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Sample records for delayed motor development

  1. Child obesity and motor development delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood obesity has been associated with delays in motor development using weight-for-length z-scores and subcutaneous fat. To study this further, percent body fat and motor development were assessed in children ages 3 to 24 months. Included were 455 children with a total of 1882 longitudinal obse...

  2. Infant overweight is associated with delayed motor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slining, Meghan; Adair, Linda S.; Goldman, Barbara Davis; Borja, Judith B.; Bentley, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine how infant overweight and high subcutaneous fat relate to infant motor development. Study design Participants are from the Infant Care, Feeding, and Risk of Obesity Project, a prospective, longitudinal study of low-income African American mother-infant dyads assessed from 3 -18 months of age (836 observations on 217 infants). Exposures were overweight (weight-for-length z-score ≥90th percentile of 2000 CDC/NCHS growth reference) and high subcutaneous fat (sum of three skinfold measurements >90th percentile of our sample). Motor development was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. Developmental delay was characterized as a standardized Psychomotor Development Index score <85. Longitudinal models estimated developmental outcomes as functions of time-varying overweight and subcutaneous fat, controlling for age and sex. Alternate models tested concurrent and lagged relationships (prior weight or subcutaneous fat predicting current motor development). Results Motor delay was 1.80 times as likely in overweight compared with non-overweight infants (95% CI:1.09, 2.97), and 2.32 times as likely in infants with high subcutaneous fat compared with lower subcutaneous fat (95% CI:1.26, 4.29). High subcutaneous fat was also associated with delay in subsequent motor development (OR=2.27, 95% CI:1.08, 4.76). Conclusions Pediatric overweight and high subcutaneous fat are associated with delayed infant motor development. PMID:20227724

  3. An investigation of the factors affecting flatfoot in children with delayed motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun-Chung; Tung, Li-Chen; Tung, Chien-Hung; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Yang, Jeng-Feng; Wang, Chun-Hou

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of flatfoot in children with delayed motor development and the relevant factors affecting it. In total, 121 preschool-aged children aged 3-6 with delayed motor development (male: 81; female: 40) were enrolled in the motor-developmentally delayed children group, and 4 times that number, a total of 484 children (male: 324; female: 160), of gender- and age-matched normal developmental children were used as a control group for further analyses. The age was from 3.0 to 6.9 years old for the participants. The judgment criterion of flatfoot was the Chippaux-Smirak index >62.70%, in footprint measurement. The results showed that the prevalence of flatfoot in children with motor developmental delay was higher than that in normal developmental children, approximately 58.7%, and that it decreased with age from 62.8% of 3-year-olds to 50.0% of 6-year-olds. The results also showed that motor-developmentally delayed children with flatfoot are at about 1.5 times the risk of normal developmental children (odds ratio=1.511, p=0.005). In addition, the prevalence of flatfoot is relatively higher in overweight children with delayed motor development, and that in obese children is even as high as 95.8% (23/24). Children with both excessive joint laxity and delayed development are more likely to suffer from flatfoot. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for clinical workers to deal with foot issues in children with delayed motor development.

  4. OJKO-project : Longitudinal study on the development of young children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a longitudinal project on the development of children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay has started in Belgium and the Netherlands. The aims of this study are to evaluate the cognitive, motor, communicative and social-emotional abilities of young children with a severe

  5. Subcutaneous fat accumulation in early infancy is more strongly associated with motor development and delay than muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, H; Kawai, M; Niwa, F; Hasegawa, T; Iwanaga, K; Ohata, K; Tamaki, A; Heike, T

    2014-06-01

    Physical growth in neurologically healthy preterm infants affects motor development. This study investigated the separate relationships between muscle and fat in infancy and later motor development and physical growth. Muscle thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness of the anterior thigh were measured using ultrasound images obtained from neurologically healthy preterm infants at birth, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months' corrected age. We also obtained the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory and Alberta Infant Motor Scale scores at 18 months' corrected age to assess motor ability and motor delay. Thirty preterm infants completed the study protocol. There was a significant positive correlation between motor ability and increments in subcutaneous fat thickness during the first 3 and 6 months' corrected age (r = 0.48 and 0.40, p muscle thickness growth in any of the periods. A secondary, logistic regression analysis showed that increments in subcutaneous fat thickness during the first 3 months were a protective factor for motor delay. Subcutaneous fat accumulation in early infancy is more strongly associated with motor development and delay than muscle growth. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Clonidine treatment delays postnatal motor development and blocks short-term memory in young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvino-Núñez, Cristina; Domínguez-del-Toro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    During the development of the nervous system, the perinatal period is particularly sensitive as neuronal connections are still forming in the brain of the neonate. Alpha2-adrenergic receptors are overexpressed temporarily in proliferative zones in the developing brain, reaching a peak during the first postnatal week of life. Both stimulation and blocking of these receptors during this period alter the development of neural circuits, affecting synaptic connectivity and neuronal responses. They even affect motor and cognitive skills later on in the adult. It's especially important to look for the early neurological consequences resulting from such modifications, because they may go unnoticed. The main objective of the present study has been to reaffirm the importance of the maturation of alpha-adrenergic system in mice, by carrying out a comprehensive examination of motor, behavioral and cognitive effects in neonates, during early postnatal development, following chronic administration of the drug Clonidine, an alpha2 adrenergic system agonist. Our study shows that mice treated postnatally with clonidine present a temporal delay in the appearance of developmental markers, a slow execution of vestibular reflexes during first postnatal week of life and a blockade of the short term memory in the novel object recognition task. Shortly after the treatment the startle response is hyperreactive.

  7. Delay in early infant motor development in last two decades is not associated with childhood overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Silvia I.; Lemmink, Koen; Bartelds, Meike; Geus, Eco de; Boomsma, Dorret; Corpeleijn, Eva; Stolk, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    26737: Introduction The aim of this study was to find out if early motor development has changed over the last decades and how it’s related to overweight during childhood. Method Data from twins participating in the Young Netherlands Twin Register (YNTR) was used. One of the twin pairs born between

  8. Development of an Android OS Based Controller of a Double Motor Propulsion System for Connected Electric Vehicles and Communication Delays Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Daniel Urbina Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Developments of technologies that facilitate vehicle connectivity represent a market demand. In particular, mobile device (MD technology provides advanced user interface, customization, and upgradability characteristics that can facilitate connectivity and possibly aid in the goal of autonomous driving. This work explores the use of a MD in the control system of a conceptual electric vehicle (EV. While the use of MD for real-time control and monitoring has been reported, proper consideration has not been given to delays in data flow and their effects on system performance. The motor of a novel propulsion system for an EV was conditioned to be controlled in a wireless local area network by an ecosystem that includes a MD and an electronic board. An intended accelerator signal is predefined and sent to the motor and rotational speed values produced in the motor are sent back to the MD. Sample periods in which the communication really occurs are registered. Delays in the sample periods and produced errors in the accelerator and rotational speed signals are presented and analyzed. Maximum delays found in communications were of 0.2 s, while the maximum error produced in the accelerator signal was of 3.54%. Delays are also simulated, with a response that is similar to the behavior observed in the experiments.

  9. Prenatal exposure to a common organophosphate insecticide delays motor development in a mouse model of idiopathic autism.

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    Alessia De Felice

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by impaired social and communicative skills and repetitive behaviors. Emerging evidence supported the hypothesis that these neurodevelopmental disorders may result from a combination of genetic susceptibility and exposure to environmental toxins in early developmental phases. This study assessed the effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF, a widely diffused organophosphate insecticide endowed with developmental neurotoxicity at sub-toxic doses, in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse strain, a validated model of idiopathic autism that displays several behavioral traits relevant to the autism spectrum. To this aim, pregnant BTBR mice were administered from gestational day 14 to 17 with either vehicle or CPF at a dose of 6 mg/kg/bw by oral gavages. Offspring of both sexes underwent assessment of early developmental milestones, including somatic growth, motor behavior and ultrasound vocalization. To evaluate the potential long-term effects of CPF, two different social behavior patterns typically altered in the BTBR strain (free social interaction with a same-sex companion in females, or interaction with a sexually receptive female in males were also examined in the two sexes at adulthood. Our findings indicate significant effects of CPF on somatic growth and neonatal motor patterns. CPF treated pups showed reduced weight gain, delayed motor maturation (i.e., persistency of immature patterns such as pivoting at the expenses of coordinated locomotion and a trend to enhanced ultrasound vocalization. At adulthood, CPF associated alterations were found in males only: the altered pattern of investigation of a sexual partner, previously described in BTBR mice, was enhanced in CPF males, and associated to increased ultrasonic vocalization rate. These findings strengthen the need of future studies to evaluate the role of environmental chemicals in the etiology of neurodevelopment disorders.

  10. Motor development after vestibular deprivation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geisler, HC; Gramsbergen, A

    1998-01-01

    This review summarizes the postural development in the rat and the influences of vestibular deprivation from the 5th postnatal day on this development. Vestibular deprivation leads to a delay in motor development. Most probably this delay is caused by a delay in the development of postural control,

  11. Motor development in visually impaired children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hallemans, Ann

    2016-01-01

    ..., a visual impairment affects their overall development, including their motor development and skill acquisition. Different studies report a delay in gross motor milestones such as head control, sitting, standing, crawling, and walking during the first year of life. Vision appears to be key to normal postural and motor development in infants. W...

  12. A Comparison of Motor Delays in Young Children: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Developmental Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Beth; Lopez, Brian R.; Heimerl, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed motor delay in young children 21-41 months of age with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and compared motor scores in children with ASD to those of children without ASD. Fifty-six children (42 boys, 14 girls) were in three groups: children with ASD, children with developmental delay (DD), and children with developmental concerns…

  13. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Delayed Speech or Language Development KidsHealth > For Parents > Delayed Speech or Language Development ... child is right on schedule. Normal Speech & Language Development It's important to discuss early speech and language ...

  14. Feedback delays eliminate auditory-motor learning in speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Ludo; Maffett, Derek G

    2015-03-30

    Neurologically healthy individuals use sensory feedback to alter future movements by updating internal models of the effector system and environment. For example, when visual feedback about limb movements or auditory feedback about speech movements is experimentally perturbed, the planning of subsequent movements is adjusted - i.e., sensorimotor adaptation occurs. A separate line of studies has demonstrated that experimentally delaying the sensory consequences of limb movements causes the sensory input to be attributed to external sources rather than to one's own actions. Yet similar feedback delays have remarkably little effect on visuo-motor adaptation (although the rate of learning varies, the amount of adaptation is only moderately affected with delays of 100-200ms, and adaptation still occurs even with a delay as long as 5000ms). Thus, limb motor learning remains largely intact even in conditions where error assignment favors external factors. Here, we show a fundamentally different result for sensorimotor control of speech articulation: auditory-motor adaptation to formant-shifted feedback is completely eliminated with delays of 100ms or more. Thus, for speech motor learning, real-time auditory feedback is critical. This novel finding informs theoretical models of human motor control in general and speech motor control in particular, and it has direct implications for the application of motor learning principles in the habilitation and rehabilitation of individuals with various sensorimotor speech disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evoluções motoras e linguísticas de bebês com atraso de desenvolvimento na perspectiva de mães Motor and language development of babies with delayed development from the mothers' perspective

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    Tatiany Hekavei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo investigar a evolução do desenvolvimento motor e de linguagem em bebês com atraso de desenvolvimento a partir da perspectiva materna. Participaram do estudo seis mães de bebês com atraso de desenvolvimento. A pesquisa foi realizada numa instituição com programa de intervenção precoce e em ambiente domiciliar. Foram feitas entrevistas com as mães, por meio de um roteiro semiestruturado. O modo de compreensão das mães, tanto do processo de desenvolvimento motor, quanto linguístico dos filhos, indicou uma evolução no desenvolvimento dessas crianças. Uma das provas disso, foi a forma como essas mães se referiram ao desenvolvimento das crianças, antes destas ingressarem no programa de intervenção precoce e no momento atual. Conhecer e valorizar as percepções trazidas pelos cuidadores e particularmente pelas mães, implica em ampliar o entendimento dos seus saberes e práticas. Estes valores, por sua vez, podem ser utilizados no sentido de favorecer todo o processo de desenvolvimento infantil.The aim of the present study was to investigate the evolution of motor and language development in developmentally delayed babies from the mother's perspective. Six mothers of developmentally delayed babies participated in the study. This study was conducted in an institution that had an early intervention program and in the home environment. Interviews with the mothers were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. The way the mothers understood both their children's processes of motor and language development was indicative of an evolution in these children's development. The ways these mothers reported on the development of the children before they entered the early intervention program and at present is evidence to this effect. To know and to value the perception that caretakers have about their children has to do with broadening their understanding and practices. These values, in turn, can be

  16. Effects of Concurrent and Delayed Visual Feedback on Motor Memory Consolidation.

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    Wang, Dangxiao; Li, Teng; Yang, Gaofeng; Zhang, Yuru

    2017-02-22

    In many domains, it's important to understand the ways in which humans learn and develop new motor skills effectively and efficiently. For example, in dental operations, the ability to apply a weak force with a required tolerance is a fundamental skill to ensure diagnostic and treatment outcome, but acquiring such a skill is a challenge for novices. In this paper, we focus on motor memory for producing normally applied force by a hand-held probe and we compare the effects of two feedback methods on motor memory consolidation. Fourteen participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a Concurrent Group and a Delayed Group. Participants in the Concurrent Group were trained to apply a target force with concurrent visual feedback, while those in the Delayed Group were trained with delayed visual feedback. The task included two phases: a Training/Testing Phase, and a Retention Phase. The results indicated that participants in the Delayed Group obtained more effective learning outcomes and better retention effects. These findings provide a new perspective to explore the relationship between feedback methods and the cognitive process of motor skill learning, and open a new way to train motor skill using more effective methods than the traditional concurrent feedback approaches.

  17. The Prevalence of Motor Delay among HIV Infected Children Living in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gillian; Jelsma, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Children living with HIV often display delayed motor performance owing to HIV infection of the central nervous system, the effects of opportunistic infections and, indirectly, owing to their social environments. Although these problems have been well documented, the impact of the virus on the development of South African children is less well…

  18. Infantile-onset saccade initiation delay (congenital ocular motor apraxia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    Infantile-onset saccade initiation delay, also known as congenital ocular motor apraxia, typically presents in early infancy with horizontal head thrusts once head control is achieved. Defective initiation of horizontal saccades and saccade hypometria with normal saccadic velocity are characteristic findings. Isolated impairment of vertical saccades is rare. Impaired smooth ocular pursuit may be seen. Other relatively common features include developmental delay, hypotonia, ataxia, or clumsiness. Brain MRI may be normal or show a diverse range of abnormalities, most commonly involving the cerebellum. Defective slow phases of the optokinetic response are commonly associated with brain MRI abnormalities. Isolated defect of vertical saccade initiation may indicate supratentorial brain abnormalities on MRI. Joubert syndrome, a developmental midbrain-hindbrain malformation, and ataxia telangiectasia are both commonly associated with defective volitional and reflexive saccade initiation, saccade hypometria, and head thrusts. Both horizontal and vertical saccades are impaired in these two disorders.

  19. Repeated intermittent alcohol exposure during the third trimester-equivalent increases expression of the GABA(A) receptor δ subunit in cerebellar granule neurons and delays motor development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Marvin R; Vollmer, Cyndel C; Zamudio-Bulcock, Paula A; Vollmer, William; Blomquist, Samantha L; Morton, Russell A; Everett, Julie C; Zurek, Agnieszka A; Yu, Jieying; Orser, Beverley A; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to ethanol (EtOH) during fetal development can lead to long-lasting alterations, including deficits in fine motor skills and motor learning. Studies suggest that these are, in part, a consequence of cerebellar damage. Cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) are the gateway of information into the cerebellar cortex. Functionally, CGNs are heavily regulated by phasic and tonic GABAergic inhibition from Golgi cell interneurons; however, the effect of EtOH exposure on the development of GABAergic transmission in immature CGNs has not been investigated. To model EtOH exposure during the 3rd trimester-equivalent of human pregnancy, neonatal pups were exposed intermittently to high levels of vaporized EtOH from postnatal day (P) 2 to P12. This exposure gradually increased pup serum EtOH concentrations (SECs) to ∼60 mM (∼0.28 g/dl) during the 4 h of exposure. EtOH levels gradually decreased to baseline 8 h after the end of exposure. Surprisingly, basal tonic and phasic GABAergic currents in CGNs were not significantly affected by postnatal alcohol exposure (PAE). However, PAE increased δ subunit expression at P28 as detected by immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. Also, electrophysiological studies with an agonist that is highly selective for δ-containing GABA(A) receptors, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridine-3-ol (THIP), showed an increase in THIP-induced tonic current. Behavioral studies of PAE rats did not reveal any deficits in motor coordination, except for a delay in the acquisition of the mid-air righting reflex that was apparent at P15 to P18. These findings demonstrate that repeated intermittent exposure to high levels of EtOH during the equivalent of the last trimester of human pregnancy has significant but relatively subtle effects on motor coordination and GABAergic transmission in CGNs in rats.

  20. Assessment of Motor Development and Function in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, Beth L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Sutlive, Ann C.

    2005-01-01

    The process of identification of children with delays or disorders in motor development includes developmental screening, examination, and reexamination. Throughout this process, various types of measures are used, including discriminative and evaluative measures. Discriminative and evaluative measures of motor development and function that are…

  1. Comparing Motor Skills in Autism Spectrum Individuals With and Without Speech Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Elise B; Meilleur, Andrée-Anne S; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Mottron, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    Movement atypicalities in speed, coordination, posture, and gait have been observed across the autism spectrum (AS) and atypicalities in coordination are more commonly observed in AS individuals without delayed speech (DSM-IV Asperger) than in those with atypical or delayed speech onset. However, few studies have provided quantitative data to support these mostly clinical observations. Here, we compared perceptual and motor performance between 30 typically developing and AS individuals (21 with speech delay and 18 without speech delay) to examine the associations between limb movement control and atypical speech development. Groups were matched for age, intelligence, and sex. The experimental design included: an inspection time task, which measures visual processing speed; the Purdue Pegboard, which measures finger dexterity, bimanual performance, and hand-eye coordination; the Annett Peg Moving Task, which measures unimanual goal-directed arm movement; and a simple reaction time task. We used analysis of covariance to investigate group differences in task performance and linear regression models to explore potential associations between intelligence, language skills, simple reaction time, and visually guided movement performance. AS participants without speech delay performed slower than typical participants in the Purdue Pegboard subtests. AS participants without speech delay showed poorer bimanual coordination than those with speech delay. Visual processing speed was slightly faster in both AS groups than in the typical group. Altogether, these results suggest that AS individuals with and without speech delay differ in visually guided and visually triggered behavior and show that early language skills are associated with slower movement in simple and complex motor tasks.

  2. Motor Milestone Development in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if a sample of children currently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) would have shown motor milestone delays before age three as compared to typically developing children. Given delays in motor skills, the study also strived to determine which specific skills might be delayed. Parents of 44 children who…

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris MEMISEVIC

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegboard Test. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by planned com­parisons between the age groups. We also performed a regression analysis to assess the influence of age and motor coordination on visual-motor integration. The results showed that age has a great effect on the development of fine motor skills. Furthermore, the results indicated that there are possible sensitive periods at preschool age in which the development of fine motor skills is accelerated. Early intervention specialists should make a thorough evaluations of fine motor skills in preschool children and make motor (rehabilitation programs for children at risk of fine motor delays.

  4. Social threat and motor resonance: when a menacing outgroup delays motor response

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    Roberta Capellini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Motor resonance (MR involves the activation of matching motor representations while observing others’ actions. Recent research has shown that such a phenomenon is likely to be influenced by higher order variables such as social factors (e.g., ethnic group membership. The present study investigates whether and how the perception of a social threat elicited by an outgroup member and by contextual cues can modulate motor responses while an individual observes others’ movements. In an experimental study based on an action observation paradigm, we asked participants to provide answers through computer mouse movements (MouseTracker. We manipulated the agents’ group membership (ingroup vs. outgroup and the social valence of the objects present in a context (neutral vs. threatening to elicit social menace through contextual cues. Response times and computer mouse trajectories were recorded. The results show a higher level of MR (i.e., participants started to respond earlier and were faster at responding when observing an action performed by the ingroup members rather than by the outgroup members only when threatening objects are present in a given context. Participants seem to resonate better with their ingroup; conversely, the outgroup member movements tend to delay motor responses. Therefore, we extend prior research going beyond the general ingroup bias effect on MR and showing that the interaction between membership and contextual cues is likely to elicit threat-related stereotypes. Practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Social Threat and Motor Resonance: When a Menacing Outgroup Delays Motor Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellini, Roberta; Sacchi, Simona; Ricciardelli, Paola; Actis-Grosso, Rossana

    2016-01-01

    Motor resonance (MR) involves the activation of matching motor representations while observing others’ actions. Recent research has shown that such a phenomenon is likely to be influenced by higher order variables such as social factors (e.g., ethnic group membership). The present study investigates whether and how the perception of a social threat elicited by an outgroup member and by contextual cues can modulate motor responses while an individual observes others’ movements. In an experimental study based on an action observation paradigm, we asked participants to provide answers through computer mouse movements (MouseTracker). We manipulated the agents’ group membership (ingroup vs. outgroup) and the social valence of the objects present in a context (neutral vs. threatening) to elicit social menace through contextual cues. Response times and computer mouse trajectories were recorded. The results show a higher level of MR (i.e., participants started to respond earlier and were faster at responding) when observing an action performed by the ingroup members rather than by the outgroup members only when threatening objects are present in a given context. Participants seem to resonate better with their ingroup; conversely, the outgroup member movements tend to delay motor responses. Therefore, we extend prior research going beyond the general ingroup bias effect on MR and showing that the interaction between membership and contextual cues is likely to elicit threat-related stereotypes. Practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27847491

  6. Motor development and motor resonance difficulties in autism: relevance to early intervention for language and communication skills.

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    McCleery, Joseph P; Elliott, Natasha A; Sampanis, Dimitrios S; Stefanidou, Chrysi A

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that a sub-set of children with autism experience notable difficulties and delays in motor skills development, and that a large percentage of children with autism experience deficits in motor resonance. These motor-related deficiencies, which evidence suggests are present from a very early age, are likely to negatively affect social-communicative and language development in this population. Here, we review evidence for delayed, impaired, and atypical motor development in infants and children with autism. We then carefully review and examine the current language and communication-based intervention research that is relevant to motor and motor resonance (i.e., neural "mirroring" mechanisms activated when we observe the actions of others) deficits in children with autism. Finally, we describe research needs and future directions and developments for early interventions aimed at addressing the speech/language and social-communication development difficulties in autism from a motor-related perspective.

  7. Motor Development and Motor Resonance Difficulties in Autism: Relevance to Early Intervention for Language and Communication Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Mccleery

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that a sub-set of children with autism experience notable difficulties and delays in motor skills development, and that a large percentage of children with autism experience deficits in motor resonance. These motor-related deficiencies, which evidence suggests are present from a very early age, are likely to negatively affect social-communicative and language development in this population. Here, we review evidence for delayed, impaired, and atypical motor development in infants and children with autism. We then carefully review and examine the current language and communication-based intervention research that is relevant to motor and motor resonance (i.e., neural mirroring mechanisms activated when we observe the actions of others deficits in children with autism. Finally, we describe research needs and future directions and developments for early interventions aimed at addressing the speech/language and social-communication development difficulties in autism from a motor-related perspective.

  8. MOTORIC STIMULATION RELATED TO FINE MOTORIC DEVELOPMENT ON CHILD

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    Mira Triharini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor developmental stimulation is an activity undertaken to stimulate the children basic skills and so they can grow and develop optimally. Children who obtain a direct stimulus will grow faster than who get less stimulus. Mother’s behavior of stimulation is very important for children, it is considering as the basic needs of children and it must be fulfilled. Providing good stimulation could optimize fine motor development in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze mother’s behavior about motor stimulation with fine motor development in toddler age 4-5 years old. Method: Design have been  used in this study was cross sectional. Population were mothers and their toddler in Group A of Dharma Wanita Persatuan Driyorejo Gresik Preschool. Sample were 51 respondents recruited by using purposive sampling technique according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The independent variable was mother’s behavior about motor stimulation whereas dependent variable was fine motor development in toddler. The data were collected using questionnaire and conducting observation on fine motor development based on Denver Development Screening Test (DDST. Data then analyzed using Spearman Rho (r test to find relation between mother’s behaviors about stimulation motor on their toddler fine motor development. Result: Results  of this study showed that there were correlations between mother’s knowledge and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, between mother’s attitude and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, and between mother’s actions and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000. Analysis: In sort study found that there were relation between fine motor development and mother’s behavior. Discussion: Therefore mother’s behavior needed to be improved. Further research about stimulation motor and fine motor development aspects in toddler is required.

  9. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

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    Yu TY

    2016-02-01

    worse in the VIQ>PIQ group than in the NON and PIQ>VIQ groups. Significant negative correlations between IQD and most of the motor subtests (r=0.31–0.46, P<0.01 were found only in the VIQ>PIQ group.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that 1 IQD indicates the level of motor competence in preschoolers at risk for developmental delays and 2 IQD is negatively associated with motor competence in preschoolers with significant VIQ>PIQ discrepancy. The first finding was that preschoolers with VIQ>PIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD performed significantly worse on motor competence than did preschoolers without significant IQD and preschoolers with PIQ>VIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD. However, preschoolers with significant PIQ>VIQ discrepancy performed better on motor competence than did preschoolers without significant IQD, though the difference was not statistically significant. The second finding was that preschoolers with larger VIQ>PIQ discrepancy had worse motor competence in visual-motor integration and body-movement coordination. Professionals should pay attention to the motor development of children with VIQ>PIQ discrepancy and evaluate children’s IQD along with their motor competence. Keywords: IQ discrepancy, motor competence, child

  10. Technology and Motor Ability Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  11. Development of sensory motor reflexes in 2 G exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubbels, Réne; Bouët, Valentine; de Jong, Herman; Gramsbergen, Albert

    2004-07-01

    During gestation and early postnatal development, the animal's size and weight rapidly increase. Within that period, gravity affects sensory and motor development. We studied age-dependent modifications of several types of motor reflexes in 5 groups of rats conceived, born and reared in hypergravity (HG; 2 g). These rats were transferred to normal gravity (NG; 1 g) at various postnatal days, and their behavioral reflexes were compared with a control group which was constantly kept under NG. HG induced a retarded development of vestibular dependent reflexes. Other types of motor behavior were not delayed.

  12. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  13. Stunting delays maturation of triceps surae mechanical properties and motor performance in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Maria das Graças; Souza, Thaysa O L; Canon, Francis; Pérot, Chantal; Xavier, Luciana C C; Ferraz, Karla M; Osório, Mônica M; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Lambertz, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Malnutrition can lead to possible irreversible consequences in the development of muscle function and some of them are yet poorly characterized. The present study evaluated the mechanical properties of the triceps surae and motor performance in stunted (S) and eutrophic (E) prepubertal children (9 years ± 6 months). Height-for-age ratio was used as indicator of stunting due to early malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization. Torque was determined by maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and musculotendinous (MT) stiffness was achieved through quick-release tests to obtain MT stiffness index (SI(MT)) and passive stiffness (K (p)) from linear MT stiffness-torque relationships. Percutaneous supramaximal electrically elicited contractions determined twitch torque (Pt) and electromechanical delay (EMD). Motor performance was evaluated by balance test. S group presented significantly lower MVC and a trend of lower Pt values indicating lower capacities to develop force under voluntary or induced conditions. Significantly higher SI(MT) and EMD values were observed, while K (p) and motor performance in balance were significantly lower. Higher SI(MT) values have been reported previously in youngest prepubertal children, indicating that immature activation capacities can mask MT stiffness assessment during voluntary contractions, taking into consideration the higher EMD values as a measure of muscle stiffness contribution. Lower K (p) may indicate a delay in the maturation of tendinous tissue in S group, influencing motor performance in balance. The present study shows that malnutrition leads to adaptation of intrinsic MT elastic properties, but depends on the level of the observed structure.

  14. DO INFANTS USING BABY WALKERS SUFFER DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS IN ACQUISITION OF MOTOR SKILLS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talebian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractObjectiveDevelopment is a complex process, completed over a specific period of time, through the maturation of the nervous system. It is affected by genetic, ethnic, nutritional, social, and economic factors; one of the environmental factors affecting the acquisition of motor skills in infants is the use of baby walkers. Since this device is very commonly used for infants in our country, we conducted this study to evaluate its effects on the acquisition of motor skills in this age group of children.Materials & MethodsThis longitudinal study was conducted in 2005 on 300 infants referring to the Primary Health Care Centers of Kashan district in 1384; the infants were divided into two groups of 150 babies each, with the case group using baby walkers, while the other 150, the controls, did not. All babies were followed for two years, and the ages for acquisition of motor skills were documented during face-to face or telephone interviews with the parents. Data were analyzed using the T-test and the Chi Square test.ResultsOf the study population, 175 babies (58.33% were male. The mean age of acquisition of motor skills including rolling, crawling, moving on hands and feet, sitting without and with help, standing and walking dependently and independently were found to be delayed in infants using baby walkers, a difference between the two groups of walker users and non- walker users that was statistically significant (PConclusionConsidering the adverse effects that walkers have on the acquisition of motor skills in infants, as demonstrated by the results of this study, we do not recommend the use of baby walkers in infants.Keywords: Baby walker, Motor skills, Infants.   

  15. Advanced motor-controller development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesster, L. E.; Zeitlin, D. B.; Hall, W. B.

    1983-06-01

    The purpose of this development program was to investigate a promising alternative technique for control of a squirrel cage induction motor for subsea propulsion or hydraulic power applications. The technique uses microprocessor based generation of the pulse width modulation waveforms, which in turn permits use of a true integral volt-second pulse width control for the generation of low harmonic content sine waves from a 3 phase Graetz transistor power bridge.

  16. Comparison of motor delays in young children with fetal alcohol syndrome to those with prenatal alcohol exposure and with no prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberg, Wendy O; Provost, Beth; Tollison, Sean J; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Robinson, Luther K; Eugene Hoyme, H; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Buckley, David; Aragon, Alfredo S; May, Philip A

    2006-12-01

    Researchers are increasingly considering the importance of motor functioning of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The purpose of this study was to assess the motor development of young children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) to determine the presence and degree of delay in their motor skills and to compare their motor development with that of matched children without FAS. The motor development of 14 children ages 20 to 68 months identified with FAS was assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). In addition, 2 comparison groups were utilized. Eleven of the children with FAS were matched for chronological age, gender, ethnicity, and communication age to: (1) 11 children with prenatal alcohol exposure who did not have FAS and (2) 11 matched children without any reported prenatal alcohol exposure. The motor scores on the VABS were compared among the 3 groups. Most of the young children with FAS in this study showed clinically important delays in their motor development as measured on the VABS Motor Domain, and their fine motor skills were significantly more delayed than their gross motor skills. In the group comparisons, the young children with FAS had significantly lower Motor Domain standard (MotorSS) scores than the children not exposed to alcohol prenatally. They also had significantly lower Fine Motor Developmental Quotients than the children in both the other groups. No significant group differences were found in gross motor scores. For MotorSS scores and Fine Motor Developmental Quotients, the means and standard errors indicated a continuum in the scores from FAS to prenatal alcohol exposure to nonexposure. These findings strongly suggest that all young children with FAS should receive complete developmental evaluations that include assessment of their motor functioning, to identify problem areas and provide access to developmental intervention programs that target deficit areas such as fine motor skills. Fine motor

  17. Auditory-motor interactions in pediatric motor speech disorders: neurocomputational modeling of disordered development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terband, H; Maassen, B; Guenther, F H; Brumberg, J

    2014-01-01

    Differentiating the symptom complex due to phonological-level disorders, speech delay and pediatric motor speech disorders is a controversial issue in the field of pediatric speech and language pathology. The present study investigated the developmental interaction between neurological deficits in auditory and motor processes using computational modeling with the DIVA model. In a series of computer simulations, we investigated the effect of a motor processing deficit alone (MPD), and the effect of a motor processing deficit in combination with an auditory processing deficit (MPD+APD) on the trajectory and endpoint of speech motor development in the DIVA model. Simulation results showed that a motor programming deficit predominantly leads to deterioration on the phonological level (phonemic mappings) when auditory self-monitoring is intact, and on the systemic level (systemic mapping) if auditory self-monitoring is impaired. These findings suggest a close relation between quality of auditory self-monitoring and the involvement of phonological vs. motor processes in children with pediatric motor speech disorders. It is suggested that MPD+APD might be involved in typically apraxic speech output disorders and MPD in pediatric motor speech disorders that also have a phonological component. Possibilities to verify these hypotheses using empirical data collected from human subjects are discussed. The reader will be able to: (1) identify the difficulties in studying disordered speech motor development; (2) describe the differences in speech motor characteristics between SSD and subtype CAS; (3) describe the different types of learning that occur in the sensory-motor system during babbling and early speech acquisition; (4) identify the neural control subsystems involved in speech production; (5) describe the potential role of auditory self-monitoring in developmental speech disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DO INFANTS USING BABY WALKERS SUFFER DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS IN ACQUISITION OF MOTOR SKILLS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talebian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDevelopment is a complex process, completed over a specific period of time, through the maturation of the nervous system. It is affected by genetic, ethnic, nutritional, social, and economic factors; one of the environmental factors affecting the acquisition of motor skills in infants is the use of baby walkers. Since this device is very commonly used for infants in our country, we conducted this study to evaluate its effects on the acquisition of motor skills in this age group of children. Materials & MethodsThis longitudinal study was conducted in 2005 on 300 infants referring to the Primary Health Care Centers of Kashan district in 1384; the infants were divided into two groups of 150 babies each, with the case group using baby walkers, while the other 150, the controls, did not. All babies were followed for two years, and the ages for acquisition of motor skills were documented during face-to face or telephone interviews with the parents. Data were analyzed using the T-test and the Chi Square test.ResultsOf the study population, 175 babies (58.33% were male. The mean age of acquisition of motor skills including rolling, crawling, moving on hands and feet, sitting without and with help, standing and walking dependently and independently were found to be delayed in infants using baby walkers, a difference between the two groups of walker users and non- walker users that was statistically significant (P<0.001.ConclusionConsidering the adverse effects that walkers have on the acquisition of motor skills in infants, as demonstrated by the results of this study, we do not recommend the use of baby walkers in infants.

  19. Delayed focal involvement of upper motor neurons in the Madras pattern of motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, R; Scalise, A; Iani, C; Palmieri, M G; Bernardi, G

    1998-12-01

    We report the case of a young man from the south of India, initially presenting the typical signs of benign monomelic amyotrophy (BMA) in the left upper limb. After several years, the involvement of other limbs and the appearance of bulbar signs suggested the possible diagnosis of the Madras pattern of motor neuron disease (MMND). Serial motor evoked potential (MEP) recordings allowed detection of the onset of a focal involvement of upper motor neurons (UMN) controlling innervation in the originally amyotrophic limb. Therefore, serial MEP recordings can be useful for the early detection of sub-clinical UMN damage in motor neuron disease presenting with pure lower motor neuron (LMN) signs.

  20. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  1. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  2. Does Bilingualism Delay the Development of Dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Atkinson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that bilingualism (where individuals speak two languages may delay the development of dementia. However, much of the research is inconclusive. Some researchers have reported that bilingualism delays the onset and diagnosis of dementia, whilst other studies have found weak or even detrimental effects. This paper reviews a series of nine empirical studies, published up until March 2016, which investigated whether bilingualism significantly delays the onset of dementia. The article also explores whether the inconsistent findings can be attributed to differences in study designs or the definitions of bilingualism used between studies. Based on current evidence, it appears that lifelong bilingualism, where individuals frequently use both languages, may be protective against dementia. However, becoming bilingual in adulthood or using the second language infrequently is unlikely to substantially delay onset of the disease.

  3. RhoE deficiency produces postnatal lethality, profound motor deficits and neurodevelopmental delay in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Mocholí

    Full Text Available Rnd proteins are a subfamily of Rho GTPases involved in the control of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and other cell functions such as motility, proliferation and survival. Unlike other members of the Rho family, Rnd proteins lack GTPase activity and therefore remain constitutively active. We have recently described that RhoE/Rnd3 is expressed in the Central Nervous System and that it has a role in promoting neurite formation. Despite their possible relevance during development, the role of Rnd proteins in vivo is not known. To get insight into the in vivo function of RhoE we have generated mice lacking RhoE expression by an exon trapping cassette. RhoE null mice (RhoE gt/gt are smaller at birth, display growth retardation and early postnatal death since only half of RhoE gt/gt mice survive beyond postnatal day (PD 15 and 100% are dead by PD 29. RhoE gt/gt mice show an abnormal body position with profound motor impairment and impaired performance in most neurobehavioral tests. Null mutant mice are hypoactive, show an immature locomotor pattern and display a significant delay in the appearance of the hindlimb mature responses. Moreover, they perform worse than the control littermates in the wire suspension, vertical climbing and clinging, righting reflex and negative geotaxis tests. Also, RhoE ablation results in a delay of neuromuscular maturation and in a reduction in the number of spinal motor neurons. Finally, RhoE gt/gt mice lack the common peroneal nerve and, consequently, show a complete atrophy of the target muscles. This is the first model to study the in vivo functions of a member of the Rnd subfamily of proteins, revealing the important role of Rnd3/RhoE in the normal development and suggesting the possible involvement of this protein in neurological disorders.

  4. Motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rosa Neto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare both global and specific domains of motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with that of typically developing children.Methods:Two hundred children (50 children with clinical diagnoses of ADHD, according to the DSM-IV-TR and 150 typically developing controls, aged 5 to 10 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. The Motor Development Scale was used to assess fine and global motricity, balance, body schema, and spatial and temporal organization.Results:Between-group testing revealed statistically significant differences between the ADHD and control groups for all domains. The results also revealed a deficit of nearly two years in the motor development of children with ADHD compared with the normative sample.Conclusion:The current study shows that ADHD is associated with a delay in motor development when compared to typically developing children. The results also suggested difficulties in certain motor areas for those with ADHD. These results may point to plausible mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and motor difficulties.

  5. Motor Asymmetry and Substantia Nigra Volume Are Related to Spatial Delayed Response Performance in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Erin R.; Black, Kevin J.; Antenor-Dorsey, Jo Ann V.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Hershey, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Studies suggest motor deficit asymmetry may help predict the pattern of cognitive impairment in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD). We tested this hypothesis using a highly validated and sensitive spatial memory task, spatial delayed response (SDR), and clinical and neuroimaging measures of PD asymmetry. We predicted SDR performance would be…

  6. Development of motor skils of young learners

    OpenAIRE

    Branžovská, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    This theses focuses on uncovering motoric skills development of young school age children in their physical education classes. We will explore motoric skills occurrence in physical education classes using a survey to find out which skills are given preference, which are developed on specialized training basis and which children perform just for fun. Due to particular motoric skills we will offer preparatory workout, exercises, equipment and methods frequently used in physical education. Final...

  7. Neural correlates of delayed visual-motor performance in children treated for brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockstader, Colleen; Gaetz, William; Bouffet, Eric; Tabori, Uri; Wang, Frank; Bostan, Stefan R; Laughlin, Suzanne; Mabbott, Donald J

    2013-09-01

    Both structural and functional neural integrity is critical for healthy cognitive function and performance. Across studies, it is evident that children who are affected by neurological insult commonly demonstrate impaired cognitive abilities. Children treated with cranial radiation for brain tumours suffer substantial structural damage and exhibit a particularly high correlation between the degree of neural injury and cognitive deficits. However the pathophysiology underlying impaired cognitive performance in this population, and many other paediatric populations affected by neurological injury or disease, is unknown. We wished to investigate the characteristics of neuronal function during visual-motor task performance in a group of children who were treated with cranial radiation for brain tumours. We used Magnetoencephalography to investigate neural function during visual-motor reaction time (RT) task performance in 15 children treated with cranial radiation for Posterior Fossa malignant brain tumours and 17 healthy controls. We found that, relative to controls, the patient group showed: 1) delayed latencies for neural activation in both visual and motor cortices; 2) muted motor responses in the alpha (8-12Hz) and beta (13-29Hz) bandwidths, and 3) potentiated visual and motor responses in the gamma (30-100Hz) bandwidth. Collectively these observations indicate impaired neural processing during visual-motor RT performance in this population and that delays in the speed of visual and motor neuronal processing both contribute to the delays in the behavioural response. As increases in gamma activity are often observed with increases in attention and effort, increased gamma activities in the patient group may reflect compensatory neural activity during task performance. This is the first study to investigate neural function in real-time during cognitive performance in paediatric brain tumour patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On the Problem of Motor Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jane E.

    2007-01-01

    As a way to address the serious obesity epidemic in the United States, many physical education classes have become fitness centers designed to raise heart rates and burn calories. An unintended consequence of this emphasis on fitness, however, is the lack of attention to motor skill development. Motor skills do not develop miraculously from one…

  9. Comparison of Motor Inhibition in Variants of the Instructed-Delay Choice Reaction Time Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoilin, Caroline; Lambert, Julien; Jacob, Benvenuto; Klein, Pierre-Alexandre; Duque, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Using instructed-delay choice reaction time (RT) paradigms, many previous studies have shown that the motor system is transiently inhibited during response preparation: motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex are typically suppressed during the delay period. This effect has been observed in both selected and non-selected effectors, although MEP changes in selected effectors have been more inconsistent across task versions. Here, we compared changes in MEP amplitudes in three different variants of an instructed-delay choice RT task. All variants required participants to choose between left and right index finger movements but the responses were either provided "in the air" (Variant 1), on a regular keyboard (Variant 2), or on a response device designed to control from premature responses (Variant 3). The task variants also differed according to the visual layout (more concrete in Variant 3) and depending on whether participants received a feedback of their performance (absent in Variant 1). Behavior was globally comparable between the three variants of the task although the propensity to respond prematurely was highest in Variant 2 and lowest in Variant 3. MEPs elicited in a non-selected hand were similarly suppressed in the three variants of the task. However, significant differences emerged when considering MEPs elicited in the selected hand: these MEPs were suppressed in Variants 1 and 3 whereas they were often facilitated in Variant 2, especially in the right dominant hand. In conclusion, MEPs elicited in selected muscles seem to be more sensitive to small variations to the task design than those recorded in non-selected effectors, probably because they reflect a complex combination of inhibitory and facilitatory influences on the motor output system. Finally, the use of a standard keyboard seems to be particularly inappropriate because it encourages participants to respond promptly with no

  10. Mastery and Exercise Play Interventions: Motor Skill Development and Verbal Recall of Children with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Nadia Cristina; Pierosan, Licia; Rudisill, Mary E.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fundamental motor skill proficiency is essential for engagement in sports and physical play and in the development of a healthy lifestyle. Children with motor delays (with and without disabilities) lack the motor skills necessary to participate in games and physical activity, and tend to spend more time as onlookers than do their…

  11. Associations between gross motor and communicative development in at-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M

    2016-08-01

    Infants' advances in locomotion relate to advances in communicative development. However, little is known about these relations in infants at risk for delays in these domains and whether they may extend to earlier achievements in gross motor development in infancy. We examined whether advances in sitting and prone locomotion are related to communicative development in infants who have an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are at risk for motor and communication delays (heightened-risk; HR). We conducted a longitudinal study with 37 HR infants who did not receive an ASD diagnosis at 36 months. Infants were observed monthly between the ages of 5 and 14 months. We assessed gross motor development using the Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS) and recorded ages of onset of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors. Results indicated increased presence of early gross motor delay from 5 to 10 months. In addition, there were positive relations between sitting and gesture and babble onset and between prone development and gesture onset. Thus, links between gross motor development and communication extend to at-risk development and provide a starting point for future research on potential cascading consequences of motor advances on communication development.

  12. Superconducting homopolar motor and conductor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, Donald U.

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Navy has been developing superconducting homopolar motors for ship applications since 1969; a successful at-sea demonstration of the first motor, using NbTi wire for the magnet, was achieved in the early 1980s. Recently, this same motor was used as a test bed to demonstrate progress in high-critical-temperature superconducting magnet technology using bismuth-strontium- calcium-copper-oxide (BSCCO) compounds. In the fall of 1995, this motor achieved a performance of 124 kW operating at a temperature of 4.2 K and 91 kW while operating at 28 K. Future tests are scheduled using new magnets with conductors of both the 2223 and the 2212 BSCCO phases. This article describes the advantages of superconducting propulsion and recent progress in the development of BSCCO conductors for use in Navy power systems.

  13. HAMLET treatment delays bladder cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Hou, Yuchuan; Svensson, Majlis; Holmqvist, Bo; Svanborg, Catharina

    2010-04-01

    HAMLET is a protein-lipid complex that kills different types of cancer cells. Recently we observed a rapid reduction in human bladder cancer size after intravesical HAMLET treatment. In this study we evaluated the therapeutic effect of HAMLET in the mouse MB49 bladder carcinoma model. Bladder tumors were established by intravesical injection of MB49 cells into poly L-lysine treated bladders of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment groups received repeat intravesical HAMLET instillations and controls received alpha-lactalbumin or phosphate buffer. Effects of HAMLET on tumor size and putative apoptotic effects were analyzed in bladder tissue sections. Whole body imaging was used to study HAMLET distribution in tumor bearing mice compared to healthy bladder tissue. HAMLET caused a dose dependent decrease in MB49 cell viability in vitro. Five intravesical HAMLET instillations significantly decreased tumor size and delayed development in vivo compared to controls. TUNEL staining revealed selective apoptotic effects in tumor areas but not in adjacent healthy bladder tissue. On in vivo imaging Alexa-HAMLET was retained for more than 24 hours in the bladder of tumor bearing mice but not in tumor-free bladders or in tumor bearing mice that received Alexa-alpha-lactalbumin. Results show that HAMLET is active as a tumoricidal agent and suggest that topical HAMLET administration may delay bladder cancer development. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cross-cultural analysis of the motor development of Brazilian, Greek and Canadian infants assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, Raquel; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the motor development of infants from three population samples (Brazil, Canada and Greece), to investigate differences in the percentile curves of motor development in these samples, and to investigate the prevalence of motor delays in Brazilian children. METHODS: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study with 795 Brazilian infants from zero to 18 months of age, assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) at day care centers, nurseries, basic health units and at home. The Brazilian infants' motor scores were compared to the results of two population samples from Greece (424 infants) and Canada (2,400 infants). Descriptive statistics was used, with one-sample t-test and binomial tests, being significant p≤0.05. RESULTS: 65.4% of Brazilian children showed typical motor development, although with lower mean scores. In the beginning of the second year of life, the differences in the motor development among Brazilian, Canadian and Greek infants were milder; at 15 months of age, the motor development became similar in the three groups. A non-linear motor development trend was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The lowest motor percentiles of the Brazilian sample emphasized the need for national norms in order to correctly categorize the infant motor development. The different ways of motor development may be a consequence of cultural differences in infant care. PMID:24142318

  15. Cross-cultural analysis of the motor development of Brazilian, Greek and Canadian infants assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Saccani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the motor development of infants from three population samples (Brazil, Canada and Greece, to investigate differences in the percentile curves of motor development in these samples, and to investigate the prevalence of motor delays in Brazilian children. METHODS: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study with 795 Brazilian infants from zero to 18 months of age, assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS at day care centers, nurseries, basic health units and at home. The Brazilian infants' motor scores were compared to the results of two population samples from Greece (424 infants and Canada (2,400 infants. Descriptive statistics was used, with one-sample t-test and binomial tests, being significant p≤0.05. RESULTS: 65.4% of Brazilian children showed typical motor development, although with lower mean scores. In the beginning of the second year of life, the differences in the motor development among Brazilian, Canadian and Greek infants were milder; at 15 months of age, the motor development became similar in the three groups. A non-linear motor development trend was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The lowest motor percentiles of the Brazilian sample emphasized the need for national norms in order to correctly categorize the infant motor development. The different ways of motor development may be a consequence of cultural differences in infant care.

  16. Cerebellar Development and Plasticity: Perspectives for Motor Coordination Strategies, for Motor Skills, and for Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Swinny, J. D; van der Want, J.J.L.; Gramsbergen, A.

    2005-01-01

    The role of the mammalian cerebellum ranges from motor coordination, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, and timing to nonmotor functions such as cognition. In terms of motor function, the development of the cerebellum is of particular interest because animal studies show that the development of the cerebellar cortical circuitry closely parallels motor coordination. Ultrastructural analysis of the morphological development of the cerebellar circuitry, coupled with the temporal and spat...

  17. ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN 150 CHILDREN WITH REFRACTORY EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad MAHVELATI-SHAMSABADI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available  ObjectiveNeuropsychological impairment is an important co-morbidity of chronic epilepsy. The aim of this study was to determine the state of the cognitive and motor development of patients with refractory epilepsy.Materials & Methods We studied 150 consecutive children with epilepsy who were referred to Mofid Children Hospital, a third level public referral University Hospital in Tehran, Iran, from October 2007 to October 2008. Refractory epilepsy was defined as therapeutic failure of three antiepileptic drugs which were used appropriately.Data regarding sex, age, age at which the first seizure occurred, microcphaly, muscle tonicity, EEG findings, kind of treatment for controlling seizures and cognitive and motor development delay were collected from medical records.Development delay was defined as delay in acquiring cognitive ability and motor skills for age according to the Denver Scale II.Results Of 150 patients 72% were younger than 2 years old and 56.7% were male. About 35.3% were microcephalic while 76% had normal muscular tonicity.Only 2.7% had normal EEGs. About 37.3% showed a good response to anticonvulsive drugs and became seizure free, 13.3% showed a relative response to anticonvulsants but 49.3% did not respond. In the present study, 68% had cognitive developmental delay and 60.7% suffering motor delay. There was a significant difference in response to treatment between patients with cognitive and motor development delay.Conclusion Cognitive developmental delay was more frequent in patients with refractory epilepsy, suggesting that early cognitive screening and introduvtion of rehabilitation programs are necessary for patients with refractory epilepsy.Keywords:Refractory epilepsy, cognition, motor development, children

  18. development of motorized development of motorized oil palm fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Cameroon, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Malaysia and. Indonesia. Nigeria used .... of the oil palm fruits relevant to their behaviour ..... industrial raw material development as well as food security ... industry, local consumption and for export. Oil palm.

