman, that developed 1 day after starting bupropion for smoking cessation, as a rare side effect of the ...

  19. Minimizing quality deteriorations of refrigerated foodstuffs as a side effect of defrosting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization scheme for traditional refrigeration systems with hysteresis controllers and scheduled defrosts. It aims at minimizing the side effect of defrost cycles on the storage quality of refrigerated foodstuffs in supermarkets. By utilizing the thermal mass of air...... and products inside a display cabinet, this optimization scheme forces the compressor to work harder and cool down more prior to the scheduled defrosts, thus guaranteeing the product temperature after defrost cycles still to be within a controlled safe level....

  20. Effect of Flow Rate of Side-Type Orifice Intake on Withdrawn Water Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Xueping Gao; Guangning Li; Yunpeng Han

    2014-01-01

    Side-type orifice intake is a type of selective withdrawal facility used in managing reservoirs to mitigate the negative effects of low-temperature water. Based on the temperature data of a thermal stratified reservoir in China, an experiment was conducted in flume to study the influence of intake flow rate on withdrawn water temperature with different temperature distributions. Results indicated that withdrawn water temperature changed with different flow rates. The temperature change was de...

  1. Consumption of Energy Drinks Among Lebanese Youth: A Pilot Study on the Prevalence and Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar,; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background: The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. Objectives: This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. Patients and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged...

  2. The Effects of Social Skills Groups for Young Children with Social Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takanori

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted as a program evaluation of an existing social skills program. A review of literature identified a limited number of empirical studies on group-based social skills training for young children with social delays. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of social skills groups as well as the effects of homework…

  3. Learning to Effectively Implement Constant Time Delay Procedures To Teach Spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Trudie A.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Keel, Marie C.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined the effectiveness of a training procedure in teaching a special educator the constant time delay procedure and the effectiveness of the procedure in teaching spelling to a 12-year-old with learning disabilities. The teacher successfully implemented the procedure and the student learned to spell all 15 words. (Contains references.)…

  4. Do testing effects change over time? Insights from immediate and delayed retrieval speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, G.S.E. van den; Segers, P.C.J.; Takashima, A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieving information from memory improves recall accuracy more than continued studying, but this testing effect often only becomes visible over time. In contrast, the present study documents testing effects on recall speed both immediately after practice and after a delay. A total of 40

  5. Do testing effects change over time? Insights from immediate and delayed retrieval speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, G.S.E. van den; Segers, P.C.J.; Takashima, A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieving information from memory improves recall accuracy more than continued studying, but this testing effect often only becomes visible over time. In contrast, the present study documents testing effects on recall speed both immediately after practice and after a delay. A total of 40 participan

  6. FRONTAL PLANE KNEE MOMENTS IN GOLF: EFFECT OF TARGET SIDE FOOT POSITION AT ADDRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott K. Lynn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Golf has the potential to keep people active well into their later years. Injuries to the target side knee have been reported in golfers, yet no mechanisms for these injuries have been proposed. The loads on the knee during the golf swing may be insufficient to cause acute injury, yet they may be a factor in the progression of overuse/degenerative conditions; therefore, research developing swing modifications that may alter loading of the knee is warranted. It has been suggested that the proper golf set-up position has the target-side foot externally rotated but no reasoning for this modification has been provided. Frontal plane knee moments have been implicated in many knee pathologies. Therefore, this study used a 3-dimensional link segment model to quantify the frontal plane knee moments during the golf swing in a straight (STR and externally rotated (EXT target-side foot position. Subjects were 7 collegiate golfers and knee moments were compared between conditions using repeated measures T-tests. The golf swing knee moment magnitudes were also descriptively compared to those reported for two athletic maneuvers (drop jump landing, side-step cutting and activities of daily living (gait, stair ascent. The EXT condition decreased the peak knee adduction moment as compared to the STR condition; however, foot position had no effect on the peak knee abduction moment. Also, the magnitude of the knee adduction moments during the two activities of daily living were 9-33% smaller than those experienced during the two different golfing conditions. The drop jump landing and golf swing knee moments were of similar magnitude (STR= - 5%, EXT= + 8%; however, the moments associated with side- step cutting were 50-71% larger than those on the target side knee during the golf swing. The loading of the target side knee during the golf swing may be a factor in the development and progression of knee pathologies and further research should examine ways of

  7. Chitosan Oligosaccharide Reduces Propofol Requirements and Propofol-Related Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiwen; Yang, Xige; Song, Xuesong; Ma, Haichun; Zhang, Ping

    2016-12-21

    Propofol is one of the main sedatives but its negative side effects limit its clinical application. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), a kind of natural product with anti-pain and anti-inflammatory activities, may be a potential adjuvant to propofol use. A total of 94 patients receiving surgeries were evenly and randomly assigned to two groups: 10 mg/kg COS oral administration and/or placebo oral administration before being injected with propofol. The target-controlled infusion of propofol was adjusted to maintain the values of the bispectral index at 50. All patients' pain was evaluated on a four-point scale and side effects were investigated. To explore the molecular mechanism for the functions of COS in propofol use, a mouse pain model was established. The activities of Nav1.7 were analyzed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells. The results showed that the patients receiving COS pretreatment were likely to require less propofol than the patients pretreated with placebo for maintaining an anesthetic situation (p propofol-pretreated group. The side effects were also more reduced in a COS-treated group than in a placebo-pretreated group. COS reduced the activity of Nav1.7 and its inhibitory function was lost when Nav1.7 was silenced (p > 0.05). COS improved propofol performance by affecting Nav1.7 activity. Thus, COS is a potential adjuvant to propofol use in surgical anesthesia.

  8. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura: A rare side effect in a patient treated with Imiquimod for lentigo maligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Whatling

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Topical Imiquimod is increasingly used in the treatment of lentigo maligna (LM for patients not suitable or willing for surgery. It acts as an immune response modifier and is recommended for use with caution in patients with autoimmune disorders. A review of the literature did not reveal any reported cases of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP with the use of Imiquimod so far. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman with a history of Addison's and Graves' disease who had been diagnosed with lentigo maligna on the right nasal ala. Within two days of commencing of topical Imiquimod treatment, she was admitted to the hospital with extensive cutaneous and mucosal bruising and treated as acute Idiopathic Throbocytopenic Purpura. Deranged platelets were reversed promptly with treatment and Imiquimod discontinued. We demonstrate that Idiopathic Throbocytopenic Purpura is a potential life-threatening side effect of Imiquimod treatment and patients who have autoimmune disorders are at increased risk of developing this side effect. We recommend that Imiquimod is contraindicated in patients with autoimmune disease. Here we describe the clinical presentation and review the relevant literature on Imiquimod treatment for lentigo maligna and its potential side effects.

  9. A qualitative study of women who experience side effects from human papillomavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Tina; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2016-12-01

    In Denmark, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is offered to girls and women to prevent cervical cancer. Unfortunately, reporting of possible side effects from vaccination has increased in recent years. Therefore, the present study examine women's experiences of side effects from the HPV vaccine. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with eight HPV-vaccinated Danish women, aged 25-44 years, who experienced side effects from the vaccine. The data were analysed using a narrative methodology. The main reasons for being vaccinated against HPV are fear of cancer and trust in general practitioners (GPs). The women reported feeling stigmatised by GPs and doctors and they felt that these professionals did not acknowledge their symptoms, often assuming that they were due to psychological distress. The lack of acceptance from family and friends had led the women to distance themselves from others and lead a more socially isolated life. The women believed that a diagnosis could validate their symptoms and help others accept their condition. The women felt exceedingly physically and mentally confined in their everyday life, which led them to live a more restricted and solitary life. Since other people tended not to acknowledge their symptoms, the women's illness behaviour was poorly accepted. The women generally distrusted Danish healthcare as they had experienced stigmatisation from physicians and did not trust the evidence for the safety of the vaccine. none TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.

