WorldWideScience

Sample records for delayed hypersensitivity reactions

  1. Expression of antibacterial resistance at the site of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, P J

    1980-01-01

    The site of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to tuberculin or bovine serum ablumin was shown to contain mechanisms that expressed increased antibacterial activity, as evidenced by restricted growth of a local inoculum of Listeria monocytogenes. As was the case with a delayed hypersensitivity reaction, the local generation of antibacterial activity was antigen specific and T-cell dependent. Antibacterial resistance was always expressed at the site of injection of specific antigen in sensiti...

  2. Desensitization in delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions -- an EAACI position paper of the Drug Allergy Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, K; Brockow, K; Aberer, W; Gooi, J H C; Demoly, P; Romano, A; Schnyder, B; Whitaker, P; Cernadas, J S R; Bircher, A J

    2013-07-01

    Drug hypersensitivity may deprive patients of drug therapy, and occasionally no effective alternative treatment is available. Successful desensitization has been well documented in delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions. In certain situations, such as sulfonamide hypersensitivity in HIV-positive patients or hypersensitivity to antibiotics in patients with cystic fibrosis, published success rates reach 80%, and this procedure appears helpful for the patient management. A state of clinical tolerance may be achieved by the administration of increasing doses of the previously offending drug. However, in most cases, a pre-existent sensitization has not been proven by positive skin tests. Successful re-administration may have occurred in nonsensitized patients. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of desensitization is needed. Currently, desensitization in delayed hypersensitivity reactions is restricted to mild, uncomplicated exanthems and fixed drug eruptions. The published success rates vary depending on clinical manifestations, drugs, and applied protocols. Slower protocols tend to be more effective than rush protocols; however, underreporting of unsuccessful procedures is very probable. The decision to desensitize a patient must always be made on an individual basis, balancing risks and benefits. This paper reviews the literature and presents the expert experience of the Drug Hypersensitivity Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butani, Lavjay; Calogiuri, Gianfranco

    2017-06-01

    To describe hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. PubMed search of articles published during the past 30 years with an emphasis on publications in the past decade. Case reports and review articles describing hypersensitivity reactions in the context of hemodialysis. Pharmacologic agents are the most common identifiable cause of hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving hemodialysis. These include iron, erythropoietin, and heparin, which can cause anaphylactic or pseudoallergic reactions, and topical antibiotics and anesthetics, which lead to delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Many hypersensitivity reactions are triggered by complement activation and increased bradykinin resulting from contact system activation, especially in the context of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use. Several alternative pharmacologic preparations and dialyzer membranes are available, such that once an etiology for the reaction is established, recurrences can be prevented without affecting the quality of care provided to patients. Although hypersensitivity reactions are uncommon in patients receiving hemodialysis, they can be life-threatening. Moreover, considering the large prevalence of the end-stage renal disease population, the implications of such reactions are enormous. Most reactions are pseudoallergic and not mediated by immunoglobulin E. The multiplicity of potential exposures and the complexity of the environment to which patients on dialysis are exposed make it challenging to identify the precise cause of these reactions. Great diligence is needed to investigate hypersensitivity reactions to avoid recurrence in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. IMMEDIATE AND DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO LATEX GLOVES IN A DENTAL STUDENT. A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyana Stoeva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a case of dental student with immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reaction to latex gloves. Symptoms appeared during the second year of regularly using of latex gloves. The student was with no history of allergies and no previous exposure to latex products.

  5. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: Skin Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: Skin Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Reaction and Cellular Immune Responses. ... The tuberculin skin test (TST) and peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs) culture were conducted using PPD. The cytokines were measured using commercial kits. Results: The mean TST was 24.6 ±8.0 ...

  6. Cutaneous and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basko-Plluska, Juliana L; Thyssen, Jacob P; Schalock, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous reactions to metal implants, orthopedic or otherwise, are well documented in the literature. The first case of a dermatitis reaction over a stainless steel fracture plate was described in 1966. Most skin reactions are eczematous and allergic in nature, although urticarial, bullous....... However, other metal ions as well as bone cement components can cause such hypersensitivity reactions. To complicate things, patients may also develop delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to metals (ie, in-stent restenosis, prosthesis loosening, inflammation, pain, or allergic contact dermatitis...

  7. Enhancement of cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity reactions by a single exposure to UV-A or PUVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, S.; Mobacken, H.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of irradiation with UV-A and PUVA (8-methoxy-psoralen and UV-A) on delayed hypersensitivity reactions to microbial antigens was studied in healthy human individuals. Skin reactions to Candida albicans antigen and PPD were enhanced by UV-A als well as by PUVA compared with nonirradiated tests. A statistically significant difference was reached with UV-A for both antigens. For PUVA, erythemogenic doses to Candida tests produced a significant increase of response. (orig.)

  8. Pharmacogenetics and Predictive Testing of Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Ruwen; Cascorbi, Ingolf

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions adverse drug reaction (ADR) occur in approximately 17% of patients. Avoiding ADR is thus mandatory from both an ethical and an economic point of view. Whereas, pharmacogenetics changes of the pharmacokinetics may contribute to the explanation of some type A reactions, strong relationships of genetic markers has also been shown for drug hypersensitivity belonging to type B reactions. We present the classifications of ADR, discuss genetic influences and focus on delayed-onset hypersensitivity reactions, i.e., drug-induced liver injury, drug-induced agranulocytosis, and severe cutaneous ADR. A guidance how to read and interpret the contingency table is provided as well as an algorithm whether and how a test for a pharmacogenetic biomarker should be conducted.

  9. Unique microRNAs appear at different times during the course of a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Nicholas; Løvendorf, Marianne B; Zibert, John R

    2015-01-01

    Diphencyprone (DPCP) is a hapten that induces delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression and have been implicated in various inflammatory skin diseases, but their role in DTH reactions is not well understood......, and therefore, may inform on the paradoxical ability of DPCP to treat both autoimmune conditions (alopecia areata) and conditions of ineffective immunity (melanoma)....

  10. Delayed Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Reactions to Antibiotics: Management with Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Caitlin M G; Park, Miguel A

    2017-11-01

    Successful desensitization to mild to moderate delayed cutaneous adverse reaction to antibiotics has been described in a limited number of antibiotics and found to be safe. However, there are ample opportunities to standardize protocols for delayed cutaneous adverse reactions to antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cutaneous and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basko-Plluska, Juliana L; Thyssen, Jacob P; Schalock, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous reactions to metal implants, orthopedic or otherwise, are well documented in the literature. The first case of a dermatitis reaction over a stainless steel fracture plate was described in 1966. Most skin reactions are eczematous and allergic in nature, although urticarial, bullous, and vasculitic eruptions may occur. Also, more complex immune reactions may develop around the implants, resulting in pain, inflammation, and loosening. Nickel, cobalt, and chromium are the three most common metals that elicit both cutaneous and extracutaneous allergic reactions from chronic internal exposure. However, other metal ions as well as bone cement components can cause such hypersensitivity reactions. To complicate things, patients may also develop delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to metals (ie, in-stent restenosis, prosthesis loosening, inflammation, pain, or allergic contact dermatitis) following the insertion of intravascular stents, dental implants, cardiac pacemakers, or implanted gynecologic devices. Despite repeated attempts by researchers and clinicians to further understand this difficult area of medicine, the association between metal sensitivity and cutaneous allergic reactions remains to be fully understood. This review provides an update of the current knowledge in this field and should be valuable to health care providers who manage patients with conditions related to this field.

  12. Tuberculin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in a model of hu-PBMC-SCID mice grafted with autologous skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsicopoulos, A.; Pestel, J.; Fahy, O.; Vorng, H.; Vandenbusche, F.; Porte, H.; Eraldi, L.; Wurtz, A.; Akoum, H.; Hamid, Q.; Wallaert, B.; Tonnel, A. B.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed an animal model to study human delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Previous studies in humans have shown after tuberculin injection the presence of a mononuclear cell infiltration, with almost no eosinophils, associated with a preferential Th-1-type cytokine profile. Human skin graft obtained from tuberculin-reactive donors was grafted onto the back of severe combined immunodeficient mice. After healing, mice were reconstituted intraperitoneally with peripheral mononuclear cells. Tuberculin and diluent were injected intradermally, and skin biopsies were performed 72 hours later. Skin grafts were divided into two parts, one for immunohistochemistry and one for in situ hybridization studies. Immunohistochemistry was performed on cryostat sections using the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase technique. In the tuberculin-injected sites as compared with the diluent-injected sites, there were significant increases in the number of CD45+ pan leukocytes and CD4+, CD8+, CD45RO+ T cells but not in CD68+ monocytes/macrophages and EG2 or MBP+ eosinophils. The activation markers CD25 and HLA-DR were up-regulated in the tuberculin-injected sites. In situ hybridization was performed using 35S-labeled riboprobes for interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5. After tuberculin injection, a preferential Th-1-type cytokine profile was observed with significant increases in the numbers of IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA-expressing cells. These results are similar to those reported after tuberculin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity in humans, suggesting that this model might be useful to study cutaneous inflammatory reaction. Images Figure 4 PMID:9626072

  13. Influence of PUVA and UVB radiation on delayed hypersensitivity in the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morison, W.L.; Parrish, J.A.; Woehler, M.E.; Krugler, J.I.; Bloch, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Exposure of guinea pigs to UVA (320--400 nm) radiation following administration of 8-methoxypsoralen by gavage (referred to by the acronym, PUVA) or exposure to UVB (290--320 nm) radiation, produced suppression of the cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity reaction at the site of exposure to radiation and at distant nonexposed sites. In these experiments, the animals were immunized by injection of dinitrophenyl-bovine gamma-globulin (DNP-BGG) in complete Freund's adjuvant and delayed hypersensitivity responses were provoked by intradermal injections of DNP-BGG, DNP and BGG on the flanks. Exposure to erythemogenic doses of either PUVA or UVB radiation for 7 days prior to immunization and for the 7 days between immunization and challenge (total period of radiation: 14 days) produced inhibiton of responses to each of the test substances. In addition, treatment with erythemogenic doses of PUVA either for 7 days prior to immunization or during the interval between immunization and challenge with DNP-BGG, inhibited the delayed hypersensitivity responses at the site of irradiation and at a nonexposed site. These findings suggest that in vivo exposure to nonionizing radiation leads to both local and systemic alteration of certain immune responses

  14. Immediate and delayed contact hypersensitivity to verbena plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potter, P C; Mather, S; Lockey, P

    1995-01-01

    Plants from the Verbenaceae family may cause contact dermatitis of unknown nature. This report describes 2 cases of allergic reactions to the Verbena species. A teenage boy developed an anaphylactic allergic response following contact with the leaves of Verbena hybrida. Characterization...... of the patient's specific IgE response to Verbena hybrida, using Western blots and autoradiography, identified the specific 62000 Dalton allergen present in the verbena leaves to which the patient reacted. This is the first report of an IgE-mediated immediate contact hypersensitivity reaction to Verbena hybrida......, a common perennial in South African gardens. The other case was a 23-year-old female gardener who developed immediate and delayed-type contact dermatitis from Verbena elegans 'Cleopatra' produced in a Danish nursery. Prick tests to plant material were considered positive and of an allergic nature....

  15. Hypersensitivity Reactions from Excipients in Systemic Glucocorticoid Formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calogiuri, Gianfranco; Garvey, Lene H; Romita, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most widely used drugs for the treatment of hypersensitivity, however these drugs themselves and the excipients contained in commercial corticosteroid formulations are able to induce severe immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions. Reactions involving excipients have been...

  16. Outpatient desensitization in selected patients with platinum hypersensitivity reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, David M; Vetter, Monica Hagan; Cohn, David E; Khan, Ambar; Hays, John L

    2017-06-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapies are a standard treatment for both initial and recurrent gynecologic cancers. Given this widespread use, it is important to be aware of the features of platinum hypersensitivity reactions and the subsequent treatment of these reactions. There is also increasing interest in the development of desensitization protocols to allow patients with a history of platinum hypersensitivity to receive further platinum based therapy. In this review, we describe the management of platinum hypersensitivity reactions and the desensitization protocols utilized at our institution. We also describe the clinical categorizations utilized to triage patients to appropriate desensitization protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Multinational experience with hypersensitivity drug reactions in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jares, Edgardo José; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Cardona-Villa, Ricardo; Ensina, Luis Felipe; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Gómez, Maximiliano; Barayazarra, Susana; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Serrano, Carlos D; Cuello, Mabel Noemi; Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; De Falco, Alicia; Cherrez-Ojeda, Iván

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiologic drug allergy data from Latin America are scarce, and there are no studies on specific procedures focusing on this topic in Latin America. To assess the clinical characteristics and management of hypersensitivity drug reactions in different Latin American countries. An European Network of Drug Allergy questionnaire survey was implemented in 22 allergy units in 11 Latin American countries to report on consecutive patients who presented with a suspected hypersensitivity drug reaction. Each unit used its own protocols to investigate patients. Included were 868 hypersensitivity drug reactions in 862 patients (71% of adults and elderly patients were women and 51% of children were girls, P = .0001). Children presented with less severe reactions than adults and elderly patients (P Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Restorative effect of peritoneal macrophages on delayed hypersensitivity following ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkman, A.; Collins, F.M.

    1971-01-01

    Sublethal whole-body irradiation in the guinea pig had little demonstrable effect on the development of delayed hypersensitivity but caused a profound, though transient depression of dermal reactivity in previously sensitized animals. Macrophage-rich peritoneal cell suspensions from non-sensitive donors when injected intradermally with eliciting antigen, resulted in the restoration of a significant degree of reactivity following irradiation. Inocula of lymphocytes, on the other hand, failed to yield similar results. These findings, when taken with the persistence of low levels of reactivity following irradiation and the ability to transfer reactivity with peritoneal exudate cells from animals so treated, warrant the conclusion that the presence of macrophages is necessary for the expression of cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity. The spontaneously renewed activity which follows the depressed phase is thus more of a reflection of the recovery of macrophage precursors from radiation injury, rather than the emergence of a new population of sensitized cells. The results, in addition, substantiate the belief that the expression of delayed hypersensitivity requires at least two cell populations, only one of which carries the property of specificity at the outset

  19. Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions Induced by Triamcinolone in a Patient with Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jee Hee; Park, Sook Young; Cho, Yong Se; Chung, Bo Young; Kim, Hye One; Park, Chun Wook

    2018-03-19

    Corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic agents used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including allergic disease. They are frequently considered the therapy-of-choice for many skin diseases. However, allergic reactions caused by corticosteroids have been reported. Among these, delayed reactions to topical steroids are more common, whereas immediate reactions to systemic steroids are rare. Herein, we report the case of a 32-year-old woman with triamcinolone-induced immediate hypersensitivity reaction, in which the patient had a positive prick test result with triamcinolone. She has had atopic dermatitis (AD) for three years. She had used systemic steroid, cyclosporine, and antihistamine with topical steroids for AD. In clinic, approximately 10 minutes after intralesional injection of triamcinolone, she complained of erythematous patches with slight elevation and itching on the face, trunk, and both hands. After intravenous injection of dexamethasone, her symptoms got worse. After treatment with epinephrine, all symptoms resolved within two hours. We performed an open test and skin prick test. She had a positive result only from the prick test with triamcinolone; all other steroids showed negative results from the open tests. Dermatologists should be aware of the possibility of anaphylaxis or other allergic hypersensitivity in response to corticosteroids. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  20. Hypersensitivity Reactions to Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Caballero-Fonseca, Fernan; Capriles-Hulett, Arnaldo; González-Aveledo, Luis

    2010-01-01

    After beta lactam antibiotics, hypersensitivity reactions to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs are the second cause of hypersensitivity to drugs. Acute manifestations affect the respiratory tract (aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease), the skin (urticaria and angioedema), or are generalized (anaphylaxis). Correct diagnosis and treatment in order to prevent unnecessary morbidity and the potential risk of death from these severe reactions, and to provide proper medical advice on future dru...

  1. Corticosteroid hypersensitivity studies in a skin allergy clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbegal, L; DeLeon, F J; Silvestre, J F

    2015-12-01

    Corticosteroids can cause hypersensitivity reactions, particularly delayed-type allergic reactions. A new classification system for testing hypersensitivity to corticosteroids distributes the drugs into 3 groups according to molecular structure; patients are classified according to whether they are allergic to agents in 1 or more of the groups. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of corticosteroid-allergic patients treated at our clinic and apply the new classification system to them; we also compared these patients' characteristics to those of others treated at our clinic. Retrospective study of cases of delayed-type corticosteroid hypersensitivity treated in the skin allergy clinic of a tertiary level hospital over an 11-year period. We reviewed the records of 2857 patients, finding 33 with at least one positive patch test result showing corticosteroid hypersensitivity. Atopic dermatitis and hand involvement were less common in our corticosteroid-allergic patients. All were allergic to a group 1 corticosteroid (most often, budesonide, the culprit in 87.9%). Testing with a specific corticosteroid series revealed that 14 (42.4%) were also allergic to corticosteroids in group 2 and/or group 3. None were allergic exclusively to group 2 or group 3 agents. Twenty-one patients were exposed to a corticosteroid cream from a group their patch test results indicated allergy to; 13 of them (61.9%) did not develop a hypersensitivity reaction. The Spanish standard series only contains group 1 corticosteroids. In the interest of improving allergy management, we recommend testing with a specific corticosteroid series and a patient's own creams whenever patch testing with a standard series reveals a hypersensitivity reaction to corticosteroids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  2. Fatal hypersensitivity reaction to an oral spray of flurbiprofen: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calapai, G; Imbesi, S; Cafeo, V; Ventura Spagnolo, E; Minciullo, P L; Caputi, A P; Gangemi, S; Milone, L

    2013-08-01

    Safety of the anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen is comparable with that of other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs of the propionic acid class, which are commonly associated with gastrointestinal and renal side effects. Here we report a case of a fatal hypersensitivity reaction to an oral spray of flurbiprofen taken for sore throat. A 29-year-old man came to the emergency care unit reporting sore throat with an intense burning sensation associated with fever. Pharyngotonsillitis was diagnosed, and local treatment with oral flurbiprofen spray was prescribed. Immediately after using the spray, the patient experienced a severe reaction characterized by serious dyspnoea, followed by death. The cause of death was heart failure with acute asphyxia from oedema of the glottis. The cause of death was concluded to be hypersensitivity to flurbiprofen spray. Oral propionic acid derivatives have been associated with a relatively high frequency of allergic reactions. However, allergy to flurbiprofen has rarely been documented. Scientific literature reports two relevant cases of hypersensitivity reaction to flurbiprofen: in one case, a patient presented with a maculopapular rash 48 h after having taken oral flurbiprofen followed by angio-oedema and hypotension. In another case, a single oral dose of flurbiprofen caused itching and swelling around the eyes, redness and increased lacrimation. We describe, for the first time, a fatal case of hypersensitivity reaction to flurbiprofen oral spray. Hypersensitivity reactions to flurbiprofen are infrequent; however, health professionals should be aware of potential adverse reactions, even during topical administration as oral spray. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Patch testers' opinions regarding diagnostic criteria for metal hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalock, Peter C; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2013-01-01

    Metal hypersensitivity reactions to implanted devices remain a challenging and controversial topic. Diagnostic criteria and methods are not well delineated.......Metal hypersensitivity reactions to implanted devices remain a challenging and controversial topic. Diagnostic criteria and methods are not well delineated....

  4. Delayed allergic dermatitis presenting as a keloid-like reaction caused by sting from an Indo-Pacific Portuguese man-o'-war (Physalia utriculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, B E K; Dayrit, J F; Haddad, V

    2017-03-01

    Cnidarian envenomations are common occurrences in the tropics that can affect holidaymakers. The cutaneous reactions are classified as immediate or delayed types. Delayed allergic reactions are persistently recurring dermatitis, which can occur within 1-4 weeks from the initial sting, and may last for several months. Hypertrophic scar-like or keloid-like reactions are rare, and are believed to be a type IV hypersensitivity reaction to sequestered antigens from stinging filaments. We report an unusual case of delayed allergic dermatitis with keloid-like presentation caused by Physalia utriculus. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin demonstrated in experimental leptospirosis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Johansen, K S; Bentzon, M W

    1976-01-01

    Skin reactivity to tuberculin has been studied during the course of experimental leptospirosis in guinea pigs. A depression of the delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin was demonstrated in the infected animals. The depression was most pronounced when icterus had developed. The depression...

  6. Successful desensitization protocol for hypersensitivity reaction probably caused by dabrafenib in a patient with metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Sela, Gil; Abu-Amna, Mahmoud; Hadad, Salim; Haim, Nissim; Shahar, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Vemurafenib and dabrafenib are both orally bioavailable small molecule agents that block mitogen activated protein kinase signalling in patients with melanoma and BRAF(V600E) mutation. Generalized hypersensitivity reactions to vemurafenib or dabrafenib have not been described. Continuing vemurafenib or dabrafenib therapy despite hypersensitivity reaction is especially important in patients with melanoma and BRAF(V600E) mutation, in whom this mutation plays a critical role in tumour growth. Desensitization protocols to overcome hypersensitivity reactions by gradual reintroduction of small amounts of the offending drug up to full therapeutic doses are available for many anti-cancer agents, including vemurafenib but, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported for dabrafenib. We describe a patient with metastatic melanoma who developed Type I hypersensitivity reaction to vemurafenib and to subsequent treatment with dabrafenib, and who was successfully treated by drug desensitization which allowed safe prolonged continuation of dabrafenib. The development of hypersensitivity reactions for both dabrafenib and vemurafinib in the current case could be because these drugs have a similar chemical structure and cause a cross-reactivity. However, hypersensitivity reaction to a non-medicinal ingredient shared by the two drugs is also possible. Oral desensitization appears to be an option for patients with hypersensitivity Type I to dabrafenib. This approach may permit clinicians to safely administer dabrafenib to patients who experience hypersensitivity reactions to this life-prolonging medication. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Desensitization to ceftaroline in a patient with multiple medication hypersensitivity reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Justin M; Richter, Lisa M; Alonto, Augusto; Leedahl, David D

    2015-02-01

    The case of a patient with multiple medication hypersensitivity reactions and a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection who underwent desensitization to ceftaroline is reported. A 32-year-old Caucasian woman with asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, heart murmur, and major depression was admitted for MRSA cellulitis with a subcutaneous abscess along the left sternomanubrial joint and clavicular osteomyelitis secondary to port placement after gastric bypass surgery. The patient had an extensive history of hypersensitivity reactions. Pertinent documented allergies were as follows: penicillin (anaphylaxis), daptomycin (anaphylaxis), vancomycin (hives), linezolid (hives), ertapenem (rash), ciprofloxacin (rash), and tigecycline (rash). The patient also reported previous reactions to aztreonam (unknown) and gentamicin (hives). The pharmacy was consulted to develop a desensitization protocol for ceftaroline. The desensitization protocol used three serial dilutions of ceftaroline to make 14 sequential infusions with escalating doses. Intramuscular epinephrine, i.v. diphenhydramine, and i.v. methylprednisolone were ordered as needed for the development of immediate hypersensitivity reactions during or after administration of ceftaroline. The cumulative dose (574.94 mg) was administered intravenously over 225 minutes with no breakthrough symptoms reported during or after the desensitization protocol. Ceftaroline fosamil 600 mg i.v. every 12 hours was continued for six weeks. Desensitization to ceftaroline was conducted for a patient with extensive history of hypersensitivity reactions to other drugs, including penicillin-induced anaphylaxis. Desensitization and subsequent treatment with full doses of ceftaroline were accomplished without apparent adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Incidence of abacavir hypersensitivity reactions in euroSIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Friis-Møller, Nina; Mocroft, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of abacavir-related hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) and associated deaths in EuroSIDA HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: Poisson regression models were developed to compare incidence of abacavir discontinuation according to the line...

  9. Effect of ultraviolet B irradiation on delayed-type hypersensitivity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity, and skin graft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, K.; Iijima, M.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of ultraviolet B irradiation on the induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to alloantigens by epidermal cells (EC), on the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity to alloantigens, and on skin graft rejection was studied. After the skin was irradiated with UVB in vitro, EC were obtained. The EC were injected subcutaneously, and the DTH reaction was compared with that induced by non-UVB-irradiated EC. A reduction in the DTH reaction was observed (from 62% to 99.1%). CTL activity in these mice was assessed after in vitro stimulation. CTL activity in mice sensitized with UVB-irradiated EC was significantly reduced. Furthermore, mice sensitized with UVB-irradiated EC did not reject a subsequent skin allograft in an accelerated fashion, whereas mice sensitized with non-UVB-irradiated EC did. The mechanism(s) of these reactions and the clinical application of the UVB irradiation prior to grafting are discussed

  10. Common allergies do not influence the prevalence of cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosak, Magdalena; Porębski, Grzegorz; Słowik, Agnieszka; Turaj, Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to establish whether the presence of common allergies increases the risk of drug-related hypersensitivity reactions among patients with epilepsy treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). We studied 753 patients with epilepsy seen in tertiary outpatient epilepsy clinic. We obtained data related to epilepsy type, past and ongoing treatment with AEDs, occurrence of maculopapular exanthema or more serious cutaneous adverse reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome - SJS) and their characteristics. We noted an occurrence of allergic reactions unrelated to treatment with AED, including rash unrelated to AED, bronchial asthma, persistent or seasonal allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, rash after specific food and other allergic reactions. There were 61 cases of AED-related cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction (including 3 cases of SJS) noted in association with 2319 exposures to AEDs (2.63%) among 55 out of 753 patients (7.3%). Cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction to AED was most commonly noted after lamotrigine (12.1%), carbamazepine (5.4%) and oxcarbazepine (4.1%). Prevalence of allergic reactions unrelated to AED was similar between patients with and without AED-related cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction (rash unrelated to AED: 16.4% vs. 10.2%; bronchial asthma: 1.8% vs. 0.1%; persistent allergic rhinitis: 7.3% vs. 10.2%; seasonal allergic rhinitis: 7.3% vs. 11.7%; atopic dermatitis: 0 vs. 0.7%; rash after specific food: 5.4% vs. 6.4%; other allergic reactions: 5.4% vs. 5.2%, respectively; P>0.1 for each difference). Presence of common allergies is not a significant risk factor for AED-related cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction among patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Linezolid desensitization for a patient with multiple medication hypersensitivity reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Autumn D; Stollings, Joanna L; White, Katie D; Fadugba, Olajumoke O; Choi, Jane J

    2013-01-01

    To describe a case in which a linezolid desensitization protocol was successfully used for a polymicrobial surgical wound infection in a patient with multiple drug hypersensitivity reactions. A 24-year-old woman with vocal cord dysfunction requiring tracheostomy was admitted for a surgical wound infection following a tracheostomy fistula closure procedure. The patient reported multiple antibiotic allergies including penicillins (rash), sulfonamides (rash), vancomycin (anaphylaxis), azithromycin (rash), cephalosporins (anaphylaxis), levofloxacin (unspecified), clindamycin (unspecified), and carbapenems (unspecified). Gram stain of the purulent wound drainage demonstrated mixed gram-negative and gram-positive flora, and bacterial cultures were overgrown with Proteus mirabilis, which precluded identification of other pathogens. Following failed test doses of linezolid, tigecycline, and daptomycin, all of which resulted in hypersensitivity reactions, a 16-step linezolid desensitization protocol was developed and successfully implemented without adverse reactions. The patient completed a 2-week course of antibiotic therapy that included linezolid upon finishing the desensitization protocol. Linezolid is useful in treating complicated and uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. With precautions, including premedication, a monitored nursing unit, and immediate availability of an emergency anaphylaxis kit, drug desensitization allows patients the ability to safely use medications to which they may have an immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Minimal data exist on linezolid desensitization protocols. Linezolid desensitization can be a viable option in patients requiring antimicrobial therapy for complicated gram-positive skin infections.

  12. Drug desensitization in the management of hypersensitivity reactions to monoclonal antibodies and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzano, Veronica; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Picard, Matthieu; Caiado, Joana; Castells, Mariana

    2014-04-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to monoclonal antibodies and chemotherapy, which may vary in severity from mild to life-threatening, can lead to their discontinuation and replacement by alternative agents that are often less effective, more toxic, and/or more expensive. Drug desensitization has emerged as the best treatment modality capable of allowing re-introduction of the hypersensitivity reaction-inducing medication in highly sensitized patients in need of first line therapies. In recent years, the availability of new anti-neoplastic drugs and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies has increased, as has the potential for hypersensitivity reactions. Development of desensitization protocols for these new medications requires a careful assessment of the potential risks and benefits. The purposes of this review are to provide an overview of the presentation of hypersensitivity reactions amenable to desensitization and to increase awareness of the indications for and outcomes of desensitization protocols. Rapid drug desensitization has proven to be a safe and effective way of administering first line therapy to patients with hypersensitivity reactions, providing an extremely powerful treatment modality for patients for whom alternative drugs are deemed unacceptable. Rapid drug desensitization protocols should be administered only by highly trained allergists and nurses who have experience in determining which reactions are amenable to desensitization, and can identify high risk patients and provide them with appropriate care. Efforts should be made to increase awareness of the remarkable safety and efficacy of rapid drug desensitization among non-allergists, especially in the fields of oncology and rheumatology, so as to favor its universal application. Development of desensitization units to provide state-of-the-art care is possible only through coordinated teamwork.

  13. Hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants-diagnostic algorithm and suggested patch test series for clinical use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalock, Peter C; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to implanted metals are challenging to evaluate and treat. Although they are uncommon, they do exist, and require appropriate and complete evaluation. This review summarizes the evidence regarding evaluation tools, especially patch and lymphocyte...... transformation tests, for hypersensitivity reactions to implanted metal devices. Patch test evaluation is the gold standard for metal hypersensitivity, although the results may be subjective. Regarding pre-implant testing, those patients with a reported history of metal dermatitis should be evaluated by patch...... testing. Those without a history of dermatitis should not be tested unless considerable concern exists. Regarding post-implant testing, a subset of patients with metal hypersensitivity may develop cutaneous or systemic reactions to implanted metals following implant. For symptomatic patients, a diagnostic...

  14. Leukemoid reaction secondary to hypersensitivity syndrome to phenobarbital: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qinghai; Wu, Yuanqiang; Zhan, Yi; Tang, Ling; Zhou, Yangmei; Yin, Jun; Fan, Fan; Zhang, Guiying; Lu, Qianjin; Xiao, Rong

    2013-01-01

    The most important adverse effects of phenobarbital, an anticonvulsant drug, are behavior and cognitive alterations. Hypersensitivity syndrome caused by phenobarbital presenting with a leukemoid reaction is a rare side effect, which is rarely ever reported and needs to be known. We report on a 27-year-old Chinese woman who experienced hypersensitivity syndrome three weeks after the initiation of phenobarbital. The patient developed fever, skin rash, face swelling, lymphadenopathy, myalgia, hepatitis, eosinophilia, atypical lymphocytes and leukocytosis. Along with the pathological progress of the disease, the patient noticed a gradual exacerbation of her symptoms. And the highest leukocyte count was up to 127.2 x 10(9)/L. After discontinuing of phenobarbital and administration of methylprednisolone combined with the intravenous immunoglobulin shock therapy, all initial symptoms improved and the leukocyte count normalized. This case is reported because of its rarity of the leukemoid reaction secondary to hypersensitivity syndrome to phenobarbital.

  15. Systemic Immediate Hypersensitive Reactions after Treatment with Sweet Bee Venom: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaYoung Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A previous study showed that bee venom (BV could cause anaphylaxis or other hypersensitivity reactions. Although hypersensitivity reactions due to sweet bee venom (SBV have been reported, SBV has been reported to be associated with significantly reduced sensitization compared to BV. Although no systemic immediate hypersensitive response accompanied by abnormal vital signs has been reported with respect to SBV, we report a systemic immediate hypersensitive response that we experienced while trying to use SBV clinically. Methods: The patient had undergone BV treatment several times at other Oriental medicine clinics and had experienced no adverse reactions. She came to acupuncture & moxibustion department at Semyung university hospital of Oriental medicine (Je-cheon, Korea complaining of facial hypoesthesia and was treated using SBV injections, her first SBV treatment. SBV, 0.05 cc, was injected at each of 8 acupoints, for a total of 0.40 cc: Jichang (ST4, Daeyeong (ST5, Hyeopgeo (ST6, Hagwan (ST7, Yepung (TE17, Imun (TE21, Cheonghoe (GB2, and Gwallyeo (SI18. Results: The patient showed systemic immediate hypersensitive reactions. The main symptoms were abdominal pain, nausea and perspiration, but common symptoms associated with hypersensitivity, such as edema, were mild. Abdominal pain was the most long-lasting symptom and was accompanied by nausea. Her body temperature decreased due to sweating. Her diastolic blood pressure could not be measured on three occasions. She remained alert, though the symptoms persisted. The following treatments were conducted in sequence; intramuscular epinephrine, 1 mg/mL, injection, intramuscular dexamethasone, 5 mg/mL, injection, intramuscular buscopan, 20 mg/mL, injection, oxygen (O2 inhalation therapy, 1 L/minutes, via a nasal prong, and intravascular injection of normal saline, 1 L. After 12 hours of treatment, the symptoms had completely disappeared. Conclusion: This case shows that the use of SBV

  16. Agrobacterium -induced hypersensitive necrotic reaction in plant cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High necrosis and poor survival rate of target plant tissues are some of the major factors that affect the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transfer into plant cells. These factors may be the result of, or linked to, hypersensitive defense reaction in plants to Agrobacterium infection, which may involve the recognition ...

  17. HLA-A*3101 and carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity reactions in Europeans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCormack, Mark

    2011-03-24

    Carbamazepine causes various forms of hypersensitivity reactions, ranging from maculopapular exanthema to severe blistering reactions. The HLA-B*1502 allele has been shown to be strongly correlated with carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS-TEN) in the Han Chinese and other Asian populations but not in European populations.

  18. [Castleman's disease: Rapid desensitization for hypersensitivity reaction to rituximab].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boin, C; Lambert, S; Thomann, P; Aujoulat, O; Kieffer, P

    2016-06-01

    Rapid desensitization allows secure administration of a drug and is indicated when there is no therapeutic alternative. We report a 49-year-old patient who presented with a hypersensitivity reaction following an infusion of rituximab (375mg/m(2)) in the context of a Castleman's syndrome. After a clinical flare (splenomegaly, adenopathies) despite treatment with tocilizumab, anakinra and valganciclovir, the reintroduction of rituximab was decided, according to the rapid desensitization protocol. Four full dose desensitizations were successfully performed allowing immediate clinical improvement (apyrexia, loss of sweating and lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly partial regression) and biological (negativation of HHV8 viral load, and disappearance of neutropenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia). Rapid desensitization is a promising method for the pursuit of rituximab therapy after a hypersensitivity reaction and should be considered in patients with no acceptable therapeutic alternative. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Outcomes of premedication for non-ionic radio-contrast media hypersensitivity reactions in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sae-Hoon; Lee, So-Hee; Lee, Sang-Min; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Park, Heung-Woo; Kim, Sun-Sin; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2011-01-01

    Background: Radio-contrast media (CM)-related adverse reactions are important clinical problems that may cause fatal anaphylaxis. Accordingly, it has been common practice to premedicate patients who have had previous reactions to CM with corticosteroids, antihistamines, and H2 blockers to prevent hypersensitive reactions. However, the effectiveness of premedication has not been properly demonstrated, especially in cases related to non-ionic CM. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of premedication at preventing of non-ionic CM immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions. Methods: A total of 30 patients who had been pretreated with corticosteroid and H1 antihistamines and/or H2 blockers in a 3-year period were enrolled. The results of premedication were evaluated in terms of clinical characteristics and the features of breakthrough reactions. Results: Hypersensitivity reactions were not prevented in 5 of the 30 patients who had experienced prior CM reactions (overall recurrence rate after premedication 16.7%; 4/17 patients with mild previous reactions, and 1/13 patients with severe previous reactions). The recurrence rate after premedication was significantly higher in patients with mild previous reactions than in those with severe reactions (23.5% vs. 7.7%; p < 0.001). The breakthrough reactions were similar to the prior reactions in terms of severity and clinical manifestations. Conclusion: Premedication with corticosteroid and H1 antihistamines and/or H2 blockers effectively prevent non-ionic CM-related adverse events in most patients who have had severe previous reactions to CM. However, physicians should be aware of the possibility of premedication failing and of breakthrough reactions, even in cases in which the previous reactions were mild.

  20. Hypersensitivity reaction studies of a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Cheng, Guang; Du, Yuan; Ye, Liang; Chen, Wenzhong; Zhang, Leiming; Wang, Tian; Tian, Jingwei; Fu, Fenghua

    2013-03-01

    The commercial drug paclitaxel (Taxol) may introduce hypersensitivity reactions associated with the polyethoxylated castor oil-ethanol solvent. To overcome these problems, we developed a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation, known as Lipusu. In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to compare the safety profiles of Lipusu and Taxol, with special regard to hypersensitivity reactions. First, Swiss mice were used to determine the lethal dosages, and then to evaluate hypersensitivity reactions, followed by histopathological examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) of serum SC5b-9 and lung histamine. Additionally, healthy human serum was used to analyze in vitro complement activation. Finally, an MTT assay was used to determine the in vitro anti-proliferation activity. Our data clearly showed that Lipusu displayed a much higher safety margin and did not induce hypersensitivity or hypersensitivity-related lung lesions, which may be associated with the fact that Lipusu did not activate complement or increase histamine release in vivo. Moreover, Lipusu did not promote complement activation in healthy human serum in vitro, and demonstrated anti-proliferative activity against human cancer cells, similar to that of Taxol. Therefore, the improved formulation of paclitaxel, which exhibited a much better safety profile and comparable cytotoxic activity to Taxol, may bring a number of benefits to cancer patients.

  1. Carboplatin Hypersensitivity Reactions in Pediatric Low Grade Glioma Are Protocol Specific and Desensitization Shows Poor Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgshun, Andrew J; Hansford, Jordan R; Cole, Theresa; Choo, Sharon; Sullivan, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The use of carboplatin for the treatment of pediatric low grade gliomas (PLGG) is often limited by the development of carboplatin hypersensitivity. Reported rates of carboplatin hypersensitivity reactions vary between 6% and 32% in these patients. Here we report the frequency of carboplatin hypersensitivity reactions depending on the treatment regimen used, and outcomes of carboplatin desensitization. The records of all patients in a single institution who were treated with carboplatin for PLGG were accessed and all patients receiving more than one dose of carboplatin are reported. Thirty four patients with PLGG were treated with carboplatin according to one of the two different regimens. Carboplatin hypersensitivity was documented in 47% of patients, but the frequency differed by treatment protocol. Those patients treated with 4-weekly single agent carboplatin had carboplatin allergy in 8% of cases whereas 68% of those treated with combined carboplatin and vincristine (every three weeks, according to the SIOP 2004 low grade glioma protocol) had carboplatin reactions (OR 23.6, P Desensitization was only successful in two out of 10 patients in whom it was attempted. Hypersensitivity reactions to carboplatin are more common in this cohort than previously reported and rates are protocol-dependent. Desensitization showed limited effectiveness in this cohort. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Immediate and delayed cutaneous reactions to radiocontrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut

    2012-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to contrast media (CM) are frequent causes of anaphylaxis and drug exanthemas. Adverse events after CM exposure are classified into immediate (≤1 h) and non-immediate reactions (>1 h), with differing mechanisms. In the majority of patients with immediate reactions, IgE-mediated allergy cannot be demonstrated, and the underlying mechanism remains unknown. However, recent data have provided evidence for skin test positivity and/or specific IgE in some patients. T cell-mediated hypersensitivity is the responsible mechanism for the majority of non-immediate skin eruptions. These insights have consequences for diagnosis and prevention. Skin testing evolves to be a useful tool for diagnosis of CM allergy. Skin tests have been employed to confirm this hypersensitivity. Previous reactors have an increased risk to develop new reactions upon repeated exposure; however, other risk factors are poorly defined. The use of skin tests for the selection of a 'safe' CM is under investigation with promising results. In vitro tests to search for CM-specific cell activation include flow cytometric approaches, lymphocyte cultures and construction of cell lines and hybridomas. Premedication of previous reactors is common practice among radiologists; however, breakthrough reactions are a concern, and physicians should not rely on the efficacy of pharmacological premedication. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Hypersensitivity reaction with intravenous GnRH after pulsatile subcutaneous GnRH treatment in male hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.

    OpenAIRE

    Popović, V.; Milosević, Z.; Djukanović, R.; Micić, D.; Nesović, M.; Manojlović, D.; Djordjević, P.; Mićić, J.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic pulsatile subcutaneous administration of low doses of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) is an effective therapy for men with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Hypersensitivity reactions to GnRH are rare. We wish to report hypersensitivity reactions with intravenous GnRH after low dose subcutaneous pulsatile GnRH treatment in two men with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism due to suprasellar disease.

  4. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Hypersensitivity Reactions to Contrast Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado Ingelmo, A; Doña Diaz, I; Cabañas Moreno, R; Moya Quesada, M C; García-Avilés, C; García Nuñez, I; Martínez Tadeo, J I; Mielgo Ballesteros, R; Ortega-Rodríguez, N; Padial Vilchez, M A; Sánchez-Morillas, L; Vila Albelda, C; Moreno Rodilla, E; Torres Jaén, M J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of these guidelines is to ensure efficient and effective clinical practice. The panel of experts who produced this consensus document developed a research protocol based on a review of the literature. The prevalence of allergic reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM) is estimated to be 1:170 000, that is, 0.05%-0.1% of patients undergoing radiologic studies with ICM (more than 75 million examinations per year worldwide). Hypersensitivity reactions can appear within the first hour after administration (immediate reactions) or from more than 1 hour to several days after administration (nonimmediate or delayed reactions). The risk factors for immediate reactions include poorly controlled bronchial asthma, concomitant medication (eg, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ß-blockers, and proton-pump inhibitors), rapid administration of the ICM, mastocytosis, autoimmune diseases, and viral infections. The most common symptoms of immediate reactions are erythema and urticaria with or without angioedema, which appear in more than 70% of patients. Maculopapular rash is the most common skin feature of nonimmediate reactions (30%-90%). Skin and in vitro tests should be performed for diagnosis of both immediate and nonimmediate reactions. The ICM to be administered will therefore be chosen depending on the results of these tests, the ICM that induced the reaction (when known), the severity of the reaction, the availability of alternative ICM, and the information available on potential ICM cross-reactivity. Another type of contrast media, gadolinium derivatives, is used used for magnetic resonance imaging. Although rare, IgE-mediated reactions to gadolinium derivatives have been reported.

  5. Patch testers' opinions regarding diagnostic criteria for metal hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Peter C; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2013-01-01

    Metal hypersensitivity reactions to implanted devices remain a challenging and controversial topic. Diagnostic criteria and methods are not well delineated. Diagnostic criteria for hypersensitivity reactions after metallic device implantation are evaluated in this study by a multinational group of patch testers using Thyssen's previously published criteria. A total of 119 dermatologists at the 2012 European Contact Dermatitis Society and 2013 American Contact Dermatitis Society meetings answered a survey regarding their opinions on topics relating to metal hypersensitivity. Four major and 5 minor diagnostic criteria emerged. Approximately 80% of respondents found the following criteria useful (major criteria): chronic dermatitis beginning weeks to months after metallic implantation, eruption overlying the metal implant, positive patch test to a metal component of the implant, and complete clearing after removal of the potentially allergenic implant. Minor criteria (metals (eg, lymphocyte transformation test). In the challenging situation such as a symptomatic or failing orthopedic device, applying these 4 major criteria and the 5 supportive minor criteria may be useful for guiding decision making.

  6. Hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants-diagnostic algorithm and suggested patch test series for clinical use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalock, Peter C; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    algorithm to guide the selection of screening allergen series for patch testing is provided. At a minimum, an extended baseline screening series and metal screening is necessary. Static and dynamic orthopaedic implants, intravascular stent devices, implanted defibrillators and dental and gynaecological......Cutaneous and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to implanted metals are challenging to evaluate and treat. Although they are uncommon, they do exist, and require appropriate and complete evaluation. This review summarizes the evidence regarding evaluation tools, especially patch and lymphocyte...... transformation tests, for hypersensitivity reactions to implanted metal devices. Patch test evaluation is the gold standard for metal hypersensitivity, although the results may be subjective. Regarding pre-implant testing, those patients with a reported history of metal dermatitis should be evaluated by patch...

  7. Tolerance and immunity in mice infected with herpes simplex virus: studies on the mechanism of tolerance to delayed-type hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A A; Phelan, J; Gell, P G; Wildy, P

    1981-06-01

    Tolerance to delayed-type hypersensitivity is produced in mice following an intravenous injection of herpes simplex virus. This form of tolerance is produced early on, following simultaneous injections of virus subcutaneously and intravenously, and is long lasting (greater than 100 days). The early tolerance mechanism is resistant to high doses of cyclophosphamide and is not transferable by serum or spleen cells taken after 7 days. However, spleen cells taken at 14 days onwards inhibit the induction of delayed hypersensitivity when transferred to normal syngeneic recipients. These cells are T lymphocytes and are specific for the herpes type used in the induction.

  8. Persistent Skin Reactions and Aluminium Hypersensitivity Induced by Childhood Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salik, Elaha; Løvik, Ida; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing awareness of reactions to vaccination that include persistent skin reactions. We present here a retrospective investigation of long-lasting skin reactions and aluminium hypersensitivity in children, based on medical records and questionnaires sent to the parents. In the 10-year...... period 2003 to 2013 we identified 47 children with persistent skin reactions caused by childhood vaccinations. Most patients had a typical presentation of persisting pruritic subcutaneous nodules. Five children had a complex diagnostic process involving paediatricians, orthopaedics and plastic surgeons...... treated with potent topical corticosteroids and disappeared slowly. Although we advised families to continue vaccination of their children, one-third of parents omitted or postponed further vaccinations....

  9. Desensitization of delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice: suppressive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Katsura

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The systemic injection of high doses of antigen into a preimmunized animal results in transient unresponsiveness of cell-mediated immune responses. This phenomenon is known as desensitization. Serum interleukin 2 (IL-2 activity was found transiently in desensitized mice at 3 h after the antigen challenge. These mice could not reveal antigen nonspecific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH 1 d after the challenge. Specific suppression of DTH was observed at later stages. Sera from 3 h desensitized mice showed suppressive effects on DTH in preo immunized mice. Administration of recombinant IL-2 into preimmunized mice led to the failure of development of DTH to antigens. These observations suggest that IL-2 plays an important role in the suppressive environment.

  10. Characterization of hypersensitivity reactions reported among Andrographis paniculata users in Thailand using Health Product Vigilance Center (HPVC) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwankesawong, Wimon; Saokaew, Surasak; Permsuwan, Unchalee; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2014-12-24

    Andrographis paniculata (andrographis) is one of the herbal products that are widely used for various indications. Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported among subjects receiving Andrographis paniculata in Thailand. Understanding of characteristics of patients, adverse events, and clinical outcomes is essential for ensuring population safety.This study aimed to describe the characteristics of hypersensitivity reactions reported in patients receiving andrographis containing products in Thailand using national pharmacovigilance database. Thai Vigibase data from February 2001 to December 2012 involving andrographis products were used. This database includes the reports submitted through the spontaneous reporting system and intensive monitoring programmes. The database contained patient characteristic, adverse events associated with andrographis products, and details on seriousness, causality, and clinical outcomes. Case reports were included for final analysis if they met the inclusion criteria; 1) reports with andrographis being the only suspected cause, 2) reports with terms consistent with the constellation of hypersensitivity reactions, and 3) reports with terms considered critical terms according to WHO criteria. Descriptive statistics were used. A total of 248 case reports of andrographis-associated adverse events were identified. Only 106 case reports specified andrographis herbal product as the only suspected drug and reported at least one term consistent with constellation of hypersensitivity reactions. Most case reports (89%) came from spontaneous reporting system with no previously documented history of drug allergy (88%). Of these, 18 case reports were classified as serious with 16 cases requiring hospitalization. For final assessment, the case reports with terms consistent with constellation of hypersensitivity reactions and critical terms were included. Thirteen case reports met such criteria including anaphylactic shock (n = 5), anaphylactic

  11. Respiratory hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makowska, J S; Burney, P; Jarvis, D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most prevalent drugs inducing hypersensitivity reactions. The aim of this analysis was to estimate the prevalence of NSAID-induced respiratory symptoms in population across Europe and to assess its association with upper...... and lower respiratory tract disorders. METHODS: The GA(2) LEN survey was conducted in 22 centers in 15 European countries. Each of 19 centers selected random samples of 5000 adults aged 15-74 from their general population, and in three centers (Athens, Munich, Oslo), a younger population was sampled...... prevalence of NSAID-induced dyspnea was 1.9% and was highest in the three Polish centers [Katowice (4.9%), Krakow (4.8%), and Lodz (4.4%)] and lowest in Skopje, (0.9%), Amsterdam (1.1%), and Umea (1.2%). In multivariate analysis, the prevalence of respiratory reactions to NSAIDs was higher in participants...

  12. Metronidazole hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, S; Choudhury, T; Shear, N H

    1994-03-01

    To report a case of a possible hypersensitivity reaction induced by metronidazole. An Asian woman with a history of recurrent vaginitis had previously developed localized erythema while on intravaginal metronidazole and nystatin. While receiving oral metronidazole for treatment of a current bacterial vaginosis, she developed chills, fever, generalized erythema, and a rash within 60 minutes of the first dose. Treatment with diphenhydramine was instituted. The following day while in the hospital, the patient's condition worsened; she experienced shortness of breath and increased edema of the extremities. Methylprednisolone was administered with diphenhydramine and her condition improved over the next 5 days. The patient's vaginitis was treated with gentian violet and she was discharged on a tapering dosage of prednisone. Metronidazole-induced cutaneous reactions and systemic hypersensitivity reactions are reviewed. Alternatives to metronidazole and other potential cross-reactive drugs are suggested for the treatment of recurrent vaginitis. Although the patient's initial reaction to metronidazole represented a rare event, written documentation and communication in the patient's native language may have prevented the subsequent severe hypersensitivity reaction.

  13. Tolerance and immunity in mice infected with herpes simplex virus: simultaneous induction of protective immunity and tolerance to delayed-type hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A A; Gell, P G; Wildy, P

    1981-05-01

    Unresponsiveness to delayed type hypersensitivity was induced in mice following an intravenous injection of herpes simplex virus. The principal tolerogens used were thymidine kinase-deficient virus mutants which grow poorly in vivo; u.v.-inactivated and to a lesser extent formalin-inactivated virus were also tolerogenic. The tolerance induced was specific for the virus type. Despite the tolerance to delayed hypersensitivity, anti-viral immunity is present as determined by the rapid inactivation of infectious virus. The mechanism of tolerance to herpes virus and the importance of these observations for the pathogenesis of viral disease is discussed.