  19. Effects of time-delay in a model of intra- and inter-personal motor coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowiński, Piotr; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Krauskopf, Bernd

    2016-11-01

    Motor coordination is an important feature of intra- and inter-personal interactions, and several scenarios — from finger tapping to human-computer interfaces — have been investigated experimentally. In the 1980s, Haken, Kelso and Bunz formulated a coupled nonlinear two-oscillator model, which has been shown to describe many observed aspects of coordination tasks. We present here a bifurcation study of this model, where we consider a delay in the coupling. The delay is shown to have a significant effect on the observed dynamics. In particular, we find a much larger degree of bistablility between in-phase and anti-phase oscillations in the presence of a frequency detuning.

  20. Efeito da intervenção em esteira motorizada na aquisição da marcha independente e desenvolvimento motor em bebês de risco para atraso desenvolvimental Efecto de la intervención en caminadora automática en la adquisición de la marcha independiente y desarrollo motor en bebés de riesgo para retraso de desarrollo Treadmill training effects on walking acquisition and motor development in infants at risk of developmental delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Xavier C. Schlittler

    2011-03-01

    showed alternated walking steps on the treadmill, which increased during the intervention period (p<0,05. They also improved their global motor development compared to Risk Control Group of infants. CONCLUSIONS: Motorized treadmill intervention facilitates independent walking acquisition and improves global motor development of infants at risk of developmental delay.

  1. Comparison of Motor Inhibition in Variants of the Instructed-Delay Choice Reaction Time Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoilin, Caroline; Lambert, Julien; Jacob, Benvenuto; Klein, Pierre-Alexandre; Duque, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Using instructed-delay choice reaction time (RT) paradigms, many previous studies have shown that the motor system is transiently inhibited during response preparation: motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex are typically suppressed during the delay period. This effect has been observed in both selected and non-selected effectors, although MEP changes in selected effectors have been more inconsistent across task versions. Here, we compared changes in MEP amplitudes in three different variants of an instructed-delay choice RT task. All variants required participants to choose between left and right index finger movements but the responses were either provided “in the air” (Variant 1), on a regular keyboard (Variant 2), or on a response device designed to control from premature responses (Variant 3). The task variants also differed according to the visual layout (more concrete in Variant 3) and depending on whether participants received a feedback of their performance (absent in Variant 1). Behavior was globally comparable between the three variants of the task although the propensity to respond prematurely was highest in Variant 2 and lowest in Variant 3. MEPs elicited in a non-selected hand were similarly suppressed in the three variants of the task. However, significant differences emerged when considering MEPs elicited in the selected hand: these MEPs were suppressed in Variants 1 and 3 whereas they were often facilitated in Variant 2, especially in the right dominant hand. In conclusion, MEPs elicited in selected muscles seem to be more sensitive to small variations to the task design than those recorded in non-selected effectors, probably because they reflect a complex combination of inhibitory and facilitatory influences on the motor output system. Finally, the use of a standard keyboard seems to be particularly inappropriate because it encourages participants to respond promptly

  2. Motor imagery development in primary school children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caeyenberghs, K.; Tsoupas, J.; Wilson, P.H.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Motor imagery provides a unique window on the integrity of movement representation. How this ability unfolds during development remains unknown, however. It was the aim of this cross-sectional study to chart the development of movement imagery over childhood using validated measures, and to examine

  3. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  4. Motor imagery development in primary school children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caeyenberghs, K.; Tsoupas, J.; Wilson, P.H.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Motor imagery provides a unique window on the integrity of movement representation. How this ability unfolds during development remains unknown, however. It was the aim of this cross-sectional study to chart the development of movement imagery over childhood using validated measures, and to examine

  5. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  6. Superconducting coil development and motor demonstration: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1995-12-01

    Superconducting bismuth-cuprate wires, coils, and magnets are being produced by industry as part of a program to test the viability of using such magnets in Naval systems. Tests of prototype magnets, coils, and wires reveal progress in commercially produced products. The larger magnets will be installed in an existing superconducting homopolar motor and operated initially at 4.2K to test the performance. It is anticipated that approximately 400 Hp will be achieved by the motor. This article reports on the initial tests of the magnets, coils, and wires as well as the development program to improve their performance.

  7. Apoptosis of motor neurons in the spinal cord after ischemia reperfusion injury delayed paraplegia in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Bibo; Liu Miao; Ma Wei; Wang Duoning

    2007-01-01

    Objective To clarify the pathologic change of the motor neuron on spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury delayed paraplegia. Methods The infrarenal aorta of White New Zealand rabbits (n=24) was occluded for 26 minutes using two bulldog clamps. Rabbits were killed after 8, 24, 72, or 168 hours (n=6 per group), respectively. The clamps was placed but never clamped in sham-operated rabbits (n=24). The lumbar segment of the spinal cord (L5 to L7) was used for morphological studies, including hematoxylin and eosin staining, the expression of bcl-2 and bax proteins in spinal cord was detected with immunohistochemistry. The apoptotic neurons in spinal cord were measured with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling of DNA fragments (TUNEL) staining. Results Delayed paraplegia occurred in all rabbits of ischemia reperfusion group at 16-24 hours, but not in sham groups. Motor neurons were selectively lost at 7 days after transient ischemia. After ischemia, the positive expression of bcl-2 protein were in the sham controls but decreased significantly as compared with that of the IR group (P<0.01), especially in 72 hours reperfusion. The positive expression of bax protein were also in the sham controls, but increased in the IR group, especially in 72 hours reperfusion; In addition, TUNEL study demonstrated that no cells were positively labeled until 24 hours after ischemia, but nuclei of some motor neurons were positively labeled at peak after ischemia reperfusion at 72 hours. Conclusion Spinal cord ischemia in rabbits induces morphological and biochemical changes suggestive of apoptosis. These data raise the possibility that apoptosis contributes to neuronal cell death after spinal cord ischemia reperfusion.

  8. Brazilian infant motor and cognitive development: Longitudinal influence of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Keila Rg; Valentini, Nadia C; Saccani, Raquel

    2016-12-01

    Infant developmental delays have been associated with several risk factors, such as familial environmental, individual and demographic characteristics. The goal of this study was to longitudinally investigate the effects of maternal knowledge and practices, home environment and biological factors on infant motor and cognitive outcomes. This was a prospective cohort study with a sample of 49 infants from Southern Brazil. The infants were assessed three times over 4 months using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale and the Bayley Scale of Infant Development (Mental Development Scale). Parents completed the Daily Activities Scale of Infants, the Affordances in The Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale, the Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory and a demographic questionnaire. Generalized estimating equation with Bonferroni method as the follow-up test and Spearman correlation and multivariate linear backward regression were used. Cognitive and motor scores were strongly associated longitudinally and increased over time. Associations between the home affordances, parental practices and knowledge, and motor and cognitive development over time were observed. This relationship explained more variability in motor and cognitive scores compared with biological factors. Variability in motor and cognitive development is better explained by environment and parental knowledge and practice. The investigation of factors associated with infant development allows the identification of infants at risk and the implementation of educational programs and parental training to minimize the effects of developmental delay. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Haris MEMISEVIC; Selmir HADZIC

    2013-01-01

    Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegbo...

  10. Development of larval motor circuits in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Okusawa, Satoko; Itakura, Yuki; Fushiki, Akira; Nose, Akinao

    2012-04-01

    How are functional neural circuits formed during development? Despite recent advances in our understanding of the development of individual neurons, little is known about how complex circuits are assembled to generate specific behaviors. Here, we describe the ways in which Drosophila motor circuits serve as an excellent model system to tackle this problem. We first summarize what has been learned during the past decades on the connectivity and development of component neurons, in particular motor neurons and sensory feedback neurons. We then review recent progress in our understanding of the development of the circuits as well as studies that apply optogenetics and other innovative techniques to dissect the circuit diagram. New approaches using Drosophila as a model system are now making it possible to search for developmental rules that regulate the construction of neural circuits.

  11. Association between physical and motor development in childhood: a longitudinal study of Japanese twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Latvala, Antti; Kaprio, Jaakko; Yokoyama, Yoshie

    2014-06-01

    Length and weight in infancy are associated with neurodevelopment, but less is known about growth in other anthropometric measures. In this study we analyzed how the development in length, weight, head circumference, and chest circumference over infancy is associated with motor development in early childhood, using a twin study design. Information on physical development over infancy and the age at achievement of eight developmental milestones over early childhood was collected for 370 Japanese twin pairs. Linear mixed models were used to analyze how physical development is associated with motor development between individual twins, as well as within twin pairs, adjusting the results for shared maternal and postnatal environmental factors. Delayed motor development was associated with smaller body size over infancy, and we also found some suggestive evidence that it was associated with catch-up growth as well. When studying the associations within twin pairs discordant for motor development, similar associations were found. However, chest circumference showed the most robust association within discordant twin pairs. Smaller body size and rapid catch-up growth are associated with delayed motor development. When studying these associations within twin pairs and thus adjusting the results for gestational age as well as many other maternal and postnatal environmental factors, chest circumference showed the most robust association. Chest circumference, rarely used in developed countries, can offer additional information on prenatal conditions relevant for further motor development not achieved by more traditional anthropometric measures.

  12. Postnatal development of lateralized motor preference in the African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, P J; Bonner, J A

    2001-01-01

    The parrot appears to provide a potentially unique animal model of handedness in humans, but few (if any) observational studies of early postnatal development of postural/motor asymmetries have been published. We studied three African Grey hatchlings, raised without human physical contact, for the first 5 months of life. All three animals failed to show consistent postural and/or motor asymmetries until the end of the 4 postnatal week. These results appear to be comparable to data from prior studies with human infants. Delayed development of lateral motor and/or postural preferences may represent an evolutionarily adaptive strategy for altricial animals.

  13. Linkage of ICF-CY codes with environmental factors in studies of developmental outcomes of infants and toddlers with or at risk for motor delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ai-Wen; Liao, Hua-Fang; Granlund, Mats; Simeonsson, Rune J; Kang, Lin-Ju; Pan, Yi-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Environmental variables have been explored in studies of the development of young children with motor delays. Linking environmental variables to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY), environmental factors (EFs) categories can provide a common language for documenting their contribution to developmental outcomes. This review of studies aimed to (1) link EFs for developmental outcomes in infants with or at risk for motor delays to ICF-CY categories and (2) synthesize the influences of EFs (with ICF-CY linkage) on developmental outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed of multiple databases. After applying selection criteria, environmental variables in 28 articles were linked to ICF-CY categories and underwent qualitative synthesis. Results indicated that physical environmental variables could be linked successfully to ICF-CY EFs categories, but not social environmental variables. Multiple environmental variables were associated with motor and other developmental outcomes. Difficulties in linking social factors to ICF-CY categories indicate that additional EFs codes may need to be considered in the ICF-CY revision processes. The review provides empirical data on relationships between EFs and developmental outcomes in children with or at risk for motor delay.

  14. Improving Narrative Skills in Young Children with Delayed Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter; Shanks, Becky; Davies, Karen

    2004-01-01

    A substantial number of 5-7 year old children experience delayed language development which threatens their progress in school, although they have not been placed on speech and language therapy caseloads. Children with delayed language development typically have a limited ability to understand and tell stories. Intervention to develop the oral…

  15. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arend F.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hitzert, Marrit M.; Tanis, Jozien C.; Roze, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed,

  16. Review of Motor Development, Perceptual-Motor and Physical Fitness Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Ernest; And Others

    Tests of motor development, perceptual-motor coordination, and physical fitness, for the retarded and non-retarded, are reviewed regarding their usage and administration. The tests reviewed are the: Denver Developmental Screening Test, Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Dayton Sensory Motor Awareness Survey, Minnetonka Physical Performance…

  17. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  18. "ATP1A3" Mutations in Infants: A New Rapid-Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism Phenotype Characterized by Motor Delay and Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashear, Allison; Mink, Jonathan W.; Hill, Deborah F.; Boggs, Niki; McCall, W. Vaughn; Stacy, Mark A.; Snively, Beverly; Light, Laney S.; Sweadner, Kathleen J.; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Morrison, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    We report new clinical features of delayed motor development, hypotonia, and ataxia in two young children with mutations (R756H and D923N) in the "ATP1A3" gene. In adults, mutations in "ATP1A3" cause rapid-onset dystonia-Parkinsonism (RDP, DYT12) with abrupt onset of fixed dystonia. The parents and children were examined and videotaped, and…

  19. "ATP1A3" Mutations in Infants: A New Rapid-Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism Phenotype Characterized by Motor Delay and Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashear, Allison; Mink, Jonathan W.; Hill, Deborah F.; Boggs, Niki; McCall, W. Vaughn; Stacy, Mark A.; Snively, Beverly; Light, Laney S.; Sweadner, Kathleen J.; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Morrison, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    We report new clinical features of delayed motor development, hypotonia, and ataxia in two young children with mutations (R756H and D923N) in the "ATP1A3" gene. In adults, mutations in "ATP1A3" cause rapid-onset dystonia-Parkinsonism (RDP, DYT12) with abrupt onset of fixed dystonia. The parents and children were examined and videotaped, and…

  20. What's Motor Development Got to Do with Physical Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Through the study of motor development, the physically educated person will understand that individuals develop at their own rate and require both time and practice to acquire new motor skills. The physically educated person needs to know about motor development in order to monitor his or her own change and become an independent learner.…

  1. Auditory-motor interactions in pediatric motor speech disorders: Neurocomputational modeling of disordered development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terband, H.; Maassen, B.; Guenther, F. H.; Brumberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Differentiating the symptom complex due to phonological-level disorders, speech delay and pediatric motor speech disorders is a controversial issue in the field of pediatric speech and language pathology. The present study investigated the developmental interaction between

  2. Auditory-Motor Interactions in Pediatric Motor Speech Disorders: Neurocomputational Modeling of Disordered Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terband, H.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/296302066; Maassen, B.A.M.; Guenther, F.H.; Brumberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Purpose: Differentiating the symptom complex due to phonological-level disorders, speech delay and pediatric motor speech disorders is a controversial issue in the field of pediatric speech and language pathology. The present study investigated the developmental interaction between

  3. Auditory-Motor Interactions in Pediatric Motor Speech Disorders: Neurocomputational Modeling of Disordered Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terband, H.R.; Maassen, B.A.M.; Guenther, F.H.; Brumberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Purpose: Differentiating the symptom complex due to phonological-level disorders, speech delay and pediatric motor speech disorders is a controversial issue in the field of pediatric speech and language pathology. The present study investigated the developmental interaction between neurol

  4. Auditory-motor interactions in pediatric motor speech disorders: Neurocomputational modeling of disordered development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terband, H.R.; Maassen, B.A.M.; Guenther, F.H.; Brumberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Differentiating the symptom complex due to phonological-level disorders, speech delay and pediatric motor speech disorders is a controversial issue in the field of pediatric speech and language pathology. The present study investigated the developmental interaction between neurol

  5. Effect of massage on the progress of evolution and the sequence of motion phases process in Infants with Motor delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayda Ravarian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Early intervention for infants with motor delay without a defined etiology have included Neurodevelopmental Therapy(NDT and Infant massage, but no comparisons have been made and beneficially is uncertain .we compared NDT to NDT techniques plus massage. To evaluate the effectiveness of adding Massage therapy (15min to NDT (45min 15 infants who diagnose with Motor Delay (ages 5-12months and moderate in Motor Quotient without defined etiology were recruited 3 times a week for 2 months. The outcomes included the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM, head circumference and weight gain. Children who received only routine NDT improved in Gross Motor Function Measure by 31.47 compared with 59.12 for those who received a combination of NDT and Massage (p=0.003.They show improvement in head circumference and weight gain but they are not significant b(p=0.32 and (p=0.59.NDT Techniques are helpful for these infants, and the addition of massage may augment the effects on motor progression.

  6. Minimum Competencies in Undergraduate Motor Development. Guidance Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The minimum competency guidelines in Motor Development described herein at the undergraduate level may be gained in one or more motor development course(s) or through other courses provided in an undergraduate curriculum. The minimum guidelines include: (1) Formulation of a developmental perspective; (2) Knowledge of changes in motor behavior…

  7. Cerebellar Development and Plasticity: Perspectives for Motor Coordination Strategies, for Motor Skills, and for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Swinny

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the mammalian cerebellum ranges from motor coordination, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, and timing to nonmotor functions such as cognition. In terms of motor function, the development of the cerebellum is of particular interest because animal studies show that the development of the cerebellar cortical circuitry closely parallels motor coordination. Ultrastructural analysis of the morphological development of the cerebellar circuitry, coupled with the temporal and spatial identification of the neurochemical substrates expressed during development, will help to elucidate their roles in the establishment of the cerebellar circuitry and hence motor activity. Furthermore, the convenience of a number of naturally occurring mouse mutations has allowed a functional dissection of the various cellular elements that make up the cerebellar circuitry. This understanding will also help in the approach to possible therapies of pathologies arising during development because tile cerebellum is especially prone to such perturbation because of its late development.

  8. Program to develop improved downhole drilling motors. Semiannual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, W.C.

    1976-11-01

    The following are described: the history of turbodrill development, positive displacement motor development, the theory of turbodrills, the theory of positive displacement motors, basic motor components, forces on thrust bearings, thrust bearing design, radial bearing design, rotary seal design, sealed lubrication system, lubricants, and project status. Included in appendices are materials on high-temperature lubricants and a progress report on the design of downhole motor seal, bearing, and lubrication test systems. (MHR)

  9. Motor Development: Manual of Alternative Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, James E.

    The manual of alternative procedures for teaching handicapped children focuses on programming, planning, and implementing training in the gross motor (posture, limb control, locomotion) and fine motor (facial, digital) skills. The manual consists of the following sections: specific teaching tactics commonly used in motor training stiuations…

  10. Typical and Delayed Lexical Development in Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Frigerio, Alessandra; Sali, Maria Enrica; Spataro, Pietro; Longobardi, Emiddia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) was used to compare Italian and English lexical development. The authors addressed the issue of universal versus language-specific aspects of lexical development by testing language, age, and gender effects on vocabulary scores and by comparing vocabulary composition across languages.…

  11. Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2013-02-01

    The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversarys task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

  12. Studies in Motor Behavior: 75 Years of Research in Motor Development, Learning, and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Beverly D.; Reeve, T. Gilmour

    2005-01-01

    Research focused on human motor development, learning, and control has been a prominent feature in the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES) since it was first published in 1930. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the papers in the RQES that demonstrate the journal's contributions to the study of motor development,…

  13. [Fine motor and self-development assessment of preschool children with epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendraĭtene, E B; Petrushiavichene, D P; Andronavichiute, Iu P; Vapzhaĭtite, L A; Krishchiunas, A I

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess fine motor and self-care skills in preschool children with epilepsy. Material and methods. The study included 22 children, 12 girls (54.5%) and 10 boys (45.5%), mean age 41.5±19.9 months. Children were tested with DISC and Munchen tests. Results and conclusion. Among preschool children with epilepsy, 50% have impaired and 22.7% - delayed development of fine motor skills. The mean coefficient of fine motor skills was 59.0±28.1. Among preschool children with epilepsy, 36.4% have impaired and 45.5% - delayed development of self-development skills. The coefficient of self-care skills was 57.8±26.1. DISC and Munchen tests for evaluation of small motor and self-care skills are equivalent for assessment in children with epilepsy (pchildren older than 3 years and among boys. Children with psychiatric and movement disorders (72.7%) more frequently have both impaired self-care and fine motor skills (p<0.05).

  14. Aspectos motores corporais e orais em um grupo de crianças com transtorno/atraso fonológico Body and oral motor aspects in a group of children with phonological delay/disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ramos de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o desenvolvimento motor e aspectos orofaciais em crianças com transtorno e atraso fonológico. MÉTODOS: Participaram da pesquisa 80 crianças de cinco a 11 anos de idade pertencentes à rede escolar regular de um município da Grande Porto Alegre com alterações fonológicas. Foi realizada uma entrevista com os pais através de um questionário semi-estruturado. Em seguida, foram avaliados o sistema estomatognático e a fala das crianças, e o diagnóstico de transtorno ou atraso fonológico foi confirmado para cada sujeito. Para a análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes de Fisher e o Qui-quadrado com nível de significância de 5% (pPURPOSE: To compare the motor development and orofacial aspects in children with phonological disorder and delay. METHODS: The participants were 80 children with phonological deficits and ages ranging from five to 11 years, who belonged to the regular school system of a city in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. An interview with their parents was conducted, using a semi-structured questionnaire. After that, it was carried out the assessment of the subjects' stomatognathic system and speech, and the diagnosis of phonological delay or disorder was confirmed. The Chi-square test and the Fisher test were used for statistical analysis, with significance level of 5% (p<0,05. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the group with phonological delay and the group with phonological disorder in all aspects examined. CONCLUSION: Phonological delay and disorder do not show significant distinction regarding motor, oral and infectious aspects, together with deleterious oral habits, as shown by the homogeneity between the groups.

  15. Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoykhet, B. (Baldor Comp.); Schiferl, R. (Baldor Comp.); Duckworth, R.; Rey, C.M.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    2008-05-01

    Electric motors utilize a large amount of electrical energy in utility and industrial applications. Electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to dramatically reduce electric motor size and losses. HTS motors are best suited for large motor applications at ratings above 1000 horsepower (hp), where the energy savings from the efficiency improvement can overcome the additional power required to keep the superconductors on the rotor cooled. Large HTS based motors are expected to be half the volume and have half the losses of conventional induction motors of the same rating. For a 5000 hp industrial motor, this energy savings can result in $50,000 in operating cost savings over the course of a single year of operation. Since large horsepower motors utilize (or convert) about 30% of the electrical power generated in the United States and about 70% of large motors are candidates for replacement by HTS motors, the annual energy savings potential through the utilization of HTS motors can be up to $1 Billion in the United States alone. Research in the application of HTS materials to electric motors has lead to a number of HTS motor prototypes yet no industrial HTS motor product has yet been introduced. These motor demonstrations have been synchronous motors with HTS field windings, on the rotor. Figure 1-1 shows a solid model rendering of this type of motor. The rotor winding is made with HTS coils that are held at cryogenic temperature by introducing cooling fluid from the cryocooler to the rotor through a transfer coupling. The stator winding is made of copper wire. The HTS winding is thermally isolated from the warm armature and motor shafts by a vacuum insulation space and through the use of composite torque tubes. The stator in Figure 1-1 is an air core stator in that the stator teeth and a small part of the yoke is made up of nonmagnetic material so the magnetic fields distribute themselves as if in air

  16. Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoykhet, B. (Baldor Comp.); Schiferl, R. (Baldor Comp.); Duckworth, R.; Rey, C.M.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    2008-05-01

    Electric motors utilize a large amount of electrical energy in utility and industrial applications. Electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to dramatically reduce electric motor size and losses. HTS motors are best suited for large motor applications at ratings above 1000 horsepower (hp), where the energy savings from the efficiency improvement can overcome the additional power required to keep the superconductors on the rotor cooled. Large HTS based motors are expected to be half the volume and have half the losses of conventional induction motors of the same rating. For a 5000 hp industrial motor, this energy savings can result in $50,000 in operating cost savings over the course of a single year of operation. Since large horsepower motors utilize (or convert) about 30% of the electrical power generated in the United States and about 70% of large motors are candidates for replacement by HTS motors, the annual energy savings potential through the utilization of HTS motors can be up to $1 Billion in the United States alone. Research in the application of HTS materials to electric motors has lead to a number of HTS motor prototypes yet no industrial HTS motor product has yet been introduced. These motor demonstrations have been synchronous motors with HTS field windings, on the rotor. Figure 1-1 shows a solid model rendering of this type of motor. The rotor winding is made with HTS coils that are held at cryogenic temperature by introducing cooling fluid from the cryocooler to the rotor through a transfer coupling. The stator winding is made of copper wire. The HTS winding is thermally isolated from the warm armature and motor shafts by a vacuum insulation space and through the use of composite torque tubes. The stator in Figure 1-1 is an air core stator in that the stator teeth and a small part of the yoke is made up of nonmagnetic material so the magnetic fields distribute themselves as if in air

  17. [Incomplete paraplegia after delayed diagnostics of motor function deficits. Severe malpractice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regauer, M; Neu, J

    2013-03-01

    A 72-year-old female patient was transferred to a rehabilitation centre after surgical stabilization of a subtrochanteric femoral fracture. However, adequate mobilization was not possible there and 5 days after transfer deficits in the motor function of both lower extremities were documented for the first time and an initial paraplegia was diagnosed the following day by a neurologist. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the suspicion of an unstable fracture of the seventh thoracic vertebral body 8 days after the initial symptoms, which was confirmed by computed tomography after another 3 days. Surgical decompression and stabilization were performed at a department for neurosurgery 4 days later but incomplete paraplegia persisted permanently. The patient complained about insufficient diagnostic measures at the rehabilitation centre. The expert opinion concluded that it would have been mandatory to investigate the matter of the newly occurring neurological symptoms immediately but this had only been performed after undue delay, which had to be interpreted as a case of medical malpractice. The expert pointed out that it was not possible to provide clear evidence that emergent diagnosis and surgery would have enabled a significantly better outcome.The arbitration board ascertained a lack of examination and argued that prompt and adequate diagnostic measures would have revealed the relevant pathological finding and thus surgery would have been performed immediately. According to the reversal of evidence in favor of the patient it could be assumed that no permanent neurological damage existed when the first neurological symptoms occurred and that emergent surgery at least had the potential to prevent permanent paraplegia. This opinion of the arbitration board is supported by numerous references in the literature.

  18. Young Athletes: A Special Olympics Motor Skill Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Paddy C.; Siperstein, Gary N.

    2013-01-01

    While motor skills develop naturally among most typically developing preschoolers, young children with disabilities often experience deficits in this area. Therefore, it is important that children with disabilities are provided with "direct and intentional instruction" for motor skill development during the preschool years. One program…

  19. Young Athletes: A Special Olympics Motor Skill Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Paddy C.; Siperstein, Gary N.

    2013-01-01

    While motor skills develop naturally among most typically developing preschoolers, young children with disabilities often experience deficits in this area. Therefore, it is important that children with disabilities are provided with "direct and intentional instruction" for motor skill development during the preschool years. One program…

  20. Development of a Switched Reluctance Motor made of Permendur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Ichinokura, O.

    2011-01-01

    A switched reluctance (SR) motor consists of stator and rotor cores, and windings. Both the stator and rotor have salient poles. The stator has concentrated windings on each salient pole. On the other hand, the rotor has no windings and no permanent magnets. Therefore, the SR motor is a low cost, extremely robust, and wide-range variable-speed motor. The performance of the SR motor greatly depends on magnetic properties of core material since it consists of only iron cores and windings. This paper presents the development of a novel SR motor made of permendur which has extremely high saturation flux density and very low core loss. Two types of SR motors, one is made of conventional non-oriented Si steel, the other is made of permendur, are compared by simulation and experiment. It is demonstrated that the torque of the SR motor made of permendur is greater than that of the conventional Si steel by 20%.

  1. OPPORTUNITIES FOR PSYCHO-MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME - ADAPTED SWIMMING -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chera-Ferrario B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport activities have a beneficial effect on the mind and body of any type of person. The benefits of sport are even more evident in children with Down Syndrome, who exhibit a general delay in neuro-motor structures. Our aim was to develop the psycho-motor skills in children with Down Syndrome through adapted swimming exercises. We believe that our involvement in adapted swimming for children with Down Syndrome may help develop certain aspects of psycho-motor abilities. The swimming took place with 6 Down Syndrome children from the Special Needs School in Targoviste, for a period of six months and the children being assisted by volunteer students from the Valahia University Department of Sport in Targoviste.The most important result was the children's delight in coming to the pool and taking part in the swimming lessons. Through the methods and exercises used and the devoted involvement of the volunteers, the children developed great levels of trust and courage and learned to swim using only aids. After performing motor skill tests on the children, we observed a general growth in the motor skills monitored.Continuation of the adapted swimming is very important in order to mobilize the skills obtained and continue development of psycho-motor abilities.

  2. NEW VECTORS OF THE MOTOR INSURANCE DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Prikazyuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The essence and features of different forms of motor insurance are studied. As investigated, the motor insurance is one of the most popular types of insurance in many countries, and continues its further quality development. It is stated that the following new vectors of development has been recently observed in developed countries: Internet sales are getting significantly prevalent along with the traditional channels of insurance distribution; insurers’ websites provide a wide range of online features in motor insurance; innovations in motor insurance based on the use of telematics, particularly the usage-based insurance, are widely spread. Basic types of motor insurance, which represent the domestic market, are analyzed. It was found that the share of motor insurance in the insurance market of Ukraine is significant. As established, the proportion of net premiums of motor insurance is decreasing, because its development is significantly influenced by economic factors. Measures, applied by insurance companies in the domestic market of motor insurance to attract new customers and retain the existing ones, are defined. In particular, insurers are trying to develop the implementation of insurance services online, and use possibilities offered by mobile technologies. It was found that the domestic market of motor insurance is characterized by a high level of fraud, that is why some innovative measures in the domestic and international motor insurance agreements are taken to decrease it, such as the introduction of mandatory registration of insurance agents, who have the right to perform mediatory activity in compulsory civil liability insurance of owners of motor vehicles (CCLIOMV, and procedures for contracting the international insurance “Green Card” agreements with simultaneous entering the information on concluded agreement into a unified centralized database of Motor (transport insurance bureau of Ukraine using the “Green Card online

  3. Motor development profile in 9-11 year-old children from the municipal education system of Maceio, Alagoas State, presenting low school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Natália Santos da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children may present motor development delays that can influence their learning process, hence the need for specific assessment for the early detection of such delays in an attempt to resolve or mitigate possible future damage. Objective: Profile of motor development in children aged 9-11 years old presenting low academic achievement in the municipal education system of Maceio, Alagoas state. Methodology: An exploratory, descriptive, transversal study which uses the Motor Development Scale (MDS to analyze the main components of performance. Evaluations were carried out with 43 children of both genders. Results: The children assessed presented motor profiles ranging from “normal” to “far below average”, corroborating the findings in the literature. Conclusions: The results obtained are in agreement with the literature, showing a close relation between motor development and low school performance, emphasizing the importance of psychomotor intervention for the maturation of more complex motor patterns.

  4. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kryvokon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  5. Helping Preschoolers Prepare for Writing: Developing Fine Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J. Michelle; Fortenberry, Callie

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood is the most intensive period for the development of physical skills. Writing progress depends largely on the development of fine motor skills involving small muscle movements of the hand. Young children need to participate in a variety of developmentally appropriate activities intentionally designed to promote fine motor control.…

  6. Early developmental delay in children with autism: A study from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabameri, Elahe; Sotoodeh, Mohammad Saber

    2015-05-01

    Early diagnosis is appropriate and important for developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder. In many less developed countries, unfortunately, diagnosis of this disorder is delayed. The aim of the present study is to determine whether this disorder can be screened using simple strategies such as comparison of the age of acquisition of motor skills. For this purpose, 124 children with autism were chosen to enter the study, and their parents were asked to retrospectively specify the age of achieving milestones of sitting without support, standing alone and walking alone. Information obtained from the parents was compared with World Health Organization standards. Results indicate that participants (male and female) have significantly delayed age of acquisition of all three skills. Based on this result, it can be suggested that existing standards, as a simple means with low cost and easy availability, can be used for early screening of the disease at a younger age so that treatment can be provided more quickly.

  7. Do active video games benefit the motor skill development of non-typically developing children and adolescents: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Zoey E; Barrington, Stephanie; Edwards, Jacqueline; Barnett, Lisa M

    2017-05-18

    The use of interactive video gaming, known as 'exergames' or 'active video games (AVG)' may provide an opportunity for motor skill development. Youth with non-typical patterns of development may have deficits in gross motor skill capacities and are therefore an intervention target. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of AVG use on motor skill development in non-typically developing children and adolescents. Review article. The PRISMA protocol was used to conduct a systematic review of EBSCOhost, Embase, Gale Cengage, Informit, Ovid, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. A total of 19 articles met inclusion criteria (non-typically developing participants such as those with a learning or developmental delay aged 3-18, use of an AVG console, assessed one or more gross motor skills). Studies were excluded if gross motor skill outcomes encompassed fine motor skills or reflected mobility related to daily living. Interventions included children and adolescents with eight different conditions. The Nintendo Wii was the most utilised gaming platform (14/19 studies). Studies examined a combination of skills, with most examining balance (15/19), five studies examining ball skills, and other gross motor skills such as coordination (3 studies), running (3 studies) and jumping (3 studies). There was strong evidence that AVG's improved balance. AVG's also appeared to benefit participants with Cerebral Palsy. AVG's could be a valuable tool to improve gross motor skills of non-typically developing children. There is scope for further exploration, particularly of ball, coordination and locomotor skills and varying platforms to draw more conclusive evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The development of space solid rocket motors in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianding, Huang; Dingyou, Ye

    1997-01-01

    China has undertaken to research and develop composite solid propellant rocket motors since 1958. At the request of the development of space technology, composite solid propellant rocket motor has developed from small to large, step by step. For the past thirty eight years, much progress has made, many technical obstacles, such as motor design, case materials and their processing technology, propellant formulations and manufacture, nozzles and thrust vector control, safe ignition, environment tests, nondestructive inspection and quality assurance, static firing test and measurement etc. have been solved. A serial of solid rocket motors have been offered for China's satellites launch. The systems of research, design, test and manufacture of solid rocket motors have been formed.

  9. Comparação do desenvolvimento motor de lactentes de mães adolescentes e adultas Motor development comparison between infants of adolescent and adult mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiane Sartori

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou caracterizar o desempenho motor de bebês de 0 a 16 meses, comparando o de bebês nascidos de mães adolescentes ao de bebês de mães adultas. Participaram 80 bebês, sendo 40 de mães adolescentes e 40 de mães adultas. Os instrumentos avaliativos foram a escala motora infantil de Alberta AIMS (Alberta infant motor scale e questionário para identificar as características biológicas. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente. Os resultados da AIMS mostram pior desempenho motor dos bebês de mães adolescentes (p=0,002; p=0,001, além de suas inadequadas aquisições motoras nas posturas prono e em pé. Não foi encontrada associação significativa entre a maioria dos fatores biológicos analisados e o desenvolvimento motor dos bebês. Os resultados sugerem que a idade materna pode ser considerada fator de risco para atraso motor em crianças, porém ressalta-se a interação de diferentes fatores, aqui não controlados, influenciando as aquisições motoras de crianças, tais como as demandas da tarefa e as condições do ambiente.The purpose of the study was to compare motor development of infants aged 0 to 16 months born of teenage mothers to those of adult mothers. Eighty babies were assessed, 40 of which the children of teenage mothers, and 40 of adult mothers. Instruments used were the Alberta infant motor scale (AIMS and a questionnaire to collect biological information. Data were statistically analysed. Results show teenage mothers' infants to have delayed motor development as compared to adult mothers' ones (p=0.002; p=0.001, as well as their poor motor acquisitions in prone and standing positions. No association was found between infants' motor development and most of the biological factors analysed. Results hence suggest that early maternal age may be considered a risk factor to motor delay in infants, but attention should be paid to other factors such as task requirements and environmental conditions (here

  10. Gender Expression and Homophobia: A Motor Development and Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Clersida

    2011-01-01

    Homosexuality and homophobia are rarely discussed in schools, yet they are relevant in motor-development and motor-learning settings because people hold gender-stereotyped beliefs about movement and about lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered individuals. This article addresses homophobia and related stereotypes in physical education settings…

  11. Studying Environmental Influence on Motor Development in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Krebs, Ruy

    2012-01-01

    There is a good argument that in order to truly understand the influences that shape child motor development, one must consider environmental influences that reflect the multilevel ecological contexts that interact with the changing biological characteristics of the child. Although there are theories typically associated with motor development…

  12. Gender Expression and Homophobia: A Motor Development and Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Clersida

    2011-01-01

    Homosexuality and homophobia are rarely discussed in schools, yet they are relevant in motor-development and motor-learning settings because people hold gender-stereotyped beliefs about movement and about lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered individuals. This article addresses homophobia and related stereotypes in physical education settings…

  13. Clinical Assesssment of Oropharyngeal Motor Development in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, JoAnne; Klee, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of the oral and speech motor abilities of normally developing two- through six-year-olds (N=90) revealed no developmental change of the structural integrity of the vocal tract although evaluations of oral and speech motor functioning changed significantly with age. (Author/CB)

  14. Output Feedback Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Uncertain Time Delays via RBFNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an adaptive dynamic surface control based on the Radial Basis Function Neural Network for a fourth-order permanent magnet synchronous motor system wherein the unknown parameters, disturbances, chaos, and uncertain time delays are presented. Neural Network systems are used to approximate the nonlinearities and an adaptive law is employed to estimate accurate parameters. Then, a simple and effective controller has been obtained by introducing dynamic surface control technique on the basis of first-order filters. Asymptotically tracking stability in the sense of uniformly ultimate boundedness is achieved in a short time. Finally, the performance of the proposed control has been illustrated through simulation results.

  15. Experimental development of an ultrasonic linear motor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    M'Boungui, G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate a novel ultrasonic motor which generates a stator trajectory in the form of a figure-of-eight by superimposing two resonant modes, with one double the frequency of the other. Topology optimization was used to design...

  16. Delays in clinical development of neurological drugs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masayuki

    2017-06-28

    The delays in the approval and development of neurological drugs between Japan and other countries have been a major issue for patients with neurological diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze factors contributing to the delay in the launching of neurological drugs in Japan. We analyzed data from Japan and the US for the approval of 42 neurological drugs, all of which were approved earlier in the US than in Japan, and examined the potential factors that may cause the delay of their launch. Introductions of the 42 drugs in Japan occurred at a median of 87 months after introductions in the US. The mean review time of new drug applications for the 20 drugs introduced in Japan in January 2011 or later (15 months) was significantly shorter than that for the other 22 drugs introduced in Japan in December 2010 or earlier (24 months). The lag in the Japan's review time behind the US could not explain the approval delays. In the 31 of the 42 drugs, the application data package included overseas data. The mean review time of these 31 drugs (17 months) was significantly shorter than that of the other 11 drugs without overseas data (26 months). The mean approval lag behind the US of the 31 drugs (78 months) was also significantly shorter than that of the other 11 drugs (134 months). These results show that several important reforms in the Japanese drug development and approval system (e.g., inclusion of global clinical trial data) have reduced the delays in the clinical development of neurological drugs.

  17. Motor Development of Infants with Positional Plagiocephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G.; Platt, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor…

  18. NEW VECTORS OF THE MOTOR INSURANCE DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Prikazyuk, N.; T. Motashko

    2015-01-01

    The essence and features of different forms of motor insurance are studied. As investigated, the motor insurance is one of the most popular types of insurance in many countries, and continues its further quality development. It is stated that the following new vectors of development has been recently observed in developed countries: Internet sales are getting significantly prevalent along with the traditional channels of insurance distribution; insurers’ websites provide a wide range of onlin...

  19. Motor Cortex Activity Organizes the Developing Rubrospinal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Preston T J A; Martin, John H

    2015-09-30

    The corticospinal and rubrospinal systems function in skilled movement control. A key question is how do these systems develop the capacity to coordinate their motor functions and, in turn, if the red nucleus/rubrospinal tract (RN/RST) compensates for developmental corticospinal injury? We used the cat to investigate whether the developing rubrospinal system is shaped by activity-dependent interactions with the developing corticospinal system. We unilaterally inactivated M1 by muscimol microinfusion between postnatal weeks 5 and 7 to examine activity-dependent interactions and whether the RN/RST compensates for corticospinal tract (CST) developmental motor impairments and CST misprojections after M1 inactivation. We examined the RN motor map and RST cervical projections at 7 weeks of age, while the corticospinal system was inactivated, and at 14 weeks, after activity returned. During M1 inactivation, the RN on the same side showed normal RST projections and reduced motor thresholds, suggestive of precocious development. By contrast, the RN on the untreated/active M1 side showed sparse RST projections and an immature motor map. After M1 activity returned later in adolescent cat development, RN on the active M1/CST side continued to show a substantial loss of spinal terminations and an impaired motor map. RN/RST on the inactivated side regressed to a smaller map and fewer axons. Our findings suggest that the developing rubrospinal system is under activity-dependent regulation by the corticospinal system for establishing mature RST connections and RN motor map. The lack of RS compensation on the non-inactivated side can be explained by development of ipsilateral misprojections from the active M1 that outcompete the RST. Significance statement: Skilled movements reflect the activity of multiple descending motor systems and their interactions with spinal motor circuits. Currently, there is little insight into whether motor systems interact during development to

  20. Early physical and motor development of mouse offspring exposed to valproic acid throughout intrauterine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorac, Jelena; Pešić, Vesna; Pavković, Željko; Martać, Ljiljana; Kanazir, Selma; Filipović, Ljupka; Sekulić, Slobodan

    2016-09-15

    Clinical research has identified developmental delay and physical malformations in children prenatally exposed to the antiepileptic drug (AED) valproic acid (VPA). However, the early signs of neurodevelopmental deficits, their evolution during postnatal development and growth, and the dose effects of VPA are not well understood. The present study aimed to examine the influence of maternal exposure to a wide dose range (50, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg/day) of VPA during breeding and gestation on early physical and neuromotor development in mice offspring. Body weight gain, eye opening, the surface righting reflex (SRR) and tail suspension test (TST) were examined in the offspring at postnatal days 5, 10 and 15. We observed that: (1) all tested doses of VPA reduced the body weight of the offspring and the timing of eye opening; (2) offspring exposed to VPA displayed immature forms of righting and required more time to complete the SRR; (3) latency for the first immobilization in the TST is shorter in offspring exposed to higher doses of VPA; however, mice in all groups exposed to VPA exhibited atypical changes in this parameter during the examined period of maturation; (4) irregularities in swinging and curling activities were observed in animals exposed to higher doses of VPA. This study points to delayed somatic development and postponed maturation of the motor system in all of the offspring prenatally exposed to VPA, with stronger effects observed at higher doses. The results implicate that the strategy of continuous monitoring of general health and achievements in motor milestones during the early postnatal development in prenatally VPA-exposed offspring, irrespectively of the dose applied, could help to recognize early developmental irregularities.

  1. Development of Motor Model of Rotor Slot Harmonics for Speed Sensorless Control of Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Tatsuya; Ishida, Muneaki; Doki, Shinji

    This paper proposes a novel mathematical dynamic model to represent steady-state and transient-state characteristics of rotor slot harmonics of an induction motor for sensorless control. Although it is well known that the rotor slot harmonics originate from the mechanical structure of the induction motor, a mathematical model that describes the relationship between stator/rotor currents of the induction motor and the slot harmonics has not yet been proposed. Therefore, in this paper, a three-phase model of the induction motor that depicts the rotor slot harmonics is developed by taking into consideration the magnetomotive force harmonics and the change in the magnetic air gap caused by the rotor slots. Moreover, the validity of the proposed model is verified by comparing the experimental results and the calculated values.

  2. Development of an electrically driven molecular motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Colin J; Sykes, E Charles H

    2014-10-01

    For molecules to be used as components in molecular machinery, methods are required that couple individual molecules to external energy sources in order to selectively excite motion in a given direction. While significant progress has been made in the construction of synthetic molecular motors powered by light and by chemical reactions, there are few experimental examples of electrically driven molecular motors. To this end, we pioneered the use of a new, stable and tunable molecular rotor system based on surface-bound thioethers to comprehensively study many aspects of molecular rotation. As biological molecular motors often operate at interfaces, our synthetic system is especially amenable to microscopic interrogation as compared to solution-based systems. Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory, we studied the rotation of surface-bound thioethers, which can be induced either thermally or by electrons from the STM tip in a two-terminal setup. Moreover, the temperature and electron flux can be adjusted to allow each rotational event to be monitored at the molecular scale in real time. This work culminated in the first experimental demonstration of a single-molecule electric motor, where the electrically driven rotation of a butyl methyl sulfide molecule adsorbed on a copper surface could be directionally biased. The direction and rate of the rotation are related to the chirality of both the molecule and the STM tip (which serves as the electrode), illustrating the importance of the symmetry of the metal contacts in atomic-scale electrical devices. Copyright © 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Normative data on mental and motor development in Nigerian children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The subjects scored above the normal values in the five fields of development ... were high scores in the motor and personal -social fields, especially among ..... peculiar advantages of evaluating more different integrative age groups.

  4. Development of millisecond and internal delayed electric detonators in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedek, D.

    1986-01-01

    The stages of developing millisecond and internal delayed detonators are discussed. The problems of their practical introduction in Hungary as well as the economic background of their production are outlined. The present situation, i.e. production possibilities, application of different detonator types as well as the expected progress in the field of detonator production and use in mines endangered by fire-damp are dealt with.

  5. Insm1a Regulates Motor Neuron Development in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Insulinoma-associated1a (insm1a is a zinc-finger transcription factor playing a series of functions in cell formation and differentiation of vertebrate central and peripheral nervous systems and neuroendocrine system. However, its roles on the development of motor neuron have still remained uncovered. Here, we provided evidences that insm1a was a vital regulator of motor neuron development, and provided a mechanistic understanding of how it contributes to this process. Firstly, we showed the localization of insm1a in spinal cord, and primary motor neurons (PMNs of zebrafish embryos by in situ hybridization, and imaging analysis of transgenic reporter line Tg(insm1a: mCherryntu805. Then we demonstrated that the deficiency of insm1a in zebrafish larvae lead to the defects of PMNs development, including the reduction of caudal primary motor neurons (CaP, and middle primary motor neurons (MiP, the excessive branching of motor axons, and the disorganized distance between adjacent CaPs. Additionally, knockout of insm1 impaired motor neuron differentiation in the spinal cord. Locomotion analysis showed that swimming activity was significantly reduced in the insm1a-null zebrafish. Furthermore, we showed that the insm1a loss of function significantly decreased the transcript levels of both olig2 and nkx6.1. Microinjection of olig2 and nkx6.1 mRNA rescued the motor neuron defects in insm1a deficient embryos. Taken together, these data indicated that insm1a regulated the motor neuron development, at least in part, through modulation of the expressions of olig2 and nkx6.1.

  6. Motor development in children living within resource poor areas of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jelsma

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 1986, Irwin-Carruthers tested 681 BlackAfrican babies from the Western Cape and concluded that the South African sample was in advance of the Denver sample both in fine and gross motor behaviour. This study was to determine whether the motor development of isiXhosa speaking children from the same area was still advanced compared to their North American counterparts.Method: The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II were administered to 86 children attending well baby clinics, between the ages of 1-36 months.Results: The mean motor developmental quotient was 92 (SD=15. Twenty eight percent of the sample was either significantly or mildly delayed. No socio-economic or maternal characteristics were associated with this score.Conclusion: The reasons for the decrease in performance are not clear. The socio-economic situation of the mothers was poor and there were a large number of single mothers whose sole source of income was government child support grants.  It is likely that the cause of the decrease is multi-factorial. The mothers are clearly in need of emotional and financial support. It is suggested that the introduction of stimulation programmes might be useful inreducing the long term impact of this delayed development.

  7. Fever during pregnancy and motor development in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Charlotte; Jørgensen, Sanne Ellegaard; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine how fever during pregnancy is associated with motor development in the child. METHOD: This cohort study was based on data from females and their children, from the Danish National Birth Cohort, who took part in an 18-month and/or 7-year follow-up study...... unassisted' (n=53,959) were attained. The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ'07) was used to identify children with indication of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) at age 7 years (n=29,401). Any associations between the exposure to fever during pregnancy and motor....... Information regarding fever (number of episodes, temperature, duration, and pregnancy week) was obtained around gestation week 12 and at the end of pregnancy. Assessments of motor development in early childhood were based on the ages at which the motor milestones 'sitting unsupported' (n=44,256) and 'walking...

  8. SPEEDY babies: A putative new behavioral syndrome of unbalanced motor-speech development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Leena Haapanen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Marja-Leena Haapanen1, Tuomo Aro1, Elina Isotalo21Deparment of Otorhinolaryngology, Phoniatric Division, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Department of Neurology, Peijas Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, FinlandAbstract: Even though difficulties in motor development in children with speech and language disorders are widely known, hardly any attention is paid to the association between atypically rapidly occurring unassisted walking and delayed speech development. The four children described here presented with a developmental behavioral triad: 1 atypically speedy motor development, 2 impaired expressive speech, and 3 tongue carriage dysfunction resulting in related misarticulations. Those characteristics might be phenotypically or genetically clustered. These children didn’t have impaired cognition, neurological or mental disease, defective sense organs, craniofacial dysmorphology or susceptibility to upper respiratory infections, particularly recurrent otitis media. Attention should be paid on discordant and unbalanced achievement of developmental milestones. Present children are termed SPEEDY babies, where SPEEDY refers to rapid independent walking, SPEE and DY to dyspractic or dysfunctional speech development and lingual dysfunction resulting in linguoalveolar misarticulations. SPEEDY babies require health care that recognizes and respects their motor skills and supports their needs for motor activities and on the other hand include treatment for impaired speech. The parents may need advice and support with these children.Keywords: speedy walking, speech disorder, misarticulations

  9. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Nadel, S. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  10. Wireless and Powerless Sensing Node System Developed for Monitoring Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheng Lee

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Reliability and maintainability of tooling systems can be improved through condition monitoring of motors. However, it is difficult to deploy sensor nodes due to the harsh environment of industrial plants. Sensor cables are easily damaged, which renders the monitoring system deployed to assure the machine’s reliability itself unreliable. A wireless and powerless sensing node integrated with a MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System sensor, a signal processor, a communication module, and a self-powered generator was developed in this study for implementation of an easily mounted network sensor for monitoring motors. A specially designed communication module transmits a sequence of electromagnetic (EM pulses in response to the sensor signals. The EM pulses can penetrate through the machine’s metal case and delivers signals from the sensor inside the motor to the external data acquisition center. By using induction power, which is generated by the motor’s shaft rotation, the sensor node is self-sustaining; therefore, no power line is required. A monitoring system, equipped with novel sensing nodes, was constructed to test its performance. The test results illustrate that, the novel sensing node developed in this study can effectively enhance the reliability of the motor monitoring system and it is expected to be a valuable technology, which will be available to the plant for implementation in a reliable motor management program.