  10. Population pharmacokinetics of melphalan and glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in relation to side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, A; Sezer, O; Heider, U; Meineke, I; Muhlke, S; Niere, W; Overbeck, T; Hohloch, K; Trümper, L; Brockmöller, J; Kaiser, R

    2008-05-01

    Melphalan is associated with severe side effects such as mucositis, diarrhea, and myelosuppression. We investigated how much the individual severity of these side effects is predicted by pharmacokinetics. In addition, we studied glutathione S-transferase GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms in relation to adverse events. A high interindividual pharmacokinetic variability was observed in 84 patients. There was a linear correlation between creatinine and melphalan clearance (P=0.0004). Patients treated with a dose > or = 70 mg/m(2) had a 23-fold increased risk to develop mucositis (P<0.001) and a 12-fold increased risk to develop diarrhea (P<0.001) compared with lower doses. The GSTP1 codon 105 polymorphism may be relevant for development of mucositis and the GSTT1 deletion may predict diarrhea, but these findings require confirmation. Melphalan-induced side effects were significantly dependent only on dose. Therapeutic drug monitoring or genotyping for GST does not appear to be very helpful in optimizing therapy with melphalan.

  11. A Rare Side Effect due to TNF-Alpha Blocking Agent: Acute Pleuropericarditis with Adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism is an important treatment strategy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, vasculitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Adalimumab is one of the well-known tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents. There are several side effects reported in patients with adalimumab therapy. Cardiac side effects of adalimumab are rare. Only a few cardiac side effects were reported. A 61-year-old man treated with adalimumab for the last 6 months due to psoriatic arthritis presented with typically acute pleuropericarditis. Chest X-ray and echocardiography demonstrated marked pericardial effusion. Patient was successfully evaluated for the etiology of acute pleuro-pericarditis. Every etiology was excluded except the usage of adalimumab. Adalimumab was discontinued, and patient was treated with 1200 mg of ibuprofen daily. Control chest X-ray and echocardiography after three weeks demonstrated complete resolution of both pleural and pericardial effusions. This case clearly demonstrated the acute onset of pericarditis with adalimumab usage. Acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion should be kept in mind in patients with adalimumab treatment.

  12. Validation of the Glasgow Antipsychotic Side-Effect Scale (GASS in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nystazaki Maria

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the linguistic adaptation and psychometric validation into the Greek language of the GASS scale for the assessment of side effects in patients treated with second generation antipsychotic medication. The GASS scale takes 5 minutes to complete (21 items for men and women and contains self-explanatory questions in everyday plain English while providing a structured systematic method of reviewing antipsychotic side effects. The translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was performed according to international standards. Internal consistency using the Cronbach ? coefficient and test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to assess the reliability of the instrument. Patient’s sample consisted of 80 participants with a mean age of 42.6 years. Internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficient were adequate (Cronbach ? = 0.79 and ICC = 0.96. The test-retest percent agreement for the aforementioned categories was 95.9. Agreement was satisfactory according to Kappa coefficient which was equal to 0.78 (p<0.001.The Greek validation of the GASS scale shows appropriate feasibility, reliability, and discriminative performance as a patient-reported outcome to be used for the assessment of the impact of side effects on patients with schizophrenia.

  13. Effect of caffeine and adenosine on G2 repair: mitotic delay and chromosome damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, A; Hernández, P; López-Sáez, J F

    1985-04-01

    Proliferating plant cells treated during the late S period with 5-aminouracil (AU), give the typical response that DNA-damaging agents induce, characterized by: an important mitotic delay, and a potentiation of the chromosome damage by caffeine post-treatment. The study of labelled prophases, after a tritiated thymidine pulse, allowed evaluation of the mitotic delay induced by AU as well as its reversion by caffeine, while chromosome damage was estimated by the percentage of anaphases and telophases showing chromosomal aberrations. Post-treatment with adenosine alone has shown no effect on mitotic delay or chromosomal damage. However, when cells after AU were incubated in caffeine plus adenosine, the chromosome damage potentiation was abolished without affecting the caffeine action on mitotic delay. As a consequence, we postulate that caffeine could have two effects on G2 cells with damaged DNA: the first, to cancel their mitotic delay and the second to inhibit some DNA-repair pathway(s). Only this last effect could be reversed by adenosine.

  14. SOME HEALTH INDEXES OF CHERNOBYL LIQUIDATORS (DELAYED EFFECTS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O. V. Baranova; T. M. Koroleva; V. M. Shubik

    2012-01-01

    .... Disorders of immunity and health of the liquidators in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is due to the combined effect of low radiation doses, psychological stress and other factors of non-radiation nature.

  15. Estimating the Effects of Delayed Entry into Higher Education: A Discussion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark many high school graduates choose to delay their entry into higher education. A number of studies have investigated the effects of the delay on the educational and labour market careers. The existing studies are likely to suffer from selection bias, and this problem is unlikely...... to be remedied by use of control variables. More advanced techniques that can eliminate the selection bias are needed in order to identify causal effects. For policy purposes it would thus be preferable to focus on the economic losses associated with the years lost in the skilled labour market which...

  16. Effects of surgical side and site on mood and behavior outcome in children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth N Andresen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with epilepsy have a high rate of mood and behavior problems yet few studies consider the emotional and behavioral impact of surgery. No study to date has been sufficiently powered to investigate effects of both side (left/right and site (temporal/frontal of surgery. One hundred patients (aged 6-16 and their families completed measures of depression, anxiety and behavioral function as part of neuropsychological evaluations before and after surgery for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Among children who had left-sided surgeries (frontal=16; temporal=38, there were significant interactions between time (pre to postoperative neuropsychological assessment and resection site (frontal/temporal on Anhedonia, Social Anxiety, and Withdrawn/Depressed scales. Patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE endorsed greater presurgical anhedonia and social anxiety than patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, with scores normalizing following surgery. While scores on the Withdrawn/Depressed scale were similar between groups before surgery, the FLE group showed greater symptom improvement after surgery. In children who underwent right-sided surgeries (FLE=20; TLE=26 main effects of time (patients in both groups improved and resection site (caregivers of FLE patients endorsed greater symptoms than those with TLE were observed primarily on behavior scales. Individual data revealed that a greater proportion of children with left FLE demonstrated clinically significant improvements in Anhedonia, Social Anxiety, and Aggressive Behavior than children with TLE. This is the first study to demonstrate differential effects of both side and site of surgery in children with epilepsy at group and individual levels. Results suggest that children with FLE have greater emotional and behavioral dysfunction before surgery, but show marked improvement after surgery. Overall, most children had good emotional and behavioral outcomes, with most scores remaining stable or improving.

  17. Monte Carlo and deterministic computational methods for the calculation of the effective delayed neutron fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhaopeng; Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2013-07-01

    The effective delayed neutron fraction β plays an important role in kinetics and static analysis of the reactor physics experiments. It is used as reactivity unit referred to as "dollar". Usually, it is obtained by computer simulation due to the difficulty in measuring it experimentally. In 1965, Keepin proposed a method, widely used in the literature, for the calculation of the effective delayed neutron fraction β. This method requires calculation of the adjoint neutron flux as a weighting function of the phase space inner products and is easy to implement by deterministic codes. With Monte Carlo codes, the solution of the adjoint neutron transport equation is much more difficult because of the continuous-energy treatment of nuclear data. Consequently, alternative methods, which do not require the explicit calculation of the adjoint neutron flux, have been proposed. In 1997, Bretscher introduced the k-ratio method for calculating the effective delayed neutron fraction; this method is based on calculating the multiplication factor of a nuclear reactor core with and without the contribution of delayed neutrons. The multiplication factor set by the delayed neutrons (the delayed multiplication factor) is obtained as the difference between the total and the prompt multiplication factors. Using Monte Carlo calculation Bretscher evaluated the β as the ratio between the delayed and total multiplication factors (therefore the method is often referred to as the k-ratio method). In the present work, the k-ratio method is applied by Monte Carlo (MCNPX) and deterministic (PARTISN) codes. In the latter case, the ENDF/B nuclear data library of the fuel isotopes (235U and 238U) has been processed by the NJOY code with and without the delayed neutron data to prepare multi-group WIMSD neutron libraries for the lattice physics code DRAGON, which was used to generate the PARTISN macroscopic cross sections. In recent years Meulekamp and van der Marck in 2006 and Nauchi and Kameyama

  18. Automated problem scheduling and reduction of synchronization delay effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, Joel H.