  14. Delayed-type hypersensitivity to Babesia microti-infected erythrocytes in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebush, M.J.; Troutman, E.H.; Kennedy, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Strong delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to Babesia microti was elicited when intraerythrocytic parasites (IEP) were inoculated subcutaneously into the flank of normal mice 6 to 14 days before challenge in the ipsilateral footpad with 10(8) IEP. Intraperitoneal or intravenous administration of antigen did not sensitize mice for DTH. When challenge was given 21 days after immunization, the response was approximately half of the maximum and then rose again slowly over the next 3 weeks to levels that were not significantly different from those maximal values. The response was classified as a true DTH reaction on the basis of kinetics, histology, and the transfer of responsiveness with immune T lymphocytes of the Ly 1+ phenotype, but not with serum. The reaction was specific for IEP since control groups given two injections of red blood cells from uninfected syngeneic mice (NRBC) or one injection of NRBC or sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and one of IEP never developed significant footpad swelling. Freed parasites obtained by osmotic rupture, density gradient sedimentation, and lethally irradiated IEP were also effective for elicitation of DTH. Anti-IEP DTH was expressed in a dose-dependent fashion with 10(6), 10(7), or 10(8) parasites sufficing for immunizing inoculum as long as 10(8) parasites were used as the challenge dose. Mice immunized and challenged with 10(8) lethally irradiated IEP (60 krad, 60Co), were protected against subsequent intraperitoneal challenge with 10(8) viable IEP. If mice were infected intraperitoneally with 10(8) IEP at any time between 21 days before immunization to 2 hr after challenge, their ability to respond to immunization and challenge was profoundly depressed. Development of a strong anti-parasite DTH response can occur in parallel with resistance to infection, but is not a rapid sequela of bloodborne infection

  15. Induction of Hypozincemia and Hepatic Metallothionein Synthesis in Hypersensitivity Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-19

    cells to produce endogenous pyrogen (EP), the mediator of febrile response. Controversial evidence exists, however , concerning the differentiation of LEM...hypersensitivity reactions, Kampschmid t and Pulliam (1) proposed that leukocytic endogenous mediator (LEN) is released from phagocytic cells after... endogenous mediator(s) such as LEN, no conclusive evidence is available to indicate a mRNA requirement for the production of potential mediator(s

  16. Metal Hypersensitivity in Orthodontic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Maheshwari Sanjeev K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment of individuals with metal hypersensitivity is a matter of concern for the orthodontist. Orthodontic appliances contain metals like Nickel, Cobalt and Chromium etc. Metals may cause allergic reactions and are known as allergens. Reaction to these metals is due to biodegradation of metals in the oral cavity. This may lead to the formation of corrosion products and their exposure to the patient. Nickel is the most common metal to cause hypersensitivity reaction. Chromium ranks second among the metals, known to trigger allergic reactions. The adverse biological reactions to these metals may include hypersensitivity, dermatitis and asthma. In addition, a significant carcinogenic and mutagenic potential has been demonstrated. The orthodontist must be familiar with the best possible alternative treatment modalities to provide the safest, most effective care possible in these cases. The present article focuses on the issue of metal hypersensitivity and its management in orthodontic

  17. A single-arm Phase II validation study of preventing oxaliplatin-induced hypersensitivity reactions by dexamethasone: the AVOID trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yoichiro Yoshida,1 Keiji Hirata,2 Hiroshi Matsuoka,3 Shigeyoshi Iwamoto,4 Masahito Kotaka,5 Hideto Fujita,6 Naoya Aisu,1 Seiichiro Hoshino,1 Takeo Kosaka,6 Kotaro Maeda,3 Fumiaki Kiyomi,7 Yuichi Yamashita1 1Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Fukuoka University Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Fukuoka Sanno Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Department of Surgery, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan; 4Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University Hirakata Hospital, Osaka, Japan; 5Gastrointestinal Cancer Center, Sano Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 6Department of Surgical Oncology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Japan; 7Academia, Industry and Government Collaborative Research Institute of Translational Medicine for Life Innovation, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan Background: Patients with colorectal cancer treated with oxaliplatin are at risk of hypersensitivity reactions, with the incidence estimated to be 12%–20%. Coinfusion of dexamethasone and oxaliplatin could potentially reduce the incidence of these reactions, but oxaliplatin is reported to be incompatible with alkaline compounds in solution. However, in a previous retrospective study we found that the pH of a solution of dexamethasone and oxaliplatin was less than 7.4, and that hypersensitivity to oxaliplatin could have been prevented by coinfusion of dexamethasone. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of coinfusion of dexamethasone and oxaliplatin to prevent oxaliplatin-induced hypersensitivity reactions.Patients and methods: The AVOID trial was a prospective, multicenter, open-label, single-arm Phase II trial conducted from January to September 2013. The study included 73 patients who received capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX or XELOX plus bevacizumab therapy for colorectal cancer. In all patients, oxaliplatin was administered in combination with dexamethasone. The primary outcome measure was the presence of

  18. Nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Enrique; Ariza, Adriana; Blanca-López, Natalia; Torres, Maria J

    2013-08-01

    To provide a detailed analysis of the latest findings on the mechanisms underlying the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media and comment on the recent advances in diagnosis, focusing on the roles of the skin test, drug provocation test (DPT), and lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Several studies have reported new findings supporting an important role for T-lymphocytes in the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media. The LTT has been used as an in-vitro tool for diagnosis, but with variable results. However, the inclusion of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells as professional antigen-presenting cells has improved the sensitivity of this test. Regarding in-vivo diagnosis, although skin testing has been routine, it has now been shown that its sensitivity and negative predictive value are low. Recent studies have demonstrated that the DPT is a well tolerated and useful procedure that is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. Nonimmediate reactions to contrast media are usually T-cell mediated. Diagnosis is based on skin testing, although its sensitivity and negative predictive value are not optimal. Consequently, drug provocation testing is often needed to confirm the diagnosis and also to seek alternative contrast media that can be tolerated.

  19. Persistent Skin Reactions and Aluminium Hypersensitivity Induced by Childhood Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salik, Elaha; Løvik, Ida; Andersen, Klaus E; Bygum, Anette

    2016-11-02

    There is increasing awareness of reactions to vaccination that include persistent skin reactions. We present here a retrospective investigation of long-lasting skin reactions and aluminium hypersensitivity in children, based on medical records and questionnaires sent to the parents. In the 10-year period 2003 to 2013 we identified 47 children with persistent skin reactions caused by childhood vaccinations. Most patients had a typical presentation of persisting pruritic subcutaneous nodules. Five children had a complex diagnostic process involving paediatricians, orthopaedics and plastic surgeons. Two patients had skin biopsies performed from their skin lesions, and 2 patients had the nodules surgically removed. Forty-two children had a patch-test performed with 2% aluminium chloride hexahydrate in petrolatum and 39 of them (92%) had a positive reaction. The persistent skin reactions were treated with potent topical corticosteroids and disappeared slowly. Although we advised families to continue vaccination of their children, one-third of parents omitted or postponed further vaccinations.

  20. Rice hypersensitive induced reaction protein 1 (OsHIR1) associates with plasma membrane and triggers hypersensitive cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Cheung, Ming-Yan; Li, Man-Wah; Fu, Yaping; Sun, Zongxiu; Sun, Sai-Ming; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2010-12-30

    In plants, HIR (Hypersensitive Induced Reaction) proteins, members of the PID (Proliferation, Ion and Death) superfamily, have been shown to play a part in the development of spontaneous hypersensitive response lesions in leaves, in reaction to pathogen attacks. The levels of HIR proteins were shown to correlate with localized host cell deaths and defense responses in maize and barley. However, not much was known about the HIR proteins in rice. Since rice is an important cereal crop consumed by more than 50% of the populations in Asia and Africa, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms of disease responses in this plant. We previously identified the rice HIR1 (OsHIR1) as an interacting partner of the OsLRR1 (rice Leucine-Rich Repeat protein 1). Here we show that OsHIR1 triggers hypersensitive cell death and its localization to the plasma membrane is enhanced by OsLRR1. Through electron microscopy studies using wild type rice plants, OsHIR1 was found to mainly localize to the plasma membrane, with a minor portion localized to the tonoplast. Moreover, the plasma membrane localization of OsHIR1 was enhanced in transgenic rice plants overexpressing its interacting protein partner, OsLRR1. Co-localization of OsHIR1 and OsLRR1 to the plasma membrane was confirmed by double-labeling electron microscopy. Pathogen inoculation studies using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing either OsHIR1 or OsLRR1 showed that both transgenic lines exhibited increased resistance toward the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. However, OsHIR1 transgenic plants produced more extensive spontaneous hypersensitive response lesions and contained lower titers of the invading pathogen, when compared to OsLRR1 transgenic plants. The OsHIR1 protein is mainly localized to the plasma membrane, and its subcellular localization in that compartment is enhanced by OsLRR1. The expression of OsHIR1 may sensitize the plant so that it is more prone to HR and hence can react more

  1. A Case of Immediate Hypersensitivity Reaction to Maltitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodríguez Trabado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maltitol is a sugar alcohol that is frequently used as a noncaloric sweetener, although it is also used as an excipient, a plasticizer in gelatin capsules, and an emollient. It has not been previously described as an agent involved in immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Methods. We report on an anaphylactoid reaction with pharyngeal occlusion suffered by a 60-year-old man after ingestion of a candy containing maltitol syrup. A prick-to-prick test was performed with the candy and maltitol powder. Other allergens were excluded as causative agents of the adverse reaction, although the patient refused to undergo an oral challenge test with the candy. A basophil activation test (BAT was performed with maltitol powder, and a dose-response curve was generated. The test was also performed in 3 healthy controls. Results. Both prick-to-prick tests were negative. The result of the BAT was positive at all the concentrations tested in the patient’s blood and negative in all the controls. Conclusions. The BAT can help to clarify the agents implicated in an adverse reaction and can reduce the risk involved in diagnosis. The BAT can also prove useful in the study of reactions caused by low-molecular-weight antigens, for which routine diagnostic tests are not feasible.

  2. Immediate and delayed reactions to radiocontrast media: is there an allergic mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut

    2009-08-01

    Radiocontrast media can cause immediate (1 hour) and nonimmediate (>1 hour) hypersensitivity reactions that remain unpredictable and a cause of concern for radiologists and cardiologists. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions resemble anaphylaxis, whereas nonimmediate ones clinically are predominated by exanthemas. Increasing evidence indicates that immediate reactions and nonimmediate skin exanthemas may be allergic reactions involving either contrast media-reactive IgE or T cells, respectively. Skin testing is a useful tool for the diagnosis of contrast media allergy. It may have an important role in the selection of a safe product in previous reactors, although validation data are still lacking. In vitro tests to search for contrast media-specific cell activation are currently under investigation.

  3. Hypersensitivity reactions to anticancer agents: Data mining of the public version of the FDA adverse event reporting system, AERS

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    Sakaeda Toshiyuki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, adverse event reports (AERs submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA database were reviewed to confirm platinum agent-associated hypersensitivity reactions. The present study was performed to confirm whether the database could suggest the hypersensitivity reactions caused by anticancer agents, paclitaxel, docetaxel, procarbazine, asparaginase, teniposide, and etoposide. Methods After a revision of arbitrary drug names and the deletion of duplicated submissions, AERs involving candidate agents were analyzed. The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 was applied to evaluate the susceptibility to hypersensitivity reactions, and standardized official pharmacovigilance tools were used for quantitative detection of signals, i.e., drug-associated adverse events, including the proportional reporting ratio, the reporting odds ratio, the information component given by a Bayesian confidence propagation neural network, and the empirical Bayes geometric mean. Results Based on 1,644,220 AERs from 2004 to 2009, the signals were detected for paclitaxel-associated mild, severe, and lethal hypersensitivity reactions, and docetaxel-associated lethal reactions. However, the total number of adverse events occurring with procarbazine, asparaginase, teniposide, or etoposide was not large enough to detect signals. Conclusions The FDA's adverse event reporting system, AERS, and the data mining methods used herein are useful for confirming drug-associated adverse events, but the number of co-occurrences is an important factor in signal detection.

  4. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to cannabis in laboratory personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzinger, T; Schöpf, P; Przybilla, B; Ruëff, F

    2011-01-01

    There have been sporadic reports of hypersensitivity reactions to plants of the Cannabinaceae family (hemp and hops), but it has remained unclear whether these reactions are immunologic or nonimmunologic in nature. We examined the IgE-binding and histamine-releasing properties of hashish and marijuana extracts by CAP-FEIA and a basophil histamine release test. Two workers at a forensic laboratory suffered from nasal congestion, rhinitis, sneezing and asthmatic symptoms upon occupational contact with hashish or marijuana, which they had handled frequently for 25 and 16 years, respectively. Neither patient had a history of atopic disease. Serum was analyzed for specific IgE antibodies to hashish or marijuana extract by research prototype ImmunoCAP, and histamine release from basophils upon exposure to hashish or marijuana extracts was assessed. Results were matched to those of 4 nonatopic and 10 atopic control subjects with no known history of recreational or occupational exposure to marijuana or hashish. Patient 1 had specific IgE to both hashish and marijuana (CAP class 2), and patient 2 to marijuana only (CAP class 2). Controls proved negative for specific IgE except for 2 atopic individuals with CAP class 1 to marijuana and 1 other atopic individual with CAP class 1 to hashish. Stimulation of basophils with hashish or marijuana extracts elicited histamine release from basophils of both patients and 4 atopic control subjects. Our results suggest an IgE-related pathomechanism for hypersensitivity reactions to marijuana or hashish. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2014-08-01

    This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Estudio de las reacciones medicamentosas por hipersensibilidad retardada mediante la proliferación linfoblástica Study of drug reactions due to delayed hypersensitivity by lymphoblastic proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulién Alpízar Olivares

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 6 enfermos con el posible diagnóstico de reacciones medicamentosas por hipersensibilidad retardada (HR mediante la prueba de transformación linfoblástica con criterio de incorporación de timidina tritiada. Se demostró que en 2 pacientes existían reacciones de HR a la carbamazepina, en uno al ácido acetil salicílico, en uno a la cloroquina y el sulfaprim y el otro paciente al ácido acetil salicílico en tabletas y a la materia prima. Se comprobó que la introducción de este método para la evaluación de la reacción de HR tipo IV en el estudio de las reacciones adversas a medicamentos es de gran utilidad en nuestro medio. Se modificó la conducta terapéutica en cada enfermo de acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, lo que favoreció el pronóstico, la estadía hospitalaria y la curación6 patients with the possible diagnosis of drugs reactions due to delayed hypersensitivity (DH were studied by using the test of lymphoblastic transformation with criterion of incorporation of tritiated thymidine. It was proved that in 2 patients there DH reactions to carbamazepine, in one to aspirin, in one to chloroquine and sulfaprim, and the other patient to aspirin in tablets and to the raw material. It was proved that the introduction of this method for evaluating the reaction of type IV DH in the study of adverse reactions to drugs is very useful in our environment. The therapeutic conduct was modified in each patient according to the results obtained, which favored the prognosis, hospital stay and healing

  7. Classification and pathophysiology of radiocontrast media hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut; Ring, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to radiocontrast media (RCM) are unpredictable and are a concern for radiologists and cardiologists. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions manifest as anaphylaxis, and an allergic IgE-mediated mechanism has been continuously discussed for decades. Non-immediate reactions clinically are exanthemas resembling other drug-induced non-immediate hypersensitivities. During the past years, evidence is increasing that some of these reactions may be immunological. Repeated reactions after re-exposure, positive skin tests, and presence of specific IgE antibodies as well as positive basophil activation tests in some cases, and positive lymphocyte transformation or lymphocyte activation tests in others, indicate that a subgroup of both immediate and non-immediate reactions are of an allergic origin, although many questions remain unanswered. Recently reported cases highlight that pharmacological premedication is not safe to prevent RCM hypersensitivity in patients with previous severe reactions. These insights may have important consequences. A large multicenter study on the value of skin tests in RCM hypersensitivity concluded that skin testing is a useful tool for diagnosis of RCM allergy. It may have a role for the selection of a safe product in previous reactors, although confirmatory validation data is still scarce. In vitro tests to search for RCM-specific cell activation still are in development. In conclusion, recent data indicate that RCM hypersensitivity may have an allergic mechanism and that allergological testing is useful and may indicate tolerability. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Delayed-type hypersensitivity to fragrance materials in a select North American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsito, Donald V; Fowler, Joseph F; Sasseville, Denis; Marks, James G; De Leo, Vincent A; Storrs, Frances J

    2006-03-01

    In published reports from Europe, 3- and 4-(4-hydroxy-4-methylpentyl)cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde (HMPCC) (Lyral) has been described as a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In Europe, the rates of reaction to HMPCC among patients undergoing patch testing for suspected ACD have varied from 1.2 to 17.0%, depending on the country. Data on the incidence of sensitivity to HMPCC among North Americans with suspected ACD have not been reported. The goals of this study were (1) to assess the incidence of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to HMPCC among patients undergoing patch testing for evaluation of eczematous dermatitis at six centers throughout North America; (2) to determine the most appropriate concentration of HMPCC to use in performing patch tests; and (3) to compare and contrast the incidence rates for HMPCC hypersensitivity to those for other fragrance materials screened with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) screening tray, which includes fragrance mix, Myroxilon pereirae (balsam of Peru), cinnamic aldehyde, ylang ylang oil, jasmine absolute, and tea tree oil. This report represents the prospective multicenter data on patients tested with the fragrance-related allergens on the NACDG standard screening tray and with HMPCC at 5%, 1.5%, and 0.5% concentrations in petrolatum. Statistical analyses were performed with Student's t-test (two tailed) and the chi-square test. Data from 1,603 patients evaluated at five US sites and one Canadian site were analyzed. Most patients (87.8%) were Caucasian. The majority (67%) were women, and 26.2% had a history consistent with atopic dermatitis. The patients ranged in age from 1 to 88 years, and the mean +/- standard deviation was 46.3 +/- 16.5 years. Myroxilon pereirae (balsam of Peru) and fragrance mix were the most frequent patch-test-positive fragrance allergens (6.6% and 5.9%, respectively). Cinnamic aldehyde (1.7%), ylang ylang oil (0.6%), jasmine absolute (0.4%), HMPCC (0.4% for 5

  9. Hypersensitivity vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutaneous small vessel vasculitis; Allergic vasculitis; Leukocytoclastic vasculitis ... Hypersensitivity vasculitis, or cutaneous small vessel vasculitis, is caused by: An allergic reaction to a drug or other foreign ...

  10. Desensitization for Drug Hypersensitivity to Chemotherapy and Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamichi-Santos, Rafael; Castells, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapies drugs and monoclonal antibodies are key components of the treatment of cancer patients and patients with chronic inflammatory conditions to provide increase in life expectancy and quality of life. Their increased use has lead to an increase in drugs hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) worldwide. DHR to those agents prevented their use and promoted the use of second line therapies to protect patients' hypersensitive reactions and anaphylaxis. Second line medications may not fully address the patients' medical condition and it is desirable to keep patients on first line therapy. Drug hypersensitivity symptoms can range from mild cutaneous reactions to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) is a novel approach to the management of drug hypersensitivity reactions which are IgE and non-IgE mediated. Through the diferent desensitization protocols patients can receive the full dose of the medications that they have presented a hypersensitive reaction and been protected against anaphylaxis. This review looks at the current literature on hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to chemotherapy drugs and monoclonal antibodies and the potential use of RDD for their management. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Hapten-Induced Contact Hypersensitivity, Autoimmune Reactions, and Tumor Regression: Plausibility of Mediating Antitumor Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan A. Erkes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptens are small molecule irritants that bind to proteins and elicit an immune response. Haptens have been commonly used to study allergic contact dermatitis (ACD using animal contact hypersensitivity (CHS models. However, extensive research into contact hypersensitivity has offered a confusing and intriguing mechanism of allergic reactions occurring in the skin. The abilities of haptens to induce such reactions have been frequently utilized to study the mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD to induce autoimmune-like responses such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia and to elicit viral wart and tumor regression. Hapten-induced tumor regression has been studied since the mid-1900s and relies on four major concepts: (1 ex vivo haptenation, (2 in situ haptenation, (3 epifocal hapten application, and (4 antigen-hapten conjugate injection. Each of these approaches elicits unique responses in mice and humans. The present review attempts to provide a critical appraisal of the hapten-mediated tumor treatments and offers insights for future development of the field.

  12. Risk Factors of Hypersensitivity to Carboplatin in Patients with Gynecologic Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Hsiao; Tai, Yi-Jou; Hsu, Heng-Cheng; Lee, Shu-Ping; Chen, Yun-Yuan; Chiang, Ying-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Li; Chen, Chi-An; Cheng, Wen-Fang

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of and risk factors for hypersensitivity reactions related to carboplatin, which is commonly used to treat gynecological malignancies. All women with pathologically documented ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer treated with carboplatin alone or a carboplatin-based combination chemotherapy regimen at a single hospital between January 2006 and December 2013 were retrospectively recruited. We analyzed the incidence, characteristics, risk factors, management, and outcomes of carboplatin-related hypersensitivity reactions among these patients. Among 735 eligible women, 75 (10.2%) experienced a total of 215 carboplatin-related hypersensitivity reaction events. The annual incidence of carboplatin-related hypersensitivity reactions gradually increased from 0.88% in 2006 to 5.42% in 2013. The incidence of carboplatin-related hypersensitivity was higher in patients with advanced stage disease ( P Kruskal-Wallis test), serous and mixed histological types ( P = 0.003, Kruskal-Wallis test), malignant ascites ( P = 0.009, chi-square test), and history of other drug allergy ( P test). Compared to women without hypersensitivity reactions, women who experienced hypersensitivity reactions had a significantly greater median cycle number (12 vs. 6, P test) and dose (6,816 vs. 3,844 mg, P test). The cumulative incidence of carboplatin-related hypersensitivity reactions dramatically increased with >8 cycles or dose >3,500 mg. Therefore, disease severity, histological type, malignant ascites, past drug allergies, and cumulative carboplatin dose are risk factors for carboplatin-related hypersensitivity reactions. Such reactions could potentially be reduced or prevented by slowing the infusion rate and using a desensitization protocol involving anti-allergy medications.

  13. Genome-wide mapping for clinically relevant predictors of lamotrigine- and phenytoin-induced hypersensitivity reactions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCormack, Mark

    2012-03-01

    An association between carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity and HLA-A*3101 has been reported in populations of both European and Asian descent. We aimed to investigate HLA-A*3101 and other common variants across the genome as markers for cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs) attributed to lamotrigine and phenytoin.

  14. Amalgam Contact Hypersensitivity Lesion: An Unusual Presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contact allergic reactions due to hypersensitivity to dental materials in professionals and ... Keywords: Amalgam, Amalgam contact hypersensitivity lesion, Lichenoid reaction, Oral mucosa ... was associated with mild burning sensation. The patient did ... OLLD in which oral and/or skin lesions appear in temporal association ...

  15. Hypersensitivity Reaction Associated with Abacavir Therapy in an Indian HIV Patient - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Manju; Amberkar V, Mohan Babu; Vidyasagar, Sudha; Kumari K, Meena; Holla, Sadhana N

    2014-09-01

    The most important and unique adverse effect of abacavir (ABC) is fatal hypersensitivity reaction (HSR). The objective of this report is to describe a case of ABC induced HSR that occurred in an Indian HIV patient during treatment. Although this adverse effect is not uncommon, it is perhaps underreported or has never been reported so far in an Indian case scenario. A 44-year-old known case of HIV-1 was admitted in view of his worsening condition and very low CD4 cell counts 3 cells/μL. He was on anti-retroviral therapy since three years but not regular. On the basis of treatment failure, non-compliance and progressive low CD4 counts, the anti HIV regime was switched over to abacavir 600 mg+ atazanavir/ ritonavir 300mg/100mg Two weeks after ABC therapy he presented with maculopapular rash, headache and signs of hepatic damage (serum AST, ALP and ALT increased to 3-4 fold) suggestive of hypersensitivity reaction. As we know discontinuation of the drug is the ultimate litmus test to confirm diagnosis of drug induced adverse reaction. We did confirm ABC induced HSR by de-challenge wherein, rash disappeared within 2-3 days and LFT came back to normal within 5 days. However, no rechallenge was done. HSR was more in favour of ABC because atazanavir failed to produce any similar reaction after re-challenge.

  16. Hypersensitive reaction to tattoos: A growing menace in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B M Shashikumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased enthusiasm toward newer fashion trends among rural India along with the lack of government regulation has led to increased tattoo reactions. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe various clinical manifestations of hypersensitive reactions to tattoo ink reported at a tertiary care hospital in Mandya district. Materials and Methods: An observational study was carried out over a period of 1 year from June 2014 to May 2015 at Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya. All the patients reporting with allergic reaction due to tattooing were included in the present study after obtaining informed consent. Transient acute inflammatory reaction, infections, and skin diseases localized on tattooed area were excluded from this study. A detailed history regarding the onset, duration and color used for tattooing were collected. Cutaneous examination and biopsy was to done to know the type of reaction. Results: Fifty cutaneous allergic reactions were diagnosed among 39 patients. Mean age of subjects was 22 years and mean duration before the appearance of lesion was 7 months. Common colors associated with reactions were red (53.9%, black (33.3%, green (5.1%, and multicolor (7.7%. Itching was the predominant symptom. Skin lesions mainly consisted of lichenoid papules and plaques, eczematous lesions, and verrucous lesions. Lichenoid histopathology reaction was the most common tissue allergic reaction. Conclusion: Increasing popularity of tattooing among young people has predisposed to parallel increase in adverse reactions. Red pigment is most common cause of allergic reaction in the present study, and lichenoid reaction is the most common reaction.

  17. Hypersensitive Reaction to Tattoos: A Growing Menace in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikumar, B M; Harish, M R; Shwetha, B; Kavya, M; Deepadarshan, K; Phani, H N

    2017-01-01

    Increased enthusiasm toward newer fashion trends among rural India along with the lack of government regulation has led to increased tattoo reactions. The objective of this study is to describe various clinical manifestations of hypersensitive reactions to tattoo ink reported at a tertiary care hospital in Mandya district. An observational study was carried out over a period of 1 year from June 2014 to May 2015 at Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya. All the patients reporting with allergic reaction due to tattooing were included in the present study after obtaining informed consent. Transient acute inflammatory reaction, infections, and skin diseases localized on tattooed area were excluded from this study. A detailed history regarding the onset, duration and color used for tattooing were collected. Cutaneous examination and biopsy was to done to know the type of reaction. Fifty cutaneous allergic reactions were diagnosed among 39 patients. Mean age of subjects was 22 years and mean duration before the appearance of lesion was 7 months. Common colors associated with reactions were red (53.9%), black (33.3%), green (5.1%), and multicolor (7.7%). Itching was the predominant symptom. Skin lesions mainly consisted of lichenoid papules and plaques, eczematous lesions, and verrucous lesions. Lichenoid histopathology reaction was the most common tissue allergic reaction. Increasing popularity of tattooing among young people has predisposed to parallel increase in adverse reactions. Red pigment is most common cause of allergic reaction in the present study, and lichenoid reaction is the most common reaction.

  18. A practical and successful desensitization protocol for immediate hypersensitivity reactions to iron salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Semra; Olgac, Muge; Unal, Derya; Gelincik, Asli; Colakoglu, Bahauddin; Buyukozturk, Suna

    2014-01-01

    Orally administered iron salts (OAS) are widely used in the management of iron deficiency anemia and hypersensitivity reactions to OAS are not common. If an offending drug is the sole option or is significantly more effective than its alternatives, it can be readministered by desensitization. The oral desensitization protocols for iron published so far concern either desensitization that was completed only over a long period or did not attain the recommended therapeutic dose. We aimed to develop a more effective protocol. We report here on 2 patients who experienced hypersensitivity reactions to OAS. After confirming the diagnosis, both patients were desensitized to oral ferrous (II) glycine sulfate complex according to a 2-day desensitization protocol. A commercial suspension of oral ferrous glycine sulfate, which contains 4 mg of elemental iron in 1 ml, was preferred. We started with a dose as low as 0.1 ml from a 1/100 dilution (0.004 mg elemental iron) of the original suspension and reached the maximum effective dose in 2 days. Both patients were successfully desensitized and they went on to complete the 6-month iron treatment without any adverse effects. Although hypersensitvity reactions to iron are not common, there is no alternative for iron administration. Therefore, desensitization has to be the choice. This easy desensitization protocol seems to be a promising option. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Murine eosinophils labeled with indium-111 oxine: localization to delayed hypersensitivity reactions against a schistosomal antigen and to lymphokine in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Runge, V.; English, D.; Colley, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    We have evaluated a method for quantitation of eosinophil migration to stimuli in vivo. Upon transfusion into normal syngeneic mice, 111In-labeled eosinophils had an intravascular half-life of 9.5 hr and distributed predominantly into spleen, bone marrow, and liver. In either Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice or recipients of lymphoid cells from infected mice, intradermal (ear pinna) injection of the schistosomal egg antigenic preparation (SEA) elicited time-dependent accumulation of 111In-labeled eosinophils detectable by either gamma scintillation counting of tissue samples or by nuclear medicine external imaging. Intradermal administration of a lymphokine fraction (containing eosinophil stimulation promoter activity) similarly caused accumulation of 111In-labeled eosinophils. Both reactions depended on the concentration of stimulus (SEA or lymphokine). 111In-labeled neutrophils or macrophages or 125I-albumin did not preferentially accumulate at the reactions examined to the extent found with 111In-labeled eosinophils, indicating that localization of label depends on an active process and is due to eosinophils rather than a contaminating cell type. The method was used to estimate how long eosinotactic lymphokine remained at dermal sites: 60% of initial activity was present 12 hr after injection. The model is discussed with regard to the role of lymphokines in hypersensitivity reactions with eosinophil involvement, such as the granulomatous response to S. mansoni eggs

  20. CD14-159C/T polymorphism in the development of delayed skin hypersensitivity to tuberculin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Druszczynska

    Full Text Available The skin tuberculin test (TST, an example of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction, is based on measuring the extent of skin induration to mycobacterial tuberculin (PPD. Little is known about the genetic basis of TST reactivity, widely used for diagnosing TB infection. The study investigated the relationship of the single base change polymorphic variants in CD14 gene (CD14(-159C/T with the development of DTH to PPD in BCG-vaccinated Polish Caucasian individuals. We found persistent lack of TST reactivity in about 40% of healthy subjects despite receiving more than one dose of BCG. The TST size was negatively correlated with the number of BCG inoculations. The distribution of C/T genotype was significantly more frequent among TST-negative compared with TST-positive individuals. The concentration of serum sCD14 was positively associated with mCD14 expression, but not with the TST status or CD14(-159C/T polymorphism. A significant increase in mCD14 expression and serum sCD14 levels was found in TB group. We hypothesize that CD14(-159C/T polymorphic variants might be one of genetic components in the response to attenuated M. bovis BCG bacilli.

  1. [Hypersensitivity to platinum salts and taxanes: The value of skin tests and tolerance induction procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, F; Waton, J; Poreaux, C; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2017-11-01

    The rate of hypersensitivity reactions to platinum salts (PS) and taxanes (TX) is on the increase. The aim of our study was to show the value of skin testing and efficacy of rapid drug desensitization. This was a retrospective study conducted between January 2007 and February 2016 in patients consulting for immediate or delayed hypersensitivity to PS and TX. Skin prick tests (pT) and intradermal reaction tests (IDR) were performed according to the ENDA/EAACI recommendations. We used a 12-step desensitization protocol for rapid drug desensitization. Among the 99 patients included (30 men, 69 women, age 60.4) PS were suspected in 86 cases and taxanes in 13 cases. Skin tests were positive in 25 patients (7 pT, 18 IDR), 23 for platinum salts and 2 for taxanes. Rapid drug desensitization was proposed in 50 patients and performed in 33 (30 PS and 3 TX), proved effective in 29 patients, with protocol adaptation being necessary in 7 cases, and was ineffective in 4 patients. The skin tests for the latter 4 patients were positive. Seventy-five percent of patients with positive skin tests to oxaliplatin presented hypersensitivity reactions during desensitization, i.e. twice as many as patients having negative skin tests. Two percent of patient for PS and 7% for TX had cross reactivity. This French study confirms the efficacy of the 12-step protocol that allows patients to receive chemotherapy after hypersensitivity reaction. Skin test permits the detection of cross-reactions but their practice must be considered based on the patient's history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The efficacy of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity using a brucellin prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus to detect brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.; Muskens, J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Eight-hundred-and-ninety-six cattle belonging to herds officially designated Brucella-free, and 190 cattle belonging to infected herds were tested with the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity (SDTH) test, using brucellin (273) prepared from a rnucoid strain of Brucella abortus. An increase in

  3. Fexofenadine Suppresses Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity in the Murine Model of Palladium Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Matsubara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Palladium is frequently used in dental materials, and sometimes causes metal allergy. It has been suggested that the immune response by palladium-specific T cells may be responsible for the pathogenesis of delayed-type hypersensitivity in study of palladium allergic model mice. In the clinical setting, glucocorticoids and antihistamine drugs are commonly used for treatment of contact dermatitis. However, the precise mechanism of immune suppression in palladium allergy remains unknown. We investigated inhibition of the immune response in palladium allergic mice by administration of prednisolone as a glucocorticoid and fexofenadine hydrochloride as an antihistamine. Compared with glucocorticoids, fexofenadine hydrochloride significantly suppressed the number of T cells by interfering with the development of antigen-presenting cells from the sensitization phase. Our results suggest that antihistamine has a beneficial effect on the treatment of palladium allergy compared to glucocorticoids.

  4. Delayed reactions to reusable protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontén, Ann; Dubnika, Inese

    2009-04-01

    The materials in plastic protective gloves are thought to cause less contact allergy than rubber gloves. Our aim was to estimate the frequency of delayed reactions to different types of reusable protective gloves among dermatitis patients. 2 x 2 cm pieces of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gloves, nitrile gloves, and natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves were tested as is in consecutive dermatitis patients tested with the baseline series. Among 658 patients, 6 patients reacted to PVC gloves and 6 patients to the NRL gloves. None reacted to both these types of gloves. Five of six patients with reactions to rubber gloves reacted to thiuram mix in the baseline series. Delayed reactions to reusable PVC gloves may be as common as to reusable NRL gloves. In contrast to most reactions to the NRL glove, the reactions to the PVC glove had no obvious association with reactions to any allergen(s) in the baseline series.

  5. Drug hypersensitivity in clonal mast cell disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonadonna, P; Pagani, M; Aberer, W

    2015-01-01

    and severity of immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Mastocytosis in adults is associated with a history of anaphylaxis in 22-49%. Fatal anaphylaxis has been described particularly following hymenoptera stings, but also occasionally after the intake of drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs......, opioids and drugs in the perioperative setting. However, data on the frequency of drug hypersensitivity in mastocytosis and vice versa are scarce and evidence for an association appears to be limited. Nevertheless, clonal MC disorders should be ruled out in cases of severe anaphylaxis: basal serum...... tryptase determination, physical examination for cutaneous mastocytosis lesions, and clinical characteristics of anaphylactic reaction might be useful for differential diagnosis. In this position paper, the ENDA group performed a literature search on immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions in clonal MC...

  6. Hypersensitivity reactions to the Sabin vaccine in children with cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, C A S; Smaldini, P L; Gervasoni, M E; Maspero, J F; Docena, G H

    2013-02-01

    The Sabin vaccine is used world-wide, and most children with food allergies receive it without incident. However, in the 2009 vaccination campaign conducted in Argentina, four children experienced immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions following vaccination. We aimed to review the medical history of the affected children, study their allergic condition after the episodes and analyse the presence of allergenic vaccine components. Patients were selected based on their immediate allergic reactions following vaccination. They were assessed for allergies to cow's milk and hen's egg. The presence of cow's milk proteins in the vaccine was tested by various immunoassays involving cow's milk- or α-lactalbumin-specific polyclonal rabbit antiserum and patient sera. All of the patients had a history of milk allergy, and no history or current evidence of egg hypersensitivity was found. Levels of cow's milk- and Sabin vaccine-specific IgE were increased, and the result of a skin prick test with cow's milk proteins or the Sabin vaccine was positive in each patient. In addition, an ELISA using specific rabbit antiserum detected α-lactalbumin in the Sabin vaccine. When α-lactalbumin was employed as a soluble inhibitor in a competitive ELISA, binding to vaccine-coated plates by cow's milk- or α-lactalbumin-specific rabbit antiserum or by patient serum containing IgE was inhibited. We have demonstrated that these patients were allergic to cow's milk, and had circulating and mast cell-bound IgE antibodies specific to cow's milk proteins. We found that the Sabin vaccine contained α-lactalbumin, which may have been responsible for the reactions elicited following vaccination with the Sabin and dual viral vaccines in combination. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. The Link between Hypersensitivity Syndrome Reaction Development and Human Herpes Virus-6 Reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C. Pritchett

    2012-01-01

    Data Sources and Extraction. Drugs identified as causes of (i idiosyncratic reactions, (ii drug-induced hypersensitivity, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and (iii human herpes virus reactivation in PubMed since 1997 have been collected and discussed. Results. Data presented in this paper show that HHV-6 reactivation is associated with more severe organ involvement and a prolonged course of disease. Conclusion. This analysis of HHV-6 reactivation associated with drug-induced severe cutaneous reactions and hepatotoxicity will aid in causality assessment and clinical diagnosis of possible life-threatening events and will provide a basis for further patient characterization and therapy.

  8. The retreatment of carboplatin via high-dose intraperitoneal chemotherapy in patients with a history of a hypersensitivity reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M.H.; Ruiz Zapata, A.M.; Bril, H.; Bleeker, M.C.G.; Belien, J.A.M.; Stoop, R.; Helder, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    A hypersensitivity reaction attributed to platinum-based chemotherapy is a relatively common occurrence. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy potentially facilitates the safe retreatment of platinum therapy following this complication. We describe 3 ovarian cancer patients who were successfully

  9. Food hypersensitivity in patients over 14 years of age suffering from atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celakovská, Jarmila; Ettler, K; Ettlerová, K; Vaněčková, J

    2014-05-01

    Patients suffering from atopic dermatitis often describe food hypersensitivity. Rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity and severe allergic reactions to foods have been reported, but the data are scarce. Evaluation of food hypersensitivity reactions in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. The dermatological examination was performed in patients of age 14 years and above and the detailed history was taken concerning the food hypersensitivity. A total of 228 patients were examined-72 men, 156 women, average age 26.2 (SD 9.5) years. The food hypersensitivity reactions were recorded in 196 patients from 228 (86%), no reactions were recorded in 32 patients (24%). Foods with the most often recorded reactions are: Nuts (in 35% of patients), tomatoes (in 20%), and kiwi (in 17, 5%), apples and spices (in 16%), tangerines and oranges (in 15%), capsicum (in 13%), fishes (in 12%), celery (in 9%), and chocolate (in 7%). Food hypersensitivity reactions are recorded in 86% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Nuts, tomatoes, and pollen-associated foods play a role in the majority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis.

  10. Ultraviolet-irradiated urocanic acid suppresses delayed-type hypersensitivity to herpes simplex virus in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.A.; Howie, S.E.; Norval, M.; Maingay, J.; Simpson, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to induce a transient defect in epidermal antigen presentation which leads to the generation of antigen-specific suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. The putative receptor in skin for the primary event in UV-suppression is urocanic acid (UCA) which may then interact locally, or systemically, with antigen presenting cells or initiate a cascade of events resulting in suppression. We present the first direct evidence that UCA, when irradiated with a dose (96 mJ/cm2) of UVB radiation known to suppress the DTH response to herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1) in mice, can induce suppression following epidermal application or s.c. injection of the irradiated substance. This suppression is transferable with nylon wool-passed spleen cells

  11. Delay-induced wave instabilities in single-species reaction-diffusion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Andereas; Wang, Jian; Radons, Günter

    2017-11-01

    The Turing (wave) instability is only possible in reaction-diffusion systems with more than one (two) components. Motivated by the fact that a time delay increases the dimension of a system, we investigate the presence of diffusion-driven instabilities in single-species reaction-diffusion systems with delay. The stability of arbitrary one-component systems with a single discrete delay, with distributed delay, or with a variable delay is systematically analyzed. We show that a wave instability can appear from an equilibrium of single-species reaction-diffusion systems with fluctuating or distributed delay, which is not possible in similar systems with constant discrete delay or without delay. More precisely, we show by basic analytic arguments and by numerical simulations that fast asymmetric delay fluctuations or asymmetrically distributed delays can lead to wave instabilities in these systems. Examples, for the resulting traveling waves are shown for a Fisher-KPP equation with distributed delay in the reaction term. In addition, we have studied diffusion-induced instabilities from homogeneous periodic orbits in the same systems with variable delay, where the homogeneous periodic orbits are attracting resonant periodic solutions of the system without diffusion, i.e., periodic orbits of the Hutchinson equation with time-varying delay. If diffusion is introduced, standing waves can emerge whose temporal period is equal to the period of the variable delay.

  12. Investigation of Seminal Plasma Hypersensitivity Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    diseases, chronic vaginal candidiasis ); 3) establish the prevalence of BSS and localized/systemic seminal plasma protein hypersensitivity among the GW...of further investigation as our population grows. Subsequent pharmacologic treatment of this female for chronic vaginal candidiasis with an...partner.2Ř Subsequently, women experiencing localized vaginal inflammation, characterized by burning and pain and occurring immediately after contact

  13. Safety and skin delayed-type hypersensitivity response in vervet monkeys immunized with Leishmania donovani sonicate antigen delivered with adjuvants

    OpenAIRE

    Mutiso,Joshua M.; Macharia,John C.; Taracha,Evans; Wafula,Kellern; Rikoi,Hitler; Gicheru,Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we report on the safety and skin delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), responses of the Leishmania donovani whole cell sonicate antigen delivered in conjunction with alum-BCG (AlBCG), Montanide ISA 720 (MISA) or Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) in groups of vervet monkeys. Following three intradermal injections of the inoculums on days 0, 28 and 42, safety and DTH responses were assessed. Preliminary tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels ...

  14. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects, as well as advances in allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2009. Among key epidemiologic observations, several westernized countries report that more than 1% of children have peanut allergy, and there is some evidence that environmental exposure to peanut is a risk factor. The role of regulatory T cells, complement, platelet-activating factor, and effector cells in the development and expression of food allergy were explored in several murine models and human studies. Delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meats appears to be related to IgE binding to the carbohydrate moiety galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, which also has implications for hypersensitivity to murine mAb therapeutics containing this oligosaccharide. Oral immunotherapy studies continue to show promise for the treatment of food allergy, but determining whether the treatment causes tolerance (cure) or temporary desensitization remains to be explored. Increased baseline serum tryptase levels might inform the risk of venom anaphylaxis and might indicate a risk for mast cell disorders in persons who have experienced such episodes. Reduced structural and immune barrier function contribute to local and systemic allergen sensitization in patients with atopic dermatitis, as well as increased propensity of skin infections in these patients. The use of increased doses of nonsedating antihistamines and potential usefulness of omalizumab for chronic urticaria was highlighted. These exciting advances reported in the Journal can improve patient care today and provide insights on how we can improve the diagnosis and treatment of these allergic diseases in the future. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypersensitivity reactions to food colours with special reference to the natural colour annatto extract (butter colour).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, H; Larsen, J C; Tarding, F

    1978-01-01

    It is well known that synthetic food colours especially some azo dyes can provoke hypersensitivity reactions such as urticaria, angioneurotic oedema, and astma (Michaëlsson and Juhlin, 1973, Granholt and Thune, 1975). Natural food colours are scarcely investigated with respect to potential allergic properties. Annatto extract, a commonly used food colour in edible fats e.g. butter, has been tested in patients. Among 61 consecutive patients suffereing from chornic urticaria and/or angioneurotic oedema 56 patients were orally provoked by annatto extract during elimination diet. Challenge was performed with a dose equivalent to the amount used in 25 grammes of butter. Twentysix per cent of the patients reacted to this colour 4 hours (SD: 2,6) after intake. Similar challenges with synthetic dyes showed the following results: Tartrazine 11%, Sunset Yellow FCF 17%, Food Red 17 16%, Amaranth 9%, Ponceau 4 R 15%, Erythrosine 12% and Brillant Blue FCF 14%. The present study indicates that natural food colours may induce hypersensitivity reactions as frequent as synthetic dyes.

  16. Food hypersensitivity in patients over 14 years of age suffering from atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Čelakovská

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients suffering from atopic dermatitis often describe food hypersensitivity. Rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity and severe allergic reactions to foods have been reported, but the data are scarce. Aims and Objectives: Evaluation of food hypersensitivity reactions in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: The dermatological examination was performed in patients of age 14 years and above and the detailed history was taken concerning the food hypersensitivity. Results: A total of 228 patients were examined-72 men, 156 women, average age 26.2 (SD 9.5 years. The food hypersensitivity reactions were recorded in 196 patients from 228 (86%, no reactions were recorded in 32 patients (24%. Foods with the most often recorded reactions are: Nuts (in 35% of patients, tomatoes (in 20%, and kiwi (in 17, 5%, apples and spices (in 16%, tangerines and oranges (in 15%, capsicum (in 13%, fishes (in 12%, celery (in 9%, and chocolate (in 7%. Conclusion: Food hypersensitivity reactions are recorded in 86% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Nuts, tomatoes, and pollen-associated foods play a role in the majority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis.

  17. Utility of opium seed extract tests in preventing hypersensitivity reactions during surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, A; Pineda, F; Palacios, R; Martín-Gil, F-J; Miguel, A S; Arenal, J J; Tejedor, J; Tef, B M

    2014-01-01

    Anaphylaxis during anaesthesia is fatal in 3-9% of patients and analgesics, including opioids, and is the second most common medicament-related cause, although the prevalence is underestimated. We recently found that patients may generate IgE antibodies to opium seeds. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of specific antibodies to morphine, codeine, rocuronium and oil body and aqueous fractions of Papaver somniferum seeds in the diagnosis and prevention of allergy to opioids. Patients with hypersensitivity reactions during surgery, and severe clinical allergy (pollen, tobacco), and illicit heroin users were selected. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of in vivo and in vitro diagnostic techniques including oil body and aqueous fractions of P. somniferum seeds were measured. We studied 203 patients, with mean age 35.1±17.1 and 200 healthy controls. Patients sensitised to heroin or with hypersensitivity reactions during surgery responded to P. somniferum seed tests. Of patients not known to be sensitised to opioids, the highest positivity was in patients sensitised to tobacco (pOpium seed skin tests and IgE, especially the oil body fraction, were more sensitive (64.2%) and specific (98.4%) than morphine, codeine and rocuronium tests for opioid sensitivity. Pollen allergy was not a risk factor for sensitisation to morphine. Sensitivity to opioids and intraoperative anaphylaxis can be diagnosed by routine tests. IgE and skin tests for the oil body fraction of P. somniferum had the highest sensitivity for sensitisation to opioids. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of Histamine Release Test for the Evaluation of Patients with Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions to Clavulanic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, F.; Ariza, A.; Mayorga, C.

    2015-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to clavulanic acid (CLV) seem to be on the increase. Diagnosis is mainly based on skin testing and the drug provocation test (DPT), procedures that are not risk free. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the histamine release test (HRT) could help eva...

  19. An Updated Review of the Molecular Mechanisms in Drug Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Bing Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity may manifest ranging from milder skin reactions (e.g., maculopapular exanthema and urticaria to severe systemic reactions, such as anaphylaxis, drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS/drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS, or Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN. Current pharmacogenomic studies have made important strides in the prevention of some drug hypersensitivity through the identification of relevant genetic variants, particularly for genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs. The associations identified by these studies are usually drug, phenotype, and ethnic specific. The drug presentation models that explain how small drug antigens might interact with HLA and T cell receptor (TCR molecules in drug hypersensitivity include the hapten theory, the p-i concept, the altered peptide repertoire model, and the altered TCR repertoire model. The broad spectrum of clinical manifestations of drug hypersensitivity involving different drugs, as well as the various pathomechanisms involved, makes the diagnosis and management of it more challenging. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the predisposing factors, immune mechanisms, pathogenesis, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic approaches for drug hypersensitivity.

  20. An Updated Review of the Molecular Mechanisms in Drug Hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Riichiro; Pan, Ren-You; Wang, Chuang-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity may manifest ranging from milder skin reactions (e.g., maculopapular exanthema and urticaria) to severe systemic reactions, such as anaphylaxis, drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)/drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS), or Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Current pharmacogenomic studies have made important strides in the prevention of some drug hypersensitivity through the identification of relevant genetic variants, particularly for genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). The associations identified by these studies are usually drug, phenotype, and ethnic specific. The drug presentation models that explain how small drug antigens might interact with HLA and T cell receptor (TCR) molecules in drug hypersensitivity include the hapten theory, the p-i concept, the altered peptide repertoire model, and the altered TCR repertoire model. The broad spectrum of clinical manifestations of drug hypersensitivity involving different drugs, as well as the various pathomechanisms involved, makes the diagnosis and management of it more challenging. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the predisposing factors, immune mechanisms, pathogenesis, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic approaches for drug hypersensitivity. PMID:29651444

  1. Hypersensitivity to mosquito bite manifested as Skeeter syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pérez-Vanzzini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The reactions to mosquito bites are immunological reactions with involvement of IgE, IgG and T cells mediated hypersensitivity. These reactions are common and range from small local reactions, large local reactions to systemic allergic reactions. Skeeter syndrome is defined as a large local induced inflammatory reaction to mosquito bite and sometimes accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever and vomiting. Diagnosis is based on clinical history and physical examination, supported by the identification of specific IgE by skin testing. Treatment includes prevention, antihistamines and steroids in some cases. Specific immunotherapy still requires further study. This paper reports two cases of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to mosquito bites, which were evaluated in our center presenting positive skin tests.

  2. Carboplatin hypersensitivity in children with glial tumors: a report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Kazgan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carboplatin, commonly used chemotherapeutic agent in treatment of pediatric cancers, can cause life-threatening hypersensitivty reactions. Carboplatin hypersensitivity is protocol-specific and associated with repeated doses and prolonged use of the drug. Vincristin and carboplatin combination is used efficiently in treatment of pediatric low-grade gliomas. However, hypersensitivity reactions are frequently observed during usage of this protocol. Desensitization strategies with variable success rates were reported. Failure of these strategies may lead to cessation of carboplatin Here, we report two cases with carboplatin hypersensitivity treated with epinephrine administration, in whom carboplatin was discontinued after hypersensitivity reaction. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 796-798

  3. Safety and skin delayed-type hypersensitivity response in vervet monkeys immunized with Leishmania donovani sonicate antigen delivered with adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Mutiso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report on the safety and skin delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, responses of the Leishmania donovani whole cell sonicate antigen delivered in conjunction with alum-BCG (AlBCG, Montanide ISA 720 (MISA or Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA in groups of vervet monkeys. Following three intradermal injections of the inoculums on days 0, 28 and 42, safety and DTH responses were assessed. Preliminary tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interferon gamma (IFN-γ levels were also measured and these were compared with DTH. Only those animals immunized with alum-BCG reacted adversely to the inoculum by producing ulcerative erythematous skin indurations. Non-parametric analysis of variance followed by a post-test showed significantly higher DTH responses in the MISA+Ag group compared with other immunized groups (p < 0.001. The MPLA+Ag group indicated significantly lower DTH responses to the sonicate antigen compared with the AlBCG+Ag group. There was a significant correlation between the DTH and cytokine responses (p < 0.0001. Based on this study we conclude that Leishmania donovani sonicate antigen containing MISA 720 is safe and is associated with a strong DTH reaction following immunization.

  4. [Delayed adverse reactions to blood donation: From haemovigilance data to specific studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, J-Y; Durieux, S; Barnoux, M; Sapey, T

    2016-11-01

    Delayed adverse reactions to blood donation occur after the donor left donation site. Their intrinsic gravity and possible complications can be increased by the fact the donor is alone. This can also increase bad memories, leading to a donation giving up. Blood transfusion centre is only aware in case of donor feedback, hence an event underrating. We choose to compare our data upon delayed adverse donor reactions with those we could find in past studies. A first data level comes from French haemovigilance data while serious adverse reactions declaration is mandatory. But a second level can be reached using blood transfusion centre computerized data because all the donation reactions are saved whatever the gravity is. In both cases, delayed reactions are only those reported by donors. We try to make an exhaustive search of specific studies upon the real delayed reactions incidence so as to compare with our data. There were 1957 serious adverse reactions declared in our regional haemovigilance database between 2011 and 2015: 49 % occurring during donation, 40 % after it but before donor departure, and 11 % delayed events. There were 16,050 adverse reactions recorded during the first trimester of 2016 in mainland France, with 2.7 % delayed ones. Proportion of delayed events rises when gravity rises, until 27.6 % for the most serious ones. It varies between 2.2 % and 2.7 % for vasovagal reactions, haematomas, and other local reactions, and reaches 16.2 % for other general reactions. Data found in other studies with a spontaneous donor notification are of the same kind. But four studies soliciting specifically donor notification give a dramatically higher delayed reactions incidence, with an understatement greater than three out of four. Moreover, these studies found a majority of delayed reactions, which are not included in haemovigilance like fatigue or bruising. Occurrence of a delayed donor reaction is clearly underrated in standard haemovigilance. It

  5. The role for decorin in delayed-type hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Daniela G.; Mohamed, Negia A.; Bocian, Carla; Stadtmann, Anika; Hermann, Sven; Schäfers, Klaus; Schäfers, Michael; Iozzo, Renato V.; Zarbock, Alexander; Götte, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Decorin, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, regulates extracellular matrix organization, growth factor-mediated signaling and cell growth. As decorin may directly modulate immune responses, we investigated its role in a mouse model of contact allergy (oxazolone-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity, DTH) in decorin-deficient (Dcn−/−) and wild-type mice. Dcn−/− mice showed a reduced ear swelling 24 hours after oxazolone treatment with a concurrent attenuation of leukocyte infiltration. These findings were corroborated by reduced glucose metabolism as determined by 18FDG uptake in positron emission tomography scans. Unexpectedly, polymorphonuclear leukocyte numbers in Dcn−/− blood vessels were significantly increased, accompanied by large numbers of flattened leukocytes adherent to the endothelium. Intravital microscopy, flow chamber and static adhesion assays confirmed increased adhesion and reduced transmigration of Dcn−/− leukocytes. Circulating blood neutrophil numbers were significantly increased in Dcn−/− mice 24 hours after DTH elicitation, but only moderately increased in wild-type mice. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α was reduced, while syndecan-1 and ICAM-1 were overexpressed in inflamed ears of Dcn−/− mice, indicating that these adhesion molecules could be responsible for increased leukocyte adhesion. Decorin treatment of endothelial cells increased tyrosine phosphorylation and reduced syndecan-1 expression. Notably, absence of syndecan-1 in a genetic background lacking decorin rescued the attenuated DTH phenotype of Dcn−/− mice. Collectively, these results implicate a role for decorin in mediating DTH responses by influencing polymorphonuclear leukocyte attachment to the endothelium. This occurs via two non-mutually exclusive mechanisms that involve a direct anti-adhesive effect on polymorphonuclear leukocytes and a negative regulation of ICAM-1 and syndecan-1 expression. PMID:22043007

  6. Hypersensitivity reactions associated with L-asparaginase administration in 142 dogs and 68 cats with lymphoid malignancies: 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Mary Kay; Carr, Brittany J; Mauldin, Glenna E

    2016-02-01

    Clinically significant hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to the chemotherapy drug L-asparaginase are reported in humans and dogs, but frequency in small animals is not well-defined. This study retrospectively evaluated the frequency of HSR to L-asparaginase given by IM injection to dogs and cats with lymphoid malignancies. The medical records of all dogs and cats treated with at least 1 dose of L-asparaginase chemotherapy over a 5-year period were reviewed. A total of 370 doses of L-asparaginase were administered to the dogs, with 88 of 142 dogs receiving multiple doses, and 6 dogs experiencing an HSR. A total of 197 doses were administered to the cats, with 33 of 68 cats receiving multiple doses, and no cats experiencing an HSR. Hypersensitivity reactions were documented in 4.2% of dogs, and in association with 1.6% of L-asparaginase doses administered. These results show that HSRs occur uncommonly among dogs and cats, even with repeated dosing.