  11. Different phase delays of peripheral input to primate motor cortex and spinal cord promote cancellation at physiological tremor frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koželj, Saša; Baker, Stuart N

    2014-05-01

    Neurons in the spinal cord and motor cortex (M1) are partially phase-locked to cycles of physiological tremor, but with opposite phases. Convergence of spinal and cortical activity onto motoneurons may thus produce phase cancellation and a reduction in tremor amplitude. The mechanisms underlying this phase difference are unknown. We investigated coherence between spinal and M1 activity with sensory input. In two anesthetized monkeys, we electrically stimulated the medial, ulnar, deep radial, and superficial radial nerves; stimuli were timed as independent Poisson processes (rate 10 Hz). Single units were recorded from M1 (147 cells) or cervical spinal cord (61 cells). Ninety M1 cells were antidromically identified as pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs); M1 neurons were additionally classified according to M1 subdivision (rostral/caudal, M1r/c). Spike-stimulus coherence analysis revealed significant coupling over a broad range of frequencies, with the strongest coherence at <50 Hz. Delays implied by the slope of the coherence phase-frequency relationship were greater than the response onset latency, reflecting the importance of late response components for the transmission of oscillatory inputs. The spike-stimulus coherence phase over the 6-13 Hz physiological tremor band differed significantly between M1 and spinal cells (phase differences relative to the cord of 2.72 ± 0.29 and 1.72 ± 0.37 radians for PTNs from M1c and M1r, respectively). We conclude that different phases of the response to peripheral input could partially underlie antiphase M1 and spinal cord activity during motor behavior. The coordinated action of spinal and cortical feedback will act to reduce tremulous oscillations, possibly improving the overall stability and precision of motor control.

  12. Motor development following in utero exposure to organochlorines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prior studies on the association between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and child motor development have found contradicting results. Using data collected in the INUENDO cohort in Kharkiv (Ukraine), Warsaw (Poland......) and Greenland (N = 1,103) between the years 2002 and 2012, we examined relations of prenatal exposure to 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) on motor development and developmental milestones; crawling, standing-up and walking. METHODS: CB-153...... and p,p'-DDE were measured in maternal blood in second or third trimester of pregnancy. Motor development was measured in terms of the parentally assessed screening tool Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 and developmental milestones were assessed via retrospective parental reports...

  13. Development of High-Temperature Superconducting DC Motor for Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hitoshi; Shinzato, Tsuyoshi

    In recent years, electrification of automobiles is in progress. Following the advent of passenger electric vehicles, large size commercial vehicles with electric drive are also being developed. One of the problems in the development of large electric vehicles is the heavy weight which leads to short driving distances. Energy saving by the use of high-efficiency motors will be a solution. The authors have developed a prototype electric vehicle equipped with a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) motor and a refrigerator. The test results showed that the motor has torque of 136 Nm and an output of 30 kW, and the prototype vehicle obtains the maximum speed of 80 km/h.

  14. Motor development: activity matters after all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Peter

    2012-01-24

    Developing spinal networks are constructed through the integration of local microcircuits and the ongoing incorporation of later-developing neurons. This process is dependent on neuronal activity prior to synaptogenesis.

  15. Avaliação longitudinal do desenvolvimento motor e da habilidade de sentar em crianças nascidas prematuras Longitudinal assessment of motor development and sitting skill in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelle Kayenne Martins Roberto Formiga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os bebês prematuros apresentam maior risco para atrasos na aquisição das habilidades neuromotoras. O objetivo do estudo foi detectar atrasos no desenvolvimento motor de crianças prematuras com baixo peso, analisar a evolução da habilidade do sentar e verificar a associação entre essa habilidade com outras aquisições motoras até os 8 meses de idade corrigida (IC. Foram avaliadas 10 crianças nascidas pré-termo, de ambos os sexos, dos 4 aos 8 meses de IC, pela escala motora infantil de Alberta AIMS (Alberta Infant Motor Scale. Cada criança foi avaliada três vezes, aos 4 para 5 meses, 5 para 6 meses, e 7 para 8 meses; os escores foram comparados para verificar alterações ao longo do tempo e identificação de possíveis atrasos no desenvolvimento motor. Os resultados mostram que, aos 7 para 8 meses, 30% das crianças apresentaram desenvolvimento motor atrasado e foram encaminhadas para tratamento fisioterapêutico. A habilidade de sentar foi melhorando progressiva e significativamente com a idade, tendo se mostrado fortemente correlacionada com outras posturas do desenvolvimento motor e com o escore total na AIMS.Preterm-born infants present higher risks of delayed neuromotor development. This study aimed at detecting delayed motor development in preterm, low-birthweight infants, by analysing development of the sitting skill in association to other motor development acquisitions until corrected age (CA of 8 months. Ten preterm infants of both sexes were assessed by the AIMS - Alberta Infant Motor Scale from ages 4 to 8 months. Each child was evaluated three times, at 4-to-5 months, 5-to-6 months, and at 7-to-8 months CA; their scores were compared to verify changes over time and identify possible delays in motor development. Results show that at the age of 7-to-8 months, 30% of the children had delayed motor development and were referred for physical therapy treatment. The pace of sitting skill development increased gradually and

  16. Perinatal Development of the Motor Systems Involved in Postural Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Vinay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor behaviors of some species, such as the rat and the human baby, are quite immature at birth. Here we review recent data on some of the mechanisms underlying the postnatal maturation of posture in the rat, in particular the development of pathways descending from the brain stem and projecting onto the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. A short-lasting depletion in serotonin affects both posture and the excitability of motoneurons. Here we try to extrapolate to human development and suggest that the abnormalities in motor control observed in childhood—e.g, deficits in motor coordination—might have their roots in the prenatal period, in particular serotonin depletion due to exposure to several environmental and toxicological factors during pregnancy.

  17. Perinatal development of the motor systems involved in postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay, Laurent; Ben-Mabrouk, Faïza; Brocard, Frédéric; Clarac, François; Jean-Xavier, Céline; Pearlstein, Edouard; Pflieger, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    Motor behaviors of some species, such as the rat and the human baby, are quite immature at birth. Here we review recent data on some of the mechanisms underlying the postnatal maturation of posture in the rat, in particular the development of pathways descending from the brain stem and projecting onto the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. A short-lasting depletion in serotonin affects both posture and the excitability of motoneurons. Here we try to extrapolate to human development and suggest that the abnormalities in motor control observed in childhood--e.g. deficits in motor coordination--might have their roots in the prenatal period, in particular serotonin depletion due to exposure to several environmental and toxicological factors during pregnancy.

  18. Prenatal MDMA exposure delays postnatal development in the rat: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuland, Emilie; Germaux, Marie-Aure; Galineau, Laurent; Chalon, Sylvie; Belzung, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA (ecstasy) is a synthetic illicit drug which is widely consumed throughout the world. Drug abuse during pregnancy may have an impairing effect on the progeny of drug-abusing mothers. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of prenatal MDMA exposure on the progeny development, using a rat model. Pregnant animals were injected daily with MDMA (10 mg/kg) between the 13th and 20th days of gestation. Male and female pups were then tested throughout the lactation period on the appearance and improvement of physical and sensory motor parameters. Appearance of some physical features (eyes opening and incisor eruption) and neurological reflexes as well as improving performances in negative geotaxis, gait and inclined board tests were delayed in pups prenatally exposed to MDMA compared to saline-treated pups. In contrast, functions that are necessary for survival such as forelimb reflex (that enables suckling) were present in both groups. At four weeks of age, MDMA animals recovered to normal level in all studied parameters. The delay in physical and neurological reflex development could be interpreted as alterations in maturation of some neuronal circuitries induced by prenatal MDMA exposure.

  19. Older Siblings Influence Younger Siblings' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sarah E.; Nuzzo, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Evidence exists for two competing theories about the effects of having an older sibling on development. Previous research has found that having an older sibling has both advantages and disadvantages for younger siblings' development. This study examined whether and how older siblings influenced the onset of their own younger siblings' motor…

  20. The interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that cognitive and language development are dependent on the emergence of motor skills. As the literature on this issue concerning children with developmental disabilities is scarce, we examined the interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and compared them to those in children without IDD. In addition, we investigated whether these relationships differ between children with different levels of cognitive delay. Seventy-seven children with IDD (calendar age between 1;0 and 9;10 years; mean developmental age: 1;8 years) and 130 typically developing children (calendar age between 0;3 and 3;6 years; mean developmental age: 1;10 years) were tested with the Dutch Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, which assesses development across three domains using five subscales: fine motor development, gross motor development (motor), cognition (cognitive), receptive communication, and expressive communication (language). Results showed that correlations between the motor, cognitive, and language domains were strong, namely .61 to .94 in children with IDD and weak to strong, namely .24 to .56 in children without IDD. Furthermore, the correlations showed a tendency to increase with the severity of IDD. It can be concluded that both fine and gross motor development are more strongly associated with cognition, and consequently language, in children with IDD than in children without IDD. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of early interventions that boost both motor and cognitive development, and suggest that such interventions will also enhance language development.

  1. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  2. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Svetlana Yurievna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used: the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing. The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps: diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions. The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers.

  3. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Юрьевна Федорова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used:  the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing.The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps:  diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions.The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-31

  4. Motor Development of Deaf Children with and without Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheysen, Freja; Loots, Gerrit; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a cochlear implant (CI) on the motor development of deaf children. The study involved 36 mainstreamed deaf children (15 boys, 21 girls; 4- to 12-years old) without any developmental problems. Of these children, 20 had been implanted. Forty-three hearing children constituted a comparison…

  5. The Dynamic Association between Motor Skill Development and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2007-01-01

    Although significant attention has been given to promoting physical activity among children, little attention has been given to the developmental process of how children learn to move or to the changing role that motor skill development plays in children's physical activity levels as they grow. In order to successfully address the obesity…

  6. Early Speech Motor Development: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic…

  7. Individual Differences in Language Development: Relationship with Motor Skill at 21 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Katherine J.; Krawczyk, Kirsty

    2010-01-01

    Language development has long been associated with motor development, particularly manual gesture. We examined a variety of motor abilities--manual gesture including symbolic, meaningless and sequential memory, oral motor control, gross and fine motor control--in 129 children aged 21 months. Language abilities were assessed and cognitive and…

  8. Perinatal asphyxia: CNS development and deficits with delayed onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eHerrera-Marschitz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia constitutes a prototype of obstetric complications occurring when pulmonary oxygenation is delayed or interrupted. The primary insult relates to the duration of the period lacking oxygenation, leading to death if not re-established. Re-oxygenation leads to a secondary insult, related to a cascade of biochemical events required for restoring proper function. Perinatal asphyxia interferes with neonatal development, resulting in long-term deficits associated to mental and neurological diseases with delayed clinical onset, by mechanisms not yet clarified.In the experimental scenario, the effects observed long after perinatal asphyxia have been explained by over expression of sentinel proteins, such as poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1, competing for NAD+ during re-oxygenation, leading to the idea that sentinel protein inhibition constitutes a suitable therapeutic strategy. Asphyxia induces transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory factors, in tandem with PARP-1 overactivation, and pharmacologically induced PARP-1 inhibition also down-regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide has been proposed as a suitable PARP-1 inhibitor. Its effect has been studied in an experimental model of global hypoxia in rats. In that model, the insult is induced by immersing rat foetuses into a water bath for various periods of time. Following asphyxia, the pups are delivered, treated, and nursed by surrogate dams, pending further experiments. Nicotinamide rapidly distributes into the brain following systemic administration, reaching steady state concentrations sufficient to inhibit PARP-1 activity for several hours, preventing several of the long-term consequences of perinatal asphyxia, supporting the idea that it constitutes a lead for exploring compounds with similar or better pharmacological profiles.

  9. Motor skills in Brazilian children with developmental coordination disorder versus children with motor typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ana Amélia; Magalhães, Livia Castro; Rezende, Marcia Bastos

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the study were to compare the performance of children with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and motor typically developing peers on items from the Assessment of Motor Coordination and Dexterity (AMCD), to determine whether age, gender and type of school had significant impact on the scores of the AMCD items, to estimate the frequency of DCD among Brazilian children ages 7 and 8 years and to investigate whether children with DCD exhibit more symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder than children with motor typical development. A total of 793 children were screened by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire - Brazilian version (DCDQ-Brazil); 90 were identified as at risk for DCD; 91 matched controls were selected from the remaining participants. Children in both groups were evaluated with the AMCD, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-II) and Raven's coloured progressive matrices. Thirty-four children were classified as probable DCD, as defined by a combination of the DCDQ-Brazil and MABC-II scores (fifth percentile). The final frequency of DCD among children ages 7 and 8 years was 4.3%. There were significant differences between children with and without DCD on the majority of AMCD items, indicating its potential for identifying DCD in Brazilian children. The use of a motor test (MABC-II) that is not validated for the Brazilian children is a limitation of the present study. Further studies should investigate whether the AMCD is useful for identifying DCD in other age groups and in children from different regions of Brazil. The application of the AMCD may potentially contribute in improving occupational therapy practice in Brazil and in identifying children that could benefit from occupational therapy services.

  10. The development of a cryogenic optical delay line for DARWIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Kamphues, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    TNO, in cooperation with Micromega-Dynamics, SRON, Dutch Space and CSL, has designed a compact breadboard cryogenic delay line for use in future space interferometry missions. The work is performed under ESA contract in preparation for the DARWIN mission. The breadboard (BB) delay line is

  11. Do long delay conditioned stimuli develop inhibitory properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha eEscobar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In long-delay conditioning, a long conditioned stimulus (CS is paired in its final segments with an unconditioned stimulus. With sufficient training, this procedure usually results in conditioned responding being delayed until the final segment of the CS, a pattern of responding known as inhibition of delay. However, there have been no systematic investigations of the associative structure of long delay conditioning, and whether the initial segment of a long delay CS actually becomes inhibitory is debatable. In an appetitive preparation with rat subjects, the initial segment of long delay CS A passed a retardation (Experiment 1a but not a summation (Experiment 1b test for conditioned inhibition. Furthermore, retardation was observed only if long delay conditioning and retardation training occurred in the same context (Experiment 2. Thus, the initial segment of a long delay CS appears to share more characteristics with a latent inhibitor than a conditioned inhibitor. Componential theories of conditioning appear best suited to account for these results.

  12. Motor Development and the Mind: The Potential Role of Motor Abilities as a Determinant of Aspects of Perceptual Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Emily W.; Boudreau, J. Paul

    1993-01-01

    Emphasizes the role that motor development may play in determining developmental sequences in other domains, such as haptic or tactile perception and depth perception. Maintains that there is a high degree of fit between the developmental sequence in which certain perceptual sensitivities unfold and the ages at which the corresponding motor…

  13. Motor Development and the Mind: The Potential Role of Motor Abilities as a Determinant of Aspects of Perceptual Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Emily W.; Boudreau, J. Paul

    1993-01-01

    Emphasizes the role that motor development may play in determining developmental sequences in other domains, such as haptic or tactile perception and depth perception. Maintains that there is a high degree of fit between the developmental sequence in which certain perceptual sensitivities unfold and the ages at which the corresponding motor…

  14. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience.

  15. Late preterm infants’ motor development until term age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Viviane Martins; Formiga, Cibelle Kayenne Martins Roberto; de Mello, Paulo Roberto Bezerra; Leone, Cléa Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze the motor development of late preterm newborn infants (LPI) from birth to term-corrected age using the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) and to compare the obtained results with those of term infants at birth. METHODS: Prospective cohort study, 29 late preterm newborn infants were evaluated by the TIMP at birth and every two weeks until term-corrected age. The TIMP was administered to 88 term infants at birth. RESULTS: The mean TIMP score of late preterm newborn infants was 51.9±5.8 at 34–35 weeks and 62.6±5.2 at 40 weeks. There was a significant increase at 38–39 weeks in the LPI group (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the motor evaluations between term infants at birth and LPI at the equivalent age. CONCLUSION: The LPI presented a gradual progression of motor development until the term-corrected age, but differences with term infants at birth were not detected.

  16. Risk Factors and Relationship Between Intestinal Parasites and the Growth Retardation and Psychomotor Development Delays of Children in Şanlıurfa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yentur Doni, Nebiye; Yildiz Zeyrek, Fadile; Simsek, Zeynep; Gurses, Gulcan; Sahin, İbrahim

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for and relationship among parasitic infections, growth retardation, and psychomotor developmental delays in children aged 6 years and below. This case-control study was performed in Şanlıurfa in southeastern Turkey between October and December 2007. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Development Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of stool specimens. The most common parasite was Giardia intestinalis (42.53%) followed by Enterobius vermicularis (27.58%), Ascaris lumbricoides (18.39%), Hymenolepis nana (5.75%), Trichuris trichiura (3.45%), Escherichia coli (1.15%), and Blastocystis spp. (1.15%). Fifty-eight percent of all children were infected with intestinal parasites; 55.2% had only one parasite, whereas 44.8% had multiple parasites. The children infected with G. intestinalis and other intestinal parasites had significantly higher levels of growth retardation and psychomotor development delay than non-infected children. Children with parasitic infections had growth delay up to 2.9 times, general development delay up to 1.9 times, language-cognitive development delay up to 2.2 times, and fine motor development delay up to 2.9 times higher than children without any parasitic infections. However, no significant relationship among intestinal parasites, gross motor development, social-self skills, and development delay was identified. The education level of parents, poor economic situation, number of households, not washing hands, playing with soil, family history of parasitic infection were the significant risk factors for intestinal parasites. Our study indicates that the presence of either malnutrition or intestinal parasites may put a child in a high-risk group for developmental delays and growth retardation. Therefore, public health interventions can embrace nationwide deworming in children.

  17. A case of acutely developed delayed radiation myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Shintaro; Amari, Masakuni [Geriatrics Research Inst., Maebashi (Japan). Hospital; Fukuda, Toshio; Okamoto, Koichi [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-08-01

    A 66-year-old man with a history of hypertension received radiation therapy on his neck at age 61 because of laryngeal cancer (T1bN0M0). Five years after the radiation, he acutely developed dysuria, tetraparesis and dissociated sensory disturbances below bilateral Th4 level. T2 weighted MRI showed a high signal lesion affecting the central area of the spinal cord extending from C1 to C7. On the second clinical day, he developed respiratory arrest and was ventilated. The cerebrospinal fluid contained 20/mm{sup 3} (monocyte 15, neutorophil 5) white cells; protein was 52.5 mg/dl; IgG index 0.54; Q albumin was 9.6; tests for oligoclonal band and myelin basic protein were negative; a culture yielded no microorganism. He was treated with steroids and supportive measures without improvement, and died of a sudden cardiac arrest on the 8th clinical day. postmortem examination confirmed conspicuous focal spongy changes with many axonal swellings, especially in the posterior and lateral columns at cervical and Th1 levels. The pathological findings were considered to be compatible with those of delayed radiation myelopathy (DRM). In the anterior horn of the cervical cord there were lesions of diffuse racification and the proliferation of small vessels. There were no findings of hyaline vascular changes, infarction or metastasis of laryngeal cancer at the spinal cord. It is considered that hyperintensity of signals on T2-weighted may originate from racification and proliferation of small vessels in the gray matter, and these pathological changes would be intimately associated with the severe neurologic morbidity of this patient. Acute development of neurological findings and the pathological changes in the gray matter of the spinal cord are rare manifestations of DRM. (author)

  18. Dynamics of three unidirectionally coupled autonomous Duffing oscillators and application to inchworm piezoelectric motors: Effects of the coupling coefficient and delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchakui, Murielle Vanessa; Woafo, Paul

    2016-11-01

    This work deals with the dynamics of three unidirectionally coupled Duffing oscillators and that of three coupled piezoelectric actuators, considering the special case of inchworm motors. Two configurations of the network are studied: ring configuration and chain configuration. The effects of the coupling coefficient and the time delay are analyzed through different bifurcation diagrams and phase difference variation. It is shown that varying the coupling coefficient and the time delay leads to the appearance of different dynamical behaviors: steady states, periodic and quasiperiodic oscillations, chaos, and phase synchronization.

  19. Apoptosis of motor neurons in the spinal cord after ischemia reperfusion injury delayed paraplegia in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis is known to occur in the centralnervous system during development and in patho-logical settings such ischemia reperfusion(IR)inju-ry[1].Apoptosis requires an active commit ment ofthe cell to degrade its own DNA,according to aninternal programof self-destruction[2].Newproteinsynthesis is required for apoptosis,and protein syn-thesis inhibitors have been shown to reduce celldeath postischemically[3].Incontrast,necrosis is nota gene-facilitated process but results frominjuriouschanges in the environm...

  20. Drama for children with special needs (motor skill development)

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Fiona

    1991-01-01

    During placement in secondary schools, the author notice a general lack of confidence in the ability to use movement. Many of these "Clumsy Children" expressed difficulties with reading and writing and in the area of Mathematics. Was there a connection between under-developed motor skills and general academic and social behaviour? Primary 1-3 are structured around "learning by doing". After that the work changes to more cognitive based learning and more classroom structure. If the children do...

  1. Follow-up of premature children with high risk for growth and development delay: a multiprofessional assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Freitas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the activities of a multiprofessional outpatient clinic performed by neonatologist, physiatrist, physical therapist, occupational therapist, speech therapist, audiologist and psychologist, who evaluated the development of premature newborns. Methods: Twenty children born at a tertiary-care hospital (São Paulo, Brazil, between April 2006 and April 2007, with birth weight below 1250 g or less than 32 weeks of gestation, were evaluated. The multiprofessional evaluation included assessment of development using the Bayley III scale, at the corrected age of 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Results: The mean gestation age at birth was 28.8 weeks; mean birth weight was 1055 g. The mean maternal age was 35 years and the mean length of stay of neonates was 46.3 days. Fifteen percent of children presented impaired sensory motor skills, 20% had hearing abnormalities and 10% motor alterations. Bayley III showed alterations in the communication area in 10% of subjects and in the motor area in 10% of individuals. The parents were oriented to stimulate the child or a specific intervention was suggested. The major development delay was observed between 6 and 18 months of age and the development was improved at 24 months of age. Conclusions: Most children evaluated had improved growth and development at 24 corrected-age months. Further studies with a larger sample are recommended, as well as the possibility to follow this population group up till the primary school.

  2. Delays in GABAergic interneuron development and behavioral inhibition after prenatal stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lussier, Stephanie J; Stevens, Hanna E

    2016-01-01

    .... Prenatal stress delays GABAergic progenitor migration, but the significance of these early developmental disruptions for the continued development of GABAergic cells in the juvenile brain is unclear...

  3. FreedomCAR Advanced Traction Drive Motor Development Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Josh (UQM Technologies, Inc.); Lutz, Jon (UQM Technologies, Inc.)

    2006-09-01

    The overall objective of this program is to design and develop an advanced traction motor that will meet the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) 2010 goals and the traction motor technical targets. The motor specifications are given in Section 1.3. Other goals of the program include providing a cost study to ensure the motor can be developed within the cost targets needed for the automotive industry. The program has focused on using materials that are both high performance and low costs such that the performance can be met and cost targets are achieved. In addition, the motor technologies and machine design features must be compatible with high volume manufacturing and able to provide high reliability, efficiency, and ruggedness while simultaneously reducing weight and volume. Weight and volume reduction will become a major factor in reducing cost, material cost being the most significant part of manufacturing cost at high volume. Many motor technology categories have been considered in the past and present for traction drive applications, including: brushed direct current (DC), PM (PM) brushless dc (BLDC), alternating current (AC) induction, switched reluctance and synchronous reluctance machines. Of these machine technologies, PM BLDC has consistently demonstrated an advantage in terms of power density and efficiency. As rare earth magnet cost has declined, total cost may also be reduced over the other technologies. Of the many different configurations of PM BLDC machines, those which incorporate power production utilizing both magnetic torque as well as reluctance torque appear to have the most promise for traction applications. There are many different PM BLDC machine configurations which employ both of these torque producing mechanisms; however, most would fall into one of two categories--some use weaker magnets and rely more heavily on reluctance torque (reluctance-dominant PM machines), others use strong PMs and supplement with reluctance torque

  4. Post onset, oral rapamycin treatment delays development of mitochondrial encephalopathy only at supramaximal doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felici, Roberta; Buonvicino, Daniela; Muzzi, Mirko; Cavone, Leonardo; Guasti, Daniele; Lapucci, Andrea; Pratesi, Sara; De Cesaris, Francesco; Luceri, Francesca; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2017-05-01

    Mitochondrial encephalopathies are fatal, infantile neurodegenerative disorders caused by a deficit of mitochondrial functioning, for which there is urgent need to identify efficacious pharmacological treatments. Recent evidence shows that rapamycin administered both intraperitoneally or in the diet delays disease onset and enhances survival in the Ndufs4 null mouse model of mitochondrial encephalopathy. To delineate the clinical translatability of rapamycin in treatment of mitochondrial encephalopathy, we evaluated the drug's effects on disease evolution and mitochondrial parameters adopting treatment paradigms with fixed daily, oral doses starting at symptom onset in Ndufs4 knockout mice. Molecular mechanisms responsible for the pharmacodynamic effects of rapamycin were also evaluated. We found that rapamycin did not affect disease development at clinically-relevant doses (0.5 mg kg(-1)). Conversely, an oral dose previously adopted for intraperitoneal administration (8 mg kg(-1)) delayed development of neurological symptoms and increased median survival by 25%. Neurological improvement and lifespan were not further increased when the dose raised to 20 mg kg(-1). Notably, rapamycin at 8 mg kg(-1) did not affect the reduced expression of respiratory complex subunits, as well as mitochondrial number and mtDNA content. This treatment regimen however significantly ameliorated architecture of mitochondria cristae in motor cortex and cerebellum. However, reduction of mTOR activity by rapamycin was not consistently found within the brain of knockout mice. Overall, data show the ability of rapamycin to improve ultrastructure of dysfunctional mitochondria and corroborate its therapeutic potential in mitochondrial disorders. The non-clinical standard doses required, however, raise concerns about its rapid and safe clinical transferability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a linear induction motor based artificial muscle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, A; Arguello, E; Silva, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a linear induction motor based on electromagnetic interactions. The engine is capable of producing a linear movement from electricity. The design consists of stators arranged in parallel, which produce a magnetic field sufficient to displace a plunger along its axial axis. Furthermore, the winding has a shell and cap of ferromagnetic material that amplifies the magnetic field. This produces a force along the length of the motor that is similar to that of skeletal muscle. In principle, the objective is to use the engine in the development of an artificial muscle system for prosthetic applications, but it could have multiple applications, not only in the medical field, but in other industries.

  6. Developing language in a developing body: the relationship between motor development and language development*

    OpenAIRE

    Iverson, Jana M.

    2010-01-01

    During the first eighteen months of life, infants acquire and refine a whole set of new motor skills that significantly change the ways in which the body moves in and interacts with the environment. In this review article, I argue that motor acquisitions provide infants with an opportunity to practice skills relevant to language acquisition before they are needed for that purpose; and that the emergence of new motor skills changes infants’ experience with objects and people in ways that are r...

  7. Analysis of Delays in Hard Rock Mine Lateral Development: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Eshun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and isolate the major causes of delays in underground lateral development at AngloGold Ashanti (AGA, Obuasi Mine, Ghana. It uses fishbone analysis to identify and present 20 possible causes of delays in lateral development at the mine. By employing Pareto analysis, 7 major causes of delays have been isolated. They are: scoop problems, low compressed air, labour shortages, bad ground, flood, power outages and waste pass getting full. The study concludes that, should management concentrate in minimising the 7 major causes of delays, it will be solving about 80% of the problems associated with delays in underground lateral development at AGA, Obuasi mine. The study further gives specific recommendations to reduce delays in lateral development at the mine.

  8. Current insights in the development of children’s motor imagery ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffie eSpruijt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these studies to provide a more comprehensive insight in children’s motor imagery development and its age of onset. Motor imagery is a form of motor cognition and aligns with forward (or predictive models of motor control. Studying age-related differences in motor imagery ability in children therefore provides insight in underlying processes of motor development during childhood. Another motivation for studying age-related differences in motor imagery is that in order to effectively apply motor imagery training in children (with motor impairments, it is pertinent to first establish the age at which children are actually able to perform motor imagery.Overall, performance in the imagery tasks develops between 5 and 12 years of age. The age of motor imagery onset, however, remains equivocal, as some studies indicate that children of 5 to 7 years old can already enlist motor imagery in an implicit motor imagery task, whereas other studies using explicit instructions revealed that children do not use motor imagery before the age of 10. From the findings of the current study, we can conclude that motor imagery training is potentially a feasible method for paediatric rehabilitation in children from 5 years on. We suggest that younger children are most likely to benefit from motor imagery training that is presented in an implicit way. Action observation training might be a beneficial adjunct to implicit motor imagery training. From 10 years of age, more explicit forms of motor imagery training can be effectively used.

  9. Relationship between motor and cognitive development in children with developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an emerging body of evidence showing that motor and cognitive development are intertwined. However, little is known about (early) motor, cognitive, and language development in children with developmental disabilities. The aims of this study were to examine motor development in c

  10. The Development of an Experimental Sensory-Motor and Movement Skills Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpet, Russel E.

    An age-normed test battery was developed for use as a research instrument to assess strengths and weaknesses in the sensory-motor development of elementary school age children. The importance of sensory-motor functions for the child's total development and learning is noted. The experimental sensory-motor test battery consists of 12 subtests, and…

  11. Relationship between motor and cognitive development in children with developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an emerging body of evidence showing that motor and cognitive development are intertwined. However, little is known about (early) motor, cognitive, and language development in children with developmental disabilities. The aims of this study were to examine motor development in

  12. Analysis of Delays in Hard Rock Mine Lateral Development: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    P.A. Eshun; V.A. Temeng

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and isolate the major causes of delays in underground lateral development at AngloGold Ashanti (AGA), Obuasi Mine, Ghana. It uses fishbone analysis to identify and present 20 possible causes of delays in lateral development at the mine. By employing Pareto analysis, 7 major causes of delays have been isolated. They are: scoop problems, low compressed air, labour shortages, bad ground, flood, power outages and waste pass getting full. The study concludes th...

  13. CEREBELLUM: LINKS BETWEEN DEVELOPMENT, DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS AND MOTOR LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario U Manto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the links and interactions between development and motor learning has noticeable implications for the understanding and management of neurodevelopmental disorders. This is particularly relevant for the cerebellum which is critical for sensorimotor learning. The olivocerebellar pathway is a key pathway contributing to learning of motor skills. Its developmental maturation and remodelling are being unravelled. Advances in genetics have led to major improvements in our appraisal of the genes involved in cerebellar development, especially studies in mutant mice. Cerebellar neurogenesis is compartmentalized in relationship with neurotransmitter fate. The Engrailed-2 gene is a major actor of the specification of cerebellar cell types and late embryogenic morphogenesis. Math1, expressed by the rhombic lip (RL, is required for the genesis of glutamatergic neurons. Mutants deficient for the transcription factor Ptf1a display a lack of Purkinje cells and gabaergic interneurons. Rora gene contributes to the developmental signalling between granule cells and Purkinje neurons. The expression profile of SHH (Sonic hedgehog in postnatal stages determines the final size/shape of the cerebellum. Genes affecting the development impact upon the physiological properties of the cerebellar circuits. For instance, receptors are developmentally regulated and their action interferes directly with developmental processes. Another field of research which is expanding relates to very preterm neonates. They are at risk for cerebellar lesions, which may themselves impair the developmental events. Very preterm neonates often show sensori-motor deficits, highlighting another major link between impaired development and learning deficiencies. Pathways playing a critical role in cerebellar development are likely to become therapeutical targets for several neurodevelopmental disorders.

  14. Cerebellum: links between development, developmental disorders and motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario U; Jissendi, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    The study of the links and interactions between development and motor learning has noticeable implications for the understanding and management of neurodevelopmental disorders. This is particularly relevant for the cerebellum which is critical for sensorimotor learning. The olivocerebellar pathway is a key pathway contributing to learning of motor skills. Its developmental maturation and remodeling are being unraveled. Advances in genetics have led to major improvements in our appraisal of the genes involved in cerebellar development, especially studies in mutant mice. Cerebellar neurogenesis is compartmentalized in relationship with neurotransmitter fate. The Engrailed-2 gene is a major actor of the specification of cerebellar cell types and late embryogenic morphogenesis. Math1, expressed by the rhombic lip, is required for the genesis of glutamatergic neurons. Mutants deficient for the transcription factor Ptf1a display a lack of Purkinje cells and gabaergic interneurons. Rora gene contributes to the developmental signaling between granule cells and Purkinje neurons. The expression profile of sonic hedgehog in postnatal stages determines the final size/shape of the cerebellum. Genes affecting the development impact upon the physiological properties of the cerebellar circuits. For instance, receptors are developmentally regulated and their action interferes directly with developmental processes. Another field of research which is expanding relates to very preterm neonates. They are at risk for cerebellar lesions, which may themselves impair the developmental events. Very preterm neonates often show sensori-motor deficits, highlighting another major link between impaired developments and learning deficiencies. Pathways playing a critical role in cerebellar development are likely to become therapeutical targets for several neurodevelopmental disorders.

  15. Cerebellum: links between development, developmental disorders and motor learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario U.; Jissendi, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    The study of the links and interactions between development and motor learning has noticeable implications for the understanding and management of neurodevelopmental disorders. This is particularly relevant for the cerebellum which is critical for sensorimotor learning. The olivocerebellar pathway is a key pathway contributing to learning of motor skills. Its developmental maturation and remodeling are being unraveled. Advances in genetics have led to major improvements in our appraisal of the genes involved in cerebellar development, especially studies in mutant mice. Cerebellar neurogenesis is compartmentalized in relationship with neurotransmitter fate. The Engrailed-2 gene is a major actor of the specification of cerebellar cell types and late embryogenic morphogenesis. Math1, expressed by the rhombic lip, is required for the genesis of glutamatergic neurons. Mutants deficient for the transcription factor Ptf1a display a lack of Purkinje cells and gabaergic interneurons. Rora gene contributes to the developmental signaling between granule cells and Purkinje neurons. The expression profile of sonic hedgehog in postnatal stages determines the final size/shape of the cerebellum. Genes affecting the development impact upon the physiological properties of the cerebellar circuits. For instance, receptors are developmentally regulated and their action interferes directly with developmental processes. Another field of research which is expanding relates to very preterm neonates. They are at risk for cerebellar lesions, which may themselves impair the developmental events. Very preterm neonates often show sensori-motor deficits, highlighting another major link between impaired developments and learning deficiencies. Pathways playing a critical role in cerebellar development are likely to become therapeutical targets for several neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:22291620

  16. Developing Language in a Developing Body: The Relationship between Motor Development and Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Jana M.

    2010-01-01

    During the first eighteen months of life, infants acquire and refine a whole set of new motor skills that significantly change the ways in which the body moves in and interacts with the environment. In this review article, I argue that motor acquisitions provide infants with an opportunity to practice skills relevant to language acquisition before…

  17. Timing of motor milestones achievement and development of overweight in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Due, P;

    2014-01-01

    on motor milestones and childhood overweight is limited and results are inconsistent. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: Weight status in early life and timing of achievement of gross motor milestones (the ability to sit and walk) are largely independent of each other. Timing of achievement of motor milestones in early...... life does not predict overweight or increased BMI later in childhood. BACKGROUND: Overweight may hinder achievement of gross motor milestones and delayed achievement of milestones may increase the risk of later overweight for reasons involving physical activity and the building of lean body mass....... OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased birth weight and body mass index (BMI) at 5 months is associated with the achievement of the ability to sit up and walk and whether delayed achievement of these milestones is associated with overweight at age 7 years. METHODS: We used data from the Danish National...

  18. Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    ARL-TN-0779 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and...Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development by Neal Tesny Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  19. Motor Development in Children at Risk of Autism: A Follow-Up Study of Infant Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Hayley C.; Bedford, Rachael; Charman, Tony; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H.; Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, evidence of poor or atypical motor skills in autism spectrum disorder has led some to argue that motor impairment is a core feature of the condition. The current study uses a longitudinal prospective design to assess the development of motor skills of 20 children at increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorder, who were…

  20. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  1. Development of a Portable Motor Learning Laboratory (PoMLab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Takiyama

    Full Text Available Most motor learning experiments have been conducted in a laboratory setting. In this type of setting, a huge and expensive manipulandum is frequently used, requiring a large budget and wide open space. Subjects also need to travel to the laboratory, which is a burden for them. This burden is particularly severe for patients with neurological disorders. Here, we describe the development of a novel application based on Unity3D and smart devices, e.g., smartphones or tablet devices, that can be used to conduct motor learning experiments at any time and in any place, without requiring a large budget and wide open space and without the burden of travel on subjects. We refer to our application as POrtable Motor learning LABoratory, or PoMLab. PoMLab is a multiplatform application that is available and sharable for free. We investigated whether PoMLab could be an alternative to the laboratory setting using a visuomotor rotation paradigm that causes sensory prediction error, enabling the investigation of how subjects minimize the error. In the first experiment, subjects could adapt to a constant visuomotor rotation that was abruptly applied at a specific trial. The learning curve for the first experiment could be modeled well using a state space model, a mathematical model that describes the motor leaning process. In the second experiment, subjects could adapt to a visuomotor rotation that gradually increased each trial. The subjects adapted to the gradually increasing visuomotor rotation without being aware of the visuomotor rotation. These experimental results have been reported for conventional experiments conducted in a laboratory setting, and our PoMLab application could reproduce these results. PoMLab can thus be considered an alternative to the laboratory setting. We also conducted follow-up experiments in university physical education classes. A state space model that was fit to the data obtained in the laboratory experiments could predict the

  2. Development of a Portable Motor Learning Laboratory (PoMLab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Ken; Shinya, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Most motor learning experiments have been conducted in a laboratory setting. In this type of setting, a huge and expensive manipulandum is frequently used, requiring a large budget and wide open space. Subjects also need to travel to the laboratory, which is a burden for them. This burden is particularly severe for patients with neurological disorders. Here, we describe the development of a novel application based on Unity3D and smart devices, e.g., smartphones or tablet devices, that can be used to conduct motor learning experiments at any time and in any place, without requiring a large budget and wide open space and without the burden of travel on subjects. We refer to our application as POrtable Motor learning LABoratory, or PoMLab. PoMLab is a multiplatform application that is available and sharable for free. We investigated whether PoMLab could be an alternative to the laboratory setting using a visuomotor rotation paradigm that causes sensory prediction error, enabling the investigation of how subjects minimize the error. In the first experiment, subjects could adapt to a constant visuomotor rotation that was abruptly applied at a specific trial. The learning curve for the first experiment could be modeled well using a state space model, a mathematical model that describes the motor leaning process. In the second experiment, subjects could adapt to a visuomotor rotation that gradually increased each trial. The subjects adapted to the gradually increasing visuomotor rotation without being aware of the visuomotor rotation. These experimental results have been reported for conventional experiments conducted in a laboratory setting, and our PoMLab application could reproduce these results. PoMLab can thus be considered an alternative to the laboratory setting. We also conducted follow-up experiments in university physical education classes. A state space model that was fit to the data obtained in the laboratory experiments could predict the learning curves

  3. Does Motor Development in Infancy Predict Spinal Pain in Later Childhood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Steven J; Williams, Christopher M; Hestbaek, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Longitudinal cohort study. Background Spinal pain is responsible for a huge personal and societal burden but the aetiology remains unclear. Deficits in motor control have been implicated with spinal pain in adults, and delayed motor development is associated with a range of health pr...... a child first sits or walks without support does not influence the likelihood that they will experience spinal pain in later childhood. Level of Evidence Etiology 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 15 Sep 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7484....... problems and risks in children. Objectives To assess whether there is an independent relationship between the age at which infants first sit and walk without support, and spinal pain at age 11 years. Methods Data from the Danish National Birth Cohort were analysed. Predictors were age at which the child...... first sat, and first walked without support. Predictors were measured by parent-report when the children were aged 6, and 18 months, along with a comprehensive list of covariates, including; child sex, birthweight and cognitive development, socioeconomic indicators, and parental health variables...

  4. Development of a High Power Programmable Precise Time-Delay Trigger/Ignition System for MFCG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bi; HE Yuan-hang; ZHANG Qing-ming; MA Yue-fen

    2008-01-01

    High-power precise delay trigger/ignition system is a programmable pulse generator developed for experiment controlling in explosively driven magnetic flux compression generators.Precise delay pulses are generated by the digital circuit,after being magnified and sharpened through multistage isolated amplifiers and rising edge sharpening device,high-voltage steep delay pulses with precision less than us level are obtained.This system has been used in our compact magnetic flux compression generator experiments in place of the traditional primaeord delay device.

  5. Improved motor development and good long-term glycaemic control with sulfonylurea treatment in a patient with the syndrome of intermediate developmental delay, early-onset generalised epilepsy and neonatal diabetes associated with the V59M mutation in the KCNJ11 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, A. S.; Nuboer, R.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Hattersley, A. T.; Bruining, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Activating mutations in the KCNJ11 gene encoding the Kir6.2 subunit of the K-ATP channels in pancreatic beta cells are a common cause of neonatal diabetes. One-third of patients also have developmental delay, which probably results from mutated K-ATP channels in muscle, nerve and bra

  6. Impact of a Community-Based Programme for Motor Development on Gross Motor Skills and Cognitive Function in Preschool Children from Disadvantaged Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…

  7. Development of motor coordination and cerebellar structure in male and female rat neonates exposed to hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Baxter, M. G.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that the developing rat cerebellum is affected by exposure to hypergravity. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that the changes in cerebellar structure in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates may affect their motor coordination. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravitational loading. To test this hypothesis, we compared motor behavior, cerebellar structure, and protein expression in rat neonates exposed to 1.5 1.75G on a 24-ft centrifuge daily for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10, through birth on G22/G23 and through postnatal day (P) 21. Exposure to hypergravity impacted the neurodevelopmental process as indicated by: (1) impaired righting response on P3, more than doubling the righting time at 1.75G, and (2) delayed onset of the startle response by one day, from P9 in controls to P10 in hypergravity-exposed pups. Hypergravity exposure resulted in impaired motor functions as evidenced by performance on a rotarod on P21; the duration of the stay on the rotarod recorded for 1.75G pups of both sexes was one tenth that of the stationary control (SC) pups. These changes in motor behavior were associated with cerebellar changes: (1) cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased by 7.5% in 1.5G-exposed male pups, 27.5% in 1.75G-exposed male pups, 17.5% in 1.5G-exposed female pups, and 22.5% in 1.75G female pups and (2) changes in the expression of glial and neuronal proteins. The results of this study suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development as evidenced by decreased cerebellar mass and altered cerebellar protein expression; cerebellar changes observed in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates are associated with impaired motor behavior. Furthermore, the response to hypergravity appears to be different in male and female neonates. If one accepts that the hypergravity paradigm is a useful animal model with which to predict those biological processes

  8. Development and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Motor Competence Questionnaire (AMCQ) for Adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timler, Amanda; McIntyre, Fleur; Cantell, Marja; Crawford, Susan; Hands, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are no valid and reliable self-report measures designed to identify levelof motor competence and suspected motor difficulties among 12–18 year old adolescents.Aim: This paper reports the development and evaluation of a self-report questionnaire(Adolescent Motor Competence

  9. The relation between age of attainment of motor milestones and future cognitive and motor development in Bangladeshi children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadani, Jena Derakhshani; Tofail, Fahmida; Cole, Tim; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for easily administered, low-cost measures to assess child development in large field studies. Many researchers evaluate the age of attainment of motor milestones, but there is little information on their validity. A large longitudinal study (MINIMat) was conducted in a poor rural area of Bangladesh and we assessed the age of attainment of motor milestones in a subsample of over 2000 children. We examined their association with scores on the Bayley psychomotor development index (PDI) and mental development index (MDI) at 18 months and with scores on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children and with intelligence quotient (IQ) on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence at 64 months. A field worker visited the children's homes monthly from 3 to 12 months of age and then at 15 months and examined the children. Mothers recorded the date of attainment of the milestones. Age of attainment of walking and standing alone was moderately correlated with the PDI and had significant but low associations with later motor development. They were as good as the PDI in predicting later motor development and could be used in field studies for that purpose. Milestone age of attainment had significant but low correlations with MDI and later IQ. Height for age at 15 months was related to milestones and later IQ and motor development and accounted for some of the association between milestones and IQ. Milestone age of attainment may not be sensitive enough to be used as an indicator of later IQ.

  10. Eccentric exercise and delayed onset muscle soreness of the quadriceps induce adjustments in agonist-antagonist activity, which are dependent on the motor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Chã, C; Hassanlouei, H; Farina, D; Falla, D

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of eccentric exercise and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) of the quadriceps on agonist-antagonist activity during a range of motor tasks. Ten healthy volunteers (age, mean ± SD, 24.9 ± 3.2 years) performed maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) and explosive isometric contractions of the knee extensors followed by isometric contractions at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30% MVC at baseline, immediately after and 24 h after eccentric exercise of the quadriceps. During each task, force of the knee extensors and surface EMG of the vasti and hamstrings muscles were recorded concurrently. Rate of force development (RFD) was computed from the explosive isometric contraction, and the coefficient of variation of the force (CoV) signal was estimated from the submaximal contractions. Twenty-four hours after exercise, the subjects rated their perceived pain intensity as 4.1 ± 1.2 (score out of 10). The maximum RFD and MVC of the knee extensors was reduced immediately post- and 24 h after eccentric exercise compared to baseline (average across both time points: 19.1 ± 17.1% and 11.9 ± 9.8% lower, respectively, P eccentric exercise (up to 66% higher than baseline, P exercise during the presence of DOMS (P exercise and was accompanied by increased antagonist EMG for the explosive contraction only. On the contrary, reduced force steadiness was accompanied by a general increase in EMG amplitude of the vasti muscles and was accompanied by increased antagonist activity, but only at higher force levels (>15% MVC). This study shows that eccentric exercise and subsequent DOMS of the quadriceps reduce the maximal force, rate of force development and force steadiness of the knee extensors, and is accompanied by different adjustments of agonist and antagonist muscle activities.

  11. Desmame precoce: implicações para o desenvolvimento motor-oral Early weaning: implications to oral motor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristina Brisque Neiva

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: revisar as estreitas relações entre o desmame precoce e seus reflexos no desenvolvimento motor-oral, enfocando as conseqüências na oclusão, respiração e aspectos motores orais da criança. Fonte de dados: foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica relacionada às áreas de pediatria, odontologia e fonoaudiologia, através do Medline, entre o ano de 1960 e o ano 2001. Síntese dos dados: a partir da literatura levantada, pode-se observar que o desmame precoce pode levar à ruptura do desenvolvimento motor-oral adequado, podendo prejudicar as funções de mastigação, deglutição, respiração e articulação dos sons da fala, ocasionar má-oclusão, respiração oral e alteração motora oral. Conclusões: pode-se concluir que além dos inúmeros benefícios do aleitamento materno, este contribui para o desenvolvimento motor-oral adequado e previne alterações fonoaudiológicas, no que se refere ao sistema motor-oral.Objective: this article aims at reviewing the relationship between early weaning and its consequences to oral motor development, focusing on the consequences to occlusion, breathing and children's oral motor aspects. Sources: a literature review based on Medline database from the early 60's up to 2001 was performed taking into consideration the following topics: pediatrics, dentistry and speech language pathology. Summary of the findings: based on this review of literature, we could verified that early weaning may lead to a proper oral motor development rupture, which may cause negative consequences to swallowing, breathing and speaking activities as well as malocclusion, oral breathing and oral motor disorders. Conclusions: in addition to several benefits of breastfeeding, it contributes to a proper oral motor development and also avoids speech-language disorders, regarding oral motor system.

  12. Focusing on dissociated motor development in Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami Maria Avanise Yumi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissociated motor development (DMD is considered when the baby starts independent walking late, with normality of the other fields of development. There is evidence that babies with DMD present an atypical crawling pattern and hypotonia. To investigate the frequency and characteristics of DMD, neurological examination was performed monthly in 177 healthy full-term babies from 6 months age, in urban and rural zone samples in Brazil. Among 20 children with atypical crawling, none presented hypotonia neither did they start independent walking late. The means of the ages at the begining of atypical crawling and independent walking acquisitions, 7.40mo (SD 1.4 and 12.76mo (SD 2.5 respectively, did not differ from the group with crossed crawling pattern. Thus, in this sample of Brazilian healthy children we did not find cases with DMD.