    1987-01-01

    It is anticipated that in order to make effective use of many future high performance architectures, programs will have to exhibit at least a medium grained parallelism. A framework is presented for partitioning very sparse triangular systems of linear equations that is designed to produce favorable preformance results in a wide variety of parallel architectures. Efficient methods for solving these systems are of interest because: (1) they provide a useful model problem for use in exploring heuristics for the aggregation, mapping and scheduling of relatively fine grained computations whose data dependencies are specified by directed acrylic graphs, and (2) because such efficient methods can find direct application in the development of parallel algorithms for scientific computation. Simple expressions are derived that describe how to schedule computational work with varying degrees of granularity. The Encore Multimax was used as a hardware simulator to investigate the performance effects of using the partitioning techniques presented in shared memory architectures with varying relative synchronization costs.

  19. Acute and Delayed Effects of Melatonin: Operational Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    In mammals its primary sites circadian zeitgeber in humans have been much of production are the pineal gland and the retina, discussed (e.g. 5...proposed as an methoxytryptamine (melatonin). The rhythm of endogenous sleep substance, as an opener of the pineal synthesis is generated in the...8217hypnotic’ effect in both animals (cats, dark onset (the rise) and offset (the decline) and rats , chickens) and humans, reviewed by Cramer in reinforces

  20. Effects and side effects of antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia : Pros and cons of available self-rating scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, H.A.; Knegtering, H.; van den Bosch, R.J.; Wiersma, D.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: To support clinical practice as well as clinical research, self-rating scales have been developed to evaluate the effects and side effects of antipsychotic treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the psychometric properties and other characteristics of frequently used self-ratin

  1. The effect of a multidimensional exercise programme on symptoms and side-effects in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina; Adamsen, Lis; Møller, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 6-week intervention with structured physical activity, relaxation, body-awareness techniques and massage on the symptoms/side-effects of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The study was prospective and exploratory, and 54 patients...

  2. Effects and side effects of antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia : Pros and cons of available self-rating scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, H.A.; Knegtering, H.; van den Bosch, R.J.; Wiersma, D.

    Introduction: To support clinical practice as well as clinical research, self-rating scales have been developed to evaluate the effects and side effects of antipsychotic treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the psychometric properties and other characteristics of frequently used

  3. Time-delay effects and simplified control fields in quantum Lyapunov control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, X X; Wu, S L [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wu, Chunfeng; Feng, X L; Oh, C H, E-mail: yixx@dlut.edu.cn, E-mail: phyohch@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Quantum Technologies and Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 117543 (Singapore)

    2011-10-14

    Lyapunov-based quantum control has the advantage that it is free from the measurement-induced decoherence and it includes the instantaneous information of the system in the control. The Lyapunov control is often confronted with time delay in the control fields and difficulty in practical implementations of the control. In this paper, we study the effect of time delay on the Lyapunov control and explore the possibility of replacing the control field with a pulse train or a bang-bang signal. The efficiency of the Lyapunov control is also presented through examining the convergence time of the system. These results suggest that the Lyapunov control is robust against time delay, easy to realize and effective for high-dimensional quantum systems.

  4. Effects of small time delay on a bistable system subject to Levy stable noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Jiamin; Tao Weiming; Xu Bohou, E-mail: taowm@zju.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-09-23

    Levy stable noise is often used to describe impulsive noise bursting in communication systems. This paper investigates the effects of small time delay on a bistable system driven by an aperiodic bipolar pulse signal and Levy stable noise. We obtain the dynamical probability density of the system response by solving the approximated time-delayed fractional Fokker-Planck equation (FFPE) via an implicit finite difference method. A new approach to evaluate the system response time is presented. The bit error rate (BER) is employed to measure the performance of the bistable system in detecting binary signals. The theoretical BER is validated by the Monte-Carlo simulation. We find that the existence of time delay can change both the drift term and the diffusion coefficient in time-delayed FFPE. For small noise intensity, the time delay extends the system response time and thus reduces the detection performance. However, effects of this kind will fade away with the increase of noise intensity. (paper)

  5. Delay time dependence of thermal effect of combined pulse laser machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Boshi; Jin, Guangyong; Ma, Yao; Zhang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The research focused on the effect of delay time in combined pulse laser machining on the material temperature field. Aiming at the parameter optimization of pulse laser machining aluminum alloy, the combined pulse laser model based on heat conduction equation was introduced. And the finite element analysis software, COMSOL Multiphysics, was also utilized in the research. Without considering the phase transition process of aluminum alloy, the results of the numerical simulation was shown in this paper. By the simulation study of aluminum alloy's irradiation with combined pulse, the effect of the change in delay time of combined pulse on the temperature field of the aluminum alloy and simultaneously the quantized results under the specific laser spot conditions were obtained. Based on the results, several conclusions could be reached, the delay time could affect the rule of temperature changing with time. The reasonable delay time controlling would help improving the efficiency. In addition, when the condition of the laser pulse energy density is constant, the optimal delay time depends on pulse sequence.

  6. Effects of additional food in a delayed predator-prey model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2015-03-01

    We examine the effects of supplying additional food to predator in a gestation delay induced predator-prey system with habitat complexity. Additional food works in favor of predator growth in our model. Presence of additional food reduces the predatory attack rate to prey in the model. Supplying additional food we can control predator population. Taking time delay as bifurcation parameter the stability of the coexisting equilibrium point is analyzed. Hopf bifurcation analysis is done with respect to time delay in presence of additional food. The direction of Hopf bifurcations and the stability of bifurcated periodic solutions are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. The qualitative dynamical behavior of the model is simulated using experimental parameter values. It is observed that fluctuations of the population size can be controlled either by supplying additional food suitably or by increasing the degree of habitat complexity. It is pointed out that Hopf bifurcation occurs in the system when the delay crosses some critical value. This critical value of delay strongly depends on quality and quantity of supplied additional food. Therefore, the variation of predator population significantly effects the dynamics of the model. Model results are compared with experimental results and biological implications of the analytical findings are discussed in the conclusion section.

  7. Effect of Side Wind on the Directional Stability and Aerodynamics of a Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Anwar U

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Directional stability characteristics explain the capabilities of a hybrid buoyant aircraft’s performance against the side wind, which induces flow separation that is chaotic in nature and may lead to oscillations of the aerodynamic surfaces. A numerical study is carried out to estimate the effect of side wind. The boundary conditions for the computational domain are set to velocity inlet and pressure outlet. Due to the incompressible flow at the cruise velocity, the density is taken to be constant. For these steady state simulations, the time is discretized in first order implicit and the SIMPLE scheme is employed for pressure velocity coupling alongwith k-ω SST model. Based on the results obtained so far, it is concluded that voluminous hybrid lifting fuselage is the major cause of directional.

  8. Effects of alloying side B on Ti-based AB2 hydrogen storage alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家淳; 于荣海; 刘庆

    2004-01-01

    Ti-based AB2-type hydrogen storage alloys are a group of promising materials, which will probably replace the prevalent rare earth-based AB5-type alloys and be adopted as the main cathode materials of nickelmetal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries in the near future. Alloying in side B is a major way to improve the performance of Ti-based AB2-type alloys. Based on recent studies, the effects of alloying elements in side B upon the performance of Ti-based AB2 -type hydrogen storage alloys are systematically reviewed here. These performances are divided into two categories, namely PCI characteristics, including hydrogen storage capacity (HSC), plateau pressure (PP), pressure hysteresis (PH) and pressure plateau sloping (PPS) , and electrochemical properties, including discharge capacity (DC), activation property (AP), cycling stability (CS) and high-rate dischargeability (HRD). Furthermore, the existing problems in these investigations and some suggestions for future research are proposed.