  7. Nickel-induced hypersensitivity: etiology, immune reactions, prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostýnek, Jurij J

    2002-08-01

    As a contact allergen causing type I and type IV hypersensitivity, mediated by reagins and allergen-specific T lymphocytes, expressed in a wide range of cutaneous eruptions following dermal or systemic exposure, nickel has acquired the distinction of being among the most frequent causes of hypersensitivity, occupationally as well as among the general population. In synoptic form the many effects that nickel has on the organism are presented, to provide a comprehensive picture of the aspects of that metal with many biologically noxious, but metallurgically indispensable characteristics. This paper reviews the epidemiology, the prognosis for occupational and non-occupational nickel allergic hypersensitivity (NAH), the many types of exposure and the resulting immune responses, immunotoxicity and rate of diffusion through the skin. Alternatives towards prevention and remediation, topical and systemic, for this pervasive and increasing form of morbidity resulting from multiple types of exposure are discussed. Merits and limitations of preventive measures in industry and private life are considered, as well as the effectiveness of topical and systemic therapy in treating NAH.

  8. Hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins: studies in a group of patients with negative benzylpenicillin G skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, H-L; Li, Z; Yang, J; Tian, X; Gao, N; Jia, L-J

    2009-06-01

    Although skin tests are usually employed to evaluate current penicillin allergy status, a negative result does not exclude hypersensitivity. There is a need for accurate in vitro tests to exclude hypersensitivity. A radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is a potentially good supplementary approach, but there is little information on the suitability of this method to diagnose penicillin hypersensitivity in subjects with a negative skin test to benzylpenicillin. A total of 133 patients with a negative skin test to benzylpenicillin G (PG) and all of whom developed allergic reactions to PG were studied. RAST was used to detect eight kinds of specific IgE antibodies to penicillins in serum, which included four kinds of major and minor antigenic determinants to four penicillin drugs. The combination sites for the specific IgE antibodies were studied by RAST inhibition test. The rate of positive reactions for the specific IgE antibodies was 59.40% (79/133). Of the eight kinds of antigenic determinants, the positive rates for specific IgE against the major and minor determinants were 39.10% (52) and 42.86% (57) respectively. Of the four drugs, positive cases only to PG were 10 (7.5%), were significantly fewer than the cross-reacting positive cases (36) to PG (P penicillins could induce specific responses with a variable degree of cross-reactivity among the different penicillins. Radioallergosorbent test is a good complementary test in persons who are skin-test negative with PG, and the sensitivity of RAST increases with increasing specificity of IgE antibodies to be detected. 6-APA and the groups, making part of the different side-chains on penicillins, all contributed to the cross-reactivity.

  9. Cutaneous drug hypersensitivity : Immunological and genetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisalay Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity is an unpredictable, immunologically mediated adverse reaction, clustered in a genetically predisposed individual. The role of "hapten concept" in immune sensitization has recently been contested by the "pharmacological interaction" hypothesis. After completion of the "human genome project" and with the availability of high-resolution genotyping, genetic susceptibility to hypersensitivity for certain drugs has been proved beyond doubt though the trend is ethnicity and phenotype dependent. Application of this newly acquired knowledge may reduce or abolish the morbidity and mortality associated with cutaneous drug hypersensitivity.

  10. Systemic allergic dermatitis caused by Apiaceae root vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Petersen, Thomas H; Fretté, Xavier C

    2014-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to root vegetables of the Umbelliferae plant family (Apiaceae) is well known. Delayed-type hypersensitivity is rarely reported.......Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to root vegetables of the Umbelliferae plant family (Apiaceae) is well known. Delayed-type hypersensitivity is rarely reported....

  11. Fever as the only manifestation of hypersensitivity reactions associated with oxaliplatin in a patient with colorectal cancer Oxaliplatin-induced hypersensitivity reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to oxaliplatin in patients with colorectal cancer include facial flushing, erythema,pruritis, fever, tachycardia, dyspnea, tongue swelling,rash/hives, headache, chills, weakness, vomiting, burning sensations, dizziness, and edema. We report a patient with fever as the sole manifestation of initial HSR, review the literature and discuss the management of HSR. A 57-year-old female with T3N2M0 rectal adenocarcinoma received modified FOLFOX-6. She tolerated the first 8 cycles without any toxicities except grade 1 peripheral neuropathy and nausea. During 9th and 10th infusions,she developed fever to a maximum of 38.3℃ with stable hemodynamic status despite medications. During 11th infusion, she developed grade 3 HSR consisting of symptomatic bronchospasm, hypotension, nausea,vomiting, cough, and fever. On examination, she was pale, cyanotic, with a temperature of 38.8℃, BP dropped to 95/43 mm Hg, pulse of 116/min and O2 saturation of 88%-91%. She was hospitalized for management and recovered in 24 h. Fever alone is not a usual symptom of oxaliplatin HSR. It may be indicative that the patient may develop serious reactions subsequently, as did our patient who developed hypotension with the third challenge. Treatment and prevention consists of slowing the infusion rate, use of steroids and antagonists of Type 1 and 2 histamine receptor antagonists, whereas desensitization could help to provide the small number of patients who experience severe HSR with the ability to further receive an effective therapy for their colorectal cancer.

  12. Oral Challenge without Skin Testing Safely Excludes Clinically Significant Delayed-Onset Penicillin Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confino-Cohen, Ronit; Rosman, Yossi; Meir-Shafrir, Keren; Stauber, Tali; Lachover-Roth, Idit; Hershko, Alon; Goldberg, Arnon

    Penicillins are the drug family most commonly associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Current guidelines recommend negative skin tests (ST) before re-administering penicillins to patients with previous nonimmediate reactions (NIR). The objective of this study was to examine whether ST are necessary before re-administering penicillin to patients with NIR. Patients with NIR to penicillins starting longer than 1 hour after last dose administration or starting any time after the first treatment day or patients with vague recollection of their reaction underwent penicillin ST. Disregarding ST results, patients were challenged with the relevant penicillins. One-tenth of the therapeutic dose followed by the full dose was administered at 1-hour interval and patients continued taking the full dose for 5 days. A total of 710 patients with alleged BL allergy were evaluated. Patients with a history of immediate reaction (52, 7.3%) or cephalosporin allergy (16, 2.2%) were excluded. Of the remaining 642 patients, 62.3% had negative ST, 5.3% positive ST, and 32.4% equivocal ST. A total of 617 (96.1%) patients were challenged. Immediate reaction was observed in 9 patients (1.5%): 1-positive ST, 7-negative ST, and 1-equivocal ST (P = .7). Late reaction to the first-day challenge occurred in 24 patients (4%). An at-home challenge was continued by 491 patients. Complete 5-day and partial challenges were well tolerated by 417 (85%) and 44 patients (8.9%), respectively, disregarding ST results. Thirty patients (6.1%) developed mild reactions to the home challenge regardless of their ST results. A 5-day oral challenge without preceding ST is safe and sufficient to exclude penicillin allergy after NIR developing during penicillin treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypersensitivity reactions associated with L-asparaginase administration in 142 dogs and 68 cats with lymphoid malignancies: 2007–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Mary Kay; Carr, Brittany J.; Mauldin, Glenna E.

    2016-01-01

    Clinically significant hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to the chemotherapy drug L-asparaginase are reported in humans and dogs, but frequency in small animals is not well-defined. This study retrospectively evaluated the frequency of HSR to L-asparaginase given by IM injection to dogs and cats with lymphoid malignancies. The medical records of all dogs and cats treated with at least 1 dose of L-asparaginase chemotherapy over a 5-year period were reviewed. A total of 370 doses of L-asparaginase were administered to the dogs, with 88 of 142 dogs receiving multiple doses, and 6 dogs experiencing an HSR. A total of 197 doses were administered to the cats, with 33 of 68 cats receiving multiple doses, and no cats experiencing an HSR. Hypersensitivity reactions were documented in 4.2% of dogs, and in association with 1.6% of L-asparaginase doses administered. These results show that HSRs occur uncommonly among dogs and cats, even with repeated dosing. PMID:26834270

  14. Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity to Metals of Environmental Burden in Patients with Takotsubo Syndrome - Is There a Clinical Relevance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Manousek

    Full Text Available Takotsubo syndrome (TS is a heart condition characterised by a sudden transient left ventricular dysfunction; its pathophysiology is probably associated with elevated levels of catecholamines but the exact mechanism is not known as yet. Literature and clinical experience suggest that TS affects persons with various comorbidities. This pilot work aims to evaluate the frequency of comorbidities with potential pathological immune reactivity, and to evaluate the potential association between TS and hypersensitivity to metals assessed by LTT-MELISA®.A total of 24 patients (23 women, 1 man with a history of TS attack and 27 healthy controls were evaluated. Hypersensitivity was evaluated by a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT-MELISA®; a questionnaire of environmental burden was used to select evaluated metals. A total of 19 patients (79% had at least one condition that might potentially be associated with pathological immune reactivity (autoimmune thyroid disease, drug allergy, bronchial asthma, cancer, contact dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis. Hypersensitivity to metals was identified significantly more frequently in TS patients than in healthy controls (positive reaction to at least one metal was identified in 95.8% of TS patients and in 59.3% of controls; p = 0.003; the difference was statistically significant for mercury (45.8% and 14.8%, respectively; p = 0.029.Our work shows that conditions with pathological immune reactivity occur frequently in TS patients, and our data suggest a possible association between TS and hypersensitivity to metals (mercury in particular evaluated by LTT-MELISA®. We also suggest that apart from the triggering stress factor, potential existence of other serious conditions should be considered when taking medical history of TS patients.

  15. Rapid drug desensitization for hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells Guitart, M C

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to drugs has risen in the last 10 years owing to increased exposure to better and more allergenic medications including monoclonal antibodies. HSRs prevent patients from using their first-line therapy, leading to decreased quality of life and life expectancy. Although premedication with antihistamines, leukotriene blockers, and corticosteroids can protect against mild-to-moderate HSR, none of these medications has provided protection against anaphylaxis. Rapid drug desensitization is a treatment option for patients with HSR to their first-line medication that protects against anaphylaxis.Although the mechanisms of drug desensitization are not completely understood, in vitro mast cell models of IgE antigen desensitization have led to the design of safe and effective in vivo protocols aimed at protecting highly sensitized patients from hypersensitivity reactions and anaphylaxis. This review provides an insight into the mechanisms of IgE/mast cell desensitization, the principles and practice of drug desensitization, and an overview of the different desensitization protocols and their safety and efficacy profiles. Drug desensitization should only be performed by allergists, trained nurses, and experienced pharmacists, since this high-risk procedure involves reintroducing allergenic medication to highly sensitized patients, with the consequent potential for severe or fatal HSRs.

  16. Relationship between systemic inflammation and delayed-type hypersensitivity response to Candida antigen in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt D Pence

    Full Text Available Research has shown that aging is associated with increased systemic inflammation as well as a reduction in the strength of immune responses. However, little evidence exists linking the decrease in cell-mediated immunity in older adults with other health parameters. We sought to examine the relationship between cell-mediated immunity as measured in vivo by the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to candida antigen and demographic and physiological variables in older (65-80 y.o. adults. Candida antigen response was not related to gender or obesity, or to a number of other physiological variables including fitness and body composition. However, positive responders had significantly lower serum C-reactive protein levels (CRP, p4.75 mg•L(-1. Therefore, positive responses to candida antigen in older adults appears to be related to lower levels of systemic inflammation.

  17. Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity to Metals of Environmental Burden in Patients with Takotsubo Syndrome – Is There a Clinical Relevance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousek, Jan; Stejskal, Vera; Kubena, Petr; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Nemec, Petr; Lokaj, Petr; Dostalova, Ludmila; Zadakova, Andrea; Pavlusova, Marie; Benesova, Klara; Kala, Petr; Miklik, Roman; Spinar, Jindrich; Parenica, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Objective Takotsubo syndrome (TS) is a heart condition characterised by a sudden transient left ventricular dysfunction; its pathophysiology is probably associated with elevated levels of catecholamines but the exact mechanism is not known as yet. Literature and clinical experience suggest that TS affects persons with various comorbidities. This pilot work aims to evaluate the frequency of comorbidities with potential pathological immune reactivity, and to evaluate the potential association between TS and hypersensitivity to metals assessed by LTT-MELISA®. Methodology, Results A total of 24 patients (23 women, 1 man) with a history of TS attack and 27 healthy controls were evaluated. Hypersensitivity was evaluated by a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT-MELISA®); a questionnaire of environmental burden was used to select evaluated metals. A total of 19 patients (79%) had at least one condition that might potentially be associated with pathological immune reactivity (autoimmune thyroid disease, drug allergy, bronchial asthma, cancer, contact dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis). Hypersensitivity to metals was identified significantly more frequently in TS patients than in healthy controls (positive reaction to at least one metal was identified in 95.8% of TS patients and in 59.3% of controls; p = 0.003); the difference was statistically significant for mercury (45.8% and 14.8%, respectively; p = 0.029). Conclusion Our work shows that conditions with pathological immune reactivity occur frequently in TS patients, and our data suggest a possible association between TS and hypersensitivity to metals (mercury in particular) evaluated by LTT-MELISA®. We also suggest that apart from the triggering stress factor, potential existence of other serious conditions should be considered when taking medical history of TS patients. PMID:27824862

  18. The effect of prophylaxis with chloroquine and proguanil on delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody production following vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyhrs, A; Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, I

    1991-01-01

    (1,000 mg/week), or 4) proguanil hydrochloride (200 mg/day) for six weeks. Skin testing was performed on days 0 and 28. Vaccinations with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal polysaccharide antigen vaccines were performed on day 28, and the presence of specific antibodies was determined...... dosages, does not induce any detectable suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity or vaccination responses to diphtheria, tetanus, polio, or pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens....

  19. Practical Management of Patients with a History of Immediate Hypersensitivity to Common non-Beta-Lactam Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to medications are among the most feared adverse drug reactions, because of their close association with anaphylaxis. This review discusses a practical management approach for patients with a history of an immediate hypersensitivity to a non-beta-lactam medication, where reexposure to the implicated, or similar, medication is clinically necessary. Mechanisms associated with severe immediate hypersensitivity reactions include IgE-mediated mast cell activation, complement-mediated mast cell activation, and direct mast cell activation. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions may also be mediated by vasodilators, other pharmacologic mechanisms, or be secondary to underlying patient-specific biochemical abnormalities such as endocrine tumors or chronic spontaneous urticaria. The key features in the reaction history and the biochemistry of the implicated medication are discussed. Most individuals with a history of immediate hypersensitivity to a medication, who require reuse of that drug, can be safely retreated with a therapeutic course of the implicated drug after a full-dose challenge, graded challenge, or desensitization, with or without premedication and/or any preliminary diagnostic testing, depending on the specific situation.

  20. Association of HLA genotypes with phenobarbital hypersensitivity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Mahasirimongkol, Surakameth; Likkasittipan, Plernpit; Kamchaisatian, Wasu; Wattanapokayakit, Sukanya; Inunchot, Wimala; Visudtibhan, Anannit; Wichukchinda, Nuanjun; Benjaponpitak, Suwat

    2016-10-01

    Phenobarbital hypersensitivity is one of the common drug hypersensitivity syndromes in children. Clinical symptoms of phenobarbital hypersensitivity vary from maculopapular rashes (MPs) to severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs) including drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Drug hypersensitivity has been demonstrated to be associated with variations in the HLA genotypes. This study was to investigate the association between the variations of HLA genotypes and phenobarbital hypersensitivity in Thai children. The cases were Thai children, between 0 and 18 years of age, who were diagnosed with phenobarbital hypersensitivity, which included SCARs and MPs. The control patients were Thai children of a corresponding age who had taken phenobarbital for at least 12 weeks without any hypersensitivity reaction. Blood samples were collected for HLA genotyping by using a reverse-sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probes method. The carrier rates of HLA alleles were compared between 47 cases (27 SCARs and 20 MPs) and 54 controls. The carrier rates of HLA-A*01:01 and HLA-B*13:01 were significantly higher in the phenobarbital-induced SCARs than in the tolerant controls (18.5% vs. 1.85%, p = 0.01, odds ratio [OR] 11.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-578.19; 37.04% vs. 11.11%, p = 0.009, OR 4.60, 95%CI 1.29-17.98). There was a trend of a higher carrier rate of HLA-C*06:02 in the phenobarbital-induced SCARs when compared with those in the tolerant controls (29.63% vs. 11.11%, p = 0.059, OR 3.31, 95% CI 0.88-13.31). In contrast to the phenobarbital-induced SCARs, only the HLA-A*01:01 carrier rate in the phenobarbital-induced MPs was significantly higher than those in the tolerant controls (20% vs. 1.85%, p = 0.017, OR 12.69, 95% CI 1.15-661.62). An association between phenobarbital hypersensitivity and HLA-A*01:01 and HLA-B*13:01 has been demonstrated in Thai children

  1. [Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome and lamotrigine-associated anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillia, H; Alla, P; Fournier, B; Bounolleau, P; Ouologem, M; Ricard, D; Sallansonnet-Froment, M; de Greslan, T; Renard, J-L

    2009-10-01

    Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) is defined by the association of high fever, cutaneous rash and multiorgan-system abnormalities (incidence, one in 1000 to one in 10,000 exposures). Fatal complications are described in 10%. This reaction usually develops 1 to 12 weeks after initiation of an aromatic anticonvulsant. Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) can be discussed as differential diagnosis. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the pathogenesis of AHS. These include accumulation of toxic metabolites, antibody production and viral infection. The one based on toxic metabolites has found the greatest acceptance due to the fact that it can be proven by an in vitro test, the lymphocyte toxicity assay. In vivo, skin biopsies show characteristic findings of erythema multiform or typical leucocytoclastic angitis. The patch-test is positive in 80% of the cases. Lamotrigine-associated anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (LASH) is rare and was described in 1998. We report two new cases demonstrating the two particular configurations of apparition of LASH found in the 14 cases from the review of literature (Pubmed: anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome - lamotrigine): high doses of lamotrigine (or lamotrigine in very young or old patients), and lamotrigine associated with another anti-epileptic (phenobarbital or sodium valproate). We discuss the links between DRESS after lamotrigine and LASH as illustrated in a new case.

  2. A prospective survey of delayed adverse reactions to iohexol in urography and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munechika, Hirotsugu; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Kudo, Sho; Sugimura, Kazuro; Hamada, Chikuma; Yamaguchi, Koichi; Katayama, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    We investigated 7505 inpatients who underwent intravenous urography or contrast-enhanced computed tomography to assess risk factors for delayed adverse drug reactions to iohexol, a non-ionic iodinated contrast medium. Focusing on delayed adverse reactions, all adverse events were prospectively investigated for 7 days after injection of iohexol. To explore the relevant risk factors, the relationship between occurrence of adverse reactions to iohexol and 17 different variables was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. To assess the influence of seasonal factors, adverse reactions were separately evaluated during two periods: February to April (the pollinosis period in Japan) and July to September (the non-pollinosis period). The prevalence of delayed adverse events and delayed adverse reactions was 3.5 and 2.8%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of adverse events and adverse reactions was 5.7 and 5.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that six parameters had a significant influence on delayed adverse reactions to iohexol, including (a) a history of allergy, (b) season, (c) radiographic procedure, (d) age, (e) concomitant surgery or other invasive procedures, and (f) concomitant medication. The prevalence of delayed reactions was lower than in previous large-scale studies. Significant risk factors included a history of allergy and performance of radiography during the pollinosis period, suggesting that allergy was involved in delayed adverse reactions. The type of radiographic procedure also had an influence. (orig.)

  3. The effect of prophylaxis with chloroquine and proguanil on delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody production following vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyhrs, A; Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, I; Henrichsen, J; Heron, I; Petersen, I; Skinhoj, P

    1991-11-01

    In vitro studies have shown that anti-malarial drugs suppress immunity. In this study, the effects of chloroquine and proguanil (Paludrine) on the cellular and humoral immune system were measured by two in vivo methods: 1) cell-mediated immunity (delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity) i.e., skin tests with seven delayed-type common antigens (Multitest) and 2) humoral immunity by measurement of specific antibody response to vaccination. Sixty healthy young individuals were randomized into four groups and given 1) no treatment (controls), 2) chloroquine diphosphate (500 mg/week), 3) chloroquine diphosphate (1,000 mg/week), or 4) proguanil hydrochloride (200 mg/day) for six weeks. Skin testing was performed on days 0 and 28. Vaccinations with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal polysaccharide antigen vaccines were performed on day 28, and the presence of specific antibodies was determined on days 0, 28, and 42. The skin tests induced a significant increase in skin reactive areas from day 0 to day 28 in all groups. Furthermore, the skin test induced an increase in the level of specific IgG for diphtheria and tetanus, but had no effect on antibodies to antigens not included in the skin test. The results showed that there were no significant differences among the four groups regarding skin test areas and increases in antibody titers following vaccination. Therefore, it is concluded that in healthy persons, six weeks intake of chloroquine, even in double doses, or proguanil in chemoprophylactic dosages, does not induce any detectable suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity or vaccination responses to diphtheria, tetanus, polio, or pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens.

  4. Berberine Attenuates Inflammation Associated with Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity via Suppressing Th1 Response and Inhibiting Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Chen, Zhe; Chen, Tao; Yi, Tao; Zheng, Zhou; Fan, Hong; Chen, Zebin

    2017-02-01

    Berberine, one of the active alkaloids from Rhizoma Coptidis, has been indicated to have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. The aim of this study was to determine the role of berberine on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and its potential mechanisms. Berberine treatment significantly reduced footpad swelling, inflammatory cells infiltration, anti-OVA IgG levels, IgE concentration in serum, and the tetramer + CD8 + cells. In homogenized footpad tissue, the production of Th1-mediated cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 were suppressed following the administration of berberine. Detailed studies revealed that berberine prevented differentiation into Th1 cells in the OVA-primed lymphocytes, resulting from suppressing the expression of T-bet and secretion of IFN-γ but not IL-4. Concanavalin A stimulation assay and MTT assay also indicated inhibiting effect of berberine treatment on IFN-γ production and decreased cytotoxicity in lymphocytes proliferation, respectively. Additionally, berberine obviously decreased the cell apoptosis and enzymatic activity of caspase-3, which was further confirmed by the facts that berberine clearly lowered Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein. On correlation analysis, the percentage of apoptotic cells showed a significant positive relationship with IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio of supernatant from footpad tissue in berberine-treated DTH mice. These results demonstrated that berberine attenuated Th1-mediated inflammation in OVA-induced DTH by curbing Th1 response and inhibiting cell apoptosis, suggesting a therapeutic potential for berberine for the treatment of type IV hypersensitivity.

  5. D-leaping: Accelerating stochastic simulation algorithms for reactions with delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayati, Basil; Chatelain, Philippe; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2009-01-01

    We propose a novel, accelerated algorithm for the approximate stochastic simulation of biochemical systems with delays. The present work extends existing accelerated algorithms by distributing, in a time adaptive fashion, the delayed reactions so as to minimize the computational effort while preserving their accuracy. The accuracy of the present algorithm is assessed by comparing its results to those of the corresponding delay differential equations for a representative biochemical system. In addition, the fluctuations produced from the present algorithm are comparable to those from an exact stochastic simulation with delays. The algorithm is used to simulate biochemical systems that model oscillatory gene expression. The results indicate that the present algorithm is competitive with existing works for several benchmark problems while it is orders of magnitude faster for certain systems of biochemical reactions.

  6. Biomaterial Hypersensitivity: Is It Real? Supportive Evidence and Approach Considerations for Metal Allergic Patients following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Mitchelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of biomaterial hypersensitivity developing in response to joint implant materials was first presented more than 30 years ago. Many studies have established probable causation between first-generation metal-on-metal hip implants and hypersensitivity reactions. In a limited patient population, implant failure may ultimately be related to metal hypersensitivity. The examination of hypersensitivity reactions in current-generation metal-on-metal knee implants is comparatively limited. The purpose of this study is to summarize all available literature regarding biomaterial hypersensitivity after total knee arthroplasty, elucidate overall trends about this topic in the current literature, and provide a foundation for clinical approach considerations when biomaterial hypersensitivity is suspected.

  7. Diclofenac hypersensitivity: antibody responses to the parent drug and relevant metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Harrer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity reactions against nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs like diclofenac (DF can manifest as Type I-like allergic reactions including systemic anaphylaxis. However, except for isolated case studies experimental evidence for an IgE-mediated pathomechanism of DF hypersensitivity is lacking. In this study we aimed to investigate the possible involvement of drug- and/or metabolite-specific antibodies in selective DF hypersensitivity.DF, an organochemically synthesized linkage variant, and five major Phase I metabolites were covalently coupled to carrier proteins. Drug conjugates were analyzed for coupling degree and capacity to crosslink receptor-bound IgE antibodies from drug-sensitized mice. With these conjugates, the presence of hapten-specific IgE antibodies was investigated in patients' samples by ELISA, mediator release assay, and basophil activation test. Production of sulfidoleukotrienes by drug conjugates was determined in PBMCs from DF-hypersensitive patients. All conjugates were shown to carry more than two haptens per carrier molecule. Immunization of mice with drug conjugates induced drug-specific IgE antibodies capable of triggering mediator release. Therefore, the conjugates are suitable tools for detection of drug-specific antibodies and for determination of their anaphylactic activity. Fifty-nine patients were enrolled and categorized as hypersensitive either selectively to DF or to multiple NSAIDs. In none of the patients' samples evidence for drug/metabolite-specific IgE in serum or bound to allergic effector cells was found. In contrast, a small group of patients (8/59, 14% displayed drug/metabolite-specific IgG.We found no evidence for an IgE-mediated effector mechanism based on haptenation of protein carriers in DF-hypersensitive patients. Furthermore, a potential involvement of the most relevant metabolites in DF hypersensitivity reactions could be excluded.

  8. Cell-mediated immunity in herpes simplex virus-infected mice: H-2 mapping of the delayed-type hypersensitivity response and the antiviral T cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A A; Phelan, J; Wildy, P

    1981-04-01

    An adoptive transfer system was used to investigate the H-2 restriction of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to herpes simplex virus. A successful DTH transfer was achieved when donor and recipient were compatible at the I-A region, with K and D region compatibility unnecessary. However, the rapid clearance of infectious virus from the inoculation site was found only when the donor and recipients were compatible at H-2K (and presumably D) and I-A regions.

  9. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kumari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS is an adverse drug reaction commonly associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, viz., phenytoin (PHT, carbamazepine (CBZ, phenobarbital (PB, lamotrigine, primidone, etc. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, gold derivatives, cyclosporine, captopril, diltiazem, terbinafine, azathioprine and allopurinol. Diagnosis of DHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities and manifestations and because the syndrome may mimic infectious, neoplastic or collagen vascular disorders. The risk for developing hypersensitivity within 60 days of the first or second prescription in new users of PHT or CBZ was estimated to be 2.3-4.5 per 10,000 and 1-4.1 per 10,000, respectively. The syndrome is defined by the fever, skin rash, lymphadenopathy and internal organ involvement within the first 2-8 weeks after initiation of therapy. Internal manifestations include, among others, agranulocytosis, hepatitis, nephritis and myositis. Insufficient detoxification may lead to cell death or contribute to the formation of antigen that triggers an immune reaction. Cross-reactivity among PHT, CBZ and PB is as high as 70%-80%. Management mainly includes immediate withdrawal of the culprit drug, symptomatic treatment and systemic steroids or immunoglobulins.

  10. Stratified premedication strategy for the prevention of contrast media hypersensitivity in high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suh-Young; Yang, Min Suk; Choi, Young-Hoon; Park, Chang Min; Park, Heung-Woo; Cho, Sang Heon; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2017-03-01

    Although the severity of hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media varies, it is well correlated with the severity of recurrent reactions; however, prophylaxis protocols are not severity-stratified. To assess the outcomes of tailored prophylaxis according to the severity of hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. Our premedication protocols were stratified based on the severity of previous reactions: (1) 4 mg of chlorpheniramine for mild reactions, (2) adding 40 mg of methylprednisolone for moderate reactions, and (3) adding multiple doses of 40 mg of methylprednisolone for severe index reactions. Cases of reexposure in patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions were routinely monitored and mandatorily recorded. Among a total of 850 patients who underwent enhanced computed tomography after severity-tailored prophylaxis, breakthrough reactions occurred in 17.1%, but most breakthrough reactions (89.0%) were mild and did not require medical treatment. Additional corticosteroid use did not reduce the breakthrough reaction rate in cases with a mild index reaction (16.8% vs 17.2%, P = .70). However, underpremedication with a single dose of corticosteroid revealed significantly higher rates of breakthrough reaction than did double doses of corticosteroid in cases with a severe index reaction (55.6% vs 17.4%, P = .02). Changing the iodinated contrast media resulted in an additional reduction of the breakthrough reaction rate overall (14.9% vs 32.1%, P = .001). In a total severity-based stratified prophylaxis regimens and changing iodinated contrast media can be considered in patients with a history of previous hypersensitivity reaction to iodinated contrast media to reduce the risk of breakthrough reactions. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Outpatient rapid 4-step desensitization for gynecologic oncology patients with mild to low-risk, moderate hypersensitivity reactions to carboplatin/cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Cohn, David; Waller, Allyson; Backes, Floor; Copeland, Larry; Fowler, Jeffrey; Salani, Ritu; O'Malley, David

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of an outpatient, 4-step, one-solution desensitization protocol in gynecologic oncology patients with history of mild to low-risk, moderate hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to platinums (carboplatin and cisplatin). This was a single institutional retrospective review. Gynecologic oncology patients with a documented history of mild or low-risk, moderate immediate HSRs to carboplatin/cisplatin and continued treatment with 4-step, one-solution desensitization protocols in the outpatient infusion center were included. Patients with delayed HSRs or immediate high-risk, moderate or severe HSRs were excluded. The primary end point was the rate of successful administrations of each course of platinums. From January 2011 to June 2013, eighteen eligible patients were evaluated for outpatient 4-step, one-solution desensitization. Thirteen patients had a history of HSRs to carboplatin and 5 with HSRs to cisplatin. All of 18 patients successfully completed 94 (98.9%) of 95 desensitization courses in the outpatient infusion center. Eight of 8 (100%) patients with initial mild HSRs completed 29/29 (100%) desensitization courses, and 9 of 10 (90%) of patients with initial moderate HSRs completed 65/66 (94%) desensitization courses. In total, 65/95 (68%) desensitizations resulted in no breakthrough reactions, and mild, moderate and severe breakthrough reactions were seen in 19%, 12% and 1% desensitizations, respectively. No patients were hospitalized during desensitization. The outpatient rapid, 4-step, one-solution desensitization protocol was effective and appeared safe among gynecologic oncology patients who experienced mild to low-risk, moderate HSRs to carboplatin/cisplatin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ulcerative colitis flair induced by mesalamine suppositories hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Liu, Xiao-Chang; Mei, Qiao; Xu, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xiang-Yang; Hu, Jing

    2014-04-07

    Mesalamine suppositories have been used widely for the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis and considered to be safer than systemic administration for its limited systemic absorption. However, previous studies have shown that mesalamine suppository occasionally causes severe hypersensitivity reactions including fever, rashes, colitis exacerbation and acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Here we present a 25-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis with bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever which were aggravated after introduction of mesalamine suppositories. In light of symptom exacerbation of ulcerative colitis, increased inflammatory injury of colon mucosa shown by colonoscopy and elevated peripheral eosinophil count after mesalamine suppositories administration, and the Naranjo algorithm score of 10, the possibility of hypersensitivity reaction to mesalamine suppositories should be considered, warning us to be aware of this potential reaction after administration of mesalamine formulations even if it is the suppositories.

  13. Carboplatin hypersensitivity: evaluation and successful desensitization protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchim, Ilan; Goldberg, Arnon; Fishman, Ami; Confino-Cohen, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    Carboplatin-induced immediate hypersensitivity reactions are relatively common among patients with gynecological malignancies. Once this occurs, the patient might be at risk for future carboplatin-induced reactions. This study evaluated the efficacy of allergic consultation, carboplatin skin testing and desensitization as a single intervention strategy in this population. Patients with a well-documented immediate reaction to carboplatin were offered allergy consultation, carboplatin skin testing and a desensitization plan in a single visit between scheduled chemotherapy sessions. Fifty-five patients with an immediate reaction were evaluated. After allergist assessment, 44 (89%) of 49 patients skin tested had a positive result. A total of 207 carboplatin desensitization cycles were administered to 49 women. Among them, 10 patients had a mild immediate hypersensitivity reaction during desensitization. Five patients subsequently tolerated carboplatin administered in the prolonged desensitization protocol. In the data presented, we propose a strategy that is both cost effective and very convenient for the patient. The diagnostic procedure, including allergist consultation and skin test, can be completed in less than 2 h. In most cases where carboplatin is indispensable, desensitization can be administered without overnight hospitalization.

  14. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. THE IMMUNOPATHOBIOLOGY OF SYPHILIS: THE MANIFESTATIONS AND COURSE OF SYPHILIS ARE DETERMINED BY THE LEVEL OF DELAYED-TYPE HYPERSENSITIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J. Andrew; Dabiri, Ganary; Cribier, Bernard; Sell, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    Syphilis has plagued mankind for centuries and is currently resurgent in the Western hemisphere. While there has been a significant reduction of tertiary disease, and recognition of facilitative interactions with HIV infection, the natural history of syphilis has remained largely unchanged; thus, new strategies are required to more effectively combat this pathogen. The immunopathologic features of experimental syphilis in the rabbit; the course, stages, and pathology of human syphilis; and a comparison of human syphilis with leprosy suggest that the clinical course of syphilis and its tissue manifestations are determined by the balance between delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and humoral immunity to the causative agent, Treponema pallidum. A strong DTH response is associated with clearance of the infecting organisms in a well-developed chancre, whereas a cytotoxic T-cell response or strong humoral antibody response is associated with prolonged infection and progression to tertiary disease. Many of the protean symptoms/appearances of secondary and tertiary human syphilis are manifestations of immune reactions that fail to clear the organism, due to a lack of recruitment and more importantly, activation of macrophages by sensitized CD4 T-cells. The Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination can enhance DTH and has been shown to produce a low, but measurable beneficial effect in the prevention of leprosy, a disease that shows a disease spectrum with characteristics in common with syphilis. In the prevention of syphilis, a potential vaccine protective against syphilis should be designed to augment the DTH response. PMID:21694502

  16. Incidence of hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis with sugammadex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, K Chris; Woo, Tiffany; Assaid, Christopher; McCrea, Jacqueline; Gurner, Deborah M; Sisk, Christine McCrary; Adkinson, Franklin; Herring, W Joseph

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the incidence of hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis after administration of sugammadex. Retrospective analysis. Sugammadex clinical development program and post-marketing experience. Surgical patients and healthy volunteers who received sugammadex or placebo/comparator with anesthesia and/or neuromuscular blockade (NMB). Sugammadex administered as 2.0 mg/kg at reappearance of the second twitch, 4.0 mg/kg at 1-2 post-tetanic count, or 16.0 mg/kg at 3 min after rocuronium 1.2 mg/kg. Three analytical methods were used: 1) automated MedDRA queries; 2) searches of adverse events (AEs) consistent with treatment-related hypersensitivity reactions as diagnosed by the investigator; and 3) a retrospective adjudication of AEs suggestive of hypersensitivity by a blinded, independent adjudication committee (AC). In addition, a search of all post-marketing reports of events of hypersensitivity was performed, and events were retrospectively adjudicated by an independent AC. Anaphylaxis was determined according to Sampson Criterion 1. The pooled dataset included 3519 unique subjects who received sugammadex and 544 who received placebo. The automated MedDRA query method showed no apparent increase in hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis with sugammadex as compared to placebo or neostigmine. Similarly, there was a low overall incidence of AEs of treatment-related hypersensitivity (sugammadex and placebo or neostigmine. Finally, the retrospective adjudication of AEs suggestive of hypersensitivity showed a low incidence of hypersensitivity (0.56% and 0.21% for sugammadex 2 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg, respectively), with an incidence similar to subjects who received placebo (0.55%). There were no confirmed cases of anaphylaxis in the pooled studies. During post-marketing use, spontaneous reports of anaphylaxis occurred with approximately 0.01% of sugammadex doses. Subjects who received sugammadex with general anesthesia and/or NMB had a low overall incidence of

  17. Detection of systemic hypersensitivity to drugs using standard guinea pig assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, James L; Staten, David; Swann, Joslyn; Armstrong, George; Bates, Melissa; Hastings, Kenneth L

    2003-12-01

    The most commonly used assays designed to detect either skin or systemic immune-based hypersensitivity reactions are those using guinea pigs (GP). We obtained data from various FDA records to evaluate the correlation between GP assay results and reported post-marketing systemic hypersensitivity reactions. We examined the new drug application (NDA) reviews of approved drugs for the results of GP assays. Post-marketing human data were extracted from the FDA adverse event reporting system (AERS). Drug usage data were obtained from a commercial database maintained by IMS Health Inc. We found 83 (21%) of 396 drugs approved between 1978 and 1998 had reported GP test results. Among these 83 drugs, 14 (17%) were found to have positive results in at least one GP assay. Simple reporting index (RI) values for systemic hypersensitivity reactions were calculated from AERS data and usage to produce the index of adverse event reports per million shipping units of drug. A variety of definitions of positive human response were examined. A statistically significant association was seen for rash between post-marketing and clinical trials adverse event reports. No statistically significant associations between human data and GP test results were observed. These data suggest that standard GP assays have limited ability to predict human systemic hypersensitivity potential for pharmaceuticals.

  18. Prevalence of hypersensitivity to dental local anesthetic drugs in patients referred to Tehran Allergy clinic (2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhlaghi F.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: According to controversies in the prevalence of hypersensitivity to dental local anesthetic drugs and patients who claim hypersensitivity to these drugs, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypersensitivity to dental amide local anesthetic drugs in patients referred to Tehran Allergy Clinic in 2005-2007. "nMaterials and Methods: In this Study (Review of existing data, records of 130 patients who were referred to "Tehran allergy Clinic" (2005-2007 were studied. "nResults: The average age of patients was 29.5±18.8 years. 34% of cases showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested Lidocain concentrations and 10% of cases showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested Prilocain concentrations. There was a statistically significant difference in hypersensitivity to Lidocain 0.01 and 0.001 (p=0.017 and also between Lidocain 0.001 and 0.0001 (p<0.01. There was no statistically significant difference between other tested drug concentrations (p>0.05. "nConclusion: Many patients with history of hypersensitivity, show positive reaction to local dental anesthetic drugs. Prilocain hypersensitivity reactions are less than Lidocain. So application of Prilocain accompanies with less risk but its application should not be considered completely safe.

  19. Noise-and delay-induced phase transitions of the dimer–monomer surface reaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Chunhua; Wang Hua

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study the dimer–monomer surface reaction model. ► We show that noise induces first-order irreversible phase transition (IPT). ► Combination of noise and time-delayed feedback induce first- and second-order IPT. ► First- and second-order IPT is viewed as noise-and delay-induced phase transitions. - Abstract: The effects of noise and time-delayed feedback in the dimer–monomer (DM) surface reaction model are investigated. Applying small delay approximation, we construct a stochastic delayed differential equation and its Fokker–Planck equation to describe the state evolution of the DM reaction model. We show that the noise can only induce first-order irreversible phase transition (IPT) characteristic of the DM model, however the combination of the noise and time-delayed feedback can simultaneously induce first- and second-order IPT characteristics of the DM model. Therefore, it is shown that the well-known first- and second-order IPT characteristics of the DM model may be viewed as noise-and delay-induced phase transitions.

  20. Efficient rejection-based simulation of biochemical reactions with stochastic noise and delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Vo Hong, E-mail: vo@cosbi.eu [The Microsoft Research - University of Trento Centre for Computational and Systems Biology, Piazza Manifattura 1, Rovereto 38068 (Italy); Priami, Corrado, E-mail: priami@cosbi.eu [The Microsoft Research - University of Trento Centre for Computational and Systems Biology, Piazza Manifattura 1, Rovereto 38068 (Italy); Department of Mathematics, University of Trento (Italy); Zunino, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.zunino@unitn.it [Department of Mathematics, University of Trento (Italy)

    2014-10-07

    We propose a new exact stochastic rejection-based simulation algorithm for biochemical reactions and extend it to systems with delays. Our algorithm accelerates the simulation by pre-computing reaction propensity bounds to select the next reaction to perform. Exploiting such bounds, we are able to avoid recomputing propensities every time a (delayed) reaction is initiated or finished, as is typically necessary in standard approaches. Propensity updates in our approach are still performed, but only infrequently and limited for a small number of reactions, saving computation time and without sacrificing exactness. We evaluate the performance improvement of our algorithm by experimenting with concrete biological models.

  1. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2006-07-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin disease that were reported primarily in the Journal in 2005. Although studies documented deficiencies in community management of anaphylaxis, guidelines and National Institutes of Health summary reports provide direction toward improved research and education. At least 9% of young children "outgrow" a tree nut allergy. Advances in food allergy diagnosis include reports of probability of reactions to peanut at various peanut-specific IgE concentrations and skin test response size and the utility of evaluating IgE binding to specific epitopes. Future food allergy treatments might include selection of "less allergenic" fruit cultivars, genetic silencing of major allergens, and treatment of allergic patients with Chinese herbal remedies. Osteopontin might be a useful biomarker for success of venom immunotherapy. Progress in our understanding of the immunology of atopic dermatitis and autoimmune urticaria has also been made. These observations will likely contribute toward optimizing management of these common allergic disorders.

  2. Guideline for the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions: S2K-Guideline of the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI) and the German Dermatological Society (DDG) in collaboration with the Association of German Allergologists (AeDA), the German Society for Pediatric Allergology and Environmental Medicine (GPA), the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG), the Swiss Society for Allergy and Immunology (SGAI), the Austrian Society for Allergology and Immunology (ÖGAI), the German Academy of Allergology and Environmental Medicine (DAAU), the German Center for Documentation of Severe Skin Reactions and the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Products (BfArM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut; Przybilla, Bernhard; Aberer, Werner; Bircher, Andreas J; Brehler, Randolf; Dickel, Heinrich; Fuchs, Thomas; Jakob, Thilo; Lange, Lars; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Mockenhaupt, Maja; Ott, Hagen; Pfaar, Oliver; Ring, Johannes; Sachs, Bernhardt; Sitter, Helmut; Trautmann, Axel; Treudler, Regina; Wedi, Bettina; Worm, Margitta; Wurpts, Gerda; Zuberbier, Torsten; Merk, Hans F

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions are unpredictable adverse drug reactions. They manifest either within 1-6 h following drug intake (immediate reactions) with mild to life-threatening symptoms of anaphylaxis, or several hours to days later (delayed reactions), primarily as exanthematous eruptions. It is not always possible to detect involvement of the immune system (allergy). Waiving diagnostic tests can result in severe reactions on renewed exposure on the one hand, and to unjustified treatment restrictions on the other. With this guideline, experts from various specialist societies and institutions have formulated recommendations and an algorithm for the diagnosis of allergies. The key principles of diagnosing allergic/hypersensitivity drug reactions are presented. Where possible, the objective is to perform allergy diagnostics within 4 weeks-6 months following the reaction. A clinical classification of symptoms based on the morphology and time course of the reaction is required in order to plan a diagnostic work-up. In the case of typical symptoms of a drug hypersensitivity reaction and unequivocal findings from validated skin and/or laboratory tests, a reaction can be attributed to a trigger with sufficient confidence. However, skin and laboratory tests are often negative or insufficiently reliable. In such cases, controlled provocation testing is required to clarify drug reactions. This method is reliable and safe when attention is paid to indications and contraindications and performed under appropriate medical supervision. The results of the overall assessment are discussed with the patient and documented in an "allergy passport" in order to ensure targeted avoidance in the future and allow the use of alternative drugs where possible.

  3. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in swedish-born icelandic horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, M.; Eriksson, S.; Schurink, A.; Andersson, L.S.; Sundquist, M.; Frey, R.; Brostrom, H.; Bergstrom, T.; Ducro, B.J.; lindgren, G.

    2015-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common allergic skin disease in horses and is caused by biting midges, mainly of the genus Culicoides. The disease predominantly comprises a type I hypersensitivity reaction, causing severe itching and discomfort that reduce the welfare and commercial

  4. Robotic reactions: Delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation.

  5. Robotic reactions: delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation.

  6. Hypersensitivity reactions due to black henna tattoos and their components: are the clinical pictures related to the immune pathomechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogiuri, Gianfranco; Di Leo, Elisabetta; Butani, Lavjay; Pizzimenti, Stefano; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Macchia, Luigi; Nettis, Eustachio

    2017-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and related compounds induced by temporary black henna tattoos has become a serious health problem worldwide. Different patterns of sensitization with various clinical aspects are described in literature due to PPD associated to henna tattoo and these manifestations are likely correlated with the immunological and dermatological pathomechanisms involved. Henna is the Persian name of the plant Lawsonia inermis, Fam. Lythraceae . It is a woody shrub that grow in regions of North Africa, South Asia, India and Sri Lanka. Nowadays it is rather frequent to see temporary "tattoos" performed with henna. To make tattoos darker and long-lasting PPD has been associated to henna in tattoo drawings mixtures, so obtaining " black henna ". In these years there has been a rise of contact sensitization to PPD and in medical literature an increased number of cases have been reported on temporary henna tattoo application. Here we review the various clinical patterns related to PPD and henna tattoo, to investigate the possible link between clinic-morphological pictures and the immunological response to PPD and henna. The literature underlines that different clinical manifestations are related to black henna containing PPD, and its derivative products may cause delayed-type as well as immediate-type reactions. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between clinical and morphological aspects of PPD contact dermatitis and the T cell subsets predominance.

  7. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2011. Food allergy appears to be increasing in prevalence and carries a strong economic burden. Risk factors can include dietary ones, such as deficiency of vitamin D and timing of complementary foods, and genetic factors, such as filaggrin loss-of-function mutations. Novel mechanisms underlying food allergy include the role of invariant natural killer T cells and influences of dietary components, such as isoflavones. Among numerous preclinical and clinical treatment studies, promising observations include the efficacy of sublingual and oral immunotherapy, a Chinese herbal remedy showing promising in vitro results, the potential immunotherapeutic effects of having children ingest foods with baked-in milk if they tolerate it, and the use of anti-IgE with or without concomitant immunotherapy. Studies of allergic skin diseases, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity to drugs and insect venom are elucidating cellular mechanisms, improved diagnostics, and potential targets for future treatment. The role of skin barrier abnormalities, as well as the modulatory effects of the innate and adaptive immune responses, are major areas of investigation. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hopf bifurcation in a delayed reaction-diffusion-advection population model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Lou, Yuan; Wei, Junjie

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate a reaction-diffusion-advection model with time delay effect. The stability/instability of the spatially nonhomogeneous positive steady state and the associated Hopf bifurcation are investigated when the given parameter of the model is near the principle eigenvalue of an elliptic operator. Our results imply that time delay can make the spatially nonhomogeneous positive steady state unstable for a reaction-diffusion-advection model, and the model can exhibit oscillatory pattern through Hopf bifurcation. The effect of advection on Hopf bifurcation values is also considered, and our results suggest that Hopf bifurcation is more likely to occur when the advection rate increases.

  9. Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and ulcers. Affected individuals may complain of a burning sensation and mouth sensitivity to cold, hot, and spicy foods. Lichenoid ... melon, and pineapple, are all associated with this syndrome. You should inform your ... reaction in the mouth, though some are more common than others. If ...

  10. Teenagers' experiences of living with food hypersensitivity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Heather; Roberts, Graham; van Laar, Darren; Dean, Taraneh

    2010-06-01

    Teenagers are a high-risk group for food-hypersensitivity fatalities, engage in risk-taking behaviours and may experience impaired quality of life. Understanding their experience is important to inform their care. This study aimed to describe the lived experiences of teenagers with food hypersensitivity. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 teenagers (13-18 yr) with food hypersensitivity to a variety of foods and analysed using a phenomenological approach. Teenagers described living with (or coming to know) food hypersensitivity (FHS) as a way of life but still found living with food hypersensitivity to be burdensome. A necessary part of living with food hypersensitivity was coping with associated burden; a variety of coping strategies were employed to this effect. Teenagers described ways in which the burden of living with food hypersensitivity was alleviated or exacerbated by others. Management of food hypersensitivity was based on an assessment of acceptable risk resulting in varying levels of precaution taking. Teenagers' understanding of their FHS and ability to cope with it needs to be regularly assessed. Educational support may be required to ensure they take an appropriate level of precautions to minimize the chance of future reactions while not over compromising their quality of life. Psychological support may be required to help them to utilize healthy adaptive strategies to cope with the stresses of living with FHS. This approach is also likely to facilitate the smooth handover of responsibility from parent to teenager.

  11. Should patients with risk factors be tested for hypersensitivity to contrast media: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepetam, Fatma Merve; Çiftaslan, Nezihe; Oruç, Özlem; Duman, Dildar; Ağca, Meltem; Bulut, İsmet; Çolakoğlu, Bahattin

    2016-08-01

    Previous hypersensitivity reactions to contrast media (CM), atopy, atopic disease, drug allergy, and age (20-29 or >55) are risk factors for CM hypersensitivity reactions. Our aim was to evaluate whether these risk factors should prompt skin testing for diagnosing CM allergy. The study was conducted among patients referred for allergy testing with CM. Skin tests were performed with non ionic or gadolinium CM, recommended by a radiologist. After completion of tests patients were telephonically queried on their symptoms of reactions. 151 risk patients (53 men, 98 women; mean age 55.2) were included in the study. Only 13 (9 %) had a history of hypersensitivity reaction to CM. Compared with the other patients, atopy was significantly more common in patients with a history of CM hypersensitivity reactions. Female gender and mean age were also higher, but not significant. All of the tests with CMs were negative. Only one patient reported urticaria within 1-2 min after administration of CM (telephonically). Atopy can increase the risk of CM allergy. However, skin tests with CMs may be inefficient, unnecessary, and time-consuming, except in cases with a history of CM allergy. Premedication protocols appear to be beneficial in patients with a history of CM allergy and cannot be recommended for patients with well-controlled asthma, rhinitis, atopic dermatitis or history of drug allergy.

  12. Pharmacovigilance of drug allergy and hypersensitivity using the ENDA-DAHD database and the GALEN platform. The Galenda project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, P-J; Demoly, P; Romano, A; Aberer, W; Bircher, A; Blanca, M; Brockow, K; Pichler, W; Torres, M J; Terreehorst, I; Arnoux, B; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; Barbaud, A; Bijl, A; Bonadonna, P; Burney, P G; Caimmi, S; Canonica, G W; Cernadas, J; Dahlen, B; Daures, J-P; Fernandez, J; Gomes, E; Gueant, J-L; Kowalski, M L; Kvedariene, V; Mertes, P-M; Martins, P; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, E; Papadopoulos, N; Ponvert, C; Pirmohamed, M; Ring, J; Salapatas, M; Sanz, M L; Szczeklik, A; Van Ganse, E; De Weck, A L; Zuberbier, T; Merk, H F; Sachs, B; Sidoroff, A

    2009-02-01

    Nonallergic hypersensitivity and allergic reactions are part of the many different types of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Databases exist for the collection of ADRs. Spontaneous reporting makes up the core data-generating system of pharmacovigilance, but there is a large under-estimation of allergy/hypersensitivity drug reactions. A specific database is therefore required for drug allergy and hypersensitivity using standard operating procedures (SOPs), as the diagnosis of drug allergy/hypersensitivity is difficult and current pharmacovigilance algorithms are insufficient. Although difficult, the diagnosis of drug allergy/hypersensitivity has been standardized by the European Network for Drug Allergy (ENDA) under the aegis of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology and SOPs have been published. Based on ENDA and Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN, EU Framework Programme 6) SOPs, a Drug Allergy and Hypersensitivity Database (DAHD((R))) has been established under FileMaker((R)) Pro 9. It is already available online in many different languages and can be accessed using a personal login. GA(2)LEN is a European network of 27 partners (16 countries) and 59 collaborating centres (26 countries), which can coordinate and implement the DAHD across Europe. The GA(2)LEN-ENDA-DAHD platform interacting with a pharmacovigilance network appears to be of great interest for the reporting of allergy/hypersensitivity ADRs in conjunction with other pharmacovigilance instruments.