  13. Wheel running from a juvenile age delays onset of specific motor deficits but does not alter protein aggregate density in a mouse model of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spires Tara L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting the cerebral cortex and striatum. Transgenic mice (R6/1 line, expressing a CAG repeat encoding an expanded polyglutamine tract in the N-terminus of the huntingtin protein, closely model HD. We have previously shown that environmental enrichment of these HD mice delays the onset of motor deficits. Furthermore, wheel running initiated in adulthood ameliorates the rear-paw clasping motor sign, but not an accelerating rotarod deficit. Results We have now examined the effects of enhanced physical activity via wheel running, commenced at a juvenile age (4 weeks, with respect to the onset of various behavioral deficits and their neuropathological correlates in R6/1 HD mice. HD mice housed post-weaning with running wheels only, to enhance voluntary physical exercise, have delayed onset of a motor co-ordination deficit on the static horizontal rod, as well as rear-paw clasping, although the accelerating rotarod deficit remains unaffected. Both wheel running and environmental enrichment rescued HD-induced abnormal habituation of locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in the open field. We have found that neither environment enrichment nor wheel running ameliorates the shrinkage of the striatum and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in HD mice, nor the overall decrease in brain weight, measured at 9 months of age. At this age, the density of ubiquitinated protein aggregates in the striatum and ACC is also not significantly ameliorated by environmental enrichment or wheel running. Conclusion These results indicate that enhanced voluntary physical activity, commenced at an early presymptomatic stage, contributes to the positive effects of environmental enrichment. However, sensory and cognitive stimulation, as well as motor stimulation not associated with running, may constitute major components of the therapeutic benefits associated with enrichment

  14. Evidence for Inhibitory Effects of Flupirtine, a Centrally Acting Analgesic, on Delayed Rectifier K+ Currents in Motor Neuron-Like Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-Nan Wu; Ming-Chun Hsu; Yu-Kai Liao; Fang-Tzu Wu; Yuh-Jyh Jong; Yi-Ching Lo

    2012-01-01

    Flupirtine (Flu), a triaminopyridine derivative, is a centrally acting, non-opiate analgesic agent. In this study, effects of Flu on K+ currents were explored in two types of motor neuron-like cells. Cell exposure to Flu decreased the amplitude of delayed rectifier K+ current (I K(DR)) with a concomitant raise in current inactivation in NSC-34 neuronal cells. The dissociation constant for Flu-mediated increase of I K(DR) inactivation rate was about 9.8  μ M. Neither linopirdine (10  μ M), NMD...

  15. Development of a Non-Motor Fluctuation Assessment Instrument for Parkinson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galit Kleiner-Fisman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Parkinson disease are increasingly recognized to suffer from non-motor symptoms in addition to motor symptoms. Many non-motor symptoms fluctuate in parallel with motor symptoms and in relationship to plasma levodopa levels. Though these symptoms are troublesome and result in reduced quality of life to patients and their caregivers, there has not been an objective method of recognizing and quantifying non-motor fluctuations (NMFs. This study sought to develop a patient-based instrument that would accurately capture the experience of patients with NMFs. Patient-based nominal group technique sessions, focus groups, and expert opinion were utilized in developing this questionnaire.

  16. Motor fuel taxation, energy conservation, and economic development: A regional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Richard W. [Department of Economics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824-3593 (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Combustion of motor fuels has a variety of environmental impacts on local, regional and global scales. Taxing motor fuels more heavily would mitigate those environmental impacts. However, many governments are reluctant to increase motor fuel taxes because they fear that the tax incidence will be regressive and that economic development will be impeded. Using data for the New England region of the United States, this paper argues that an oil-importing region can conserve energy, avoid regressive impacts and encourage economic development by taxing motor fuels more heavily and rebating the incremental revenues to owners of motor vehicles. (author)

  17. CNS-derived glia ensheath peripheral nerves and mediate motor root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucenas, Sarah; Takada, Norio; Park, Hae-Chul; Woodruff, Elvin; Broadie, Kendal; Appel, Bruce

    2008-02-01

    Motor function requires that motor axons extend from the spinal cord at regular intervals and that they are myelinated by Schwann cells. Little attention has been given to another cellular structure, the perineurium, which ensheaths the motor nerve, forming a flexible, protective barrier. Consequently, the origin of perineurial cells and their roles in motor nerve formation are poorly understood. Using time-lapse imaging in zebrafish, we show that perineurial cells are born in the CNS, arising as ventral spinal-cord glia before migrating into the periphery. In embryos lacking perineurial glia, motor neurons inappropriately migrated outside of the spinal cord and had aberrant axonal projections, indicating that perineurial glia carry out barrier and guidance functions at motor axon exit points. Additionally, reciprocal signaling between perineurial glia and Schwann cells was necessary for motor nerve ensheathment by both cell types. These insights reveal a new class of CNS-born glia that critically contributes to motor nerve development.

  18. Malnutrition and Its Determinants Are Associated with Suboptimal Cognitive, Communication, and Motor Development in Tanzanian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudfeld, Christopher R; McCoy, Dana Charles; Fink, Günther; Muhihi, Alfa; Bellinger, David C; Masanja, Honorati; Smith, Emily R; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2015-12-01

    A large volume of literature has shown negative associations between stunting and child development; however, there is limited evidence for associations with milder forms of linear growth faltering and determinants of malnutrition in developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the association between anthropometric growth indicators across their distribution and determinants of malnutrition with development of Tanzanian children. We used the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III to assess a cohort of 1036 Tanzanian children between 18 and 36 mo of age who were previously enrolled in a neonatal vitamin A trial. Linear regression models were used to assess standardized mean differences in child development for anthropometry z scores, along with pregnancy, delivery, and early childhood factors. Height-for-age z score (HAZ) was linearly associated with cognitive, communication, and motor development z scores across the observed range in this population (all P values for linear relation malnutrition was associated with increasing developmental deficits in Tanzanian children, whereas only wasted children exhibited developmental delays during acute malnutrition. Interventions to reduce SGA, improve sanitation, and increase maternal stature may have positive effects on child development. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12610000636055. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Motor functioning, exploration, visuospatial cognition and language development in preschool children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellendoorn, Annika; Wijnroks, Lex; van Daalen, Emma; Dietz, Claudine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Leseman, Paul

    2015-04-01

    In order to understand typical and atypical developmental trajectories it is important to assess how strengths or weaknesses in one domain may be affecting performance in other domains. This study examined longitudinal relations between early fine motor functioning, visuospatial cognition, exploration, and language development in preschool children with ASD and children with other developmental delays/disorders. The ASD group included 63 children at T1 (Mage = 27.10 months, SD = 8.71) and 46 children at T2 (Mage = 45.85 months, SD = 7.16). The DD group consisted of 269 children at T1 (Mage = 17.99 months, SD = 5.59), and 121 children at T2 (Mag e= 43.51 months, SD = 3.81). A subgroup nested within the total sample was randomly selected and studied in-depth on exploratory behavior. This group consisted of 50 children, 21 children with ASD (Mage = 27.57, SD = 7.09) and 29 children with DD (Mage = 24.03 months, SD = 6.42). Fine motor functioning predicted language in both groups. Fine motor functioning was related to visuospatial cognition in both groups and related to object exploration, spatial exploration, and social orientation during exploration only in the ASD group. Visuospatial cognition and all exploration measures were related to both receptive and expressive language in both groups. The findings are in line with the embodied cognition theory, which suggests that cognition emerges from and is grounded in the bodily interactions of an agent with the environment. This study emphasizes the need for researchers and clinicians to consider cognition as emergent from multiple interacting systems.

  20. Growth hormone combined with child-specific motor training improves motor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, L.; Pelzer, B.J.; Otten, B.J.; Siemensma, E.P.C.; Velden, J.A.M. van der; Festen, D.A.M.; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.S.; Sanden, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    Although severe motor problems in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are striking, motor development has never been studied longitudinally and the results of growth hormone (GH) treatment on motor development are contradictory. The authors studied whether GH treatment can enhance the effect of

  1. Growth hormone combined with child-specific motor training improves motor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reus, Linda; Pelzer, Ben J; Otten, Barto J; Siemensma, Elbrich P C; van Alfen-van der Velden, Janielle A A E M; Festen, Dederieke A M; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2013-10-01

    Although severe motor problems in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are striking, motor development has never been studied longitudinally and the results of growth hormone (GH) treatment on motor development are contradictory. The authors studied whether GH treatment can enhance the effect of physical training on motor development in infants with PWS. Twenty-two infants were followed for two years during a randomized controlled trial. The treatment and control groups began GH after baseline or following a control period, respectively. Both groups followed a child-specific physical training program. Motor performance was measured every three months. Multi-level regression analysis revealed that motor development differed significantly between infants (pchild-specific physical training on both motor developmental rate and motor developmental potential. Moreover, this effect was more pronounced when GH treatment was initiated at a younger age. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early Motor Stimulation and Personal Development. A Study of Four- to Six-Year-Old German Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Liselott

    1982-01-01

    A study of 165 West German preschool children participating in a motor program which included swimming as an important activity showed that early motor stimulation affected the children's motor, social, and individual development. (CJ)

  3. Propellant development for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, L. C.; Stanley, C. B.; Ricks, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of a propellant developed for the NASA Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) are described in terms of its composition, performance, and compliance to NASA specifications. The class 1.3 HTPB/AP/A1 propellant employs an ester plasticizer and the content of ballistic solids is set at 88 percent. Ammonia evolution is prevented by the utilization of a neutral bonding agent which allows continuous mixing. The propellant also comprises a bimodal AP blend with one ground fraction, ground AP of at least 20 microns, and ferric oxide to control the burning rate. The propellant's characteristics are discussed in terms of tradeoffs in AP particle size and the types of Al powder, bonding agent, and HTPB polymer. The size and shape of the ballistic solids affect the processability, ballistic properties, and structural properties of the propellant. The revised baseline composition is based on maximizing the robustness of in-process viscosity, structural integrity, and burning-rate tailoring range.

  4. Development of an underactuated prosthetic hand with the step motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Dawei; Jin Minghe; Jiang Li; Shi Shicai; Liu Hong

    2006-01-01

    We present the development of a novel prosthetic hand based on the underactuated mechanism. The aim is focused on increasing its dexterity while keeping the same dimension and weight of a traditional prosthetic device. The hybrid step motor is used as the actuator, which enables the finger to keep enough high contact torque on the grasped object with less energy consumption provided by the holding torque. The grasping force of the finger is estimated from the base joint torque, and the adoption of impedance control has provided compliance in the grasping. Also a parallel observer is used to switch over between the impedance control and the torque holding mode. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the design and control strategy.

  5. Leaf development and photosynthetic properties of three tropical tree species with delayed greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Z.Q.; Slot, M.; Fan, Z.X.

    2005-01-01

    Leaf developmental patterns were characterized for three tropical tree species with delayed greening. Changes in the pigment contents, photosynthetic capacity, stomata development, photosystem 2 efficiency, rate of energy dissipation, and the activity of partial protective enzymes were followed in d

  6. Program to develop improved downhole drilling motors. Semi-annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, W.C.

    1976-11-01

    Research progress is reported in two main sections: downhole drilling motor design and design of downhole motor seal, bearing, and test lubrication systems. Information on downhole drilling motor design is presented under the following subsection headings: Turbodrill development; positive displacement motor development; theory of Turbodrills; theory of positive displacement motors; basic motor components; forces on thrust bearings; thrust bearing design; radial bearing design; rotary seal design; sealed lubrication system; lubricants; and project status. The appendix contains information on high temperature lubricants. Information on the design of downhole motor seal, bearing, and test lubrication systems is presented under the following subsection headings: seal, bearing, and lubrication test design criteria; basic test conditions; independent and dependent variable parameters; alternative concepts for seal test apparatus; design of the seal test system; and bearing test system description. A schedule for remaining tasks is included. (JGB)

  7. Development of kinesthetic-motor and auditory-motor representations in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagerer, Florian A; Clark, Jane E

    2015-07-01

    In two experiments using a center-out task, we investigated kinesthetic-motor and auditory-motor integrations in 5- to 12-year-old children and young adults. In experiment 1, participants moved a pen on a digitizing tablet from a starting position to one of three targets (visuo-motor condition), and then to one of four targets without visual feedback of the movement. In both conditions, we found that with increasing age, the children moved faster and straighter, and became less variable in their feedforward control. Higher control demands for movements toward the contralateral side were reflected in longer movement times and decreased spatial accuracy across all age groups. When feedforward control relies predominantly on kinesthesia, 7- to 10-year-old children were more variable, indicating difficulties in switching between feedforward and feedback control efficiently during that age. An inverse age progression was found for directional endpoint error; larger errors increasing with age likely reflect stronger functional lateralization for the dominant hand. In experiment 2, the same visuo-motor condition was followed by an auditory-motor condition in which participants had to move to acoustic targets (either white band or one-third octave noise). Since in the latter directional cues come exclusively from transcallosally mediated interaural time differences, we hypothesized that auditory-motor representations would show age effects. The results did not show a clear age effect, suggesting that corpus callosum functionality is sufficient in children to allow them to form accurate auditory-motor maps already at a young age.

  8. Dynamic sensory-motor oscillation and cerebral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Giampaolo

    2010-11-01

    Drawing from Freud's Project, the author proposes a model of cerebral development whose sensory-motor structure is defined by a frontal-occipital oscillatory dynamic with a twofold function: the oscillation explains the formation and maintenance of mother-infant attunement in cerebral growth, while, at the same time, also explaining the functioning of the projective-introjective dynamic at the basis of psychoanalytic theory. The oscillatory dynamic, according to this perspective, operates as a "bridge" between two seminal theoretical models of developments--the psychoanalytic and the infant research model--which, in turn, leads to the formulation of some neurological hypotheses on how oscillation regulates the elaboration of maternal interaction in the infant's brain, and how the mother may act to modify it. The paper discusses how the oscillatory dynamic offers an innovative framework for the reconceptualization of the development of mentalization, the function of mirror neurons, and, most interestingly, of the development of language, explaining the non-verbal properties of ordinary linguistic communication and the function of oscillation in the regulation of information exchange processing.

  9. Repetitive motor behavior: further characterization of development and temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlmann, Amber M; Bliznyuk, Nikolay; Duerr, Isaac; Lewis, Mark H

    2015-03-01

    Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism spectrum disorders, common in related neurodevelopmental disorders, and normative in typical development. In order to identify factors that mediate repetitive behavior development, it is necessary to characterize the expression of these behaviors from an early age. Extending previous findings, we characterized further the ontogeny of stereotyped motor behavior both in terms of frequency and temporal organization in deer mice. A three group trajectory model provided a good fit to the frequencies of stereotyped behavior across eight developmental time points. Group based trajectory analysis using a measure of temporal organization of stereotyped behavior also resulted in a three group solution. Additionally, as the frequency of stereotyped behavior increased with age, the temporal distribution of stereotyped responses became increasingly regular or organized indicating a strong association between these measures. Classification tree and principal components analysis showed that accurate classification of trajectory group could be done with fewer observations. This ability to identify trajectory group membership earlier in development allows for examination of a wide range of variables, both experiential and biological, to determine their impact on altering the expected trajectory of repetitive behavior across development. Such studies would have important implications for treatment efforts in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  10. Attention and Word Learning in Autistic, Language Delayed and Typically Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eTenenbaum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has demonstrated that patterns of social attention hold predictive value for language development in typically developing infants. The goal of this research was to explore how patterns of attention in autistic, language delayed, and typically developing children relate to early word learning and language abilities. We tracked patterns of eye movements to faces and objects while children watched videos of a woman teaching them a series of new words. Subsequent test trials measured participants’ recognition of these novel word-object pairings. Results indicated that greater attention to the speaker’s mouth was related to higher scores on standardized measures of language development for autistic and typically developing children (but not for language delayed children. This effect was mediated by age for typically developing, but not autistic children. When effects of age were controlled for, attention to the mouth among language delayed participants was negatively correlated with standardized measures of language learning. Attention to the speaker’s mouth and eyes while she was teaching the new words was also predictive of faster recognition of the newly learned words among autistic children. These results suggest that language delays among children with autism may be driven in part by aberrant social attention, and that the mechanisms underlying these delays may differ from those in language delayed participants without autism.

  11. Attention and word learning in autistic, language delayed and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Elena J; Amso, Dima; Abar, Beau; Sheinkopf, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that patterns of social attention hold predictive value for language development in typically developing infants. The goal of this research was to explore how patterns of attention in autistic, language delayed, and typically developing children relate to early word learning and language abilities. We tracked patterns of eye movements to faces and objects while children watched videos of a woman teaching them a series of new words. Subsequent test trials measured participants' recognition of these novel word-object pairings. Results indicated that greater attention to the speaker's mouth was related to higher scores on standardized measures of language development for autistic and typically developing children (but not for language delayed children). This effect was mediated by age for typically developing, but not autistic children. When effects of age were controlled for, attention to the mouth among language delayed participants was negatively correlated with standardized measures of language learning. Attention to the speaker's mouth and eyes while she was teaching the new words was also predictive of faster recognition of those words among autistic children. These results suggest that language delays among children with autism may be driven in part by aberrant social attention, and that the mechanisms underlying these delays may differ from those in language delayed participants without autism.

  12. Piezoelectric motor development at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pressly, R.B.; Mentesana, C.P.

    1994-11-01

    The Kansas City Division of AlliedSignal Inc. has been investigating the fabrication and use of piezoelectric motors in mechanisms for United States Department of Energy (DOE) weapons applications for about four years. These motors exhibit advantages over solenoids and other electromagnetic actuators. Prototype processes have been developed for complete fabrication of motors from stock materials, including abrasive machining of piezoelectric ceramics and more traditional machining of other motor components, electrode plating and sputtering, electric poling, cleaning, bonding and assembly. Drive circuits have been fabricated and motor controls are being developed. Laboratory facilities have been established for electrical/mechanical testing and evaluation of piezo materials and completed motors. Recent project efforts have focused on the potential of piezoelectric devices for commercial and industrial use. A broad range of various motor types and application areas has been identified, primarily in Japan. The Japanese have been developing piezo motors for many years and have more recently begun commercialization. Piezoelectric motor and actuator technology is emerging in the United States and quickly gaining in commercial interest. The Kansas City Division is continuing development of piezoelectric motors and actuators for defense applications while supporting and participating in the commercialization of piezoelectric devices with private industry through various technology transfer and cooperative development initiatives.

  13. Functional recovery of regenerating motor axons is delayed in mice heterozygously deficient for the myelin protein P(0) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Mette Romer; Alvarez, Susana; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    threshold tracking. To evaluate regeneration we monitored the recovery of motor function after crush, and then compared the fiber distribution by histology. The overall motor performance was investigated using Rotor-Rod. P0+/- had reduced compound motor action potential amplitudes and thinner myelinated...... axons with only a borderline impairment in conduction and Rotor-Rod. Plantar muscle reinnervation occurred within 21 days in all mice. Shortly after reinnervation the conduction of P0+/- regenerated axons was markedly slower than WT, however, this difference decayed with time. Nevertheless, after 1...... month, regenerated P0+/- axons had longer strength-duration time constant, larger threshold changes during hyperpolarizing electrotonus and longer relative refractory period. Their performance at Rotor-Rod remained also markedly impaired. In contrast, the number and diameter distribution of regenerating...

  14. Edaravone, a Free Radical Scavenger, Delayed Symptomatic and Pathological Progression of Motor Neuron Disease in the Wobbler Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ikeda

    Full Text Available Edaravone, a free radical scavenger is used widely in Japanese patients with acute cerebral infarction. This antioxidant could have therapeutic potentials for other neurological diseases. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects the upper and the lower motor neuron, leading to death within 3-5 years after onset. A phase III clinical trial of edaravone suggested no significant effects in ALS patients. However, recent 2nd double-blind trial has demonstrated therapeutic benefits of edaravone in definite patients diagnosed by revised El Escorial diagnostic criteria of ALS. Two previous studies showed that edaravone attenuated motor symptoms or motor neuron degeneration in mutant superoxide dismutase 1-transgenic mice or rats, animal models of familial ALS. Herein we examined whether this radical scavenger can retard progression of motor dysfunction and neuropathological changes in wobbler mice, sporadic ALS-like model. After diagnosis of the disease onset at the postnatal age of 3-4 weeks, wobbler mice received edaravone (1 or 10 mg/kg, n = 10/group or vehicle (n = 10, daily for 4 weeks by intraperitoneal administration. Motor symptoms and neuropathological changes were compared among three groups. Higher dose (10 mg/kg of edaravone treatment significantly attenuated muscle weakness and contracture in the forelimbs, and suppressed denervation atrophy in the biceps muscle and degeneration in the cervical motor neurons compared to vehicle. Previous and the present studies indicated neuroprotective effects of edaravone in three rodent ALS-like models. This drug seems to be worth performing the clinical trial in ALS patients in the United States of American and Europe, in addition to Japan.

  15. Current insights in the development of children's motor imagery ability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S.; Kamp, J. van der; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these

  16. Current insights in the development of children's motor imagery ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S.; Kamp, J. van der; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these

  17. Current insights in the development of children's motor imagery ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S.; Kamp, J. van der; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these stu

  18. Current insights in the development of children's motor imagery ability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S.; Kamp, J. van der; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these stu

  19. Interaction between parental psychosis and early motor development and the risk of schizophrenia in a general population birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinen, E.; Marttila, A.; Marttila, R.; Jones, P.B.; Murray, G.K.; Moilanen, K.; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H.; Mäki, P.; Isohanni, M.; Jääskeläinen, E.; Miettunen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed motor development in infancy and family history of psychosis are both associated with increased risk of schizophrenia, but their interaction is largely unstudied. Aim To investigate the association of the age of achieving motor milestones and parental psychosis and their interaction in respect to risk of schizophrenia. Methods We used data from the general population-based prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 10,283). Developmental information of the cohort members was gathered during regular visits to Finnish child welfare clinics. Several registers were used to determine the diagnosis of schizophrenia among the cohort members and psychosis among the parents. Altogether 152 (1.5%) individuals had schizophrenia by the age of 46 years, with 23 (15.1%) of them having a parent with psychosis. Cox regression analysis was used in analyses. Results Parental psychosis was associated (P < 0.05) with later achievement of holding the head up, grabbing an object, and walking without support. In the parental psychosis group, the risk for schizophrenia was increased if holding the head up (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.46; degrees of freedom [df] = 1; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07–5.66) and touching the thumb with the index finger (HR: 1.84; df = 1; 95% CI: 1.11–3.06) was later. In the group without parental psychosis, a delay in the following milestones increased the risk of schizophrenia: standing without support and walking without support. Parental psychosis had an interaction with delayed touching thumb with index finger (HR: 1.87; df = 1; 95% CI: 1.08–3.25) when risk of schizophrenia was investigated. Conclusions Parental psychosis was associated with achieving motor milestones later in infancy, particularly the milestones that appear early in a child's life. Parental psychosis and touching the thumb with the index finger had a significant interaction on risk of schizophrenia. Genetic risk for psychosis may interact

  20. Determining the Motor Skills Development of Mentally Retarded Children through the Contribution of Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erim, Gonca; Caferoglu, Müge

    2017-01-01

    Visual arts education is a process that helps the reflection of inner worlds, socialization via group works and healthier motor skills development of normally developing or handicapped children like the mentally retarded. This study aims to determine the influence of visual art studies on the motor skills development of primary school first grade…

  1. Effect of thyroid hypofunction on the masseter motor innervation pattern in developing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Ganji

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The thyroid hormones have profound effects on the development of neuromuscular system. These hormones exert their influence on both muscle fibers and related motoneurons during development. The masseter is one of the most important muscles for mastication in mammals. We attempted to evaluate the effect of thyroid hormone deficiency on the morphological characteristics of masseteric motoneurons in the period of alteration from sucking to biting and chewing in the rat. Materials and Methods: To induce hypothyroidism, timed pregnant dams received 50 ppm antithyroid drug propylthiouracil (PTU in their drinking water and PTU was administered to the pups during suckling period. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP was injected into the masseter (0.5-5 μlit, 40% of normal and prenatal hypothyroid pups on postnatal days of 1, 7, 15, and 23 (n=24. After 24-48 hours, the 50 μm thick brainstem sections containing trigeminal motor nucleus were processed for TMB histochemical procedure and morphological characteristics of HRP labeled motoneurons and their HRP labeling intensity was evaluated. Student's t-test and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Results: No significant morphological differences were observed at the end of first week of life. On day 15, hypothyroid labeled masseteric motoneurons consisted of 70% small and 30% medium neurons versus 40% and 60% in normal pups respectively (p<0.05. At the time of weaning, the number of large motoneurons dropped to 30% of normal value (p<0.001 with few, short, and disoriented dendrites. Conclusion: The alteration in particular patterns of masseteric motoneuron morphology and a severe delay in size transition could affect the development and plasticity of oral motor behavior under congenital hypothyroidism.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR INDUSTRY OF SVERDLOVSK REGION FROM THE POSITION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Kozlov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The industrial cooperation of Russia in the field of motor industry with quickly developing Asian countries with a view of increase of competitiveness of the country in the world market of cars is considered in clause. The output of Sverdlovsk region on the markets of cars of the developed countries by means of creation of joint ventures with motor-car manufacturers of the Peoples Republic of China on an example of JSC "Cars and motors of Ural " is offered.

  3. SKIPing to Motor Competence: The Influence of Project Successful Kinesthetic Instruction for Preschoolers on Motor Competence of Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunsöz, Irmak Hürmeriç; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preschool children who are at risk have been shown to demonstrate developmental delays in their fundamental motor skills. The body of research on motor skill development of children indicates that these children, when provided with motor skill instruction, significantly improved their locomotor and object control (OC) skill…

  4. DISTURBANCE OF NORMAL MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Dimitrijević

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the basic motor skills in the first year of life (postural head control, lateral transfers into a lying position, sitting, standing, walking, crawling, grasping... goes on quite spontaneously. A child learns all the motor actions by itself and that is why it is not necessary to “teach” a child to seat, grasp, stand, walk... Teaching a child the basic motor skills stands for a rough, unnecessary and undesirable involvement into spontaneous motor development, and, due to this, the normal adoption of motor skills is slowed down. For the normal motor development, children do not need helping devices (baby buggy, baby jump.... Helping devices suppress in children their natural urge to walk, complicate its development and may have harmful effects like equinus feet, deformed feet and spine and so on.

  5. Diminished motor skill development in elderly: indications for limited motor chunk use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, Willem B.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether elderly use motor chunks after practicing discrete keying sequences, just like young adults, or whether they perhaps learn these movement patterns in a different way. To that end, elderly (75–88) and young adults (18–28) practiced as part of the discrete sequence p

  6. Diminished motor skill development in elderly: indications for limited motor chunk use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, Willem B.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether elderly use motor chunks after practicing discrete keying sequences, just like young adults, or whether they perhaps learn these movement patterns in a different way. To that end, elderly (75–88) and young adults (18–28) practiced as part of the discrete sequence

  7. Development of delayed hydride cracking resistant-pressure tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kwon, Sang Chul; Kim, S. S.; Yim, K. S

    2000-10-01

    For the first time, we demonstrate that the pattern of nucleation and growth of a DHC crack is governed by the precipitation of hydrides so that the DHC velocity and K{sub IH} are determined by an angle of the cracking plane and the hydride habit plane 10.7. Since texture controls the distribution of the 10.7 habit plane in Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube, we draw a conclusion that a textural change in Zr-2.5Nb tube from a strong tangential texture to the radial texture shall increase the threshold stress intensity factor, K{sub IH}, and decrease the delayed hydride cracking velocity. This conclusion is also verified by a complimentary experiment showing a linear dependence of DHCV and K{sub IH} with an increase in the basal component in the cracking plane. On the basis of the study on the DHC mechanism and the effect of manufacturing processes on the properties of Zr-2.5Nb tube, we have established a manufacturing procedure to make pressure tubes with improved DHC resistance. The main features of the established manufacturing process consist in the two step-cold pilgering process and the intermediate heat treatment in the {alpha} + {beta} phase for Zr-2.5Nb alloy and in the {alpha} phase for Zr-1Nb-1.2Sn-0.4Fe alloy. The manufacturing of DHC resistant-pressure tubes of Zr-2.5Nb and Zr-1N-1.2Sn-0.4Fe was made in the ChMP zirconium plant in Russia under a joint research with Drs. Nikulina and Markelov in VNIINM (Russia). Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube made with the established manufacturing process has met all the specification requirements put by KAERI. Chracterization tests have been jointly conducted by VNIINM and KAERI. As expected, the Zr-2.5Nb tube made with the established procedure has improved DHC resistance compared to that of CANDU Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube used currently. The measured DHC velocity of the Zr-2.5Nb tube meets the target value (DHCV <5x10{sup -8} m/s) and its other properties also were equivalent to those of the CANDU Zr-2.5Nb tube used currently. The Zr-1Nb-1

  8. Premature Ejaculation, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (ssri) Induced Delayed Ejaculation In The Framework Of The Emotional Motor System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Berendsen, Hemmie H.G.; Blok, Bertil F.M.; Olivier, Berend; Holstege, Gert

    1998-01-01

    Premature ejaculation has generally been considered a psychosexual disorder with psychogenic aetiology. Although still mainly treated by behavioural therapy, in recent years double-blind studies have indicated the beneficial effects of some of the serotonergic anti depressants (SSRIs) in delaying ej

  9. Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test in adolescents: relationship between visual-motor development and the Tanner Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppeke, Lívia de Freitas; Cintra, Isa de Pádua; Schoen, Teresa Helena

    2013-08-01

    Visual-motor skill is fundamental to human development and is an important component of psychological evaluations. The goal of the present study was to determine whether there is a correlation between visual-motor development, as measured by the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (Bender test), and sexual maturity in adolescents, based on the Tanner Stages in Adolescents. 134 adolescents from 10 to 15 years of age participated in the study. The Bender test and the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test were employed. The measures were administered individually and information on sexual maturity and the presence of developmental disorders was collected from medical charts. The results of the Bender test were not affected by gender, age, schooling, or changes stemming from puberty, but were significantly affected by having repeated a school year and by developmental disorders. An association was found with Raven's scores. The Bender test proved sensitive to developmental disorders in adolescence. No association was found between visual-motor development and sexual maturity in adolescents.

  10. Low testosterone correlates with delayed development in male orangutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Emery Thompson

    Full Text Available Male orangutans (Pongo spp. display an unusual characteristic for mammals in that some adult males advance quickly to full secondary sexual development while others can remain in an adolescent-like form for a decade or more past the age of sexual maturity. Remarkably little is understood about how and why differences in developmental timing occur. While fully-developed males are known to produce higher androgen levels than arrested males, the longer-term role of steroid hormones in male life history variation has not been examined. We examined variation in testosterone and cortisol production among 18 fully-developed ("flanged" male orangutans in U.S. captive facilities. Our study revealed that while testosterone levels did not vary significantly according to current age, housing condition, and species origin, males that had undergone precocious development had higher testosterone levels than males that had experienced developmental arrest. While androgen variation had previously been viewed as a state-dependent characteristic of male developmental status, our study reveals that differences in the physiology of early and late developing males are detectable long past the developmental transition and may instead be trait-level characteristics associated with a male's life history strategy. Further studies are needed to determine how early in life differences in testosterone levels emerge and what consequences this variation may have for male behavioral strategies.

  11. [Relationship between the motor development of the body and the acquisition of oral skills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Mariângela Silva; Macedo, Célia Sperandeo

    2008-01-01

    the literature points to the influence of body posture on the oral skills of children which sensorimotor deficits. Only a few studies with normal children exist on this subject. to study the relationship between motor skills and oral motor skills in children, from the first day of life to 24 months of age. 42 children were video recorded at the first day of life, and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months of age. Recordings were made in the following postures: supine, prone, seated, standing and during breast and bottle feeding (until 5 months), using spoon (purée: 3 - 12 months); cup (water or juice: 6 - 24 months) and eating solid food (6 -24 months). Quantitative scores for body motor development and oral skills were established; and for the statistical analysis the Pearson Correlation Coefficient Test was used with a significance level of 5%. the results of motor development point to similar data between supine, prone, seated and standing positions; for the oral motor skills (during feeding/ breastfeeding, using spoon, cup and chewing). A similarity was observed in the acquisition of motor abilities related to the lips, tongue and jaw in each of the feeding situations. There was an association between the motor and the oral motor skills; the results indicate that the motor development (motor skills) occurred prior to the development of the oral skills from the 5th to 24 months and that the skills related to the jaw when using a cup and spoon occurred prior to the development of the skills related to the lips and tongue. there was a growing increase in the acquisition of motor and oral skills along the ages, as well as a variability of skills in the ages between the 3rd and 24 months and a significant association between the motor and oral skills.

  12. Corpus callosum tissue loss and development of motor and global cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian S; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly.......To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly....

  13. Motor Skill Performance by Low SES Preschool and Typically Developing Children on the PDMS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Hoffmann, Chelsea; Hamilton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor skill performance of preschool children from low socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds to their age matched typically developing peers using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Sixty-eight children (34 low SES and 34 typically developing; ages 3-5) performed the PDMS-2. Standard scores…

  14. Development and Initial Validation of the Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Shih, Ching-Lin; Lin, Chien-Hui; Wu, Sheng K.

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills have great impact on children in adapting to an environment and developing interpersonal interaction, cognition, and social behavior. Understanding what children can do and how they perform it is essential. Most motor tests seldom contain quality evaluation in the items or criteria. The purpose of this study was to develop and…

  15. The Effects of Modified Games on the Development of Gross Motor Skill in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Indah; Ratnaningsih, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor skills on children must be optimized much earlier since it plays important role not only on their interaction process but also in supporting other multiple developments. One of the means in developing child's motor skill is by providing innovative games i.e. modified games including game format, game timing, and game sequence. The…

  16. A New Inventory for Assessing "Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development ("AHEMD-SR")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila; Rodrigues, Luis Paulo

    2008-01-01

    A contemporary view of motor development considers environmental influences as critical factors in optimal growth and behavior, with the home being the primary agent. The intent of this communication is to introduce the "Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development Self-Report" ("AHEMD-SR") to early childhood practitioners. The…

  17. Corpus callosum tissue loss and development of motor and global cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold;

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly.......To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly....

  18. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Yee Allison; Cheung, Siu Yin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying structure of the second edition of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) as applied to Chinese children. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was administered to 626 Hong Kong Chinese children. The outlier test with standard scoring was utilized. After data screening, a total…

  19. Motor Development in Canadian Infants of Asian and European Ethnic Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayson, Tanja A.; Backman, Catherine L.; Harris, Susan R.; Hayes, Virginia E.

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic origin is one factor that may influence the rate or sequence of infant motor development, interpretation of screening test results, and decisions regarding early intervention. The primary purpose of this study is to compare motor development screening test scores from infants of Asian and European ethnic origins. Using a cross-sectional…

  20. Development of speech motor control: lip movement variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schötz, Susanne; Frid, Johan; Löfqvist, Anders

    2013-06-01

    This study examined variability of lip movements across repetitions of the same utterance as a function of age in Swedish speakers. The specific purpose was to extend earlier findings by examining variability in both phase and amplitude. Subjects were 50 typically developed native Swedish children and adults (28 females, 22 males, aged 5 to 31 yr). Lip movements were recorded during 15 to 20 repetitions of a short Swedish phrase using three-dimensional articulography. After correction for head movements, the kinematic records were expressed in a maxilla-based coordinate system. Movement onset and offset of the utterance were identified using kinematic landmarks. The Euclidean distance between receivers on the upper and lower lips was calculated and subjected to functional data analysis to assess both phase and amplitude variability. Results show a decrease in both indices as a function of age, with a greater reduction of amplitude variability. There was no difference between males and females for either index. The two indices were moderately correlated with each other, suggesting that they capture different aspects of speech production. Utterance duration also decreased with age, but variability was unrelated to duration. The standard deviation of utterance duration also decreased with age. The present results thus suggest that age related changes in speech motor control continue up until 30 years of age.

  1. Speech development delay in a child with foetal alcohol syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A female foetus in her mother’s womb was exposed to high concentrations of alcohol at each stage of pregnancy on a long-term basis, which resulted in a permanent disability. In addition to a number of deficiencies in the overall functioning of the body of the child, there are serious problems pertaining to verbal communication. This thesis aims to describe foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS disease and present the basic problems with communication functions in a child, caused by damage of brain structures responsible for speech development. The thesis includes a speech diagnosis and therapy program adapted to the presented case. In the Discussion Section we have presented characteristics of communication disorders in case of children with FAS and the description of developmental malformations, neurobehavioral disorders, and environmental factors affecting the development of the child’s speech.

  2. Formulation, Development and Evaluation of delayed release capsules of Duloxetine Hydrochloride made of different Enteric Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Yerramsetty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Delayed release systems have acquired a centre stage in the arena of pharmaceutical research and development. The present study involves formulation and evaluation of Duloxetine Hydrochloride delayed release capsules. Duloxetine Hydrochloride is an acid labile drug. It degrades in the acidic environment of the stomach thus leading to therapeutic inefficacy. Therefore it is necessary to bypass the acidic pH of the stomach which can be achieved by formulating delayed release dosage form by using different enteric polymers. Protection of drug from acidic environment is done by coating the drug with enteric polymers by using suspension layering technique in Fluidized bed processor (FBP with different enteric polymers like HPMCAS (Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose Acetate Succinate, Acryl EZE and HPMCP (Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose phthalate.The formulation (E12 of delayed release capsules of Duloxetine Hydrochloride containing HPMCP (HP-55: HP- 50 as enteric polymer can be taken as optimized

  3. Design and development of ankle-foot prosthesis with delayed release of plantarflexion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mitchell, MSc

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A computer-controlled mechanism that fits a standard ankle-foot prosthesis was designed to capture the absorbed energy in the ankle and delay its release until specific times in the gait cycle. This mechanism used a direct current motor to take up and hold the compression of a carbon-fiber ankle joint. Based on the timing of the contact forces between the foot and the ground, a microprocessor released the spring at preset times later in the gait cycle. This mechanism was added to a Talux prosthetic foot and was employed by a user of a conventional energy-storage ankle-foot prosthesis. His gait was recorded using a motion analysis system. Five settings: 0, 55, 65, 75, and 85 ms delay were tested on separate days, and the standard kinematic and kinetic gait data were recorded. The user reported some settings were more comfortable than others. When these preferences were tested with a randomized double-blind trial, the preferences were not consistent. A second user showed a preference for the 55 ms delay. The modifications to the device resulted in changes to the gait of the subjects, including increased cadence and kinematics of the unaffected joints and a longer, slower push from the ankle, which was noticed by both of the subjects.

  4. Design and development of ankle-foot prosthesis with delayed release of plantarflexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael; Craig, Katelynn; Kyberd, Peter; Biden, Edmund; Bush, Greg

    2013-01-01

    A computer-controlled mechanism that fits a standard ankle-foot prosthesis was designed to capture the absorbed energy in the ankle and delay its release until specific times in the gait cycle. This mechanism used a direct current motor to take up and hold the compression of a carbon-fiber ankle joint. Based on the timing of the contact forces between the foot and the ground, a microprocessor released the spring at preset times later in the gait cycle. This mechanism was added to a Talux prosthetic foot and was employed by a user of a conventional energy-storage ankle-foot prosthesis. His gait was recorded using a motion analysis system. Five settings: 0, 55, 65, 75, and 85 ms delay were tested on separate days, and the standard kinematic and kinetic gait data were recorded. The user reported some settings were more comfortable than others. When these preferences were tested with a randomized double-blind trial, the preferences were not consistent. A second user showed a preference for the 55 ms delay. The modifications to the device resulted in changes to the gait of the subjects, including increased cadence and kinematics of the unaffected joints and a longer, slower push from the ankle, which was noticed by both of the subjects.

  5. Timing of motor milestone achievement and development of overweight in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Due, Pernille; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    Background:  Late achievement of motor milestones may increase the risk of overweight since early achievers have an increased opportunity to build lean body mass and expend energy.  Overweight infants may have delayed achievement of gross motor milestones, as excess body fat limit mobility. Aim......: 1. To investigate whether delayed ability to sit and walk is associated with overweight at age 7 years 2. To examine whether age (in months) at achieving the ability to sit and walk is associated with a higher BMI at age 7. 3. To examine whether increasing weight at birth and at 5 months of age...... postpone the achievement of the ability to sit and walk independently. Methods: Data: The Danish National Birth Cohort. Study population consisted of 32,973 children who were followed from birth to age 7. Children were born between 1998 and 2003 and follow-up took place from 2003 to2010. Information...

  6. Developmental changes in motor cortex activity as infants develop functional motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyori, Ryota; Bisconti, Silvia; Meehan, Sean K; Ulrich, Beverly D

    2016-09-01

    Despite extensive research examining overt behavioral changes of motor skills in infants, the neural basis underlying the emergence of functional motor control has yet to be determined. We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to record hemodynamic activity of the primary motor cortex (M1) from 22 infants (11 six month-olds, 11 twelve month-olds) as they reached for an object, and stepped while supported over a treadmill. Based on the developmental systems framework, we hypothesized that as infants increased goal-directed experience, neural activity shifts from a diffused to focal pattern. Results showed that for reaching, younger infants showed diffuse areas of M1 activity that became focused by 12 months. For elicited stepping, younger infants produced much less M1 activity which shifted to diffuse activity by 12 months. Thus, the data suggest that as infants gain goal-directed experience, M1 activity emerges, initially showing a diffuse area of activity, becoming refined as the behavior stabilizes. Our data begin to document the cortical activity underlying early functional skill acquisition.

  7. Auditory development in progressive motor neuronopathy mouse mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkenstein, Stefan; Brors, Dominik; Hansen, Stefan; Berend, Achim; Mlynski, Robert; Aletsee, Christoph; Dazert, Stefan

    2009-11-06

    The present study was performed to elucidate the hearing development in the progressive motor neuronopathy (pmn) mouse mutant. This mouse has been used as a model for human motoneuron disease. A missense mutation in the tubulin-specific chaperon E (Tbce) gene on mouse chromosome 13 was localized as the underlying genetic defect. The protein encoded by the Tbce gene is essential for the formation of primary tubulin complexes. Studies on motoneurons show disorganization in microtubules and disturbed axonal transport, followed by retrograde degeneration of the motoneurons. A similar pathomechanism is also possible for hearing disorders where disrupted microtubules could cause functional deficits in spiral ganglion neurons or in cochlear hair cells. Click auditory brainstem response (ABR) audiometry in homozygous pmn mutants showed a normal onset of hearing, but an increasing hearing threshold from postnatal day 26 (P26) on to death, compared to heterozygous mutants and wild-type mice. Histological sections of the cochlea at different ages showed a regular morphology. Additionally, spiral ganglion explants from mutant and wild-type mice were cultured. The neurite length from pmn mutants was shorter than in wild-type mice, and the neurite number/explant was significantly decreased in pmn mutants. We show that the pmn mouse mutant is a model for a progressive rapid hearing loss from P26 on, after initially normal hearing development. Heterozygous mice are not affected by this defect. With the knowledge of the well-known pathomechanism of this defect in motoneurons, a dysfunction of cellular mechanisms regulating tubulin assembling suggests that tubulin assembling plays an essential role in hearing function and maintenance.

  8. The Method of Team Sports Athletes’ Motor Skills Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir E.Afonshina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed that the training session be conducted on the ground with controlled light-dynamic illumination to be generated by small-size laser or other light emitters fastened on the athlete’s head. For safety the emitters are to be installed so as to prevent the trainee’s eyes from direct emanation. The emitters create mobile unallowed and allowed zones seen as the figures of various shape to be used for simulation of the training modes. The figures are controlled by software and hardware system including a gyroscopic orientation system of light emitters and a system of positioning of the athlete on the playing court. The system of gyroscopic orientation of light emitters is placed together with the emitters and depending on the head rotation, neck bends and vertical movements of the athlete's head and his/her movements on the playing court during the training session. The system of gyroscopic orientation automatically adjusts the position of the figures, while maintaining their target location and movement set by the selected training programme. The training can take place outside of specially equipped athletic field, on any smooth surface. The contours of the mobile unallowed and allowed zones are clearly visible and have no shadow formations. The method of motor skills development proposed incorporates the principles and techniques of sports coaching used for training both certain athletes and sports teams. The method facilitates in personalising the training tasks, acquiring playing skills by simulating different complex game situations, improving the efficiency of training, bringing it closer to the real play conditions, developing game thinking. The method can be used for training teams of different profile specialising in football, hockey, handball, rugby, basketball and other team sports.

  9. Fine motor skill proficiency in typically developing children: On or off the maturation track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, David; Issartel, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Fine motor skill proficiency is an essential component of numerous daily living activities such as dressing, feeding or playing. Poor fine motor skills can lead to difficulties in academic achievement, increased anxiety and poor self-esteem. Recent findings have shown that children's gross motor skill proficiency tends to fall below established developmental norms. A question remains: do fine motor skill proficiency levels also fall below developmental norms? The aim of this study was to examine the current level of fine motor skill in Irish children. Children (N=253) from 2nd, 4th and 6th grades (mean age=7.12, 9.11 and 11.02 respectively) completed the Fine Motor Composite of the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd Edition (BOT-2). Analysis revealed that only 2nd grade children met the expected level of fine motor skill proficiency. It was also found that despite children's raw scores improving with age, children's fine motor skill proficiency was not progressing at the expected rate given by normative data. This leads us to question the role and impact of modern society on fine motor skills development over the past number of decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Heat Dissipation Measuring System for 1.2-kW BLDC Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Injun; Ye, Jungwoo; Lee, Daehun; Hwang, Pyung; Shim, Jaesool [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    In this study, a heat dissipation measurement system is developed to analyze a 1.2-kW BLDC motor. It is important to check the temperature of the motor because an increase in temperature causes problems in the motor insulations, which in turn influences the motor life. A generator for a vehicle is installed to set up a load. We changed the load from 165 to 495 W. While the rpm varies from 2000 to 4000 under various load conditions, the changes in temperature were measured for the operating period by using a thermocouple. The results of experiments conducted under natural convection conditions suggest that the temperature was not stationary with the rpm, load, and coil of the motor and it kept increasing over 120 .deg. C. However, under forced convection conditions, the temperature stationarily reached 84 .deg. C after 4000 s. The difference between the maximum and the minimum temperatures was 10.26 .deg. C with an increase in the rpm and load. The orders of high temperature were as follows: motor coil, side of motor surface, inside of motor cap, upper side of motor surface, and inner wall of the motor.

  11. Influence of Affordances in the Home Environment on Motor Development of Young Children in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Mori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that the home environment is a significant factor in early child development. The present study examined influence of the multidimensional home environment on young Japanese children’s motor development. A Japanese translation of the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Self Report (AHEMD-SR was used to assess home motor affordances in 262 families. Motor ability was assessed by parental report using the Enjoji Infant Analytic Developmental Test. We also asked parents to rate their own physical activity in terms of level and years of experience. As results, we found that the home environment in Japan was generally sufficient for children’s motor development and that children’s access to Fine Motor Toys (FMT and Gross Motor Toys (GMT had the strongest influence on their development. Analysis also indicated that AHEMD-SR scores were higher for children of parents who had some level of physical activity experience compared to children whose parents indicated no physical activity experience. Parents’ self-reported activity level was correlated with higher scores for the subscales FMT and GMT and for total AHEMD-SR score. These results indicate that both the physical and social-psychological environments (parental experience and views of the home influenced children’s motor development.

  12. Presentation of CAE system for motor sports vehicle chassis development; Motor sports sharyo no shassis kaihatsuyo CAE system no shokai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, N.; Ueda, E. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    In the recent motor sports vehicle development introduction of a new model in a short cycle to secure high competition ability shortens the period from its completion to the race. And application of embedded controls makes development process more complicated. In this circumstance, predictive development style becomes more important in order to achieve the performance at high level when the new car is at shakedown. In this paper, summary and the application examples are presented with regard to three important CAE tools such as lap time simulation, vehicle dynamics simulation and suspension kinematics simulation which are developed to realize the said development style. (author)

  13. Early motor development is part of the resource mix for language acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine L.

    2013-01-01

    There is intense scientific interest in the relationship between cognitive and language development in infancy and beyond. With this interest in mind, early motor milestones such as grasping and exploring objects have typically been viewed as a proxy for cognitive development. Iverson argues that a deeper appreciation of the unique contribution of motor development to language development enriches theories of typical and atypical language development. PMID:20085669

  14. Effects of Motor Skill Intervention on Gross Motor Development, Creative Thinking and Academic Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Jiménez Díaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how students (mean= 6.08±0.5 years benefit from a physical education program in motor performance, creative thinking and academic achievement. Students (n = 39 were randomly assigned to comparison group (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program (which includes 1 session of 30 minutes per week; intervention group 1 (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or intervention group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT before and after the study. The academic achievement score was given by the school. The ANOVA (Group x Gender x Time pre and post analysis revealed a significant triple interaction in the object control. Significant double interactions in the locomotor subscale and in the gross motor quotient were also found. After the post-hoc analysis, the results suggest that the physical education program benefits the gross motor performance and did not have an effect on the creative thinking or on the academic achievement.

  15. A Study on the Development of BLDC Motor with High Power Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kong, Yeong Kyung; Choi, Tae In [Agency for Defense Development (Korea); Song, Jong Hwan [Hyosung Ltd., (Korea)

    2000-05-01

    The motor for torpedo propulsion is needed the compact and short rating high power characteristics. This paper describes the development of the motor through the theory and Finite Element Method(FEM) analysis for Brushless Direct Current Motor(BLDCM) of 7 phase 6 poles. Back EMF, inductance and eddy current loss were analyzed. The proposed methods like magnetic wedge acquired by these FEM analysis were introduced. Phase-leading angle using encoder was used. Test results on the motor of 7 phases 6 poles were showed the validity of proposed methods and phase-leading angle. (author). 9 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Development of Ultra-Efficient Electric Motors Final Technical Report Covering work from April 2002 through September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Schiferl

    2008-05-30

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) motors offer the potential for dramatic volume and loss reduction compared to conventional, high horspower, industrial motors. This report is the final report on the results of eight research tasks that address some of the issues related to HTS motor development that affect motor efficiency, cost, and reliability.