  9. The evaluation-mediation hypothesis: does the specification of potential side effects influence the perceived risk of medication?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, T. [Universitaet Potsdam, Institut fur Psychologie, Abteilung Sozialpsychologi, Potsdam (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: starting from the assumptions of support theory, this project analyzed the extent to which the specification of potential side effects influences the perceived risk associated, with a particular medication. Respondents were presented with an instruction leaflet for a medication which indicated (a) the overall probability that a side effect will occur or (b) the probability of occurrence of several specific side effects. Support theory predicts that the cognitive availability of potential side effects and therefore the perceived risk increases as a function of the specificity with which the side effects are presented. In contrast the evaluation-mediation hypothesis predicts that a more detailed presentation of potential side effects enhances the perceived quality of the information leaflet and thereby leads to a reduction of perceived risk. Support for the evaluation-mediation hypothesis was found in a series of studies which included the editing hypothesis and the elaboration likelihood model as additional explanations: the more detailed the information about potential side effects, the lower the estimated risk of suffering a side effect on taking the medication. As predicted, the influence of presentation specificity on perceived risk was mediated almost exclusively by the perceived quality of the information leaflet. A current series of studies seeks to support the evaluation-mediation hypothesis in a completely different domain, the perceived risk of environmental pollution by motor vehicles. (author)

  10. Long-term oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome : a controlled study on dental side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, M. H. J.; Finnema, K. J.; Hoekema, A.; Wijkstra, P. J.; de Bont, L. G. M.; Stegenga, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess possible dental side effects associated with long-term use of an adjustable oral appliance compared with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to study the relationship between these possible side effects and t

  11. Long-term oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome : a controlled study on dental side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, M. H. J.; Finnema, K. J.; Hoekema, A.; Wijkstra, P. J.; de Bont, L. G. M.; Stegenga, B.

    This study aimed to assess possible dental side effects associated with long-term use of an adjustable oral appliance compared with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to study the relationship between these possible side effects and

  12. The effect of a multidimensional exercise programme on symptoms and side-effects in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina; Adamsen, Lis; Møller, Tom

    2006-01-01

    these scores in questionnaires. Twelve possible symptoms/side-effects were registered daily: lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, paraesthesia, constipation, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, treatment-related fatigue, muscle pain, arthralgia and other pain. During the intervention a decrease....../side-effects than patients with no evidence of disease (n=28) (P=0.027). The results indicate that a six weeks multidimensional exercise intervention undertaken by cancer patients with or without residual disease while undergoing chemotherapy can lead to a reduction in treatment-related symptoms....

  13. SOME HEALTH INDEXES OF CHERNOBYL LIQUIDATORS (DELAYED EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Baranova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve to twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, liquidators that have been exposed to a wide range of doses (200-890 mSv show radiophobia. The achieved level of adaptation to life is associated with overstrain in emotional and somatic spheres. At relatively higher exposure levels, morbidity is increased, specially pathology of the cardiovascular system. Growth in the number of cataracts is absent, but involutional changes of retina vessels are increased. Suppression of innate and acquired humoral and cellular immunity and autoallergic shifts play significant role in the identified health problems. Disorders of immunity and health of the liquidators in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is due to the combined effect of low radiation doses, psychological stress and other factors of non-radiation nature.

  14. Delay-Induced Triple-Zero Bifurcation in a Delayed Leslie-Type Predator-Prey Model with Additive Allee Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiao; Song, Yongli; Yu, Pei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a Leslie-type predator-prey model with ratio-dependent functional response and Allee effect on prey is considered. We first study the existence of the multiple positive equilibria and their stability. Then we investigate the effect of delay on the distribution of the roots of characteristic equation and obtain the conditions for the occurrence of simple-zero, double-zero and triple-zero singularities. The formulations for calculating the normal form of the triple-zero bifurcation of the delay differential equations are derived. We show that, under certain conditions on the parameters, the system exhibits homoclinic orbit, heteroclinic orbit and periodic orbit.

  15. Refractive and relativistic effects on ITER low field side reflectometer design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Rhodes, T L; Peebles, W A; Harvey, R W; Budny, R V

    2010-10-01

    The ITER low field side reflectometer faces some unique design challenges, among which are included the effect of relativistic electron temperatures and refraction of probing waves. This paper utilizes GENRAY, a 3D ray tracing code, to investigate these effects. Using a simulated ITER operating scenario, characteristics of the reflected millimeter waves after return to the launch plane are quantified as a function of a range of design parameters, including antenna height, antenna diameter, and antenna radial position. Results for edge/SOL measurement with both O- and X-mode polarizations using proposed antennas are reported.

  16. Thyroid side effects prophylaxis in front of nuclear power plant accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopiantz, Mikaël; Elhanbali, Ouifak; Demore, Béatrice; Cuny, Thomas; Demarquet, Léa; Ndiaye, Cumba; Barbe, Françoise; Brunaud, Laurent; Weryha, Georges; Klein, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The better knowledge of the mechanisms of nuclear incidents and lessons learned from accidents in the recent past to improve the effectiveness of measures taken following a nuclear accident exposure to fallout of radioactive iodine isotopes. Thus, immediate, passive measures, such as containment, and stopping consumption of contaminated products are paramount. The earliest possible administration of stable iodine as potassium iodide (KI) reduces significantly (up to 90% if taken at the same time of the accident) thyroid radioactive contamination. These tablets should be given in priority to children and pregnant women. The side effects are minor. KI is not recommended for persons aged over 60 years, or for adults suffering from cardiovascular disorders.

  17. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pozzebon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM. Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine.

  18. Side-Pinch Effect of a Magnetically Driven Shock Tube with Parallel Plate Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Mondrup, K.

    1969-01-01

    To study the possible effect of the side pinch on the steady-state current and the steady-state shock speed of a magnetically driven shock tube, a semiempirical model is formulated. The time history of the current, the radial and the translational motion of the current-carrying region are expressed...... show that the current-carrying region oscillates radially, but the current and the translational velocity of the current-carrying region approach the quasi-steady state rapidly. The deviation of the current from its “steady-state” value (when the pinch effect is absent) in no case amounts to more than...

  19. Local therapeutic efficacy with reduced systemic side effects by rapamycin-loaded subcapsular microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, Lucas L; van Vuuren, Stefan H; Kazazi-Hyseni, Filis; Ramazani, Farshad; Nguyen, Tri Q; Veldhuis, Gert J; Maarseveen, Erik M; Zandstra, Jurjen; Zuidema, Johan; Duque, Luisa F; Steendam, Rob; Popa, Eliane R; Kok, Robbert Jan; Goldschmeding, Roel

    2015-02-01

    Kidney injury triggers fibrosis, the final common pathway of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The increase of CKD prevalence worldwide urgently calls for new therapies. Available systemic treatment such as rapamycin are associated with serious side effects. To study the potential of local antifibrotic therapy, we administered rapamycin-loaded microspheres under the kidney capsule of ureter-obstructed rats and assessed the local antifibrotic effects and systemic side effects of rapamycin. After 7 days, microsphere depots were easily identifiable under the kidney capsule. Both systemic and local rapamycin treatment reduced intrarenal mTOR activity, myofibroblast accumulation, expression of fibrotic genes, and T-lymphocyte infiltration. Upon local treatment, inhibition of mTOR activity and reduction of myofibroblast accumulation were limited to the immediate vicinity of the subcapsular pocket, while reduction of T-cell infiltration was widespread. In contrast to systemically administered rapamycin, local treatment did not induce off target effects such as weight loss. Thus subcapsular delivery of rapamycin-loaded microspheres successfully inhibited local fibrotic response in UUO with less systemic effects. Therapeutic effect of released rapamycin was most prominent in close vicinity to the implanted microspheres.

  20. From Eye Drops to ICU, a Case Report of Three Side Effects of Ophthalmic Timolol Maleate in the Same Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asim Rana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Timolol Maleate (also called Timolol is a nonselective beta-adrenergic blocker and a class II antiarrhythmic drug, which is used to treat intraocular hypertension. It has been reported to cause systemic side effects especially in elderly patients with other comorbidities. These side effects are due to systemic absorption of the drug and it is known that Timolol is measurable in the serum following ophthalmic use. Chances of life threatening side effects increase if these are coprescribed with other cardiodepressant drugs like calcium channel or systemic beta blockers. We report a case where an elderly patient was admitted with three side effects of Timolol and his condition required ICU admission with mechanical ventilation and temporary transvenous pacing. The case emphasizes the need of raising awareness among physicians of such medications about the potential side effects and drug interactions. A close liaison among patient’s physicians is suggested.