  13. Intraoperative Ephedrine Allergy in a Patient Who Received Chemotherapy and Perioperative Hypersensitivity Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimoğlu, Sedat; Tuzcu, Kasım; Davarcı, Işıl; Karcıoğlu, Murat; Kurt, Raziye; Dikey, İsmail

    2015-04-01

    Anaesthesia represents a specific set-up in respect to pharmacology, and during this time, early hypersensitivity reactions or anaphylaxis may occur in patients who are exposed to a great number of foreign substances. Intravenous ephedrine (5 mg) was applied to a 37-year-old patient due to the development of intraoperative hypotension in a total abdominal hysterectomy operation. After application, hyperaemia was seen in the track of the intravenous catheter of that extremity. Approximately 15 minutes later, urticarial plaques were observed extensively in the abdomen and in both extremities. Methylprednisolone (100 mg+100 mg) and pheniramine (45.5 mg) were given with an increasing infusion rate of intravenous crystalloid. The patient was extubated without any problem and removed to the recovery unit for observation. After the total disappearance of lesions at postoperative 60 minutes and because of the stability of vital signs, the patient was removed to the service. In the follow-up of surgery, no complication developed, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 2.

  14. Anti-M causing delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alperin, J.B.; Riglin, H.; Branch, D.R.; Gallagher, M.T.; Petz, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    A 52-year-old gravida 1, para 1 woman with M- red cells experienced a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction and exhibited an anti-M antibody following the infusion of four units of M+ red cells. Measurements of erythrocyte survival using 51 Cr-labeled donor M+ and M- red cells and in vitro studies of monocyte-macrophage phagocytosis of sensitized reagent red cells implicate anti-M in the pathogenesis of hemolysis

  15. The Prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerballe, Morten; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Hansen, Tine Kjær

    2009-01-01

    by questionnaire, skin prick test (SPT) and histamin release (HR) followed by oral challenge to the most common allergenic foods. FHS was divided into primary and secondary FHS. Primary FHS was defined as being independent of pollen sensitization, whereas secondary FHS was defined as reactions to pollen related......Osterballe M, Mortz CG, Hansen TK, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. The Prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009. (c) 2009 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SA rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and severe allergic...... reactions to foods have been reported in the last decade. However, little is known on the prevalence in young adults. This study estimated the prevalence of FHS to the most common allergenic foods in an unselected population of young adults. We investigated a cohort of 1272 young adults 22 years of age...

  16. FOOD HYPERSENSITIVITY AND PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Lisitsyn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of people with food hypersensitivity, namely food intolerance and food allergies, grows every year. Food intolerance is classified into following types: enzymopathy; leaky gut syndrome; psychogenic food intolerance; detoxification insufficiency and true food intolerance. Food allergens mainly are glycoproteins, haptensor polypeptides. Most cases of food allergy are IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Recent discoveries in medicine, detailing and classification of food hypersensitivity require further researches to develop modern techniques and product recipes with specified propertiesfor consumers with food hypersensitivity. Existing technologies are based on the elimination and or reduction of the content of the allergenic substance in food. The article provides an overview of causes of food intolerance and food allergy, legislative background, a list of food allergens and methods of control, market profile of hypoallergenic produce and scientific approaches to creating hypoallergenic food products based on raw materials of animal origin.

  17. Global exponential stability of reaction-diffusion recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jinling; Cao Jinde

    2003-01-01

    Employing general Halanay inequality, we analyze the global exponential stability of a class of reaction-diffusion recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays. Several new sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of delayed reaction-diffusion recurrent neural networks. The results extend and improve the earlier publications. In addition, an example is given to show the effectiveness of the obtained result

  18. Global exponential stability and periodicity of reaction-diffusion delayed recurrent neural networks with Dirichlet boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Junguo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the global exponential stability and periodicity for a class of reaction-diffusion delayed recurrent neural networks with Dirichlet boundary conditions are addressed by constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals and utilizing some inequality techniques. We first prove global exponential converge to 0 of the difference between any two solutions of the original reaction-diffusion delayed recurrent neural networks with Dirichlet boundary conditions, the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium is the direct results of this procedure. This approach is different from the usually used one where the existence, uniqueness of equilibrium and stability are proved in two separate steps. Furthermore, we prove periodicity of the reaction-diffusion delayed recurrent neural networks with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Sufficient conditions ensuring the global exponential stability and the existence of periodic oscillatory solutions for the reaction-diffusion delayed recurrent neural networks with Dirichlet boundary conditions are given. These conditions are easy to check and have important leading significance in the design and application of reaction-diffusion recurrent neural networks with delays. Finally, two numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the obtained results

  19. Nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations with delay: some theorems, test problems, exact and numerical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanin, A. D.; Sorokin, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper deals with nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations with one or several delays. We formulate theorems that allow constructing exact solutions for some classes of these equations, which depend on several arbitrary functions. Examples of application of these theorems for obtaining new exact solutions in elementary functions are provided. We state basic principles of construction, selection, and use of test problems for nonlinear partial differential equations with delay. Some test problems which can be suitable for estimating accuracy of approximate analytical and numerical methods of solving reaction-diffusion equations with delay are presented. Some examples of numerical solutions of nonlinear test problems with delay are considered.

  20. Existence and Stability of Traveling Waves for Degenerate Reaction-Diffusion Equation with Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Jin, Chunhua; Mei, Ming; Yin, Jingxue

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with the existence and stability of traveling wave solutions for a degenerate reaction-diffusion equation with time delay. The degeneracy of spatial diffusion together with the effect of time delay causes us the essential difficulty for the existence of the traveling waves and their stabilities. In order to treat this case, we first show the existence of smooth- and sharp-type traveling wave solutions in the case of c≥c^* for the degenerate reaction-diffusion equation without delay, where c^*>0 is the critical wave speed of smooth traveling waves. Then, as a small perturbation, we obtain the existence of the smooth non-critical traveling waves for the degenerate diffusion equation with small time delay τ >0 . Furthermore, we prove the global existence and uniqueness of C^{α ,β } -solution to the time-delayed degenerate reaction-diffusion equation via compactness analysis. Finally, by the weighted energy method, we prove that the smooth non-critical traveling wave is globally stable in the weighted L^1 -space. The exponential convergence rate is also derived.

  1. Existence and Stability of Traveling Waves for Degenerate Reaction-Diffusion Equation with Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Jin, Chunhua; Mei, Ming; Yin, Jingxue

    2018-06-01

    This paper deals with the existence and stability of traveling wave solutions for a degenerate reaction-diffusion equation with time delay. The degeneracy of spatial diffusion together with the effect of time delay causes us the essential difficulty for the existence of the traveling waves and their stabilities. In order to treat this case, we first show the existence of smooth- and sharp-type traveling wave solutions in the case of c≥c^* for the degenerate reaction-diffusion equation without delay, where c^*>0 is the critical wave speed of smooth traveling waves. Then, as a small perturbation, we obtain the existence of the smooth non-critical traveling waves for the degenerate diffusion equation with small time delay τ >0. Furthermore, we prove the global existence and uniqueness of C^{α ,β }-solution to the time-delayed degenerate reaction-diffusion equation via compactness analysis. Finally, by the weighted energy method, we prove that the smooth non-critical traveling wave is globally stable in the weighted L^1-space. The exponential convergence rate is also derived.

  2. Irradiated mice lose the capacity to 'process' fed antigen for systemic tolerance of delayed-type hypersensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, M G; Strobel, S; Hanson, D G; Ferguson, A

    1987-12-01

    'Intestinal antigen processing' is a function of the gastro-intestinal tract whereby shortly after an animal has been fed an immunogenic protein antigen, such as ovabumin (OVA), a tolerogenic form of the protein is generated and can be detected in the circulation. The effect of damage to the intestinal epithelium on the processing of OVA has been examined in lethally irradiated mice. Irradiated animals were fed 25 mg OVA and their serum collected 1 h later. When this serum was transferred intraperitoneally into naive recipient mice, this did not induce the typical suppression of systemic delayed-type hypersensitivity. Results were similar when the serum donors were at 2 days after irradiation, with crypt hypoplasia, and at 5 days after irradiation when there was reactive crypt hyperplasia. However reconstitution of donors with normal spleen cells immediately after irradiation restored their capacity to generate a tolerogenic form of the antigen. Immunoreactive OVA was detected by ELISA in both tolerizing and non-tolerizing sera, and the immunological properties of these sera were not related to serum levels of OVA after feeding. The results suggest that lymphoid cells may be involved in the phenomenon of antigen processing.

  3. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  4. Fasting mitigates immediate hypersensitivity: a pivotal role of endogenous D-beta-hydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigeru; Hisamura, Ryuji; Shimoda, Sachiko; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Fasting is a rigorous type of dietary restriction that is associate with a number of health benefits. During fasting, ketone bodies significantly increase in blood and become major body fuels, thereby sparing glucose. In the present study, we investigated effects of fasting on hypersensitivity. In addition, we also investigated the possible role of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate provoked by fasting in the attenuation of immediate hypersensitivity by fasting. Effects of fasting on systemic anaphylaxis were examined using rat model of toluene 2, 4-diisocyanate induced nasal allergy. In addition to food restriction, a ketogenic high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet that accelerates fatty acid oxidation and systemic instillation of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate were employed to elevate internal D-beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration. We assessed relationship between degranulation of rat peritoneal mast cells and internal D-beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration in each treatment. Changes in [Ca(2+)]i responses to compound 48/80 were analyzed in fura 2-loaded rat peritoneal mast cells derived from the ketogenic diet and fasting. Immediate hypersensitivity reaction was significantly suppressed by fasting. A significant reduction in mast cells degranulation, induced by mast cell activator compound 48/80, was observed in rat peritoneal mast cells delivered from the 24 hours fasting treatment. In addition, mast cells delivered from a ketogenic diet and D-beta-hydroxybutyrate infusion treatment also had reduced mast cell degranulation and systemic D-beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were elevated to similar extent as the fasting state. The peak increase in [Ca(2+)]i was significantly lower in the ketogenic diet and fasting group than that in the control diet group. The results of the present study demonstrates that fasting suppress hypersensitivity reaction, and indicate that increased level of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate by fasting plays an important role, via the stabilization of mast cells, in

  5. Voluntary wheel running delays disease onset and reduces pain hypersensitivity in early experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Curtis; Paylor, John W; Tenorio, Gustavo; Winship, Ian; Baker, Glen; Kerr, Bradley J

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is classically defined by motor deficits, but it is also associated with the secondary symptoms of pain, depression, and anxiety. Up to this point modifying these secondary symptoms has been difficult. There is evidence that both MS and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), commonly used to study the pathophysiology of the disease, can be modulated by exercise. To examine whether limited voluntary wheel running could modulate EAE disease progression and the co-morbid symptoms of pain, mice with EAE were allowed access to running wheels for 1h every day. Allowing only 1h every day of voluntary running led to a significant delay in the onset of clinical signs of the disease. The development of mechanical allodynia was assessed using Von Frey hairs and indicated that wheel running had a modest positive effect on the pain hypersensitivity associated with EAE. These behavioral changes were associated with reduced numbers of cFOS and phosphorylated NR1 positive cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord compared to no-run EAE controls. In addition, within the dorsal horn, voluntary wheel running reduced the number of infiltrating CD3(+) T-cells and reduced the overall levels of Iba1 immunoreactivity. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we observed that wheel-running lead to significant changes in the spinal cord levels of the antioxidant glutathione. Oxidative stress has separately been shown to contribute to EAE disease progression and neuropathic pain. Together these results indicate that in mice with EAE, voluntary motor activity can delay the onset of clinical signs and reduce pain symptoms associated with the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of stinging insect hypersensitivity: a 5-year retrospective medical record review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas; Dietrich, Jeffrey; Hagan, Larry

    2006-08-01

    The Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters for Allergy and Immunology recommends that patients with a history of a systemic reaction to an insect sting be educated on ways to avoid insect stings, carry injectable epinephrine for emergency self-treatment, undergo specific IgE testing for stinging insect sensitivity, and be considered for immunotherapy. To review frontline providers' documented care and recommendations for imported fire ant and flying insect hypersensitivity reactions. A retrospective medical record review was performed of emergency department and primary care clinic visits between November 1, 1999, and November 30, 2004. Using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes, medical records were selected for review to identify patients with potential insect hypersensitivity. A total of 769 medical records from patients who experienced an insect sting were reviewed. Of 120 patients with a systemic reaction, 66 (55.0%) received a prescription for injectable epinephrine, and 14 (11.7%) were given information regarding avoidance of the offending insect. Forty-seven patients with systemic reactions (39.2%) were referred to an allergist. Of 28 patients who kept their appointments and underwent skin testing, 3 had negative results and 25 (89%) had positive results and were advised to start immunotherapy. Adherence to the stinging insect hypersensitivity practice parameter recommendations is poor. Many patients who have experienced a systemic reaction after an insect sting and have sought medical care are not afforded an opportunity for potentially lifesaving therapy.

  7. Health-related quality of life in food hypersensitive schoolchildren and their families: parents' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marklund Birgitta

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 20% of schoolchildren and adolescents in Sweden suffer from perceived food hypersensitivity (e.g. allergy or intolerance. Our knowledge of how child food hypersensitivity affects parents HRQL and what aspects of the hypersensitivity condition relate to HRQL deterioration in the family is limited. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the parent-reported HRQL in families with a schoolchild considered to be food hypersensitive. The allergy-associated parameters we operated with were number of offending food items, adverse food reactions, additional hypersensitivity, allergic diseases and additional family members with food hypersensitivity. These parameters, along with age and gender were assessed in relation to child, parent and family HRQL. Methods In May 2004, a postal questionnaire was distributed to parents of 220 schoolchildren with parent-reported food hypersensitivity (response rate 74%. Two questionnaires were used: CHQ-PF28 and a study-specific questionnaire including questions on allergy-associated parameters. In order to find factors that predict impact on HRQL, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were carried out. Results An important predictor of low HRQL was allergic disease (i.e. asthma, eczema, rhino conjunctivitis in addition to food hypersensitivity. The higher the number of allergic diseases, the lower the physical HRQL for the child, the lower the parental HRQL and the more disruption in family activities. Male gender predicted lower physical HRQL than female gender. If the child had sibling(s with food hypersensitivity this predicted lower psychosocial HRQL for the child and lower parental HRQL. Food-induced gastro-intestinal symptoms predicted lower parental HRQL while food-induced breathing difficulties predicted higher psychosocial HRQL for the child and enhanced HRQL with regards to the family's ability to get along. Conclusion The variance in the child's physical HRQL was to a

  8. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a complex lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riario Sforza, Gian Galeazzo; Marinou, Androula

    2017-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), also called extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is a respiratory syndrome involving the lung parenchyma and specifically the alveoli, terminal bronchioli, and alveolar interstitium, due to a delayed allergic reaction. Such reaction is secondary to a repeated and prolonged inhalation of different types of organic dusts or other substances to which the patient is sensitized and hyper responsive, primarily consisting of organic dusts of animal or vegetable origin, more rarely from chemicals. The prevalence of HP is difficult to evaluate because of uncertainties in detection and misdiagnosis and lacking of widely accepted diagnostic criteria, and varies considerably depending on disease definition, diagnostic methods, exposure modalities, geographical conditions, agricultural and industrial practices, and host risk factors. HP can be caused by multiple agents that are present in work places and in the home, such as microbes, animal and plant proteins, organic and inorganic chemicals. The number of environment, settings and causative agents is increasing over time. From the clinical point of view HP can be divided in acute/subacute and chronic, depending on the intensity and frequency of exposure to causative antigens. The mainstay in managing HP is the avoidance of the causative antigen, though the complete removal is not always possible due to the difficulties to identify the agent or because its avoidance may lead to major changes in life style or occupational settings. HP is a complex syndrome that needs urgently for more stringent and selective diagnostic criteria and validation, including wider panels of IgG, and a closer collaboration with occupational physicians, as part of a multidisciplinary expertise.

  9. IN VITRO MODELS TO EVALUATE DRUG-INDUCED HYPERSENSITIVITY: POTENTIAL TEST BASED ON ACTIVATION OF DENDRITIC CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Galbiati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity drug reactions (HDRs are the adverse effect of pharmaceuticals that clinically resemble allergy. HDRs account for approximately 1/6 of drug-induced adverse effects, and include immune-mediated ('allergic' and non immune-mediated ('pseudo allergic' reactions. In recent years, the severe and unpredicted drug adverse events clearly indicate that the immune system can be a critical target of drugs. Enhanced prediction in preclinical safety evaluation is, therefore, crucial. Nowadays, there are no validated in vitro or in vivo methods to screen the sensitizing potential of drugs in the pre-clinical phase. The problem of non-predictability of immunologically-based hypersensitivity reactions is related to the lack of appropriate experimental models rather than to the lack of -understanding of the adverse phenomenon.We recently established experimental conditions and markers to correctly identify drug associated with in vivo hypersensitivity reactions using THP-1 cells and IL-8 production, CD86 and CD54 expression. The proposed in vitro method benefits from a rationalistic approach with the idea that allergenic drugs share with chemical allergens common mechanisms of cell activation. This assay can be easily incorporated into drug development for hazard identification of drugs, which may have the potential to cause in vivo hypersensitivity reactions. The purpose of this review is to assess the state of the art of in vitro models to assess the allergenic potential of drugs based on the activation of dendritic cells.

  10. Sensory predictions during action support perception of imitative reactions across suprasecond delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Daniel; Press, Clare

    2018-04-01

    Perception during action is optimized by sensory predictions about the likely consequences of our movements. Influential theories in social cognition propose that we use the same predictions during interaction, supporting perception of similar reactions in our social partners. However, while our own action outcomes typically occur at short, predictable delays after movement execution, the reactions of others occur at longer, variable delays in the order of seconds. To examine whether we use sensorimotor predictions to support perception of imitative reactions, we therefore investigated the temporal profile of sensory prediction during action in two psychophysical experiments. We took advantage of an influence of prediction on apparent intensity, whereby predicted visual stimuli appear brighter (more intense). Participants performed actions (e.g., index finger lift) and rated the brightness of observed outcomes congruent (index finger lift) or incongruent (middle finger lift) with their movements. Observed action outcomes could occur immediately after execution, or at longer delays likely reflective of those in natural social interaction (1800 or 3600 ms). Consistent with the previous literature, Experiment 1 revealed that congruent action outcomes were rated as brighter than incongruent outcomes. Importantly, this facilitatory perceptual effect was found irrespective of whether outcomes occurred immediately or at delay. Experiment 2 replicated this finding and demonstrated that it was not the result of response bias. These findings therefore suggest that visual predictions generated during action are sufficiently general across time to support our perception of imitative reactions in others, likely generating a range of benefits during social interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synchronization of Reaction-Diffusion Neural Networks With Dirichlet Boundary Conditions and Infinite Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yin; Zhang, Hao; Zeng, Zhigang

    2017-10-01

    This paper is concerned with synchronization for a class of reaction-diffusion neural networks with Dirichlet boundary conditions and infinite discrete time-varying delays. By utilizing theories of partial differential equations, Green's formula, inequality techniques, and the concept of comparison, algebraic criteria are presented to guarantee master-slave synchronization of the underlying reaction-diffusion neural networks via a designed controller. Additionally, sufficient conditions on exponential synchronization of reaction-diffusion neural networks with finite time-varying delays are established. The proposed criteria herein enhance and generalize some published ones. Three numerical examples are presented to substantiate the validity and merits of the obtained theoretical results.

  12. Potential immediate hypersensitivity reactions following immunization in preschool aged children in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, C-M; Clothier, H J; Perrett, K P

    2018-04-06

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHR) are rare but potentially serious adverse events following immunization (AEFI). Surveillance of Adverse Events following Vaccination in the Community (SAEFVIC) is an enhanced passive surveillance system that collects, analyses and reports information about AEFI in Victoria, Australia. We describe the incidence, timing and type of potential IHR following vaccination in preschool children reported over an 8-year period. A total of 2110 AEFI were reported in 1620 children, of which 23.5% (496) were classified as potential IHR. Of these, 37.1% (184) were suspected to be IgE-mediated, (including anaphylaxis, angioedema and/or urticaria) and 83.5% (414) occurred within 15 minutes of vaccination. The incidence of potential IHR was 5.4 per 100,000 doses, with that of suspected IgE-mediated IHR being 2.0 per 100,000 doses. The incidence of anaphylaxis was extremely low (0.13 per 100,000 doses) and is consistent with other published studies. Potential IHR following immunization should be reported to appropriate local pharmacovigilance systems and patients reviewed by specialists able to evaluate, investigate and manage future vaccinations.

  13. Global exponential stability of fuzzy cellular neural networks with delays and reaction-diffusion terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Lu Junguo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the global exponential stability of fuzzy cellular neural networks with delays and reaction-diffusion terms. By constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional and utilizing some inequality techniques, we obtain a sufficient condition for the uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium solution for a class of fuzzy cellular neural networks with delays and reaction-diffusion terms. The result imposes constraint conditions on the network parameters independently of the delay parameter. The result is also easy to check and plays an important role in the design and application of globally exponentially stable fuzzy neural circuits

  14. Delayed immune mediated adverse effects to hyaluronic acid fillers: report of five cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ora Bitterman-Deutsch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA fillers in cosmetic medicine have been considered relatively safe, though fillers used in European countries and throughout the world are not necessarily approved by the Food and Drug Administration. As their use continues to expand worldwide, physicians in a wide range of medical specialties are authorized to perform HA injections, including general medicine practitioners and even dentists. An increasing number of reports have appeared regarding side effects to these products. It is now known that reactions to Hyaluronic acid are related not only to technical faults of the injections, but also to immune responses, including delayed hypersensitivity and granulomatous reactions. Herein, we describe five cases treated by a variety of treatment modalities, all with delayed reactions to different brands of hyaluronic acid fillers. As there is currently no standardization of treatment options of adverse effects, these cases accentuate the debate regarding the approach to the individual patient and the possible need for pre-testing in patients with an atopic tendency.

  15. Cervical dentin hypersensitivity: a cross-sectional investigation in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahiotis, C; Polychronopoulou, A; Tsiklakis, K; Kakaboura, A

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of cervical dentin hypersensitivity in a cross-sectional investigation of Greek adults. Seven hundred and sixty-seven subjects were examined. Participants were patients processed for first examination in the Clinic of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Athens. The evaluation of hypersensitivity was performed using two methods: for each tooth, the response to a) tactile stimulus and b) air-blast stimulus was measured. Additional factors such as smoking habits, oral health behaviour, consumption of acidic foods, type of toothbrush, daily use of fluoride solution and of desensitising toothpaste, gingival recession and non-carious cervical lesions were recorded and evaluated as causative factors. Descriptive statistics on the demographics of the study sample, of oral health behaviour characteristics and of oral examination findings were performed. Comparisons of these characteristics in the presence or absence of hypersensitivity were conducted with the chi-square test. Data were further analysed using multiple logistic regression modelling. Among study participants, 21·3% had at least one cervical dentin hypersensitivity reaction to the tactile stimulus, and 38·6%, to the air-blast stimulus. Multivariate analysis detected association of the hypersensitivity in tactile or air-blast stimulus with the non-carious lesions and with the gingival recessions. Additionally, a relation between hypersensitivity and air-blast stimulus with gender (female) was found. There was no association between the hypersensitivity in both of the stimuli and the level of education, smoking, consumption of acidic foods, type of toothbrush and daily use of fluoride solution or desensitising toothpaste. The overall prevalence of cervical dentin hypersensitivity in the adult population in Athens ranged from 21·3% to 38·6% depending on the type of stimuli. Cervical non-carious lesions and gingival

  16. [Adaptive desensitization for acetylsalicylic acid hypersensitivity: A success story?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlmeier, G; Hausch, R; Maier, H

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive desensitization still remains the only causative therapy for acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) hypersensitivity and is carried out nearly worldwide. To date there are hardly any data available on disease development under current desensitization therapy and longitudinal data in particular are missing. Out of a large collective of patients with proven hypersensitivity to ASA, 194 patients with initiated desensitization treatment were observed for periods up to 5 years (average 32 months). Patients with immediate reactions to systemic challenge tests revealed a response rate of 77% after 12 months of therapy. In this period 12% reached complete remission, 38% showed a clear reduction in symptoms, 32% reached partial remission, 13% remained unchanged and 5% suffered from disease progression. Adaptive desensitization therapy for hypersensitivity to ASA has been shown to be an effective causative therapy and chronic hyperplastic sinusitis as well as bronchial asthma could be improved. For the determination of maintenance dosages and required time periods more data are needed.

  17. Induction of suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity to herpes simplex virus by epidermal cells exposed to UV-irradiated urocanic acid in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.A.; Howie, S.E.; Norval, M.; Maingay, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Urocanic acid (UCA), the putative photoreceptor for ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced suppression, undergoes a UV-dependent trans to cis isomerisation. Epidermal cells from mice painted with UCA, containing a known proportion of the cis-isomer, generate suppression of the delayed type hypersensitivity response to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) when transferred to naive syngeneic recipients at the same time and site as infection with HSV-1. One T suppressor cell subset, of phenotype (Thy1+, L3T4+, Ly2-), is induced by the cis-UCA modified epidermal cell transfer. Flow cytometric analysis of the epidermal cells from skin treated with UV or cis-UCA indicates an overall reduction from normal in the number of cells expressing MHC Class II antigens, but no alteration in the number expressing I-J antigens

  18. Allergic reactions seen in orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Görücü Coşkuner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergy can be defined as inappropriate and harmful response to harmless and ordinary materials. Allergic reactions, like in other fields of dentistry, can also be seen in the field of orthodontics. The reactions that occur against orthodontic materials can be seen as irritant or hypersensitivity reactions. The main reason of the irritant reactions is friction between soft tissues and orthodontic appliances. However, the reason of the hypersensitivity reactions is usually the antigenicity of the materials. Hypersensitivity reactions are usually seen as allergic contact dermatitis on face and neck; the occurrence of mucosal-gingival reactions and dermal and systemic reactions are rare. Latex, metal and acrylic resins are the most common allergens in orthodontics. Apart from these materials, allergic reactions can occur against bonding materials, extraoral appliances, disinfectants and antimicrobial agents. The reactions that occur against extraoral appliances usually result from metallic and elastic parts of the appliances or the appliance parts that are in contact with skin. Orthodontists should be aware of the allergic reactions to protect their patients’ health. The aim of this review was to evaluate the allergic reactions seen in orthodontic patients and discuss the cautions that orthodontists can take.

  19. Immediate hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast media: diagnostic accuracy of skin tests and intravenous provocation test with low dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesé, L; Gaouar, H; Autegarden, J-E; Alari, A; Amsler, E; Vial-Dupuy, A; Pecquet, C; Francès, C; Soria, A

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of HSR to iodinated contrast media (ICM) is challenging based on clinical history and skin tests. This study evaluates the negative predictive value (NPV) of skin tests and intravenous provocation test (IPT) with low-dose ICM in patients with suspected immediate hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to ICM. Thirty-seven patients with suspected immediate hypersensitivity reaction to ICM were included retrospectively. Skin tests and a single-blind placebo-controlled intravenous provocation test (IPT) with low-dose iodinated contrast media (ICM) were performed. Skin tests with ICM were positive in five cases (one skin prick test and five intradermal test). Thirty-six patients were challenged successfully by IPT, and only one patient had a positive challenge result, with a grade I reaction by the Ring and Messmer classification. Ten of 23 patients followed up by telephone were re-exposed to a negative tested ICM during radiologic examination; two experienced a grade I immediate reaction. For immediate hypersensitivity reaction to ICM, the NPV for skin tests and IPT with low dose was 80% (95% CI 44-97%). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Delayed-type hypersensitivity lesions in the central nervous system are prevented by inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyszak, M K; Perry, V H

    1996-09-01

    We have studied the effect of an inhibitor of matrix metalloproleinases, BB-1101, on a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in the CNS. We used a recently described model in which heat-killed bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) sequestered behind the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is targeted by a T-cell mediated response after subcutaneous injection of BCG (Matyszak and Perry, 1995). The DTH lesions are characterised by breakdown of the BBB, macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration and tissue damage including myelin loss. Treatment with BB-1101, which is not only a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases but also strongly inhibits TNF-alpha release, dramatically attenuated the CNS lesions. Breakdown of the BBB and the recruitment of T-cells into the site of the lesion were significantly reduced. There were many fewer inflammatory macrophages in DTH lesions than in comparable lesions from untreated animals. There was also significantly less myelin damage (assessed by staining with anti-MBP antibody). The DTH response in animals treated with dexamethasone was also reduced, but to a lesser degree. No significant effect was seen after administration of pentoxifylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor with effects including the inhibition of TNF-alpha production. Our results suggest that inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases may be of considerable therapeutic benefit in neuroinflammatory diseases.

  1. Effects of intrinsic stochasticity on delayed reaction-diffusion patterning systems

    KAUST Repository

    Woolley, Thomas E.; Baker, Ruth E.; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; Maini, Philip K.; Seirin-Lee, Sungrim

    2012-01-01

    Cellular gene expression is a complex process involving many steps, including the transcription of DNA and translation of mRNA; hence the synthesis of proteins requires a considerable amount of time, from ten minutes to several hours. Since diffusion-driven instability has been observed to be sensitive to perturbations in kinetic delays, the application of Turing patterning mechanisms to the problem of producing spatially heterogeneous differential gene expression has been questioned. In deterministic systems a small delay in the reactions can cause a large increase in the time it takes a system to pattern. Recently, it has been observed that in undelayed systems intrinsic stochasticity can cause pattern initiation to occur earlier than in the analogous deterministic simulations. Here we are interested in adding both stochasticity and delays to Turing systems in order to assess whether stochasticity can reduce the patterning time scale in delayed Turing systems. As analytical insights to this problem are difficult to attain and often limited in their use, we focus on stochastically simulating delayed systems. We consider four different Turing systems and two different forms of delay. Our results are mixed and lead to the conclusion that, although the sensitivity to delays in the Turing mechanism is not completely removed by the addition of intrinsic noise, the effects of the delays are clearly ameliorated in certain specific cases. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  2. Effects of intrinsic stochasticity on delayed reaction-diffusion patterning systems

    KAUST Repository

    Woolley, Thomas E.

    2012-05-22

    Cellular gene expression is a complex process involving many steps, including the transcription of DNA and translation of mRNA; hence the synthesis of proteins requires a considerable amount of time, from ten minutes to several hours. Since diffusion-driven instability has been observed to be sensitive to perturbations in kinetic delays, the application of Turing patterning mechanisms to the problem of producing spatially heterogeneous differential gene expression has been questioned. In deterministic systems a small delay in the reactions can cause a large increase in the time it takes a system to pattern. Recently, it has been observed that in undelayed systems intrinsic stochasticity can cause pattern initiation to occur earlier than in the analogous deterministic simulations. Here we are interested in adding both stochasticity and delays to Turing systems in order to assess whether stochasticity can reduce the patterning time scale in delayed Turing systems. As analytical insights to this problem are difficult to attain and often limited in their use, we focus on stochastically simulating delayed systems. We consider four different Turing systems and two different forms of delay. Our results are mixed and lead to the conclusion that, although the sensitivity to delays in the Turing mechanism is not completely removed by the addition of intrinsic noise, the effects of the delays are clearly ameliorated in certain specific cases. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  3. Drug hypersensitivity in children: report from the pediatric task force of the EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, E. R.; Brockow, K.; Kuyucu, S.; Saretta, F.; Mori, F.; Blanca-Lopez, N.; Ott, H.; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M.; Kidon, M.; Caubet, J.-C.; Terreehorst, I.

    2016-01-01

    When questioned, about 10% of the parents report suspected hypersensitivity to at least one drug in their children. However, only a few of these reactions can be confirmed as allergic after a diagnostic workup. There is still a lack of knowledge on drug hypersensitivity (DH) epidemiology, clinical

  4. Stability analysis of impulsive fuzzy cellular neural networks with distributed delays and reaction-diffusion terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zuoan; Li Kelin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a class of impulsive fuzzy cellular neural networks with distributed delays and reaction-diffusion terms. By employing the delay differential inequality with impulsive initial conditions and M-matrix theory, we find some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for impulsive fuzzy cellular neural networks with distributed delays and reaction-diffusion terms. In particular, the estimate of the exponential converging index is also provided, which depends on the system parameters. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the results obtained here.

  5. Cloning and expression of candidate allergens from Culicoides obsoletus for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meide, van der N.M.A.; Roders, N.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Schaap, P.J.; Oers, van M.M.; Leibold, W.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Tijhaar, E.

    2013-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated (Type I) hypersensitivity reaction induced by allergens from biting midges of the Culicoides spp. The aim of the present study was to identify, clone and express recombinant allergens from C. obsoletus, the main species found feeding on horses in

  6. Case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomoko; Yagami, Akiko; Shimojo, Naoshi; Hara, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Masashi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-06-01

    We report here a case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer, in which a female patient developed angioedema of the eyelids shortly after consuming beer. In skin prick tests, the patient showed positive reactions to the base ingredients of beer, particularly malt and barley. The specific serum immunoglobulin E antibodies against barley and malt displayed weakly positive reactivity. To identify the immunoreactive antigens, malt and barley proteins were separated by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoreacted with the patient's serum. The results of mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the main antigen was a protein with similarity to protein z-type serpin. Notably, the identified antigen had a molecular weight of 20-25 kDa, which is markedly smaller than that previously reported for protein Z4 (44 kDa). Taken together, these analyses indicate that a possible new antigen which belongs to the protein Z family elicits immediate hypersensitivity to beer. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. Delayed allergy-like reactions to X-ray contrast media. Second expert meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviridov, N.K

    1998-01-01

    Materials of the second expert meeting of medical radiologists of USA, Germany, and Japan concerning delayed allergy-like reactions to X-ray contrast media (XRCM) are briefly considered. Attention is paid to the experimental and clinical data on the application of nonionic dimers, pathophysiological and immunological aspects of the reaction to XRCM, certain models and hypotheses, allergy to XRCM

  8. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Hypersensitivity in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidon Mona

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although extensively studied in adults, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID hypersensitivity in children, especially in young children, remains poorly defined. Pediatricians, prescribing antipyretics for children, rarely encounter significant problems, but the few epidemiologic studies performed show conflicting results. Although it is clear that some patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA-sensitive asthma have their clinical onset of disease in childhood and bronchoconstriction after ASA challenge is seen in 0 to 22% of asthmatic children so challenged, ibuprofen at antipyretic doses may cause acute respiratory problems only in a very small number of mild to moderate asthmatics. The recently elucidated mechanism of action of acetaminophen may explain some occurrences of adverse reactions in patients with cross-reactive NSAID hypersensitivity on the basis of its inhibitory activity on the newly described enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX-3. This nonspecific sensitivity to inhibition of COX is most likely genetically determined and shows a remarkable association with atopic disease even in the very young age group and possibly an increased predilection in specific ethnic groups. This review summarizes state-of-the-art published data on NSAID hypersensitivity in preschool children.

  9. The Absence of CYP3A5*3 Is a Protective Factor to Anticonvulsants Hypersensitivity Reactions: A Case-Control Study in Brazilian Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Luciana Kase; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; dos Santos, Bernardo; Talib, Leda Leme; Yamaguti, Célia; Rodrigues, Helcio; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kalil, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Although aromatic anticonvulsants are usually well tolerated, they can cause cutaneous adverse drug reactions in up to 10% of patients. The clinical manifestations of the antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions (AHR) vary from mild skin rashes to severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions which are related to high mortality and significant morbidity. Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 genes are associated with altered enzymatic activity and may contribute to the risk of AHR. Here we present a case-control study in which we genotyped SNPs of CYP2C19, 2C9 and 3A5 of 55 individuals with varying severities of AHR, 83 tolerant, and 366 healthy control subjects from São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical characterization was based on standardized scoring systems and drug patch test. All in vivo investigation followed the ENDA (European Network of Drug Allergy) recommendations. Genotype was determined by real time PCR using peripheral blood DNA as a template. Of all 504 subjects, 65% were females, 45% self-identified as Afro-American, 38% as Caucasian and 17% as having non-African mixed ascendancy. Amongst 55 subjects with AHR, 44 had severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions. Of the 46 drug patch tests performed, 29 (63%) were positive. We found a strong association between the absence of CYP3A5*3 and tolerant subjects when compared to AHR (p = 0.0002, OR = 5.28 [CI95% 2.09-14.84]). None of our groups presented positive association with CYP2C19 and 2C9 polymorphisms, however, both SNPs contributed to separation of cases and tolerants in a Classification and Regression Tree. Our findings indicate that drug metabolism genes can contribute in the tolerability of antiepileptics. CYP3A5*3 is the most prevalent CYP3A5 allele associated with reduced enzymatic function. The current study provides evidence that normal CYP3A5 activity might be a protective factor to aromatic antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions in Brazilian subjects.

  10. Common food colorants and allergic reactions in children: Myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feketea, Gavriela; Tsabouri, Sophia

    2017-09-01

    Various additives, including food colorants (FCs), are used in the food industry to make food appealing to consumers and to add variety. Despite the widespread usage of FCs, adverse reactions related to their consumption, including reactions triggered by immune (immediate and delayed-type hypersensitivity) and non-immune (intolerance) mechanisms, are considered rare. There is a discrepancy between the perception of patients and parents (7.4%) and the reported prevalence of adverse reactions to additives (0.01-0.23%), which is higher in atopic individuals (2-7%). Documented reactions are mild, involving mainly the skin, and, rarely, anaphylaxis. A major problem in diagnosing reactions to FCs is identification of the offending agent(s), which is based on careful dietary history taking. Allergy testing is usually unrevealing, except for reaction to some natural colorants. Treatment consists of avoidance of the offending colorant as no successful desensitization procedures have been reported. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 7th drug hypersensitivity meeting: part one

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Daniel F.; Chung, Wen-Hung; Jenkiins, Rosalind E.; Chaponda, Mas; Nwikue, Gospel; Cornejo Castro, Elena M.; Antoine, Daniel J.; Pirmohamed, Munir; Wuillemin, Natascha; Dina, Dolores; Eriksson, Klara K.; Yerly, Daniel; Pavlos, Rebecca; Mckinnin, Elizabeth; Ostrov, David

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents Oral Abstracts O1 Functionally distinct HMGB1 isoforms correlate with physiological processes in drug-induced SJS/TEN Daniel F. Carr, Wen-Hung Chung, Rosalind E. Jenkiins, Mas Chaponda, Gospel Nwikue, Elena M. Cornejo Castro, Daniel J. Antoine, Munir Pirmohamed O2 Hypersensitivity reactions to beta-lactams, does the t cell recognition pattern influence the clinical picture? Natascha Wuillemin, Dolores Dina, Klara K. Eriksson, Daniel Yerly O3 Specific binding characteristics ...

  12. Adaptive exponential synchronization of delayed neural networks with reaction-diffusion terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Li; Yang Huizhong; Lou Xuyang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an exponential synchronization scheme for a class of neural networks with time-varying and distributed delays and reaction-diffusion terms. An adaptive synchronization controller is derived to achieve the exponential synchronization of the drive-response structure of neural networks by using the Lyapunov stability theory. At the same time, the update laws of parameters are proposed to guarantee the synchronization of delayed neural networks with all parameters unknown. It is shown that the approaches developed here extend and improve the ideas presented in recent literatures.

  13. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, V; Mahe, E; Houhou, N; Abramowitz, L; Rozenberg, F; Ranger-Rogez, S; Crickx, B

    2003-05-01

    Association of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with viral infection is debated. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) reactivation has been the most frequently reported infection associated with this syndrome. However, a case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was recently described associated with anticonvulsant-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. We report a case of severe allopurinol-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with pancreatitis associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Active EBV infection was demonstrated in two consecutive serum samples by the presence of anti-EBV early antigen (EA) IgM antibodies and an increase in anti-EBV EA IgG antibodies, whereas no anti-EBV nuclear antigen IgG antibodies were detected. EBV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Reactivation of HHV-6 was suggested only by the presence of anti-HHV-6 IgM antibodies, but HHV-6 DNA was not detected by PCR in the serum. Other viral investigations showed previous infection (CMV, rubella, measles, parvovirus B19), immunization after vaccination (hepatitis B virus), or absence of previous infection (hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus). We suggest that EBV infection may participate in some cases, as do the other herpesviruses HHV-6 or CMV, in the development of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome.

  14. Type IV Hypersensitivity to Gold Weight Upper-Eyelid Implant: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, Caroline L S; Casswell, Edward J; Imonikhe, Richard; Marjanovic, Branka

    2017-05-04

    Complications associated with gold-weight insertion for lagophthalmos are uncommon, recent reports have provided evidence to suggest that type IV hypersensitivity to gold can cause a persistent inflammatory reaction. We present a case of a 46-year-old man who experienced persistent post-operative inflammation, and summarize previously documented cases. This patient underwent uncomplicated insertion of an upper eyelid gold weight for right-sided facial nerve palsy. He had no allergies or implanted metalwork. Post-operatively erythema was noted at seven-weeks and did not resolve. The weight was removed after six-months. The histopathological findings were in keeping with type IV hypersensitivity and similar to previous cases. Although infrequent, this complication has poor outcomes. The definitive management is removal of the weight. Information regarding implanted gold, and previous reactions should be elicited pre-operatively. Type IV hypersensitivity should be considered in patients with persistent inflammation that do not respond to antibiotic or steroid therapy.

  15. Effect of Schizonepeta tenuifolia extract on mast cell-mediated immediate-type hypersensitivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, T Y; Jeong, H J; Jun, S M; Chae, H J; Kim, H R; Baek, S H; Kim, H M

    1999-11-01

    We investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of Schizonepeta tenuifolia (STAE) on mast cell-mediated immediate-type hypersensitivity. STAE inhibited systemic allergic reaction induced by compound 48/80 in rats dose-dependently. STAE also inhibited plasma histamine levels induced by compound 48/80. STAE inhibited local allergic reaction activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE. In addition, STAE does-dependently inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. However, STAE had a significant enhancing effect on anti-DNP IgE-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production from RPMC. These results indicate that STAE inhibits immediate-type hypersensitivity and suggest that STAE can selectively activate the TNF-alpha production from RPMC.

  16. Delayed Foreign Body Reaction Caused by Bioabsorbable Plates Used for Maxillofacial Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Bae Jeon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBioabsorbable plates and screws are commonly used to reduce maxillofacial bones, particularly in pediatric patients because they degrade completely without complications after bone healing. In this study, we encountered eight cases of a delayed foreign body reaction after surgical fixation with bioabsorbable plates and screws.MethodsA total of 234 patients with a maxillofacial fracture underwent surgical treatment from March 2006 to October 2013, in which rigid fixation was achieved with the Inion CPS (Inion, Tampere, Finland plating system in 173 patients and Rapidsorb (Synthes, West Chester, PA, USA in 61 patients. Their mean age was 35.2 years (range, 15-84 years. Most patients were stabilized with two- or three-point fixation at the frontozygomatic suture, infraorbital rim, and anterior wall of the maxilla.ResultsComplications occurred in eight (3.4% of 234 patients, including palpable, fixed masses in six patients and focal swelling in two patients. The period from surgical fixation to the onset of symptoms was 9-23 months. Six patients with a mass underwent secondary surgery for mass removal. The masses contained fibrous tissue with a yellow, grainy, cloudy fluid and remnants of an incompletely degraded bioabsorbable plate and screws. Their histological findings demonstrated a foreign body reaction.ConclusionsInadequate degradation of bioabsorbable plates caused a delayed inflammatory foreign body reaction requiring secondary surgery. Therefore, it is prudent to consider the possibility of delayed complications when using bioabsorbable plates and surgeons must conduct longer and closer follow-up observations.

  17. Late-Onset Inflammatory Response to Hyaluronic Acid Dermal Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahera Bhojani-Lynch, MRCOphth, CertLRS, MBCAM, DipCS

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion:. Late-onset inflammatory reactions to HA fillers may be self-limiting but are easily and rapidly treatable with oral steroids, and with hyaluronidase in the case of lumps. It is likely these reactions are due to a Type IV delayed hypersensitivity response. Delayed inflammation associated with HA fillers is nonbrand specific. However, the case where 2 different brands were injected during the same session, but only 1 brand triggered a hypersensitivity reaction, suggests that the technology used in the manufacturing process, and the subsequent differing products of degradation, may have an influence on potential allergic reactions to HA fillers.

  18. 355-nm hypersensitization of optical fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canagasabey, A.; Canning, J.; Groothoff, N.

    2003-01-01

    A study is presented on 355-nm hypersensitization of optical fibers. It is found that the intrinsic 244-nm photosensitivity of boron-codoped germanosilicate optical fibers is enhanced by 355-nm hypersensitization. Hypersensitization through standard polymer coating is also demonstrated.

  19. A case report on a severe anaphylaxis reaction to Gadolinium-based MR contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Juil; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Chang Min; Yoon, Soon Ho; Lee, Whal; Kang, Hye Ryun; Choi, Young Hun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Acute hypersensitivity reactions to gadolinium-based magnetic resonance (MR) contrast media have been shown to have a much lower incidence and they are generally milder in terms of severity than acute adverse reactions associated with the use of iodinated contrast media for computed tomography scans. However, even though it is rare, a severe hypersensitivity reaction to MR contrast media can occur. Here we present the case of a 66-year-old woman who experienced a severe hypersensitivity reaction after administration of gadolinium-based contrast media without a previous history of allergies.

  20. Delay differential equations and the dose-time dependence of early radiotherapy reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenwick, John D.

    2006-01-01

    The dose-time dependence of early radiotherapy reactions impacts on the design of accelerated fractionation schedules--oral mucositis, for example, can be dose limiting for short treatments designed to avoid tumor repopulation. In this paper a framework for modeling early reaction dose-time dependence is developed. Variation of stem cell number with time after the start of a radiation schedule is modeled using a first-order delay differential equation (DDE), motivated by experimental observations linking the speed of compensatory proliferation in early reacting tissues to the degree of tissue damage. The modeling suggests that two types of early reaction radiation response are possible, stem cell numbers either monotonically approaching equilibrium plateau levels or overshooting before returning to equilibrium. Several formulas have been derived from the delay differential equation, predicting changes in isoeffective total radiation dose with schedule duration for different types of fractionation scheme. The formulas have been fitted to a wide range of published animal early reaction data, the fits all implying a degree of overshoot. Results are presented illustrating the scope of the delay differential model: most of the data are fitted well, although the model struggles with a few datasets measured for schedules with distinctive dose-time patterns. Ways of extending the current model to cope with these particular dose-time patterns are briefly discussed. The DDE approach is conceptually more complex than earlier descriptive dose-time models but potentially more powerful. It can be used to study issues not addressed by simpler models, such as the likely effects of increasing or decreasing the dose-per-day over time, or of splitting radiation courses into intense segments separated by gaps. It may also prove useful for modeling the effects of chemoirradiation

  1. Delay differential equations and the dose-time dependence of early radiotherapy reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, John D

    2006-09-01

    The dose-time dependence of early radiotherapy reactions impacts on the design of accelerated fractionation schedules--oral mucositis, for example, can be dose limiting for short treatments designed to avoid tumor repopulation. In this paper a framework for modeling early reaction dose-time dependence is developed. Variation of stem cell number with time after the start of a radiation schedule is modeled using a first-order delay differential equation (DDE), motivated by experimental observations linking the speed of compensatory proliferation in early reacting tissues to the degree of tissue damage. The modeling suggests that two types of early reaction radiation response are possible, stem cell numbers either monotonically approaching equilibrium plateau levels or overshooting before returning to equilibrium. Several formulas have been derived from the delay differential equation, predicting changes in isoeffective total radiation dose with schedule duration for different types of fractionation scheme. The formulas have been fitted to a wide range of published animal early reaction data, the fits all implying a degree of overshoot. Results are presented illustrating the scope of the delay differential model: most of the data are fitted well, although the model struggles with a few datasets measured for schedules with distinctive dose-time patterns. Ways of extending the current model to cope with these particular dose-time patterns are briefly discussed. The DDE approach is conceptually more complex than earlier descriptive dose-time models but potentially more powerful. It can be used to study issues not addressed by simpler models, such as the likely effects of increasing or decreasing the dose-per-day over time, or of splitting radiation courses into intense segments separated by gaps. It may also prove useful for modeling the effects of chemoirradiation.

  2. A pilot study to investigate the effect of a hydration regime upon immediate and 24 h delayed MRI contrast agent reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, William; Marshall, Gill; Coals, Jacqui

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Adverse reaction rates to gadolinium based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents which occur immediately post-injection are well documented. However little research has investigated delayed reaction rates (i.e. 30 min-24 h). This study evaluated the rate of immediate and delayed adverse reaction rates to a gadolinium based MRI contrast agent (Dotarem) and investigated the effect of a hydration regime on the rate of adverse events. Method: Fifty-eight patients received no preparation, prior to administration of the contrast agent, whilst another 58 underwent a hydration protocol. The patients had their answers to a questionnaire recorded immediately after the scanning procedure and also via a follow-up telephone call 24 h later. Results: In the unprepared group 9 patients (15.5%) experienced immediate adverse events, i.e. within 0-30 min, whereas 24 (41.4%) experienced delayed reactions (30 min-24 h) after administration of the contrast agent. In the hydrated patient group 6 (10.3%) experienced an immediate adverse event, whilst 8 (13.7%) experienced delayed events post-injection. The difference in the total reaction rates for the unprepared and hydrated groups was statistically significant for immediate and delayed reactions. The difference in the rates of delayed headache, nausea, dizziness and problems with the injection site, for the unprepared and hydrated groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: An oral hydration regime administered to patients, both before and after MRI contrast agent administration significantly reduced the total number of immediate and delayed reactions. It also significantly reduced delayed headache, nausea, dizziness and problems at the injection site. Whilst this pilot study had methodological shortcomings, the strength of the relationship demonstrated are worthy of further investigation

  3. Liver dysfunction induced by systemic hypersensitivity reaction to lamotrigine: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Gyu Im

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lamotrigine is an anticonvulsant drug used to treat partial and generalized seizure disorders. Hypersensitivity to lamotrigine usually causes mild symptoms such as fever, rash, and slight invasion of internal organs. However, a 33-year-old male patient who was admitted with Stevens-Johnson syndrome after taking lamotrigine for 15 days experienced hepatic failure and died 5 days after admission. This case demonstrates the importance of realizing that lamotrigine can lead to fatal hepatic failure, and that tests for the normal liver function should be performed when administering lamotrigine.

  4. Consensus expert recommendations for identification and management of asparaginase hypersensitivity and silent inactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge); L.M. Vrooman (Lynda M.); R. Pieters (Rob); A. Baruchel (André); G. Escherich (Gabriele); N. Goulden (Nicholas); V. Mondelaers (Veerle); J.S. de Toledo (Jose Sanchez); C. Rizzari (Carmelo); L.B. Silverman (Lewis); J.A. Whitlock (James A.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractL-asparaginase is an integral component of therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, asparaginase-related complications, including the development of hypersensitivity reactions, can limit its use in individual patients. Of considerable concern in the setting of clinical allergy

  5. Effect of gene-targeted mutation in TNF receptor (p55) on contact hypersensitivity and ultraviolet B-induced immunosuppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Seiji; Wang, Binghe; Fujisawa, Hiroshi [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-10-15

    Tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine. TNF-{alpha} has been implicated in the pathogenesis of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions such as allergic contact hypersensitivity and has been suggested as a mediator of ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced immunosuppression. Conflicting reports, however, exist concerning the effects of TNF-{alpha} on contact hypersensitivity (CHS). To determine the role of TNF-{alpha} in the generation and regulation of CHS, gene-targeted mutant mice lacking TNF-receptor (p55) gene (TNF-R1(-) mice) were treated with dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) to induce CHS. TNF-R1(-) mice showed significant hyperresponsiveness in CHS (152.8 {+-} 20.9%, p < 0.025) compared with normal syngeneic mice (C57BL/6) assessed by ear swelling. To determine whether UVB can induce suppression in TNF-R1(-) mice, mice were irradiated on the shaved abdomen with 96 ml/cm{sup 2} UVB and 3 days later they were painted with 0.5% DNFB (sensitization dose), followed 5 days later with 0.2% DNFB to the left ear (challenge dose). Significant suppression of CHS was observed both locally (sensitization on irradiated site) and systemically (sensitization on unirradiated site) in UVB-irradiated TNF-R1(-) mice as well as in normal mice. To rule out possible signaling through p75 TNF-R, the mice were treated with anti-TNF-{alpha} Ab (V1q), which can neutralize any TNF effects through either receptor. V1q had no effect on these phenomena observed in TNF-R1(-) mice. These results suggest that TNF-{alpha} plays a regulatory role in CHS but is not required to induce UVB-mediated immunosuppression. 45 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Cutaneous reactions to heparin therapy: when are they caused by heparin allergy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Zisa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the incidence and causes of heparin-induced skin lesions. The most commonly reported causes are delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. We describe 3 patients who were referred to our staff between March and October 2009 for suspected heparin allergies. All were scheduled to undergo major surgery (cardiovascular or orthopedic. Materials and methods: All 3 patients reported the development of itchy, erythematous rashes a few days after the subcutaneous administration of heparin (nadroparin calcium in cases 1 and 2, unspecified in case 3. Each of them underwent a diagnostic work-up for heparin allergy, which included prick and intradermal tests with commonly used heparins and patch testing with undiluted heparins and disinfectants. Results: Patch tests with disinfectants were negative in all 3 cases. In case 2, all allergological tests were negative. In cases 1 and 3, delayed positivity emerged for nadroparin calcium and at least one other heparin tested. Intravenous and/or subcutaneous provocation testing was done with an alternative heparin which produced negative results in skin tests (heparin sodium in case 1, pentasaccharide fondaparinux in case 3. In both cases the alternative drug was tolerated. After our evaluation, all 3 patients underwent surgery with no heparin-related complications. Discussion: The presenting clinical features in these 3 cases provided no information on which reactions were likely to be allergic: all 3 patients presented with similar local delayed reaction. The allergic reactions were identified only after cutaneous testing.