  17. COMPARISON THE EFFECT OF SIMULTANEOUS SENSORY STIMULATION AND CURRENT OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY APPROACHES ON MOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFANTS WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein KARIMI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveNeuromuscular characteristics in Down syndrome result in generalized muscular hypotonia, developmental delays and sensory integration deficits. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of simultaneous sensory stimulations and current occupational therapy approaches on motor functions development of infants with Down syndrome.Materials & MethodsEighteen infants with Down syndrome, aged 6 -18 months, were evaluated in two groups: intervention group (simultaneous sensory stimulation and occupational therapy and control group (occupational therapy alone. They attended the program 3 times a week for 6 months and each session lasted 45 minutes. Motor functions were assessed before, during, and after intervention in the two groups, using GMFM test.ResultsMean motor function increased in both groups according to the GMFM test (P = 0.000. Comparison of the changes showed that although the mean difference of this variable was higher in the intervention group, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.576.Mean motor deficit reduced in both groups during the period of the study,which was statistically significant (P ConclusionEarly use of simultaneous sensory stimulations can improve the quality of motor skills in Down syndrome infants. It is suggested that it may be used as an early intervention in association with other methods in the rehabilitation of these patients. However, more studies in this regard are warranted.Keywords:Down syndrome, Motor development, Occupational therapy, Sensory stimulation.

  18. Cognitive-Motor Interactions of the Basal Ganglia in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry eLeisman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function and are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute complete motor acts, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact humans and electrophysiologic studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to ADHD with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition.

  19. Role of Early Parenting and Motor Skills on Development in Children with Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax-Bream, Laura E.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Swank, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The impact of parenting and motor skills on the development of cognitive, language, and daily living skills was examined in 165 children (91 with spina bifida, SB), from 6-36 months of age. Motor scores significantly influenced cognitive, language, and daily living skills. Higher quality parenting was associated with higher levels of development…

  20. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  1. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  2. Deliberate Laterality Practice Facilitates Sensory-Motor Processing in Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The innate ability for typically developing children to attain developmental motor milestones early in life has been a thoroughly researched area of inquiry. Nonetheless, as children grow and are required to perform more complex motor skills in order to experience success in physical activity and sport pursuits, the range of…

  3. A systematic review of the effects of early intervention on motor development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blauw-Hospers, CH; Hadders-Algra, M

    2005-01-01

    We present a systematic review on the effect of early intervention, starting between birth and a corrected age of 18 months, on motor development in infants at high risk for, or with, developmental motor disorders. Thirty-four studies fulfilled the selection criteria. Seventeen studies were performe

  4. Development of the Correspondence between Real and Imagined Fine and Gross Motor Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachet, Alison B.; Frey, Scott H.; Jacobs, Stéphane; Taylor, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    The development of the correspondence between real and imagined motor actions was investigated in 2 experiments. Experiment 1 evaluated whether children imagine body position judgments of fine motor actions in the same way as they perform them. Thirty-two 8-year-old children completed a task in which an object was presented in different…

  5. Development of Motor Speed and Associated Movements from 5 to 18 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Theo; Rousson, Valentin; Caflisch, Jon; Jenni, Oskar G.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To study the development of motor speed and associated movements in participants aged 5 to 18 years for age, sex, and laterality. Method: Ten motor tasks of the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (repetitive and alternating movements of hands and feet, repetitive and sequential finger movements, the pegboard, static and dynamic balance,…

  6. Development and face validity of a cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaire for children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Waninge, A.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; van der Steen, J.; Krijnen, W. P.; van der Schans, C. P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2017-01-01

    Aim The objectives of this study were (i) to develop two cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaires (CVI-MQ's) for children with cerebral palsy (CP): one for children with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II and III and one for children with GMFCS levels IV and V; (i

  7. Research on the Boost of Development on Young Children's Fine Motor by Folk Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xia

    2016-01-01

    As Chinese traditional folk culture, folk games have unique educational value which can boost the development of young children's fine motor. Based on previous investigation of fine motor skill of children in Nanchong, Sichuan Province, the researcher chose a middle class in public city kindergarten A with lower survey score as the study object.…

  8. Development of a dc motor with virtually zero powered magnetic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The development of magnetic bearings for use in direct current electric motors is discussed. The characteristics of the magnets used in the construction of the bearings are described. A magnetic bearing using steel armoring on permanent magnets was selected for performance tests. The specifications of the motor are presented. The test equipment used in the evaluation is described.

  9. Individual development of preschool children-prevalences and determinants of delays in Germany: a cross-sectional study in Southern Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stich Heribert L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even minor abnormalities of early child development may have dramatic long term consequences. Accurate prevalence rates for a range of developmental impairments have been difficult to establish. Since related studies have used different methodological approaches, direct comparisons of the prevalence of developmental delays are difficult. The understanding of the key factors affecting child development, especially in preschool aged children remains limited. We used data from school entry examinations in Bavaria to measure the prevalence of developmental impairments in pre-school children beginning primary school in 1997–2009. Methods The developmental impairments of all school beginners in the district of Dingolfing- Landau, Bavaria were assessed using modified “Bavarian School Entry Model” examination from 1997 to 2009 (N=13,182. The children were assessed for motor, cognitive, language and psychosocial impairments using a standardised medical protocol. Prevalence rates of impairments in twelve domains of development were estimated. Using uni- and multivariable logistic regression models, association between selected factors and development delays were assessed. Results The highest prevalence existed for impairments of pronunciation (13.8% followed by fine motor impairments (12.2%, and impairments of memory and concentration (11.3% and the lowest for impairments of rhythm of speech (3.1%. Younger children displayed more developmental delays. Male gender was strongly associated with all developmental impairments (highest risk for fine motor impairments = OR 3.22, 95% confidence interval 2.86-3.63. Preschool children with siblings (vs. children without any siblings were at higher risk of having impairments in pronunciation (OR 1.31, 1.14-1.50. The influence of the non-German nationality was strong, with a maximum risk increase for the subareas of grammar and psychosocial development. Although children with non

  10. Individual development of preschool children-prevalences and determinants of delays in Germany: a cross-sectional study in Southern Bavaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Heribert L; Baune, Bernhard Th; Caniato, Riccardo N; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Krämer, Alexander

    2012-12-05

    Even minor abnormalities of early child development may have dramatic long term consequences. Accurate prevalence rates for a range of developmental impairments have been difficult to establish. Since related studies have used different methodological approaches, direct comparisons of the prevalence of developmental delays are difficult. The understanding of the key factors affecting child development, especially in preschool aged children remains limited. We used data from school entry examinations in Bavaria to measure the prevalence of developmental impairments in pre-school children beginning primary school in 1997-2009. The developmental impairments of all school beginners in the district of Dingolfing-Landau, Bavaria were assessed using modified "Bavarian School Entry Model" examination from 1997 to 2009 (N=13,182). The children were assessed for motor, cognitive, language and psychosocial impairments using a standardised medical protocol. Prevalence rates of impairments in twelve domains of development were estimated. Using uni- and multivariable logistic regression models, association between selected factors and development delays were assessed. The highest prevalence existed for impairments of pronunciation (13.8%) followed by fine motor impairments (12.2%), and impairments of memory and concentration (11.3%) and the lowest for impairments of rhythm of speech (3.1%). Younger children displayed more developmental delays. Male gender was strongly associated with all developmental impairments (highest risk for fine motor impairments = OR 3.22, 95% confidence interval 2.86-3.63). Preschool children with siblings (vs. children without any siblings) were at higher risk of having impairments in pronunciation (OR 1.31, 1.14-1.50). The influence of the non-German nationality was strong, with a maximum risk increase for the subareas of grammar and psychosocial development. Although children with non-German nationality had a reduced risk of disorders for the rhythm

  11. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…

  12. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…

  13. The Importance of Saccular Function to Motor Development in Children with Hearing Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary S. Shall

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with hearing deficits frequently have delayed motor development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate saccular function in children with hearing impairments using the Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP. The impact of the saccular hypofunction on the timely maturation of normal balance strategies was examined using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC. Thirty-three children with bilateral severe/profound hearing impairment between 4 and 7 years of age were recruited from a three-state area. Approximately half of the sample had one or bilateral cochlear implants, one used bilateral hearing aids, and the rest used no amplification. Parents reported whether the hearing impairment was diagnosed within the first year or after 2 years of age. No VEMP was evoked in two thirds of the hearing impaired (HI children in response to the bone-conducted stimulus. Children who were reportedly hearing impaired since birth had significantly poorer scores when tested with the Movement ABC.

  14. Influence of motor skills training on children's development evaluated in the Motor skills in PreSchool (MiPS) study-DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Andersen, Sarah Thurøe; Skovgaard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good motor skills are considered important for children's physical, social, and psychological development, but the relationship is still poorly understood. Preschool age seems to be decisive for the development of motor skills and probably the most promising time-window in relation...... to preventive strategies based on improved motor skills. This research program has four overall aims: (1) investigation of the effect of a structured program aimed at improving motor skills in 3-6-year-old children on current and future motor skills, health, cognition, and wellbeing; (2) establish reference...... data on motor skills in 3-6-year-olds; (3) description of early development of musculoskeletal problems; and (4) establishment of a population-based cohort of 3-6-year-olds. METHODS: Over a four-year period, all preschools in a Danish municipality, Svendborg, will implement a new program aimed...

  15. Radiographic study of delayed tooth development in patients with dental agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Mealin, Erika V; Parekh, Susan; Jones, Steven P; Moles, David R; Gill, Daljit S

    2012-03-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the radiographic development of permanent teeth in a group of children affected by dental agenesis with an unaffected control group and to determine the effects of confounding factors including the severity of the dental agenesis, age, sex, ethnicity, and the number of stages used to estimate dental age. A single-center retrospective cross-sectional study of dental panoramic tomographs was undertaken between July 2007 and April 2008 in a postgraduate teaching school. A total of 139 patients (aged 9-18 years) were recruited from the orthodontic clinic on the basis of predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria to either a dental agenesis group or a control group. Dental panoramic tomograms were assessed, and the stages of development of the permanent teeth in the left maxillary and left mandibular regions were scored by using the 12 stages of Haavikko and the 8 stages of Demirjian and Goldstein. For each tooth scored, the mean dental age and standard error were determined by using the dental age assessment method, and an estimated dental age for each subject was derived by using the weighted average method. A statistically significant delay in dental age was found in the patients with dental agenesis compared with the control group. The dental age assessment method of Haavikko showed a delay of 1.20 years (SD, 1.74), and the method of Demirjian and Goldstein showed a delay of 1.64 years (SD, 1.75). It was also observed that older patients with dental agenesis had greater delays in tooth formation (P tooth, the dental age was delayed by 0.13 year (lower confidence interval, -0.22; upper confidence interval, 0.35). There was no evidence that sex or ethnicity has an effect on the delay in dental age in patients with dental agenesis. The development of permanent teeth in children with dental agenesis is delayed when compared with a matched control group. The severity of dental agenesis affected the magnitude of the delay (P <0

  16. Motor Development and Elementary Physical Education Are Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Williams, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    In aligning the curriculum for the preparation of future teachers, it is essential to teach knowledge and application of the interactions among content knowledge (about motor skills and fitness principles), procedural knowledge (how to teach skills and promote fitness), and the teaching of physical activity (how to execute a lesson). This article…

  17. Development of a novel ultrasonic motor resonator using topology optimization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    M'Boungui, G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of topology optimization in the design of a novel stator for an ultrasonic motor (USM) is investigated. The design challenge is to produce a stator, with two resonant modes whose frequencies are in a ratio of 1:2. When driven together...

  18. Prenatal Development of Interlimb Motor Learning in the Rat Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Scott R.; Kleven, Gale A.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2008-01-01

    The role of sensory feedback in the early ontogeny of motor coordination remains a topic of speculation and debate. On E20 of gestation (the 20th day after conception, 2 days before birth), rat fetuses can alter interlimb coordination after a period of training with an interlimb yoke, which constrains limb movement and promotes synchronized,…

  19. Thermal Barriers Developed for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Space shuttle solid rocket motor case assembly joints are sealed with conventional O-ring seals that are shielded from 5500 F combustion gases by thick layers of insulation and by special joint-fill compounds that fill assembly splitlines in the insulation. On a number of occasions, NASA has observed hot gas penetration through defects in the joint-fill compound of several of the rocket nozzle assembly joints. In the current nozzle-to-case joint, NASA has observed penetration of hot combustion gases through the joint-fill compound to the inboard wiper O-ring in one out of seven motors. Although this condition does not threaten motor safety, evidence of hot gas penetration to the wiper O-ring results in extensive reviews before resuming flight. The solid rocket motor manufacturer (Thiokol) approached the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field about the possibility of applying Glenn's braided fiber preform seal as a thermal barrier to protect the O-ring seals. Glenn and Thiokol are working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design and by using a braided carbon fiber thermal barrier that would resist any hot gases that the J-leg does not block.

  20. Development of Thermal Barriers For Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Joints in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors are sealed by O-rings to contain combustion gases inside the rocket that reach pressures of up to 900 psi and temperatures of up to 5500 F. To provide protection for the O-rings, the motors are insulated with either phenolic or rubber insulation. Gaps in the joints leading up to the O-rings are filled with polysulfide joint-fill compounds as an additional level of protection. The current RSRM nozzle-to-case joint design incorporating primary, secondary, and wiper O-rings experiences gas paths through the joint-fill compound to the innermost wiper O-ring in about one out of every seven motors. Although this does not pose a safety hazard to the motor, it is an undesirable condition that NASA and rocket manufacturer Thiokol want to eliminate. Each nozzle-to-case joint gas path results in extensive reviews and evaluation before flights can be resumed. Thiokol and NASA Marshall are currently working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design that has been used successfully in the field and igniter joint. They are also planning to incorporate the NASA Glenn braided carbon fiber thermal barrier into the joint. The thermal barrier would act as an additional level of protection for the O-rings and allow the elimination of the joint-fill compound from the joint.

  1. Non-Motor Aspects of Tic Disorders—New Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhrman, Daphna; Gev, Ella; Benaroya-Milshtein, Noa; Fennig, Silvana; Krispin, Orit; Apter, Alan; Steinberg, Tamar

    2017-01-01

    The cardinal characteristics of tic-related disorders are stereotyped motor movements and vocalizations. However, they may be accompanied by non-motor features that appear sequentially during the course of the disorder and can sometimes be more disabling than the tics themselves. This review presents our perspectives on several non-motor aspects of Tourette syndrome based on the long experience of the Neuropsychiatric Tourette Clinic of a tertiary pediatric medical center. The effect of premonitory urges, sensory modulation disorder, tic-related cognitions, and environmental conditions on the expression and intensity of tics is elaborated, with suggestions for treatment approaches to each. We also describe the mediatory effect of parental attachment style on the link between maternal stress and ticcing intensity and the need to adjust psychotherapy interventions to account for the importance of this factor in emotion regulation. This review is intended to direct attention to the non-motor aspects of Tourette syndrome. An in-depth understanding of this complex and debilitating disorder will facilitate the formulation of innovative therapeutic protocols. PMID:28119635

  2. Power developed by motor units of the peroneus tertius muscle of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Julien; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnes; Gioux, Maxime

    2003-11-01

    The mechanical properties of motor units have been extensively studied under isometric conditions. Under dynamic conditions, the relationship between the force developed by single motor units and the muscle shortening velocity was determined for relatively high frequencies of activation. However, the interaction between the force-shortening velocity relation and the force-rate of activation relation was still unknown. We studied the power (which is the product of force and velocity) developed by single or groups of motor units during sinusoidal muscle stretches of 1-, 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-Hz frequency. Motor units were stimulated with frequencies of 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 Hz during the shortening phase of the muscle stretch. The relationships, for different shortening velocities, between the power developed by single or groups of motor units and the frequency of stimulation were sigmoidal. However, these relations were not proportional to the shortening velocity. The relationships, for different frequencies of stimulation, between the power and the shortening velocity exhibited a maximum. The shortening velocity at which this maximum occurred increased with the frequency of stimulation. Slow motor units showed the lowest of those shortening velocities, whereas the fast fatigable motor units showed the highest. Groups of slow (or fast fatigue resistant) motor units had similar shortening velocities to those of single slow (or fast fatigue resistant) motor units. A mathematical function was fitted, using regression analysis, for all single and groups of motor units to the relationship among the power, the shortening velocity, and the frequency of activation. This function allowed examination, for different shortening velocity-frequency of activation combinations, of the relationship between the power developed by single and groups of motor units and the maximal isometric tetanic force they developed. These relationships were usually not monotonic but a monotonic

  3. Effects of iron deficiency in infancy on patterns of motor development over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Tal; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa; Calatroni, Agustin; Jimenez, Elias; Lozoff, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study of the effects of iron deficiency in infancy assessed motor development over time in 185 healthy Costa Rican children who varied in iron status at 12–23 months. Longitudinal analyses (hierarchical linear modeling) used the Bayley Psychomotor Index before and both 1 week and 3 months after iron treatment in infancy and the Bruninks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency – long form at 5 years and short form at 11–14 years. Children with chronic severe iron deficiency in infancy had lower motor scores at the beginning of the study and a lower but parallel trajectory for motor scores through early adolescence. Thus, there was no evidence of catch-up in motor development, despite iron therapy in infancy that corrected iron deficiency anemia in all cases. PMID:17050023

  4. Serotonin Promotes Development and Regeneration of Spinal Motor Neurons in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antón Barreiro-Iglesias

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to mammals, zebrafish regenerate spinal motor neurons. During regeneration, developmental signals are re-deployed. Here, we show that, during development, diffuse serotonin promotes spinal motor neuron generation from pMN progenitor cells, leaving interneuron numbers unchanged. Pharmacological manipulations and receptor knockdown indicate that serotonin acts at least in part via 5-HT1A receptors. In adults, serotonin is supplied to the spinal cord mainly (90% by descending axons from the brain. After a spinal lesion, serotonergic axons degenerate caudal to the lesion but sprout rostral to it. Toxin-mediated ablation of serotonergic axons also rostral to the lesion impaired regeneration of motor neurons only there. Conversely, intraperitoneal serotonin injections doubled numbers of new motor neurons and proliferating pMN-like progenitors caudal to the lesion. Regeneration of spinal-intrinsic serotonergic interneurons was unaltered by these manipulations. Hence, serotonin selectively promotes the development and adult regeneration of motor neurons in zebrafish.

  5. Serotonin Promotes Development and Regeneration of Spinal Motor Neurons in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Mysiak, Karolina S; Scott, Angela L; Reimer, Michell M; Yang, Yujie; Becker, Catherina G; Becker, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    In contrast to mammals, zebrafish regenerate spinal motor neurons. During regeneration, developmental signals are re-deployed. Here, we show that, during development, diffuse serotonin promotes spinal motor neuron generation from pMN progenitor cells, leaving interneuron numbers unchanged. Pharmacological manipulations and receptor knockdown indicate that serotonin acts at least in part via 5-HT1A receptors. In adults, serotonin is supplied to the spinal cord mainly (90%) by descending axons from the brain. After a spinal lesion, serotonergic axons degenerate caudal to the lesion but sprout rostral to it. Toxin-mediated ablation of serotonergic axons also rostral to the lesion impaired regeneration of motor neurons only there. Conversely, intraperitoneal serotonin injections doubled numbers of new motor neurons and proliferating pMN-like progenitors caudal to the lesion. Regeneration of spinal-intrinsic serotonergic interneurons was unaltered by these manipulations. Hence, serotonin selectively promotes the development and adult regeneration of motor neurons in zebrafish.

  6. Development of Motor Bearings for a New SADA (BepiColombo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuser, J.; Bachman, R.; Bergrath, B.; Heinrich, B.; Zemann, J.

    2013-09-01

    The special requirements of the new MPO Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) developed for the BepiColombo program demanded also new ball bearing designs. In addition to typical requirements for other bearings in space mechanisms, the BepiColombo mission is characterized by a non-operating time of six years at extreme environmental conditions. In cooperation with RUAG Space CEROBEAR has developed different types of ball bearings for this SADA including motor bearings for the drive, a customized stepper motor.The purpose of this paper is to present and summarize the results of the development of the motor bearings of the SADA.

  7. Development of motor maps in rats and their modulation by experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nicole A; Vuong, Jennifer; Teskey, G Campbell

    2012-09-01

    While a substantial literature demonstrates the effect of differential experience on development of mammalian sensory cortices and plasticity of adult motor cortex, characterization of differential experience on the functional development of motor cortex is meager. We first determined when forelimb movement representations (motor maps) could be detected in rats during postnatal development and then whether their motor map expression could be altered with rearing in an enriched environment consisting of group housing and novel toys or skilled learning by training on the single pellet reaching task. All offspring had high-resolution intracortical microstimulation (ICMS)-derived motor maps using methodologies previously optimized for the adult rat. First, cortical GABA-mediated inhibition was depressed by bicuculline infusion directly into layer V of motor cortex and ICMS-responsive points were first reliably detected on postnatal day (PND) 13. Without relying on bicuculline disinhibition of cortex, motor maps emerged on PND 35 and then increased in size until PND 60 and had progressively lower movement thresholds. Second, environmental enrichment did not affect initial detection of responsive points and motor maps in non-bicuculline-treated pups on PND 35. However, motor maps were larger on PND 45 in enriched rat pups relative to pups in the standard housing condition. Rats in both conditions had similar map sizes on PNDs 60, 75, and 90. Third, reach training in rat pups resulted in an internal reorganization of the map in the hemisphere contralateral, but not ipsilateral, to the trained forelimb. The map reorganization was expressed as proportionately more distal (digit and wrist) representations on PND 45. Our data indicate that both environmental enrichment and skilled reach training experience can differentially modify expression of motor maps during development.

  8. Attention and word learning in autistic, language delayed and typically developing children

    OpenAIRE

    Tenenbaum, Elena J.; Amso, Dima; Abar, Beau; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that patterns of social attention hold predictive value for language development in typically developing infants. The goal of this research was to explore how patterns of attention in autistic, language delayed, and typically developing children relate to early word learning and language abilities. We tracked patterns of eye movements to faces and objects while children watched videos of a woman teaching them a series of new words. Subsequent test trials measure...

  9. Early Lexical Expression in Typically Developing Maltese Children: Implications for the Identification of Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Dodd, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Limited word production may be the first indicator of impaired language development. The unavailability of normative data and standardized assessments for young Maltese children hinders the identification of early language delays. This study aimed to document Maltese children's expressive vocabulary growth and accompanying range of variation, to…

  10. Daytime Sleep Patterns in Preschool Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Anders, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined daytime sleep patterns in 3 groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism, children with developmental delay, and children who were developing typically. Sleep was assessed in 194 children via actigraphy and parent-report sleep diaries for 7 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions over 6 months. Children with…

  11. Sleep Patterns in Preschool-Age Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.

  12. Delayed umbilical cord clamping for reducing anaemia in low birthweight infants : implications for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rheenen, Patrick F.; Gruschke, Sebastian; Brabin, Bernard J.

    BACKGROUND: Cheap and effective interventions are needed to reduce the risk of infant anaemia in developing countries. Delayed cord clamping (DCC) has been shown to be a simple, safe and cost-free delivery procedure that augments red cell mass in appropriate-for-gestational-age term and preterm

  13. Frontostriatal white matter integrity predicts development of delay of gratification : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, Michelle; Peper, Jiska S.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Mandl, René C W; Crone, Eveline A.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to delay gratification increases considerably across development. Here, we test the hypothesis that this impulse control capacity is driven by increased maturation of frontostriatal circuitry using a fiber-tracking approach combined with longitudinal imaging. In total, 192 healthy volunt

  14. Early Lexical Expression in Typically Developing Maltese Children: Implications for the Identification of Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Dodd, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Limited word production may be the first indicator of impaired language development. The unavailability of normative data and standardized assessments for young Maltese children hinders the identification of early language delays. This study aimed to document Maltese children's expressive vocabulary growth and accompanying range of variation, to…

  15. Reduced corticomotor excitability and motor skills development in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Julia B; Schneider, Luke A; Burns, Nicholas R; Drysdale, John L; Higgins, Ryan D; Ridding, Michael C; Nettelbeck, Theodore J; Haslam, Ross R; Robinson, Jeffrey S

    2012-11-15

    The mechanisms underlying the altered neurodevelopment commonly experienced by children born preterm, but without brain lesions, remain unknown. While individuals born the earliest are at most risk, late preterm children also experience significant motor, cognitive and behavioural dysfunction from school age, and reduced income and educational attainment in adulthood. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional assessments to examine corticomotor development in 151 children without cerebral palsy, aged 10-13 years and born after gestations of 25-41 completed weeks. We hypothesized that motor cortex and corticospinal development are altered in preterm children, which underpins at least some of their motor dysfunction. We report for the first time that every week of reduced gestation is associated with a reduction in corticomotor excitability that remains evident in late childhood. This reduced excitability was associated with poorer motor skill development, particularly manual dexterity. However, child adiposity, sex and socio-economic factors regarding the child's home environment soon after birth were also powerful influences on development of motor skills. Preterm birth was also associated with reduced left hemisphere lateralization, but without increasing the likelihood of being left handed per se. These corticomotor findings have implications for normal motor development, but also raise questions regarding possible longer term consequences of preterm birth on motor function.

  16. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN FINE AND GROSS MOTOR SKILLS OF NORMALLY DEVELOPING OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehmus ASLAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compare girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. 18 girls and 28 boys with 12-18 age range, in totally 46 overweight and obese adolecents participated in the study. Body mass index of participants were calculated. Fine and gross motor skills of adolescents were assessed by Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF. There was no differences between girls and boys for BOT-2 SF total scores (p>0.05, but it was found differences in several items of BOT-2 SF. Scores of test items for fine motor scores in the girls were higher than the boys (p0.05. Gross motor skill tests including jumping in place, dribling a ball, sit-ups, one- legged stationary hop test scores were higher in the boys, while tapping feet and fingers test score was higher in the girls (p<0.05. Our results suggested that there is differences between girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. Girls have better fine motor skill performance while boys have better gross motor skill performance in overweight and obese adolescents.

  17. [Attachment and Cognitive and Motor Development in the First Years after Adoption: A Review of Studies on Internationally Adopted Children from China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffer, Femmie; Finet, Chloe; Vermeer, Harriet; van den Dries, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Due to early-childhood adversity, adopted children often display delays in their cognitive and motor development and have problems developing secure attachment relationships with their adoptive parents. In this review we present the results of all available studies on the attachment and the cognitive and motor development of internationally adopted children from China in the first years after arriving in the adoptive family. Seven pertinent studies were found, based on five samples examined in the USA, Canada, and the Netherlands. Regarding cognitive and motor development (five studies) the adoptees showed a delayed development at arrival in the adoptive family. As soon as six months after arrival the adoptees were, on average, functioning within normal ranges, although their catch-up to non-adopted children was not yet complete. Two years after arrival the catch-up to non-adopted peers appeared to be complete. Regarding attachment (two studies) observations of attachment six and twelve months after adoption showed less secure and more disorganized attachment for the adopted children compared to the normative distribution of non-adopted children. Two years after adoption, observations of attachment confirmed a catch-up in secure attachment, but the adoptees still displayed more insecure disorganized attachment than children in the norm group.

  18. Development of motorized plasma lithography for cell patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Shinji; Nagasawa, Yohei; Saito, Akira C; Matsui, Tsubasa S; Yokoyama, Sho; Sato, Masaaki

    2014-03-01

    The micropatterning of cells, which restricts the adhesive regions on the substrate and thus controls cell geometry, is used to study mechanobiology-related cell functions. Plasma lithography is a means of providing such patterns and uses a spatially-selective plasma treatment. Conventional plasma lithography employs a positionally-fixed mask with which the geometry of the patterns is determined and thus is not suited for producing on-demand geometries of patterns. To overcome this, we have manufactured a new device with a motorized mask mounted in a vacuum chamber of a plasma generator, which we designate motorized plasma lithography. Our pilot tests indicate that various pattern geometries can be obtained with the control of a shielding mask during plasma treatment. Our approach can thus omit the laborious process of preparing photolithographically microfabricated masks required for the conventional plasma lithography.

  19. Association between feeding difficulties and language delay in preterm infants using Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Chapman, Ira; Bann, Carla M; Vaucher, Yvonne E; Stoll, Barbara J

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the relationship between abnormal feeding patterns and language performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition at 18-22 months adjusted age among a cohort of extremely premature infants. This is a descriptive analysis of 1477 preterm infants born ≤ 26 weeks gestation or enrolled in a clinical trial between January 1, 2006 and March 18, 2008 at a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network center who completed the 18-month neurodevelopmental follow-up assessment. At 18-22 months adjusted age, a comprehensive neurodevelopmental evaluation was performed by certified examiners including the Receptive and Expressive Language Subscales of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition and a standardized adjusted age feeding behaviors and nutritional intake. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multilevel linear and logistic regression modeling. Abnormal feeding behaviors were reported in 193 (13%) of these infants at 18-22 months adjusted age. Abnormal feeding patterns, days of mechanical ventilation, hearing impairment, and Gross Motor Functional Classification System level ≥ 2 each independently predicted lower composite language scores. At 18 months adjusted age, premature infants with a history of feeding difficulties are more likely to have language delay. Neuromotor impairment and days of mechanical ventilation are both important risk factors associated with these outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular and Functional Characterization of the Developing Respiratory Motor Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The faithful and sophisticated control of motor neurons (MNs) allows for our ability to walk, chew, breathe, and speak. This dissertation is focused on the characterization of MNs and the intricate circuitry that are involved in the control of these MNs that surround the airways. The relevance of this study goes beyond satisfying our curiosity of the physiology of breathing. This knowledge is critical in their application in respiratory medicine and speech rehabilitation – as the same set of ...

  1. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development

    OpenAIRE

    Gerry eLeisman; Orit eBraun-Benjamin; Robert eMelillo

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-bas...

  2. Motor and cognitive development: the role of karate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesi, Marianha; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Vella, Francesco Paolo; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: regular physical activity has an effect on biological responses in both muscles and organs that, in turn, alter the structure and functions of the brain. Therefore, this study aims at comparing motor (sprint, coordination ability and explosive legs strength skills) and cognitive abilities (working memory, attention, executive functioning) in children. Methods: 39 children with average chronological age of 9 years were divided in: Karatekas (n=19) and Sedentary (n=20) groups. Their abilities were measured by motor and cognitive tests. Motor skills were assessed through a battery composed by the 20 mt Sprint test, the Agility test and the Standing board jump Test. Cognitive profile was assessed by a battery of tests derived from BVN 5–11, “Batteria di Valutazione Neuropsicologica per l’Et à Evolutiva”: Visual discrimination test, Reaction time test, Forwards and Backwards Digit Span Tests, Corsi Block-Tapping test and Tower of London. Results: our results reveal significant differences between two groups (p < 0.05). Karate children show better speed times, explosive legs strength and coordination skills. They scored better on working memory, visual selective attention and executive functions. Conclusion: karate exercise training shows global benefits resulting in physiological and psychological gains in children. PMID:25332920

  3. Motor and cognitive development: the role of karate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesi, Marianha; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Vella, Francesco Paolo; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2014-04-01

    regular physical activity has an effect on biological responses in both muscles and organs that, in turn, alter the structure and functions of the brain. Therefore, this study aims at comparing motor (sprint, coordination ability and explosive legs strength skills) and cognitive abilities (working memory, attention, executive functioning) in children. 39 children with average chronological age of 9 years were divided in: Karatekas (n=19) and Sedentary (n=20) groups. Their abilities were measured by motor and cognitive tests. Motor skills were assessed through a battery composed by the 20 mt Sprint test, the Agility test and the Standing board jump Test. Cognitive profile was assessed by a battery of tests derived from BVN 5-11, "Batteria di Valutazione Neuropsicologica per l'Et à Evolutiva": Visual discrimination test, Reaction time test, Forwards and Backwards Digit Span Tests, Corsi Block-Tapping test and Tower of London. our results reveal significant differences between two groups (p < 0.05). Karate children show better speed times, explosive legs strength and coordination skills. They scored better on working memory, visual selective attention and executive functions. karate exercise training shows global benefits resulting in physiological and psychological gains in children.

  4. Theory of stages applied to the studies of motor development: a revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inara Marques

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Theory of stages applied to motor development was based on development psychology, proposed by Piaget. The idea was that the cognitive behavior was undergoing qualitative changes called stages. And it was that idea which provided the basis for building a theory of stages for motor behaviour. Since then, the goal of the professional who works with motor development has been to try to explain the process of acquisition of fundamental movements through a hierarchical sequence of stages, identified since the first movement manifestation until its execution in a mature way. This article, however, aims not at confirming the theory of stages as adequate, but at carrying out an explanation about such theory applied to the studies of motor development, considering its principal characteristics as well a discussion of such content in face of new trends.

  5. Granger causality mapping during joint actions reveals evidence for forward models that could overcome sensory-motor delays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idil Kokal

    Full Text Available Studies investigating joint actions have suggested a central role for the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS because of the close link between perception and action provided by these brain regions [1], [2], [3]. In contrast, our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment demonstrated that the BOLD response of the pMNS does not suggest that it directly integrates observed and executed actions during joint actions [4]. To test whether the pMNS might contribute indirectly to the integration process by sending information to brain areas responsible for this integration (integration network, here we used Granger causality mapping (GCM [5]. We explored the directional information flow between the anterior sites of the pMNS and previously identified integrative brain regions. We found that the left BA44 sent more information than it received to both the integration network (left thalamus, right middle occipital gyrus and cerebellum and more posterior nodes of the pMNS (BA2. Thus, during joint actions, two anatomically separate networks therefore seem effectively connected and the information flow is predominantly from anterior to posterior areas of the brain. These findings suggest that the pMNS is involved indirectly in joint actions by transforming observed and executed actions into a common code and is part of a generative model that could predict the future somatosensory and visual consequences of observed and executed actions in order to overcome otherwise inevitable neural delays.

  6. Growth hormone therapy, muscle thickness, and motor development in Prader-Willi syndrome: an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reus, Linda; Pillen, Sigrid; Pelzer, Ben J; van Alfen-van der Velden, Janielle A A E M; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Zwarts, Machiel; Otten, Barto J; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effect of physical training combined with growth hormone (GH) on muscle thickness and its relationship with muscle strength and motor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). In a randomized controlled trial, 22 infants with PWS (12.9 ± 7.1 months) were followed over 2 years to compare a treatment group (n = 10) with a waiting-list control group (n = 12). Muscle thickness of 4 muscle groups was measured by using ultrasound. Muscle strength was evaluated by using the Infant Muscle Strength meter. Motor performance was measured with the Gross Motor Function Measurement. Analyses of variance were used to evaluate between-group effects of GH on muscle thickness at 6 months and to compare pre- and posttreatment (after 12 months of GH) values. Multilevel analyses were used to evaluate effects of GH on muscle thickness over time, and multilevel bivariate analyses were used to test relationships between muscle thickness, muscle strength, and motor performance. A significant positive effect of GH on muscle thickness (P muscle thickness and muscle strength (r = 0.61, P muscle thickness and motor performance (r = 0.81, P muscle strength and motor performance (r = 0.76, P muscle thickness, which was related to muscle strength and motor development in infants with PWS. Catch-up growth was faster in muscles that are most frequently used in early development. Because this effect was independent of GH, it suggests a training effect. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Motor and cognitive development of infants of adolescent and adult mothers: longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Silva de Borba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate in infants of adolescent and adult mothers: (1 the risk factors for child development; (2 changes in cognitive and motor development over four months of follow-up, (3 correlation between cognitive and motor development over four months of follow-up. This is a longitudinal study with 40 infants, 20 infants of adolescent mothers and 20 of adult mothers from Porto Alegre and Butiá, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Three evaluations of motor and cognitive development were performed using the Alberta Motor Infant Scale (AIMS and the Bayley Scale Infant Development II. Significant difference in the supine position of AIMS was observed between groups in the third evaluation. Infants of adolescent mothers showed lower scores than those of adult mothers. The motor scores of each position and total AIMS score showed significant difference during overall time and in each group. The Bayley-II mental score also showed significant difference during overall time and in each group. There was a positive, strong and significant association between AIMS and Bayley scores in all three evaluation stages as in the group of infants of adolescent and adult mothers. It was concluded that infants of adolescent mothers showed worse results in the supine position during the third evaluation than those of adult mothers. There was a significant association between motor and cognitive development in both groups of infants over time.

  8. Treadmill training effects on walking acquisition and motor development in infants at risk of developmental delay

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Examinar o efeito de intervenção em esteira motorizada na idade de aquisição da marcha independente em bebês de risco para atraso de desenvolvimento. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 15 lactentes a partir do 5º mês de idade, sendo cinco deles com risco de atraso de desenvolvimento submetidos a sessões de fisioterapia e intervenção em esteira motorizada (Grupo Experimental); cinco com risco de atraso de desenvolvimento submetidos apenas a sessões de fisioterapia (Grupo Controle de Ri...

  9. Guided play and free play in an enriched environment: Impact on motor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Stock Palma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of guided play and free play in an enriched environmentintervention programs using motor skill development in kindergarten children. Seventy-one children attending kindergarten classes were assigned to two experimental groups and one control group. Participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 before and after the intervention period. Results revealed that both boys and girls in the guided play group showed motor skill improvement, whereas no changes were observed in motor development in the boys and girls assigned to the free play in enriched environment group, nor in those in the control group. These findings indicate that the teacher's role in the guided play intervention was crucial to help preschool children to improve their performance.

  10. The Dutch motor skills assessment as tool for talent development in table tennis : a reproducibility and validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Irene R.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.

    2015-01-01

    A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in their

  11. The Dutch motor skills assessment as tool for talent development in table tennis: a reproducibility and validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Sanden, M.W.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Oosterveld, F.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in

  12. The Dutch motor skills assessment as tool for talent development in table tennis: a reproducibility and validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Oosterveld, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in their

  13. The Dutch motor skills assessment as tool for talent development in table tennis : a reproducibility and validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Irene R.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.

    2015-01-01

    A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in their tal

  14. The Dutch motor skills assessment as tool for talent development in table tennis: a reproducibility and validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Oosterveld, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in their tal

  15. The Dutch motor skills assessment as tool for talent development in table tennis: a reproducibility and validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Sanden, M.W.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Oosterveld, F.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR QUALITIES ADOLESCENTS IN IMPROVING COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahat Rashidovich Mamaev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study the actualization of the problem of improvement of children and adolescents in the wellness center, which consists in urgent need of modernization sports and recreation activities with adolescents 13-14 years in terms of stay in the health complex. The paper presents the survey of adolescents Romodanovskaya secondary school number 3 of the Republic of Mordovia. Identified motor abilities using tests of physical fitness. Application of the results will increase the efficiency of the process of physical education, positive impact on the formation of personality traits of adolescents and strengthen the health effect of physical exercise.

  17. Development of a dc Motor Model and an Actuator Efficiency Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, John Clifford; Mc Kellar, Michael George; DeWall, Kevin George

    2001-07-01

    For the past several years, researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have been investigating the ability of motor-operated valves (MOVs) used in Nuclear Power Plants to close or open when subjected to design basis flow and pressure loads. Part of this research addresses the response of a dcpowered motor-operated gate valve to assess whether it will achieve flow isolation and to evaluate whether it will slow down excessively under design-basis conditions and thus fail to achieve the required stroke time. As part of this research, we have developed a model of a dc motor operating under load and a model of actuator efficiency under load based on a first principle evaluation of the equipment. These models include the effect that reduced voltage at the Motor Control Center and elevated containment temperatures have on the performance of a dc powered MOV. The model also accounts for motor torque and speed changes that result from the heatup of the motor during the stroke. These models are part of the Motor- Operated Valve In Site Test Assessment (MISTA) software which is capable of independently evaluating the ability of dc-powered motoroperated gate valves to achieve flow isolation and to meet required stroke times under design-basis conditions. This paper presents an overview of the dc motor model and the actuator efficiency under load model. The paper then compares the analytical results from the models with the results of actual dc motor and actuator testing, including comparisons of the effect reduced voltage, elevated containment temperature, and motor heating during the stroke have on an MOV.

  18. Infant motor development predicts sports participation at age 14 years: northern Finland birth cohort of 1966.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte L Ridgway

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor proficiency is positively associated with physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between the timing of infant motor development and subsequent sports participation during adolescence. METHODS: Prospective observational study. The study population consisted of 9,009 individuals from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Motor development was assessed by parental report at age 1 year, using age at walking with support and age at standing unaided. At follow up aged 14 years, data were collected on the school grade awarded for physical education (PE. Self report was used to collect information on the frequency of sports participation and number of different sports reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Earlier infant motor development was associated with improved school PE grade, for age at walking supported (p<0.001 and standing unaided (p = <0.001. Earlier infant motor development, in terms of age at walking supported, was positively associated with the number of different sports reported (p = 0.003 and with a greater frequency of sports participation (p = 0.043. These associations were independent of gestational age and birth weight, as well as father's social class and body mass index at age 14 years. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier infant motor development may predict higher levels of physical activity as indicated by higher school PE grade, participation in a greater number of different types of sports and increased frequency of sports participation. Identification of young children with slower motor development may allow early targeted interventions to improve motor skills and thereby increase physical activity in later life.

  19. Developmental delays at arrival and postmenarcheal Chinese adolescents' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tony X; Rice, Jessica L; Mahoney, E Emily

    2015-01-01

    Internationally adopted (IA) children often have delays at adoption and undergo massive catch-up after adoption. Before achieving developmental catch-up, however, delays at adoption present a risk for IA children's adjustment, but it remains unknown whether such delays foreshadow IA children's outcomes after catch-up development has completed or ceased. In the current analysis, we utilized menarche as a practical marker to indicate the cessation of developmental catch-up. We investigated how delays at arrival predicted long-term outcomes in 132 postmenarcheal teens (M = 14.2 years, SD = 1.7) who were adopted from China at 16.6 months (SD = 17.1). In 2005, adoptive parents provided data of medical evaluation results on their children's delay status in gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social development, emotional development, and cognitive development. Six years later in 2011, data on parent-child relationship quality were collected from parents, and data on the adoptees' academic competence and internalizing problems were also collected from both parents and adoptees. We found that gross motor delay at arrival predicted academic performance (parent-report: b = -.34, p < .01) and internalizing problems (self-report: b = .26, p < .05; parent-report: b = .33, p < .01). Other delays were not significant in predicting any of the outcomes. The impact of early nutritional deprivation on gross motor development was discussed.

  20. Development of a Marx-coupled trigger generator with high voltages and low time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yixiang; Zeng, Jiangtao; Sun, Fengju; Cong, Peitian; Su, Zhaofeng; Yang, Shi; Zhang, Xinjun; Qiu, Ai'ci

    2016-10-01

    Coupled by the Marx of the "JianGuang-I" facility, a high voltage, low time-delay trigger generator was developed. Working principles of this trigger generator and its key issues were described in detail. Structures of this generator were also carefully designed and optimized. Based on the "JianGuang-I" Marx generator, a test stand was established. And a series of experiment tests were carried out to the study performance of this trigger generator. Experiment results show that the output voltage of this trigger generator can be continuously adjusted from 58 kV to 384 kV. The time delay (from the beginning of the Marx-discharging pulse to the time that the output pulse of the trigger generator arises) of this trigger pulse is about 200 ns and its peak time (0%˜100%) is less than 50 ns. Experiment results also indicate that the time-delay jitter of trigger voltages decreases rapidly with the increase in the peak voltage of trigger pulses. When the trigger voltage is higher than 250 kV, the time-delay jitters (the standard deviation) are less than 7.7 ns.

  1. The attitudes of family physicians toward a child with delayed growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aker, Servet; Şahin, Mustafa Kürşat; Kınalı, Ömer; Şimşek Karadağ, Elif; Korkmaz, Tuğba

    2017-09-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude of family physicians toward a child with delayed growth and development. Primary healthcare professionals play a key role in monitoring growth and development, the best indicator of the child's health status. If delayed growth and development can be detected early, then it is usually possible to restore functioning. This descriptive study was performed in Samsun, Turkey, in May and June 2015. In total, 325 family physicians were included. The study consisted of two parts. In the first session of the research, the story of an 18-month-old child with delayed growth and development was presented using visual materials. An interview between the child's mother and a member of primary healthcare staff was then enacted by two of the authors using role-playing. Subsequently, participants were given the opportunity to ask the mother and member of primary healthcare staff questions about the case. During the sessions, two observers observed the participants, took notes and compared these after the presentation. In the second part of the study, the participants were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of three open-ended questions. Findings When asking questions of the mother, family physicians generally used accusatory and judgmental language. One of the questions most commonly put to the mother was 'Do you think you are a good mother?' Family physicians were keen to provide instruction for the patient and relatives. Family physicians to a large extent thought that the problem of a child with delayed growth and development can be resolved through education. Family physicians' manner of establishing relations with the patient and relatives is inappropriate. We therefore think that they should receive on-going in-service training on the subject.

  2. The role of the ETS gene PEA3 in the development of motor and sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladle, David R; Frank, Eric

    2002-12-01

    The ETS family of transcription factors includes two members, ER81 and PEA3, which are expressed in groups of sensory and motor neurons supplying individual muscles. To investigate a possible role of these genes in determining sensory and/or motor neuron phenotype, we studied mice in which each of these genes was deleted. In contrast to the deletion of ER81, which blocks the formation of projections from muscle sensory neurons to motor neurons in the spinal cord, deletion of PEA3 causes no obvious effects on sensory neurons or on their synaptic connections with motor neurons. PEA3 does play a major role in the formation of some brachial motoneurons however. Motoneurons innervating the cutaneous maximus muscle, which are normally PEA3(+), fail to develop normally so that postnatally the muscle is innervated by few motoneurons and is severely atrophic. Other studies suggest that these motoneurons initially appear during development but fail to contact their normal muscle targets.

  3. [Delayed identity development, family relationships and psychopathology: Links between healthy and clinically disturbed youth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Escher, Fabian J

    2017-05-19

    This study compared three groups of various age and health status (total N = 732) with respect to their identity status, stress level, and parental behavior. As expected, patients were characterized by delayed identity development, particularly ruminative exploration. Further, patients experienced high identity stress and described high levels of anxious paternal rearing and intrusive maternal psychological control. The patients‘ levels of both internalizing and externalizing symptomatology were high, and the impact of externalizing symptoms on identity arrest was strong. Identity status was delayed, albeit age adequate in both groups of healthy youths, with comparably high levels of anxious parental monitoring. Compared to adolescents, young adults were particularly active in their identity development, showing a high level of identity stress but no increase in psychopathology.

  4. Oportunidades do ambiente domiciliar para o desenvolvimento motor Oportunidades del ambiente domiciliar para el desarrollo motor Opportunities in the home environment for motor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Cesário Defilipo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as oportunidades presentes no ambiente domiciliar para o desenvolvimento motor de lactentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico de base populacional, transversal, realizado com 239 lactentes com idade entre três e 18 meses, residentes no município de Juiz de Fora, MG, em 2010. Os participantes foram selecionados por amostragem aleatória estratificada, conglomerada, em múltiplos estágios. Para avaliar a qualidade e quantidade de estímulo motor no ambiente domiciliar foi utilizado o instrumento Affordance in the Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale. Procedeu-se a análise bivariada com aplicação do teste qui-quadrado, seguida de regressão logística multinomial para verificar a associação entre as oportunidades presentes no domicílio e fatores biológicos, comportamentais, demográficos e socioeconômicos. RESULTADOS: As oportunidades de estimulação ambiental foram relativamente baixas. Na análise bivariada, para a faixa etária de três a nove meses, foi encontrada associação com os fatores: ordem de nascimento (p = 0,06, classificação socioeconômica (p = 0,08, renda mensal (p = 0,06 e renda per capita (p = 0,03. No modelo de regressão, prevaleceu a classificação socioeconômica (RC = 7,46; p = 0,03. Para a faixa etária de dez a 18 meses, os fatores associados, na análise bivariada, foram: estado civil materno (p OBJETIVO: Evaluar las oportunidades presentes en el ambiente domiciliar para el desarrollo motor de lactantes. MÉTODOS: Estudio epidemiológico de base poblacional, transversal, realizado con 239 lactantes con edad entre tres y 18 meses, residentes en el municipio de Juiz de Fora, Sureste de Brasil, en 2010. Los participantes se seleccionaron por muestreo aleatorio estratificado, conglomerado, en múltiples fases. Para evaluar la calidad y cantidad de estimulo motor en el ambiente domiciliar se utilizó el instrumento Affordance in the Home Environment for Motor Development

  5. Dataset for human sensitivity to chemicals during development of motor function

    OpenAIRE

    Ingber, Susan Z.; Pohl, Hana R.

    2016-01-01

    The authors reviewed human data related to motor development following exposure to a subset of chemicals thoroughly reviewed in Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Toxicological Profiles and Addenda. The resulting dataset includes the following variables and confounders: chemical name, exposure route, exposure duration and frequency, study design, cohort name and/or geographic location, sex of cohort subjects, NOAEL, and LOAEL. This data summary can help validate motor de...

  6. On a Strategy to Develop Robust and Simple Tariffs from Motor Vehicle Insurance Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Christmann

    2005-01-01

    The goals of this paper are twofold: we describe common features in data sets from motor vehicle insurance companies and we investigate a general strategy which exploits the knowledge of such features. The results of the strategy are a basis to develop insurance tariffs. We use a nonparametric approach based on a combination of kernel logistic regression and ε-support vector regression which both have good robustness properties. The strategy is applied to a data set from motor vehicle insurance companies.

  7. Risk factors in development of motor complications in Chinese patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Wan Fung; Gao, Jing; Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Man, Sui Cheung; Xie, Li Xia; Lu, Jia Hong; Fong, Wai Leuk; Li, Min

    2009-08-01

    Motor complications induced by levodopa (L-dopa) treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD) are not well documented in patients of Chinese ethnicity. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate the prevalence of dyskinesias and motor fluctuations, and the factors determining their development, in a population of Chinese patients with PD. Among 137 patients with PD, 98 (71.5%) had received a L-dopa preparation. Motor fluctuations were found in 74.5% and dyskinesias in 77.6% of the 98 patients. Patients with dyskinesias were younger at onset of disease than those without. Patients with dyskinesias and motor fluctuations had significantly longer duration of PD and L-dopa treatment, higher daily doses of L-dopa, and higher scores in the 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), when compared to patients without motor complications. Among these factors, motor fluctuations were best predicted by duration of L-dopa treatment and dyskinesias by disease duration. We conclude that motor complications are closely related to disease and treatment parameters, especially the treatment and disease duration.