  1. Effects of Concurrent and Delayed Visual Feedback on Motor Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangxiao; Li, Teng; Yang, Gaofeng; Zhang, Yuru

    2017-02-22

    In many domains, it's important to understand the ways in which humans learn and develop new motor skills effectively and efficiently. For example, in dental operations, the ability to apply a weak force with a required tolerance is a fundamental skill to ensure diagnostic and treatment outcome, but acquiring such a skill is a challenge for novices. In this paper, we focus on motor memory for producing normally applied force by a hand-held probe and we compare the effects of two feedback methods on motor memory consolidation. Fourteen participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a Concurrent Group and a Delayed Group. Participants in the Concurrent Group were trained to apply a target force with concurrent visual feedback, while those in the Delayed Group were trained with delayed visual feedback. The task included two phases: a Training/Testing Phase, and a Retention Phase. The results indicated that participants in the Delayed Group obtained more effective learning outcomes and better retention effects. These findings provide a new perspective to explore the relationship between feedback methods and the cognitive process of motor skill learning, and open a new way to train motor skill using more effective methods than the traditional concurrent feedback approaches.

  2. Side effects of Deferasirox Iron Chelation in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major or Intermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khabori, Murtadha; Bhandari, Sunil; Al-Huneini, Mohammed; Al-Farsi, Khalil; Panjwani, Vinodh; Daar, Shahina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Chelating agents remain the mainstay in reducing the iron burden and extending patient survival in homozygous beta-thalassemia but adverse and toxic effects may increase with the institution and long term use of this essential therapy. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of deferasirox (DFX) side effects in patients with thalassemia major or intermedia. Methods A retrospective study of 72 patients (mean age: 20.3±0.9 yrs; 36 male, 36 female) with thalassemia major or intermedia treated at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, was performed to assess the incidence of side effects related to deferasirox over a mean of 16.7 month follow-up period. Results Six patients experienced rashes and 6 had gastro-intestinal upset. DFX was discontinued in 18 patients for the following reasons: persistent progressive rise(s) in serum creatinine (7 patients; 40% mean serum creatinine rise from baseline), feeling unwell (2), severe diarrhea (1), pregnancy (1), death unrelated to chelator (2) and rise in serum transaminases (2). Three patients were reverted to desferoxamine and deferiprone combination therapy as DFX was no longer biochemically effective after 18 months of therapy. There was no correlation between baseline serum ferritin and serum creatinine or a rise in serum creatinine. Cardiac MRI T2* did not change with DFX therapy. However, there was an improvement in liver MRI T2* (p=0.013). Conclusion Renal side effects related to deferasirox appear to be higher than those reported in published clinical trials. Further larger studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:23599881

  3. Side effects of Deferasirox Iron Chelation in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major or Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtadha Al-Khabori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Chelating agents remain the mainstay in reducing the iron burden and extending patient survival in homozygous beta-thalassemia but adverse and toxic effects may increase with the institution and long term use of this essential therapy. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of deferasirox (DFX side effects in patients with thalassemia major or intermedia.Methods: A retrospective study of 72 patients (mean age: 20.3±0.9 yrs; 36 male, 36 female with thalassemia major or intermedia treated at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, was performed to assess the incidence of side effects related to deferasirox over a mean of 16.7 month follow-up period.Results: Six patients experienced rashes and 6 had gastro-intestinal upset. DFX was discontinued in 18 patients for the following reasons: persistent progressive rise(s in serum creatinine (7 patients; 40% mean serum creatinine rise from baseline, feeling unwell (2, severe diarrhea (1, pregnancy (1, death unrelated to chelator (2 and rise in serum transaminases (2. Three patients were reverted to desferoxamine and deferiprone combination therapy as DFX was no longer biochemically effective after 18 months of therapy. There was no correlation between baseline serum ferritin and serum creatinine or a rise in serum creatinine. Cardiac MRI T2* did not change with DFX therapy. However, there was an improvement in liver MRI T2* (p=0.013.Conclusion: Renal side effects related to deferasirox appear to be higher than those reported in published clinical trials. Further larger studies are required to confirm these findings.

  4. Side effects and discontinuation of oral contraceptive use in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, B; Kane, T T; Arruda, J M; Covington, D L; Morris, L

    1986-07-01

    Oral contraceptives have many advantages, but sometimes also have side effects which can cause users to switch appropriately or inappropriately to less effective methods or abandon contraception. In Brazil, 2/3 of married women of childbearing age were using contraception in 1981, and 1/2 of these were using orals. Contraceptive behavior following reported side effects in users of oral contraceptives in Southern Brazil is examined in this study, in relation to diverse factors. Among 2904 currently-married women, aged 15-44, almost 75% reported that they had used the pill at some time, and of these, 45.6% were still doing so. Data on perceived side effects were gathered for all women. There was no independent medical evaluation of the effects, so the data did not necessarily represent actual prevalence of pill related problems. Women who reported problems with the pill were less likely to be current users (25%) than women who did not (65%). However, overall contraceptive prevalence was about the same in both groups (66.2% and 67.0% respectively), indicating that women who stop using oral contraceptives usually switch to another method. However, they are more likely to be using traditional methods than women in the general population, especially if they want more children. Termination of pill use varies little according to the type of problem reported. Women with problems who sought medical attention were more likely to stop using the pill, and 82.4% of women advised to stop by their physician did so, but the major factor affecting discontinuation was the reported experience of a problem. The most frequently reported problems were headaches (38.1%), nausea (34.1%), nervousness (27.9%), and vertigo (18.3%). Physician intervention should help to avoid women's abandoning oral contraceptives unnecessarily.

  5. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosshan Thiruchelvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  6. General equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option under the Clean Development Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Govinda R; Shrestha, Ram M

    2006-09-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is considered a key instrument to encourage developing countries' participation in the mitigation of global climate change. Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the energy supply and demand side activities are the main options to be implemented under the CDM. This paper analyses the general equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option-the substitution of thermal power with hydropower--in Thailand under the CDM. A static multi-sector general equilibrium model has been developed for the purpose of this study. The key finding of the study is that the substitution of electricity generation from thermal power plants with that from hydropower plants would increase economic welfare in Thailand. The supply side option would, however, adversely affect the gross domestic product (GDP) and the trade balance. The percentage changes in economic welfare, GDP and trade balance increase with the level of substitution and the price of certified emission reduction (CER) units.

  7. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular range-of-motion exercises, stretching exercises, strengthening with a Theraband in all directions and post-exercise proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. All cases were evaluated with visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, and the shoulder disability questionnaire, at baseline and 7 and 12 weeks after baseline. [Results] Marked improvement was noted in all patients in both right and left sides after treatment, and at 7 and 12 weeks of follow-up compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between the right and left shoulder groups, in all outcome measures. [Conclusion] The combination of physical therapy, exercise, and manual techniques is effective in treating frozen shoulder. The location of the lesion in the right or left shoulder does not, in itself, affect the prognosis or treatment outcome.

  8. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular range-of-motion exercises, stretching exercises, strengthening with a Theraband in all directions and post-exercise proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. All cases were evaluated with visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, and the shoulder disability questionnaire, at baseline and 7 and 12 weeks after baseline. [Results] Marked improvement was noted in all patients in both right and left sides after treatment, and at 7 and 12 weeks of follow-up compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between the right and left shoulder groups, in all outcome measures. [Conclusion] The combination of physical therapy, exercise, and manual techniques is effective in treating frozen shoulder. The location of the lesion in the right or left shoulder does not, in itself, affect the prognosis or treatment outcome. PMID:26957759

  9. Effect of the heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on stochastic resonance of neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyun; Zhang, Honghui; Chen, Guanrong

    2012-12-01

    We study the effect of heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on stochastic resonance of scale-free neuronal networks. For this purpose, we introduce the heterogeneity to the specified neuron with the highest degree. It is shown that in the absence of delay, an intermediate noise level can optimally assist spike firings of collective neurons so as to achieve stochastic resonance on scale-free neuronal networks for small and intermediate αh, which plays a heterogeneous role. Maxima of stochastic resonance measure are enhanced as αh increases, which implies that the heterogeneity can improve stochastic resonance. However, as αh is beyond a certain large value, no obvious stochastic resonance can be observed. If the information transmission delay is introduced to neuronal networks, stochastic resonance is dramatically affected. In particular, the tuned information transmission delay can induce multiple stochastic resonance, which can be manifested as well-expressed maximum in the measure for stochastic resonance, appearing every multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period. Furthermore, we can observe that stochastic resonance at odd multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period is subharmonic, as opposed to the case of even multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period. More interestingly, multiple stochastic resonance can also be improved by the suitable heterogeneous neuron. Presented results can provide good insights into the understanding of the heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on realistic neuronal networks.