  7. Hopf bifurcation in a reaction-diffusive two-species model with nonlocal delay effect and general functional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Renji; Dai, Binxiang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We model general two-dimensional reaction-diffusion with nonlocal delay. • The existence of unique positive steady state is studied. • The bilinear form for the proposed system is given. • The existence, direction of Hopf bifurcation are given by symmetry method. - Abstract: A nonlocal delayed reaction-diffusive two-species model with Dirichlet boundary condition and general functional response is investigated in this paper. Based on the Lyapunov–Schmidt reduction, the existence, bifurcation direction and stability of Hopf bifurcating periodic orbits near the positive spatially nonhomogeneous steady-state solution are obtained, where the time delay is taken as the bifurcation parameter. Moreover, the general results are applied to a diffusive Lotka–Volterra type food-limited population model with nonlocal delay effect, and it is found that diffusion and nonlocal delay can also affect the other dynamic behavior of the system by numerical experiments.

  8. Investigation of capture reactions far off stability by β-delayed neutron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiescher, M.; Leist, B.; Ziegert, W.; Gabelmann, H.; Steinmueller, B.; Ohm, H.; Kratz, K.h.; Thielemann, F.h.; Hillebrandt, W.

    1985-01-01

    Beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy is applied to determine reaction rates of neutron capture on several neutron rich nuclei. The results of these experiments are presented and discussed in the light of their astrophysical implications. Furthermore, the experimental possibilities and limits of planned measurements are advertised

  9. The emergence of adolescent onset pain hypersensitivity following neonatal nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega-Avelaira David

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral nerve injuries can trigger neuropathic pain in adults but cause little or no pain when they are sustained in infancy or early childhood. This is confirmed in rodent models where neonatal nerve injury causes no pain behaviour. However, delayed pain can arise in man some considerable time after nerve damage and to examine this following early life nerve injury we have carried out a longer term follow up of rat pain behaviour into adolescence and adulthood. Results Spared nerve injury (SNI or sham surgery was performed on 10 day old (P10 rat pups and mechanical nociceptive reflex thresholds were analysed 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 38 and 44 days post surgery. While mechanical thresholds on the ipsilateral side are not significantly different from controls for the first 2–3 weeks post P10 surgery, after that time period, beginning at 21 days post surgery (P31, the SNI group developed following early life nerve injury significant hypersensitivity compared to the other groups. Ipsilateral mechanical nociceptive threshold was 2-fold below that of the contralateral and sham thresholds at 21 days post surgery (SNI-ipsilateral 28 (±5 g control groups 69 (±9 g, p Conclusions We report a novel consequence of early life nerve injury whereby mechanical hypersensitivity only emerges later in life. This delayed adolescent onset in mechanical pain thresholds is accompanied by neuroimmune activation and NMDA dependent central sensitization of spinal nociceptive circuits. This delayed onset in mechanical pain sensitivity may provide clues to understand the long term effects of early injury such as late onset phantom pain and the emergence of complex adolescent chronic pain syndromes.

  10. Infection or metal hypersensitivity? The diagnostic challenge of failure in metal-on-metal bearings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galbraith, John G

    2011-04-01

    The use of second generation metal-on-metal hip articulations has gained favour in the past few years. A hypersensitivity reaction to the metal-on-metal bearing, although rare, is a reported complication and is a novel mode of failure of these implants. Differentiating failure secondary to infection from failure secondary to metal hypersensitivity represents a significant diagnostic challenge. A retrospective review of all cases of hip arthroplasty using metal-on-metal bearings over a 5-year period at a tertiary referral centre identified 3 cases of failure secondary to metal hypersensitivity. Clinical presentation, serological markers, radiological imaging and histological analysis of all cases identified were evaluated. Histological analysis of periprosthetic tissue in all 3 cases identified characteristic features such as perivascular lymphocytic aggregates and chronic inflammation consistent with aseptic lymphocytic vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL). This study highlights that failure secondary to metal hypersensitivity must be considered in patients presenting with the reappearance of persistent pain, marked joint effusion, and the development of early osteolysis in the absence of infection.

  11. Global exponential stability of impulsive fuzzy cellular neural networks with mixed delays and reaction-diffusion terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohu; Xu Daoyi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the global exponential stability of impulsive fuzzy cellular neural networks with mixed delays and reaction-diffusion terms is considered. By establishing an integro-differential inequality with impulsive initial condition and using the properties of M-cone and eigenspace of the spectral radius of nonnegative matrices, several new sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure the global exponential stability of the equilibrium point for fuzzy cellular neural networks with delays and reaction-diffusion terms. These results extend and improve the earlier publications. Two examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of the obtained results.

  12. Global exponential stability for reaction-diffusion recurrent neural networks with multiple time varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, X.; Cui, B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of exponential stability for recurrent neural networks with multiple time varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms. The activation functions are supposed to be bounded and globally Lipschitz continuous. By means of Lyapunov functional, sufficient conditions are derived, which guarantee global exponential stability of the delayed neural network. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the correctness of our analysis. (author)

  13. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with human herpesvirus-6 reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeba Riyaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man, on carbamazepine for the past 3 months, was referred as a case of atypical measles. On examination, he had high-grade fever, generalized itchy rash, cough, vomiting and jaundice. A provisional diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity syndrome to carbamazepine was made with a differential diagnosis of viral exanthema with systemic complications. Laboratory investigations revealed leukocytosis with eosnophilia and elevated liver enzymes. Real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR on throat swab and blood was suggestive of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6. Measles was ruled out by PCR and serology. The diagnosis of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS was confirmed, which could explain all the features manifested by the patient. HHV-6 infects almost all humans by age 2 years. It infects and replicates in CD4 T lymphocytes and establishes latency in human peripheral blood monocytes or macrophages and early bone marrow progenitors. In DIHS, allergic reaction to the causative drug stimulates T cells, which leads to reactivation of the herpesvirus genome. DIHS is treated by withdrawal of the culprit drug and administration of systemic steroids. Our patient responded well to steroids and HHV-6 was negative on repeat real-time multiplex PCR at the end of treatment.

  14. Immunotherapy using regulatory T cells in cancer suggests more flavors of hypersensitivity type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan, Nafiseh; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) profoundly affect tumor microenvironment and exert dominant suppression over antitumor immunity in response to self-antigen expressed by tumor. Immunotherapy targeting Tregs lead to a significant improvement in antitumor immunity. Intradermal injection of tumor antigen results in negative delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) type IV. However, anti-Tregs treatment/use of adjuvant along with tumor antigens turns DTH to positive. Considering Tregs as the earliest tumor sensor/responders, tumor can be regarded as Treg-mediated type IV hypersensitivity and negative DTH to tumor antigen is due to anti-inflammatory action of Tregs to tumor antigens at the injection site. Such a view would help us in basic and clinical situations to testify a candidate vaccine via dermal administration and evaluation of Treg proportion at injection site.

  15. Food hypersensitivity by inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahna Sami L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Though not widely recognized, food hypersensitivity by inhalation can cause major morbidity in affected individuals. The exposure is usually more obvious and often substantial in occupational environments but frequently occurs in non-occupational settings, such as homes, schools, restaurants, grocery stores, and commercial flights. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food. The clinical manifestations can vary from a benign respiratory or cutaneous reaction to a systemic one that can be life-threatening. In addition to strict avoidance, such highly-sensitive subjects should carry self-injectable epinephrine and wear MedicAlert® identification. Asthma is a strong predisposing factor and should be well-controlled. It is of great significance that food inhalation can cause de novo sensitization.

  16. Delayed Hypersensitivity to Tuberculin and Other Antigens in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delayed hypersensitivi:y is a valuable index of cellular immune function, provided that the incidence of positive readions in the population is known. One hundred and sixty-two hospital pat;ents were examined, using tuberculin. (PPD), streptokinase and antigens derived from Candida albicans and mumps. Whereas 75% of ...

  17. Generalized eczematous reaction after fractional carbon dioxide laser therapy for tattoo allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, Arne A; De Rie, Menno A; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2016-12-01

    Allergic tattoo reactions form a therapeutically difficult entity. Treatment with conventional quality-switched lasers does not completely remove the allergenic particles and may lead to generalized hypersensitivity reactions. Recently, ablative fractional laser therapy was introduced as a treatment for allergic tattoo removal. We present two cases of allergic reactions to red tattoo ink treated with 10,600-nm fractional CO 2 laser. At the end of treatment, almost complete removal of red ink accompanied by a significant reduction of symptoms was observed in the first patient, whereas the second patient developed an acute generalized eczematous reaction after five treatments. These findings confirm that ablative fractional laser therapy is capable of significant removal of tattoo ink in an allergic tattoo reaction. However, it implies a risk of generalized hypersensitivity reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a generalized hypersensitivity reaction following treatment of tattoo allergy with the fractional CO 2 laser.

  18. Skin reactions to thimerosal and Leishmania in dogs from a leishmaniasis endemic area: it is better to keep them apart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Paranhos-Silva

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Positive Montenegro's skin test is a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction widely used as indicative of previous infection with Leishmania in both humans and dogs. Montenegro's antigen consists of a crude Leishmania antigen solution, usually containing thimerosal as preserving agent. In this work it is shown that a large proportion of dogs (11 out of 56 examined in an endemic area of leishmaniasis presented induration at the site of injection of a diluent containing thimerosal alone. This clearly demonstrates that thimerosal leads to a high number of false positive skin reactions in dogs and that its use in Montenegro's skin test antigenic preparations should be avoided.

  19. Effect of ranitidine on postoperative suppression of natural killer cell activity and delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Pedersen, B K; Moesgaard, F

    1989-01-01

    hypersensitivity (DTH) antigens, and blood drawn immediately before and 24 hours after skin incision was analyzed for spontaneous and in vitro stimulated (IL-2, IFN-alpha or indomethacin) natural killer (NK) cell activity and PHA and PPD-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Lymphocyte subsets (helper......-cell activity (p less than 0.02). Postoperative decrease in helper/inducer-T cell numbers was not significantly lessened (p = 0.07), and ranitidine did not influence the levels of suppressor-T cells. PHA and PPD responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were unaltered. The results may suggest potential...

  20. Cutaneous and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basko-Plluska, Juliana L; Thyssen, Jacob P; Schalock, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    ) following the insertion of intravascular stents, dental implants, cardiac pacemakers, or implanted gynecologic devices. Despite repeated attempts by researchers and clinicians to further understand this difficult area of medicine, the association between metal sensitivity and cutaneous allergic reactions......Cutaneous reactions to metal implants, orthopedic or otherwise, are well documented in the literature. The first case of a dermatitis reaction over a stainless steel fracture plate was described in 1966. Most skin reactions are eczematous and allergic in nature, although urticarial, bullous......, and vasculitic eruptions may occur. Also, more complex immune reactions may develop around the implants, resulting in pain, inflammation, and loosening. Nickel, cobalt, and chromium are the three most common metals that elicit both cutaneous and extracutaneous allergic reactions from chronic internal exposure...

  1. Delay-induced Turing-like waves for one-species reaction-diffusion model on a network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Julien; Carletti, Timoteo; Asllani, Malbor; Fanelli, Duccio

    2015-09-01

    A one-species time-delay reaction-diffusion system defined on a complex network is studied. Traveling waves are predicted to occur following a symmetry-breaking instability of a homogeneous stationary stable solution, subject to an external nonhomogeneous perturbation. These are generalized Turing-like waves that materialize in a single-species populations dynamics model, as the unexpected byproduct of the imposed delay in the diffusion part. Sufficient conditions for the onset of the instability are mathematically provided by performing a linear stability analysis adapted to time-delayed differential equations. The method here developed exploits the properties of the Lambert W-function. The prediction of the theory are confirmed by direct numerical simulation carried out for a modified version of the classical Fisher model, defined on a Watts-Strogatz network and with the inclusion of the delay.

  2. Paradoxical effect of pertussis toxin on the delayed hypersensitivity response to autoantigens in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajwahrdhan Yadav

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis toxin (PTX, an exotoxin of Bordetella pertussis, enhances the development of experimental autoimmune diseases such as experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in rodent models. The mechanisms of the promotion of experimental autoimmune diseases by PTX may be based upon PTX-induced disruption of the blood eye/brain barriers facilitating the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the modulation of inflammatory cell migration and the enhancement of the activation of inflammatory cells. We hypothesized that the facilitation of experimental autoimmunity by PTX suggests that its influence on the in vivo immune response to auto-antigen may differ from its influence on non-self antigens.We have evaluated the effect of PTX on the simultaneous generation of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH responses and autoimmune responses to uveitogenic interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein peptide (IRBP161-180, encephalitogenic myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55 or ovalbumin (OVA. PTX injection of mice immunized to IRBP peptide161-180 led to (i the development of EAU as shown by histopathology of the retina, (ii pro-inflammatory cytokine production by splenocytes in response to IRBP peptide161-180, and (iii symptomatic EAE in mice immunized with encephalitogenic MOG peptide35-55. However, mice that received PTX had a reduced DTH response to IRBP161-180 peptide or MOG peptide35-55 when challenged distal to the site affected by autoreactive T cells. Moreover, footpad challenge with MOG35-55 peptide reduced EAE in mice immunized with MOG peptide. In contrast, the use of PTX when immunizing with OVA protein or an OVA immunogenic peptide did not affect the DTH response to OVA.The results suggest that that the reduced DTH response in mice receiving PTX may be specific for autoantigens and autoantigen-reactive T cells are diverted away from ectopic sites that received the autoantigen and towards

  3. Dynamical Behaviors of Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion Cohen-Grossberg Neural Networks with Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates dynamical behaviors of stochastic Cohen-Grossberg neural network with delays and reaction diffusion. By employing Lyapunov method, Poincaré inequality and matrix technique, some sufficient criteria on ultimate boundedness, weak attractor, and asymptotic stability are obtained. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the correctness and effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  4. Acute hypersensitivity reaction to Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (CroFab) as initial presentation of galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizer, Justin; Brill, Kaitlin; Charlton, Nathan; King, Joshua

    2017-08-01

    Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom (CroFab), commonly used for the treatment of clinically significant North American crotalinae envenomation, is generally well-tolerated. A novel form of anaphylaxis due to an IgE antibody response to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) has been established following red-meat consumption as well as IV administration of cetuximab, which contain the α-gal epitope. We present a case of α-gal allergy discovered after acute hypersensitivity reaction to FabAV. A 61-year-old healthy female was bitten on her left ankle by Agkistrodon contortrix. Given the patient's rapid progression of pain and swelling, she was given FabAV. During infusion of FabAV, she developed diffuse hives over her entire body and itching, but denied respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms and her vital signs remained stable. The FabAV was immediately discontinued and she received intravenous diphenhydramine and famotidine with gradual resolution of symptoms. On further discussion, she denied a history of α-gal or papaya allergy but rarely ate red meat and endorsed sustaining frequent tick bites. Subsequent antibody testing was significant for an α-1,3-galactose IgE concentration of 45,000 U/L (normal allergy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of FabAV hypersensitivity associated with an underlying α-gal allergy.

  5. Hypersensitive tourists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    This research note sets forth a new agendum for sensuous tourism scholarship. It departs in the neglected study of the embodied life of hypersensitive tourists, and argues that the ambiguousness of the sensuous be better understood. To contextualise this argument the following suggests that aller......This research note sets forth a new agendum for sensuous tourism scholarship. It departs in the neglected study of the embodied life of hypersensitive tourists, and argues that the ambiguousness of the sensuous be better understood. To contextualise this argument the following suggests...... that allergic tourists make up a contemporary and increasingly relevant empirical field through which to illuminate the dark sides of the sensuous. Finally, the note develops four analytical dimensions that structure critical sensuous scholarship....

  6. Delaying gratification depends on social trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelson, Laura; de la Vega, Alejandro; Chatham, Christopher H.; Munakata, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification is hard, yet predictive of important life outcomes, such as academic achievement and physical health. Prominent theories focus on the role of self-control, hypersensitivity to immediate rewards, and the cost of time spent waiting. However, delaying gratification may also require trust in people delivering future rewards as promised. To test the role of social trust, participants were presented with character vignettes and faces that varied in trustworthiness, and then choose between hypothetical smaller immediate or larger delayed rewards from those characters. Across two experiments, participants were less willing to wait for delayed rewards from less trustworthy characters, and perceived trustworthiness predicted willingness to delay gratification. These findings provide the first demonstration of a causal role for social trust in willingness to delay gratification, independent of other relevant factors, such as self-control or reward history. Thus, delaying gratification requires choosing not only a later reward, but a reward that is potentially less likely to be delivered, when there is doubt about the person promising it. Implications of this work include the need to revise prominent theories of delay of gratification, and new directions for interventions with populations characterized by impulsivity. PMID:23801977

  7. Delaying gratification depends on social trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eMichaelson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Delaying gratification is hard, yet predictive of important life outcomes, such as academic achievement and physical health. Prominent theories focus on the role of self-control, hypersensitivity to immediate rewards, and the cost of time spent waiting. However, delaying gratification may also require trust in people delivering future rewards as promised. To test the role of social trust, participants were presented with character vignettes and faces that varied in trustworthiness, and then chose between hypothetical smaller immediate or larger delayed rewards from those characters. Across two experiments, participants were less willing to wait for delayed rewards from less trustworthy characters, and perceived trustworthiness predicted willingness to delay gratification. These findings provide the first demonstration of a causal role for social trust in willingness to delay gratification, independent of other relevant factors, such as self-control or reward history. Thus, delaying gratification requires choosing not only a later reward, but a reward that is potentially less likely to be delivered, when there is doubt about the person promising it. Implications of this work include the need to revise prominent theories of delay of gratification, and new directions for interventions with populations characterized by impulsivity.

  8. HLA-A*31:01 and HLA-B*15:02 as genetic markers for carbamazepine hypersensitivity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstutz, Ursula; Ross, Colin J.D.; Castro-Pastrana, Lucila I.; Rieder, Michael J.; Shear, Neil H.; Hayden, Michael R.; Carleton, Bruce C.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of hypersensitivity reactions including rare but life-threatening Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (HSS) limits the use of the anticonvulsant carbamazepine (CBZ). HLA-B*15:02 and HLA-A*31:01 have been identified as predictive genetic markers for CBZ hypersensitivity in Asian and European patients. To replicate these genetic associations in pediatric patients from North America with a diverse ethnic background, we investigated HLA-A*31:01 and HLA-B*15:02 in 42 children with CBZ hypersensitivity, and 91 CBZ-tolerant children from across Canada. HLA-A*31:01 was significantly associated with CBZ-HSS (odds ratio (OR): 26.4, p=0.0025) and maculopapular exanthems (OR: 8.6, p=0.0037), but not with CBZ-SJS. Conversely, HLA-B*15:02 was associated with CBZ-SJS (OR: 38.6, p=0.002), but not HSS and maculopapular exanthems. This study is the first to demonstrate the association of HLA-A*31:01 with CBZ hypersensitivity in children, providing important replication of this association and highlighting the importance of HLA-A*31:01 as a predictive biomarker across various ancestries. PMID:23588310

  9. A SAFE PROTOCOL FOR RAPID DESENSITIZATION IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS AND ANTIBIOTIC HYPERSENSITIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legere, Henry J.; Palis, Ross I.; Bouza, Tito Rodriguez; Uluer, Ahmet Z.; Castells, Mariana C.

    2009-01-01

    Background CF patients often demonstrate hypersensitivity to one or multiple antibiotics due to frequent and repeated exposures. Attempts at antibiotic desensitization in this population are historically complicated by higher reaction rates, failure to complete the procedure and consequent withholding of first-line therapy. This study evaluates the outcomes of a rapid desensitization protocol developed at our institution. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 15 patients undergoing 52 rapid antibiotic desensitizations at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Children’s Hospital Boston utilizing our protocol. Results Mean FEV1 % predicted was 44.1 (SD 16.5), with two patients at desensitized during bilateral lung transplantation. Adverse reactions during desensitization occurred in 13.4%, and most were mild. 100% of patients completed the protocol and ultimately tolerated subsequent full-strength antibiotic courses. Conclusions CF patients with antibiotic hypersensitivity can safely receive first-line antibiotics via our rapid desensitization protocol, including those with severe obstructive lung disease. PMID:19740711

  10. Our experiences with the use of atopy patch test in the diagnosis of cow's milk hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustisek, Nives; Jaklin-Kekez, Alemka; Frkanec, Ruza; Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Misak, Zrinjka; Jadresin, Oleg; Kolacek, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Atopy patch test has been recognized as a diagnostic tool for the verification of food allergies in infants and small children suffering from atopic dermatitis. The test also has a role in the diagnosis of food allergies characterized by clinical signs associated with the digestive system. Yet, in spite of numerous studies, the test itself has hitherto not been standardized. Our study enlisted 151 children less than two years of age, who exhibited suspect skin and/or gastrointestinal manifestations of food allergy to cow's milk, and in whom tests failed to prove early type of allergic reaction. Atopy patch test was positive in 28% of the children with atopic dermatitis, 43% of the children with suspect gastrointestinal manifestation and 32% of the children with skin and gastrointestinal manifestations of food allergy. In our experience, atopy patch test is an excellent addition to the hitherto used tests for the diagnosis of food allergies. It targets specifically delayed type hypersensitivity reactions, which are difficult to confirm with other diagnostic tools. It is furthermore simple to perform, noninvasive and produces a minimum of undesired side effects. For these reasons, it should become part of the routine diagnostic toolset for food allergies to cow's milk in infants and children, and applied before a food challenge test.

  11. Expression of CD73 slows down migration of skin dendritic cells, affecting the sensitization phase of contact hypersensitivity reactions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, A; Ring, S; Silva-Vilches, C; Schrader, J; Enk, A; Mahnke, K

    2017-09-01

    Application of haptens to the skin induces release of immune stimulatory ATP into the extracellular space. This "danger" signal can be converted to immunosuppressive adenosine (ADO) by the action of the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73, expressed by skin and immune cells. Thus, the expression and regulation of CD73 by skin derived cells may have crucial influence on the outcome of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions. To investigate the role of CD73 expression during 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) induced CHS reactions. Wild type (wt) and CD73 deficient mice were subjected to TNCB induced CHS. In the different mouse strains the resulting ear swelling reaction was recorded along with a detailed phenotypic analysis of the skin migrating subsets of dendritic cells (DC). In CD73 deficient animals the motility of DC was higher as compared to wt animals and in particular after sensitization we found increased migration of Langerin + DC from skin to draining lymph nodes (LN). In the TNCB model this led to a stronger sensitization as indicated by increased frequency of interferon-γ producing T cells in the LN and an increased ear thickness after challenge. CD73 derived ADO production slows down migration of Langerin + DC from skin to LN. This may be a crucial mechanism to avoid over boarding immune reactions against haptens. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of neuromuscular training on the reaction time and electromechanical delay of the peroneus longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Christena W; Hopkins, J Ty; Schulthies, Shane S; Freland, Brent; Draper, David O; Hunter, Iain

    2006-03-01

    To examine the influence of a 6-week neuromuscular training program on the electromechanical delay and reaction time of the peroneus longus muscle. A 2 x 2 pre-post factorial design. Human performance research center biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-six healthy, physically active, college-age subjects were recruited for this study and 26 completed it. There were 5 men and 8 women in the treatment group (mean age +/- standard deviation, 21.9+/-2.1 y; height, 173.7+/-11.1cm; weight, 67.4+/-17.8 kg) and 6 men and 7 women in the control group (age, 21.8+/-2.3 y; height, 173.7+/-11.9 cm; weight, 70.8+/-19.4 kg). Subjects were not currently experiencing any lower-extremity pathology and had no history of injuries requiring treatment to either lower extremity. Subjects in the treatment group completed a 6-week neuromuscular training program involving various therapeutic exercises. Subjects in the control group were asked to continue their normal physical activity during the 6-week period. The electromechanical delay of the peroneus longus was determined by the onset of force contribution after artificial activation, as measured by electromyographic and forceplate data. Reaction time was measured after a perturbation during walking. Data were analyzed using two 2 x 2 analyses of covariance (covariate pretest score). Group (treatment, control) and sex (male, female) were between-subject factors. Neuromuscular training caused a decrease in reaction time to perturbation during walking compared with controls (F=4.030, P=.029), while there was a trend toward an increase in electromechanical delay (F=4.227, P=.052). There was no significant difference between sexes or the interaction of sex and treatment in either reaction time or electromechanical delay. The 6-week training program significantly reduced reaction time of the peroneus longus muscle in healthy subjects. Neuromuscular training may have a beneficial effect on improving dynamic restraint during activity.

  13. Allergic reaction to polysulphone membrane dialyser masquerading as infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaya, Japheth E; Jacobson, Mitchell S; Esprit, Don; Ajayi, Tokunbo

    2015-02-18

    Hypersensitivity reactions during haemodialysis are well documented in the literature. Most dialysis membrane reactions occur with ethylene oxide or non-biocompatible membranes and less frequently with biocompatible membranes. The symptoms are non-specific except for the temporal relationship typically occurring during the haemodialysis. Patients who present with the non-classic type of reaction pose a diagnostic challenge and clinicians must have a high index of suspicion. We present a non-classic presentation of a hypersensitivity reaction to a polysulfone membrane dialyser with recurrent fevers during and after haemodialysis, initially thought to be due to infection. After a series of negative work ups for infection, dialysis membrane reaction was considered and the patient improved after change of the membrane. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of electrical propagation delay with cardiomyocytes by photosensitization reaction in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Marika; Ogawa, Emiyu; Arai, Tsunenori

    2017-02-01

    In order to study cardiomyocyte electrical conduction damage by a photosensitization reaction (PR) mostly comes from outside of the cells in a few minutes after the PR, we studied propagation delay of contact action potential with cardiomyocyte by the PR. To determine appropriate PR condition for tachyarrhythmia ablation, a precise electrophysiological experiment in vitro has been preferable. We measured the contact action potential using a microelectrode array system of which information may be correct than conventional Ca2+ measurement. We investigated the propagation delays of an evoked potential to evaluate the electrical conduction damage by the PR. Rat cardiomyocytes were cultivated for 5-7 days on a dish with which 64 electrodes were patterned, in an incubator controlled to 37°C, 5% CO2. The following conditions were used for the PR: 40 μg/ml talapordfin sodium and 290 mW/cm2, 40-78 J/cm2 for an irradiation. A 2D map was obtained to visualize the propagation delays of the evoked potential. The propagation speed, which was calculated based on the measured propagation delays, was decreased by about 30-50% on average of all electrodes after the PR. Therefore, we think 2D propagation delays measurement of the evoked potential with contact action potential measuring system might be available to evaluate the acute electrical conduction damage of cardiomyocyte by the PR.

  15. Hypersensitivity Reaction and Tolerance Induction to Ethambutol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Rodrigues Cernadas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death worldwide from any infectious agent and the alarming increase in the annual incidence of new cases has been described as a global emergency. Mycobacterium infection requires simultaneous administration of multiple drugs. Although the majority of treatment courses progress with minor side effects, adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs occur in about 5% of treated patients and can be responsible for cessation or switching the therapy. Both nonimmediate (mostly maculopapular rash and immediate reactions (urticarial reactions have been described with these drugs. The main problem is the occurrence of reactions while the patient is on treatment with multiple drugs. The diagnosis of the culprit drug is mostly based on stopping all medication, followed by the reintroduction of each drug with a time interval of four to five days. An alternative drug should be the first approach if it is equally effective. Most of the times, none of the alternative drugs are as effective as the culprit. If this is the case, a desensitization procedure should be performed. The authors describe a case of a woman with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC infection, to whom treatment with ethambutol was crucial to recovery, and present a modified desensitization protocol to this drug.

  16. Making Sense of Metal Allergy and Hypersensitivity to Metallic Implants in Relation to Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Thomas J; Samant, Shefali A; Shin, Alexander Y

    2017-09-01

    All metals implanted into a biological system undergo some degree of corrosion depending upon its composition. The electrochemical process of corrosion produces free metal ions, which may activate the host's immune system through a variety of mechanisms. Whereas dermal metal hypersensitivity is common, affecting 10% to 15% of the population, the immune reaction from implanted metals is much less common (allergy and hypersensitivity producing a multitude of patient symptoms. Superficial symptoms may be mild to severe forms of dermatitis, urticaria, pruritus, and vasculitis, whereas deep sequelae include metallosis-related pseudotumor, implant loosening, and joint stiffness. Currently, there are clinical tests to evaluate patients for metal hypersensitivity, but there is little agreement regarding the ideal timing and clinical situation prompting the work-up of a patient for a metal allergy or hypersensitivity. An understanding of the epidemiology, etiology, basic science, diagnostic testing, and treatment of patients with suspected metal allergy, as it pertains to the current literature, will aid orthopedic and plastic surgeons of all subspecialties in the management of patients requiring metallic implants. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypersensitivity to local anaesthetics--update and proposal of evaluation algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Elberling, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    of patients suspected with immediate- and delayed-type immune reactions. Literature was examined using PubMed-Medline, EMBASE, Biosis and Science Citation Index. Based on the literature, the proposed algorithm may safely and rapidly distinguish between immediate-type and delayed-type allergic immune reactions....

  18. Drug allergy passport and other documentation for patients with drug hypersensitivity - An ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group Position Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brockow, K.; Aberer, W.; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M.; Bavbek, S.; Bircher, A.; Bilo, B.; Blanca, M.; Bonadonna, P.; Burbach, G.; Calogiuri, G.; Caruso, C.; Celik, G.; Cernadas, J.; Chiriac, A.; Demoly, P.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; Fernandez, J.; Gomes, E.; Garvey, L. H.; Gooi, J.; Gotua, M.; Grosber, M.; Kauppi, P.; Kvedariene, V.; Laguna, J. J.; Makowska, J. S.; Mosbech, H.; Nakonechna, A.; Papadopolous, N. G.; Ring, J.; Romano, A.; Rockmann, H.; Sargur, R.; Sedlackova, L.; Sigurdardottir, S.; Schnyder, B.; Storaas, T.; Torres, M.; Zidarn, M.; Terreehorst, I.

    2016-01-01

    The strongest and best-documented risk factor for drug hypersensitivity (DH) is the history of a previous reaction. Accidental exposures to drugs may lead to severe or even fatal reactions in sensitized patients. Preventable prescription errors are common. They are often due to inadequate medical

  19. Evaluation of the irritancy and hypersensitivity potential following topical application of didecyldimethylammonium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Shane, Hillary; Long, Carrie; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B. Jean; Marshall, Nikki B.

    2016-01-01

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is a dialkyl-quaternary ammonium compound that is used in numerous products for its bactericidal, virucidal and fungicidal properties. There have been clinical reports of immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions in exposed individuals; however, the sensitization potential of DDAC has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the irritancy and sensitization potential of DDAC following dermal exposure in a murine model. DDAC induced significant irritancy (0.5 and 1%), evaluated by ear swelling in female Balb/c mice. Initial evaluation of the sensitization potential was conducted using the local lymph node assay (LLNA) at concentrations ranging from 0.0625–1%. A concentration-dependent increase in lymphocyte proliferation was observed with a calculated EC3 value of 0.17%. Dermal exposure to DDAC did not induce increased production of IgE as evaluated by phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node B-cells (IgE+B220+) and measurement of total serum IgE levels. Additional phenotypic analyses revealed significant and dose-responsive increases in the absolute number of B-cells, CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells and dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes, along with significant increases in the percentage of B-cells (0.25% and 1% DDAC) at Day 10 following 4 days of dermal exposure. There was also a significant and dose-responsive increase in the number of activated CD44 + CD4 + and CD8+ T-cells and CD86+ B-cells and dendritic cells following exposure to all concentrations of DDAC. These results demonstrate the potential for development of irritation and hypersensitivity responses to DDAC following dermal exposure and raise concerns about the use of this chemical and other quaternary ammonium compounds that may elicit similar effects. PMID:27216637

  20. Stability and Hopf Bifurcation of a Reaction-Diffusion Neutral Neuron System with Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tao; Xia, Linmao

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a type of reaction-diffusion neutral neuron system with time delay under homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions is considered. By constructing a basis of phase space based on the eigenvectors of the corresponding Laplace operator, the characteristic equation of this system is obtained. Then, by selecting time delay and self-feedback strength as the bifurcating parameters respectively, the dynamic behaviors including local stability and Hopf bifurcation near the zero equilibrium point are investigated when the time delay and self-feedback strength vary. Furthermore, the direction of the Hopf bifurcation and the stability of bifurcating periodic solutions are obtained by using the normal form and the center manifold theorem for the corresponding partial differential equation. Finally, two simulation examples are given to verify the theory.

  1. A randomised controlled trial of two infusion rates to decrease reactions to antivenom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K Isbister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake envenoming is a major clinical problem in Sri Lanka, with an estimated 40,000 bites annually. Antivenom is only available from India and there is a high rate of systemic hypersensitivity reactions. This study aimed to investigate whether the rate of infusion of antivenom reduced the frequency of severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a randomized comparison trial of two infusion rates of antivenom for treatment of non-pregnant adult patients (>14 y with snake envenoming in Sri Lanka. Snake identification was by patient or hospital examination of dead snakes when available and confirmed by enzyme-immunoassay for Russell's viper envenoming. Patients were blindly allocated in a 11 randomisation schedule to receive antivenom either as a 20 minute infusion (rapid or a two hour infusion (slow. The primary outcome was the proportion with severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions (grade 3 by Brown grading system within 4 hours of commencement of antivenom. Secondary outcomes included the proportion with mild/moderate hypersensitivity reactions and repeat antivenom doses. Of 1004 patients with suspected snakebites, 247 patients received antivenom. 49 patients were excluded or not recruited leaving 104 patients allocated to the rapid antivenom infusion and 94 to the slow antivenom infusion. The median actual duration of antivenom infusion in the rapid group was 20 min (Interquartile range[IQR]:20-25 min versus 120 min (IQR:75-120 min in the slow group. There was no difference in severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions between those given rapid and slow infusions (32% vs. 35%; difference 3%; 95%CI:-10% to +17%;p = 0.65. The frequency of mild/moderate reactions was also similar. Similar numbers of patients in each arm received further doses of antivenom (30/104 vs. 23/94. CONCLUSIONS: A slower infusion rate would not reduce the rate of severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions from current high

  2. Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test responses to PPD and other antigens among BCG-vaccinated HIV-1-infected and healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Natalia Moriya Xavierda; Albuquerque, Maly de; Lins, Janaína Bacelar Acioli; Alvares-Junior, João Teixeira; Stefani, Mariane Martins de Araújo

    2011-10-01

    Among HIV-1-infected patients, CD4+ T cell counts are well-established markers of cell-mediated immunity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin tests can be used to evaluate in vivo cell-mediated immunity to common antigens. DTH responses to tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD), sporotrichin, trichophytin, candidin and streptokinase/streptodornase antigens were assessed. Thirty-six HIV-1-infected children/adolescents and 56 age- and sex-matched HIV-1/HIV-2-seronegative participants were tested. All participants had a BCG scar. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate significant differences between groups (pPPD positivity prevailed among healthy participants (40/56, 71.4%). PPD reactivity in the HIV-1-positive group was 8.3% (pPPD induration was 2.5mm (range: 2-5mm) in the HIV-1 group and 6.0 mm among healthy participants (range: 3-15 mm). There was no correlation between PPD positivity and age. No correlation between CD4+ T cell counts and DTH reactivity was observed among HIV-1-infected patients. DTH skin test responses, including PPD reactivity, were significantly lower among HIV-1-infected participants compared to healthy controls, which likely reflects advanced disease and T cell depletion.

  3. Multiple hypersensitivity to mutagens in a cell strain (46BR) derived from a patient with immuno-deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, I.A.; Arlett, C.F.; Harcourt, S.A.; Priestley, A.; Broughton, B.C.

    1983-01-01

    46BR is a fibroblast cell strain established from an individual with hypogammaglobulinaemia. The cells are unique in showing hypersensitivity to the lethal effects of a wide range of DNA-damaging agents. Thus they are hypersensitive to #betta#- and 254-nm UV-irradiation and show a limited capacity to repair potentially lethal #betta#-irradiation damage when compared with fibroblasts from normal individuals. A slight hypersensitivity to mitomycin C was also revealed but we were not able to discriminate 46BR from normals with 4-nitroquinoline oxide. The cells were hypersensitive to the alkylating agents, dimethyl sulphate, methyl methanesulphonate, ethyl methanesulphonate, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea but not N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. A consideration of the spectra of DNA lesions produced by these alkylating agents together with the sensitivity to ionising radiation and mitomycin C suggests that 46BR cells are defective in a repair step that is common to all agents. We suggest that the cells are defective in DNA polymerisation or ligation. Support for this suggestion comes from the absence of any hypersensitivity to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea since its major reaction products are not removed by excision pathways that require polymerisation and ligation. (orig.)

  4. [Delayed reactions of active avoidance in white rats under conditions of an alternative choice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioseliani, T K; Sikharulidze, N I; Kadagishvili, A Ia; Mitashvili, E G

    1995-01-01

    It was shown that if the rats had been learned and then tested using conventional pain punishment of erroneous choice they were able to solve the problem of alternative choice only in the period of immediate action of conditioned stimuli. If the pain punishment for erroneously chosen compartment had not been applied in animal learning and testing, rats successfully solved the problem of alternative choice even after 5-second delay. Introduction of pain punishment led to the frustration of earlier elaborated delayed avoidance reactions. Analysis of the obtained results allows us to argue that the apparent incapability of white rats for solving the problems of delayed avoidance is caused by simultaneous action of two different mechanisms, i.e., those of the active and passive avoidance rather than short-term memory deficit.

  5. Subgroups of Paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Might Differ Significantly in Genetic Predisposition to Asparaginase Hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kutszegi

    Full Text Available L-asparaginase (ASP is a key element in the treatment of paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL. However, hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs to ASP are major challenges in paediatric patients. Our aim was to investigate genetic variants that may influence the risk to Escherichia coli-derived ASP hypersensitivity. Sample and clinical data collection was carried out from 576 paediatric ALL patients who were treated according to protocols from the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study Group. A total of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in GRIA1 and GALNT10 genes were genotyped. Patients with GRIA1 rs4958351 AA/AG genotype showed significantly reduced risk to ASP hypersensitivity compared to patients with GG genotype in the T-cell ALL subgroup (OR = 0.05 (0.01-0.26; p = 4.70E-04, while no such association was found in pre-B-cell ALL. In the medium risk group two SNPs of GRIA1 (rs2055083 and rs707176 were associated significantly with the occurrence of ASP hypersensitivity (OR = 0.21 (0.09-0.53; p = 8.48E-04 and OR = 3.02 (1.36-6.73; p = 6.76E-03, respectively. Evaluating the genders separately, however, the association of rs707176 with ASP HSRs was confined only to females. Our results suggest that genetic variants of GRIA1 might influence the risk to ASP hypersensitivity, but subgroups of patients can differ significantly in this respect.

  6. Global dynamics of a nonlocal delayed reaction-diffusion equation on a half plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenjie; Duan, Yueliang

    2018-04-01

    We consider a delayed reaction-diffusion equation with spatial nonlocality on a half plane that describes population dynamics of a two-stage species living in a semi-infinite environment. A Neumann boundary condition is imposed accounting for an isolated domain. To describe the global dynamics, we first establish some a priori estimate for nontrivial solutions after investigating asymptotic properties of the nonlocal delayed effect and the diffusion operator, which enables us to show the permanence of the equation with respect to the compact open topology. We then employ standard dynamical system arguments to establish the global attractivity of the nontrivial equilibrium. The main results are illustrated by the diffusive Nicholson's blowfly equation and the diffusive Mackey-Glass equation.

  7. Evaluation of basophil activation test in suspected food hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatti, Patrizia; Yacoub, Mona-Rita; Testoni, Claudia; Pala, Gianni; Corsetti, Maura; Colombo, Giselda; Meriggi, Antonio; Moscato, Gianna

    2017-07-01

    Food hypersensitivity is characterized by a wide range of symptoms. The relationship between symptoms and food is more frequently suspected than objectively proven. Basophil activation test (BAT) is based on the evaluation of activation markers on blood basophils in vitro stimulated with drugs or allergens. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of BAT when introduced in the routine work-up of suspected food hypersensitivity. BAT was requested in subjects with food adverse reactions when a discrepancy existed among history and skin prick test (SPT) and/or specific IgE. Data from 150 subjects were analysed using CD63 as basophil activation marker. Thirty controls were evaluated for cut-offs. Immunoblots was performed with the sera of representative subjects positive for BAT and negative for SPT and sIgE. 1,024 BAT were carried out, the agreement (positive/positive and negative/negative) was 78.5% for BAT vs. SPT and 78.3% for BAT vs. IgE. Atopic patients, but not atopic controls, more frequently had a positive BAT than non-atopic patients (P tested food) and both negative sIgE and SPT. Immunoblots revealed the presence of sIgE for the tested foods in representative patients with positive BAT, negative SPT and sIgE. Introduction of BAT in routine of food hypersensitivity, limited to subjects with a discrepancy between history and traditional tests, might be useful particularly when total IgE are low. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  8. RhoA/ROCK Signaling Pathway Mediates Shuanghuanglian Injection-Induced Pseudo-allergic Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiayin; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Yushi; Li, Chunying; Yi, Yan; Pan, Chen; Tian, Jingzhuo; Yang, Yifei; Cui, Hongyu; Wang, Lianmei; Liu, Suyan; Liu, Jing; Deng, Nuo; Liang, Aihua

    2018-01-01

    Background: Shuanghuanglian injection (SHLI) is a famous Chinese medicine used as an intravenous preparation for the treatment of acute respiratory tract infections. In the recent years, the immediate hypersensitivity reactions induced by SHLI have attracted broad attention. However, the mechanism involved in these reactions has not yet been elucidated. The present study aims to explore the characteristics of the immediate hypersensitivity reactions induced by SHLI and deciphers the role of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway in these reactions. Methods: SHLI-immunized mice or naive mice were intravenously injected (i.v.) with SHLI (600 mg/kg) once, and vascular leakage in the ears was evaluated. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test was conducted using sera collected from SHLI-immunized mice. Naive mice were administered (i.v.) with a single dose of 150, 300, or 600 mg/kg of SHLI, and vascular leakage, histamine release, and histopathological alterations in the ears, lungs, and intestines were tested. In vitro , human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer was incubated with SHLI (0.05, 0.1, or 0.15 mg/mL), and the changes in endothelial permeability and cytoskeleton were observed. Western blot analysis was performed and ROCK inhibitor was employed to investigate the contribution of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway in SHLI-induced hypersensitivity reactions, both in HUVECs and in mice. Results: Our results indicate that SHLI was able to cause immediate dose-dependent vascular leakage, edema, and exudates in the ears, lungs, and intestines, and histamine release in mice. These were pseudo-allergic reactions, as SHLI-specific IgE was not elicited during sensitization. In addition, SHLI induced reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and disrupted the endothelial barrier. The administration of SHLI directly activated the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway both in HUVECs and in the ears, lungs, and intestines of mice. Fasudil hydrochloride, a ROCK inhibitor, ameliorated the

  9. Morphology of vascular changes in cases of delayed radiation reactions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, U.

    1981-01-01

    In 6 autopsies, the author presents clinical and pathological - anatomic findings which are said to be a radiotherapy. According to these findings, the vascular changes in the region which had been irradiated are of special interest as important morphological substrates of a delayed radiation reaction. In the clinical picture, this is often misinterpreted as a recurrence of a tumour which, in the worst case, causes another radiotherapy. These vascular changes can remain latent for a long time until the increasing repair burden of the nerve and vascular tissue finally causes neurological and psychological failures. A simultaneous combination of the tumour recurrence and radiation reaction, which is also possible, can lead to pictures which are difficult to differentiate clinically and which can be correctly interpreted only in the autopsy. Decisive factors in the development of a delayed radiation reaction of the nerve tissue are, according to present knowledge, excessive doses in radiotherapy and/or an insufficient fractioning. As other factors which may possibly be decisive we must, in radiotherapy, consider the patient's age, chronic accompanying diseases, regenerative ability of the tissue concerned, and also a genetic disposition. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Immunologic basis for adverse reactions to radiographic contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stejskal, V; Nilsson, R; Grepe, A [Astra Pharmaceuticals AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden). Lab. of Safety Assessment Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Genetic and Cellular Toxicology Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Wallenberglaboratoriet Danderyds Sjukhus, Danderyd (Sweden). Radiologic Clinic

    1990-11-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) was used to elucidate whether certain side effects induced by radiographic contrast media have an immunologic etiology. Groups studied were: 8 patients who had previously experienced adverse reactions in association with urography, 6 patients who underwent urography without notable side reactions, 17 occupationally exposed nurses, and 9 unexposed controls. The lymphocytes from 2 hypersensitive patients and from 11 nurses exhibited a positive proliferative response to amidotrizoate. Five nurses who had shown a positive response, had a previous history of hypersensitivity reactions when handling contrast media, whereas the remaining 6 were free of symptoms. Amidotrizoatespecific memory cells were absent in patients who underwent urography without signs of hypersensitivity and in 7/9 of unexposed control subjects. Lymphocytes from patients sensitive to amidotrizoate cross-reacted to structurally related ionic contrast media while nonionic contrast agents did not induce proliferation of the lymphocytes. Thus, ionic radiographic contrast agents have antigenic properties in man. Irradiated mixtures of radiographic contrast media and serum proteins were, in general, not effective in inducing an LTT response. (orig.).

  11. Immunologic basis for adverse reactions to radiographic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskal, V.; Nilsson, R.; Grepe, A.; Stockholm Univ.; Stockholm Univ.; Danderyds Sjukhus, Danderyd

    1990-01-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) was used to elucidate whether certain side effects induced by radiographic contrast media have an immunologic etiology. Groups studied were: 8 patients who had previously experienced adverse reactions in association with urography, 6 patients who underwent urography without notable side reactions, 17 occupationally exposed nurses, and 9 unexposed controls. The lymphocytes from 2 hypersensitive patients and from 11 nurses exhibited a positive proliferative response to amidotrizoate. Five nurses who had shown a positive response, had a previous history of hypersensitivity reactions when handling contrast media, whereas the remaining 6 were free of symptoms. Amidotrizoatespecific memory cells were absent in patients who underwent urography without signs of hypersensitivity and in 7/9 of unexposed control subjects. Lymphocytes from patients sensitive to amidotrizoate cross-reacted to structurally related ionic contrast media while nonionic contrast agents did not induce proliferation of the lymphocytes. Thus, ionic radiographic contrast agents have antigenic properties in man. Irradiated mixtures of radiographic contrast media and serum proteins were, in general, not effective in inducing an LTT response. (orig.)

  12. Association between Severity of Tooth Wear and Dentinal Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Ayer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Tooth wear (attrition, abrasion, erosion, and abfraction is perceived globally as ever increasing problem. Several outcome of the tooth wear are hypersensitivity, esthetic problems, functional impairment, annoyance to the patient, and fracture of the tooth. Among these, the measurable and more commonly reported outcome is hypersensitivity to stimuli. Although dentin hypersensitivity is a common clinical condition and is generally reported by the patient after experiencing a sharp, short pain caused by one of the several different external stimuli, it is often inadequately understood. None of the scientific literature available till date attempted to establish the relationship between tooth wear and dentin hypersensitivity which could be a key factor in monitoring those patients.  The aim of the study was to estimate the association between severity of teeth wear and sensitivity in the patients with reported dentinal hypersensitivity.Materials & Methods: Fifty patients with dentin hypersensitivity were investigated for tooth wear. Tooth wear measured using exact tooth wear index and level of sensitivity to stimuli was recorded using a numerical rating scale. Results: Enamel wear at cervical region of teeth showed a positive correlation (p=.010, similarly, dentin wear at cervical region of teeth showed positive correlation and significant association (p<.001 with dentinal hypersensitivity.Conclusion: The observation supports a significant association between severities of tooth surface wear and dentinal hypersensitivity.

  13. Hypersensitivity Reaction and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Pyrethroid Poisoning and Role of Steroid Therapy

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    Jisa George

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrethroids are generally of low toxicity to humans, but in suicidal poisonings which are usually associated with ingestion of high doses, they lead to severe systemic effects. Case Report: A 30-year old woman presented to emergency department with a history of intentional ingestion of about 15 mL of prallethrin around 3 days earlier. She complained of shortness of breath along with chest pain for the last 2 days. She reported no vomiting or stomach pain prior to presentation to hospital. On chest auscultation, breath sounds were mildly decreased in bilateral infrascapular areas with generalized crepitation. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed respiratory alkalosis. Chest X ray and computed tomography of thorax revealed widespread confluent areas of consolidation with interlobular septal thickening involving bilateral parahilar regions suggestive of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The patient did not respond to broad spectrum antibiotic coverage, diuretics and oxygen inhalation. Intravenous methylprednisolone (2 mg/kg/day divided 6 hourly was started and slowly tapered off during the next days. The patient discharged after 3 weeks in good health. Discussion: As pyrethroids can affect sodium channels, the osmotic gradient of alveolar epithelium probably disrupts and therefore, alveolar infiltrations gradually spread over lungs. In addition, there is a possibility of hypersensitivity reactions to pyrethroids, which can cause progressive inflammation and involve respiratory tract in severe cases. Conclusion: Pyrethroid poisoning can lead to ARDS. Steroid therapy may help such patients tide over the pulmonary crisis.

  14. Anaphylactic reaction to polyethylene-glycol conjugated-asparaginase: premedication and desensitization may not be sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Umit M; Yavuz, S Tolga; Gökce, Muge; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Altan, Ilhan; Aytac, Selin; Tuncer, Murat; Tuncer, Ayfer; Sackesen, Cansin

    2013-08-01

    In hypersensitive reactions to native L-asparaginase, either premedication and desensitization or substitution with polyethylene glycol conjugated asparaginase (PEG-ASP) is preferred. Anaphylaxis with PEG-ASP is rare. An 8-year-old girl and a 2.5-year-old boy, both diagnosed as having acute lymphoblastic leukemia, presented with native L-asparaginase hypersensitivity and substitution with PEG-ASP was preferred. They received a premedication (methylprednisolone, hydroxyzine and ranitidine) followed by desensitization with PEG-ASP infusion. Both patients developed anaphylaxis with peg-asparaginase. These are the first reported cases of anaphylactic reaction to PEG-ASP, despite the application of both premedication and desensitization. Anaphylaxis with PEG-ASP is very rare and premedication and desensitization protocols may not prevent these hypersensitive reactions. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Depletion of regulatory T cells leads to an exacerbation of delayedtype hypersensitivity arthritis in C57BL/6 mice that can be counteracted by IL-17 blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkinson, Sara Marie; Hoffmann, Ute; Bach, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Rodent models of arthritis have been extensively used in the elucidation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis and are instrumental in the development of therapeutic strategies. Here we utilise delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis (DTHA), a model in C57BL/6 mice affecting one paw with sync......Rodent models of arthritis have been extensively used in the elucidation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis and are instrumental in the development of therapeutic strategies. Here we utilise delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis (DTHA), a model in C57BL/6 mice affecting one paw...... to rescue mice from the exacerbated disease caused by Treg depletion and caused a reduction in RANKL, IL-6 and the number of neutrophils. We show that Tregs are important for the containment of inflammation and bone remodelling in DTHA. To our knowledge, this is the first study using the Foxp3-DTR...