  8. A systematic review of clinimetric properties of measurements of motivation for children aged 5-16 years with a physical disability or motor delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura; Ziviani, Jenny; Boyd, Roslyn Nancy

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this systematical review was to appraise the clinimetric properties of measures of motivation in children aged 5-16 years with a physical disability or motor delay. Six electronic databases were searched. Studies were included if they reported measuring motivation in school-aged children across occupational performance areas. Two reviewers independently identified measures from included articles. Evaluation of measures was completed using the COSMIN (consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments) checklist. A total of 13,529 papers were retrieved, 15 reporting measurement of motivation in this population. Two measures met criteria: Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) and Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ). There was evidence of adequate validity for DMQ, and preliminary evidence of test-retest reliability. Psychometric evidence for PVQ was poor. Both measures demonstrated good clinical utility. The large number of retrieved papers highlights the importance being attributed to motivation in clinical studies, although measurement is seldom performed. Both identified measures show promise but further psychometric research is required.

  9. 3p14.1 de novo microdeletion involving the FOXP1 gene in an adult patient with autism, severe speech delay and deficit of motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Orazio; D'Agruma, Leonardo; Minenna, Adelaide Franca; Palumbo, Pietro; Stallone, Raffaella; Palladino, Teresa; Zelante, Leopoldo; Carella, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Interstitial deletion of chromosome region 3p14.1, including FOXP1 gene, is relatively rare and, until recently, there were no strong evidences to support the hypothesis that this microdeletion could play a role in the etiology of genomic disorders. Here, we report on an adult patient with a recognizable phenotype of autism, severe speech delay, deficit of motor coordination and typical dysmorphic features. Analysis of a dense whole genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array showed a 1Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome region 3p14.1 including the entire coding region of FOXP1 (MIM 605515) gene. In order to study the parental origin of the deletion, we analyzed selected SNPs in the deleted area in the proband and his parents showing Mendelian incompatibilities suggesting a de novo deletion on the chromosome of paternal origin. Despite the frequency of this genomic alteration has not been estimated, our patient confirm the hypothesis that microdeletion of 3p14.1 seems to be a rare cause of cognitive disorders and that haploinsufficiency of FOXP1 may play a role in neurological and language deficits in patients carrying a 3p14.1 deletion. Finally, our patient is also important because useful to further delineate the clinical spectrum secondary to the 3p14.1 microdeletions.

  10. Sport stacking activities in school children's motor skill development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Diane; Ransdell, Mary; Coleman, Lyndsie; Irwin, Carol

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the impact of a 12-wk. sport stacking intervention on reaction time (RT), manual dexterity, and hand-eye coordination in elementary school-aged children. 80 Grade 2 students participated in a 15-min. sport stacking practice session every school day for 12 wk., and were tested on psychomotor performance improvement. Tests for choice RT, manual dexterity, and photoelectric rotary pursuit tracking were conducted pre- and post-intervention for both experimental group (n = 36) and the controls (n = 44) who did no sport stacking. Students who had the intervention showed a greater improvement in two-choice RT. No other group difference was found. Such sport stacking activities may facilitate children's central processing and perceptual-motor integration.

  11. Late snowmelt delays plant development and results in lower reproductive success in the High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Elisabeth J; Dullinger, Stefan; Semenchuk, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    In tundra areas where the growing season is short, any delay in the start of summer may have a considerable effect on plant development, growth and reproductive success. Climate models suggest long-term changes in winter precipitation in the Arctic, which may lead to deeper snow cover and a resultant delay in date of snow melt. In this paper, we investigated the role of snow depth and melt out date on the phenological development and reproductive success of vascular plants in Adventdalen, Svalbard (78° 10'N, 16° 06'E). Effects of natural variations in snow accumulation were demonstrated using two vegetation types (snow depth: meadow 21 cm, heath 32 cm), and fences were used to experimentally increase snow depth by over 1m. Phenological delay was greatest directly after snowmelt in the earlier phenological phases, and had the largest effect on the early development of those species which normally green-up early (i.e. Dryas, Papaver, Salix, Saxifraga). Compressed growing seasons and length of the reproductive period led to a reduced reproductive success in some of the study species. There were fewer flowers, fewer plots with dispersing seeds, and lower germination rates. This can have consequences for plant establishment and community composition in the long-term.

  12. Effects of music therapy in the treatment of children with delayed speech development - results of a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Linden Ulrike; Groß Wibke; Ostermann Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Language development is one of the most significant processes of early childhood development. Children with delayed speech development are more at risk of acquiring other cognitive, social-emotional, and school-related problems. Music therapy appears to facilitate speech development in children, even within a short period of time. The aim of this pilot study is to explore the effects of music therapy in children with delayed speech development. Methods A total of 18 childr...

  13. Gifted Children and Visual-Motor Development: A Comparison of Bender-Gestalt and VMI Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoff, Howard M.; Sperling, Barbara L.

    1986-01-01

    A sample of 63 gifted elementary-school students was administered the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test and the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Group results revealed no significant differences between the two tests, that they did correlate significantly, and that younger students had advanced visual-motor development when tested…

  14. The Relationship between Motor Abilities and Early Social Development in a Preschool Cohort of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittingham, Koa; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; Boyd, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between motor ability and early social development in a cohort of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: Population-based cohort study. Methods: Participants were 122 children with CP assessed at 18, 24 and 30 months, corrected age (ca). Motor ability was measured by the Gross Motor Function…

  15. Gifted Children and Visual-Motor Development: A Comparison of Bender-Gestalt and VMI Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoff, Howard M.; Sperling, Barbara L.

    1986-01-01

    A sample of 63 gifted elementary-school students was administered the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test and the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Group results revealed no significant differences between the two tests, that they did correlate significantly, and that younger students had advanced visual-motor development when tested…

  16. The Natural History of Gross Motor Development in Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 1 to 15 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckung, E.; Carlsson, G.; Carlsdotter, S.; Uvebrant, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore motor development in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using developmental curves for CP, subtypes, and the five severity levels of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the GMFCS were applied to 317 children (145 females, 172 males) with CP, aged…

  17. Respiratory management of motor neurone disease: a review of current practice and new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khizar; Proctor, Alison Ruth; McDermott, Christopher J; Shaw, Pamela J

    2012-06-01

    Motor neurone disease is a neurodegenerative condition with a significant morbidity and shortened life expectancy. Hypoventilatory respiratory failure is the most common cause of death and respiratory function significantly predicts both survival and quality of life in patients with motor neurone disease. Accordingly, supporting and maintaining respiratory function is important in caring for these patients. The most significant advance in motor neurone disease care of recent years has been the domiciliary provision of non-invasive ventilation for treating respiratory failure. Neuromuscular respiratory weakness also leads to ineffective cough and retained airways secretions, predisposing to recurrent chest infections. In this review, we discuss current practice and recent developments in the respiratory management of motor neurone disease, in terms of ventilatory support and cough augmentation.

  18. Parallel Path Magnet Motor: Development of the Theoretical Model and Analysis of Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirba, I.; Kleperis, J.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical and numerical modelling is performed for the linear actuator of a parallel path magnet motor. In the model based on finite-element analysis, the 3D problem is reduced to a 2D problem, which is sufficiently precise in a design aspect and allows modelling the principle of a parallel path motor. The paper also describes a relevant numerical model and gives comparison with experimental results. The numerical model includes all geometrical and physical characteristics of the motor components. The magnetic flux density and magnetic force are simulated using FEMM 4.2 software. An experimental model has also been developed and verified for the core of switchable magnetic flux linear actuator and motor. The results of experiments are compared with those of theoretical/analytical and numerical modelling.

  19. Cognitive development in children with language impairment, and correlation between language and intelligence development in kindergarten children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Su-Fen; Liu, Jui-Ching; Hsu, Chun-Ling; Chang, Ming-Yuh; Chang, Tung-Ming; Cheng, Helen

    2015-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review of 65 children with developmental delay. The male-to-female ratio was 2.25 : 1, and the mean age was 5.8 years; performance IQ was 94.8, verbal IQ was 83, and full-scale IQ was 87.4. Twenty-three (35%) children had normal language development, 13 (20%) had below average language development, and 29 (45%) had developmental language disorder. Performance IQ was significantly better than verbal IQ in all children (P children with developmental language disorder and specific language impairment was significantly lower than that of children with normal language development. Performance IQ was found to be correlated with language score (r = .309, P = .012). The children with language impairment were associated with lower IQ scores. The discrepancy between performance IQ and verbal IQ persisted in children with developmental delay, not only in children with language disorder. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. The development of radiation hardened robot for nuclear facility - Development of ultrasonic motor for driving robot hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Soo Hyun; Yoon, S. Y.; Maeng, I. J. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The camera types of variable form were used a wide field. For example, industry, broadcasting, homemaking, a dilettantes life, etc. But most of important components are imported because of the underdeveloped the interior technique. In a environment as special as atomic energy field, specially the performance of a ultrasonic motor and effect of Nuclear Facility are better than an electromagnetic motor. In our study, Manufacture and characteristics estimation of ring type piezoelectric ceramics, stator analysis and manufacture for ring type ultrasonic motor, implementation of ring type ultrasonic motor, development of driving circuit for ring type ultrasonic motor were carried out. On the basis of result, to stator design of ultrasonic motor for driving robot hand, resonance mode, resonance frequency and dispacement were analyzed using FEM program(ATILA). on the basis of this result optimum reason of stator for driving robot hand was established, and stator of ultrasonic motor for driving robot hand was designed and made. 24 refs., 55 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  1. Can Alberta infant motor scale and milani comparetti motor development screening test be rapid alternatives to bayley scales of infant development-II at high-risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Hosbay Yildirim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main object of the present study is to assess neuromotor development of high-risk infants by using three tests, and to determine inter-test concordance and the feasibility of these tests. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and nine patients aged between 0 and 6 months and identified as "high-risk infant" according to the Kliegman′s criteria were enrolled to the study. Three different tests were used to assess neuromotor development of the patients: Bayley scales of infant development-II (BSID-II, Alberta infant motor scale (AIMS, and Milani Comparetti Motor Development Screening Test (MCMDST. Results: Correlation analysis was performed between pure scores of BSID-II motor scale and total scores of AIMS. These two tests were highly correlated (r:0.92. Moderate concordance was found between BSID-II and AIMS (k:0.35. Slight concordance was found between BSID-II and MCMDST; and the concordance was slight again for AIMS and MCMDST (k:0.11 and k:0.16, respectively too. Conclusion: AIMS has a high correlation and consistency with BSID-II and can be used with routine neurological examination as it is based on observations, has few items, and requires less time to complete.

  2. Intellectual development analysis of delayed language development in 150 children%150例语言发育迟缓儿童的智能发育分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志兵

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the intellectual development of delayed language development children. Methods The study included 150 children of delayed language development,who were divided into three groups in accordance with the extent of language development defect,78 cases of mild defects,59 cases of moderate defects,13 cases of severe defects. Results The language,adaptive behavior and personal social scores reduced in turn in the mild defects,moder-ate defects,severe defects group,there were statistically significant difference (P<0.05).Language development and adap-tive behavior,fine motor and personal social development levels had significantly positive correlation (P<0.05).The inci-dence of adaptive behavior and low personal social in the mild defects,moderate defects,severe defects group increased in turn,there were statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion On the assessment of the level of intellectual development,adaptive behavior,fine motor and personal social training should be joined the language training of delayed language development children.%目的:探讨语言发育迟缓儿童的智能发育。方法本次研究对象共包括150例语言发育迟缓儿童,按照语言发育的缺陷程度分为3组,其中轻度缺陷78例,中度缺陷59例,重度缺陷13例。结果轻度缺陷、中度缺陷、重度缺陷组患儿的语言、适应行为、个人社交得分均依次降低,3组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。语言发育水平与适应行为、精细动作及个人社交发育水平呈明显正相关性(P<0.05)。轻度缺陷、中度缺陷及重度缺陷组的适应行为、个人社交低下的发生率呈依次升高趋势,3组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在对智能发育水平进行评估的同时,应将适应行为、精细运动及个人社交方面的训练加入语言发育迟缓儿童语言训练中。

  3. Ramathibodi Language Development Questionnaire: A Newly Developed Screening Tool for Detection of Delayed Language Development in Children Aged 18-30 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuthapisith, Jariya; Wantanakorn, Pornchanok; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan

    2015-08-01

    To develop a parental questionnaire for screening children with delayed language development in primary care settings. Ramathibodi Language Development (RLD) questionnaire was developed and completed by groups of 40 typically developing children age 18 to 30 months old and 30 children with delayed language development. The mean score was significantly lower in the delay language group (6.7 ± 1.9), comparing with the typically developing group (9.6 ± 0.7). The optimal ROC curve cut-off score was 8 with corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 72%, respectively. The corresponding area under the curve was 0.96 (95% CI = 0.92-0.99). The RLD questionnaire was the promising language developmental screening instrument that easily utilized in well-child examination settings.

  4. Sit to Talk: Relation between Motor Skills and Language Development in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Klaus; Violi, Dominic A

    2016-01-01

    Relations between walking skills and language development have been reported in 10- to 14-month-old infants. However, whether earlier emerging motor milestones also affect language skills remains unknown. The current research fills this gap by examining the relation between reaching and sitting skills and later language development, respectively. Reaching and sitting were assessed eight times, starting when infants (N = 29) were around 3 months of age. All assessments were completed and recorded remotely via videoconference using Skype or FaceTime. Subsequently, infants' language and motor skills were assessed via parent questionnaires (Communicative Development Inventories and Early Motor Questionnaire) at 10 and 14 months of age. Results revealed a significant correlation between the emergence of sitting skills and receptive vocabulary size at 10 and 14 months of age. Regression analyses further confirmed this pattern and revealed that the emergence of sitting is a significant predictor of subsequent language development above and beyond influences of concurrent motor skills. These findings suggest that the onset of independent sitting may initiate a developmental cascade that results in increased language learning opportunities. Further, this study also demonstrates how infants' early motor skills can be assessed remotely using videoconference.

  5. Can Kinesiological Activities Change "Pure" Motor Development in Preschool Children during One School Year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krneta, Željko; Casals, Cristina; Bala, Gustav; Madić, Dejan; Pavlović, Slobodan; Drid, Patrik

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an additional, organized, and more intensive kinesiological treatment on "pure" motor abilities in preschool children. In the present study an experimental treatment was carried out on a sample of 37 preschool boys by applying kinesiological activities. The 60 minute treatment was applied over a period of one school year (9 months), twice a week. A control group of 31 boys were trained according to the regular program for preschool institutions. Treatment effects were assessed by 8 motor ability tests and 5 anthropometric measures. The significant differences between the groups, which were observed after the final measurement and compared to the initial one, proved that the kinesiological treatment had a positive impact on the general development of "pure" motor abilities. The most significant effect of experimental kinesiological treatment was the improvement in whole body force, flexibility and coordination of preschool boys. These findings, obtained only in one school year, point to the importance of physical exercise and the application of additional kinesiological activities with various modalities, to improve motor development, even morphological growth and development in preschool children. The effects of the perennial application of kinesiological activities, under the supervision of kinesiological professionals, could be beneficial and could form the basis for a better biological and motor development in older age.

  6. Development of an abbreviated version of the delirium motor subtyping scale (DMSS-4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, D; Adamis, D; Leonard, M; Trzepacz, P; Grover, S; Jabbar, F; Meehan, K; O'Connor, M; Cronin, C; Reynolds, P; Fitzgerald, J; O'Regan, N; Timmons, S; Slor, C; de Jonghe, J; de Jonghe, A; van Munster, B C; de Rooij, S E; Maclullich, A

    2014-04-01

    Delirium is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome with considerable heterogeneity in clinical profile. Identification of clinical subtypes can allow for more targeted clinical and research efforts. We sought to develop a brief method for clinical subtyping in clinical and research settings. A multi-site database, including motor symptom assessments conducted in 487 patients from palliative care, adult and old age consultation-liaison psychiatry services was used to document motor activity disturbances as per the Delirium Motor Checklist (DMC). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify the class structure underpinning DMC data and also items for a brief subtyping scale. The concordance of the abbreviated scale was then compared with the original Delirium Motor Subtype Scale (DMSS) in 375 patients having delirium as per the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th edition) criteria. Latent class analysis identified four classes that corresponded closely with the four recognized motor subtypes of delirium. Further, LCA of items (n = 15) that loaded >60% to the model identified four features that reliably identified the classes/subtypes, and these were combined as a brief motor subtyping scale (DMSS-4). There was good concordance for subtype attribution between the original DMSS and the DMSS-4 (κ = 0.63). The DMSS-4 allows for rapid assessment of clinical subtypes in delirium and has high concordance with the longer and well-validated DMSS. More consistent clinical subtyping in delirium can facilitate better delirium management and more focused research effort.

  7. Development of motors and drives for main coolant pump and CEDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Hyun; Ha, Hoi Doo; Park, Jung Woo; Koo, Dae Hyun; Chang, Ki Chan; Kim, Jong Moo; Kim, Won Ho; Rim, Geun Hie; Baek, Ju Won; Park, Doh Young; Hwang, Don Ha; Jeon, Jeong Woo [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    A canned type 170kW induction motor for the main coolant pump (MCP) of the integral reactor SMART was designed to minimize the eddy current loss in the can and the volume of motor. In order to verify the design and analysis methodology, a canned type 30kW induction motor and an inverter were developed and tested. The motor was designed to have two poles with squirrel cage solid rotor and open slot stator. The motor driver was designed as VVVF inverter to operate both at 900(r.p.m) and at 3600(r.p.m). The calculated design values showed a good agreement with the experimental results. The measured efficiencies of the canned motor and the inverter were 70(%) and 96(%), respectively. A variable reluctance type linear pulse motor (LPM) with double air-gaps for the Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) to lift 100kg was designed, analyzed, manufactured and tested. A converter and a test facility were manufactured to verity the dynamic performance of the LPM. The mover of the LPM was welded with magnetic material(SUS430) and non-magnetic material(SUS304) to get flux path between inner stator and outer stator. The measured thrust force was about 20(%) less than the designed thrust force. As for the rotary stepping motors for CEDM-II, which have transverse flux pattern, three design options were proposed with thrust force density of 8kN/m{sup 2}, 14kN/m{sup 2} and 52kN/m{sup 2} respectively. (author). 31 refs., 219 figs., 60 tabs.

  8. Development of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Hulst, K. van; Gerven, M.H.J.C van; Haaften, L. van; Groot, S.A. de

    2014-01-01

    Milestones in the typical development of eating skills are considered to be nippling (breast or bottle), eating from a spoon, drinking from a cup, biting and chewing. The purpose of this research was to study the development and consolidation of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoo

  9. The Effect of Social Disadvantage on Motor Development in Young Children: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, Martin; Jordan-Black, Julie-Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background: Empirical research suggests that social disadvantage has a negative effect on the development of language, and related cognitive skills such as reading. There is, however, no corresponding body of research on the impact of social disadvantage on motor development. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of…

  10. The Development of Verbal Control over Motor Behavior: A Replication and Extension of Luria's Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Virginia S.; Waters, Harriet Salatas

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments replicate and extend Luria's (1959, 1961) findings on the development of verbal self-regulation during early childhood. Results support Luria's hypothesis that overt verbalizations facilitate control of motor behavior in young children and that language can play an active and integrative role in the development of behavioral and…

  11. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  12. Development of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Hulst, K. van; Gerven, M.H.J.C van; Haaften, L. van; Groot, S.A. de

    2014-01-01

    Milestones in the typical development of eating skills are considered to be nippling (breast or bottle), eating from a spoon, drinking from a cup, biting and chewing. The purpose of this research was to study the development and consolidation of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoo

  13. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  14. Assessment of gait in toddlers with normal motor development and in hemiplegic children with mild motor impairment: a validity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla R. P. Figueiredo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The optimization of gait performance is an important goal in the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy (CP who present a prognosis associated with locomotion. Gait analysis using videos captured by digital cameras requires validation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of a method that involves the analysis of videos captured using a digital camera for quantifying the temporal parameters of gait in toddlers with normal motor development and children with CP. METHOD: Eleven toddlers with normal motor development and eight children with spastic hemiplegia who were able to walk without assistive devices were asked to walk through a space contained in the visual field of two instruments: a digital camera and a three-dimensional motion analysis system, Qualisys Pro-Reflex. The duration of the stance and swing phases of gait and of the entire gait cycle were calculated by analyzing videos captured by a digital camera and compared to those obtained by Qualisys Pro-Reflex, which is considered a highly accurate system. RESULTS: The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC demonstrated excellent agreement (ICC>0.90 between the two procedures for all measurements, except for the swing phase of the normal toddlers (ICC=0.35. The standard error of measurement was less than 0.02 seconds for all measures. CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal similarities between the two instruments, suggesting that digital cameras can be valid instruments for quantifying two temporal parameters of gait. This congruence is of clinical and scientific relevance and validates the use of digital cameras as a resource for helping the assessment and documentation of the therapeutic effects of interventions targeted at the gait of children with CP.

  15. Prevention of the development of psychological distress following a motor vehicle crash: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Rebecca; Tran, Yvonne; Gopinath, Bamini; Cameron, Ian D; Craig, Ashley

    2016-07-16

    It is estimated that up to 50 % of motor vehicle crash survivors develop significant psychological distress, such as depressive mood and anxiety, within 6 months of the crash. Associated impacts include loss of employment, delayed return to work, financial and familial stress, and increased medical and compensation costs. The major aim of this research is to investigate the efficacy of interventions for preventing the development of psychological distress following a motor vehicle crash. The efficacy of two brief interventions will be examined: a cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) programme, targeting mood and anxiety, and a lifestyle programme, targeting sleep, diet and physical activity. This is a randomized, controlled multisite study. Participants include at least 180 adults injured in a motor vehicle crash who have entered a compensation process. Research will compare outcomes in three groups randomly assigned to: one group of 60 adults, who receive a brief email-delivered CBT programme, with one session every 2 weeks for 10 weeks and telephone contact every 2 weeks; a second group of 60 adults, who receive a brief email-delivered lifestyle intervention involving one session every 2 weeks for 10 weeks with telephone contact; and an active waiting-list control group of 60 adults who are provided claims processing-related reading material along with telephone contact every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. Participants will be recruited within 12 weeks of the motor vehicle crash, and will be comprehensively assessed before and after treatment, and 6 and 12 months post-injury. Assuming an α probability level of 0.05 and a power of 80 %, at least 180 participants will be recruited. The primary outcome measure is the presence and severity of psychological distress or disorder. Secondary outcome measures include assessment of self-efficacy, resilience employment status, social activity and support, lifestyle and physical health factors, along with process outcome

  16. Dataset for human sensitivity to chemicals during development of motor function

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    Susan Z. Ingber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors reviewed human data related to motor development following exposure to a subset of chemicals thoroughly reviewed in Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR Toxicological Profiles and Addenda. The resulting dataset includes the following variables and confounders: chemical name, exposure route, exposure duration and frequency, study design, cohort name and/or geographic location, sex of cohort subjects, NOAEL, and LOAEL. This data summary can help validate motor development outcomes observed in animal exposure studies; it can also aid in determining whether these outcomes and corresponding exposure windows are relevant to humans.

  17. Mouse zygotes respond to severe sperm DNA damage by delaying paternal DNA replication and embryonic development.

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    Joanna E Gawecka

    Full Text Available Mouse zygotes do not activate apoptosis in response to DNA damage. We previously reported a unique form of inducible sperm DNA damage termed sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF. SCF mirrors some aspects of somatic cell apoptosis in that the DNA degradation is mediated by reversible double strand breaks caused by topoisomerase 2B (TOP2B followed by irreversible DNA degradation by a nuclease(s. Here, we created zygotes using spermatozoa induced to undergo SCF (SCF zygotes and tested how they responded to moderate and severe paternal DNA damage during the first cell cycle. We found that the TUNEL assay was not sensitive enough to identify the breaks caused by SCF in zygotes in either case. However, paternal pronuclei in both groups stained positively for γH2AX, a marker for DNA damage, at 5 hrs after fertilization, just before DNA synthesis, while the maternal pronuclei were negative. We also found that both pronuclei in SCF zygotes with moderate DNA damage replicated normally, but paternal pronuclei in the SCF zygotes with severe DNA damage delayed the initiation of DNA replication by up to 12 hrs even though the maternal pronuclei had no discernable delay. Chromosomal analysis of both groups confirmed that the paternal DNA was degraded after S-phase while the maternal pronuclei formed normal chromosomes. The DNA replication delay caused a marked retardation in progression to the 2-cell stage, and a large portion of the embryos arrested at the G2/M border, suggesting that this is an important checkpoint in zygotic development. Those embryos that progressed through the G2/M border died at later stages and none developed to the blastocyst stage. Our data demonstrate that the zygote responds to sperm DNA damage through a non-apoptotic mechanism that acts by slowing paternal DNA replication and ultimately leads to arrest in embryonic development.

  18. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

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    Patrizia Tortella

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  19. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  20. A note on the population genetic consequences of delayed larval development in insects

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    Marcos Mattoso de Salles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations by Dobzhansky's group in the 1940s suggesting that the presence of recessive genotypes could account for lower larval developmental rates in Drosophila melanogaster were not confirmed at the time and all subsequent investigations on this subject focused on the analysis of ecological models based on competition among pre-adult individuals. However, a paper published in this journal in 1991 eventually confirmed the finding made by Dobzhansky and his co-workers. In this report, we provide a theoretical analysis of the population genetic effects of a delay in the rate of larval development produced by such a genetic mechanism.

  1. Effects of Space Flight-Associated Stimuli on Development of Murine and Medaka Sensory-Motor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgemuth, Debra J.

    1999-01-01

    The major goal of these studies was to continue investigations into the influence of altered gravitational fields on the development and function of the vertebrate brain and nervous system. Of major focus during the 18-month finding period of this award was the maintenance of the animals used in the experimental mouse and medaka model paradigms. The experiments focused on characterization of stress-sensitive periods in neural development and immediate or delayed effects on gene expression, physiology and behavior. The hypothesis under investigation was that the environment of space will have biologically significant effects on the development and function of the vertebrate nervous system. We have postulated that these effects will be more significant on certain neural compartments, such as the vestibular-motor system, and that these effects will have greater impact at particular stages of embryonic and post-natal development of the animal. Development of the central nervous system is well known for its vulnerability and sensitivity to environmental stimuli, although the effects of gravitational influences are poorly understood. The long-term goals of this research effort, initiated previously and continued in limited capacity during this interim period, were to provide important new information on the effects of altered environments during these critical periods.

  2. Suitability of functional evaluation embedded in serious game rehabilitation exercises to assess motor development across lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnechère, B; Sholukha, V; Omelina, L; Van Vooren, M; Jansen, B; Van Sint Jan, S

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the results of activities performed using specially developed serious games for physical rehabilitation could be used as an indicator of the natural maturation and decline of motor control in healthy participants. Eighty-one participants (19 children (5-15 years old), 40 adults (18-65 years old) and 22 aged subjects (60-88 years old) participated in this study. Motions performed were recorded using the Kinect sensor. Three different exercises embedded in the games were used to assess upper limb, trunk and lower limb control. The trial duration and accuracy, measures of gross motor function and fine motor control, respectively, were computed for each participant. ANOVA tests shows statistically significant differences between the three groups for duration (53±15, 27±10 and 119±30s for children, adults and elderly subjects respectively) and accuracy (87±5, 89±10 and 70±8% for children, adults and elderly subjects respectively). The slopes of the curves that approximated the evolution of the performance over various ages are coherent with previous studies about motor control development and physiological decline. The proposed solution, i.e. serious games rehabilitation exercises coupled to motion analysis, seems to be an interesting tool to assess global motor function. Further studies are needed to study the influence of pathologies on the studied parameters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Characterizing Semaphorin-Mediated Effects on Sensory and Motor Axon Pathfinding and Connectivity During Embryonic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettl, Rosa Eva; Huber, Andrea B

    2017-01-01

    How are precise connectivity to peripheral targets and corresponding sensory-motor networks established during developmental innervation of the vertebrate extremities? The formation of functional sensory-motor circuits requires highly appropriate temporal and spatial regulation of axon growth which is achieved through the combination of different molecular mechanisms such as communication between heterotypic fiber systems, axon-environment, or axon-glia interactions that ensure proper fasciculation and accurate pathfinding to distal targets. Family members of the class 3 semaphorins and their cognate receptors, the neuropilins, were shown to govern various events during wiring of central and peripheral circuits, with mice lacking Sema3-Npn signaling showing deficits in timing of growth, selective fasciculation, guidance fidelity, and coupling of sensory axon growth to motor axons at developmental time points. Given the accuracy with which these processes have to interact in a stepwise manner, deficiency of the smallest cog in the wheel may impact severely on the faithful establishment and functionality of peripheral circuitries, ultimately leading to behavioral impairments or even cause the death of the animal. Reliable quantitative analyses of sensory-motor fasciculation, extension, and guidance of axons to their cognate target muscles and the skin during development, but also assessment of physiological and behavioral consequences at adult age, are therefore a necessity to extend our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of peripheral circuit formation. In this chapter we provide a detailed methodology to characterize class 3 semaphorin-mediated effects on peripheral sensory and motor axon pathfinding and connectivity during embryonic development.

  4. Advanced axial field D.C. motor development for electric passenger vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A wound-field axial-flux dc motor was developed for an electric vehicle drive system. The motor is essentially an axial-flux version of the classical Gramme-ring winding motor, but the active conductors are recessed into slots cut into the two opposite faces of the laminated tape-wound core ring. Three motors were built and tested in the program. The second (functional) model was a six-pole machine which weighed 88.5 kg. It developed 16.9 km (33.0 hp), and a max speed of 4800 rpm. Full load efficiency was 92% and predicted SAE D-cycle efficiency was 88%. The last engineering) model was a 4-pole machine with compoles, allowing a weight reduction to 45 kg (100 lbs.) while addressing some manufacturability problems. The engineering model was rated at 13.2 kw (17.6 hp) at 3000 rpm, with a peak power of 19.8 km (26.4 hp) and a max speed of 7200 rpm. Initial test results on this motor showed poor commutation and efficiency; the program was terminated without resolution of these problems.

  5. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  6. Behavioral, cognitive, and motor performance and physical development of five-year-old children who were born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with the use of testicular sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijerink, Aukje M; Ramos, Liliana; Janssen, Anjo J W M; Maas-van Schaaijk, Nienke M; Meissner, Andreas; Repping, Sjoerd; Mochtar, Monique H; Braat, Didi D M; Fleischer, Kathrin

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate at the age of 5 years the behavioral, cognitive, and motor performance and physical development of children born after testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A prospective longitudinal cohort study. Two university medical centers. A total of 103 5-year-olds who were born after TESE-ICSI. The follow-up of the children was performed by questionnaires at birth and again at 1 year and at 4 years of age. Five-year-old children were invited for individual assessment. Behavioral performance was assessed with the use of the Child Behavior Checklist for parents and teachers. Cognitive performance was assessed with the use of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence test, 3rd version. Motor performance was assessed with the use of the Dutch Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd version. Physical development was assessed by means of physical examination and medical history. Behavioral, cognitive, and motor performance and physical development. Eighty-nine children were completely assessed, and 14 were partially assessed at the age of 5 years. The 5-year-old cohort assessed significantly better on behavioral and cognitive performance and significantly worse on motor performance-but still in the normal range-compared with the theoretic distribution in the general population. Four children (3.8%) of the 5-year-old cohort had developmental problems/delays. Two of them were previously diagnosed with a form of autism (pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified). Two children had developmental problems based on our behavioral, cognitive, and/or motor assessments. The long-term effects on development and health in children born after TESE-ICSI procedures seem to be reassuring. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Development of Imitation in Piaget's Sensory-Motor Period of Infant Development (Stages III-VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Paul T.

    Sixteen white home-reared babies (eight boys - eight girls) ranging in age from six months to two years were studied during home visits. Piaget's sensory-motor development theory of imitation was employed, and his special thesis of the hierarchical sequence was tested. The examiner proposed four critieria for assessing the development of imitation…

  8. Effect of Spark Motor Program on the development of gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Faal Moganloo

    2013-11-01

    Results: Spark Program caused significant changes in all the variables of the study, except speed and agility, in the experimental group after 24 sessions. The changes included: agility and speed (P=0.731, balance (P=0, strength (P=0.002, and bilateral coordination (P=0. Conclusion: Spark Motor Program can improve gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable students.

  9. COMPARISON THE EFFECT OF SIMULTANEOUS SENSORY STIMULATION AND CURRENT OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY APPROACHES ON MOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFANTS WITH DOWN SYNDROME

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    Masoud KARIMLOO

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveNeuromuscular characteristics in Down syndrome result in generalized muscular hypotonia, developmental delays and sensory integration deficits. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of simultaneous sensory stimulations and current occupational therapy approaches on motor functions development of infants with Down syndrome.Materials & MethodsEighteen infants with Down syndrome, aged 6 -18 months, were evaluated in two groups: intervention group (simultaneous sensory stimulation and occupational therapy and control group (occupational therapy alone. They attended the program 3 times a week for 6 months and each session lasted 45 minutes. Motor functions were assessed before, during, and after intervention in the two groups, using GMFM test.ResultsMean motor function increased in both groups according to the GMFM test (P = 0.000. Comparison of the changes showed that although the mean difference of this variable was higher in the intervention group, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.576.Mean motor deficit reduced in both groups during the period of the study,which was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Comparison of the difference in mean motor deficit in the first and last evaluations showed that this difference was more in the intervention group but statistically insignificant (P = 0.617ConclusionEarly use of simultaneous sensory stimulations can improve the quality of motor skills in Down syndrome infants. It is suggested that it may be used as an early intervention in association with other methods in the rehabilitation of these patients. However, more studies in this regard are warranted.

  10. The role of pre-school children motor behavior in developing their self-concept

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    Perić Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of motor behavior and general intellectual abilities were performed on a sample of 42 pre-school children (22 boys and 20 girls aged 6 (±3 months; moreover, the self-concept of those children was analysed. For the assessment of their motor behavior six movement tasks were chosen and the Mary Gutrich scale was applied for the analysis of the results. The children's intellectual abilities were assessed by the means of Raven's colored progressive matrices so as to enable the groups to homogenise, as well as to eliminate potential parasite factors when drawing conclusions. The self-concept analysis was performed using the pshychological interview during the course of which the children described their impression of their own abilities with regard to the past, present and future. The data related to the self-concept were complemented with the analysis of the children's drawings. The statistical analysis of the data gathered showed that motor behavior plays a significant role in developing one's self-concept, which is especially true of boys. Even though there is no significant statistical difference between boys and girls with respect to the quality of their motor behavior, there are significant differences between them pertaining to the vocabulary they use when describing their own selves, i.e. their self-concept, especially with respect to the present and future. Boys seem to use more extensive motor-related vocabulary when describing themselves, especially those with greater motor skills. Both boys and girls show a tendency to describe themselves as incapable in the past. When describing their present moment capabilities, girls tend to use vocabulary related to play and independence, whereas they mostly use vocabulary related to professions and sex roles when referring to the future. These findings indicate that social factors are of immense importance from a very early age, especially among girls. Moreover, the results show that

  11. Changes of motor abilities during ontogenetic development in Lurcher mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvartová, V; Cendelín, J; Vozeh, F

    2010-07-14

    Lurcher mutant mice represent a natural model of olivocerebellar degeneration. This degeneration is caused by a mutation of the gene for the delta2 glutamate receptor. Lurcher mutants suffer from cerebellar ataxia and cognitive functions deficiency as a consequence of excitotoxic apoptosis of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex and a secondary decrease of granule cells and inferior olive neurons. This process finishes by the 90th day of postnatal life, but already by 14 days, the Purkinje cells are damaged and the ataxia is fully developed. Purkinje cells die by apoptosis within the first 3 weeks of life. The aim of our work was to study the development of motor functions in the course of the ontogenetic development in Lurcher mutant mice of the B6CBA strain and to compare it with wild type mice of the same strain. Mice aged 2, 3, 6, 9, and 22 weeks were used in our experiment. Motor skills were examined using four standard tests: the horizontal wire, rotating cylinder, footbridge and slanting ladder. Our findings in Lurcher mutant mice show a significant increase of motor abilities up to the sixth postnatal week and selective decrease early after this period. This improvement of motor skills is caused by the physiological development of musculature and the nervous system, probably with some contribution of plasticity of the maturing brain. The cause of the decline of these abilities immediately after the completion of the development is unknown.

  12. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaobao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the stopping buses. The second occurs as buses merge back to the motorized lane. The average car delay is estimated as the sum of the average delay at these two conflict points and the delay resulting from following the slower bicycles that merged into the motorized lane. Data are collected to calibrate and validate the developed model from one site in Beijing. The sensitivity of car delay to various operation conditions is examined. The results show that both bus stream and bicycle stream have significant effects on car delay. At bus volumes above 200 vehicles per hour, the curbside stop design is not appropriate because of the long car delays. It can be replaced by the bus bay design.

  13. Drought stress delays endosperm development and misregulates genes associated with cytoskeleton organization and grain quality proteins in developing wheat seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begcy, Kevin; Walia, Harkamal

    2015-11-01

    Drought stress is a major yield-limiting factor for wheat. Wheat yields are particularly sensitive to drought stress during reproductive development. Early seed development stage is an important determinant of seed size, one of the yield components. We specifically examined the impact of drought stress imposed during postzygotic early seed development in wheat. We imposed a short-term drought stress on plants with day-old seeds and observed that even a short-duration drought stress significantly reduced the size of developing seeds as well as mature seeds. Drought stress delayed the developmental transition from syncytial to cellularized stage of endosperm. Coincident with reduced seed size and delayed endosperm development, a subset of genes associated with cytoskeleton organization was misregulated in developing seeds under drought-stressed. Several genes linked to hormone pathways were also differentially regulated in response to drought stress in early seeds. Notably, drought stress strongly repressed the expression of wheat storage protein genes such as gliadins, glutenins and avenins as early as 3 days after pollination. Our results provide new insights on how some of the early seed developmental events are impacted by water stress, and the underlying molecular pathways that can possibly impact both grain size and quality in wheat.

  14. Baby steps: investigating the development of perceptual-motor couplings in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Klerk, Carina C J M; Johnson, Mark H; Heyes, Cecilia M; Southgate, Victoria

    2015-03-01

    There are cells in our motor cortex that fire both when we perform and when we observe similar actions. It has been suggested that these perceptual-motor couplings in the brain develop through associative learning during correlated sensorimotor experience. Although studies with adult participants have provided support for this hypothesis, there is no direct evidence that associative learning also underlies the initial formation of perceptual-motor couplings in the developing brain. With the present study we addressed this question by manipulating infants' opportunities to associate the visual and motor representation of a novel action, and by investigating how this influenced their sensorimotor cortex activation when they observed this action performed by others. Pre-walking 7-9-month-old infants performed stepping movements on an infant treadmill while they either observed their own real-time leg movements (Contingent group) or the previously recorded leg movements of another infant (Non-contingent control group). Infants in a second control group did not perform any steps and only received visual experience with the stepping actions. Before and after the training period we measured infants' sensorimotor alpha suppression, as an index of sensorimotor cortex activation, while they watched videos of other infants' stepping actions. While we did not find greater sensorimotor alpha suppression following training in the Contingent group as a whole, we nevertheless found that the strength of the visuomotor contingency experienced during training predicted the amount of sensorimotor alpha suppression at post-test in this group. We did not find any effects of motor experience alone. These results suggest that the development of perceptual-motor couplings in the infant brain is likely to be supported by associative learning during correlated visuomotor experience.

  15. Effect of zinc intake on mental and motor development in infants: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Fuentes Lugo, Daniel; Henríquez Sánchez, Patricia; Doreste Alonso, Jorge; Skinner, Anna L; Medina, Marisol W; Lowe, Nicola M; Hall Moran, Victoria; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) intake on mental and motor development in infants. Out of 5500 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, 5 RCTs were selected after applying the exclusion/inclusion criteria. The influence of Zn intake on mental and motor development was considered in the overall meta-analysis. Other variables were also taken into account as possible effect modifiers: doses of Zn intake, intervention duration, nutritional situation, and risk of bias. Indices of mental and motor development assessed were the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI). Additionally we carried out a sensitivity analysis. The pooled β was -0.01 (95 %CI -0.02, 0) for MDI and 0 (95 %CI -0.03, 0.02) for PDI, with a substantial heterogeneity in both analyses. When we performed a meta-regression, the effect of Zn supplementation on MDI changed depending on the dose of supplementation. Regarding PDI, there was a differential effect of Zn intake depending on intervention duration, dose of supplementation, nutritional situation, and risk of bias. Zn supplementation showed a negative, weak and significant effect on PDI score in those studies with a length of 4 to 20 weeks (β= -0.05; CI 95 % -0.06 to -0.04). In conclusion, no association was found between Zn intake and mental and motor development in infants. Further standardized research is urgently needed to clarify the role of Zn supplementation upon infant mental and motor development, particularly in Europe.

  16. How do maternal subclinical symptoms influence infant motor development during the first year of life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Piallini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An unavoidable reciprocal influence characterizes mother-infant’s dyad.Within this relationship,the presence of depression,somatization,hostility,paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity symptoms at a subclinical level and their possible input on infant motor competences has not been yet considered.Bearing in mind that motor abilities represent not only an indicator of infant’s health-status,but also the principal field to infer his/her needs, eelings and intentions,in this study the quality of infants’movements were assessed and analyzed in relationship with the maternal attitudes.The aim of this research was to investigate if/how maternal symptomatology may lead infant's motor development during his/her first year of life by observing the characteristics of motor development in infants aged 0-11months.Participants included 123 mothers and their infants (0-11months-old.Mothers’ symptomatology was screened with SymptomChecklist-90-Revised(SCL-90-R,while infants were tested with Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-Second Edition.All dyads belonged to a non-clinical population, however,on the basis of SCL-90-Rscores, mothers’sample was divided into two groups: normative and subclinical.Descriptive,T-test,correlational analysis between PDMS-2scores and SCL-90-R results are reported,as well as regression models results.Both positive and negative correlations were found between maternal perceived symptomatology,Somatization(SOM,Interpersonal Sensitivity(IS,Depression(DEP,Hostility(HOSand Paranoid Ideation(PARand infants’motor abilities.These results were then further verified by applying regression models to predict the infant motor outcomes on the basis of babies’ age and maternal status.The presence of positive symptoms in SCL-90-Rquestionnaire (subclinical group predicted good visual-motor integration and stationary competences in the babies.In particular,depressive and hostility feelings in mothers seemed to induce an infant

  17. Seasonal life history trade-offs in two leafwing butterflies: Delaying reproductive development increases life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElderry, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    Surviving inhospitable periods or seasons may greatly affect fitness. Evidence of this exists in the prevalence of dormant stages in the life cycles of most insects. Here I focused on butterflies with distinct seasonal morphological types (not a genetic polymorphism) in which one morphological type, or form, delays reproduction until favorable conditions return, while the other form develops in an environment that favors direct reproduction. For two butterflies, Anaea aidea and A. andria, I tested the hypothesis that the development of each seasonal form involves a differential allocation of resources to survival at eclosion. I assayed differences in adult longevity among summer and winter forms in either a warm, active environment or a cool, calm environment. Winter form adults lived 40 times longer than summer form but only in calm, cool conditions. The magnitude of this difference provided compelling evidence that the winter form body plan and metabolic strategy (i.e. resource conservatism) favor long term survival. This research suggests that winter form adults maintain lowered metabolic rate, a common feature of diapause, to conserve resources and delay senescence while overwintering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a Simulink/RTW-Based Realtime Control System for an Induction Motor Vector Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, M. H. [Sunmoon University, Chonan (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    In this research a Simulink/RTW-based realtime control system was developed for an induction motor vector control. On the Simulink window, the control system is designed in the form of block diagrams, program codes are produced automatically with the RTW(Real Time Workshop), then an DSP c compiles the program codes. With this automatic program producing method rapid prototyping is realized with the least time-consuming manual programming procedures. To show effectiveness of the proposed system designing scheme a DSP-based induction motor vector controller was constructed and implemented. (author). 10 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Development and evaluation of a set of group delay standards. [deep space tracking station calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Beatty, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A set of cable assemblies serving as group delay standards having nominal delays of 15, 30, and 60 nsec are described. Various types of measurements were performed on the cable standards, including impedance, microwave phase shift, RF pulse burst delay, modulation pulsed delay, and envelope phase shift measurements. The results of these tests are given, and various sources of error are discussed, in particular, dispersion and internal reflections.

  20. Developing micro DC-brushless motor driver and position control for fiber positioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Laurent; Hörler, Philipp; Makarem, Laleh; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Gillet, Denis; Bleuler, Hannes; Bouri, Mohamed; Prada, Francisco; De Rivera, Guillermo; Sanchez, Justo

    2014-07-01

    In the large-scale, Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), thousands of fiber positioners will be used. Those are robotic positioners, with two axis, and having the size of a pen. They are tightly packed on the focal plane of the telescope. Dedicated micro-robots have been developed and they use 4mm brushless DC motors. To simplify the implementation and reduce the space occupancy, each actuator will integrate its own electronic control board. This board will be used to communicate with the central trajectory generator, manage low level control tasks and motor current feeding. In this context, we present a solution for a highly compact electronic. This electronic is composed of two layers. The first is the power stage that can drive simultaneously two brushless motors. The second one consists of a fast microcontroller and deals with different control tasks: communication, acquisition of the hall sensor signals, commutation of the motors phases, and performing position and current regulation. A set of diagnostic functions are also implemented to detect failure in the motors or the sensors, and to sense abnormal load change that may be the result of two robots colliding.

  1. Characterization of fine motor development: dynamic analysis of children's drawing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiushi; Luo, Jianfei; Wu, Zhongcheng; Shen, Fei; Sun, Zengwu

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated children's fine motor development by analyzing drawing trajectories, kinematics and kinetics. Straight lines drawing task and circles drawing task were performed by using a force sensitive tablet. Forty right-handed and Chinese mother-tongue students aged 6-12, attending classes from grade 1 to 5, were engaged in the experiment. Three spatial parameters, namely cumulative trace length, vector length of straight line and vertical diameter of circle were determined. Drawing duration, mean drawing velocity, and number of peaks in stroke velocity profile (NPV) were derived as kinematic parameters. Besides mean normal force, two kinetic indices were proposed: normalized force angle regulation (NFR) and variation of fine motor control (VFC) for circles drawing task. The maturation and automation of fine motor ability were reflected by increased drawing velocity, reduced drawing duration, NPV and NFR, with decreased VFC in circles drawing task. Grade and task main effects as well as significant correlations between age and parameters suggest that factors such as schooling, age and task should be considered in the assessment of fine motor skills. Compared with kinematic parameters, findings of NFR and VFC revealed that kinetics is another important perspective in the analysis of fine motor movement.

  2. Development of a hermetically sealed brushless DC motor for a J-T cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joscelyn, Edwin; Hochler, Irwin; Ferri, Andrew; Rott, Heinz; Soukaris, Ted

    1996-01-01

    This development was sponsored by Ball Aerospace for the Cryogenic On-Orbit LongLife Active Refrigerator (COOLLAR) program. The cryocooler is designed to cool objects to 65 K and operate in space for at least 7 years. The system also imports minimal impact to the spacecraft in terms of vibration and heat. The basic Joule-Thompson cycle involves compressing a working fluid, nitrogen in this case, at near-constant temperature from 17.2 KPa to 6.89 MPa. The nitrogen is then expanded through a Joule-Thompson valve. The pure nitrogen gas must be kept clean; therefore, any contamination from motor organic materials must be eliminated. This requirement drove the design towards sealing of the motor within a titanium housing without sacrificing motor performance. It is estimated that an unsealed motor would have contributed 1.65 g of contaminants, due to the organic insulation and potting materials, over the 7-year life. This paper describes the motor electrical and mechanical design, as well as the sealing difficulties encountered, along with their solutions.