  10. Effect of the heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on stochastic resonance of neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyun; Zhang, Honghui; Chen, Guanrong

    2012-12-01

    We study the effect of heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on stochastic resonance of scale-free neuronal networks. For this purpose, we introduce the heterogeneity to the specified neuron with the highest degree. It is shown that in the absence of delay, an intermediate noise level can optimally assist spike firings of collective neurons so as to achieve stochastic resonance on scale-free neuronal networks for small and intermediate α(h), which plays a heterogeneous role. Maxima of stochastic resonance measure are enhanced as α(h) increases, which implies that the heterogeneity can improve stochastic resonance. However, as α(h) is beyond a certain large value, no obvious stochastic resonance can be observed. If the information transmission delay is introduced to neuronal networks, stochastic resonance is dramatically affected. In particular, the tuned information transmission delay can induce multiple stochastic resonance, which can be manifested as well-expressed maximum in the measure for stochastic resonance, appearing every multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period. Furthermore, we can observe that stochastic resonance at odd multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period is subharmonic, as opposed to the case of even multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period. More interestingly, multiple stochastic resonance can also be improved by the suitable heterogeneous neuron. Presented results can provide good insights into the understanding of the heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on realistic neuronal networks.

  11. Growth delay effect of combined interstitial hyperthermia and brachytherapy in a rat solid tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, D; Kimler, B F; Estes, N C; Durham, F J

    1989-01-01

    The rat mammary AC33 solid tumor model was used to investigate the efficacy of interstitial hyperthermia and/or brachytherapy. Subcutaneous flank tumors were heated with an interstitial microwave (915 MHz) antenna to a temperature of 43 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 45 min for two treatments, three days apart, and/or implanted with Ir-192 seeds for three days (-25 Gy tumor dose). Following treatments, tumors were measured 2 to 3 times per week. Hyperthermia alone produced a modest delay in tumor volume regrowth, while brachytherapy was substantially more effective. The combination produced a improvement in tumor regrowth delay compared to brachytherapy alone.

  12. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihe Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations.

  13. Electron correlation effects on photoionization time delay in atomic Ar and Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, A.; Saha, S.; Decshmukh, P. C.; Manson, S. T.; Kheifets, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Time delay studies in photoionization processes have stimulated much interest as they provide valuable dynamical information about electron correlation and relativistic effects. In a recent work on Wigner time delay in the photoionization of noble gas atoms, it was found that correlations resulting from interchannel coupling involving shells with different principal quantum numbers have significant effects on 2s and 2p photoionization of Ne, 3s photoionization of Ar, and 3d photoionization of Kr. In the present work, photoionization time delay in inner and outer subshells of the noble gases Ar and Xe are examined by including electron correlations using different many body techniques: (i) the relativistic-random-phase approximation (RRPA), (ii) RRPA with relaxation, to include relaxation effects of the residual ion and (iii) the relativistic multiconfiguration Tamm-Dancoff (RMCTD) approximation. The (sometimes substantial) effects of the inclusion of non-RPA correlations on the photoionization Wigner time delay are reported. Work supported by DOE, Office of Chemical Sciences and DST (India).

  14. Cost-effectiveness of 'immediate IVF' versus 'delayed IVF': a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkemans, M.J.; Kersten, F.A.M.; Lintsen, A.M.E.; Hunault, C.C.; Bouwmans, C.A.; Roijen, L.H.; Habbema, J.D.; Braat, D.D.M.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: How does the cost-effectiveness (CE) of immediate IVF compared with postponing IVF for 1 year, depend on prognostic characteristics of the couple? SUMMARY ANSWER: The CE ratio, i.e. the incremental costs of immediate versus delayed IVF per extra live birth, is the highest (range of

  15. Effect of delayed wrapping and wrapping source on digestibility and intake of alfalfa silage in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delays often occur between baling and wrapping during production of baled silage that increases exposure time of the forage to oxygen. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two different wrapping sources and time intervals between baling and wrapping on intake and digestibility of al...

  16. The Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) and Its Absence in Some Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sciullo, Anna Maria; Aguero-Bautista, Calixto

    2008-01-01

    The Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) has been discussed in various studies that show that children around age 5 seem to violate Principle B of Binding Theory (Chomsky, 1981, and related works), when the antecedent of the pronoun is a name, but not when the antecedent is a quantifier. The analysis we propose can explain the DPBE in languages of…

  17. Effect of delay time on the generation of chaos in continuous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Berezowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with a theoretical analysis of the effect of delay time of energy transport upon the generation of complex dynamics in continuous physical system. The importance of this time for the presence of quasi - periodicity and chaos in a reactor is demonstrated. The considerations are preceded by the analysis of one - dimensional mathematical model.

  18. [Systematization of data and information on delayed consequences of the effects of chemicals in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianno, L V; Pimenova, M N; Osipova, I V

    1993-01-01

    The systematization and analysis of the data connected with delayed consequences arising in human body from exposure to dangerous chemicals have been carried out. The paper contains the list of dangerous chemicals exerting mutagenic or carcinogenic effects and chromosome aberrations. The cytologic express method of revealing mucous membrane dysplasia resulting from exposure to some chemical mutagens have been evaluated.

  19. Effects of wrapping time delays on the nutritive value of baled alfalfa silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baled silages are an attractive forage conservation option, especially for small and mid-sized beef and dairy producers. Our objectives were to test the effects of delayed wrapping on the nutritive value of baled alfalfa silages on a pre- and post-storage basis. A secondary objective was to evaluate...

  20. Effects of wrapping time delays on fermentation characteristics of baled alfalfa silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baled silage is an attractive forage conservation approach for small and mid-sized dairy or beef producers, partly because it limits the risks associated with baling dry hay during wet or unstable weather conditions. Our objectives were to test the effects of delayed wrapping on silage fermentation,...

  1. The Effects of Test Trial and Processing Level on Immediate and Delayed Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of test trial and processing level on immediate and delayed retention. A 2 × 2 × 2 mixed ANOVAs was used with two between-subject factors of test trial (single test, repeated test) and processing level (shallow, deep), and one within-subject factor of final recall (immediate,…

  2. The Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) and Its Absence in Some Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sciullo, Anna Maria; Aguero-Bautista, Calixto

    2008-01-01

    The Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) has been discussed in various studies that show that children around age 5 seem to violate Principle B of Binding Theory (Chomsky, 1981, and related works), when the antecedent of the pronoun is a name, but not when the antecedent is a quantifier. The analysis we propose can explain the DPBE in languages of…

  3. Effects of melatonin on the quality of life in patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, J.E.; Laurant, M.W.; Kerkhof, G.A.; Smits, M.G.; Meer, Y.G.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2000-01-01

    Compared health-related quality of life of 43 delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) patients (mean age 34.1 yrs) with a random Dutch sample of 1,063 Ss (aged 18-89 yrs) and 95 sleep apnea, 262 clinical depression, 546 migraine, and 194 osteoarthritis patients. The effectiveness of treatment with 5 mg

  4. Effects of melatonin on the quality of life in patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, J.E.; Laurant, M.W.; Kerkhof, G.A.; Smits, M.G.; Meer, Y.G. van der; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare health-related quality of life of delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) patients with a random Dutch sample and four samples of patients with other chronic conditions. We also investigated the effectiveness of treatment with 5 mg of melatonin on the

  5. The early effects of delayed cord clamping in term infants born to Libyan mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emhamed, Musbah Omar; van Rheenen, Patrick; Brabin, Bernard J