  16. Ignition delays, heats of combustion, and reaction rates of aluminum alkyl derivatives used as ignition and combustion enhancers for supersonic combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas W., III; Schwab, S. T.; Harlowe, W. W.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the design of supersonic combustors which will be required in order to achieve the needed reaction rates in a reasonable sized combustor. A fuel additive approach, which is the focus of this research, is the use of pyrophorics to shorten the ignition delay time and to increase the energy density of the fuel. Pyrophoric organometallic compounds may also provide an ignition source and flame stabilization mechanism within the combustor, thus permitting use of hydrocarbon fuels in supersonic combustion systems. Triethylaluminum (TEA) and trimethylaluminum (TMA) were suggested for this application due to their high energy density and reactivity. The objective here is to provide comparative data for the ignition quality, the energy content, and the reaction rates of several different adducts of both TEA and TMA. The results of the experiments indicate the aluminum alkyls and their more stable derivatives reduce the ignition delay and total reaction time to JP-10 jet fuel. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of ignition delay and total reaction time of the blends of the adducts are significantly lower than in neat JP-10.

  17. Anandamide attenuates Th-17 cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity response by triggering IL-10 production and consequent microRNA induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin R Jackson

    Full Text Available Endogenous cannabinoids [endocannabinoids] are lipid signaling molecules that have been shown to modulate immune functions. However, their role in the regulation of Th17 cells has not been studied previously. In the current study, we used methylated Bovine Serum Albumin [mBSA]-induced delayed type hypersensitivity [DTH] response in C57BL/6 mice, mediated by Th17 cells, as a model to test the anti-inflammatory effects of endocannabinoids. Administration of anandamide [AEA], a member of the endocannabinoid family, into mice resulted in significant mitigation of mBSA-induced inflammation, including foot pad swelling, cell infiltration, and cell proliferation in the draining lymph nodes [LN]. AEA treatment significantly reduced IL-17 and IFN-γ production, as well as decreased RORγt expression while causing significant induction of IL-10 in the draining LNs. IL-10 was critical for the AEA-induced mitigation of DTH response inasmuch as neutralization of IL-10 reversed the effects of AEA. We next analyzed miRNA from the LN cells and found that 100 out of 609 miRNA species were differentially regulated in AEA-treated mice when compared to controls. Several of these miRNAs targeted proinflammatory mediators. Interestingly, many of these miRNA were also upregulated upon in vitro treatment of LN cells with IL-10. Together, the current study demonstrates that AEA may suppress Th-17 cell-mediated DTH response by inducing IL-10 which in turn triggers miRNA that target proinflammatory pathways.

  18. Drug allergy passport and other documentation for patients with drug hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockow, Knut; Aberer, Werner; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M

    2016-01-01

    The strongest and best-documented risk factor for drug hypersensitivity (DH) is the history of a previous reaction. Accidental exposures to drugs may lead to severe or even fatal reactions in sensitized patients. Preventable prescription errors are common. They are often due to inadequate medical...... history or poor risk assessment of recurrence of drug reaction. Proper documentation is essential information for the doctor to make sound therapeutic decision. The European Network on Drug Allergy and Drug Allergy Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology have formed...... a task force and developed a drug allergy passport as well as general guidelines of drug allergy documentation. A drug allergy passport, a drug allergy alert card, a certificate, and a discharge letter after medical evaluation are adequate means to document DH in a patient. They are to be handed...

  19. Travelling wave and convergence in stage-structured reaction-diffusion competitive models with nonlocal delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Rui; Chaplain, M.A.J.; Davidson, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we first investigate a stage-structured competitive model with time delays, harvesting, and nonlocal spatial effect. By using an iterative technique recently developed by Wu and Zou (Wu J, Zou X. Travelling wave fronts of reaction-diffusion systems with delay. J Dynam Differen Equat 2001;13:651-87), sufficient conditions are established for the existence of travelling front solution connecting the two boundary equilibria in the case when there is no positive equilibrium. The travelling wave front corresponds to an invasion by a stronger species which drives the weaker species to extinction. Secondly, we consider a stage-structured competitive model with time delays and nonlocal spatial effect when the domain is finite. We prove the global stability of each of the nonnegative equilibria and demonstrate that the more complex model studied here admits three possible long term behaviors: coexistence, bistability and dominance as is the case for the standard Lotka-Voltera competitive model

  20. The diamine oxidase gene is associated with hypersensitivity response to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A G Agúndez

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are the drugs most frequently involved in hypersensitivity drug reactions. Histamine is released in the allergic response to NSAIDs and is responsible for some of the clinical symptoms. The aim of this study is to analyze clinical association of functional polymorphisms in the genes coding for enzymes involved in histamine homeostasis with hypersensitivity response to NSAIDs. We studied a cohort of 442 unrelated Caucasian patients with hypersensitivity to NSAIDs. Patients who experienced three or more episodes with two or more different NSAIDs were included. If this requirement was not met diagnosis was established by challenge. A total of 414 healthy unrelated controls ethnically matched with patients and from the same geographic area were recruited. Analyses of the SNPs rs17740607, rs2073440, rs1801105, rs2052129, rs10156191, rs1049742 and rs1049793 in the HDC, HNMT and DAO genes were carried out by means of TaqMan assays. The detrimental DAO 16 Met allele (rs10156191, which causes decreased metabolic capacity, is overrepresented among patients with crossed-hypersensitivity to NSAIDs with an OR  = 1.7 (95% CI  = 1.3-2.1; Pc  = 0.0003 with a gene-dose effect (P = 0.0001. The association was replicated in two populations from different geographic areas (Pc  = 0.008 and Pc  = 0.004, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The DAO polymorphism rs10156191 which causes impaired metabolism of circulating histamine is associated with the clinical response in crossed-hypersensitivity to NSAIDs and could be used as a biomarker of response.

  1. Calcitonin gene-related peptide regulates type IV hypersensitivity through dendritic cell functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihisa Mikami

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, mutual regulation of the nervous system and immune system is well studied. One of neuropeptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, is a potent regulator in immune responses; in particular, it has anti-inflammatory effects in innate immunity. For instance, a deficiency of the CGRP receptor component RAMP 1 (receptor activity-modifying protein 1 results in higher cytokine production in response to LPS (lipopolysaccharide. On the other hand, how CGRP affects DCs in adaptive immunity is largely unknown. In this study, we show that CGRP suppressed Th1 cell differentiation via inhibition of IL-12 production in DCs using an in vitro co-culture system and an in vivo ovalbumin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH model. CGRP also down-regulated the expressions of chemokine receptor CCR2 and its ligands CCL2 and CCL12 in DCs. Intriguingly, the frequency of migrating CCR2(+ DCs in draining lymph nodes of RAMP1-deficient mice was higher after DTH immunization. Moreover, these CCR2(+ DCs highly expressed IL-12 and CD80, resulting in more effective induction of Th1 differentiation compared with CCR2(- DCs. These results indicate that CGRP regulates Th1 type reactions by regulating expression of cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in DCs.

  2. Regulation of cutaneous allergic reaction by odorant inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, J; Tsuchiya, T

    2000-03-01

    Olfactory stimuli modulate emotional conditions and the whole body immune system. Effects of odorant inhalation on cutaneous immune reaction were examined. Contact hypersensitivity to 2,4, 6-trinitrochlorobenzene was elicited in C57BL/6 mice. The reaction was suppressed at both the induction and elicitation phases by exposure to an odorant, citralva. Topical application of citralva or lyral/lilial did not affect the reaction. The suppressive effect of citralva was more potent than that of another odorant, lyral/lilial. Citralva decreased the number of epidermal Langerhans cells, whereas lyral/lilial had a weak effect. Citralva but not lyral/lilial induced plasma corticosterone. Glucocorticoid receptor antagonist abrogated the suppressive effect of citralva on contact hypersensitivity. Serum interleukin-12 was downregulated by exposure to citralva or lyral/lilial. These data demonstrate that olfactory stimuli regulate the cutaneous immune system.

  3. 125I-Fibrin deposition in contact sensitivity reactions in the mouse. Sensitivity of the assay for quantitating reactions after active or passive sensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekori, Y.A.; Dvorak, H.F.; Galli, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The clotting associated with delayed hypersensitivity (DH) responses in the mouse by sensitizing the animals to the contactant oxazolone (Ox), and then administering 125 I-guinea pig fibrinogen i.v. 10 to 30 min before antigen challenge 5 days later. Early (4 to 8 hr) contact sensitivity (CS) responses in immunized mice were barely detectable by three conventional measures of CS, but the total 125 I-cpm in ears challenged with hapten was 3.6 to 4.5 x that in control ears challenged with vehicle alone; moreover, the amount of urea-insoluble cpm (cross-linked 125 I-fibrin-associated cpm) in the reactions to Ox was 6.5-fold to 8.2-fold that present in the control reactions. In 24 hr reactions that were near peak intensity by measurements of ear swelling, ear weight ratios, and ratios of 125 I-5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine-labeled leukocyte infiltration, the cpm in antigen-challenged ears exceeded that in control ears by 13-fold to 53-fold. In addition, antigen-challenged ears contained 27 to 300 x the urea-insoluble cpm present in control ears. 125 I-Fibrin deposition was not a specific characteristic of CS reactions, because a small amount of urea-insoluble reactivity was also detected in some reactions to Ox in native mice. Nevertheless, the assay was exquisitely sensitive and readily detected quantitative differences between the immunologically specific and nonspecific reactions at very early intervals after challenge or with suboptimal doses of antigen

  4. Passivity analysis for uncertain BAM neural networks with time delays and reaction-diffusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianping; Xu, Shengyuan; Shen, Hao; Zhang, Baoyong

    2013-08-01

    This article deals with the problem of passivity analysis for delayed reaction-diffusion bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with weight uncertainties. By using a new integral inequality, we first present a passivity condition for the nominal networks, and then extend the result to the case with linear fractional weight uncertainties. The proposed conditions are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities, and thus can be checked easily. Examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  5. Dilemma in the Diagnosis of Povidone-Iodine Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Povidone-iodine is a commonly used antiseptic solution in surgical practice. Almost every patient who needs a minor or a major surgical procedure (sometimes, a medical procedure too gets exposed to this antiseptic. Even though the use of this antiseptic is widespread, the number of cases reporting hypersensitivity to it is meagre. This case report highlights a case of povidone-iodine – induced hypersensitivity, which presented a great difficulty in diagnosis, due to the usage of other drugs that could have been more likely causes for this hypersensitivity.

  6. Rapid high-throughput analysis of DNaseI hypersensitive sites using a modified Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Andrew H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mapping DNaseI hypersensitive sites is commonly used to identify regulatory regions in the genome. However, currently available methods are either time consuming and laborious, expensive or require large numbers of cells. We aimed to develop a quick and straightforward method for the analysis of DNaseI hypersensitive sites that overcomes these problems. Results We have developed a modified Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA approach for the identification and analysis of genomic regulatory regions. The utility of this approach was demonstrated by simultaneously analysing 20 loci from the ENCODE project for DNaseI hypersensitivity in a range of different cell lines. We were able to obtain reproducible results with as little as 5 × 104 cells per DNaseI treatment. Our results broadly matched those previously reported by the ENCODE project, and both technical and biological replicates showed high correlations, indicating the sensitivity and reproducibility of this method. Conclusion This new method will considerably facilitate the identification and analysis of DNaseI hypersensitive sites. Due to the multiplexing potential of MLPA (up to 50 loci can be examined it is possible to analyse dozens of DNaseI hypersensitive sites in a single reaction. Furthermore, the high sensitivity of MLPA means that fewer than 105 cells per DNaseI treatment can be used, allowing the discovery and analysis of tissue specific regulatory regions without the need for pooling. This method is quick and easy and results can be obtained within 48 hours after harvesting of cells or tissues. As no special equipment is required, this method can be applied by any laboratory interested in the analysis of DNaseI hypersensitive regions.

  7. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion Delays T Cell Activation and Effector Function in Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margoles, Lindsay M; Mittal, Rohit; Klingensmith, Nathan J; Lyons, John D; Liang, Zhe; Serbanescu, Mara A; Wagener, Maylene E; Coopersmith, Craig M; Ford, Mandy L

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is the leading cause of death in intensive care units in the US, and it is known that chronic alcohol use is associated with higher incidence of sepsis, longer ICU stays, and higher mortality from sepsis. Both sepsis and chronic alcohol use are associated with immune deficits such as decreased lymphocyte numbers, impaired innate immunity, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, and susceptibility to infections; however, understanding of specific pathways of interaction or synergy between these two states of immune dysregulation is lacking. This study therefore sought to elucidate mechanisms underlying the immune dysregulation observed during sepsis in the setting of chronic alcohol exposure. Using a murine model of chronic ethanol ingestion followed by sepsis induction via cecal ligation and puncture, we determined that while CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from alcohol fed mice eventually expressed the same cellular activation markers (CD44, CD69, and CD43) and effector molecules (IFN-γ, TNF) as their water fed counterparts, there was an overall delay in the acquisition of these phenotypes. This early lag in T cell activation was associated with significantly reduced IL-2 production at a later timepoint in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments in alcohol sepsis, as well as with a reduced accumulation of CD8dim activated effectors. Taken together, these data suggest that delayed T cell activation may result in qualitative differences in the immune response to sepsis in the setting of chronic alcohol ingestion.

  8. Drug hypersensitivity in children: report from the pediatric task force of the EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, E R; Brockow, K; Kuyucu, S; Saretta, F; Mori, F; Blanca-Lopez, N; Ott, H; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; Kidon, M; Caubet, J-C; Terreehorst, I

    2016-02-01

    When questioned, about 10% of the parents report suspected hypersensitivity to at least one drug in their children. However, only a few of these reactions can be confirmed as allergic after a diagnostic workup. There is still a lack of knowledge on drug hypersensitivity (DH) epidemiology, clinical spectrum, and appropriate diagnostic methods particularly in children. Meanwhile, the tools used for DH management in adults are applied also for children. Whereas this appears generally acceptable, some aspects of DH and management differ with age. Most reactions in children are still attributed to betalactams. Some manifestations, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated angioedema and serum sickness-like reactions, are more frequent among young patients as compared to adults. Risk factors such as viral infections are particularly frequent in children, making the diagnosis challenging. The practicability and validity of skin test and other diagnostic procedures need further assessment in children. This study presents an up-to-date review on epidemiology, clinical spectrum, diagnostic tools, and current management of DH in children. A new general algorithm for the study of these reactions in children is proposed. Data are presented focusing on reported differences between pediatric and adult patients, also identifying unmet needs to be addressed in further research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Marijuana-derived Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol suppresses Th1/Th17 cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity through microRNA regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sido, Jessica M; Jackson, Austin R; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2016-09-01

    ∆(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of the major bioactive cannabinoids derived from the Cannabis sativa plant and is known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) is driven by proinflammatory T helper cells including the classic inflammatory Th1 lineage as well as the more recently discovered Th17 lineage. In the current study, we investigated whether THC can alter the induction of Th1/Th17 cells involved in mBSA-induced DTH response. THC treatment (20 mg/kg) of C57BL/6 mice with DTH caused decreased swelling and infiltration of immune cells at the site of antigen rechallenge. Additionally, THC treatment decreased lymphocyte activation as well as Th1/Th17 lineage commitment, including reduced lineage-specific transcription factors and cytokines. Interestingly, while DTH caused an overexpression of miR-21, which increases Th17 differentiation via SMAD7 inhibition, and downregulation of miR-29b, an IFN-γ inhibitor, THC treatment reversed this microRNA (miR) dysregulation. Furthermore, when we transfected primary cells from DTH mice with miR-21 inhibitor or miR-29b mimic, as seen with THC treatment, the expression of target gene message was directly impacted increasing SMAD7 and decreasing IFN-γ expression, respectively. In summary, the current study suggests that THC treatment during DTH response can simultaneously inhibit Th1/Th17 activation via regulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression. • THC treatment inhibits simultaneous Th1/Th17 driven inflammation. • THC treatment corrects DTH-mediated microRNA dysregulation. • THC treatment regulates proinflammatory cytokines and transcription factors.

  10. Platinum desensitization in patients with carboplatin hypersensitivity: A single-institution retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwerger, Gary; Gressel, Gregory M; English, Diana P; Nelson, Wendelin K; Carusillo, Nina; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Santin, Alessandro; Schwartz, Peter E; Ratner, Elena S

    2017-01-01

    The carboplatin desensitization (CD) protocol presented here allows patients with either a positive skin test or a prior hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to safely, rapidly and effectively continue with carboplatin infusions. Newly described factors can identify patients at risk for developing adverse events during CD. A retrospective review was performed on patients with gynecologic cancer who underwent CD between 2005 and 2014. The CD protocol uses a four-step dilution process over 3.5h. 129 patients underwent CD and completed a total of 788cycles. The desensitization protocol prevented HSRs in 96% (753 out of 788) of these cycles. Patients achieved an average of 6.1cycles (SD±4.55, range 0-23) with CD. The CD protocol allowed 73% (94 of 129) of the patients to undergo carboplatin infusion without reaction. Patients with moderate to life-threatening HSRs (grade 2 through 4) were 10.5years younger at initial CD than patients with grades 0 or 1 HSRs (52.3 vs. 63, P = 0.0307). One patient death occurred during her thirteenth desensitization cycle. The HSR in this case was complicated by pre-exisiting pulmonary hypertension. This is the largest study of its kind showing a safe, effective and rapid (3.5h) CD protocol. The majority of patients with a history of either carboplatin hypersensitivity reaction or a positive skin test completed the CD protocol without HSRs. Age was identified as a risk factor for HSR severity during CD. Age can be employed along with pre-load dependent cardiac conditions as a way to help risk stratify patients undergoing CD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Entomologic evaluation of insect hypersensitivity in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, E C

    1995-04-01

    Potential methods of incriminating insects as the cause of insect hypersensitivity are presented. A listing of the biting midges known to attack horses in North America is presented also. An example of how species may be determined to be the cause of the hypersensitivity is given using data from a recent study in Florida. Light trap collections indicated the temporal and geographic distribution of potential contributing species and collections made by vacuuming horses further delineated species by proving they feed on horses and the correct locations on the horses to match lesion distribution. Culicoides hypersensitivity in horses in Florida seems to be caused by a series of species active and feeding on the horses at different times of the year.

  12. Hypersensitivity to thrombin of platelets from hypercholesterolemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winocour, P.D.; Rand, M.L.; Kinlough-Rathbone, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Hypersensitivity of platelets to thrombin has been associated with hypercholesterolemia. The authors have examined the mechanisms involved in this hypersensitivity. Rats were given diets rich in milk fat and containing added cholesterol and taurocholate to produce hypercholesterolemia (HC) (262 +/- 25 mg%) or added sitosterol as a normocholesterolemic control (NC) (89 +/- 6 mg%). Washed platelets were prelabelled with 14 C-serotonin. In the presence of acetylsalicyclic acid (ASA) (to inhibit thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) formation) and creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase (CP/CPK) (to remove released ADP), HC platelets aggregated more (26 +/- 1%) and released more 14 C (9.1 +/- 2.0%) than NC platelets (aggregation: 0%, p 14 C release: 1.5 +/- 0.5%, p 2 formation is involved in the hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin. Total binding of 125 I-thrombin to HC platelets was less than that to NC platelets but HC platelets were smaller and had less protein than NC platelets; the thrombin binding per mg platelet protein was the same for HC and NC platelets, indicating that hypersensitivity to thrombin of HC platelets does not result from increased thrombin binding. Thus, hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin is not due to TXA 2 formation, the action of released ADP or increased thrombin binding

  13. Clinical approach on challenge and desensitization procedures with aspirin in patients with ischemic heart disease and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellini, G; Romano, A; Santucci, A; Barbaud, A; Bavbek, S; Bignardi, D; Blanca, M; Bonadonna, P; Costantino, M T; Laguna, J J; Lombardo, C; Losappio, L M; Makowska, J; Nakonechna, A; Quercia, O; Pastorello, E A; Patella, V; Terreehorst, I; Testi, S; Cernadas, J R; Dionicio Elera, J; Lippolis, D; Voltolini, S; Grosseto, D

    2017-03-01

    Hypersensitivity to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) constitutes a serious problem for subjects with coronary artery disease. In such subjects, physicians have to choose the more appropriate procedure between challenge and desensitization. As the literature on this issue is sparse, this study aimed to establish in these subjects clinical criteria for eligibility for an ASA challenge and/or desensitization. Collection and analysis of data on ASA challenges and desensitizations from 10 allergy centers, as well as consensus among the related physicians and an expert panel. Altogether, 310 subjects were assessed; 217 had histories of urticaria/angioedema, 50 of anaphylaxis, 26 of nonimmediate cutaneous eruptions, and 17 of bronchospasm related to ASA/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) intake. Specifically, 119 subjects had index reactions to ASA doses lower than 300 mg. Of the 310 subjects, 138 had an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), 101 of whom underwent desensitizations, whereas 172 suffered from a chronic ischemic heart disease (CIHD), 126 of whom underwent challenges. Overall, 163 subjects underwent challenges and 147 subjects underwent desensitizations; 86 of the latter had index reactions to ASA doses of 300 mg or less. Ten subjects reacted to challenges, seven at doses up to 500 mg, three at a cumulative dose of 110 mg. The desensitization failure rate was 1.4%. In patients with stable CIHD and histories of nonsevere hypersensitivity reactions to ASA/NSAIDs, an ASA challenge is advisable. Patients with an ACS and histories of hypersensitivity reactions to ASA, especially following doses lower than 100 mg, should directly undergo desensitization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Aminopenicillin-associated exanthem: lymphocyte transformation testing revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, A; Seitz, C S; Stoevesandt, J; Kerstan, A

    2014-12-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) has been promoted as in-vitro test for diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity. For determination of statistical LTT sensitivity, series of patients with clinically uniform reactions followed by complete drug hypersensitivity work-up are mandatory. Assessment of LTT specificity requires control patients who tolerated exposure to the drug studied. To prospectively determine the diagnostic value of the LTT in a clinically and diagnostically well-defined series of patients. Patients with exanthematous skin eruptions after ampicillin (AMP) intake were included in this study. After exclusion or confirmation of delayed-onset allergic AMP hypersensitivity by skin and provocation testing, two independent LTTs were performed: one standard LTT and a modified LTT with additional anti-CD3/anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody stimulation. By testing, delayed-onset allergic AMP hypersensitivity was diagnosed in 11 patients and definitely ruled out in 26. The standard LTT reached a diagnostic sensitivity of 54.5% while the modified LTT yielded 72.7%. However, the methodical test modification resulted in a decline of specificity from 92.3% (standard LTT) to 76.9%. In cases of AMP-associated exanthems, the diagnostic value of the LTT compared with routine allergy testing is limited. When evaluating such exanthems, provocation testing remains the gold standard. Delayed reading of intradermal skin tests remains most useful to avoid positive provocation reactions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Combination therapy of murine tumors with a degraded D-manno-D-glucan (DMG) from Microellobosporia grisea, and cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, H; Hashimoto, S; Kita, Y; Takashi, T; Tsukada, W; Kohno, M; Ogawa, H; Abe, S; Mizuno, D

    1983-12-01

    DMG, a degraded D-manno-D-glucan with a host-mediated antitumor activity did not significantly enhance nor inhibit the development of suppressor cells for either the antibody-forming response or the delayed hypersensitivity reaction to sheep red blood cells. Cyclophosphamide (CY), which inhibited the generation of suppressor cells, was combined with DMG in treatment of murine syngeneic tumors to obtain a higher antitumor activity. The antitumor activity of the combination against MH134 hepatoma was synergistically higher than that of either component alone. A marked antitumor effect of the combination treatment against MM46 mammary carcinoma was also shown. High levels of antitumor delayed hypersensitivity reactions were observed with this combination therapy. The possible roles of DMG and CY in this combination therapy are discussed.

  16. Existence and exponential stability of traveling waves for delayed reaction-diffusion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsiung; Yang, Tzi-Sheng; Yu, Zhixian

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the existence and exponential stability of traveling wave solutions for general delayed multi-component reaction-diffusion systems. Following the monotone iteration scheme via an explicit construction of a pair of upper and lower solutions, we first obtain the existence of monostable traveling wave solutions connecting two different equilibria. Then, applying the techniques of weighted energy method and comparison principle, we show that all solutions of the Cauchy problem for the considered systems converge exponentially to traveling wave solutions provided that the initial perturbations around the traveling wave fronts belong to a suitable weighted Sobolev space.

  17. Nickel in nails, hair and plasma from nickel-hypersensitive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Veien, Niels

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of nickel in finger-nails, toe-nails, hair and plasma from 71 nickel-hypersensitive women and 20 non-hypersensitive women were determined. Nickel concentrations in finger-nails were significantly higher than in toe-nails in both the nickel-hypersensitive group and the control...... group. Nickel-sensitive women had significantly higher levels of nickel in toe-nails, hair and plasma than had control subjects, whereas there was no significant difference in nickel concentration in finger-nails between the two groups. No correlation could be demonstrated between nickel levels in any...... combination of nails, hair and plasma in the nickel-hypersensitive or in the control group....

  18. Ionic mechanisms of spinal neuronal cold hypersensitivity in ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ryan; Brice, Nicola L; Lewis, Richard J; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-12-01

    Cold hypersensitivity is evident in a range of neuropathies and can evoke sensations of paradoxical burning cold pain. Ciguatoxin poisoning is known to induce a pain syndrome caused by consumption of contaminated tropical fish that can persist for months and include pruritus and cold allodynia; at present no suitable treatment is available. This study examined, for the first time, the neural substrates and molecular components of Pacific ciguatoxin-2-induced cold hypersensitivity. Electrophysiological recordings of dorsal horn lamina V/VI wide dynamic range neurones were made in non-sentient rats. Subcutaneous injection of 10 nm ciguatoxin-2 into the receptive field increased neuronal responses to innocuous and noxious cooling. In addition, neuronal responses to low-threshold but not noxious punctate mechanical stimuli were also elevated. The resultant cold hypersensitivity was not reversed by 6-({2-[2-fluoro-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-methylpropyl}carbamoyl)pyridine-3-carboxylic acid, an antagonist of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8). Both mechanical and cold hypersensitivity were completely prevented by co-injection with the Nav 1.8 antagonist A803467, whereas the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) antagonist A967079 only prevented hypersensitivity to innocuous cooling and partially prevented hypersensitivity to noxious cooling. In naive rats, neither innocuous nor noxious cold-evoked neuronal responses were inhibited by antagonists of Nav 1.8, TRPA1 or TRPM8 alone. Ciguatoxins may confer cold sensitivity to a subpopulation of cold-insensitive Nav 1.8/TRPA1-positive primary afferents, which could underlie the cold allodynia reported in ciguatera. These data expand the understanding of central spinal cold sensitivity under normal conditions and the role of these ion channels in this translational rat model of ciguatoxin-induced hypersensitivity. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of

  19. Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with fungal contamination of indoor hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, Steffen; Rietschel, Ernst; Exner, Martin; Lange, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is often associated with exposure to antigens in the home environment. We describe a case of HP associated with indoor hydroponics in a 14-year-old girl. Water samples from hydroponics revealed Aureobasidium pullulans as the dominant fungal micro-organism (10(4)CFU/ml). The diagnosis is supported by the existence of serum precipitating antibodies against A. pullulans, lymphocytic alveolitis on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, a corresponding reaction on a lung biopsy, and the sustained absence of clinical symptoms following the removal of hydroponics from the home. We conclude that hydroponics should be considered as potential sources of fungal contaminants when checking for indoor health complaints.

  20. Florid Granuloma Annulare-Like Reaction in Regional Lymph Nodes After "Regression" of Red Pigment in Tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michael D; Trites, Jonathan; McNeil, Shelly A; Walsh, Noreen N M; Bullock, Martin J

    2018-05-01

    A healthy 50-year-old woman had a tattoo performed on the posterior aspect of her neck and another on the dorsum of her left foot. Several weeks later, she noted redness, tenderness, and intense pruritis at both tattoo sites. Treatment with cephalexin and hydrocortisone cream was instituted, without success. Within a few months, the red, but not black, pigment had disappeared from both tattoos and was replaced by pale areas of scarring. Persistently enlarged left supraclavicular and suboccipital lymph nodes were excised 7 and 10 months after receipt of the tattoos, respectively. The nodes were pigmented on gross examination, and on microscopy, a granuloma annulare-like reaction was observed. Normal lymphoid tissue was seen to be replaced by large palisading granulomas with central degenerative change, abundant stromal mucin, and scattered deposits of tattoo pigment. Histochemical stains, tissue culture, and serological studies revealed no evidence of infection. There are rare reports of granuloma annulare-like reactions in tattoos, and these are believed to represent delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Our case is unique in the observation of this reaction pattern in regional lymph nodes, and it expands the spectrum of complications known to be associated with tattoos.

  1. Involvement of ethylene in lesion development and systemic acquired resistance in tobacco during the hypersensitive reaction to tobacco mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, M.; Linthorst, H.J.M.; Bol, J.F.; Loon, L.C. van

    2001-01-01

    Different approaches were taken to investigate the significance of ethylene in lesion development and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) reacting hypersensitively to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Gaseous ethylene, the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic

  2. Trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome: a disease of fatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Gul; Kim, Hyung Hun; Song, Bong Gun; Kim, Eun Jin

    2012-01-01

    Trichloroethylene is commonly used as an industrial solvent and degreasing agent. The clinical features of acute and chronic intoxication with trichloroethylene are well-known and have been described in many reports, but hypersensitivity syndrome caused by trichloroethylene is rarely encountered. For managing patients with trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome, avoiding trichloroethylene and initiating glucocorticoid have been generally accepted. Generally, glucocorticoid had been tapered as trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome had ameliorated. However, we encountered a typical case of trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome refractory to high dose glucocorticoid treatment. A 54-year-old Korean man developed jaundice, fever, red sore eyes, and generalized erythematous maculopapular rashes. A detailed history revealed occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. After starting intravenous methylprednisolone, his clinical condition improved remarkably, but we could not reduce prednisolone because his liver enzyme and total bilirubin began to rise within 2 days after reducing prednisolone under 60 mg/day. We recommended an extended admission for complete recovery, but the patient decided to leave the hospital against medical advice. The patient visited the emergency department due to pneumonia and developed asystole, which did not respond to resuscitation.

  3. Climate hypersensitivity to solar forcing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Soon

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available We compare the equilibrium climate responses of a quasi-dynamical energy balance model to radiative forcing by equivalent changes in CO2, solar total irradiance (Stot and solar UV (SUV. The response is largest in the SUV case, in which the imposed UV radiative forcing is preferentially absorbed in the layer above 250 mb, in contrast to the weak response from global-columnar radiative loading by increases in CO2 or Stot. The hypersensitive response of the climate system to solar UV forcing is caused by strongly coupled feedback involving vertical static stability, tropical thick cirrus ice clouds and stratospheric ozone. This mechanism offers a plausible explanation of the apparent hypersensitivity of climate to solar forcing, as suggested by analyses of recent climatic records. The model hypersensitivity strongly depends on climate parameters, especially cloud radiative properties, but is effective for arguably realistic values of these parameters. The proposed solar forcing mechanism should be further confirmed using other models (e.g., general circulation models that may better capture radiative and dynamical couplings of the troposphere and stratosphere.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology · general or miscellaneous · Solar physics · astrophysics · and astronomy (ultraviolet emissions

  4. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion Delays T Cell Activation and Effector Function in Sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M Margoles

    Full Text Available Sepsis is the leading cause of death in intensive care units in the US, and it is known that chronic alcohol use is associated with higher incidence of sepsis, longer ICU stays, and higher mortality from sepsis. Both sepsis and chronic alcohol use are associated with immune deficits such as decreased lymphocyte numbers, impaired innate immunity, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, and susceptibility to infections; however, understanding of specific pathways of interaction or synergy between these two states of immune dysregulation is lacking. This study therefore sought to elucidate mechanisms underlying the immune dysregulation observed during sepsis in the setting of chronic alcohol exposure. Using a murine model of chronic ethanol ingestion followed by sepsis induction via cecal ligation and puncture, we determined that while CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from alcohol fed mice eventually expressed the same cellular activation markers (CD44, CD69, and CD43 and effector molecules (IFN-γ, TNF as their water fed counterparts, there was an overall delay in the acquisition of these phenotypes. This early lag in T cell activation was associated with significantly reduced IL-2 production at a later timepoint in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments in alcohol sepsis, as well as with a reduced accumulation of CD8dim activated effectors. Taken together, these data suggest that delayed T cell activation may result in qualitative differences in the immune response to sepsis in the setting of chronic alcohol ingestion.

  5. HLA Association with Drug-Induced Adverse Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Lang Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse drug reactions (ADRs remain a common and major problem in healthcare. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs, such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN with mortality rate ranges from 10% to more than 30%, can be life threatening. A number of recent studies demonstrated that ADRs possess strong genetic predisposition. ADRs induced by several drugs have been shown to have significant associations with specific alleles of human leukocyte antigen (HLA genes. For example, hypersensitivity to abacavir, a drug used for treating of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, has been proposed to be associated with allele 57:01 of HLA-B gene (terms HLA-B∗57:01. The incidences of abacavir hypersensitivity are much higher in Caucasians compared to other populations due to various allele frequencies in different ethnic populations. The antithyroid drug- (ATDs- induced agranulocytosis are strongly associated with two alleles: HLA-B∗38:02 and HLA-DRB1∗08:03. In addition, HLA-B∗15:02 allele was reported to be related to carbamazepine-induced SJS/TEN, and HLA-B∗57:01 in abacavir hypersensitivity and flucloxacillin induced drug-induced liver injury (DILI. In this review, we summarized the alleles of HLA genes which have been proposed to have association with ADRs caused by different drugs.

  6. Hypersensitivity Reactions to Oxaliplatin: Identifying the Risk Factors and Judging the Efficacy of a Desensitization Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayama, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Sugatani, Kazuko; Yoshida, Naohisa; Kokura, Satoshi; Matsuda, Kiyomi; Tsukamoto, Shigeru; Ihara, Norihiko; Kuriu, Yoshiaki; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Nakamura, Terukazu; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Katada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Takagi, Tomohisa; Handa, Osamu; Konishi, Hideyuki; Yagi, Nobuaki; Naito, Yuji; Otsuji, Eigo; Hosoi, Hajime; Miki, Tsuneharu; Itoh, Yoshito

    2015-06-01

    We examined the clinical data of patients treated with oxaliplatin to determine the risk factors of oxaliplatin-related hypersensitivity reaction (HSR). In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of rechallenging patients with HSRs with oxaliplatin using prophylactic agents or desensitization procedures. This study consisted of 162 patients with colorectal cancer (88 men and 74 women) who were treated consecutively at the outpatient chemotherapy department at University Hospital, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine. Patients underwent chemotherapy, including oxaliplatin, between March 2006 and June 2012. We analyzed the patients' clinical backgrounds (eg, age, sex, performance status, disease stage, and allergic history) to uncover any connections to the development of HSR to oxaliplatin. In addition, we rechallenged 10 patients who had oxaliplatin-related HSR using prophylactic agents or desensitization procedures. Of 162 patients, 28 (17.2%) developed oxaliplatin-related HSRs (16, 2, 9 and 1 patient had grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 HSRs, respectively). The total cumulative dose of oxaliplatin at the onset of the HSR was 301 to 1126 mg/m(2) (median, 582 mg/m(2)), and the first reactions developed in these patients after 5 to 17 infusions of oxaliplatin (median, 8 infusions). Logistic regression analysis indicated that sex (male: odds ratio = 3.624; 95% CI, 1.181-11.122; P = 0.024) and eosinophil count in peripheral blood (odds ratio = 35.118; 95% CI, 1.058-1166.007; P = 0.046) were independent variables for oxaliplatin-related HSRs. Rechallenging patients with prophylactic agents was successful in 2 (28.6%) of 7 patients who successfully completed their treatment. On the other hand, all 3 patients rechallenged with oxaliplatin using a desensitization protocol successfully completed their treatment without new HSRs. In this retrospective study, we observed that being male and having higher counts of peripheral eosinophil could be predictors for HSR to oxaliplatin. In

  7. Fitted Fourier-pseudospectral methods for solving a delayed reaction-diffusion partial differential equation in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, A. M. A.; Bashier, E. B. M.; Hashim, M. H. A.; Patidar, K. C.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we design and analyze a fitted numerical method to solve a reaction-diffusion model with time delay, namely, a delayed version of a population model which is an extension of the logistic growth (LG) equation for a food-limited population proposed by Smith [F.E. Smith, Population dynamics in Daphnia magna and a new model for population growth, Ecology 44 (1963) 651-663]. Seeing that the analytical solution (in closed form) is hard to obtain, we seek for a robust numerical method. The method consists of a Fourier-pseudospectral semi-discretization in space and a fitted operator implicit-explicit scheme in temporal direction. The proposed method is analyzed for convergence and we found that it is unconditionally stable. Illustrative numerical results will be presented at the conference.

  8. Antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity is a risk factor for positive allergy skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagau, Natalia; Gherman, Nadia; Cocis, Mihaela; Petrisor, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are not currently recommended for the general population undergoing general anaesthesia. In a previous study we have reported a high incidence of positive allergy tests for NMBAs in patients with a positive history of non-anaesthetic drug allergy, a larger prospective study being needed to confirm those preliminary results. The objective of this study was to compare the skin tests results for patients with a positive history of antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity reactions to those of controls without drug allergies. Ninety eight patients with previous antibiotic hypersensitivity and 72 controls were prospectively included. Skin tests were performed for atracurium, pancuronium, rocuronium, and suxamethonium. We found 65 positive skin tests from the 392 tests performed in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity (1 6.58%) and 23 positive skin tests from the 288 performed in controls (7.98%), the two incidences showing significant statistical difference (p = 0.0011). The relative risk for having a positive skin test for NMBAs for patients versus controls was 1.77 (1.15-2.76). For atracurium, skin tests were more often positive in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity versus controls (p = 0.02). For pancuronium, rocuronium and suxamethonium the statistical difference was not attained (p-values 0.08 for pancuronium, 0.23 for rocuronium, and 0.26 for suxamethonium). Patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity seem to have a higher incidence of positive skin tests for NMBAs. They might represent a group at higher risk for developing intraoperative anaphylaxis compared to the general population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of local irradiation on the immune response in mice. I. Effect of sham-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauci, C.L.; Gerber, M.; Dubois, J.-B.; Serrou, B.

    1979-01-01

    In C57BL/6 mice exposed to 1600 rads to the left foot pad, an important decrease of non-specific inflammatory responsiveness initiated by the injection of oyster glycogen into the peritoneal cavity was observed on the one hand and a diminution of the delayed hypersensitivity response following tuberculin injection, on the other hand. Nevertheless, the same immunosuppression was noted both in sham irradiated mice and in those receiving hydrocortisone. In irradiated mice this transient immunosuppression was related to a normal adrenal function. Bi-laterally adrenalectomised mice did not exhibit this reaction which reappeared after hydrocortisone administration. The reduction of delayed hypersensitivity is irrespective of the irradiated zone, but the duration of immune depression is longer in irradiated than in unirradiated tissue. During the depression of delayed hypersensitivity response an increase in the number of splenic B-lymphocytes and macrophages and a decrease of the number of splenic T-lymphocytes was observed these observations suggest that immunosuppression following irradiation is related to acute stress

  10. Short-term pre- and post-operative stress prolongs incision-induced pain hypersensitivity without changing basal pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Wang, Po-Kai; Tiwari, Vinod; Liang, Lingli; Lutz, Brianna Marie; Shieh, Kun-Ruey; Zang, Wei-Dong; Kaufman, Andrew G; Bekker, Alex; Gao, Xiao-Qun; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-12-02

    Chronic stress has been reported to increase basal pain sensitivity and/or exacerbate existing persistent pain. However, most surgical patients have normal physiological and psychological health status such as normal pain perception before surgery although they do experience short-term stress during pre- and post-operative periods. Whether or not this short-term stress affects persistent postsurgical pain is unclear. In this study, we showed that pre- or post-surgical exposure to immobilization 6 h daily for three consecutive days did not change basal responses to mechanical, thermal, or cold stimuli or peak levels of incision-induced hypersensitivity to these stimuli; however, immobilization did prolong the duration of incision-induced hypersensitivity in both male and female rats. These phenomena were also observed in post-surgical exposure to forced swimming 25 min daily for 3 consecutive days. Short-term stress induced by immobilization was demonstrated by an elevation in the level of serum corticosterone, an increase in swim immobility, and a decrease in sucrose consumption. Blocking this short-term stress via intrathecal administration of a selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU38486, or bilateral adrenalectomy significantly attenuated the prolongation of incision-induced hypersensitivity to mechanical, thermal, and cold stimuli. Our results indicate that short-term stress during the pre- or post-operative period delays postoperative pain recovery although it does not affect basal pain perception. Prevention of short-term stress may facilitate patients' recovery from postoperative pain.

  11. Mediator profiles in tears during the conjunctival response induced by allergic reaction in the nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelikan, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    The allergic reaction occurring primarily in the nasal mucosa can induce a secondary conjunctival response of an immediate (SICR), late (SLCR), or delayed (SDYCR) type in some patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC). To investigate the concentration changes of histamine, tryptase, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), leukotrienes (LTB 4, LTC4, LTE4), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and interleukins (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5) in tears during the SICR, SLCR, and SDYCR. In 32 patients with AC, 11 SICR (ptears. The SICRs were associated with significant concentration changes in tears (ptears (ptears during the 32 PBS controls (p>0.1) or in the ten control patients (p>0.1). These results provide evidence for causal involvement of nasal allergy in some patients with AC, inducing secondary conjunctival response of immediate (SICR), late SLCR, or delayed SDYCR type, associated with different mediator, cytokine, and cellular profiles in the tears, suggesting involvement of different hypersensitivity mechanisms. These results also emphasize the diagnostic value of nasal allergen challenge combined with monitoring of the conjunctival response in some patients with AC.

  12. Metal hypersensitivity after knee arthroplasty: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Massimo; Vieri, Berti; Melani, Tommaso; Paoli, Tommaso; Carulli, Christian

    2017-06-07

    Hypersensitivity to metals in the general population has an incidence of about 15%, and in rising also for the higher number of joint replacements in the last decades. Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) represents the most performed orthopaedic procedure during last years, and it seems to be particularly associated with sensitization after surgery. On the other hand, there is a rising amount of patients with painful but well implanted and functioning TKAs: in certain cases, after the exclusion of the most frequent causes of failure, a condition of hypersensitivity may be found, and a revision with anallergic implants is mandatory. The present study is a review of the potential problems related to hypersensitivity in TKA, its possible diagnostic procedures, and the surgical options to date available. Medical history, patch testing, and other specific laboratory assays are useful to assess a status of metals hypersensitivity before surgery in subjects undergoing a knee replacement, or even after TKA in patients complaining pain in otherwise well implanted and aligned prostheses. However, few groups worlwide deal with such condition, and all proposed diagnostic protocols may be considered still today conjectural. On the other hand, these represent the most updated knowledge of this condition, and may be useful for both the patient and the orthopaedic surgeon. Once assessed a possible or ascertained allergy to metals, several options are available for primary andr revision knee surgery, in order to avoid the risk of hypersensitivity. A review of the recent publications on this topic and an overview of the related aspects has been made to understand a condition to date considered negligible. Hypersensitivity to metals has not to be nowadays considered a "fiction", but rather a possible preoperative risk or a postoperative cause of failure of TKA. Crucial is the information of patients and the medical history, associated in suspect cases to laboratory testings. Today in the

  13. Betalactam antibiotics affect human dendritic cells maturation through MAPK/NF-kB systems. Role in allergic reactions to drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Soledad; Gomez, Enrique; Torres, Maria J.; Pozo, David; Fernandez, Tahia D.; Ariza, Adriana; Sanz, Maria L.; Blanca, Miguel; Mayorga, Cristobalina

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to drug allergy in predisposed patients, especially those related to T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity, are not well understood. A key event in allergic reactions to drugs is the maturation process undergone by dendritic cells (DCs). Although amoxicillin (AX) has been reported to interact and maturate DCs from patients with AX-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity, the cell signaling pathways related to AX-mediated DC maturation have not been elucidated. We sought to determine the role of the MAPK and NF-κΒ pathways on AX-induced DC maturation and functional status. For that purpose, in monocyte-derived-DCs from AX-delayed allergic patients and tolerant subjects, we analyzed the activation pattern of p38MAPK, JNK, and ERK signaling and the NF-κB, maturation markers as well as endocytosis and allostimulatory capacities driven by AX-stimulated-DCs. Our data reveal that AX induces an increase in the phosphorylation levels of the three MAPKsand activated NF-κB in DCs from allergic patients. Moreover, the inhibition of these pathways prevents the up-regulation of surface molecules induced by AX. Additionally, we observed that the allostimulatory capacity and the endocytosis down-regulation in AX-stimulated-DCs from allergic patients depend on JNK and NF-κB activities. Taken together, our data shed light for the first time on the main signaling pathways involved in DC maturation from AX-delayed allergic patient. - Highlights: • The cell signaling pathways related to drug-mediated DC maturation were tested. • Amoxicillin induces activation of MAPK and NF-κB in DCs from allergic patients. • The inhibition of these pathways prevents the up-regulation of DC surface molecules. • Their allostimulatory and endocytosis capacities depend on JNK and NF-κB activities. • The low involvement of p38-MAPK could be the cause of an incomplete DC maturation.

  14. Betalactam antibiotics affect human dendritic cells maturation through MAPK/NF-kB systems. Role in allergic reactions to drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Soledad [CABIMER-Andalusian Center for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Seville (Spain); Department of Medical Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Immunology, The University of Seville Medical School, Seville (Spain); Gomez, Enrique [Research Laboratory, IBIMA-Regional University Hospital of Malaga, UMA, Málaga (Spain); Torres, Maria J. [Allergy Service, IBIMA-Regional University Hospital of Malaga, UMA, Málaga (Spain); Pozo, David [CABIMER-Andalusian Center for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Seville (Spain); Department of Medical Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Immunology, The University of Seville Medical School, Seville (Spain); Fernandez, Tahia D.; Ariza, Adriana [Research Laboratory, IBIMA-Regional University Hospital of Malaga, UMA, Málaga (Spain); Sanz, Maria L. [Department of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, University Clinic of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Blanca, Miguel [Allergy Service, IBIMA-Regional University Hospital of Malaga, UMA, Málaga (Spain); Mayorga, Cristobalina, E-mail: lina.mayorga@ibima.eu [Research Laboratory, IBIMA-Regional University Hospital of Malaga, UMA, Málaga (Spain); Allergy Service, IBIMA-Regional University Hospital of Malaga, UMA, Málaga (Spain)

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms leading to drug allergy in predisposed patients, especially those related to T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity, are not well understood. A key event in allergic reactions to drugs is the maturation process undergone by dendritic cells (DCs). Although amoxicillin (AX) has been reported to interact and maturate DCs from patients with AX-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity, the cell signaling pathways related to AX-mediated DC maturation have not been elucidated. We sought to determine the role of the MAPK and NF-κΒ pathways on AX-induced DC maturation and functional status. For that purpose, in monocyte-derived-DCs from AX-delayed allergic patients and tolerant subjects, we analyzed the activation pattern of p38MAPK, JNK, and ERK signaling and the NF-κB, maturation markers as well as endocytosis and allostimulatory capacities driven by AX-stimulated-DCs. Our data reveal that AX induces an increase in the phosphorylation levels of the three MAPKsand activated NF-κB in DCs from allergic patients. Moreover, the inhibition of these pathways prevents the up-regulation of surface molecules induced by AX. Additionally, we observed that the allostimulatory capacity and the endocytosis down-regulation in AX-stimulated-DCs from allergic patients depend on JNK and NF-κB activities. Taken together, our data shed light for the first time on the main signaling pathways involved in DC maturation from AX-delayed allergic patient. - Highlights: • The cell signaling pathways related to drug-mediated DC maturation were tested. • Amoxicillin induces activation of MAPK and NF-κB in DCs from allergic patients. • The inhibition of these pathways prevents the up-regulation of DC surface molecules. • Their allostimulatory and endocytosis capacities depend on JNK and NF-κB activities. • The low involvement of p38-MAPK could be the cause of an incomplete DC maturation.

  15. Decision-making and addiction (part II): myopia for the future or hypersensitivity to reward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechara, Antoine; Dolan, Sara; Hindes, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    On a decision-making instrument known as the "gambling task" (GT), a subgroup of substance dependent individuals (SDI) opted for choices that yield high immediate gains in spite of higher future losses. This resembles the behavior of patients with ventromedial (VM) prefrontal cortex lesions. In this study, we addressed the possibility that hypersensitivity to reward may account for the "myopia" for the future in this subgroup of SDI. We used a variant version of the GT, in which the good decks yielded high immediate punishment but higher delayed reward. The bad decks yielded low immediate punishment and lower delayed reward. We measured the skin conductance response (SCR) of subjects after receiving reward (reward SCR) and during their pondering from which deck to choose (anticipatory SCR). A subgroup of SDI who was not impaired on the original GT performed normally on the variant GT. The subgroup of SDI who was impaired on the original GT showed two levels of performance on the variant GT. One subgroup (36% of the sample) performed poorly on the variant GT, and showed similar behavioral and physiological impairments to VM patients. The other subgroup of SDI (64% of the sample) performed normally on the variant task, but had abnormally large physiological responses to reward, i.e. large SCR after receiving reward (reward SCR) and large SCR in anticipation of outcomes that yield large reward. Thus, the combined cognitive and physiological approach of assessing decision-making characterizes three sub-populations of SDI. One sub-population is without impairments that can be detected by any measure of the GT paradigm. Another sub-population is similar to VM patients in that they are insensitive to the future, both positive and negative. A third sub-population is hypersensitive to reward, so that the presence or the prospect of receiving, reward dominates their behavior.

  16. Optimization of the THP-1 activation assay to detect pharmaceuticals with potential to cause immune mediated drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Daniele; Galbiati, Valentina; Gatti, Nicolò; Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L; Corsini, Emanuela

    2015-10-01

    Despite important impacts of systemic hypersensitivity induced by pharmaceuticals, for such endpoint no reliable preclinical approaches are available. We previously established an in vitro test to identify contact and respiratory allergens based on interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in THP-1 cells. Here, we challenged it for identification of pharmaceuticals associated with systemic hypersensitivity reactions, with the idea that drug sensitizers share common mechanisms of cell activation. Cells were exposed to drugs associated with systemic hypersensitivity reactions (streptozotocin, sulfamethoxazole, neomycin, probenecid, clonidine, procainamide, ofloxacin, methyl salicylate), while metformin was used as negative drug. Differently to chemicals, drugs tested were well tolerated, except clonidine and probenecid, with no signs of cytotoxicity up to 1-2mg/ml. THP-1 activation assay was adjusted, and conditions, that allow identification of all sensitizing drugs tested, were established. Next, using streptozotocin and selective inhibitors of PKC-β and p38 MAPK, two pathways involved in chemical allergen-induced cell activation, we tested the hypothesis that similar pathways were also involved in drug-induced IL-8 production and CD86 upregulation. Results indicated that drugs and chemical allergens share similar activation pathways. Finally, we made a structure-activity hypothesis related to hypersensitivity reactions, trying to individuate structural requisite that can be involved in immune mediated adverse reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of immediate and delayed dentin sealing on the fracture strength, failure type and Weilbull characteristics of lithiumdisilicate laminate veneers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco M.M.; Cune, Marco S.; de Roos, Joanne G.; Özcan, Mutlu

    OBJECTIVES: Adhesion on dentin is less reliable than on enamel, which could affect the durability of laminate veneers (LV). Immediate dentin sealing (IDS) is suggested instead of delayed dentin sealing (DDS) to overcome hypersensitivity and prevent debonding from dentin. This study evaluated the

  18. Drug hypersensitivity caused by alteration of the MHC-presented self-peptide repertoire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrov, David A; Grant, Barry J; Pompeu, Yuri A

    2012-01-01

    cells, thus causing the equivalent of an alloreactive T-cell response. Indeed, we identified specific self-peptides that are presented only in the presence of abacavir and that were recognized by T cells of hypersensitive patients. The assays that we have established can be applied to test additional...... unclear. Here we show that abacavir can bind within the F pocket of the peptide-binding groove of HLA-B*57:01, thereby altering its specificity. This provides an explanation for HLA-linked idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, namely that drugs can alter the repertoire of self-peptides presented to T...

  19. Cytokines in tears during the secondary keratoconjunctival responses induced by allergic reaction in the nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelikan, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    Allergic keratoconjunctivitis (KC) can occur in a primary form due to an allergic reaction taking place in the conjunctivae or in a secondary form induced by nasal allergy. To search for the cytokine changes in tears accompanying the secondary keratoconjunctival response types (SKCR), caused by the nasal allergy. In 43 KC patients developing 15 immediate (SIKCR), 16 late (SLKCR) and 12 delayed (SDYKCR) responses to nasal provocation tests with allergens (NPT), the NPTs were repeated with subsequent recording of cytokine concentrations in tears up to 72 h. The SIKCRs (ptears, suggesting involvement of different hypersensitivity mechanisms. These results also stress the diagnostic usefulness of NPTs combined with monitoring of ocular features in KC patients who did not respond satisfactorily to the topical ophthalmological treatment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. An unusual oral habit presenting as Dentin Hypersensitivity | Afolabi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present the case of a 30-year-old man with an unusual oral habit- office pin chewing and filing of the front tooth which resulted in dentine hypersensitivity. Clinical relevance: The role of daily oral habits and techniques of cessation were suggested in the management of dentine hypersensitivity. Keywords: Unusual oral ...