  3. The Motor and Cognitive Development of Overweight Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krombholz, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of overweight compared with healthy-weight children attending kindergartens in Munich, Germany. Mean age of the children at the beginning of the study was 53.2 months (SD = 7.5); the duration of the study was 20 months. At the beginning of the study children were classified as overweight (n…

  4. The Need for Motor Development Programs for Visually Impaired Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazesi, Margot A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper advocates the development of movement programs for preschool visually impaired children to compensate for their orientation deficits. The author asserts that skills necessary for acquisition of spatial concepts should be taught through movement programs at an early age in the normal developmental sequence instead of attempting to remedy…

  5. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Galuppi, Barbara E.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2008-01-01

    The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) for cerebral palsy has been widely used internationally for clinical, research, and administrative purposes. This paper recounts the ideas and work behind the creation of the GMFCS, reports on the lessons learned, and identifies some philosophical challenges inherent in trying to develop an…

  6. Development of Early Handwriting: Visual-Motor Control during Letter Copying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldarelli, Jennifer E.; Kahrs, Björn A.; Hunt, Sarah C.; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of handwriting for school readiness and early academic progress, prior research on the development of handwriting has focused primarily on the product rather than the process by which young children write letters. In contrast, in the present work, early handwriting is viewed as involving a suite of perceptual, motor, and…

  7. Osteogenesis imperfecta : profiles of motor development as assessed by a postal questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbert, RHH; Uiterwaal, CSPM; Gulmans, VAM; Pruijs, HEH; Helders, PJM

    2000-01-01

    This study was performed to achieve more detailed information regarding the age and sequence in the development of motor milestones in the different types of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The parents of 98 patients with a diagnosis of OI were sent a questionnaire regarding the age at which patients

  8. Development of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; van Hulst, Karen C M; van Gerven, Marjo H J C; van Haaften, Leenke; de Groot, Sandra A F

    2014-05-01

    Milestones in the typical development of eating skills are considered to be nippling (breast or bottle), eating from a spoon, drinking from a cup, biting and chewing. The purpose of this research was to study the development and consolidation of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding in young infants. The present study longitudinally investigated the development of this skill in 39 healthy children from the start of spoon feeding until the skill was acquired. The Observation List Spoon Feeding with 7 observation items for oral motor behavior and 6 items for abnormal behavior was used. Results showed that infants between 4 and 8 months of age needed 5.7 weeks (SD 2.1), with a range of 8 weeks (from 2 to 10 weeks) to acquire this skill. No significant correlation (p=.109) between age at start spoon feeding and weeks needed to develop the skill was found. During this period oral motor behavior consolidated and abnormal behavior diminished. With this study it is shown that the period in weeks needed to acquire the oral motor behavior for the skill assisted spoon feeding is important in case of feeding problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Educational Gymnastics: The Effectiveness of Montessori Practical Life Activities in Developing Fine Motor Skills in Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Punum; Davis, Alan; Shamas-Brandt, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: A quasi-experiment was undertaken to test the effect of Montessori practical life activities on kindergarten children's fine motor development and hand dominance over an 8-month period. Participants were 50 children age 5 in 4 Montessori schools and 50 students age 5 in a kindergarten program in a high-performing suburban…

  10. Growth hormone therapy, muscle thickness, and motor development in Prader-Willi Syndrome: An RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, L.; Pillen, S.; Pelzer, B.J.; Velden, J.A.M. van der; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.; Zwarts, M.; Otten, B.J.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of physical training combined with growth hormone (GH) on muscle thickness and its relationship with muscle strength and motor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 22 infants with PWS (12.9 +/- 7.1 mo

  11. Growth hormone therapy, muscle thickness, and motor development in Prader-Willi Syndrome: An RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, L.; Pillen, S.; Pelzer, B.J.; Alfen-van der Velden, A.A.E.M. van; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.S.; Zwarts, M.J.; Otten, B.J.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of physical training combined with growth hormone (GH) on muscle thickness and its relationship with muscle strength and motor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 22 infants with PWS (12.9 ± 7.1 mont

  12. Educational Gymnastics: The Effectiveness of Montessori Practical Life Activities in Developing Fine Motor Skills in Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Punum; Davis, Alan; Shamas-Brandt, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: A quasi-experiment was undertaken to test the effect of Montessori practical life activities on kindergarten children's fine motor development and hand dominance over an 8-month period. Participants were 50 children age 5 in 4 Montessori schools and 50 students age 5 in a kindergarten program in a high-performing suburban…

  13. Only Self-Generated Actions Create Sensori-Motor Systems in the Developing Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Karin Harman; Swain, Shelley N.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research shows that sensory and motor systems interact during perception, but how these connections among systems are created during development is unknown. The current work exposes young children to novel "verbs" and objects through either (a) actively exploring the objects or (b) by seeing an experimenter interact with the objects.…

  14. Development of Early Handwriting: Visual-Motor Control during Letter Copying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldarelli, Jennifer E.; Kahrs, Björn A.; Hunt, Sarah C.; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of handwriting for school readiness and early academic progress, prior research on the development of handwriting has focused primarily on the product rather than the process by which young children write letters. In contrast, in the present work, early handwriting is viewed as involving a suite of perceptual, motor, and…

  15. Osteogenesis imperfecta : profiles of motor development as assessed by a postal questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbert, RHH; Uiterwaal, CSPM; Gulmans, VAM; Pruijs, HEH; Helders, PJM

    2000-01-01

    This study was performed to achieve more detailed information regarding the age and sequence in the development of motor milestones in the different types of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The parents of 98 patients with a diagnosis of OI were sent a questionnaire regarding the age at which patients

  16. Osteogenesis imperfecta : profiles of motor development as assessed by a postal questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbert, RHH; Uiterwaal, CSPM; Gulmans, VAM; Pruijs, HEH; Helders, PJM

    This study was performed to achieve more detailed information regarding the age and sequence in the development of motor milestones in the different types of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The parents of 98 patients with a diagnosis of OI were sent a questionnaire regarding the age at which patients

  17. Growth hormone therapy, muscle thickness, and motor development in Prader-Willi Syndrome: An RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, L.; Pillen, S.; Pelzer, B.J.; Velden, J.A.M. van der; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.; Zwarts, M.; Otten, B.J.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of physical training combined with growth hormone (GH) on muscle thickness and its relationship with muscle strength and motor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 22 infants with PWS (12.9 +/- 7.1

  18. Modified Delphi Investigation of Motor Development and Learning in Physical Education Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Susan; Metcalf, Amanda; Bulger, Sean M.; Housner, Lynn D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: As the scope of motor development and learning knowledge has successfully broadened over the years, there is an increased need to identify the content and learning experiences that are essential in preparing preservice physical educators. The purpose of this study was to generate expert consensus regarding the most critical motor…

  19. The Presence or Absence of Older Siblings and Variation in Infant Goal-Directed Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Vincent; Stahl, Daniel; Striano, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between having an older sibling and early goal-directed motor development. In a longitudinal study, infants were filmed playing with their mother and were observed at 5 and 12 months of age. After each observation, they were assessed with the Mental Bayley Scale. From the mother-child interaction, playing…

  20. Design of direct drive robot using indigenously developed d.c. torque motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athani, Vithal V.

    The range of high-performance torque motors, which were indigenously developed for use in multistage satellite launch vehicles, is described. The main features that set dc torque motors apart from dc servomotors are: high peak torque, power, and current over short periods of operation, low speed of operation, obviating the need for gearing, high torque/inertia and torque/weight ratios, and high figure of merit = torque/sq rt watt ratio. The dc torque motors are eminently suited to high-performance applications requiring high torque at low speed of operation, such as aircraft and missile control surface actuation, control of multistage satellite launch vehicles, certain computer peripherals like magnetic tape transports and hard disk drives, and robotics, CNC systems, and machine tool control.

  1. Motor Development of Premature Infants Born between 32 and 34 Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Prins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about motor development in late preterm born infants. Our objective was to determine long-term outcome of motor skills of infants born between 32 and 34 weeks. All infants were assessed at corrected ages of 3 and 9 months, using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. At corrected ages of 4 years, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children was done. Seventy infants were seen at 4 years of age (median of 3 assessments per infant. Abnormal assessment at 3 or 9 months of age resulted in normal outcome in almost 80% at 4 years. On the other hand, a normal outcome in the first year of life resulted in an abnormal outcome at 4 years in 10% of the infants. Our results suggest that long-term followup of these late preterm born infants is necessary, as the assessments in the first year do not predict the long-term outcome.

  2. A preliminary study on the relationship between characteristics of TV content and delayed speech development in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Kanako; Tanimura, Masako

    2009-06-01

    Our previous population survey of 18-month-old children suggested an association between delayed language development and heavy TV viewing. We therefore collected all 85 videos described as children's favorites in that questionnaire to examine relationships between the characteristics of habitually viewed videos and language development. In the language delayed group, compared to the non-delayed group, the types of videos preferred more were "realistic animations" and "baby education" and the characteristics of videos were contained few close-ups of characters facing viewers, continued uninterruptedly between stories, had constant movement or transformation of characters, had a high frame rate of animation, and that adults readily kept on watching the videos even with the sound off. These characteristics were seen more in videos the above two types. These findings imply that habitual television/video viewing with characteristics that are not apt to elicit parent-child communication for long hours may affect delayed language development in young children.

  3. Developing speed control for a permanent magnet DC motor using rapid control of prototyping techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Edimer Hoyos Velasco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Virtually every engineering development for control systems is tested by simulation to predict performance. However, the final use of an algorithm is in its application in a real time system. Development tools using a DSP and Simulink RTW can be performed with real-time simulations (i.e. simulation interacting with physical plant. Testing the speed control loop of a DC motor with permanent magnets has thus been developed to appreciate the considerable advantages offered by these tools.

  4. Differential changes in the development of motor coordination and executive functions in children with motor coordination impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Eva; Molitor, Sabine; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2016-09-13

    Cognitive and motor coordination skills of children with and without motor coordination impairments were examined with a one-year follow-up investigation. Initially, children were between 4 and 6 years old. Age-appropriate tests of executive functions (updating, switching, inhibition, interference control), motor coordination (the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2) and fitness (the Körperkoordinations-Test für Kinder) were administered in two consecutive years. Several background variables (age, socioeconomic status, medical support, clinical interventions, leisure activities) and potential moderators (nonverbal intelligence, reaction time, visual perception) were controlled. The matched sample consisted of 48 control children and 48 children with motor coordination impairments. The children's executive functions dramatically improved during the one-year period. With regard to motor coordination performance, half of the impaired children caught up to the control children's level ("remission group"), while the remaining half showed no improvement ("persisting group"). Compared to the persisting group, the children in the remission group showed markedly better interference control at both measurement points. The correlation between executive functions and motor coordination is significant in the persisting group, but not in the remission group. The results of the study are discussed in the light of the role of executive functions, especially inhibition processes, for the automatization of motor coordination tasks.

  5. Linearizing Control of Induction Motor Based on Networked Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Ren; Chun-Wen Li; De-Zong Zhao

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to speed control of induction motors is developed by introducing networked control systems (NCSs) into the induction motor driving system. The control strategy is to stabilize and track the rotor speed of the induction motor when the network time delay occurs in the transport medium of network data. First, a feedback linearization method is used to achieve input-output linearization and decoupling control of the induction motor driving system based on rotor flux model, and then the characteristic of network data is analyzed in terms of the inherent network time delay. A networked control model of an induction motor is established. The sufficient condition of asymptotic stability for the networked induction motor driving system is given, and the state feedback controller is obtained by solving the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Simulation results verify the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  6. Efficacy of intraoperative monitoring of transcranial electrical stimulation-induced motor evoked potentials and spontaneous electromyography activity to identify acute-versus delayed-onset C-5 nerve root palsy during cervical spine surgery: clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalodia, Vidya M; Schwartz, Daniel M; Sestokas, Anthony K; Bloomgarden, Gary; Arkins, Thomas; Tomak, Patrick; Gorelick, Judith; Wijesekera, Shirvinda; Beiner, John; Goodrich, Isaac

    2013-10-01

    Deltoid muscle weakness due to C-5 nerve root injury following cervical spine surgery is an uncommon but potentially debilitating complication. Symptoms can manifest upon emergence from anesthesia or days to weeks following surgery. There is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of spontaneous electromyography (spEMG) monitoring in detecting evolving C-5 nerve root compromise. By contrast, transcranial electrical stimulation-induced motor evoked potential (tceMEP) monitoring has been shown to be highly sensitive and specific in identifying impending C-5 injury. In this study the authors sought to 1) determine the frequency of immediate versus delayed-onset C-5 nerve root injury following cervical spine surgery, 2) identify risk factors associated with the development of C-5 palsies, and 3) determine whether tceMEP and spEMG neuromonitoring can help to identify acutely evolving C-5 injury as well as predict delayed-onset deltoid muscle paresis. The authors retrospectively reviewed the neuromonitoring and surgical records of all patients who had undergone cervical spine surgery involving the C-4 and/or C-5 level in the period from 2006 to 2008. Real-time tceMEP and spEMG monitoring from the deltoid muscle was performed as part of a multimodal neuromonitoring protocol during all surgeries. Charts were reviewed to identify patients who had experienced significant changes in tceMEPs and/or episodes of neurotonic spEMG activity during surgery, as well as those who had shown new-onset deltoid weakness either immediately upon emergence from the anesthesia or in a delayed fashion. Two hundred twenty-nine patients undergoing 235 cervical spine surgeries involving the C4-5 level served as the study cohort. The overall incidence of perioperative C-5 nerve root injury was 5.1%. The incidence was greatest (50%) in cases with dual corpectomies at the C-4 and C-5 spinal levels. All patients who emerged from anesthesia with deltoid weakness had significant and unresolved

  7. Development of rehabilitation training support system for occupational therapy of upper limb motor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yoshifumi; Hirose, Akinori; Uno, Takashi; Uchid, Masaki; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we propose a new rehabilitation training support system for upper limbs. The proposed system enables therapists to quantitatively evaluate the therapeutic effect of upper limb motor function during training, to easily change the load of resistance of training and to easily develop a new training program suitable for the subjects. For this purpose we develop control algorithms of training programs in the 3D force display robot. The 3D force display robot has parallel link mechanism with three motors. The control algorithm simulating sanding training is developed for the 3D force display robot. Moreover the teaching/training function algorithm is developed. It enables the therapists to easily make training trajectory suitable for subject's condition. The effectiveness of the developed control algorithms is verified by experiments.

  8. Piano training in youths with hand motor impairments after damage to the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Renée; Thienel, Anna; Mitternacht, Jürgen; Blumenstein, Tobias; Turova, Varvara; Alves-Pinto, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Damage to the developing brain may lead to impairment of the hand motor function and negatively impact on patients' quality of life. Development of manual dexterity and finger and hand motor function may be promoted by learning to play the piano. The latter brings together music with the intensive training of hand coordination and fine finger mobility. We investigated if learning to play the piano helped to improve hand motor skills in 18 youths with hand motor disorders resulting from damage during early brain development. Participants trained 35-40 minutes twice a week for 18 months with a professional piano teacher. With the use of a Musical Instrument Digital Interface piano, the uniformity of finger strokes could be objectively assessed from the timing of keystrokes. The analysis showed a significant improvement in the uniformity of keystrokes during the training. Furthermore, the youths showed strong motivation and engagement during the study. This is nevertheless an open study, and further studies remain needed to exclude effects of growth and concomitant therapies on the improvements observed and clarify which patients will more likely benefit from learning to play the piano.

  9. Alpha-1 antitrypsin protein and gene therapies decrease autoimmunity and delay arthritis development in mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Mark A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT is a multi-functional protein that has anti-inflammatory and tissue protective properties. We previously reported that human AAT (hAAT gene therapy prevented autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice and suppressed arthritis development in combination with doxycycline in mice. In the present study we investigated the feasibility of hAAT monotherapy for the treatment of chronic arthritis in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA, a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Methods DBA/1 mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen (bCII to induce arthritis. These mice were pretreated either with hAAT protein or with recombinant adeno-associated virus vector expressing hAAT (rAAV-hAAT. Control groups received saline injections. Arthritis development was evaluated by prevalence of arthritis and arthritic index. Serum levels of B-cell activating factor of the TNF-α family (BAFF, antibodies against both bovine (bCII and mouse collagen II (mCII were tested by ELISA. Results Human AAT protein therapy as well as recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV8-mediated hAAT gene therapy significantly delayed onset and ameliorated disease development of arthritis in CIA mouse model. Importantly, hAAT therapies significantly reduced serum levels of BAFF and autoantibodies against bCII and mCII, suggesting that the effects are mediated via B-cells, at least partially. Conclusion These results present a new drug for arthritis therapy. Human AAT protein and gene therapies are able to ameliorate and delay arthritis development and reduce autoimmunity, indicating promising potential of these therapies as a new treatment strategy for RA.

  10. Optimized energy-delay sub-network routing protocol development and implementation for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, James W.; Zawodniok, Maciej; Jagannathan, S.; Watkins, Steve E.

    2008-08-01

    The development and the implementation issues of a reactive optimized energy-delay sub-network routing (OEDSR) protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSN) are introduced and its performance is contrasted with the popular ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol. Analytical results illustrate the performance of the proposed OEDSR protocol, while experimental results utilizing a hardware testbed under various scenarios demonstrate improvements in energy efficiency of the OEDSR protocol. A hardware platform constructed at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), now the Missouri University of Science and Technology (MST), based on the Generation 4 Smart Sensor Node (G4-SSN) prototyping platform is also described. Performance improvements are shown in terms of end-to-end (E2E) delay, throughput, route-set-up time and drop rates and energy usage is given for three topologies, including a mobile topology. Additionally, results from the hardware testbed provide valuable lessons for network deployments. Under testing OEDSR provides a factor of ten improvement in the energy used in the routing session and extends network lifetime compared to AODV. Depletion experiments show that the time until the first node failure is extended by a factor of three with the network depleting and network lifetime is extended by 6.7%.

  11. Developing an Inspection Optimization Model Based on the Delay-Time Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Nazemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructures are considered as important facilities required for every country and society to be able to work properly. Aging and deterioration of such structures during their lifetime are a major concern both for maintenance researchers in the academic world and for the practitioners. This concern is mainly because the deterioration increases the maintenance costs dramatically and lowers the reliability, availability, and safety of the structural system. Preventive maintenance and inspection activities are the most usual means for keeping the structure in a good condition. This paper utilizes the concept of delay-time for developing the optimal inspection policy for deteriorating structures. In the proposed stochastic model, discrete times of inspection activities are taken as the decision variables of an optimization problem, in a way that the obtained aperiodic (nonuniform inspection schedule minimizes the total downtime ratio of the structure. To illustrate the model capabilities, various numerical examples are solved and results are compared with the traditional periodic (uniform inspection policies. The results indicate the substantial reduction in system downtime due to the wisely planned inspection schedule and the appropriate utilization of delay-time concept, which is indeed a powerful framework for inspection optimization problems.

  12. Deliberate play and preparation jointly benefit motor and cognitive development: mediated and moderated effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina ePesce

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency.The aim of this study was twofold. It (1 explored the outcomes of enriched physical education, centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2 examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children’s cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5-10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in physical education, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task, or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System, CAS.Children assigned to the ‘enriched’ intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance. The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched physical education on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium

  13. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2) examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children's cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5-10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in PE, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play) were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task), or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System). Children assigned to the 'enriched' intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance). The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched PE on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium-to-high level of outdoor play. Results suggest that

  14. The interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that cognitive and language development are dependent on the emergence of motor skills. As the literature on this issue concerning children with developmental disabilities is scarce, we examined the interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in child

  15. Development and Validation of a Fine-Motor Assessment Tool for Use with Young Children in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Andrew M. H.; Lai, Cynthia Y. Y.; Chiu, Amy S. M.; Yip, Calvin C. K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Most of the fine-motor assessment tools used in Hong Kong have been designed in Western countries, so there is a need to develop a standardized assessment which is relevant to the culture and daily living tasks of the local (that is, Chinese) population. This study aimed to (1) develop a fine-motor assessment tool (the Hong Kong…

  16. The interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that cognitive and language development are dependent on the emergence of motor skills. As the literature on this issue concerning children with developmental disabilities is scarce, we examined the interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in

  17. Motor development and sensory processing: A comparative study between preterm and term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Thais Invenção; Pereira da Silva, Louise Gracelli; Tudella, Eloisa; Simões Martinez, Cláudia Maria

    2014-10-16

    Infants born preterm and/or with low birth weight may present a clinical condition of organic instability and usually face a long period of hospitalization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units, being exposed to biopsychosocial risk factors to their development due to decreased spontaneous movement and excessive sensory stimuli. This study assumes that there are relationships between the integration of sensory information of preterm infants, motor development and their subsequent effects.

  18. [Delayed development of hemispheric dominance accompanied by a rare form of retarded language development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, M; Wirth, G

    1986-04-01

    A severe and unusual form of retarded speech development in an eight-year old boy is analyzed as "right-hemispheric speech" against the background of neuropsychological theories on the specialisation of the cerebral hemispheres and considered in connection with the development of hemispheric dominance. A plan for therapy and teacher counselling is derived from this analysis. The influence of this retarded speech development on the acquisition of reading and writing is also touched upon.

  19. Developing a cognitive behavioral therapy manual for delayed sleep-wake phase disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus; Danielsson, Katarina; Markström, Agneta; Broman, Jan-Erik

    2016-11-01

    This article reports the development of a treatment protocol, based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) principles, for delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD). The protocol consists of psycho-education, presenting a CBT model for DSWPD, case formulation, motivational interviewing, registering sleep in a diary, strategies to improve the rhythm of sleep and wakefulness, relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, strategies to cope with daytime symptoms, constructing an individualized CBT program, and learning how to deal with relapses. Qualitative data, focusing on how the patients perceived the protocol, were collected within the realm of a trial exploring the efficacy of the protocol. These findings highlighted several advantages but also disadvantages of the therapy. It is our hope that this paper might act as a platform for further clinical work and future research efforts in patients with DSWPD.

  20. Reduced Mid1 expression and delayed neuromotor development in daDREAM transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara eDierssen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator is a Ca2+-binding protein that binds DNA and represses transcription in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Previous work has shown a role for DREAM in cerebellar function regulating the expression of the sodium/calcium exchanger 3 (NCX3 in cerebellar granular neurons to control Ca2+ homeostasis and survival of these neurons. To achieve a global view of the genes regulated by DREAM in the cerebellum, we performed a genome-wide analysis in transgenic cerebellum expressing a Ca2+-insensitive/CREB-independent dominant active mutant DREAM (daDREAM. Here we show that DREAM regulates the expression of the midline 1 (Mid1 gene early after birth. As a consequence, daDREAM mice exhibit a significant shortening of the rostro-caudal axis of the cerebellum and a severe delay in neuromotor development early after birth. Our results indicate a role for DREAM in cerebellar function.

  1. Ambulatory EEG NeuroMonitor platform for engagement studies of children with development delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ruhi; Consul-Pacareu, Sergi; Abusaud, Mohammed; Sahadat, Md N.; Morshed, Bashir I.

    2013-05-01

    Engagement monitoring is crucial in many clinical and therapy applications such as early learning preschool classes for children with developmental delays including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or cerebral palsy; as it is challenging for the instructors to evaluate the individual responses of these children to determine the effectiveness of the teaching strategies due to the diverse and unique need of each child who might have difficulty in verbal or behavioral communication. This paper presents an ambulatory scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) NeuroMonitor platform to study brain engagement activities in natural settings. The developed platform is miniature (size: 2.2" x 0.8" x 0.36", weight: 41.8 gm with 800 mAh Li-ion battery and 3 snap leads) and low-power (active mode: 32 mA low power mode: under 5mA) with 2 channels (Fp1, Fp2) to record prefrontal cortex activities of the subject in natural settings while concealed within a headband. The signals from the electrodes are amplified with a low-power instrumentation amplifier; notch filtered (fc = 60Hz), then band-passed by a 2nd-order Chebyshev-I low-pass filter cascaded with a 2nd-order low-pass (fc = 125Hz). A PSoC ADC (16-bit, 256 sps) samples this filtered signal, and can either transmit it through a Class-2 Bluetooth transceiver to a remote station for real-time analysis or store it in a microSD card for offline processing. This platform is currently being evaluated to capture data in the classroom settings for engagement monitoring of children, aimed to study the effectiveness of various teaching strategies that will allow the development of personalized classroom curriculum for children with developmental delays.

  2. Dr. Otto Soltmann (1876) on development of the motor cortex and recovery after its removal in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, S; Beyer, T; Koehler, P J

    2000-09-15

    In 1870, Fritsch and Hitzig demonstrated that dogs have a motor cortex. In a chapter published 6 years later, Otto Soltmann studied the functional development of the motor cortex, which he believed functioned in willed movement. He was the first to show that the dog's motor cortex becomes electrically excitable at about 10 days of age, with the contralateral forepaw area appearing first. He also studied the effects of ablating the cortical motor regions unilaterally and bilaterally, and encountered a remarkable degree of sparing of function in his animals operated on as newborns, but not in older-operated dogs. Soltmann turned to the theory of functional take-over (vicariation) to account for the absence of deficits in his young animals. He was especially intrigued by the fact that electrical stimulation of a healthy motor cortex could produce bilateral matched movements, but only in dogs that sustained opposite motor cortex lesions very early in life.

  3. Developing particulate thin filter using coconut fiber for motor vehicle emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardoyo, A. Y. P.; Juswono, U. P.; Riyanto, S.

    2016-03-01

    Amounts of motor vehicles in Indonesia have been recognized a sharply increase from year to year with the increment reaching to 22 % per annum. Meanwhile motor vehicles produce particulate emissions in different sizes with high concentrations depending on type of vehicles, fuels, and engine capacity. Motor Particle emissions are not only to significantly contribute the atmosphric particles but also adverse to human health. In order to reduce the particle emission, it is needed a filter. This study was aimed to develop a thin filter using coconut fiber to reduce particulate emissions for motor vehicles. The filter was made of coconut fibers that were grinded into power and mixed with glues. The filter was tested by the measurements of particle concentrations coming out from the vehicle exhaust directly and the particle concentrations after passing through the filter. The efficiency of the filter was calculated by ratio of the particle concentrations before comming in the filter to the particle conentrations after passing through the filter. The results showed that the efficiency of the filter obtained more than 30 %. The efficiency increases sharply when a number of the filters are arranged paralelly.

  4. [Development and evaluation of a motor coordination training for children in special-needs classes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothlisberger, Marianne; Michel, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Previous research showed that children in classes with reduced curriculum ("ready for school classes") perform systematically poorer in short-term memory, attention control and motor coordination skills than children in regular classes. Based on these results, a training to improve children's planning, sequencing, and executive control of motor actions was developed. It includes body coordination, (bi-) manual coordination, rhythm and balance. The tasks stress flexibility of action, interference control and focused attention. Training sessions proceed from easy to complex, from action accuracy to speed, and from teacher guidance to children's self monitoring. Over the course of 3 weeks, 53 children were trained daily for 20 mins. In pre- and posttests, motor coordination was assessed with the M-ABC; focused attention, short-term memory performance, and self-concept was tested with paper-pencil and computerized tasks. Half of the children were trained between pre- and posttest, the other half received the training after posttest. Results revealed no global training effects; however, children in the training condition caught up during training in specific cognitive and motor tasks, and trained children showed a more optimistic self-concept. Training effects were pronounced for children with balance problems. The findings are discussed in terms of reasons for the weak training effects, and potential improvements of the training.

  5. Developing Micro DC-Brushless Motor Driver and Position Control for Fiber Positioners

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, Laurent; Makarem, Laleh; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Gillet, Denis; Bleuler, Hannes; Bouri, Mohamed; Prada, Francisco; De Rivera, Guillermo; Sanchez, Justo

    2014-01-01

    In the large-scale, Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), thousands of fiber positioners will be used. Those are robotic positioners, with two axis, and having the size of a pen. They are tightly packed on the focal plane of the telescope. Dedicated micro-robots have been developed and they use 4mm brushless DC motors. To simplify the implementation and reduce the space occupancy, each actuator will integrate its own electronic control board. This board will be used to communicate with the central trajectory generator, manage low level control tasks and motor current feeding. In this context, we present a solution for a highly compact electronic. This electronic is composed of two layers. The first is the power stage that can drive simultaneously two brushless motors. The second one consists of a fast microcontroller and deals with different control tasks: communication, acquisition of the hall sensor signals, commutation of the motors phases, and performing position and current regulation. A set of di...

  6. Neutrophil apoptosis is delayed in an equine model of colitis: Implications for the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S L; Singh, B

    2017-05-01

    Horses that develop colitis invariably exhibit signs of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). A significant contributor to the development of SIRS in human subjects is delayed neutrophil apoptosis, but this has not been specifically studied in horses. To determine the occurrence of ex vivo neutrophil apoptosis and its contribution to the development of SIRS in an equine colitis model. Experiment using a colitis model. Neutrophils were isolated before and after the induction of colitis using an oligofructose overdose model, placed into culture for 12 h or 24 h with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at various concentrations, and assessed for the occurrence of apoptosis using Annexin V and propidium iodide staining with flow cytometric quantification. Levels of caspase-3, -8 and -9 activity were measured after 12 h of incubation in neutrophil lysates. Ex vivo neutrophil apoptosis was significantly delayed in neutrophils isolated after the induction of colitis (12-h incubation: P = 0.004; 24-h incubation: P = 0.003) with concomitant reductions in caspase-3, -8 and -9 activity (caspase-3: P = 0.004; caspase-8: P = 0.02; caspase-9: P = 0.02). Neutrophils isolated after the induction of colitis were refractory to LPS-delayed apoptosis. Neutrophil apoptosis was delayed with increasing cell concentration in vitro. The main limitation of the study is the that the exact mechanism for delayed neutrophil apoptosis following the induction of colitis was not fully elucidated. The data show that neutrophil apoptosis is delayed in horses following the induction of colitis as a result of interference with the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, which may contribute to the development of equine SIRS. Concurrent development of neutrophilia may contribute to a prolonged neutrophil lifespan through a concentration-dependent delay in apoptosis. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  7. 利用时间延迟状态反馈实现异步电机的混沌合成%Chaos Synthesis of Asynchronous Motor by Time-Delayed State Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫东; 唐斌

    2012-01-01

    为了在三相交流异步电机的运行过程中实现混沌合成,采用非线性系统的微分几何理论和时间延迟反馈控制的方法,设计了混沌合成控制器.该控制器通过对三相交流异步电机模型的简化分析,并利用非线性控制理论的状态反馈精确线性化方法来设计.应该此控制器即可得到异步电机运行时的混沌合成.应用Matlab软件中Simulink 工具进行仿真分析,仿真结果说明利用时间延迟状态反馈设计的控制器实现异步电机的混沌合成是完全合理可行的,运行结果也是满足要求的.%The chaos synthesis controller is designed using the method of differential geometry theory of nonlinear systems and time-delayed feedback control to realize chaos synthesis in running process of three-phase alternating current (AC) asynchronous motor. The exact linearization approach by state feedback of nonlinear control theory is used for controller design and through simplified analysis on the model of three-phase AC asynchronous motor. Chaos synthesis is got when asynchronous motor running by this controller. Simulink tool in Matlab software is used for Simulation analysis. The simulation results show that the time-delayed state feedback method designed controller implementing chaos synthesis of asynchronous motor is feasible and the control result is satisfied.

  8. Longer gestation among children born full term influences cognitive and motor development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma V Espel

    Full Text Available Children born preterm show persisting impairments in cognitive functioning, school achievement, and brain development. Most research has focused on implications of birth prior to 37 gestational weeks; however, the fetal central nervous system continues to make fundamental changes throughout gestation. Longer gestation is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality even among infants born during the period clinically defined as full term (37-41 gestational weeks. The implications of shortened gestation among term infants for neurodevelopment are poorly understood. The present study prospectively evaluates 232 mothers and their full term infants (50.4% male infants at three time points across the first postnatal year. We evaluate the association between gestational length and cognitive and motor development. Infants included in the study were full term (born between 37 and 41 weeks gestation. The present study uses the combination of Last Menstrual Period (LMP and early ultrasound for accurate gestational dating. Hierarchical Linear Regression analyses revealed that longer gestational length is associated with higher scores on the Bayley scales of mental and motor development at 3, 6 and 12 months of age after considering socio-demographic, pregnancy, and infant-level covariates. Findings were identical using revised categories of early, term, and late term proposed by the Working Group for Defining Term Pregnancy. Our findings indicate that longer gestation, even among term infants, benefits both cognitive and motor development.

  9. Spatial cognition and motor development: a study of children with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen-Osmann, Petra; Wiedenbauer, Gunnar; Heil, Martin

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between motor development and spatial cognition. The sample was 20 children with Spina bifida (M age: 11.4 yr., SD = 1.7) and 20 healthy children as controls (M age: 11.8, SD = 1.8 yr.). An experimental assessment of motor development in spatial cognition in a simulated virtual maze by school-age children is lacking. In this study children with Spina bifida, who were impaired in walking since birth, completed four visuospatial tasks in a small-scale space (Mental Rotation, Water-Level Task, Embedded Figures Test, Visual Short-term Memory Test), and a spatial behaviour and knowledge task in a virtual maze. These children showed poorer performance than children in the control group on most measures. The results are discussed with respect to theoretical implications and further research.

  10. Developing an intelligent control system of automatic window motor with diverse wireless sensor network devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yao-Chiang Kan; Hsueh-Chun Lin; Wen-Pei Sung

    2014-08-01

    This invention system involves hardware, firmware and software to develop an intelligent control system of automatic window motor with diverse wireless sensor network (WSN) devices for health and environmental monitoring. The parts of this invention are improved by implementing the WSN mote into environmental sensors that may detect temperature, humility, toxic gas, smog or aerosol, etc. With embedded system design, these sensors are capable of delivering WSN signal packets based on ZigBee protocol that follows the IEEE 802.14.4 standards. The primary hardware of the system is the window motor with circuit design by integrating micro control unit (MCU), radio frequency (RF) and WSN antenna to receive command. The firmware developed under embedded system can bridge hardware and software to control the window at the specified position. At the back end, the control system software can manage diverse sensor data and provide the interface for remote monitoring.

  11. Implications of a neural network model of early sensori-motor development for the field of developmental neurology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijst, JJ; Touwen, BCL; Vos, JE

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on a neural network model for early sensori-motor development and on the possible implications of this research for our understanding and, eventually, treatment of motor disorders like cerebral palsy. We recapitulate the results we published in detail in a series of papers [1-4].

  12. An extended motor network generates beta and gamma oscillatory perturbations during development

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Tony W.; Slason, Erin; Asherin, Ryan; Kronberg, Eugene; Reite, Martin L.; Teale, Peter D.; Donald C Rojas

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the time course and neural generators of oscillatory beta and gamma motor responses in typically-developing children. Participants completed a unilateral flexion-extension task using each index finger as whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were acquired. These MEG data were imaged in the frequency-domain using spatial filtering and the resulting event-related synchronizations and desynchronizations (ERS/ERD) were subjected to voxel-wise statistical analyses to ill...

  13. Motor skill learning in the middle-aged: limited development of motor chunks and explicit sequence knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, W.B.; Abrahamse, E.L.; Ruitenberg, M.F.L.; Jiménez, L.; Kleine, de E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined whether middle-aged participants, like young adults, learn movement patterns by preparing and executing integrated sequence representations (i.e., motor chunks) that eliminate the need for external guidance of individual movements. Twenty-four middle-aged participants (age

  14. Increased risk of schizophrenia from additive interaction between infant motor developmental delay and obstetric complications: evidence from a population-based longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Mary C

    2011-12-01

    Obstetric complications and developmental delay are well-established risk factors for schizophrenia. The authors investigated whether these risk factors interact in an additive manner to further increase risk for schizophrenia.

  15. Piano training in youths with hand motor impairments after damage to the developing brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampe R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Renée Lampe,1,* Anna Thienel,2 Jürgen Mitternacht,1 Tobias Blumenstein,1 Varvara Turova,1 Ana Alves-Pinto1,* 1Research Unit for Paediatric Neuroorthopaedics and Cerebral Palsy, Orthopaedics Department, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 2Department Sonderpädagogik, Ludwig Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Damage to the developing brain may lead to impairment of the hand motor function and negatively impact on patients’ quality of life. Development of manual dexterity and finger and hand motor function may be promoted by learning to play the piano. The latter brings together music with the intensive training of hand coordination and fine finger mobility. We investigated if learning to play the piano helped to improve hand motor skills in 18 youths with hand motor disorders resulting from damage during early brain development. Participants trained 35–40 minutes twice a week for 18 months with a professional piano teacher. With the use of a Musical Instrument Digital Interface piano, the uniformity of finger strokes could be objectively assessed from the timing of keystrokes. The analysis showed a significant improvement in the uniformity of keystrokes during the training. Furthermore, the youths showed strong motivation and engagement during the study. This is nevertheless an open study, and further studies remain needed to exclude effects of growth and concomitant therapies on the improvements observed and clarify which patients will more likely benefit from learning to play the piano. Keywords: manual skill, cerebral palsy, neurodevelopmental disorder, music, rehabilitation

  16. Site Development and Teaching of Motor Skills in Early Childhood Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gil Madrona

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the stage of Early Childhood Education children continue a progressive discovery of their body itself as a source of feelings and sensations, exploring the different possibilities of action and body functions, will constitute the necessary experiences upon which children’s thought is being built. Besides, affective relationships established in situations of psychomotor education, and particularly through game, will be essential for children’s emotional development. In this sense, this article is focused on justifying the necessary presence of Psychomotor education in Early Childhood Education as well as on showing a pedagogical proposal based on an attractive and entertaining motor intervention for children at this stage. This article contains concepts and assumptions about the psychomotor development, movement contents, motor game and the methodological approach where psychomotor storytelling, learning corners, workshops and projects based on action and adventure spaces shine in their own right. Moreover, a didactic design based on programming motor skills at this stage of Early Childhood Education in a funny and lively way also plays a relevant role in this article. We argue that professionals working in the field of Early Childhood psychomotor skills may know and recognize the value of the proposals shown here so that they can teach us to be more critical regarding our professional practice, increasing our concern about the development of motor skills – physical education in Early Childhood Education in its systematic form – which without any doubt will result in children’s higher levels of welfare and health with regards to their own construction of the reality which surrounds them.

  17. Tractography of the corticospinal tracts in infants with focal perinatal injury: comparison with normal controls and to motor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roze, Elise [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); University Medical Center Groningen, Division of Neonatology, Beatrix Children' s Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Harris, Polly A.; Ball, Gareth; Braga, Rodrigo M.; Allsop, Joanna M.; Counsell, Serena J. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Elorza, Leire Zubiaurre [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); University of Barcelona, Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, A.D.; Cowan, Frances M. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Porter, Emma [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Rutherford, Mary A. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Our aims were to (1) assess the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in infants with focal injury and healthy term controls using probabilistic tractography and (2) to correlate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography findings in infants with focal injury with their later motor function. We studied 20 infants with focal lesions and 23 controls using MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Tract volume, fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (RD) of the CSTs were determined. Asymmetry indices (AIs) were calculated by comparing ipsilateral to contralateral CSTs. Motor outcome was assessed using a standardized neurological examination. Conventional MRI was able to predict normal motor development (n = 9) or hemiplegia (n = 6). In children who developed a mild motor asymmetry (n = 5), conventional MRI predicted a hemiplegia in two and normal motor development in three infants. The AIs for tract volume, FA, ADC and RD showed a significant difference between controls and infants who developed a hemiplegia, and RD also showed a significant difference in AI between controls and infants who developed a mild asymmetry. Conventional MRI was able to predict subsequent normal motor development or hemiplegia following focal injury in newborn infants. Measures of RD obtained from diffusion tractography may offer additional information for predicting a subsequent asymmetry in motor function. (orig.)

  18. Development and validation of dissolution testings in acidic media for rabeprazole sodium delayed-release capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yinhe; Si, Xiaoqing; Zhong, Lulu; Feng, Xin; Yang, Xinmin; Huang, Min; Wu, Chuanbin

    2016-10-01

    Rabeprazole sodium (RAB) dissolved in acidic media is accompanied by its degradation in the course of dissolution testing. To develop and establish the accumulative release profiles of ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle (RAB) delayed-release capsules (ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle) in acidic media using USP apparatus 2 (paddle apparatus) as a dissolution tester, the issues of determination of accumulative release amount of RAB in these acidic media and interference of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose phthalate were solved by adding appropriate hydrochloric acid (HCl) into dissolution samples coupled with centrifugation so as to remove the interference and form a solution of degradation products of RAB, which is of a considerably stable ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at the wavelength of 298 nm within 2.0 h. Therefore, the accumulative release amount of RAB in dissolution samples at each sample time points could be determined by UV-spectrophotometry, and the accumulative release profiles of ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle in the media of pH 1.0, pH 6.0, and pH 6.8 could be established. The method was validated per as the ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines and demonstrated to be adequate for quality control of ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle and the accumulative release profiles can be used as a tool to guide the formulation development and quality control of a generic drug for ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle.

  19. Effects of dust, formaldehyde and delayed feeding on early postnatal development of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouw, Pieter; van de Ven, Lotte J F; Lourens, Sander; Kemp, Bas; van den Brand, Henry

    2017-06-01

    We investigated effects of perinatal exposure to dust or formaldehyde and the moment of first feed intake after hatching on broiler chicken development during the first week of life. Four environmental treatments were used from 468 until 512h of incubation: control (CONT), heat treated dust (HTD), untreated dust (UTD) or formaldehyde disinfection (FORM). After hatching, all chickens were assigned to 1 of 2 feeding treatments: early feeding (EF; feed and water available in the hatcher) or delayed feeding (DF). After 512h of incubation (day 0), chickens were reared until day 7 of age. In DF chickens, body weight (BW), yolk free body mass (YFBM) and relative liver weight did not differ among environmental treatments at day 0. However, in EF chickens BW at day 0 was greater in HTD chickens than in UTD and FORM chickens. YFBM in EF chickens at day 0 was greater when chickens were exposed to HTD compared to the other environmental treatments. In EF chickens, relative liver weight was greater in HTD chickens than in FORM. In DF chickens, BW at day 0 was positively related with hatching time (HT). In EF chickens, YFBM was positively related to HT. Residual yolk weight at day 0 was positively related with HT, whereas relative liver weight and microbicidal capacity were negatively related with HT. This study demonstrated that formaldehyde and dust during the hatching phase affect broiler chicken development at pulling from the incubator, but not at day 7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Are cognitive "insomnia" processes involved in the development and maintenance of delayed sleep wake phase disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Cele E; Gradisar, Michael; Barbero, Sebastian C

    2016-04-01

    Although individuals with delayed sleep wake phase disorder (DSWPD) and chronic insomnia disorder (CID) share many of the same phenomenological experiences, theories relating to the development and maintenance of these disorders are distinct in focus. Unlike CID, theory relating to DSWPD is primarily physiologically based and assumes almost no cognitive pathway. However, recent research findings suggest that individuals with DSWPD also display many of the sleep-disordered cognitive processes that were previously assumed to be unique to the insomnia experience. As such, this review aims to summarise current research findings to address the question "Could cognitive processes be involved in the development and maintenance of DSWPD?" In particular, the presence of cognitive and physiological pre-sleep arousal, sleep-related attentional bias, distorted perception of sleep and daytime functioning, dysfunctional beliefs and safety behaviours will be investigated. As this emerging area of research requires a stronger evidence base, we highlight suggestions for future investigation and provide preliminary practice points for clinicians assessing and treating "insomnia" in patients with DSWPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Desenvolvimento motor de crianças prematuras e a termo: uso da Alberta Infant Motor Scale Desarrollo motor de niños prematuros y a término: uso de la Alberta Infant Motor Scale Motor development of preterm and term infants: using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Candeia Maia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar o desenvolvimento motor de crianças nascidas pré-termo e a termo aos quatro e seis meses de idade, aplicando a Alberta Infant Motor Scale-AIMS na versão brasileira. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal, comparativo, realizado em Fortaleza-Ceará, entre novembro/ 2009 e maio/2010. amostragem por conveniência, foi constituída por 24 crianças pré-termo e 24 a termo. RESULTADOS: Nas crianças de quatro meses, verificou-se diferença estatisticamente significante na posição em pé (p=0,014 e, nas de seis meses, em todas as posições (prono, supina, sentada, em pé e escores totais. Quanto ao percentil, aos quatro e seis meses, respectivamente, 37,5% das crianças pré-termo mostraram desempenho excelente e 54,2%, normais. CONCLUSÃO: A análise estatística do desempenho motor grosso entre os grupos de crianças estudadas mostrou diferenças no desenvolvimento e evolução dos percentis da AIMS.OBJETIVOS: Comparar el desarrollo motor de niños nacidos pretérmino y a término a los cuatro y seis meses de edad, aplicando la Alberta Infant Motor Scale-AIMS en la versión brasileña. MÉTODOS: Estudio longitudinal, comparativo, realizado en Fortaleza-Ceará, entre noviembre/2009 y mayo/2010. La muestra por conveniencia, estuvo constituída por 24 niños pretérmino y 24 a término. RESULTADOS: En los niños de cuatro meses, se verificó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la posición podálica (p=0,014 y, en las de seis meses, en todas las posiciones (prona, supina, sentada, podálica y scores totales. En cuanto al percentil, a los cuatro y seis meses, respectivamente, el 37,5% de los niños pretérmino mostraron desempeño excelente y el 54,2%, normales. CONCLUSIÓN: El análisis estadístico del desempeño motor grueso entre los grupos de niños estudiados mostró diferencias en el desarrollo y evolución de los percentiles de la AIMS.OBJECTIVES: To compare the motor development of infants born preterm and term at

  2. Background paper for the development of motor vehicle fuel consumption regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The automotive industry is Canada's largest manufacturing sector and consists of 23 passenger or commercial vehicle assembly plants and more than 640 auto parts plants. Over 150,000 people are employed in automotive assembly and component manufacturing. Manufacturing is clustered in central Canada, while distribution is spread across the country. This paper provided background information on the development of motor vehicle consumption regulations. Contextual information was provided on the Canadian motor vehicle manufacturing industry; the history of motor vehicle fuel consumption regulations; and Canadian regulation of fuel consumption. Experience under the standards and developments in Canada in this area were also discussed. Last, the paper identified and discussed other international policies and regulatory regimes. The paper presented a comparison of the current and future standards or targets in the various regimes that were standardized to North American test methods and applicable to cars and passenger-carrying light trucks against those of the United States and California. It was concluded that there are no widely used international standards for fuel efficiency that could be adopted in Canada. 13 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  3. World-wide developments in motor vehicle inspection/maintenance (I/M) programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klausmeier, R. [Consulting Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Kishan, S. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Motor vehicles contribute much to urban air pollution. As a result, most governments have enacted emission standards that significantly lower pollutant emission levels from new motor vehicles. For example, vehicles built in the United States emit 95 % fewer pollutants than uncontrolled vehicles when they are new. However, studies indicate that proper maintenance is needed to obtain the full benefit of vehicle emission controls. Furthermore, there is evidence that a significant percentage of the vehicle fleet is not properly maintained. This has led to the creation of motor vehicle Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) Programs. I/M programs inspect vehicles for indications that they are emitting excessive quantities of pollutants. Vehicles that fail the inspection must be repaired in order to comply with program requirements. The first I/M programs were implemented in the United States in the early 1970s. With substantial urging from the federal government, most of the U.S. states with severe air pollution problems have implemented I/M programs. Recently, with the passage of the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, many states have been required to significantly upgrade the performance and coverage of their I/M programs. I/M programs also have been implemented in Europe and recently in Asia. This presentation reviews developments in I/M programs for light-duty gasoline powered vehicles. Developments in I/M programs for diesel powered vehicles are briefly described. (author)

  4. Acquisition of Motor and Cognitive Skills through Repetition in Typically Developing Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Magallón

    Full Text Available Procedural memory allows acquisition, consolidation and use of motor skills and cognitive routines. Automation of procedures is achieved through repeated practice. In children, improvement in procedural skills is a consequence of natural neurobiological development and experience.The aim of the present research was to make a preliminary evaluation and description of repetition-based improvement of procedures in typically developing children (TDC. Ninety TDC children aged 6-12 years were asked to perform two procedural learning tasks. In an assembly learning task, which requires predominantly motor skills, we measured the number of assembled pieces in 60 seconds. In a mirror drawing learning task, which requires more cognitive functions, we measured time spent and efficiency. Participants were tested four times for each task: three trials were consecutive and the fourth trial was performed after a 10-minute nonverbal interference task. The influence of repeated practice on performance was evaluated by means of the analysis of variance with repeated measures and the paired-sample test. Correlation coefficients and simple linear regression test were used to examine the relationship between age and performance.TDC achieved higher scores in both tasks through repetition. Older children fitted more pieces than younger ones in assembling learning and they were faster and more efficient at the mirror drawing learning task.These findings indicate that three consecutive trials at a procedural task increased speed and efficiency, and that age affected basal performance in motor-cognitive procedures.

  5. Does angiotensin-1 converting enzyme genotype influence motor or cognitive development after pre-term birth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitelaw Andrew

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Raised activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS may both amplify inflammatory and free radical responses and decrease tissue metabolic efficiency and thus enhance cerebral injury in the preterm infant. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE DD genotype is associated with raised ACE and RAS activity as well as potentially adverse stimuli such as inflammation. The DD genotype has been associated with neurological impairments in the elderly, and thus may be also associated with poorer motor or cognitive development amongst children born preterm prematurely. Methods The association of DD genotype with developmental progress amongst 176 Caucasian children born at less than 33 weeks gestation (median birthweight 1475 g, range 645–2480 g; gestation 30 weeks, range 22–32; 108 male was examined at 2 and 5 1/2 years of age. Measured neuro-cognitive outcomes were cranial ultrasound abnormalities, cerebral palsy, disability, Griffiths Developmental Quotient [DQ] at 2 yrs, and General Cognitive Ability [British Ability Scales-11] and motor performance [ABC Movement], both performed at 5 1/2 yrs. All outcomes were correlated with ACE genotype. Results The DD genotype was not associated with lower developmental quotients even after accounting for important social variables. Conclusion These data do not support either a role for ACE in the development of cognitive or motor function in surviving infants born preterm or inhibition of ACE as a neuroprotective therapy.

  6. Design development of linear pulse motor type control element drive mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Ho; Yu, Je Yong; Kim, Jong In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    The integral reactor SMART is designed for soluble boron free operation and nuclear heating during reactor startup. These design features require the CEDM to have fine-step movement capability as well as high reliability for the fine reactivity control. This report describes the design characteristics of linear pulse motor (LPM) type control element drive mechanism which meets the SMART design requirements. Following items are discussed in this report : - Design concept of LPM type CEDM -Design Requirements - System descriptions -Materials -Design of linear pulse motor -Design of position indicator -Manufacturability of LPM. The results of this report are to be utilized as the starting point for design development of CEDM for SMART. 13 refs., 38 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  7. Development of hand-eye dominance in relation to verbal self-regulation of motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagae, S

    1983-01-01

    The development of the relation between hand-eye dominance and verbal self-control of motor behavior was examined with 4- and 5-year-olds. Performances of subjects falling into either crossed or consistent hand-eye dominance categories were compared on a two-choice button-pushing task. Children performed this with their dominant hand in one of two conditions: verbalizing and not verbalizing their button-pushing activity. Results showed that crossed hand-eye dominant children gave significantly poorer performances than consistent hand-eye dominant children and that the former used their self-instructions in a motoric manner. These findings were interpreted as supporting the view that the functions of cerebral hemispheres in children with crossed dominance are more immature than those in children with consistent dominance.