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the haematological effects of the timing of umbilical cord clamping in term infants 24 h after birth in Libya. Mother-infant pairs were randomly assigned to early cord clamping (within 10s after delivery) or delayed clamping (after the cord stopped pulsating). Ma

  6. Simultaneous and Delayed Video Modeling: An Examination of System Effectiveness and Student Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber-Doughyt, Teresa; Patton, Scott E.; Brennan, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of simultaneous and delayed video modeling when used by three middle-school students with moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. Alternating between modeling systems, students were taught to use the public library computer to locate specific book call numbers and use the Dewey Decimal Classification System to locate…

  7. Cold Side-Effect Effect: Affect Does Not Mediate the Influence of Moral Considerations in Intentionality Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Rodrigo; Viciana, Hugo; Gomila, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that people consider harmful side effects of an action more intentional than helpful side effects. This phenomenon is known as the side-effect effect (SEE), which refers to the influence of moral considerations in judgments of intentionality and other non-moral concepts. There is an ongoing debate about how to explain this asymmetric pattern of judgment and the psychological factors involved in it. It has been posited that affective reactions to agents that bring about harmful side-effects could bias intentionality attributions in these cases, explaining the asymmetric pattern of intentionality judgments that we observe in the SEE. We call this the affective bias hypothesis (ABH). Evidence for the ABH is mixed, with some findings suggesting a role for affective processes, while others suggesting that affective processes play no role in the SEE. A possible explanation for these apparently contradictory results points to affective processes involved in the SEE being confined to anger. In a series of empirical studies, we systematically measured and manipulated participants’ anger in order to test this possibility. Our findings suggest that anger play no role in intentionality judgments in SEE cases, while providing support for a non-emotional motivation to blame as a factor underlying the SEE. PMID:28293211

  8. Effects of natural gas composition on ignition delay under diesel conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, J. D.; Siebers, D. L.; Dijulio, S. S.; Westbrook, C. K.

    1993-12-01

    Effects of variations in natural gas composition on autoignition of natural gas under direct-injection (DI) diesel engine conditions were studied experimentally in a constant-volume combustion vessel and computationally using a chemical kinetic model. Four fuel blends were investigated: pure methane, a capacity weighted mean natural gas, a high ethane content natural gas, and a natural gas with added propane typical of peak shaving conditions. Experimentally measured ignition delays were longest for pure methane and became progressively shorter as ethane and propane concentrations increased. At conditions characteristic of a DI compression ignition natural gas engine at Top Dead Center (CR = 23:1, p = 6.8 MPa, T = 1150K), measured ignition delays for the four fuels varied from 1.8 ms for the peak shaving and high ethane gases to 2.7 ms for pure methane. Numerically predicted variations in ignition delay as a function of natural gas composition agreed with these measurements.

  9. Self-regulation strategies may enhance the acute effect of exercise on smoking delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Pappa, Vassiliki; Tsiami, Anastasia; Tzatzaki, Theodora; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zourbanos, Nikos; Goudas, Marios; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the acute effect of a moderate intensity aerobic exercise session combined with self-regulation on smoking delay in physically inactive smokers. Participants were 11 adults (5 males and 6 females) that completed three experimental conditions: control, exercise, and exercise using self-regulation strategies (SR). Following the experimental treatment smoking for the two exercise conditions delayed significantly more than for the control condition; in addition exercise SR delayed smoking marginally more that the plain exercise condition. Findings supported previous research that acute exercise reduces cravings to smoke, and suggests that the use of self-regulation strategies may strengthen exercise for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Todokoro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of afatinib therapy. A 75-year-old Japanese male ex-smoker with EGFR-mutated NSCLC underwent afatinib therapy for multiple metastases. At 2 weeks, bilateral conjunctivitis developed. Topical medication and a 1-week afatinib washout period resulted in the improvement of the conjunctivitis. However, 3 days after the resumption of afatinib, the patient developed unilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis in his right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA measurement indicated a decimal visual acuity of 0.2, while the slit-lamp findings were characterized by granulomatous inflammation, keratic precipitates, Koeppe nodules and posterior synechiae. There was no evidence suggesting other intraocular inflammatory disease or metastatic tumor. The left eye was intact. The use of topical medication including steroids and a washout of afatinib resulted in a gradual subsiding of the anterior uveitis. After resolution of the anterior uveitis, oral afatinib was resumed. BCVA of the right eye finally recovered to a decimal acuity of 1.0. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility that side effects associated with afatinib could cause granulomatous anterior uveitis.

  11. Effects of Ion Irradiation on Seedlings Growth Monitored by Ultraweak Delayed Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomoko; Cirrone, Giuseppe A. P.; Cuttone, Giacomo; Gulino, Marisa; Musumeci, Francesco; Romano, Francesco; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Scordino, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The optical technique based on the measurement of delayed luminescence emitted from the biological samples has demonstrated its ability to provide valid and predictive information on the functional status of various biological systems. We want to extend this technique to study the effect of ionizing radiation on biological systems. In particular we are interested in the action of ion beams, used for therapeutic purposes or to increase the biological diversity. In general, the assessment of the damage that radiation produces both in the target objects and in the surrounding tissues, requires considerable time because is based on biochemical analysis or on the examination of the evolution of the irradiated systems. The delayed luminescence technique could help to simplify this investigation. We have so started our studies performing irradiations of some relatively simple vegetable models. In this paper we report results obtained from mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds submitted to a 12C ion beam at the energy of 62 MeV/nucleon. The dry seeds were irradiated at doses from 50 to 7000 Gy. The photoinduced delayed luminescence of each seed before and after ion irradiation was measured. The growth of seedlings after irradiation was compared with that of untreated seeds. A growth reduction on increasing the dose was registered. The results show strong correlations between the ion irradiation dose, seeds growth and delayed luminescence intensity. In particular, the delayed luminescence intensity is correlated by a logistic function to the seedlings elongation and, after performing a suitable measurement campaign based on blind tests, it could become a tool able to predict the growth of seeds after ion irradiation. Moreover these results demonstrate that measurements of delayed luminescence could be used as a fast and non-invasive technique to check the effects of ion beams on relatively simple biological systems. PMID:27936220

  12. Effect of treatment delay upon pulp and periodontal healing of traumatic dental injuries -- a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, J O; Andreasen, F M; Skeie, A; Hjørting-Hansen, E; Schwartz, O

    2002-06-01

    Based on an analysis of the literature concerning parameters influencing the prognosis of traumatic dental injuries, few studies were found to have examined possible relationships between treatment delay and pulpal and periodontal ligament healing complications. It has been commonly accepted that all injuries should be treated on an emergency basis, for the comfort of the patient and also to reduce wound healing complications. For practical and especially economic reasons, various approaches can be selected to fulfill such a demand, such as acute treatment (i.e. within a few hours), subacute (i.e. within the first 24 h), and delayed (i.e. after the first 24 h). In this survey the consequences of treatment delay on pulpal and periodontal healing have been analyzed for the various dental trauma groups. Applying such a treatment approach to the various types of injuries, the following treatment guidelines can be recommended, based on our present rather limited knowledge of the effect of treatment delay upon wound healing. Crown and crown/root fractures: Subacute or delayed approach. Root fractures: Acute or subacute approach. Alveolar fractures: Acute approach (evidence however questionable). Concussion and subluxation: Subacute approach. Extrusion and lateral luxation: Acute or subacute approach (evidence however questionable). Intrusion: Subacute approach (evidence however questionable). Avulsion: If the tooth is not replanted at the time of injury, acute approach; otherwise subacute. Primary tooth injury: Subacute approach, unless the primary tooth is displaced into the follicle of the permanent tooth or occlusal problems are present; in the latter instances, an acute approach should be chosen. These treatment guidelines are based on very limited evidence from the literature and should be revised as soon as more evidence about the effect of treatment delay becomes available.