  1. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in general dental practices in the northwest United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Wataha, John C; Heaton, Lisa J; Rothen, Marilynn; Sobieraj, Martin; Scott, JoAnna; Berg, Joel

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity is uncertain, yet appropriate diagnosis and treatment of dentin hypersensitivity require accurate knowledge regarding its prevalence. The authors conducted a study to estimate the prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in general dental practices and to investigate associated risk factors. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of 787 adult patients from 37 general dental practices within Northwest Practice-based Research Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT). Dentin hypersensitivity was diagnosed by means of participants' responses to a question regarding pain in their teeth and gingivae, and practitioner-investigators conducted a clinical examination to rule out alternative causes of pain. Participants recorded their pain level on a visual analog scale and the Seattle Scales in response to a one-second air blast. The authors used generalized estimating equation log-linear models to estimate the prevalence and the prevalence ratios. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity was 12.3 percent; patients with hypersensitivity had, on average, 3.5 hypersensitive teeth. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity was higher among 18- to 44-year olds than among participants 65 years or older; it also was higher in women than in men, in participants with gingival recession than in those without gingival recession and in participants who underwent at-home tooth whitening than in those who did not. Hypersensitivity was not associated with obvious occlusal trauma, noncarious cervical lesions or aggressive toothbrushing habits. One in eight participants from general practices had dentin hypersensitivity, which was a chronic condition causing intermittent, low-level pain. Patients with hypersensitivity were more likely to be younger, to be female and to have a high prevalence of gingival recession and at-home tooth whitening. Given dentin hypersensitivity's prevalence, clinicians should diagnose it only after

  2. Hypersensitivity to certain food and food ingredients in the function of age and employment of customers on a cruise ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Nikola D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades there has been a tendency to use the word 'allergy' to describe all kinds of unexpected reactions to certain foods and food ingredients. The recent literature is plentiful and discusses food allergens and people who are hypersensitive to certain foods. The literature suggests the prevalence of food allergy to specific allergens to be changing with age. The aim of this empirical research was to examine the hypersensitivity to certain foods in relation to age and employment of the population consisting of customers on cruise ships. The study included 404 tourists on a cruise ship who voluntarily filled food sensitivity questionnaires and submitted them to the ship staff. These questionnaires were used to analyze the allergy trends and their connection to age and employment. The procedures of descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used to process the obtained data. The results of the research suggested that there was a statistically significant relationship between the persons who were hypersensitive to certain foods relative to employment and age.

  3. Prime and boost aerosol exposure via fog machine or shisha smoke followed by cinnamon hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis to spiced food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Roth-Walter, Franziska; Leitner, Erich; Buchleitner, Stefan; Vogelsang, Harald; Kinaciyan, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon aldehyde (alias cinnamaldehyde) is widely used in food, textile or cosmetic industry. It is mostly associated with contact allergy, but immediate type allergies have been reported. The present study was triggered by a case of anaphylactic events to cinnamon in food and upon skin prick test. We investigated a possible correlation of exposure to a disco fog machine and/or shisha consumption with immediate type hypersensitivity to cinnamon aldehyde in the patient and healthy volunteers. In both fog machines and shisha pipes heating of glycerol-based fluids before evaporation renders chemical transversion to malodorous acrolein. Therefore, both methods are frequently operated with aroma additives. Cinnamon aldehyde and derivatives could be detected by gas chromatography in sampled fog flavored with cola fragrance. The patient as well as healthy (mostly female) volunteers were skin prick tested using cinnamon aldehyde diluted in 0.9 % NaCl, Vaseline® or fog fluid. Persons with a history of exposure to disco fog or shisha (n = 10, mean 32.8 years) reacted with a significantly larger wheal and flare reaction in the skin test (p = 0.0115, p = 0.0146, or p = 0.098) than the non-exposed (n = 8, mean 37.3 years). Both groups were gender matched, but differed in the mean age by 4.5 years. This reaction was specific as compared to skin reactivity to cinnamon alcohol, with only a trend to higher reactivity in exposed persons (ns). From our data we conclude that hapten fragrances such as cinnamon aldehyde may during heating in glycerol fluids associate to complete antigens and via inspiration lead to specific immediate type hypersensitivity. In some cases the hypersensitivity may be unmasked by spiced food containing cinnamon aldehyde or related chemicals, and lead to severe adverse reactions.

  4. Clinical efficacy of toothpaste containing potassium citrate in treating dentin hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ya Shen

    2009-12-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in this study was 38%. The use of desensitizing toothpaste containing potassium citrate with oral hygiene instruction can effectively reduce dentin hypersensitivity.

  5. Validation of the cephalosporin intradermal skin test for predicting immediate hypersensitivity: a prospective study with drug challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S-Y; Park, S Y; Kim, S; Lee, T; Lee, Y S; Kwon, H-S; Cho, Y S; Moon, H-B; Kim, T-B

    2013-07-01

    Cephalosporin is a major offending agent in terms of drug hypersensitivity along with penicillin. Cephalosporin intradermal skin tests (IDTs) have been widely used; however, their validity for predicting immediate hypersensitivity has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the predictive value of cephalosporin intradermal skin testing before administration of the drug. We prospectively conducted IDTs with four cephalosporins, one each of selected first-, second-, third-, or fourth-generation cephalosporins: ceftezol; cefotetan or cefamandole; ceftriaxone or cefotaxime; and flomoxef, respectively, as well as with penicillin G. After the skin test, whatever the result, one of the tested cephalosporins was administered intravenously and the patient was carefully observed. We recruited 1421 patients who required preoperative cephalosporins. Seventy-four patients (74/1421, 5.2%) were positive to at least one cephalosporin. However, none of responders had immediate hypersensitivity reactions after a challenge dose of the same or different cephalosporin, which were positive in the skin test. Four patients who suffered generalized urticaria and itching after challenge gave negative skin tests for the corresponding drug. The IDT for cephalosporin had a sensitivity of 0%, a specificity of 97.5%, a negative predictive value of 99.7%, and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0%, when challenged with the same drugs that were positive in the skin test. Routine skin testing with a cephalosporin before its administration is not useful for predicting immediate hypersensitivity because of the extremely low sensitivity and PPV of the skin test (CRIS registration no. KCT0000455). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Association of tinnitus and electromagnetic hypersensitivity: hints for a shared pathophysiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Landgrebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is a frequent condition with high morbidity and impairment in quality of life. The pathophysiology is still incompletely understood. Electromagnetic fields are discussed to be involved in the multi-factorial pathogenesis of tinnitus, but data proofing this relationship are very limited. Potential health hazards of electromagnetic fields (EMF have been under discussion for long. Especially, individuals claiming themselves to be electromagnetic hypersensitive suffer from a variety of unspecific symptoms, which they attribute to EMF-exposure. The aim of the study was to elucidate the relationship between EMF-exposure, electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus using a case-control design. METHODOLOGY: Tinnitus occurrence and tinnitus severity were assessed by questionnaires in 89 electromagnetic hypersensitive patients and 107 controls matched for age-, gender, living surroundings and workplace. Using a logistic regression approach, potential risk factors for the development of tinnitus were evaluated. FINDINGS: Tinnitus was significantly more frequent in the electromagnetic hypersensitive group (50.72% vs. 17.5% whereas tinnitus duration and severity did not differ between groups. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus were independent risk factors for sleep disturbances. However, measures of individual EMF-exposure like e.g. cell phone use did not show any association with tinnitus. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that tinnitus is associated with subjective electromagnetic hypersensitivity. An individual vulnerability probably due to an over activated cortical distress network seems to be responsible for, both, electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus. Hence, therapeutic efforts should focus on treatment strategies (e.g. cognitive behavioral therapy aiming at normalizing this dysfunctional distress network.

  7. National prevalence of asthma and chemical hypersensitivity: an examination of potential overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, Stanley M; Steinemann, Anne C

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the linkage between asthma and chemical hypersensitivity. The authors conducted a population study with a random sample of 1057 geographically weighted cases to determine the prevalence of both asthma and chemical hypersensitivity in the American population and to explore their co-occurrence. A total of 14.1% of the respondents reported being diagnosed with asthma and 11.2% reported a hypersensitivity to chemicals. Of those with asthma, 27.2% also reported being hypersensitive to chemicals and 7.4% reported also being diagnosed with multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). Of those diagnosed with MCS, 42% reported also being diagnosed with asthma. Additionally, 29.7% of those with asthma said air fresheners caused breathing difficulties, and 37.2% found scented products irritating. The results indicate that there is significant overlap between some forms of asthma and chemical hypersensitivity.

  8. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Lipp, Christopher T.

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS. - Highlights: ► Many people report symptoms when near devices emanating electromagnetic fields(EMF). ► Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) research has generated conflicting outcomes. ► Recent evidence suggests pathophysiological change in some individuals with EHS. ► EHS patients consistently report profound social and personal challenges. ► Clinicians need to be apprised of the EHS condition and potential interventions.

  9. Food hypersensitivity reactions in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers with protein-losing enteropathy or protein-losing nephropathy or both: gastroscopic food sensitivity testing, dietary provocation, and fecal immunoglobulin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaden, S L; Hammerberg, B; Davenport, D J; Orton, S M; Trogdon, M M; Melgarejo, L T; VanCamp, S D; Williams, D A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers (SCWTs) affected with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) or protein-losing nephropathy (PLN) or both for allergy to food. We performed gastroscopic food-sensitivity testing, a provocative dietary trial, and measurement of fecal immunoglobulin E (IgE) in 6 SCWTs affected with PLE or PLN or both. Positive gastroscopic food-sensitivity test reactions were noted in 5 of 6 dogs. Positive reactions were found to milk in 4 dogs, to lamb in 2 dogs, and to wheat and chicken each in 1 dog. Adverse reactions to food (diarrhea, vomiting, or pruritus) were detected in all 6 dogs during the provocative dietary trial. Adverse reactions were found to corn in 5 dogs, to tofu in 3 dogs, to cottage cheese in 2 dogs, to milk in 2 dogs, to farina cream of wheat in 2 dogs, and to lamb in 2 dogs. Serum albumin concentrations significantly decreased and fecal alpha1-protease inhibitor concentration significantly increased 4 days after the provocative trial when compared with baseline values. Antigen-specific fecal IgE varied throughout the provocative trial, with peak levels following ingestion of test meals. We conclude that food hypersensitivities are present in SCWTs affected with the syndrome of PLE/PLN. Mild inflammatory bowel disease was already established in the 6 SCWTs of this report at the time of study, making it impossible to determine if food allergies were the cause or result of the enteric disease.

  10. A shock tube and laser absorption study of ignition delay times and OH reaction rates of ketones: 2-Butanone and 3-buten-2-one

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2014-03-01

    Ketones are potential biofuel candidates and are also formed as intermediate products during the oxidation of large hydrocarbons or oxygenated fuels, such as alcohols and esters. This paper presents shock tube ignition delay times and OH reaction rates of 2-butanone (C2H5COCH3) and 3-buten-2-one (C2H3COCH3). Ignition delay measurements were carried out over temperatures of 1100-1400K, pressures of 3-6.5atm, and at equivalence ratios (F{cyrillic}) of 0.5 and 1. Ignition delay times were monitored using two different techniques: pressure time history and OH absorption near 306nm. The reaction rates of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with these two ketones were measured over the temperature range of 950-1400K near 1.5atm. The OH profiles were monitored by the narrow-line-width ring-dye laser absorption of the well-characterized R1(5) line in the OH A-X (0, 0) band near 306.69nm. We found that the ignition delay times of 2-butanone and 3-buten-2-one mixtures scale with pressure as P-0.42 and P-0.52, respectively. The ignition delay times of 3-buten-2-one were longer than that of 2-butanone for stoichiometric mixtures, however, for lean mixtures (F{cyrillic}=0.5), 2-butanone had longer ignition delay times. The chemical kinetic mechanism of Serinyel et al. [1] over-predicted the ignition delay times of 2-butanone at all tested conditions, however, the discrepancies were smaller at higher pressures. The mechanism was updated with recent rate measurements to decrease discrepancy with the experimental data. A detailed chemistry for the oxidation of 3-buten-2-one was developed using rate estimation method and reasonable agreements were obtained with the measured ignition delay data. The measured reaction rate of 2-butanone with OH agreed well with the literature data, while we present the first high-temperature measurements for the reaction of OH with 3-buten-2-one. The following Arrhenius expressions are suggested over the temperature range of 950-1450K: kC2H5COCH3+OH=6.78×1013exp

  11. Separate effects of irradiation and of graft-versus-host reaction on rat mucosal mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, A.G.; Munro, G.H.; Huntley, J.F.; Miller, H.R.P.; Ferguson, A.

    1989-01-01

    T cell mediated immune responses in the gut can produce enteropathy and malabsorption. The authors investigated the relevance of mucosal mast cells (MMC) to the mechanisms of this enteropathy by using graft-versus-host reaction (GvHR) in the rat as a model of mucosal delayed type hypersensitivity. x-irradiation, with or without GvHR, led to the virtual disappearance of jejunal MMC, undetectable jejunal rat mast cell protease (RMCPII) and very low levels of RMCPII in serum (all p<0.01 when compared with unirradiated controls). These experiments show that there is a modest expansion in jejunal MMC in unirradiated rats with semiallogeneic GvHR, whereas irradiation, alone or associated with GvHR, profoundly depletes MMC for at least two weeks. The enteropathy of GvHR can evolve in the virtual absence of MMC. (author)

  12. Bifurcation analysis of a delay reaction-diffusion malware propagation model with feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhe; Zhao, Hongyong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-05-01

    With the rapid development of network information technology, information networks security has become a very critical issue in our work and daily life. This paper attempts to develop a delay reaction-diffusion model with a state feedback controller to describe the process of malware propagation in mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSNs). By analyzing the stability and Hopf bifurcation, we show that the state feedback method can successfully be used to control unstable steady states or periodic oscillations. Moreover, formulas for determining the properties of the bifurcating periodic oscillations are derived by applying the normal form method and center manifold theorem. Finally, we conduct extensive simulations on large-scale MWSNs to evaluate the proposed model. Numerical evidences show that the linear term of the controller is enough to delay the onset of the Hopf bifurcation and the properties of the bifurcation can be regulated to achieve some desirable behaviors by choosing the appropriate higher terms of the controller. Furthermore, we obtain that the spatial-temporal dynamic characteristics of malware propagation are closely related to the rate constant for nodes leaving the infective class for recovered class and the mobile behavior of nodes.

  13. Outcome of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoblastic lymphoma with hypersensitivity to pegaspargase treated with PEGylated Erwinia asparaginase, pegcrisantaspase: A report from the Children's Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Rachel E.; Dreyer, ZoAnn; Choi, Mi Rim; Liang, Wei; Skowronski, Roman; Allamneni, Krishna P.; Devidas, Meenakshi; Raetz, Elizabeth A.; Adamson, Peter C.; Blaney, Susan M.; Loh, Mignon L; Hunger, Stephen P.

    2018-01-01

    Background Erwinia asparaginase is a Food and Drug Administration approved agent for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) for patients who develop hypersensitivity to Escherichia coli derived asparaginases. Erwinia asparaginase is efficacious, but has a short half-life, requiring six doses to replace one dose of the most commonly used first-line asparaginase, pegaspargase, a polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated E. coli asparaginase. Pegcristantaspase, a recombinant PEGylated Erwinia asparaginase with improved pharmacokinetics, was developed for patients with hypersensitivity to pegaspargase. Here, we report a series of patients treated on a pediatric phase 2 trial of pegcrisantaspase. Procedure Pediatric patients with ALL or lymphoblastic lymphoma and hypersensitivity to pegaspargase enrolled on Children's Oncology Group trial AALL1421 (Jazz 13-011) and received intravenous pegcrisantaspase. Serum asparaginase activity (SAA) was monitored before and after dosing; immunogenicity assays were performed for antiasparaginase and anti-PEG antibodies and complement activation was evaluated. Results Three of the four treated patients experienced hypersensitivity to pegcrisantaspase manifested as clinical hypersensitivity reactions or rapid clearance of SAA. Immunogenicity assays demonstrated the presence of anti-PEG immunoglobulin G antibodies in all three hypersensitive patients, indicating a PEG-mediated immune response. Conclusions This small series of patients, nonetheless, provides data, suggesting preexisting immunogenicity against the PEG moiety of pegaspargase and poses the question as to whether PEGylation may be an effective strategy to optimize Erwinia asparaginase administration. Further study of larger cohorts is needed to determine the incidence of preexisting antibodies against PEG-mediated hypersensitivity to pegaspargase. PMID:29090524

  14. A Rare Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy: Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carotid sinus hypersensitivity is a common cause of fainting and falls in the elderly, and can be diagnosed by carotid sinus massage. We present a 67-year-old diabetic man who was admitted with hyperglycemia. During thyroid examination, clouding of consciousness occurred with unilateral palpation. Asystole was documented for 4.8 seconds and suspected for 7 seconds upon carotid sinus massage. A cardioverter defibrillator was implanted. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity should be kept in mind when examining diabetic patients.

  15. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms without skin rash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharanpillai, Sarita; Binitha, Manikoth P; Manikath, Neeraj; Janardhanan, Anisha K

    2015-01-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) or drug hypersensitivity syndrome is considered as a severe cutaneous adverse drug reaction which is most commonly precipitated by aromatic anticonvulsants, lamotrigine, dapsone, allopurinol, minocycline, and salazopyrin. Its clinical manifestations are often variable. On rare occasions, it can present with only systemic involvement without any cutaneous features. A complete drug history is of paramount importance in making an early diagnosis. We report the case of a male patient who presented with fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and hepatitis, 2 weeks after starting salazopyrin. The presence of atypical lymphocytes in the peripheral smear was indicative of a viral infection or a hematological dyscrasia. Bone marrow examination revealed a normocellular marrow with an increase in eosinophil precursors. Investigations for the common causes for fever and hepatitis were negative. The presence of eosinophilia, the temporal relationship of the symptoms with the initiation of treatment with salazopyrin, and the marked improvement on withdrawal of the drug along with the administration of systemic corticosteroids, were features consistent with the diagnosis of DRESS. With the incidence of this condition showing a rising trend, it is important for the clinician to be aware of its variable manifestations, as a delay in diagnosis and treatment can be fatal.

  16. Impulsive Synchronization of Reaction-Diffusion Neural Networks With Mixed Delays and Its Application to Image Encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wu-Hua; Luo, Shixian; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a new impulsive synchronization criterion of two identical reaction-diffusion neural networks with discrete and unbounded distributed delays. The new criterion is established by applying an impulse-time-dependent Lyapunov functional combined with the use of a new type of integral inequality for treating the reaction-diffusion terms. The impulse-time-dependent feature of the proposed Lyapunov functional can capture more hybrid dynamical behaviors of the impulsive reaction-diffusion neural networks than the conventional impulse-time-independent Lyapunov functions/functionals, while the new integral inequality, which is derived from Wirtinger's inequality, overcomes the conservatism introduced by the integral inequality used in the previous results. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Later, the developed impulsive synchronization method is applied to build a spatiotemporal chaotic cryptosystem that can transmit an encrypted image. The experimental results verify that the proposed image-encrypting cryptosystem has the advantages of large key space and high security against some traditional attacks.

  17. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genuis, Stephen J., E-mail: sgenuis@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta (Canada); Lipp, Christopher T. [Faculty of Medicine at the University of Calgary (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many people report symptoms when near devices emanating electromagnetic fields(EMF). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) research has generated conflicting outcomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recent evidence suggests pathophysiological change in some individuals with EHS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EHS patients consistently report profound social and personal challenges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clinicians need to be apprised of the EHS condition and potential interventions.

  18. Bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia associated with anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome induced by lamotrigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandourah, Hasan; Bhandal, Samarjeet; Brundler, Marie-Anne; Noseworthy, Mary

    2016-01-29

    A 14-year-old girl who was known to have a seizure disorder and on lamotrigine treatment was admitted to the hospital, with a history of rash, fever and cough. Her condition deteriorated with clinical features suggestive of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (ACHS) complicated with bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia (BOOP). Her chest CT showed multifocal parenchymal opacities and lung biopsy was typical for BOOP. Initially, the lamotrigine was discontinued since the onset of the rash, then she was treated for pneumonia with antibiotics, which may have delayed the diagnosis. Eventually, BOOP was considered and she was treated with a high dose of corticosteroid. She improved clinically and her repeated chest CT showed a marked resolution of the lesions. This case illustrates the possible occurrence of BOOP as a complication of ACHS secondary to lamotrigine treatment. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Allergic-like reactions to asparaginase: Atypical allergies without asparaginase inactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.Q.H. Kloos (Robin); R. Pieters (Rob); G. Escherich (Gabriele); I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Asparaginase is an important component of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy. Unfortunately, this treatment is hampered by hypersensitivity reactions. In general, allergies – regardless of severity – cause complete inactivation of the drug. However, we

  20. Hypersensitivity to aeroallergens in adult patients with atopic dermatitis develops due to the different immunological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samochocki, Zbigniew; Owczarek, Witold; Rujna, Paweł; Raczka, Alicja

    2007-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a disease with a complex pathomechanism, it is very difficult to establish the exact factors which can either trigger or exacerbate the disease. Knowledge of the mechanisms involved in AD development can be increased by, among others, applying new diagnostic tests and careful assessment of the results obtained. The aim of this study was to determine the allergic mechanisms of hypersensitivity to selected aeroallergens in patients with AD. The study comprised 109 AD patients. In all the patients the total IgE level was measured and atopy patch tests and skin prick tests were performed. We also assessed the presence of specific IgE against house dust mite, birch-tree, mixed grass pollen and cat dander. The highest incidence of positive results was found for house dust mite allergens, irrespective of the test employed. Analysing hypersensitivity to all the examined allergens we revealed the presence of allergic mechanisms in 85.3% of the patients. In 30.2% of the examined individuals we proved a type I immunological response, in 45.9% -- both types I and IV in 9.2% -- only type IV in one patient. In 14.7% of the patients the results of all the tests performed were negative. Analysing hypersensitivity to particular aeroallergens, negative test results to house dust mite were observed in 25.8% of the patients. The percentage of positive results for birch pollen, grass pollen and cat dander were 45.0, 44.1 and 53.2, respectively. Analysis of the results showed that allergic reactions to the same aeroallergens may develop via different mechanisms. We also revealed that the coexistence of various mechanisms involved in the development of hypersensitivity to a particular aeroallergen may occur in individual patients.

  1. Monostable traveling waves for a time-periodic and delayed nonlocal reaction-diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panxiao; Wu, Shi-Liang

    2018-04-01

    This paper is concerned with a time-periodic and delayed nonlocal reaction-diffusion population model with monostable nonlinearity. Under quasi-monotone or non-quasi-monotone assumptions, it is known that there exists a critical wave speed c_*>0 such that a periodic traveling wave exists if and only if the wave speed is above c_*. In this paper, we first prove the uniqueness of non-critical periodic traveling waves regardless of whether the model is quasi-monotone or not. Further, in the quasi-monotone case, we establish the exponential stability of non-critical periodic traveling fronts. Finally, we illustrate the main results by discussing two types of death and birth functions arising from population biology.

  2. Allergies in orthopaedic and trauma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, C H; Hameister, R; Singh, G

    2017-02-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to implants in orthopaedic and trauma surgery are a rare but devastating complication. They are considered as a delayed-type of hypersensitivity reaction (type IV), characterized by an antigen activation of sensitized T-lymphocytes releasing various cytokines and may result in osteoclast activation and bone resorption. Potential haptens are originated from metal alloys or bone-cement. A meta-analysis has confirmed a higher probability of developing a metal hypersensitivity postoperatively and noted a greater risk of failed replacements compared to stable implants. Hypersensitivity to implants may present with a variety of symptoms such as pain, joint effusion, delayed wound/bone healing, persistent secretion, allergic dermatitis (localized or systemic), clicking noises, loss of joint function, instability and failure of the implant. Various diagnostic options have been offered, including patch testing, metal alloy patch testing, histology, lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), memory lymphocyte immunostimulation assay (MELISA), leukocyte migration inhibition test (LIF) and lymphocyte activation test (LAT). No significant differences between in vivo and in vitro methods have been found. Due to unconvincing evidence for screening methods, predictive tests are not recommended for routine performance. Infectious aetiology always needs to be excluded. As there is a lack of evidence on large-scale studies with regards to the optimal treatment option, management currently relies on individual case-by-case decisions. Several options for patients with (suspected) metal-related hypersensitivity exist and may include materials based on ceramic, titanium or oxinium or modified surfaces. Promising results have been reported, but long-term experience is lacking. More large-scaled studies are needed in this context. In patients with bone-cement hypersensitivity, the component suspected for hypersensitivity should be avoided. The development of

  3. The Pathogenesis of Subacute Subdural Hematoma: A Report of 3 Cases and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhi-Qiang; Ding, Sheng-Hong; Huang, Jian-Yue; Zhu, Zhi-Gang

    2018-06-01

    To discuss the pathologic mechanism of subacute subdural hematoma (sASDH). Three typical cases of sASDH were reported, and related literature in Chinese published in the past 15 years was reviewed. Intervals from onset of acute subdural hematoma to surgery or symptom deterioration resulting in sASDH were 12.5-15.5 days (mean 14.1 days). Delayed liquefaction of hematoma clots occurred in all 3 reported cases. One patient achieved good curative effect after administration of dexamethasone, and another patient relapsed owing to poor drainage after evacuation of hematoma. The conversion of acute subdural hematoma to sASDH is an inflammatory reaction process with very regular in time, and it is speculated that the pathologic mechanism may be a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Antigen released during the liquefaction process of blood clot, with subdural neomembrane cells as antigen-presenting cells, is presented to the T lymphocytes released from the capillaries in the neomembrane and forms sensitized T lymphocytes. When the subsequent antigen is released from the blood clots with a delayed liquefaction and is exposed to sensitized T lymphocytes, the delayed hypersensitivity process occurs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-IgE-Dependent Hypersensitivity to Rocuronium Reversed by Sugammadex: Report of Three Cases and Hypothesis on the Underlying Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerl, David; D'Incau, Stéphanie; Roux-Lombard, Pascale; Harr, Thomas; Czarnetzki, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We present 3 cases of pseudoallergic (anaphylactoid) reactions to perioperatively administered rocuronium, which rapidly resolved after sugammadex injection. Allergological workup showed no evidence for immediate-type hypersensitivity to the drugs used for anesthesia, including rocuronium. However, rocuronium induced an irritative reaction in skin tests in all 3 patients and in 3 healthy individuals. This reaction was specifically suppressed by adding sugammadex at a 1:1 molecular proportion to rocuronium before the skin tests. This observation suggests that the patients suffered from a pseudoallergic reaction, and indicates that sugammadex might act via the inhibition of non-IgE mediated MRGPRX2 (Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor member X2)-triggered mast cell degranulation induced by rocuronium. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Effect of Green Tea Extract on T cell Mediated Hypersensitivity Reaction in BALB/c Mice Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, A.M.; Ismail Al-kadey, M.M.I.; Shabon, M.H.; Hussien, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma radiation is widely used in the treatment of malignant neoplasms. However, it deprives the host immune function which may retard tumor rejection by the immune response. The main purpose of the present study is to test the ability of green tea dry extract to restore the T cell hypersensitivity reaction in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It aims also to elucidate the possible mechanism of action of ionizing radiation and green tea dry extract in the immune function. Four groups of BALB/c mice, each of ten, have been used in each experiment. The first group served as a control, the second group received green tea dry extract and the third group was exposed to 2 Gy gamma irradiation, while the fourth group received green tea dry extract before and after gamma irradiation. The following parameters were determined, the contact sensitivity reaction by the mouse ear swelling response, local dendritic cell migration, local lymph node weight, lymphocyte proliferation, spleen and thymus weight with their lymphocyte count. The effect of gamma irradiation and green tea dry extract on the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity was also determined. Data from the present study showed that gamma irradiation caused a significant decrease of the mouse ear swelling response and retarded dendritic cell migration. They also showed a significant decline in the lymphocytes proliferation in lymph node draining the contact sensitizer application. Total body exposure to 2 Gy gamma irradiation induced marked decline of thymus weight and thymocyte count, while it reduced spleen weight and spleenocyte count to a lesser extent. Exposure to gamma irradiation enhanced the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity. Administration of green tea dry extract partially preserved the contact sensitivity response to oxazolone in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It markedly minimized the enhancement of the elicitation phase of ear swelling. In conclusion, the present study heralds a beneficial role of

  6. Exponential Stability for Impulsive BAM Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays and Reaction-Diffusion Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiankun Song

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Impulsive bidirectional associative memory neural network model with time-varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms is considered. Several sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for the addressed neural network are derived by M-matrix theory, analytic methods, and inequality techniques. Moreover, the exponential convergence rate index is estimated, which depends on the system parameters. The obtained results in this paper are less restrictive than previously known criteria. Two examples are given to show the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  7. Exponential Stability for Impulsive BAM Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays and Reaction-Diffusion Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jinde

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulsive bidirectional associative memory neural network model with time-varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms is considered. Several sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for the addressed neural network are derived by M-matrix theory, analytic methods, and inequality techniques. Moreover, the exponential convergence rate index is estimated, which depends on the system parameters. The obtained results in this paper are less restrictive than previously known criteria. Two examples are given to show the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  8. Efficacy of two commercially available dentifrices in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad KVV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A parallel design clinical study evaluated reduction in hypersensitivity after brushing for 12 weeks with Anchor toothpaste (containing potassium citrate, zinc citrate, triclosan and sodium monofluorophosphate (test and Colgate Total (sodium fluoride, silica, triclosan and copolymer (control dentifrices. Materials and Methods: Sixty adults with sensitivity to hot and cold stimulus in at least two tooth surfaces were stratified at the baseline examination by tactile, hot and cold stimuli scores in two balanced groups. Subjects were randomly allocated the test and control dentifrices and evaluated after 6 and 12 weeks of dentifrice use for hypersensitivity. Results: The two teeth that were selected in each patient were designated as two different sets. The 12 th -week scores as compared to baseline scores for tactile, heat and cold tests in the test group showed a reduction in tooth hypersensitivity by 36.67% (P < 0.01, 20.35% (P < 0.01 and 53.64 % (P < 0.01, respectively, in the first set of teeth and 43.75% (P < 0.01, 24.48% (P < 0.01 and 59.78% (P < 0.01, respectively, in the second set of teeth. The 12 th -week scores as compared to baseline scores for tactile, heat and cold tests in the control group showed a reduction in tooth hypersensitivity by 42.86% (P < 0.01, 13.02% (P < 0.01 and 45.14% (P < 0.01, respectively, in the first set of teeth and 40% (P < 0.01, 16.59% (P < 0.01 and 44.16% (P < 0.01, respectively, in the second set of teeth. Conclusions: Both the products reduced dentinal hypersensitivity in the study subjects at the end of the 12-week period. However, there was no statistically significant difference in reduction in hypersensitivity between the two products.

  9. An in vitro study on the risk of non-allergic type-I like hypersensitivity to Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagkan, Rahsan Ilikci

    2013-10-26

    Momordica charantia (MC) is a tropical plant that is extensively used in folk medicine. However, the knowledge about side effects of this plant is relatively little according to knowledge about its therapeutic effects. The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of non-allergic type-I like hypersensitivity to MC by an experiment which was designed in vitro. In the present study, the expression of CD63 and CD203c on peripheral blood basophils against different dilutions of MC extracts was measured using flow cytometry and compared with one another. In addition to this, intra-assay CV's of testing extracts were calculated for precision on reproducibility of test results. It was observed that the fruit extract of MC at 1/100 and 1/1000 dilutions significantly increased active basophils compared to same extract at 1/10000 dilution. In conclusion, Momordica charantia may elicit a non-allergic type-I like hypersensitivity reaction in especially susceptible individuals.

  10. Asthma and chemical hypersensitivity: prevalence, etiology, and age of onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, S M; Steinemann, A C

    2009-02-01

    This study investigates asthma's national prevalence and potential overlap with chemical hypersensitivity. It also examines asthma's etiology, age of onset, and demographic characteristics. Data were collected from a geographically weighted random sample of the continental U.S. (1058 cases), in four seasonal cohorts (2005-2006). The study found that 12.9% of the sample report asthma, 11.6% report chemical hypersensitivity, and 31.4% of those with asthma report chemical hypersensitivity. Among asthmatics, 38% report irritation from scented products, 37.2% report health problems from air fresheners, and 13.6% report their asthma was caused by toxic exposure. Asthma cases affected each racial/ethic group in roughly the same proportion, with nearly 50% classified as childhood onset.

  11. Hypersensitivity to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Christoffer V; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Mørtz, Charlotte G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are reported to be the second most common cause of drug hypersensitivity. In 2011, experts from the EAACI/ENDA group and GA(2)LEN proposed a new classification system for NSAID hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to classify...... responders reacted to non-pyrazolone drugs. Only one patient could not be classified according to the EAACI/ENDA system. An overlap between respiratory and cutaneous symptoms was found in 15/39 (38%) of patients. CONCLUSIONS: All but one of our patients could be classified according to the EAACI...

  12. Linking Anxiety and Insistence on Sameness in Autistic Children: The Role of Sensory Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Karen R; Stevenson, Ryan A; Segers, Magali; Ncube, Busiswe L; Sun, Sol Z; Philipp-Muller, Aviva; Bebko, James M; Barense, Morgan D; Ferber, Susanne

    2017-08-01

    Sensory hypersensitivity and insistence on sameness (I/S) are common, co-occurring features of autism, yet the relationship between them is poorly understood. This study assessed the impact of sensory hypersensitivity on the clinical symptoms of specific phobia, separation anxiety, social anxiety and I/S for autistic and typically developing (TD) children. Parents of 79 children completed questionnaires on their child's difficulties related to sensory processing, I/S, and anxiety. Results demonstrated that sensory hypersensitivity mediated 67% of the relationship between symptoms of specific phobia and I/S and 57% of the relationship between separation anxiety and I/S. No relationship was observed between sensory hypersensitivity and social anxiety. These mediation effects of sensory hypersensitivity were found only in autistic children, not in TD children.

  13. Effects of long-term vasodilator therapy in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole, M; Menozzi, C; Gaggioli, G; Musso, G; Foglia-Manzillo, G; Mascioli, G; Fradella, G; Bottoni, N; Mureddu, R

    1998-08-01

    In patients affected by carotid sinus hypersensitivity, long-term vasodilator therapy might increase the risk of syncopal episodes by reducing systolic blood pressure and venous return to the heart. Thirty-two patients (mean age 73 +/- 9 years; 20 men) who met all the following criteria were included: (1) one or more episodes of syncope occurring during long-term (>6 months) treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, long-acting nitrates, calcium antagonists, or a combination of these; (2) a positive response to carotid sinus massage, defined as the reproduction of spontaneous syncope in the presence of ventricular asystole > or =3 seconds or a fall in systolic blood pressure > or =50 mm Hg; (3) negative workup for other causes of syncope. The patients were randomly assigned to continue or to discontinue use of vasodilators; carotid sinus massage was repeated 2 weeks after randomization. By the end of the study period, the baseline values of systolic blood pressure were significantly different between the 2 groups of patients both in supine (P=.01) and upright (P=.03) positions. Syncope had been induced by carotid sinus massage in 81% of patients in the "on-vasodilator" group and in 62% of patients in the "off-vasodilator" group (P=.21). The cardioinhibitory reflex was of similar magnitude in the 2 groups, being found in 50% of the patients in each group, with a maximum ventricular pause of 7.1 +/- 2.7 and 6.7 +/- 1.8 seconds, respectively. The percentage decrease of blood pressure did not differ between the 2 groups, even if, in absolute values, the baseline difference of blood pressure roughly persisted for the duration of the test. In consequence of that, the rise of blood pressure to similar values was delayed approximately 30 seconds in the "on-vasodilator" group and took more than 2 minutes to return to baseline values. In patients affected by carotid sinus hypersensitivity, chronic vasodilator therapy does not have a direct effect on carotid

  14. Gelofen Induced Hypersensitivity: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nikkhah Rankohie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are drugs commonly pre-scribed in dental practice for the management of pain and swelling. But, rarely hypersensitiv-ity reactions are reported. Case Report: A 28 year old woman underwent periodontal plastic surgery (gingival graft. Postoperative analgesics (400 mg Gelofen ,oral and antibiotics were administrated for the patient. Three hours after discharge of patient, she complained of redness, itching , rapid swelling of her eyes in 10 minutes, and watery eye discharge 1 hour after taking the drugs. She was treated with 8mg/2ml mg Dexamethasone IM at the dental department and with Hy-drocortisone 100mg/ml IM and antihistamine drugs at the hospital. Conclusion: There are no published protocols and sensitivity and specifity of skin pick testing and patch testing for Gelofen. So avoidance of re-exposure is the best management strategy. The use of Cox-2 specific medications would be a proper alternative for pain relief. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:179-183

  15. Immediate-type hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenande, E; Garvey, L H

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or macrogols are polyether compounds widely used in medical and household products. Although generally considered biologically inert, cases of mild to life-threatening immediate-type PEG hypersensitivity are reported with increasing frequency. Nevertheless, awareness...

  16. Anti-trypanosomal effect of Malva sylvestris (Malvaceae) extract on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A further parasite count was performed in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after the treatment period. Humoral antibody response, delayed hypersensitivity reaction, and mobilization of leucocytes were determined after the treatment period in SRBC-sensitized mice. Results: The results indicate that treatment with MS ...

  17. Effects of operating conditions on compositional characteristics and reaction kinetics of liquid derived by delayed coking of nigerian petroleum residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Bello

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal upgrading of Nigerian petroleum residue was studied at relatively low pressure in a delayed coking reactor system. In this work, the intent was to investigate the effects of process variables such as reaction temperature (200(0C to 600(0C, reaction time (0 to 120min, additive concentration loading and additive-to-residue ratio on the amounts and quality of organic liquid product (OLP. The liquid products derived from the delayed coking process were characterized by means of instrumental analysis of gas-liquid chromatography. Results obtained from the analyses of the OLP revealed an upward trend of the conversion process and the selectivity of the aromatic compounds with additive-to-residue ratio (ARR and increase in temperature. This led to maximum yield of 37.2% achieved with ARR of 5 compared to 31% achieved with ordinary thermal conversion. The selectivity for aromatic hydrocarbons was maximum at 83.1wt% the selectivity towards aromatics and aliphatic hydrocarbons were highest for methanol-potassium hydroxide and methanol respectively. In all additive system cases, maximum OLP was produced at an optimum reaction temperature of 370(0C in the delayed coking reactor and at higher residence time. The gaseous product consisted of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide and C1 - C6 hydrocarbons, which amounted to about 20 to 30 wt% of liquid distillate. The information obtained in this study show that the organic liquid products are amenable to characterization procedure and provided the basis for the identification of processes for upgrading Nigerian petroleum residue and such other starting materials such as bitumen or fossil fuel coal liquids.

  18. Radiochemical Means of Investigating Delayed Neutron Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmol, P. del

    1968-01-01

    Fast radiochemical methods used now for the determination of delayed neutron precursors are classified and reviewed: precipitations, solvent extractions, range experiments, milking, gas sweeping, isotopic and ion exchange, hot atom reactions and diffusion loss. Advantages and limitations of irradiation systems with respect to fast separations are discussed: external beams which allow faster separations only have low neutron fluxes, internal beams which are mostly fit for gaseous reactions; and rabbits for solution irradiations. Future prospects of radiochemical procedures are presented; among these, studies should be mostly oriented towards gaseous reactions which offer possibilities of isolating very short-lived delayed neutron precursors. Chemical procedures for delayed neutron precursor detection are compared with mass spectrometric and isotope separator techniques; it is concluded that the methods are complementary. (author)

  19. Radiochemical Means of Investigating Delayed Neutron Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmol, P. del

    1968-01-01

    Fast radiochemical methods used now for the determination of delayed neutron precursors are classified and reviewed: precipitations, solvent extractions, range experiments, milking, gas sweeping, isotopic and ion exchange, hot-atom reactions and diffusion loss. Advantages and limitations of irradiation systems with respect to fast separations are discussed: external beams which allow faster separations only have low neutron fluxes, internal beams which are mostly fit for gaseous reactions; and rabbits for solution irradiations. Future prospects of radiochemical procedures are presented; among these, studies should be mostly oriented towards gaseous reactions which offer possibilities of isolating very short-lived delayed neutron precursors. Chemical procedures for delayed neutron precursor detection are compared with mass spectrometric and isotope-separator techniques; it is concluded that the methods are complementary. (author)

  20. Mittag-Leffler synchronization of fractional neural networks with time-varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms using impulsive and linear controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Ivanka; Stamov, Gani

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a fractional-order neural network system with time-varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms. We first develop a new Mittag-Leffler synchronization strategy for the controlled nodes via impulsive controllers. Using the fractional Lyapunov method sufficient conditions are given. We also study the global Mittag-Leffler synchronization of two identical fractional impulsive reaction-diffusion neural networks using linear controllers, which was an open problem even for integer-order models. Since the Mittag-Leffler stability notion is a generalization of the exponential stability concept for fractional-order systems, our results extend and improve the exponential impulsive control theory of neural network system with time-varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms to the fractional-order case. The fractional-order derivatives allow us to model the long-term memory in the neural networks, and thus the present research provides with a conceptually straightforward mathematical representation of rather complex processes. Illustrative examples are presented to show the validity of the obtained results. We show that by means of appropriate impulsive controllers we can realize the stability goal and to control the qualitative behavior of the states. An image encryption scheme is extended using fractional derivatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral da; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20minutes after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial - like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU two hours after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; da Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20min after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial-like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU 2h after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Blockage of High-Affinity Choline Transporter Increases Visceral Hypersensitivity in Rats with Chronic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Visceral hypersensitivity is a common feature of irritable bowel syndrome. Cholinergic system involves in the development of visceral hypersensitivity, and high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1) is of crucial importance in choline uptake system. However, involvement of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity remains unknown. The research aimed to study the CHT1 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) and the role of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity. Methods Repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS) was used to induce visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension (CRD) was determined, and the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) and threshold intensity data were recorded to measure the visceral sensitivity. After intraperitoneal injection of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), the specific inhibitor of CHT1, CRD data were also recorded. The CHT1 expression of DRGs was investigated by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative RT-PCR. Acetylcholine levels in the DRGs were detected by the assay kit. Results Repetitive WAS increased the AWR score of CRD at high distension pressure and decreased the mean threshold of rats. The CHT1 expression and acetylcholine concentration of DRG were significantly increased in WAS rats. After the administration of HC-3, the AWR score in WAS group was significantly increased at higher distension pressure while the threshold intensity was significantly reduced compared to the normal saline group. Acetylcholine concentration was significantly lower than the normal saline rats. Conclusion Our research firstly reports that CHT1 is overexpressed in noninflammatory visceral hypersensitivity, and blockage of CHT1 can enhance the visceral hypersensitivity. CHT1 may play an inhibitory role in visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:29849603

  4. An Atypical Local Vesicular Reaction to the Yellow Fever Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Wauters, Robert H.; Hernandez, Camellia L.; Petersen, Maureen M.

    2017-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine is a live attenuated viral inoculation indicated for patients traveling to endemic areas. The vaccine is generally well tolerated with minimal adverse effects. Typical side effects include malaise, pain at the injection site, and, albeit rarely, immediate hypersensitivity reactions. We present a case of a rare adverse reaction to yellow fever vaccine in which a patient developed vesicular lesions resulting in bullae and circumferential hyperpigmentation.

  5. An Atypical Local Vesicular Reaction to the Yellow Fever Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Robert H; Hernandez, Camellia L; Petersen, Maureen M

    2017-09-19

    Yellow fever vaccine is a live attenuated viral inoculation indicated for patients traveling to endemic areas. The vaccine is generally well tolerated with minimal adverse effects. Typical side effects include malaise, pain at the injection site, and, albeit rarely, immediate hypersensitivity reactions. We present a case of a rare adverse reaction to yellow fever vaccine in which a patient developed vesicular lesions resulting in bullae and circumferential hyperpigmentation.

  6. Detailed analysis of allergic cutaneous reactions to spinal cord stimulator devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhry ZA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Zeshan Ahmed Chaudhry,1 Umer Najib,2 Zahid H Bajwa,3 W Carl Jacobs,4 Javed Sheikh,5 Thomas T Simopoulos61Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Robert C Byrd Health Sciences Center of West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA; 3Boston Headache Institute, Waltham, MA, USA; 4Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5Department of Medicine, Allergy and Immunology, 6Department of Anesthesia, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brookline, MA, USAAbstract: The use of spinal cord stimulation (SCS devices to treat chronic, refractory neuropathic pain continues to expand in application. While device-related complications have been well described, inflammatory reactions to the components of these devices remain underreported. In contrast, hypersensitivity reactions associated with other implanted therapies, such as endovascular and cardiac rhythm devices, have been detailed. The purpose of this case series is to describe the clinical presentation and course of inflammatory reactions as well as the histology of these reactions. All patients required removal of the entire device after developing inflammatory reactions over a time course of 1–3 months. Two patients developed a foreign body reaction in the lead insertion wound as well as at the implantable pulse generator site, with histology positive for giant cells. One patient developed an inflammatory dermatitis on the flank and abdomen that resolved with topical hydrocortisone. “In vivo” testing with a lead extension fragment placed in the buttock resulted in a negative reaction followed by successful reimplantation of an SCS device. Inflammatory reactions to SCS devices can manifest as contact dermatitis, granuloma formation, or foreign body reactions with giant cell formation. Tissue diagnosis is essential, and

  7. Stochastic exponential stability of the delayed reaction-diffusion recurrent neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Linshan; Zhang Zhe; Wang Yangfan

    2008-01-01

    Some criteria for the global stochastic exponential stability of the delayed reaction-diffusion recurrent neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters are presented. The jumping parameters considered here are generated from a continuous-time discrete-state homogeneous Markov process, which are governed by a Markov process with discrete and finite state space. By employing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach is developed to establish some easy-to-test criteria of global exponential stability in the mean square for the stochastic neural networks. The criteria are computationally efficient, since they are in the forms of some linear matrix inequalities

  8. β-delayed γ decay of 20Mg and the 19Ne(p , γ) 20 Na breakout reaction in Type I X-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, B. E.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; Wrede, C.; Allen, J.; Bardayan, D. W.; Bennett, M. B.; Brown, B. A.; Chipps, K. A.; Febbraro, M.; Friedman, M.; Fry, C.; Hall, M. R.; Hall, O.; Liddick, S. N.; O'Malley, P.; Ong, W. J.; Pain, S. D.; Prokop, C.; Schwartz, S. B.; Shidling, P.; Sims, H.; Thompson, P.; Zhang, H.

    2018-03-01

    Certain astrophysical environments such as thermonuclear outbursts on accreting neutron stars (Type-I X-ray bursts) are hot enough to allow for breakout from the Hot CNO hydrogen burning cycles to the rapid proton capture (rp) process. An important breakout reaction sequence is 15O(α,γ)19Ne(p,γ)20Na and the 19Ne(p,γ)20Na reaction rate is expected to be dominated by a single resonance at 457 keV above the proton threshold in 20Na. The resonance strength and, hence, reaction rate depends strongly on whether this 20Na state at an excitation energy of 2647 keV has spin and parity of 1+ or 3+. Previous 20Mg (Jπ =0+) β+ decay experiments have relied almost entirely on searches for β-delayed proton emission from this resonance in 20Na to limit the log ft value and, hence, Jπ. However there is a non-negligible γ-ray branch expected that must also be limited experimentally to determine the log ft value and constrain Jπ. We have measured the β-delayed γ decay of 20Mg to complement previous β-delayed proton decay work and provide the first complete limit based on all energetically allowed decay channels through the 2647 keV state. Our limit confirms that a 1+ assignment for this state is highly unlikely.

  9. Electro-acupuncture at Acupoint ST36 Ameliorates Inflammation and Regulates Th1/Th2 Balance in Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Chen, Tao; Long, Man; Chen, Longyun; Wang, Lei; Yin, Nina; Chen, Zebin

    2017-04-01

    Increasing evidence indicates anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) therapy. However, its underlying mechanism on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), a classic allergic inflammatory disease, still remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the immunomodulatory mechanism of EA intervention in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced DTH. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control, OVA-DTH, DTH + EA, DTH + Sham. "Zusanli" acupoint (ST36) was used for DTH + EA, whereas a non-acupoint (localized 5 mm below the "Zusanli" acupoint) was selected for DTH + Sham. Footpad thickness was checked, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells was estimated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Levels of IgG and IgE in serum of different groups and inflammatory cytokines in the supernatants from homogenized footpads, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5, were determined by ELISA. Cell proliferation of spleen lymphocytes was assayed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The frequency of CD4 + IFN-γ + and CD4 + IL-4 + T cells was analyzed with flow cytometry. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression of T-bet and GATA-3 were evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Our data showed EA treatment at acupoint ST36 relieved the pathological progression of DTH responses via reduction in footpad swelling, infiltration of inflammatory cells, levels of IgG and IgE as well as decreased production of IFN-γ and TNF-α in homogenized footpad tissue. Moreover, detailed studies were performed revealing that EA attenuated the percentage of CD4 + IFN-γ + T cells and prevented Th cells differentiation into Th1 cells, and this results from inhibiting secretion of IFN-γ and suppressing expression of T-bet, an IFN-γ transcription factor. The results indicated that EA treatment improved Th1-mediated allergic skin inflammation via restoring Th1/Th2 balance by curbing Th1

  10. Simulation of delayed γ-ray emission following photofission reactions induced by pulsed bremsstrahlung x-rays using MCNPX and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Xianfei, E-mail: wenxianfei@ufl.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Yang, Haori, E-mail: haori.yang@oregonstate.edu [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2016-12-21

    There is a great demand to develop non-destructive techniques to identify and quantify Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in homeland security and nuclear safeguards applications. Passive assay could be extremely challenging in some scenarios. Active interrogation technique based on photofission has been identified as one of the promising approaches. In radiation detection system design based on such technique, it is highly desired to have abilities to accurately and efficiently simulate delayed γ-rays emitted from photofission reactions. In this work, simulation results were compared with measurement outcomes to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the code MCNPX 2.7.0 in the simulation of delayed γ-rays from photofission of uranium and plutonium samples. First, high-energy delayed γ-rays (E{sub γ}~2.7–4.5 MeV) from photofission of {sup 238}U were simulated and validated against the energy spectra measured in between linac pulses. Second, low-energy delayed γ-ray spectra (E{sub γ}~0.6–2.7 MeV) measured with a list-mode system after irradiation of {sup 239}Pu were used in the validation.

  11. ATM status of the clinically radio-hypersensitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R. A.; Hasnain, H.; Goozee, G.; Alvandi, R.; Miller, A.; Kearsley, J.H.; Farrell, A.; Bittell, G.; Chen, P.; Lavin, M.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the response to ionising radiation of normal tissues from patients that display early and acute hypersensitivity to radiotherapy. Methods include cell proliferation assay using MTT, induced chromosomal aberration testing, cell cycle response to radiation via FACs, mutation analysis of Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT) gene, p53 and AT Western analysis. It is now well appreciated that standard clinical doses (1.8-2 Gy per fraction per day) produce predictable acute and late toxicity in most patients. Occasionally, however, the standard clinical dose produces acute and late toxicity which can exceed the norm both in their extent and timing. The study confirmed the innate cellular radiosensitivity of the clinically radio-hypersensitive patients. No indication of AT gene mutations was found

  12. Blockage of High-Affinity Choline Transporter Increases Visceral Hypersensitivity in Rats with Chronic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Visceral hypersensitivity is a common feature of irritable bowel syndrome. Cholinergic system involves in the development of visceral hypersensitivity, and high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1 is of crucial importance in choline uptake system. However, involvement of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity remains unknown. The research aimed to study the CHT1 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs and the role of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity. Methods. Repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS was used to induce visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension (CRD was determined, and the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR and threshold intensity data were recorded to measure the visceral sensitivity. After intraperitoneal injection of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3, the specific inhibitor of CHT1, CRD data were also recorded. The CHT1 expression of DRGs was investigated by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative RT-PCR. Acetylcholine levels in the DRGs were detected by the assay kit. Results. Repetitive WAS increased the AWR score of CRD at high distension pressure and decreased the mean threshold of rats. The CHT1 expression and acetylcholine concentration of DRG were significantly increased in WAS rats. After the administration of HC-3, the AWR score in WAS group was significantly increased at higher distension pressure while the threshold intensity was significantly reduced compared to the normal saline group. Acetylcholine concentration was significantly lower than the normal saline rats. Conclusion. Our research firstly reports that CHT1 is overexpressed in noninflammatory visceral hypersensitivity, and blockage of CHT1 can enhance the visceral hypersensitivity. CHT1 may play an inhibitory role in visceral hypersensitivity.