  8. Transgenic mice for interleukin 3 develop motor neuron degeneration associated with autoimmune reaction against spinal cord motor neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Chavany, Christine; Vicario-Abejón, Carlos; Miller, Georgina; Jendoubi, Moncef

    1998-01-01

    Interleukin 3 (IL-3) stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of various haematopoietic progenitor cells. Recently, IL-3 and other cytokines were reported to exert a neurotrophic activity and to be associated with neurological disorders, suggesting their complex role in the central nervous system. We now show that overexpression of IL-3 in transgenic mice causes a motor neuron disease with several features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and progressive muscular atrophy. These animal...

  9. Chloroquine neither eliminates liver stage parasites nor delays their development in a murine Chemoprophylaxis Vaccination model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejram eSahu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemoprophylaxis Vaccination (CVac confers long lasting sterile protection against homologous parasite strains in humans, and involves inoculation of infectious sporozoites under drug cover. CVac using the drug chloroquine (CQ induces pre-erythrocytic immunity in humans that includes antibody to sporozoites and T-cell responses to liver stage parasites. The mechanism by which CVac with CQ induces strong protective immunity is not understood as untreated infections do not confer protection. CQ kills blood stage parasites, but its effect on liver stage parasites is poorly studied. Here we hypothesized that CQ may prolong or perturb liver stage development of Plasmodium, as a potential explanation for enhanced pre-erythrocytic immune responses. Balb/c mice with or without CQ prophylaxis were infected with sporozoite forms of a luciferase-expressing rodent parasite, Plasmodium yoelii-Luc (Py-Luc. Mice that received primaquine (PQ, a drug that kills liver stage parasites, served as a positive control of drug effect. Parasite burden in liver was measured both by bioluminescence and by qRT-PCR quantification of parasite transcript. Time to appearance of parasites in the blood was monitored by microscopic analysis of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears. The parasite load in livers of CQ-treated and untreated mice did not significantly differ at any of the time points studied. Parasites appeared in the blood smears of both CQ-treated and untreated mice 3 days after infection. Taken together, our findings confirm that CQ neither eliminates liver stage parasites nor delays their development. Further investigations into the mechanism of CQ-induced protection after CVac are required, and may give insights relevant to drug and vaccine development.

  10. Enhanced insulin sensitivity in prepubertal children with constitutional delay of growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dyanne A; Hofman, Paul L; Miles, Harriet L; Sato, Tim A; Billett, Nathalie E; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2010-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that prepubertal children with presumed constitutional delay of growth and development (CDGD) have enhanced insulin sensitivity and, therefore, insulin sensitivity is associated with later onset of puberty. Twenty-one prepubertal children with presumed CDGD and 23 prepubertal control children, underwent a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test to evaluate insulin sensitivity and other markers of insulin, glucose, and growth regulation. Children in the CDGD group were shorter and leaner than control subjects. Children with presumed CDGD were 40% more insulin sensitive (17.0 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L] versus 12.1 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L]; P = .0006) and had reduced acute insulin response, thus maintaining euglycemia (216 mU/L versus 330 mU/L; P = .02) compared with control subjects. In addition, the CDGD group had lower serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 levels (3333 ng/mL versus 3775 ng/mL; P = .0004) and a trend toward lower serum insulin-like growth factor-II levels (794 ng/mL versus 911 ng/mL; P = .06). Prepubertal children with presumed CDGD have enhanced insulin sensitivity, supporting the hypothesis that insulin sensitivity is associated with timing of puberty. It may signify long-term biological advantages with lower risk of metabolic syndrome and malignancy. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Dutch motor skills assessment as tool for talent development in table tennis: a reproducibility and validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Irene R; Nijhuis-Van Der Sanden, Maria W G; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Oosterveld, Frits G J

    2015-01-01

    A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in their talent development programme consisting of eight items measuring perceptuo-motor skills specific to table tennis under varying conditions. This study aimed to investigate this assessment regarding its reproducibility, internal consistency, underlying dimensions and concurrent validity in 113 young table tennis players (6-10 years). Intraclass correlation coefficients of six test items met the criteria of 0.7 with coefficients of variation between 3% and 8%. Cronbach's alpha valued 0.853 for internal consistency. The principal components analysis distinguished two conceptually meaningful factors: "ball control" and "gross motor function." Concurrent validity analyses demonstrated moderate associations between the motor skills assessment's results and national ranking; boys r = -0.53 (P < 0.001) and girls r = -0.45 (P = 0.015). In conclusion, this evaluation demonstrated six test items with acceptable reproducibility, good internal consistency and good prospects for validity. Two test items need revision to upgrade reproducibility. Since the motor skills assessment seems to be a reproducible, objective part of a talent development programme, more longitudinal studies are required to investigate its predictive validity.

  12. Development of a new Delayed Memory Index for the WMS-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Chelune, Gordon J; Price, Larry R

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents the Delayed Memory Index (DMI) as an alternative to the General Memory Index (GMI) of the Weschler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WMS-III). The WMS-III Immediate Memory Index (IMI) and the GMI are not parallel in structure, making a direct comparison between these index scores (i.e., immediate vs. delayed memory variables) difficult. The IMI is composed of the sum of scaled scores of four subtests (Logical Memory I, Verbal Paired Associates I, Faces I, and Family Pictures I) while the GMI is composed of the sum of scaled scores of five subtests (Logical Memory II, Verbal Paired Associates II, Faces II, Family Pictures II and Auditory Recognition Delayed). Inclusion of Auditory Recognition Delayed in the GMI is also problematic as it is highly skewed and limited by extreme ceiling effects (see Tulsky, Chiaravalloti, Palmer, & Chelune, 2003). To remedy these problems, we present a new index score that does not include auditory recognition, the Delayed Memory Index. Normative tables for the new Delayed Memory Index based on the inclusion of the Faces subtest, or alternatively the Visual Reproduction subtest, are presented, and initial estimates of their psychometric properties are described.

  13. Psychometric properties of the motor diagnostics in the German football talent identification and development programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HÖner, Oliver; Votteler, Andreas; Schmid, Markus; Schultz, Florian; Roth, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The utilisation of motor performance tests for talent identification in youth sports is discussed intensively in talent research. This article examines the reliability, differential stability and validity of the motor diagnostics conducted nationwide by the German football talent identification and development programme and provides reference values for a standardised interpretation of the diagnostics results. Highly selected players (the top 4% of their age groups, U12-U15) took part in the diagnostics at 17 measurement points between spring 2004 and spring 2012 (N = 68,158). The heterogeneous test battery measured speed abilities and football-specific technical skills (sprint, agility, dribbling, ball control, shooting, juggling). For all measurement points, the overall score and the speed tests showed high internal consistency, high test-retest reliability and satisfying differential stability. The diagnostics demonstrated satisfying factorial-related validity with plausible and stable loadings on the two empirical factors "speed" and "technical skills". The score, and the technical skills dribbling and juggling, differentiated the most among players of different performance levels and thus showed the highest criterion-related validity. Satisfactory psychometric properties for the diagnostics are an important prerequisite for a scientifically sound rating of players' actual motor performance and for the future examination of the prognostic validity for success in adulthood.

  14. Effects of music therapy in the treatment of children with delayed speech development - results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Wibke; Linden, Ulrike; Ostermann, Thomas

    2010-07-21

    Language development is one of the most significant processes of early childhood development. Children with delayed speech development are more at risk of acquiring other cognitive, social-emotional, and school-related problems. Music therapy appears to facilitate speech development in children, even within a short period of time. The aim of this pilot study is to explore the effects of music therapy in children with delayed speech development. A total of 18 children aged 3.5 to 6 years with delayed speech development took part in this observational study in which music therapy and no treatment were compared to demonstrate effectiveness. Individual music therapy was provided on an outpatient basis. An ABAB reversal design with alternations between music therapy and no treatment with an interval of approximately eight weeks between the blocks was chosen. Before and after each study period, a speech development test, a non-verbal intelligence test for children, and music therapy assessment scales were used to evaluate the speech development of the children. Compared to the baseline, we found a positive development in the study group after receiving music therapy. Both phonological capacity and the children's understanding of speech increased under treatment, as well as their cognitive structures, action patterns, and level of intelligence. Throughout the study period, developmental age converged with their biological age. Ratings according to the Nordoff-Robbins scales showed clinically significant changes in the children, namely in the areas of client-therapist relationship and communication. This study suggests that music therapy may have a measurable effect on the speech development of children through the treatment's interactions with fundamental aspects of speech development, including the ability to form and maintain relationships and prosodic abilities. Thus, music therapy may provide a basic and supportive therapy for children with delayed speech development

  15. Effects of Sampling Context on the Finite Verb Production of Children with and without Delayed Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, Linda R.; Gilmore, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Informal language sampling is ubiquitous in the study of developing grammatical abilities in children with and without delayed language, including study of grammatical abilities in the area of finite verb production. Finite verbs are particularly important to assess as they appear to be the grammatical morphemes most vulnerable to error in the…

  16. The Role of Different Social Reinforcement Contingencies in Inducing Echoic Tacts through Motor Imitation Responding in Children with Severe Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouri, Ioanna; Greer, R. D.

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the role of social reinforcement, when teaching two preschoolers with no functional vocal verbal behavior first instances of echoic responses, using rapid motor imitation responding. The dependent variables for the experiment were: (1) echoic tacts (echoics presented under the controlling variables of tacts) and (2)…

  17. Delayed early primary visual pathway development in premature infants: high density electrophysiological evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Tremblay

    Full Text Available In the past decades, multiple studies have been interested in developmental patterns of the visual system in healthy infants. During the first year of life, differential maturational changes have been observed between the Magnocellular (P and the Parvocellular (P visual pathways. However, few studies investigated P and M system development in infants born prematurely. The aim of the present study was to characterize P and M system maturational differences between healthy preterm and fullterm infants through a critical period of visual maturation: the first year of life. Using a cross-sectional design, high-density electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded in 31 healthy preterms and 41 fullterm infants of 3, 6, or 12 months (corrected age for premature babies. Three visual stimulations varying in contrast and spatial frequency were presented to stimulate preferentially the M pathway, the P pathway, or both systems simultaneously during EEG recordings. Results from early visual evoked potentials in response to the stimulation that activates simultaneously both systems revealed longer N1 latencies and smaller P1 amplitudes in preterm infants compared to fullterms. Moreover, preterms showed longer N1 and P1 latencies in response to stimuli assessing the M pathway at 3 months. No differences between preterms and fullterms were found when using the preferential P system stimulation. In order to identify the cerebral generator of each visual response, distributed source analyses were computed in 12-month-old infants using LORETA. Source analysis demonstrated an activation of the parietal dorsal region in fullterm infants, in response to the preferential M pathway, which was not seen in the preterms. Overall, these findings suggest that the Magnocellular pathway development is affected in premature infants. Although our VEP results suggest that premature children overcome, at least partially, the visual developmental delay with time, source analyses reveal

  18. Development of a variable frequency power electronics inverter to control the speed of a three-phase induction motor

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Pedro; Afonso, João L.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents the development and implementation of a variable frequency Power Electronics inverter to drive a three-phase induction motor. The inverter allows a user to control the speed and torque developed by the motor, as well as its rotating direction. The inverter’s digital controller was implemented with a microcontroller. The inverter is fed from a rectifier with capacitor filter, which is connected to single-phase, 50 Hz power mains.

  19. Visual-Motor Integration in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, S. T.; Collin, P. J. L.; Hokken-Koelega, A. C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterised by hypotonia, hypogonadism, short stature, obesity, behavioural problems, intellectual disability, and delay in language, social and motor development. There is very limited knowledge about visual-motor integration in children with PWS. Method: Seventy-three children with PWS aged 7-17 years…

  20. Aural rehabilitation in children with cochlear implants: a study of cognition, social communication, and motor skill development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Zahra; Jafari, Zahra; Motasaddi Zarandy, Masoud; Kassani, Aziz

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of aural rehabilitation on the development of cognition, social communication, and motor skills in children with cochlear implants. The study examined the development of cognition, social communication, and motor skills in 15 deaf children (7 males, 8 females; mean age 45 months 27 days) using the Newsha Developmental Scale before they received the cochlear implants, and then again 2, 4, 6, and 8 months after the implantation. The developmental age, Pretest Developmental Rate, Intervention Efficiency Index, and Proportional Change Index were calculated for each skill. There were significant differences between the preintervention and four follow-up Developmental Rate assessments for cognition, social communication, and motor skills (P skills (P ≤ 0.005). Cochlear implantation and aural rehabilitation may result in accelerated rates of cognition, social communication, and motor skill development in deaf children.

  1. Development of a regional tropospheric delay model for GPS-based navigation with emphasis to the Indian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, K.; Saha, Korak; Suresh Raju, C.

    2008-08-01

    The accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), aimed to support precise positioning for aircraft navigation globally by coordinating different regional augmentation systems, is limited by the extent to which the atmospheric propagation delay of microwave signals can be modeled. An algorithm is developed for modeling the tropospheric delay based on mean meteorological parameters. A Region-specific Tropospheric Delay (RTD) model is developed exclusively for the Indian region using meteorological data from the Indian subcontinent, as a part of GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) program. The applicability of this model is examined in the context of the global model used in Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), developed employing meteorological data mostly from North American continent, by comparing the estimated zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) with those obtained from regional models employing measured atmospheric parameters at the surface. The rms deviation of ZTD estimated using RTD model from that of the surface model is found to be ˜5 cm. A further validation by comparing with GPS measurements from two IGS stations at Bangalore and Hyderabad showed that predictions made using the RTD model are within an rms deviation of ±5 cm while those using WAAS model is ±7 cm. Maximum value of the residual error for RTD model is ˜15 cm, which corresponds to a ˜0.5 m error in the vertical coordinates for the lowest satellite elevation angles usually encountered.

  2. Study and Development of a Screener Test for Fuel Economy Passenger Car Motor Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Watanabe; Nobuo Ushioda; Yasuhiro Ogasawara

    2012-01-01

    Fuel economy regulations have been issued in many countries to save energy,and it is one of the most essential performance requirements for Passenger Car Motor Oil(PCMO) this decade.The performance is also important to reduce green house gas(GHG) emissions.Automotive,Oil and Additive industries have been developing fuel economy tests in fired engine for PCMO.The ASTM 5 Car test was started in 1982 and ASTM Sequence Ⅵ series test was also developed by the industries as one of fuel economy tests after the 5 Car test.However,the fired engine(combustion) test condition is more complicated and the combustion mode in engine introduce high variability into a fuel economy measurement.Screening by bench testing is complicated by the difficulty to reproduce friction conditions of all of engine parts.Based on the background,a motored engine friction torque test(MEFT) was developed as one of the solutions for fuel economy screening test.Using a newly developed MEFT,key additive chemistries were evaluated and compared in the test,and it distinguished the differences in additive chemistries,in addition to those in viscosity and friction modifiers.The Sequence Ⅵ-D FEI 1(Seq.Ⅵ-D FEI 1) and chassis dynamometer vehicle tests were also conducted in this study,and the test data has shown an excellent correlation among MEFT,Seq.Ⅵ-D FEI 1 and chassis dynamometer vehicle tests.

  3. Factors influencing the motor development of prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-09-01

    Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weightmotor development was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The children's neuropsychological and academic performance was assessed with the Token Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity.

  4. Asbestos Free Insulation Development for the Space Shuttle Solid Propellant Rocket Motor (RSRM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Larry D.; Eddy, Norman F.; McCool, A. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Asbestos has been used for many years as an ablation inhibitor in insulating materials. It has been a constituent of the AS/NBR insulation used to protect the steel case of the RSRM (Reusable Solid Rocket Motor) since its inception. This paper discusses the development of a potential replacement RSRM insulation design, several of the numerous design issues that were worked and processing problems that were resolved. The earlier design demonstration on FSM-5 (Flight Support Motor) of the selected 7% and 11% Kevlar(registered) filled EPDM (KF/EPDM) candidate materials was expanded. Full-scale process simulation articles were built and FSM-8 was manufactured using multiple Asbestos Free (AF) components and materials. Two major problems had to be overcome in developing the AF design. First, bondline corrosion, which occurred in the double-cured region of the aft dome, had to be eliminated. Second, KF/EPDM creates high levels of electrostatic energy (ESE), which does not readily dissipate from the insulation surface. An uncontrolled electrostatic discharge (ESD) of this surface energy during many phases of production could create serious safety hazards. Numerous processing changes were implemented and a conductive paint was developed to prevent exposed external insulation surfaces from generating ESE/ESD. Additionally, special internal instrumentation was incorporated into FSM-8 to record real-time internal motor environment data. These data included inhibitor insulation erosion rates and internal thermal environments. The FSM-8 static test was successfully conducted in February 2000 and much valuable data were obtained to characterize the AF insulation design.

  5. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age.

  6. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults.

  7. Polyethylene glycol-coupled IGF1 delays motor function defects in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Frank; Elflein, Nicole; Saenger, Stefanie; Wirthgen, Elisa; Rak, Kristen; Frantz, Stefan; Hoeflich, Andreas; Toyka, Klaus V; Metzger, Friedrich; Jablonka, Sibylle

    2014-05-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy of the diaphragm and skeletal muscles, leading to death in childhood. No effective treatment is available. The neuromuscular degeneration (Nmd(2J)) mouse shares a crucial mutation in the immunoglobulin mu-binding protein 2 gene (Ighmbp2) with spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 patients and also displays some basic features of the human disease. This model serves as a promising tool in understanding the complex mechanisms of the disease and in exploring novel treatment modalities such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) which supports myogenic and neurogenic survival and stimulates differentiation during development. Here we investigated the treatment effects with polyethylene glycol-coupled IGF1 and its mechanisms of action in neurons and muscles. Polyethylene glycol-coupled IGF1 was applied subcutaneously every second day from post-natal Day 14 to post-natal Day 42 and the outcome was assessed by morphology, electromyography, and molecular studies. We found reduced IGF1 serum levels in Nmd(2J) mice 2 weeks after birth, which was normalized by polyethylene glycol-coupled IGF1 treatment. Nmd(2J) mice showed marked neurogenic muscle fibre atrophy in the gastrocnemius muscle and polyethylene glycol-coupled IGF1 treatment resulted in muscle fibre hypertrophy and slowed fibre degeneration along with significantly higher numbers of functionally active axonal sprouts. In the diaphragm with predominant myogenic changes a profound protection from muscle fibre degeneration was observed under treatment. No effects of polyethylene glycol-coupled IGF1 were monitored at the level of motor neuron survival. The beneficial effects of polyethylene glycol-coupled IGF1 corresponded to a marked activation of the IGF1 receptor, resulting in enhanced phosphorylation of Akt (protein kinase B) and the ribosomal protein S6 kinase in

  8. Development and feasibility study of a sensory-enhanced robot-aided motor training in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Mukherjee, M; Tsaur, Y; Kim, S H; Liu, H; Natarajan, P; Agah, A

    2009-01-01

    Functional impairment of the upper limb is a major challenge faced by many stroke survivors. The present study aimed at developing a novel sensory-enhanced robot-aided motor training program and testing its feasibility in stroke rehabilitation. A specially designed robot handle was developed as an attachment to the Inmotion2 robotic system. This handle provided sensory stimulation through pins connected to small servo motors inside the handle. Vibration of the pins was activated during motor training once pressure on the handle reached a certain threshold indicating an active motion of the study subject. Nine chronic stroke survivors were randomly assigned to either a sensory-enhanced robot-aided motor training group (SERMT) or robot-aided motor training only group (RMT). All participants underwent a 6-week motor training program, performing target reaching movements with the specialized handle with or without vibration stimulation during training. Motor Status (MS) scores were measured for functional outcome prior to and after training. The results showed significant improvement in the total MS scores after training in both experimental groups. However, MS sub-scores for the shoulder/elbow and the wrist/hand increased significantly only in the SERMT group (p<0.05). Future studies are required to confirm these preliminary findings.

  9. Urinary Levels of IL-1β and GDNF in Preterm Neonates as Potential Biomarkers of Motor Development: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Coelho Magalhães

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the association between inflammatory biomarkers, neurotrophic factors, birth conditions, and the presence of motor development abnormalities in preterm neonates. Methods. Plasma and urinary levels of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF, and IL-12p70, chemokines (CXCL8/IL-8, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL5/RANTES, CXCL10/IP-10, and CXCL9/MIG, and neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF were evaluated in 40 preterm neonates born between 28 and 32 incomplete weeks of gestation, at four distinct time points: at birth (umbilical cord blood (T0, at 48 (T1, at 72 hours (T2, and at 3 weeks after birth (T3. Biomarkers levels were compared between different time points and then associated with Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP percentiles. Results. Maternal age, plasma, and urinary concentrations of inflammatory molecules and neurotrophic factors were significantly different between groups with normal versus lower than expected motor development. Higher levels of GDNF were found in the group with lower than expected motor development, while IL-1β and CXCL8/IL-8 values were higher in the group with typical motor development. Conclusion. Measurements of cytokines and neurotrophic factors in spot urine may be useful in the follow-up of motor development in preterm neonates.

  10. Advanced Motor Control Test Facility for NASA GRC Flywheel Energy Storage System Technology Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.; Hofmann, Heath; Mackin, Michael; Santiago, Walter; Jansen, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the flywheel test facility developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center with particular emphasis on the motor drive components and control. A four-pole permanent magnet synchronous machine, suspended on magnetic bearings, is controlled with a field orientation algorithm. A discussion of the estimation of the rotor position and speed from a "once around signal" is given. The elimination of small dc currents by using a concurrent stationary frame current regulator is discussed and demonstrated. Initial experimental results are presented showing the successful operation and control of the unit at speeds up to 20,000 rpm.

  11. Research Review: Do motor deficits during development represent an endophenotype for schizophrenia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burton, Birgitte Klee; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Jepsen, Jens Richardt M.;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early detection of schizophrenia risk is a critical goal in the field. Endophenotypes in children to relatives of affected individuals may contribute to this early detection. One of the lowest cost and longest theorized domains is motor development in children. METHODS: A meta...... specificity is limited in relation to other serious mental disorders. It holds promise as a low cost domain for early risk detection, although it will have to be combined with other indicators to achieve clinically usable prediction accuracy. Impaired coordination was the most robust result with a moderate...

  12. Loss of LORELEI function in the pistil delays initiation but does not affect embryo development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    Double fertilization, uniquely observed in plants, requires successful sperm cell delivery by the pollen tube to the female gametophyte, followed by migration, recognition and fusion of the two sperm cells with two female gametic cells. The female gametophyte not only regulates these steps but also controls the subsequent initiation of seed development. Previously, we reported that loss of LORELEI, which encodes a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, in the female reproductive tissues causes a delay in initiation of seed development. From these studies, however, it was unclear if embryos derived from fertilization of lre-5 gametophytes continued to lag behind wild-type during seed development. Additionally, it was not determined if the delay in initiation of seed development had any lingering effects during seed germination. Finally, it was not known if loss of LORELEI function affects seedling development given that LORELEI is expressed in eight-day-old seedlings. Here, we showed that despite a delay in initiation, lre-5/lre-5 embryos recover, becoming equivalent to the developing wild-type embryos beginning at 72 hours after pollination. Additionally, lre-5/lre-5 seed germination, and seedling and root development are indistinguishable from wild-type indicating that loss of LORELEI is tolerated, at least under standard growth conditions, in vegetative tissues. PMID:21051955

  13. Loss of LORELEI function in the pistil delays initiation but does not affect embryo development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Palanivelu, Ravishankar

    2010-11-01

    Double fertilization, uniquely observed in plants, requires successful sperm cell delivery by the pollen tube to the female gametophyte, followed by migration, recognition and fusion of the two sperm cells with two female gametic cells. The female gametophyte not only regulates these steps but also controls the subsequent initiation of seed development. Previously, we reported that loss of LORELEI, which encodes a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, in the female reproductive tissues causes a delay in initiation of seed development. From these studies, however, it was unclear if embryos derived from fertilization of lre-5 gametophytes continued to lag behind wild type during seed development. Additionally, it was not determined if the delay in initiation of seed development had any lingering effects during seed germination. Finally, it was not known if loss of LORELEI function affects seedling development given that LORELEI is expressed in eight-day-old seedlings. Here, we showed that despite a delay in initiation, lre-5/lre-5 embryos recover, becoming equivalent to the developing wild-type embryos beginning at 72 hours after pollination. Additionally, lre-5/lre-5 seed germination, and seedling and root development are indistinguishable from wild type indicating that loss of LORELEI is tolerated, at least under standard growth conditions, in vegetative tissues.

  14. Development of a highly efficient brushless dc motor utilizing both radial and axial air gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, K. J.; Jang, G. H.; Sung, S. J.; Chang, J. H.

    2012-04-01

    This research proposes an effective structure for a brushless dc motor utilizing both radial and axial air gaps. The proposed motor generates torque in both the radial and axial air gaps, while the conventional motor generates torque only in the radial air gap. The proposed motor was optimized to minimize the electromagnetic loss of the motor to increase the effective air gap length and fill-factor of the coil while decreasing the saturation of the core at the same time. The electromagnetic loss was reduced by 35% in comparison with a conventional motor.

  15. Avaliação e intervenção no desenvolvimento motor de uma criança com Síndrome de Down Assessment and intervention in the motor development of a child with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Maurilia dos Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o desenvolvimento motor de uma criança com síndrome de Down e verificar os efeitos de um programa de intervenção motora específica. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva do tipo estudo de caso. Para a avaliação do desenvolvimento motor foram utilizados os testes da Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor - EDM que analisa as áreas da motricidade fina e global, equilíbrio, esquema corporal, organização espacial e temporal/linguagem, e lateralidade. Essa criança participou, respectivamente, de avaliação motora, intervenção motora (32 sessões, 2 vezes semanais e reavaliação motora. As intervenções motoras mostraram avanços positivos nas áreas da motricidade global, equilíbrio e organização espacial. A motricidade fina, esquema corporal e a organização temporal /linguagem não apresentaram avanços. Verificou-se que a linguagem foi a área de maior prejuízo. O quociente motor em todos os itens foi classificado como muito inferior, o que se caracteriza como déficit motor. Esses dados justificam a relevância de programas de intervenção motora para essa população.the objective of this study was to analyze the motor development of a child with Down syndrome and to verify the effect of a specific motor intervention program. This is a descriptive research case study. Motor development was evaluated using the Motor Development Scale - MDS, which analyzes both fine and gross motor skills as well as balance, body schema, spatial and temporal organization, language, and laterality. This child participated, respectively, of the motor assessment, motor intervention (32 sessions, twice weekly and motor reevaluation. Gains were demonstrated in motor intervention in the areas of the gross motor skills, balance and spatial organization. No improvement was shown in fine motor skills, body schema and temporal organization/ language. Language was found to be the area of lowest achievement. The motor

  16. Development of an Electric Motor Powered Low Cost Coconut Deshelling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Imdadul Hoque; Prasanna Kumar, G. V.

    2016-06-01

    An electric motor powered coconut deshelling machine was developed in line with the commercially available unit, but with slight modifications. The machine worked on the principle that the coconut shell can be caused to fail in shear and compressive forces. It consisted of a toothed wheel, a deshelling rod, an electric motor, and a compound chain drive. A bevelled 16 teeth sprocket with 18 mm pitch was used as the toothed wheel. Mild steel round bar of 18 mm diameter was used as the deshelling rod. The sharp edge tip of the deshelling rod was inserted below the shell to apply shear force on the shell, and the fruit was tilted toward the rotary toothed wheel to apply the compressive force on the shell. The speed of rotation of the toothed wheel was set at 34 ± 2 rpm. The output capacity of the machine was found to be 24 coconuts/h with 95 % of the total time effectively used for deshelling. The labour requirement was found to be 43 man-h/1000 nuts. About 13 % of the kernels got scraped and about 7 % got sliced during the operation. The developed coconut deshelling machine was recommended for the minimum annual use of 200 h or deshelling of 4700 coconuts per year. The cost of operation for 200 h of annual use was found to be about ` 47/h. The developed machine was found to be simple, easy to operate, energy efficient, safe and reduce drudgery involved in deshelling by conventional methods.

  17. Delayed post-treatment with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells is neurorestorative of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons and improves motor function after neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Stella H; Alwakeel, Amr J; Goddard, Liping; Hobbs, Catherine E; Gowing, Emma K; Barnett, Elizabeth R; Kohe, Sarah E; Sizemore, Rachel J; Oorschot, Dorothy E

    2015-09-01

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of striatal injury and may lead to cerebral palsy. This study investigated whether delayed administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), at one week after neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia, was neurorestorative of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons and improved motor function. The effect of a subcutaneous injection of a high-dose, or a low-dose, of MSCs was investigated in stereological studies. Postnatal day (PN) 7 pups were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia. At PN14, pups received treatment with either MSCs or diluent. A subset of high-dose pups, and their diluent control pups, were also injected intraperitoneally with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), every 24h, on PN15, PN16 and PN17. This permitted tracking of the migration and survival of neuroblasts originating from the subventricular zone into the adjacent injured striatum. Pups were euthanized on PN21 and the absolute number of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons was measured after immunostaining for DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32), double immunostaining for BrdU and DARPP-32, and after cresyl violet staining alone. The absolute number of striatal immunostained calretinin interneurons was also measured. There was a statistically significant increase in the absolute number of DARPP-32-positive, BrdU/DARPP-32-positive, and cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny projection neurons, and fewer striatal calretinin interneurons, in the high-dose mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) group compared to their diluent counterparts. A high-dose of MSCs restored the absolute number of these neurons to normal uninjured levels, when compared with previous stereological data on the absolute number of cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny projection neurons in the normal uninjured brain. For the low-dose experiment, in which cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny neurons alone were measured, there was a lower statistically

  18. Can adolescents learn self-control? Delay of gratification in the development of control over risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Duckworth, Angela L; Sznitman, Sharon; Park, Sunhee

    2010-09-01

    Recent findings from developmental neuroscience suggest that the adolescent brain is too immature to exert control over impulsive drives, such as sensation seeking, that increase during adolescence. Using a discounting of delayed reward paradigm, this research examines the ability to delay gratification as a potential source of control over risk-taking tendencies that increase during adolescence. In addition, it explores the role of experience resulting from risk taking as well as future time perspective as contributors to the development of this ability. In a nationally representative sample (n = 900) of young people aged 14-22, a structural equation analysis shows that risk taking as assessed by use of three popular drugs (tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol) is inversely related to the ability to delay gratification. The relation is robust across gender, age, and different levels of sensation seeking. In addition, high sensation seekers exhibit dramatic age-related increase in delay of gratification, lending support to the hypothesis that engaging in risky behavior provides experience that leads to greater patience for long-term rewards. The findings support the conclusion that a complete understanding of the development of self-control must consider individual differences not easily explained by universal trends in brain maturation.

  19. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  20. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  1. The relationship between spasticity in young children (18 months of age with cerebral palsy and their gross motor function development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschuren Olaf

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is thought that spasticity has an influence on the development of functional motor abilities among children with cerebral palsy (CP. The extent to which spasticity is associated with the change in motor abilities in young children with CP has not been established. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship of initial spasticity in young children with CP and their gross motor function development over one year. Methods Fifty children with CP aged 18 months, GMFCS-levels I-V participated in a longitudinal observational study. Change in gross motor functioning (GMFM-66 was measured over one year. The level of spasticity measured at the first assessment was determined with the Modified Tardieu Scale in three muscle groups of the lower extremity (adductor muscles, the hamstrings and the m. gastrocnemius. The Spasticity Total Score per child was calculated with a maximum score of 12 points. Results Spearman's Rho Correlation (-0.28 revealed a statistically significant relationship (p Conclusion Our findings indicate that when measured over one year, spasticity is marginally related to gross motor function development in infants with CP. The initial level of spasticity is only one of the many child, environmental and family factors that determines gross motor development of a young child with CP.

  2. Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

  3. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Živorad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that “fine motor skills” are determined by the development of its large motorics, the authors point to the significance of the content and structure of physical education programme in preschool institutions and younger age school classes. It is evident that the effects of cultivating of children development during preschool period can be seen in younger primary school classes. The goal of this research was to determine if and how much the different organization of preparatory part of physical education lesson for younger school children, determines the differences in the development of their motor abilities. By the use of experimental method, the effects of prolonged preparatory part of a lesson in younger school classes. This part was realized through complex of exercises which were supposed to have influence on transformation of motor abilities in relation to the structure with standard duration of certain parts of a lesson. It is determined that certain increase in body movement of students during physical activity can significantly contribute to better development of motor abilities. These abilities determine correct physical development and strengthening of health, which determines general aim of physical education.

  4. Secular Changes of Adiposity and Motor Development in Czech Preschool Children: Lifestyle Changes in Fifty-Five Year Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Sedlak; Jana Pařízková; Robert Daniš; Hana Dvořáková; Jana Vignerová

    2015-01-01

    Secular trends of adiposity and motor development in preschool children since the fifties of the last century up to the beginning of this millennium were analyzed so as to reveal possible changes due to continuously differentiating lifestyle. In preschool children (n = 3678) height, weight, skinfold thickness over triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac were measured by Harpenden caliper in 1957, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 2012. Simultaneously, motor performance was tested by evaluating the ach...

  5. New perspectives on the development of muscle contractures following central motor lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Bartels, Else Marie; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2017-01-01

    Muscle contractures are common in patients with central motor lesions, but the mechanisms responsible for the development of contractures are still unclear. Increased or decreased neural activation, protracted placement of a joint with the muscle in a short position and muscle atrophy have been...... suggested to be involved, but none of these mechanisms are sufficient to explain the development of muscle contractures alone. Here we propose that changes in tissue homeostasis in the neuro-muscular-tendon-connective tissue complex is at the heart of the development of contractures, and that an integrated...... physiological understanding of the interaction between neural, mechanical and metabolic factors, as well as genetic and epigenetic factors, is necessary in order to unravel the mechanisms that result in muscle contractures. We hope thereby to contribute to a reconsideration of how and why muscle contractures...

  6. Development of an X-ray delay unit for correlation spectroscopy and pump-probe experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roseker, Wojciech

    2008-07-15

    Probing condensed matter on time scales ranging from femtoseconds to nanoseconds will be one of the key topics for future X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) sources. The accessible time windows are, however, compromised by the intrinsic time structure of the sources. One way to overcome this limitation is the usage of a time delay unit. A prototype device capable of splitting an X-ray pulse into two adjustable fractions, delaying one of them with the aim to perform X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and pump-probe type studies was designed and manufactured. The device utilizes eight perfect crystals in vertical 90 scattering geometry. Its performance has been verified with 8.39 keV and 12.4 keV Xrays at various synchrotron sources. The measured throughput of the device with a Si(333) monochromator at 8.39 keV under ambient conditions is 0.6%. The stability was verified at 12.4 keV and operation without realignment and feedback was possible for more than 30 minutes. Time delays up to 2.95 ns have been achieved. The highest resolution achieved in an experiment was 15.4 ps, a value entirely determined by the diagnostics system. The influence of the delay unit optics on the coherence properties of the beam was investigated by means of Fraunhofer diffraction and static speckle analysis. The obtained high fringe visibility and contrast values larger than 23% indicate the feasibility of performing coherence based experiments with the delay line. (orig.)

  7. Development and maturation of embryonic cortical neurons grafted into the damaged adult motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissrine Ballout

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Injury to the human central nervous system can lead to devastating consequences due to its poor ability to self-repair. Neural transplantation aimed at replacing lost neurons and restore functional circuitry has proven to be a promising therapeutical avenue. We previously reported in adult rodent animal models with cortical lesions that grafted fetal cortical neurons could effectively re-establish specific patterns of projections and synapses. The current study was designed to provide a detailed characterization of the spatio-temporal in vivo development of fetal cortical transplanted cells within the lesioned adult motor cortex and their corresponding axonal projections. We show here that as early as two weeks after grafting, cortical neuroblasts transplanted into damaged adult motor cortex developed appropriate projections to cortical and subcortical targets. Grafted cells initially exhibited characteristics of immature neurons, which then differentiated into mature neurons with appropriate cortical phenotypes where most were glutamatergic and few were GABAergic. All cortical subtypes identified with the specific markers CTIP2, Cux1, FOXP2 and Tbr1 were generated after grafting as evidenced with BrdU co-labeling.The set of data provided here is of interest as it sets biological standards for future studies aimed at replacing fetal cells with embryonic stem cells as a source of cortical neurons.

  8. Digital Trainer for the Development of the Fine Motor Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrezueta-Guzmán Jonnathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The leading cause of disability in Ecuadorian children is cerebral palsy, this disorder in most cases produces a deficiency of the ability to move fingers, hands and wrists at various levels, this happens too with the intellect of the patient. Many of the treatments and therapies are seeking that the patient can develop all of your motor ability and intellectual skills, using activities that involve the part Intellectual and practicality of their extremities. Today technology gives us the opportunity to manage devices of aid and assistance that not only complement the daily activities that are performed during the therapies in the help centers, they need to give results that show leaps and bounds in the progress that you want to get. The purpose of this project is to make a device that helps a patient to develop their fine motor ability to the patient can use their hands, fingers and wrists movements in various ways in coordination with their vision in conjunction with occipital lobe causing that brain activity in the patient, present alterations of amplitude in the beta waves in the hemispheres of the brain that allow move muscles, with only maneuver a fully digital device and low cost. These brain and muscles signals will be analyzed in this project, to test the efficiency of this project.

  9. Contribution of the game in the development of motor skills during the physical education class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen BOTA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: checking the influence of the dynamic game (taught in physical education lessons on the development of motor skills in 4th class middle school students. Materials and methods: The study was conducted over a period of six months, involving 30 students: boys (15 and girls (15, aged between 12 and 13. The evaluation of the athletes’ physical capacity was done by performing the following tests: speed running 50 m, long jump on the spot, resistance running 800 m G / 1000 m B, trunk lifting from lying position to sitting. Given the nature of the study, it did not require the use of sophisticated equipment. Conclusions: Methodical practicing of physical exercises (dynamic games proves itself more and more successful in terms of growth and normal, harmonical development of children and youth. In terms of motor skills, they have improved, which was revealed by the final testing results. Comparative analysis of the two test results across all samples showed that using dynamic games during the lessons had a positive effect on students. This drove to the effort capacity’s improvement with the parameters that were statistically significant in all the tests.

  10. Development of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K; Aizawa, K; Yokoyama, M; Yoshikawa, K [Kawasaki Heavy Industries LTD., 673-8666, Hyogo (Japan); Kimura, Y; Izumi, M [Tokyo University of Marine Science Technology, 135-8533, Tokyo (Japan); Ohashi, K; Numano, M [National Maritime Research Institute, 181-0004, Tokyo (Japan); Okumura, K; Yamaguchi, M; Gocho, Y; Kosuge, E, E-mail: umemoto@ati.khi.co.j [Japan Super-conductivity Organization Co. LTD., 135-8533, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    To reduce fuel consumption and lead to a major reduction of pollution from NOx, SOx and CO{sub 2}, the electric ship propulsion system is one of the most prospective substitutes for conventional ship propulsion systems. In order to spread it, innovative technologies for the improvement of the power transmission are required. The high temperature superconducting technology has the possibility for a drastic reduction of power transmission loss. Recently, electric podded propulsions have become popular for large cruise vessels, icebreakers and chemical tankers because of the flexibility of the equipment arrangement and the stern hull design, and better maneuverability in harbour, etc. In this paper, a 1 MW-class High temperature superconducting (HTS) motor with high efficiency, smaller size and simple structure, which is designed and manufactured for podded propulsion, is reported. For the case of a coastal ship driven by the optimized podded propulsion in which the 1MW HTS motor is equipped, the reductions of fluid dynamic resistance and power transmission losses are demonstrated. The present research and development has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  11. Development of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kimura, Y.; Izumi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Numano, M.; Okumura, K.; Yamaguchi, M.; Gocho, Y.; Kosuge, E.

    2010-06-01

    To reduce fuel consumption and lead to a major reduction of pollution from NOx, SOx and CO2, the electric ship propulsion system is one of the most prospective substitutes for conventional ship propulsion systems. In order to spread it, innovative technologies for the improvement of the power transmission are required. The high temperature superconducting technology has the possibility for a drastic reduction of power transmission loss. Recently, electric podded propulsions have become popular for large cruise vessels, icebreakers and chemical tankers because of the flexibility of the equipment arrangement and the stern hull design, and better maneuverability in harbour, etc. In this paper, a 1 MW-class High temperature superconducting (HTS) motor with high efficiency, smaller size and simple structure, which is designed and manufactured for podded propulsion, is reported. For the case of a coastal ship driven by the optimized podded propulsion in which the 1MW HTS motor is equipped, the reductions of fluid dynamic resistance and power transmission losses are demonstrated. The present research & development has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  12. Motor skill development in low-income, at-risk preschoolers: A community-based longitudinal intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Laura L; Davies, Patricia L; Courtney, Jimikaye B; Gavin, William J; Johnson, Susan L; Boles, Richard E

    2017-04-26

    This study aimed to: (1) determine the status of fundamental movement skill (FMS) performance in low-income, at-risk preschoolers; and (2) evaluate the impact of the Food Friends Get Movin' with Mighty Moves (MM) program on improving children's FMS at two-year follow-up. Longitudinal, quasi-experimental study with matched controls. The Colorado LEAP study was conducted in four Head Start/preschools (two intervention, two control) serving children aged 3-5 years. MM was delivered to the intervention group during preschool. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2) subtests for balance, running speed and agility, upper-limb coordination (object control (OC) skills) and strength were administered to children at baseline, post-intervention in preschool, one-year follow-up (kindergarten), and two-year follow-up (first grade). Compared to the normative sample's mean, the mean scaled score for all participants at baseline was significantly lower for balance (p=0.016) and OC skills (pskills for just the control group were significantly lower than those of the normative sample (p≤0.001). Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed a significant intervention effect for OC skills with the overall model accounting for 41% of variance at two-year follow-up, F(6,165)=20.45, pskills, in at-risk elementary school children. Results suggest that at-risk preschoolers are already behind in FMS development and these delays will continue through first grade. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of ageing on the force development in tetanic contractions of motor units in rat medial gastrocnemius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łochyński, Dawid; Kaczmarek, Dominik; Krutki, Piotr; Celichowski, Jan

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ageing on the rate of force generation of motor units, and the mechanical efficiency of contraction produced by a doublet discharge. The study was carried out on isolated motor units of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle of young (5-10 mo) and two groups of old (24-25 and 28-30 mo) Wistar rats. Motor units were classified into the fast fatigable (FF), fast resistant (FR) and slow (S) ones. The force output and rate of force development were determined for non-doublet unfused tetanic contractions evoked by a series of a constant-rate trains of pulses and corresponding doublet contractions starting with an initial brief interpulse interval of 5 ms, and for maximal tetanic contraction. In FF motor units the rate of force development and the force produced by the doublet discharge increased transiently at the age of 24-25 mo, while in S and FR motor units this increase was observed at the age of 28-30 mo. Age-related decrease in the rate of force development of skeletal muscle cannot be attributed to a decline in efficiency of force production by functioning motor units.

  14. Abbreviated exposure to hypoxia is sufficient to induce CNS dysmyelination, modulate spinal motor neuron composition, and impair motor development in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzlawik, Jens O; Kahoud, Robert J; O'Toole, Ryan J; White, Katherine A M; Ogden, Alyssa R; Painter, Meghan M; Wootla, Bharath; Papke, Louisa M; Denic, Aleksandar; Weimer, Jill M; Carey, William A; Rodriguez, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal white matter injury (nWMI) is an increasingly common cause of cerebral palsy that results predominantly from hypoxic injury to progenitor cells including those of the oligodendrocyte lineage. Existing mouse models of nWMI utilize prolonged periods of hypoxia during the neonatal period, require complex cross-fostering and exhibit poor growth and high mortality rates. Abnormal CNS myelin composition serves as the major explanation for persistent neuro-motor deficits. Here we developed a simplified model of nWMI with low mortality rates and improved growth without cross-fostering. Neonatal mice are exposed to low oxygen from postnatal day (P) 3 to P7, which roughly corresponds to the period of human brain development between gestational weeks 32 and 36. CNS hypomyelination is detectable for 2-3 weeks post injury and strongly correlates with levels of body and brain weight loss. Immediately following hypoxia treatment, cell death was evident in multiple brain regions, most notably in superficial and deep cortical layers as well as the subventricular zone progenitor compartment. PDGFαR, Nkx2.2, and Olig2 positive oligodendrocyte progenitor cell were significantly reduced until postnatal day 27. In addition to CNS dysmyelination we identified a novel pathological marker for adult hypoxic animals that strongly correlates with life-long neuro-motor deficits. Mice reared under hypoxia reveal an abnormal spinal neuron composition with increased small and medium diameter axons and decreased large diameter axons in thoracic lateral and anterior funiculi. Differences were particularly pronounced in white matter motor tracts left and right of the anterior median fissure. Our findings suggest that 4 days of exposure to hypoxia are sufficient to induce experimental nWMI in CD1 mice, thus providing a model to test new therapeutics. Pathological hallmarks of this model include early cell death, decreased OPCs and hypomyelination in early postnatal life, followed by

  15. Co-occurring development of early childhood communication and motor skills: results from a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M V; Lekhal, R; Aarø, L E; Schjølberg, S

    2014-01-01

    Communicative and motor development is frequently found to be associated. In the current study we investigate to what extent communication and motor skills at 1½ years predict skills in the same domains at 3 years of age. This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Heath. Data stem from 62,944 children and their mothers. Mothers completed questionnaires on their child's communication and motor skills at ages 1½ and 3. Associations between communication and motor skills were estimated in a cross-lagged model with latent variables. Early communication skills were correlated with early motor skills (0.72). Stability was high (0.81) across time points for motor skills and somewhat lower (0.40) for communication skills. Early motor skills predicted later communication skills (0.38) whereas early communication skills negatively predicted later motor skills (-0.14). Our findings provide support for the hypothesis that these two difficulties are not symptoms of separate disorders, but might rather be different manifestations of a common underlying neurodevelopmental weakness. However, there also seem to be specific developmental pathways for each domain. Besides theoretical interest, more knowledge about the relationship between these early skills might shed light upon early intervention strategies and preventive efforts commonly used with children with problems in these areas. Our findings suggest that the relationship between language and motor skills is not likely to be simple and directional but rather to be complex and multifaceted. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Maternal autism-associated IgG antibodies delay development and produce anxiety in a mouse gestational transfer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunschweig, Daniel; Golub, Mari S; Koenig, Claire M; Qi, Lihong; Pessah, Isaac N; Van de Water, Judy; Berman, Robert F

    2012-11-15

    A murine passive transfer model system was employed to ascertain the effects of gestational exposure to a single, intravenous dose of purified, brain-reactive IgG antibodies from individual mothers of children with autism (MAU) or mothers with typically developing children (MTD). Growth and behavioral outcomes in offspring were measured from postnatal days 8 to 65 in each group. Comparisons revealed alterations in early growth trajectories, significantly impaired motor and sensory development, and increased anxiety. This report demonstrates for the first time the effects of a single, low dose gestational exposure of IgG derived from individual MAU on their offspring's physical and social development.

  17. Longitudinal Development of Manual Motor Ability in Autism Spectrum Disorder from Childhood to Mid-Adulthood Relates to Adaptive Daily Living Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Brittany G.; Bigler, Erin D.; Duffield, Tyler C.; Prigge, Molly D. B.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit motor difficulties, but it is unknown whether manual motor skills improve, plateau, or decline in ASD in the transition from childhood into adulthood. Atypical development of manual motor skills could impact the ability to learn and perform daily activities across the life span. This…

  18. Development of a New Method for Assembling a Bipolar DC Motor as a Teaching Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuki; Sakaki, Kei; Sakaki, Mamoru

    2017-05-01

    A simple handmade motor is a commonly used teaching aid for explaining the theory of the DC motor in science classes around the world. Kits that can be used by children to craft a simple motor are commercially available, and videos of assembling these motors are easily found on the internet. Although the design of this motor is simple, it is unipolar, meaning that the rotor consists of a single dipole. Thus, the Lorentz force acts only on one side of the coil per revolution. This decreases the energy conversion efficiency and requires the learners to turn the rotor using their hands in order to initiate rotation.

  19. Design and Development of a Vector Control System of Induction Motor Based on Dual CPU for Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙逢春; 翟丽; 张承宁; 彭连云

    2003-01-01

    A vector control system for electric vehicle (EV) induction motor drive system is designed and developed. Its hardware system based on dual CPU(microcomputer 80C196KC and DSP TMS320F2407) is implemented. The fundamental mathematics equations of induction motor in the general synchronously rotating reference frame (M-T frame) used for vector control are achieved by coordinate transformation. Rotor flux equation and torque equation are deduced. According to these equations, an induction motor mathematical model and rotor flux observer model are built separately. The rotor flux field-oriented vector control method is implemented based on these models in system software, some of the simulation results with Matab/Simulink are given. The simulation results show that the vector control system for EV induction motor drive system has better static and dynamic performance, and the rotor flux field-oriented vector control method was practically verified.

  20. The discovery of human auditory-motor entrainment and its role in the development of neurologic music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of rhythmic auditory-motor entrainment in clinical populations was a historical breakthrough in demonstrating for the first time a neurological mechanism linking music to retraining brain and behavioral functions. Early pilot studies from this research center were followed up by a systematic line of research studying rhythmic auditory stimulation on motor therapies for stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, and other movement disorders. The comprehensive effects on improving multiple aspects of motor control established the first neuroscience-based clinical method in music, which became the bedrock for the later development of neurologic music therapy. The discovery of entrainment fundamentally shifted and extended the view of the therapeutic properties of music from a psychosocially dominated view to a view using the structural elements of music to retrain motor control, speech and language function, and cognitive functions such as attention and memory. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.