  13. Relation between therapeutic response and side effects induced by methylphenidate as observed by parents and teachers of children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Venkataramana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The desired (therapeutic and undesired (side effects of methylphenidate might have underlying correlations. The aim of this study was to explore the strength and the possible sources of these correlations. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven children with ADHD (6-12 years were administered placebo and methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg in a divided b.i.d. dose, each for a one-week period, in a double-blind, crossover trial. Therapeutic response was assessed using the Conners' Global Index for parents (CGI-Parents and teachers (CGI-Teachers, while side effects were assessed using the Barkley Side Effects Rating Scale (SERS. Results The side effect profile as assessed by the SERS was similar to that of previous studies with insomnia, decreased appetite, and headaches showing significant treatment effects (p Conclusion The greater "mood/anxiety" side effects on methylphenidate and placebo, the less the parents observe improvement of their children while treated with methylphenidate. This suggests that the correlations between "mood/anxiety" side effects and poor response to treatment may be driven by observer effects rather than biological commonalities between therapeutic and side effects of methylphenidate.

  14. Comparing Efficacy and Side Effects of Memantine vs. Risperidone in the Treatment of Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikvarz, Nikvarz; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Alimadadi, Abbas; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy and side effects of memantine, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor of glutamate, with risperidone given the fact that glutamate has been noted for its possible effects in the pathogenesis of autism. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, has been approved by FDA for the management of irritability associated with autism. Methods: 30 children, aged 4-17 years, entered an 8-week, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either risperidone or memantine. Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scales were used to assess behavioral symptoms of the patients. Results: Both risperidone and memantine reduced the scores of 4 subscales of ABC as well as the 10-item and the total score of CARS significantly. However, differences between the 2 drugs in the scores of each evaluating scale were not found to be significant. Relatively, larger number of patients on risperidone showed "very much improvement" when assessed by CGI-I scale when compared with those on memantine. Discussion and conclusion: The present study suggests that memantine may have beneficial effects in the treatment of many core symptoms of autism. Therefore, memantine may be considered as a potential medication in the treatment of those autistic children who do not respond or cannot tolerate side effects of risperidone.

  15. Short-Term Side Effects after Radioiodine Treatment in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. I-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC could induce adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to report and analyze symptoms after I-131 treatment within the hospitalization and present relevant medical intervention. Methods. I-131 doses ranging from 3.7 to 9.25 GBq (100–250 mCi were administrated for thyroid remnant ablation or treating DTC metastases. 117 patients with DTC for I-131 therapy were monitored through the video and intercommunicating with standardized questionnaire at different time points after I-131 oral administration. Adverse effects were recorded and relevant clinical factors were analyzed. Results. Among all the 117 patients, 55 cases complained of neck’s pain or swelling and 79 cases presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. Pain or swelling of salivary gland occurred in 15 patients, headache and vertigo in 10, insomnia in 9, vocal cord paralysis in 6, fatigue or general malaise in 6, and foreign body sensation in 5. Body numbness and urinary symptoms were observed in only 1 case, respectively. Those side effects were related with sex, pre-I-131 treatment TSH levels, frequency of I-131 therapy, and lymph node metastases. Conclusions. Short-term side effects after I-131 therapy for DTC patients varied individually; severe symptoms were not uncommon but generally did not need emergent medical intervention.

  16. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with CDDP and 5FU for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The initial evaluation and side effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Yousuke; Suzuki, Haruhiko; Shigehara, Takeo; Omura, Ken; Shimada, Fumiyuki; Hatano, Kazuo; Sekiya, Yuichi; Togawa, Takashi [Chiba Cancer Center Hospital (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with CDDP and 5FU was given to 18 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma during January 1994-October 1996. One and 17 were in Stages III-IV respectively. None had distant metastasis. The median duration of follow-up of all patients was 23.5 months (6-45). Objective response (CR+PR) of the primary lesion and the regional nodes was 18/18 (100%), whereas CR was 2/18 (11%). CR+PR and CR at the primary lesion were 18/18 (100%) and 5/18 (28%) respectively. Two patients died of disease at T site. One patient was alive with disease. The remaining 15 (83%) patients were relapse free alive. There were 2 relapses, 1 at T+M, and 1 at T+N sites. Side effects, especially myelosuppression and mucositis, were severe. Leukopenia and mucositis in grade 3-4 were 78% and 89% respectively. In conclusion, this regimen has been effective in short term follow-up. However, because of severe side effects, further modifications are required. Long term follow-up are required to define final effectiveness of this regimen. (author)

  17. Multiscale Analysis of Effects of Additive and Multiplicative Noise on Delay Differential Equations Near a Bifurcation Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosek, M. M.

    2004-04-01

    We study effects of noisy and deterministic perturbations on oscillatory solutions to delay differential equations. We develop the multiscale technique and derive amplitude equations for noisy oscillations near a critical delay. We investigate effects of additive and multiplicative noise. We show that if the magnitudes of noise and deterministic perturbations are balanced, then the oscillatory behavior persists for long times being sustained by the noise. We illustrate the technique and its results on linear and logistic delay equations.

  18. Needlestick injuries among female veterinarians: frequency, syringe contents and side-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J R; Bowman, M E

    1997-11-01

    In a mixed-mode survey of all 1970-80 female graduates of all US veterinary colleges, information was obtained regarding several health, personal and occupational factors including data on occupational needlestick events. Among the 2,532 survey respondents, 1,620 reported one or more needlesticks after graduation from veterinary college (64.0% of all respondents). A total of 2,663 stick events were reported, although the descriptions of each puncture event varied in quality/completeness, probably due in large part to their retrospective nature. Substances most often injected include vaccines, antibiotics, anaesthetics and animal blood. Of the 438 sticks resulting in at least one side-effect (16.4% of all sticks), 337 were classified as mild and localized at the site of injection (12.4% of all sticks, approximately 77% of sticks producing a side-effect), with 18 characterized as severe and systemic (0.7% of all sticks, approximately 4% of sticks producing a side-effect). One accidental self-injection of a prostaglandin compound resulted in a spontaneous abortion, heightening awareness that occupational needlesticks may also represent a serious human reproductive health hazard. The estimated overall needlestick injury rate for this group of health care professionals was 9.3 sticks per 100 person-years (PYs) of practice, comparable to reported rates among health care workers such as nurses, laboratory technicians and hospital housekeeping staff. Accounting for underreporting of the stick events, the actual injury rate is likely to be at least 20 sticks per 100 PYs. When stick rates were estimated by clinical practice type (small animal, large animal and mixed practice), all-small-animal and mixed-practice veterinarians demonstrated the highest rates, with all-large-animal practitioners demonstrating a rate lower by about 40%.

  19. Effect of delayed polymerization time and bracket manipulation on orthodontic bracket bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponikvar, Michael J.

    This study examined the effect of bracket manipulation in combination with delayed polymerization times on orthodontic bracket shear bond strength and degree of resin composite conversion. Orthodontics brackets were bonded to extracted third molars in a simulated oral environment after a set period of delayed polymerization time and bracket manipulation. After curing the bracket adhesive, each bracket underwent shear bond strength testing followed by micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis to measure the degree of conversion of the resin composite. Results demonstrated the shear bond strength and the degree of conversion of ceramic brackets did not vary over time. However, with stainless steel brackets there was a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05) of delay time on shear bond strength between the 0.5 min and 10 min bracket groups. In addition, stainless steel brackets showed significant differences related to degree of conversion over time between the 0.5 min and 5 min groups, in addition to the 0.5 min and 10 min groups. This investigation suggests that delaying bracket adhesive polymerization up to a period of 10 min then adjusting the orthodontic bracket may increase both shear bond strength and degree of conversion of stainless steel brackets while having no effect on ceramic brackets.

  20. Potential Effects on Large Mara Construction Projects Due To Construction Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Abdullah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry continues to be the driving force in the growth of the nation’s socio economic development. One of the major issues in large construction industry is its frequent delay where this delay decelerates the multiplier effects to the economy. This paper presents the study of a survey on significant cause of delay and its effects in large MARA (Majlis Amanah Rakyat construction project in the views of project management consultants (PMC. Respondents of this survey were personnel that work as PMC ranging from the executives, managerial and supporting groups. The result revealed that the five most significant delay causes as seen by PMC were cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors, contractor’s poor site management, inadequate contractor experience, shortage of site workers and ineffective planning and scheduling by contractors and its three most significant effects were time overrun, cost overrun and arbitration. Hopefully, the findings of this study will at least shade some lights to the problems faced by Malaysia construction industry particularly MARA large construction project and effort can be taken to improve it.