  13. Detection of feline herpes virus 1 via polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in cats with ulcerative facial dermatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex reaction patterns and mosquito bite hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Paola; Roccabianca, Paola; Corona, Antonio; Vercelli, Antonella; Cornegliani, Luisa

    2011-12-01

    Ulcerative dermatitis caused by feline herpes virus 1 (FHV-1) is an uncommon disease characterized by cutaneous ulcers secondary to epidermal, adnexal and dermal necrosis. Differential diagnoses for FHV-1 lesions include, but are not limited to, mosquito bite hypersensitivity and eosinophilic granuloma complex. Histopathological diagnosis of FHV-1 dermatitis is based on the detection of the intranuclear inclusion bodies. In cases where intranuclear inclusions are missing but clinical and histological findings are compatible with FHV-1 dermatitis, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PCRs have been used. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the presence of FHV-1 by IHC and PCR in skin biopsies and compared the results of the two tests. Sixty-four skin biopsy specimens from cats with compatible lesions were reviewed and tested via PCR and IHC for evidence of FHV-1. Polymerase chain reaction was positive in 12 of 64 biopsies; PCR and IHC were positive only in two of 64 biopsies, and these cases were considered true positive cases. The higher number of PCR-positive cases was possibly attributed to amplification of viral DNA from a live attenuated vaccination, but a previous FHV-1 infection with subsequent amplification of latently inserted FHV-1 could not be excluded. If clinical signs and histopathology suggest FHV-1 infection in the absence of typical inclusion bodies, IHC is the preferred diagnostic test; PCR may be useful for initial screening, but due to false positives is not sufficient for a definitive diagnosis. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology. © 2011 ESVD and ACVD.

  14. Delayed minocycline but not delayed mild hypothermia protects against embolic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Raza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory reactions occurring in the brain after ischemia may contribute to secondary damage. In the present study, effects of minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent, alone or in combination with mild hypothermia on focal embolic cerebral ischemia have been examined. Methods Focal ischemic injury was induced by embolizing a preformed clot into the middle cerebral artery (MCA. Infarction volume was measured at 48 h after the injury. Mortality was also recorded. Results Delayed administration of minocycline alone or delayed minocycline plus delayed mild hypothermia reduced the infarction volume significantly. However, delayed mild hypothermia alone was not protective and delayed mild hypothermia in combination with minocycline did not show any additive effect. Conclusions These results suggest that minocycline is beneficial in focal ischemic brain injury, and the lack of the enhanced neuroprotection may be due to the brief exposure to hypothermia.

  15. Dentin Hypersensitivity: Recent Concepts in Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Mantri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth sensitivity is a very common clinical presentation which can cause considerable concern for patients. Dentin hypersensitivity (DH is characterized by short sharp pain arising from exposed dentin in response to stimuli. The most widely accepted theory of how the pain occurs is Brannstrom′s hydrodynamic theory, fluid movement within the dentinal tubules. The condition generally involves the facial surfaces of teeth near the cervical aspect and is very common in premolars and canines. This condition is frequently encountered by dentists, periodontists, hygienists and dental therapists. Some dental professionals lack confidence in treating DH. The management of this condition requires a good understanding of the complexity of the problem, as well as the variety of treatments available. This review considers the etiopathogenesis, incidence, diagnosis, prevention and management of dentinal hypersensitivity. DH is diagnosed after elimination of other possible causes of the pain. Any treatment plan for DH should include identifying and eliminating predisposing etiologic factors. Professionals should appreciate the role causative factors play in localizing and initiating hypersensitive lesions. It is important to identify these factors so that prevention can be included in the treatment plan. Treatments can be self-administered by the patient at home or be applied by a dental professional in the dental office. At-home methods tend to be simple and inexpensive and can treat simultaneously generalized DH affecting many teeth Desensitizing treatment should be delivered systematically, beginning with prevention and at-home treatments. The latter may be supplemented with in-office modalities.

  16. Insect bite reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some

  17. Hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents in primary degenerations of excitable tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Defects in DNA-repair mechanisms render xeroderma pigmentosum cells hypersensitive to killing by the uv-type of DNA-damaging agent. Some xeroderma pigmentosum patients develop a primary neuronal degeneration, and cell lines from patients with the earliest onset of neurodegeneration are the most sensitive to killing by uv radiation. These findings led to the neuronal DNA integrity theory which holds that when the integrity of neuronal DNA is destroyed by the accumulation of unrepaired DNA damaged spontaneously or by endogenous metabolites, the neurons will undergo a primary degeneration. Cells from patients with Cockayne syndrome, a demyelinating disorder with a primary retinal degeneration, are also hypersensitive to the uv-type of DNA-damaging agent. Cells from patients with the primary neuronal degeneration of ataxia telangiectasia are hypersensitive to the x-ray-type of DNA-damaging agent. Cells from other patients with primary degeneration of excitable tissue also have hypersensitivity to the x-ray-type of DNA-damaging agent. These disorders include (1) primary neuronal degenerations which are either genetic (e.g., Huntington disease, familial dysautonomia, Friedreich ataxia) or sporadic (e.g., Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease), (2) primary muscle degenerations (e.g., Duchenne muscular dystrophy), and (3) a primary retinal degeneration (Usher syndrome). Death of excitable tissue in vivo in these radiosensitive diseases may result from unrepaired DNA. This hypersensitivity provides the basis for developing suitable presymptomatic and prenatal tests for these diseases, for elucidating their pathogenesis, and for developing future therapies. 119 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  18. Intestinal Fungal Dysbiosis Is Associated With Visceral Hypersensitivity in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botschuijver, Sara; Roeselers, Guus; Levin, Evgeni; Jonkers, Daisy M; Welting, Olaf; Heinsbroek, Sigrid E M; de Weerd, Heleen H; Boekhout, Teun; Fornai, Matteo; Masclee, Ad A; Schuren, Frank H J; de Jonge, Wouter J; Seppen, Jurgen; van den Wijngaard, René M

    2017-10-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is one feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Bacterial dysbiosis might be involved in the activation of nociceptive sensory pathways, but there have been few studies of the role of the mycobiome (the fungal microbiome) in the development of IBS. We analyzed intestinal mycobiomes of patients with IBS and a rat model of visceral hypersensitivity. We used internal transcribed spacer 1-based metabarcoding to compare fecal mycobiomes of 18 healthy volunteers with those of 39 patients with IBS (with visceral hypersensitivity or normal levels of sensitivity). We also compared the mycobiomes of Long-Evans rats separated from their mothers (hypersensitive) with non-handled (normally sensitive) rats. We investigated whether fungi can cause visceral hypersensitivity using rats exposed to fungicide (fluconazole and nystatin). The functional relevance of the gut mycobiome was confirmed in fecal transplantation experiments: adult maternally separated rats were subjected to water avoidance stress (to induce visceral hypersensitivity), then given fungicide and donor cecum content via oral gavage. Other rats subjected to water avoidance stress were given soluble β-glucans, which antagonize C-type lectin domain family 7 member A (CLEC7A or DECTIN1) signaling via spleen-associated tyrosine kinase (SYK), a SYK inhibitor to reduce visceral hypersensitivity, or vehicle (control). The sensitivity of mast cells to fungi was tested with mesenteric windows (ex vivo) and the human mast cell line HMC-1. α diversity (Shannon index) and mycobiome signature (stability selection) of both groups of IBS patients differed from healthy volunteers, and the mycobiome signature of hypersensitive patients differed from that of normally sensitive patients. We observed mycobiome dysbiosis in rats that had been separated from their mothers compared with non-handled rats. Administration of fungicide to hypersensitive rats reduced their visceral hypersensitivity to normal

  19. Morphology of vascular changes in cases of delayed radiation reactions in the central nervous system. Morphologie der Gefaessveraenderungen bei Strahlenspaetreaktionen im Zentralnervensystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, U

    1981-01-01

    In 6 autopsies, the author presents clinical and pathological - anatomic findings which are said to be a result of radiotherapy. According to these findings, the vascular changes in the region which had been irradiated are of special interest as important morphological substrates of a delayed radiation reaction. In the clinical picture, this is often misinterpreted as a recurrence of a tumour which, in the worst case, causes another radiotherapy. These vascular changes can remain latent for a long time until the increasing repair burden of the nerve and vascular tissue finally causes neurological and psychological failures. A simultaneous combination of the tumour recurrence and radiation reaction, which is also possible, can lead to pictures which are difficult to differentiate clinically and which can be correctly interpreted only in the autopsy. Decisive factors in the development of a delayed radiation reaction of the nerve tissue are, according to present knowledge, excessive doses in radiotherapy and/or an insufficient fractioning. As other factors which may possibly be decisive we must, in radiotherapy, consider the patient's age, chronic accompanying diseases, regenerative ability of the tissue concerned, and also a genetic disposition.

  20. Delayed Hypersensitivity in Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Kumar

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty two adult male patients of psoriasis and 100 normal Volunteers Were skin-tested ′ with DNC-B, mumps skin antigen, candidin coccidiodin, PPD, croton Oil and histamine hate Except for ′decreased mine phosphate sensitization seen: with DNCB, the response of psoriabics to, skin testing was comparable with the normals.

  1. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: Skin Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Reaction and. Cellular Immune Responses. Lymphadénite Tuberculeuse: Peau Réaction d'hypersensibilité Retardée de Type et les Réponses. Immunitaires Cellulaires. E. A. G. Khalil†*, A. A. Elnour†, A. M. Musa†, ...

  2. Characterisation of the clinical and activated T cell response to repeat delayed-type hypersensitivity skin challenges in human subjects, with KLH and PPD, as a potential model to test T cell-targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belson, Alexandra; Schmidt, Tim; Fernando, Disala; Hardes, Kelly; Scott, Nicola; Brett, Sara; Clark, Deborah; Oliveira, João Joaquim; Davis, Bill; McHugh, Simon; Stone, John

    2016-05-01

    To characterise the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction to repeated challenges of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) in healthy volunteers, as a potential model to test T cell-targeted investigational agents. Forty-nine subjects received either KLH, PPD, or PBS repeat skin challenges, and clinical assessments including induration, erythema and Laser Doppler Imaging. Skin biopsies or suction blisters were taken after challenge to investigate the cellular infiltrate of the challenge site, the T cell activation status, as determined by LAG-3 expression, and, specifically for the blister, the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines. Point estimates, estimates of variation and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were constructed for each type of challenge and timepoint. The DTH response could be measured at 48 and 120 h post-KLH and PPD challenge with induration, erythema and Laser Doppler Imaging, with 48 h post-challenge demonstrating the peak of the response. PPD was well tolerated in subjects after multiple challenges, however, a significant number of KLH-treated subjects demonstrated an injection site reaction 6-7 days following the SC injection. PPD demonstrated a boost effect on the second challenge as measured by increased induration, where as this was not noted consistently for KLH. Compared to unchallenged and PBS control-injected skin, increased T cell numbers were detected in the challenge site by both the skin suction blister and biopsy technique, at either time point following KLH or PPD challenge. Use of the T cell activation marker LAG-3 demonstrated the activated phenotype of these cells. In skin blisters, higher numbers of LAG-3+ T cells were detected at 48 h post-challenge, whereas in the biopsies, similar numbers of LAG-3+ cells were observed at both 48 and 120 h. Analysis of blister T cell subpopulations revealed some differences in phenotypes between the time points and between the CD4

  3. Baroreflex Sensitivity And Autonomic Nervous System Function In Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise Schouborg; Pors, Kirsten; Theibel, Ann Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    hypersensitivity ranging from reduced to increased sensitivity compared to controls. We wanted to establish whether measures of baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic function differed between patients diagnosed with carotid sinus hypersensitivity and age matched controls. We included 36 patients (12 women; 74 +/-10...... sensitivity may not follow the same neuronal pathways as those responding to the crude external pressures applied during carotid sinus massage...

  4. Strength of figure-ground activity in monkey primary visual cortex predicts saccadic reaction time in a delayed detection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supèr, Hans; Lamme, Victor A F

    2007-06-01

    When and where are decisions made? In the visual system a saccade, which is a fast shift of gaze toward a target in the visual scene, is the behavioral outcome of a decision. Current neurophysiological data and reaction time models show that saccadic reaction times are determined by a build-up of activity in motor-related structures, such as the frontal eye fields. These structures depend on the sensory evidence of the stimulus. Here we use a delayed figure-ground detection task to show that late modulated activity in the visual cortex (V1) predicts saccadic reaction time. This predictive activity is part of the process of figure-ground segregation and is specific for the saccade target location. These observations indicate that sensory signals are directly involved in the decision of when and where to look.

  5. High-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings in hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Pedro Paulo Teixeira e Silva; Moreira, Marise Amaral Reboucas; Silva, Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus; Moreira, Maria Auxiliadora do Carmo [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Gama, Roberta Rodrigues Monteiro da [Hospital do Cancer de Barretos, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Sugita, Denis Masashi, E-mail: pedroptstorres@yahoo.com.br [Anapolis Unievangelica, Anapolis, GO (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a diffuse interstitial and granulomatous lung disease caused by the inhalation of any one of a number of antigens. The objective of this study was to illustrate the spectrum of abnormalities in high-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings related to hypersensitivity pneumonitis. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had been diagnosed with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (on the basis of clinical-radiological or clinical-radiological-pathological correlations) and had undergone lung biopsy. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is clinically divided into acute, subacute, and chronic forms; high-resolution computed tomography findings correlate with the time of exposure; and the two occasionally overlap. In the subacute form, centrilobular micronodules, ground glass opacities, and air trapping are characteristic high-resolution computed tomography findings, whereas histopathology shows lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates, bronchiolitis, variable degrees of organizing pneumonia, and giant cells. In the chronic form, high-resolution computed tomography shows traction bronchiectasis, honeycombing, and lung fibrosis, the last also being seen in the biopsy sample. A definitive diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis can be made only through a multidisciplinary approach, by correlating clinical findings, exposure history, high-resolution computed tomography findings, and lung biopsy findings. (author)

  6. The scientific rationale and development of an optimized dentifrice for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavss, Edward A; Fisher, Steven W; Campbell, Shannon; Bonta, Yolanda; Darcy-Siegel, Joann; Blackwell, Bernie L; Volpe, Anthony R; Miller, Steven E

    2004-02-01

    To describe the development of a new dentin hypersensitivity treatment, Colgate Sensitive Maximum Strength dentifrice, containing 5% potassium nitrate as the anti-hypersensitivity active agent. The objective was to develop a home-use hypersensitivity dentifrice that would be superior to the market leader, improving on what is available, which also contains 5% potassium nitrate as the anti-hypersensitivity active agent. In vivo (clinicals, taste evaluation and rat caries), in vitro (potassium flux) and analytical (rheology, dispensed volume, scanning electron microscopy, electron scanning chemical analysis and radioactive dentin abrasion) methods were performed. The objective was accomplished with the development of a new activated silica technology that resulted in enhanced potassium ion activity. In vitro documentation, supported by clinical studies, demonstrated that the resulting formula is more effective than the market leader for relief of hypersensitivity pain. Fast pain relief in less than 2 weeks and long-lasting protection against pain with regular use have also been clinically documented. Furthermore, FDA-required in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that this formula, which contains 0.45% stannous fluoride (1100 ppm fluoride) as the anti-caries active agent, is effective against caries. Good taste, acceptable rheology, acceptable abrasivity, and cosmetic and chemical stability have all been engineered into this unique dentin hypersensitivity treatment. In summary, a highly efficacious consumer friendly treatment for dentin hypersensitivity has been developed.

  7. Dendritic cell populations in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lied GA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Gülen A Lied1,3,4,*, Petra Vogelsang2,*, Arnold Berstad1,4, Silke Appel2 1Institute of Medicine, 2Broegelmann Research Laboratory, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Norway; 3Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine; 4Section of Clinical Allergology, Department of Occupational Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Self-reported hypersensitivity to food is a common condition and many of these patients have indications of intestinal immune activation. Dendritic cells (DCs are recognized as the most potent antigen-presenting cells involved in both initiating immune responses and maintaining tolerance. The aims of this study were to evaluate the DC populations with their phenotype and T cell stimulatory capacity in patients with food hypersensitivity and to study its relationship with atopic disease. Blood samples from 10 patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity, divided into atopic and nonatopic subgroups, and 10 gender- and age-matched healthy controls were analyzed by flow cytometry using the Miltenyi Blood Dendritic cells kit. Monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs were evaluated concerning their phenotype and T cell stimulatory capacity. DC populations and cell surface markers were not significantly different between patients and healthy controls, but moDCs from atopic patients expressed significantly more CD38 compared to moDCs from nonatopic patients. Moreover, lipopolysaccharide stimulated moDCs from atopic patients produced significantly more interleukin-10 compared to nonatopic patients. CD38 expression was correlated to total serum immunoglobulin E levels. These findings support the notion of immune activation in some patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity. They need to be confirmed in a larger cohort.Keywords: food hypersensitivity, atopy, dendritic cells, CD38

  8. Adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals and their reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, D.

    1988-01-01

    Adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals are uncommon and the great majority that do occur are relatively trivial and require little or no treatment. Reporting schemes for such reactions are in operation in a number of countries but they vary in their effectiveness and the best collect only a minority of cases; only 10-15% of total reactions in the United Kingdom, for instance. Radiopharmaceutical reaction reports in the UK for the period 1982-1987 are summarised in a table and then discussed. Reliable incidence figures for such reactions are difficult to obtain. The UK figure is estimated here to be near 1 per 2000. The great majority of reactions reported are of an idiopathic hypersensitivity nature and are related to the chemical form of the material; radiation has very rarely caused recognisable problems since the discontinuance of colloid gold for lymphatic clearance studies. The value of such reaction reports is their role as a forewarning to doctors

  9. Detective quantum efficiency gains compared with speed gains for hypersensitized astronomical plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    It is reasonable to assume that gains in detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are far better criteria for assessing the performance of hypersensitizing techniques than gains in speed. It is shown here that gains in speed can be misleading, for some methods of hypersensitization give plates of increased speed but reduced detective quantum efficiency. (author)

  10. A shock tube and laser absorption study of ignition delay times and OH reaction rates of ketones: 2-Butanone and 3-buten-2-one

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Khaled, Fathi; Vasu, Subith S.; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Ketones are potential biofuel candidates and are also formed as intermediate products during the oxidation of large hydrocarbons or oxygenated fuels, such as alcohols and esters. This paper presents shock tube ignition delay times and OH reaction

  11. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos Ac; Gimenez, Andréa; Kuranishi, Lilian; Storrer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP) is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary.

  12. The excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist MK-801 prevents the hypersensitivity induced by spinal cord ischemia in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, J.X.; Xu, X.J.; Aldskogius, H.; Seiger, A.; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Protection by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 against transient spinal cord ischemia-induced hypersensitivity was studied in rats. The spinal ischemia was initiated by vascular occlusion resulting from the interaction between the photosensitizing dye Erythrosin B and an argon laser beam. The hypersensitivity, termed allodynia, where the animals reacted by vocalization to nonnoxious mechanical stimuli in the flank area, was consistently observed during several days after induction of the ischemia. Pretreatment with MK-801 (0.1-0.5 mg/kg, iv) 10 min before laser irradiation dose dependently prevented the occurrence of allodynia. The neuroprotective effect of MK-801 was not reduced by maintaining normal body temperature during and after irradiation. There was a significant negative correlation between the delay in the administration of MK-801 after irradiation and the protective effect of the drug. Histological examination revealed slight morphological damage in the spinal cord in 38% of control rats after 1 min of laser irradiation without pretreatment with MK-801. No morphological abnormalities were observed in rats after pretreatment with MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg). The present results provide further evidence for the involvement of excitatory amino acids, through activation of the NMDA receptor, in the development of dysfunction following ischemic trauma to the spinal cord

  13. Old, new and hidden causes of perioperative hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene Heise

    2016-01-01

    intravenously such as neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA), induction agents and antibiotics have traditionally been reported to be implicated most commonly. It has recently become apparent that there are geographical differences in sensitization patterns related to variation in exposures, referral patterns...... and performance and interpretation of investigations. Differences in sensitization to NMBAs are partly explained by cross sensitization to pholcodine, an ingredient in cough-medicines available in some countries. While NMBAs are the most common causes of perioperative hypersensitivity in some countries, this may...... in causes of perioperative hypersensitivity emerging over time and to increase awareness about the “hidden allergens” in the perioperative setting. Some practical advice on how to approach the patient testing negative on all initial investigations is also included....

  14. Severe Hyperacusis, Photophobia, and Skin Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Barbara Fioretti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a patient with severe hyperacusis, photophobia, and skin hypersensitivity. The patient was initially treated with sound therapy and medical therapy for 4 months and successfully with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI and cognitive behavioral therapy which improved her mood and the tolerance for sounds and light.

  15. Quad precision delay generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shanti; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.; Marballi, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    A Quad Precision Delay Generator delays a digital edge by a programmed amount of time, varying from nanoseconds to microseconds. The output of this generator has an amplitude of the order of tens of volts and rise time of the order of nanoseconds. This was specifically designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements of the plasma focus experiments. Plasma focus is a laboratory device for producing and studying nuclear fusion reactions in hot deuterium plasma. 3 figs

  16. Delay chemical master equation: direct and closed-form solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, Andre; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T

    2015-07-08

    The stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) describes the time evolution of a discrete nonlinear Markov process. This stochastic process has a probability density function that is the solution of a differential equation, commonly known as the chemical master equation (CME) or forward-Kolmogorov equation. In the same way that the CME gives rise to the SSA, and trajectories of the latter are exact with respect to the former, trajectories obtained from a delay SSA are exact representations of the underlying delay CME (DCME). However, in contrast to the CME, no closed-form solutions have so far been derived for any kind of DCME. In this paper, we describe for the first time direct and closed solutions of the DCME for simple reaction schemes, such as a single-delayed unimolecular reaction as well as chemical reactions for transcription and translation with delayed mRNA maturation. We also discuss the conditions that have to be met such that such solutions can be derived.

  17. First Accurate Normalization of the $\\beta$-delayed $\\alpha$ Decay of $^{16}$N and Implications for the $^{12}$C$(\\alpha,\\gamma)^{16}$O Astrophysical Reaction Rate arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsebom, O.S.; Lica, R.; Munch, M.; Riisager, K.; Fynbo, H.O.U.; Borge, M.J.G.; Madurga, M.; Marroquin, I.; Andreyev, A.N.; Berry, T.A.; Christensen, E.R.; Fernández, P. Díaz; Doherty, D.T.; Van Duppen, P.; Fraile, L.M.; Gallardo, M.C.; Greenlees, P.T.; Harkness-Brennan, L.J.; Hubbard, N.; Huyse, M.; Jensen, J.H.; Johansson, H.; Jonson, B.; Judson, D.S.; Konki, J.; Lazarus, I.; Lund, M.V.; Marginean, N.; Marginean, R.; Perea, A.; Mihai, C.; Negret, A.; Page, R.D.; Pucknell, V.; Rahkila, P.; Sorlin, O.; Sotty, C.; Swartz, J.A.; Sørensen, H.B.; Törnqvist, H.; Vedia, V.; Warr, N.; De Witte, H.

    The $^{12}$C$(\\alpha,\\gamma)^{16}$O reaction plays a central role in astrophysics, but its cross section at energies relevant for astrophysical applications is only poorly constrained by laboratory data. The reduced $\\alpha$ width, $\\gamma_{11}$, of the bound $1^-$ level in $^{16}$O is particularly important to determine the cross section. The magnitude of $\\gamma_{11}$ is determined via sub-Coulomb $\\alpha$-transfer reactions or the $\\beta$-delayed $\\alpha$ decay of $^{16}$N, but the latter approach is presently hampered by the lack of sufficiently precise data on the $\\beta$-decay branching ratios. Here we report improved branching ratios for the bound $1^-$ level and for $\\beta$-delayed $\\alpha$ emission. In the case of the $\\beta$-delayed $\\alpha$ branch, we find a $5\\sigma$ deviation from the literature value. With our new branching ratios, the constraints imposed on $\\gamma_{11}$ by the $\\beta\\alpha$-decay and $\\alpha$-transfer data are of similar precision and, for the first time, in good agreement. Th...

  18. Functional dyspepsia: The role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Keohane; Eamonn M M Quigley

    2006-01-01

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists.It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process.The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review,we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD.

  19. Functional dyspepsia: the role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists. It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process. The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review, we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD.

  20. Use of cephalosporins in patients with immediate penicillin hypersensitivity: cross-reactivity revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Q U

    2014-10-01

    A 10% cross-reactivity rate is commonly cited between penicillins and cephalosporins. However, this figure originated from studies in the 1960s and 1970s which included first-generation cephalosporins with similar side-chains to penicillins. Cephalosporins were frequently contaminated by trace amount of penicillins at that time. The side-chain hypothesis for beta-lactam hypersensitivity is supported by abundant scientific evidence. Newer generations of cephalosporins possess side-chains that are dissimilar to those of penicillins, leading to low cross-reactivity. In the assessment of cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins, one has to take into account the background beta-lactam hypersensitivity, which occurs in up to 10% of patients. Cross-reactivity based on skin testing or in-vitro test occurs in up to 50% and 69% of cases, respectively. Clinical reactivity and drug challenge test suggest an average cross-reactivity rate of only 4.3%. For third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, the rate is probably less than 1%. Recent international guidelines are in keeping with a low cross-reactivity rate. Despite that, the medical community in Hong Kong remains unnecessarily skeptical. Use of cephalosporins in patients with penicillin hypersensitivity begins with detailed history and physical examination. Clinicians can choose a cephalosporin with a different side-chain. Skin test for penicillin is not predictive of cephalosporin hypersensitivity, while cephalosporin skin test is not sensitive. Drug provocation test by experienced personnel remains the best way to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity and to find a safe alternative for future use. A personalised approach to cross-reactivity is advocated.

  1. Purple sweet potato (Ipomea Batatas P. as dentin hypersensitivity desensitization gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chariza Hanum Mayvita Iskandar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dentin hypersensitivity is a short sharp sense of pain in the teeth when exposed to excitatory stimulus. A total of 74% of world population experiencing dentin hypersensitivity. Home treatment topical desensitization is rarely found in Indonesia. The use of dentrifice is less practical because it must be done with regular brushing. Indonesia has abundant natural resources, one of which is purple sweet potato. Purple sweet potato (Ipomea Batatas P. has highest potasium ions compared to other foodstuffs. Potassium ions can be a solution of dentin hypersensitivity by temporary blocking the suffix pulp nerve impulses. Purpose: The research objective was to determine the effectiveness of the 10% purple sweet potato extract gel of the dental pain threshold score. Method: An experimental study carried out by dental pain threshold score measurements using vitality tester into the teeth with gum recession. Samples included 32 respondents with a single blind and pre-post test control group design. They were divided into treatment group and negative control group. Paired T-test and Wilcoxon were used as data analysis. Result: The results showed dental pain threshold score increasing either in treatment group and negative control, although not as significant as in the treatment group. Conclusion: 10% purple sweet potato extract gel containing potassium ions is able to reduce the pain of dentin hypersensitivity.

  2. Natural history of perceived food hypersensitivity and IgE sensitisation to food allergens in a cohort of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patelis, Antonios; Gunnbjörnsdottir, Maria; Borres, Magnus P; Burney, Peter; Gislason, Thorarinn; Torén, Kjell; Forsberg, Bertil; Alving, Kjell; Malinovschi, Andrei; Janson, Christer

    2014-01-01

    No longitudinal studies exist on the natural history of food hypersensitivity and IgE sensitisation to food allergens in adults. To examine the natural history of food hypersensitivity, the natural history of IgE sensitisation to food allergens and to investigate the risk factors for new onset food hypersensitivity. Food hypersensitivity was questionnaire-assessed in 2307 individuals (aged 20-45 years) from Iceland and Sweden during the European Community Respiratory Health Survey both at baseline and follow-up 9 years later. IgE food and aeroallergen sensitisation were assessed in a subgroup of these individuals (n = 807). Values of 0.35 kU/L and above were regarded as positive sensitisation. Food hypersensitivity was reported by 21% of the subjects and this proportion remained unchanged at follow-up (p = 0.58). Fruits, nuts and vegetables were the three most common causes of food hypersensitivity, with a similar prevalence at baseline and follow-up. The prevalence IgE sensitisation to food allergens decreased in general by 56% (pfood hypersensitivity. The prevalence of food hypersensitivity remained unchanged while the prevalence of IgE sensitisation to food allergens decreased in adults over a 9-year follow-up period. The decrease in prevalence of IgE sensitisation to food allergens was considerably larger than the change in prevalence of IgE sensitisation to aeroallergens.

  3. Hypersensitive cell death in plants : its mechanisms and role in plant defense against pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Michalczuk, L.; Woltering, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    This review is a recent update in the understanding of the hypersensitive response (HR) of plants with special consideration to the physiological and biochemical determinants in different model systems. Hypersensitive response is reviewed as a form of programmed cell death (PCD) representing one of

  4. Perceived food hypersensitivity relates to poor asthma control and quality of life in young non-atopic asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer; Borres, Magnus P; Nordvall, Lennart; Lidholm, Jonas; Janson, Christer; Alving, Kjell; Malinovschi, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between perceived food hypersensitivity in asthmatics, food allergen sensitization, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life has not been studied. Our aim was to study the prevalence of perceived food hypersensitivity in a cohort of young asthmatics, its relation to food allergen sensitization, and any correlation to asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Perceived food hypersensitivity, as well as IgE sensitization to common food allergens, levels of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and blood eosinophil counts (B-Eos) were assessed in 408 subjects (211 women) with asthma, aged (mean ± SEM) 20.4 ± 0.3 years. Subjects filled out the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Mini-AQLQ). Inflammation was assessed by means of FeNO and B-Eos. Fifty-three per cent of subjects reported food hypersensitivity. A corresponding food allergen sensitization was found in 68% of these subjects. Non-atopic subjects with perceived food hypersensitivity (n = 31) had lower ACT (19 (15 - 22) vs. 21 (20 - 23), p < 0.001) and Mini-AQLQ -scores (5.3 (4.3 - 6.1) vs. 6.1 (5.5 - 6.5), p < 0.001) than subjects with no food hypersensitivity (n = 190), despite lower levels of FeNO and B-Eos (p < 0.05). Food hypersensitivity was commonly reported among young asthmatics. In a majority of cases, a corresponding food allergen sensitization was found. A novel and clinically important finding was that non-atopic subjects with perceived food hypersensitivity were characterized by poorer asthma control and asthma-related quality of life.

  5. Isolation of uvh1, an Arabidopsis mutant hypersensitive to ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlow, G.R.; Jenkins, M.E.; Pittalwala, T.S.; Mount, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    A genetic screen for mutants of Arabidopsis that are hypersensitive to UV light was developed and used to isolate a new mutant designated uvh1. UV hypersensitivity in uvh1 was due to a single recessive trait that is probably located on chromosome 3. Although isolated as hypersensitive to an acute exposure to UV-C light, uvh1 was also hypersensitive to UV-B wavelengths, which are present in sunlight that reaches the earth's surface. UV-B damage to both wild-type and uvh1 plants could be significantly reduced by subsequent exposure of UV-irradiated plants to photoreactivating light, showing that photoreactivation of UV-B damage is important for plant viability and that uvh1 plants are not defective in photoreactivation. A new assay for DNA damage, the Dral assay, was developed and used to show that exposure of wild-type and uvh1 plants to a given dose of UV light induces the same amount of damage in chloroplast and nuclear DNA. Thus, uvh1 is not defective in a UV protective mechanism. uvh1 plants were also found to be hypersensitive to ionizing radiation. These results suggest that uvh1 is defective in a repair or tolerance mechanism that normally provides plants with resistance to several types of DNA damage

  6. Role of insular cortex in visceral hypersensitivity model in rats subjected to chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, LiSha; Sun, HuiHui; Ge, Chao; Chen, Ying; Peng, HaiXia; Jiang, YuanXi; Wu, Ping; Tang, YinHan; Meng, QingWei; Xu, ShuChang

    2014-12-30

    Abnormal processing of visceral sensation at the level of the central nervous system has been proven to be important in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of stress related functional gastrointestinal disorders. However, the specific mechanism is still not clear. The insular cortex (IC) was considered as one important visceral sensory area. Moreover, the IC has been shown to be involved in various neuropsychiatric diseases such as panic disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, whether the IC is important in psychological stress related visceral hypersensitivity has not been studied yet. In our study, through destruction of the bilateral IC, we explored whether the IC played a critical role in the formation of visceral hypersensitivity induced by chronic stress on rats. Chronic partial restraint stress was used to establish viscerally hypersensitive rat model. Bilateral IC lesions were generated by N-methyl-D-day (door) aspartate. After a recovery period of 7 days, 14-day consecutive restraint stress was performed. The visceromotor response to colorectal distension was monitored by recording electromyogram to measure rats׳ visceral sensitivity. We found that bilateral insular cortex lesion could markedly inhibit the formation of visceral hypersensitivity induced by chronic stress. The insular cortex plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of stress-related visceral hypersensitivity.

  7. Isolation of uvh1, an Arabidopsis mutant hypersensitive to ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlow, G. R.; Jenkins, M. E.; Pittalwala, T. S.; Mount, D. W.

    1994-02-15

    A genetic screen for mutants of Arabidopsis that are hypersensitive to UV light was developed and used to isolate a new mutant designated uvh1. UV hypersensitivity in uvh1 was due to a single recessive trait that is probably located on chromosome 3. Although isolated as hypersensitive to an acute exposure to UV-C light, uvh1 was also hypersensitive to UV-B wavelengths, which are present in sunlight that reaches the earth's surface. UV-B damage to both wild-type and uvh1 plants could be significantly reduced by subsequent exposure of UV-irradiated plants to photoreactivating light, showing that photoreactivation of UV-B damage is important for plant viability and that uvh1 plants are not defective in photoreactivation. A new assay for DNA damage, the Dral assay, was developed and used to show that exposure of wild-type and uvh1 plants to a given dose of UV light induces the same amount of damage in chloroplast and nuclear DNA. Thus, uvh1 is not defective in a UV protective mechanism. uvh1 plants were also found to be hypersensitive to ionizing radiation. These results suggest that uvh1 is defective in a repair or tolerance mechanism that normally provides plants with resistance to several types of DNA damage.

  8. Presumed hydrochlorothiazide-associated immunologic-hypersensitivity-induced pericardial effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Chaskes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old Caucasian female presented for a second opinion regarding a newly diagnosed pericardial effusion. Seven months previously, hydrochlorothiazide was introduced into her pharmacologic regimen to aid in the management of her hypertension. A routine echocardiogram indicated a large pericardial effusion with signs of early cardiac tamponade. The patient subsequently underwent successful pericardiocentesis with complete drainage of the pericardial effusion. The effusion was empirically attributed to a viral etiology. Repeat echocardiograms showed recurrence of the pericardial effusion. Prior to undergoing a second pericardiocentesis with pericardial biopsy, as her physicians recommended, the patient sought a second opinion. While obtaining the patient’s history, an allergy to sulfa was elicited. The possibility that the pericardial effusion may be secondary to an immunologic-hypersensitivity reaction was considered. It was recommended the patient discontinue the use of hydrochlorothiazide. Nine days following discontinuation of hydrochlorothiazide and without any other intervention, an echocardiogram was reported to show the size of the pericardial effusion had subsided substantially. Nine weeks following discontinuation, almost complete resolution of the pericardial effusion was reported. It is hypothesized that when treated with hydrochlorothiazide, the patient had an immune response leading to the pericardial effusion.

  9. Delayed neutron yield from fast neutron induced fission of 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piksaikin, V.M.; Kazakov, L.E.; Isaev, S.G.; Roshchenko, V.A.; Goverdovski, A.A.; Tertytchnyi, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    The measurements of the total delayed neutron yield from fast neutron induced fission of 238 U were made. The experimental method based on the periodic irradiation of the fissionable sample by neutrons from a suitable nuclear reaction had been employed. The preliminary results on the energy dependence of the total delayed neutron yield from fission of 238 U are obtained. According to the comparison of experimental data with our prediction based on correlation properties of delayed neutron characteristics, it is concluded that the value of the total delayed neutron yield near the threshold of (n,f) reaction is not a constant. (author)

  10. A Pilot Qualitative Investigation of Stakeholders’ Experiences and Opinions of Equine Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R. Lomas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH, commonly known as sweet itch or summer eczema, is a frustrating recurrent skin disease in the equine industry involving an immune reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. midges. To investigate the impact of IBH in the field, an exploratory pilot study was conducted with equine stakeholders in one region of central England. Nine semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with horse owners and an equine veterinarian. The aim was to gain an understanding of experiences with IBH, and to gauge opinions on the value of the various management strategies horse owners use to control IBH. Awareness of IBH was generally high, particularly in those individuals who had previous experience with the condition. Those with previous experience of IBH commented on the significant effect on daily routines, and the associated cost implications. Most participants supported an integrated approach to hypersensitivity management, and this most commonly involved a combination of physical barriers and chemical repellents, but sometimes included feed supplementation. Overall, attitudes towards IBH suggested that the condition is a notable welfare and economic concern for stakeholders, but veterinary involvement tended to only be in more severe cases. Further research is required in the future to improve understanding, management and potential treatment of this condition.

  11. Yacht-maker's lung: A case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in yacht manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkman, Kristen K; Merrick, James G; Zacharisen, Michael C

    2006-10-01

    We present a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a 46-year-old female working at a yacht manufacturing company. She reported a 2-month history of progressive dyspnea, chest tightness, and daytime, nocturnal, and exertional cough in temporal relationship to work where she was exposed to chemicals involved in the manufacture of yachts. Treatment with systemic antibiotic therapy, inhaled bronchodilators, and inhaled corticosteroids provided minimal relief of symptoms. Spirometry revealed a restrictive defect and a chest x-ray demonstrated a diffuse interstitial pattern. She improved on oral corticosteroids and with avoidance of her work environment had resolution of her symptoms and normalization of her spirometry. Among the various chemicals the patient was exposed to, the most likely causative agents for her symptoms were dimethyl phthalate and styrene. Although the specific chemical or antigen could not be determined, the history and objective findings are consistent with occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This represents a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis related to the manufacture of yachts.

  12. Analytical applications for delayed neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical formulations that describe the time dependence of neutron populations in nuclear materials contain delayed-neutron dependent terms. These terms are important because the delayed neutrons, even though their yields in fission are small, permit control of the fission chain reaction process. Analytical applications that use delayed neutrons range from simple problems that can be solved with the point reactor kinetics equations to complex problems that can only be solved with large codes that couple fluid calculations with the neutron dynamics. Reactor safety codes, such as SIMMER, model transients of the entire reactor core using coupled space-time neutronics and comprehensive thermal-fluid dynamics. Nondestructive delayed-neutron assay instruments are designed and modeled using a three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code. Calculations on high-burnup spent fuels and other materials that contain a mix of uranium and plutonium isotopes require accurate and complete information on the delayed-neutron periods, yields, and energy spectra. A continuing need exists for delayed-neutron parameters for all the fissioning isotopes

  13. Expression of IL-17A concentration and effector functions of peripheral blood neutrophils in food allergy hypersensitivity patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Pałgan, Krzysztof; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Kuźmiński, Andrzej; Przybyszewski, Michał; Socha, Ewa; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    Lymphocytes Th17 and other types of immune system cells produce IL17. By induction of cytokines and chemokines, the IL17 cytokine is involved in mechanisms of allergic reaction with participation of neutrophil granulocytes. It affects activation, recruitment, and migration of neutrophils to the tissues, regulating inflammatory reaction intensity. Excited neutrophils secrete inter alia elastase and reactive oxygen species (ROS)--significant mediators of inflammation process responsible for tissues damage.The aim of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of serum interleukin 17A, serum neutrophil elastase, and ROS production by neutrophils in patients with food allergy.The study included 30 patients with food allergy diagnosed based on interview, clinical symptoms, positive SPT, placebo controlled double-blind oral provocation trial, and the presence of asIgE in blood serum against selected food allergens using fluoro-immuno-enzymatic method FEIA UNICap 100. The control group consisted of 10 healthy volunteers. The concentrations of IL17A were determined in all patients using ELISA method with eBioscience kits, and elastase using BenderMed Systems kits. Chemiluminescence of non-stimulated neutrophils was evaluated using luminol-dependent kinetic method for 40 min on Luminoskan (Labsystems luminometer).The results of serum IL-17A concentrations and the values of chemiluminescence obtained by non-activated neutrophils, as well as elastase concentrations, were higher in patients with food allergic hypersensitivity compared to healthy volunteers.This study demonstrates a significance of IL-17A and activated neutrophil granulocytes in the course of diseases with food allergic hypersensitivity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Perceived food hypersensitivity relates to poor asthma control and quality of life in young non-atopic asthmatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Johnson

    Full Text Available The relationship between perceived food hypersensitivity in asthmatics, food allergen sensitization, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life has not been studied.Our aim was to study the prevalence of perceived food hypersensitivity in a cohort of young asthmatics, its relation to food allergen sensitization, and any correlation to asthma control and asthma-related quality of life.Perceived food hypersensitivity, as well as IgE sensitization to common food allergens, levels of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, and blood eosinophil counts (B-Eos were assessed in 408 subjects (211 women with asthma, aged (mean ± SEM 20.4 ± 0.3 years. Subjects filled out the Asthma Control Test (ACT and the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Mini-AQLQ. Inflammation was assessed by means of FeNO and B-Eos.Fifty-three per cent of subjects reported food hypersensitivity. A corresponding food allergen sensitization was found in 68% of these subjects. Non-atopic subjects with perceived food hypersensitivity (n = 31 had lower ACT (19 (15 - 22 vs. 21 (20 - 23, p < 0.001 and Mini-AQLQ -scores (5.3 (4.3 - 6.1 vs. 6.1 (5.5 - 6.5, p < 0.001 than subjects with no food hypersensitivity (n = 190, despite lower levels of FeNO and B-Eos (p < 0.05.Food hypersensitivity was commonly reported among young asthmatics. In a majority of cases, a corresponding food allergen sensitization was found. A novel and clinically important finding was that non-atopic subjects with perceived food hypersensitivity were characterized by poorer asthma control and asthma-related quality of life.

  15. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in two horse populations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.; Wolc, A.; Ducro, B.J.; Frankena, K.; Garrick, D.J.; Dekkers, J.C.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Insect bite hypersensitivity is a common allergic disease in horse populations worldwide. Insect bite hypersensitivity is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. However, little is known about genes contributing to the genetic variance associated with insect bite

  16. Kiss-induced severe anaphylactic reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasković-Marković Marina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ingestion is the principal route for food allergens to trigger allergic reaction in atopic persons. However, in some highly sensitive patients severe symptoms may develop upon skin contact and by inhalation. The clinical spectrum ranges from mild facial urticaria and angioedema to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Outline of Cases. We describe cases of severe anaphylactic reactions by skin contact, induced by kissing in five children with prior history of severe anaphylaxis caused by food ingestion. These cases were found to have the medical history of IgE mediated food allergy, a very high total and specific serum IgE level and very strong family history of allergy. Conclusion. The presence of tiny particles of food on the kisser's lips was sufficient to trigger an anaphylactic reaction in sensitized children with prior history of severe allergic reaction caused by ingestion of food. Allergic reaction provoked with food allergens by skin contact can be a risk factor for generalized reactions. Therefore, extreme care has to be taken in avoiding kissing allergic children after eating foods to which they are highly allergic. Considering that kissing can be a cause of severe danger for the food allergic patient, such persons should inform their partners about the risk factor for causing their food hypersensitivity.

  17. Comparative evaluation of Type 1 latex hypersensitivity in patients with chronic urticaria, rubber factory workers and healthy control subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piskin, Gamze; Akyol, Aynur; Uzar, Hatice; Tulek, Necla; Boyvat, Ayse; Gurgey, Erbak

    2003-01-01

    Latex hypersensitivity manifests itself most commonly with contact urticaria. In this study, we investigated the frequency of latex hypersensitivity as a possible aetiological factor in patients with chronic urticaria (CU) and compared latex hypersensitivity of CU patients (n = 50) with that of

  18. A haemodynamic study of pulmonary hypertension in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rudolf K F; Pereira, Carlos A C; Ramos, Roberta P; Ferreira, Eloara V M; Messina, Carolina M S; Kuranishi, Lilian T; Gimenez, Andrea; Campos, Orlando; Silva, Célia M C; Ota-Arakaki, Jaquelina S

    2014-08-01

    Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a common fibrotic interstitial lung disease. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension diagnosed by right heart catheterisation and its cardiopulmonary function findings in patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis are unknown. Consecutive symptomatic patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis were prospectively evaluated. All patients were submitted to right heart catheterisation, pulmonary function testing, a 6-min walk test, echocardiography, blood gas determination and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide analyses. Nonhypoxaemic patients also underwent incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing. 50 patients underwent right heart catheterisation; 25 (50%) of these had pulmonary hypertension and 22 (44%) had a pre-capillary haemodynamic pattern. The patients with pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension had lower forced vital capacity (mean ± sd 50 ± 17% versus 69 ± 22% predicted, p<0.01), carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (37 ± 12% versus 47 ± 14% predicted, p<0.01), arterial oxygen tension (median (interquartile range) 59.0 (47.8-69.3) versus 73.0 (62.2-78.5) mmHg, p<0.01) and saturation after the 6-min walk test (78 ± 8% versus 86 ± 7%, p<0.01). In pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension, oxygen uptake was also lower at the anaerobic threshold (41 ± 11% versus 50 ± 8% predicted, p=0.04) and at peak exercise (12.8 ± 1.6 versus 15.0 ± 2.5 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1), p=0.02). Pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension is common in symptomatic chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and is related to interstitial lung disease severity. Additionally, pulmonary hypertension is more prevalent in hypoxaemic patients with impaired lung function and exercise capacity. ©ERS 2014.

  19. Lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate in delayed type hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D

    1988-01-01

    allergic patients with nickel challenge in the chamber medium showed a time-dependent increase of mononuclear cells, eosinophils and basophils and a concomitant decrease of polymorphonuclear granulocytes, characteristic of a combined specific and unspecific inflammation. The morphology of the exudate...... in contact allergic patients exposed to nickel showed a dominance of polymorphonuclear granulocytes throughout the study period, while mononuclear cells, eosinophils and basophils were detected at a much lower quantity and with a considerable delay. Further, we studied the kinetics of the leucocyte granule...... proteins: lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate fluid in a parallel test. A significant higher flux was found for all during the second day of allergen exposure compared to contact allergic patients without allergen challenge as well as normal volunteers...

  20. Adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals. United Kingdom 1977-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Details of reports to the UK Adverse Reaction Reporting Scheme for the years 1977-1983 are given. These show a changing pattern since earlier reports, in part due to the discontinuance of older radiopharmaceuticals and changes in quality control measures, but also to the introduction of methylene diphosphonate for bone imaging which has accounted for nearly half of our more recent reports. Colloids for reticulo-endothelial (liver) scans account for about one third of this series. The great majority of reactions are of an idiosyncratic hypersensitive nature and none due to sterility problems or pyrogens. Accurate incidence figures are difficult to obtain but including even the trivial forms of reaction, we estimate a reaction rate of between 1:1000 and 1:10,000 in vivo nuclear medicine procedures, a figure considerably higher than most previous surveys have suggested. (author)

  1. Dentine hypersensitivity: real or imagined | Gbadebo | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dentine hypersensitivity is a common presentation of cause of pain and or discomfort with mastication which has been shown to affect the quality of life of the affected individual. It is also a common cause of presentation at the dental clinics. However, the cause, diagnosis and possible management to give relief ...

  2. Sensory hypersensitivity predicts enhanced attention capture by faces in the early development of ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J.H Jones

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory sensitivity is prevalent among young children with ASD, but its relation to social communication impairment is unclear. Recently, increased sensory hypersensitivity has been linked to greater activity of the neural salience network (Green et al., 2016. Increased neural sensitivity to stimuli, especially social stimuli, could provide greater opportunity for social learning and improved outcomes. Consistent with this framework, in Experiment 1 we found that parent report of greater sensory hypersensitivity at 2 years in toddlers with ASD (N = 27 was predictive of increased neural responsiveness to social stimuli (larger amplitude event-related potential/ERP responses to faces at P1, P400 and Nc at 4 years, and this in turn was related to parent report of increased social approach at 4 years. In Experiment 2, parent report of increased perceptual sensitivity at 6 months in infants at low and high familial risk for ASD (N = 35 predicted larger ERP P1 amplitude to faces at 18 months. Increased sensory hypersensitivity in early development thus predicted greater attention capture by faces in later development, and this related to more optimal social behavioral development. Sensory hypersensitivity may index a child's ability to benefit from supportive environments during development. Early sensory symptoms may not always be developmentally problematic for individuals with ASD. Keywords: Autism, Sensory hypersensitivity, Social attention, Salience network, Infant, EEG

  3. Diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity: lymphocyte transformation test and cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, Hans F.

    2005-01-01

    For all types of allergic reactions including immediate type of reactions, types II and III reactions as well as delayed-type reactions the recognition of the antigen by specifically sensitized T-lymphocytes is a prerequisite. Evidences for the key role of T-lymphocytes in the pathophysiology of allergic drug reactions are positive patch test reactions and the LTT. The proliferative response that can be measured by means of the incorporation of 3H-thymidine during DNA synthesis can be expressed as stimulation index (SI) which is the relation between the cell proliferation with antigen compared without antigen. In addition drug-specific activation of PBMC consistently resulted in IL-5 expression and secretion. The sensitivity of the LTT for the detection of drug sensitization could be improved up to 92% by the measurement of released interleukin-5. The expression and secretion of other cytokines such as IFN-γ and IL-10 was less consistently and had a diagnostic sensitivity of 36 and 50%, respectively. Microarrays are a promising new technical platform to look for better markers which can be used as a read out in the LTT and other similar assays and to study pharmacological interactions between drugs including cytokines such as interferons and the immune system

  4. Noise transmission and delay-induced stochasticoscillations in biochemical network motifs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Sheng-Jun; Wang Qi; Liu Bo; Yan Shi-Wei; Fumihiko Sakata

    2011-01-01

    With the aid of stochastic delayed-feedback differential equations,we derive an analytic expression for the power spectra of reacting molecules included in a generic biological network motif that is incorporated with a feedback mechanism and time delays in gene regulation.We systematically analyse the effects of time delays,the feedback mechanism,and biological stochasticity on the power spectra.It has been clarified that the time delays together with the feedback mechanism can induce stochastic oscillations at the molecular level and invalidate the noise addition rule for a modular description of the noise propagator.Delay-induced stochastic resonance can be expected,which is related to the stability loss of the reaction systems and Hopf bifurcation occurring for solutions of the corresponding deterministic reaction equations.Through the analysis of the power spectrum,a new approach is proposed to estimate the oscillation period.

  5. Component Analysis of Sweet BV and Clinical Trial on Antibody Titer and Allergic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rok, Kwon

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to observe prevention of allergic reactions of Sweet Bee Venom (removing enzyme components from Bee Venom. Methods : Content analysis of Sweet Bee Venom and Bee Venom was rendered using HPLC method and characterization of Anti-Sweet Bee Venom in Rabbit Serum. Clinical observation was conducted for inducement of allergic responses to Sweet BV. Results : 1. Analyzing melittin content using HPLC, Sweet BV contained 34.9% more melittin than Bee venom pharmacopuncture at same concentration. 2. Observing chromatogram of HPLC, removal of the enzyme was successfully rendered on Sweet BV. 3. The anti-serum of Sweet BV showed high titers against melittin and bee venom and relatively low titer against phospholipase A2. 4. After conducting approximately 3,000 cases of Sweet BV administration, not a single case of generalized anaphylatic reaction occurred in clinical observation. 5. Mild compared to the bee venom pharmacopuncture, Sweet BV showed some acute hypersensitive reactions of edema, itchiness, and aching locally. 6. Sweet BV was administered on six patients with previous history of suffering from generalized acute hypersensitive reactions with the bee venom. None of the patients showed allergic reactions with Sweet BV, suggesting it can effectively prevent anaphylatic shock which may occur after the bee venom pharmacopuncture procedure. Conclusion : Summarizing above results, Sweet Bee Venom appears to be an effective measurement against allergic reactions from the bee venom pharmacopuncture especially against anaphylatic shock.

  6. Association of localized hypersensitivity and in-stent neoatherosclerosis with the very late drug-eluting stent thrombosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyohei Yamaji

    Full Text Available Localized hypersensitivity reaction, delayed arterial healing, and neoatherosclerosis inside the stent have been suggested as the underlying pathologic mechanisms of very late stent thrombosis (VLST of drug-eluting stent (DES. The present study sought to explore the prevalence of inflammatory cell infiltrates and evidence for fragments of atherosclerotic plaques in the aspirated thrombi in patients with DES VLST.From April 2004 to September 2012, 48 patients with stent thrombosis (ST of DES underwent thrombus aspiration with retrieved material sufficient for the histopathologic analysis; early ST (EST, within 30 days: N = 17, late ST (LST, between 31 and 365 days: N = 7, and very late ST (VLST, >1 year: N = 24. Eosinophil fraction in the aspirated thrombi was significantly higher in patients with VLST (8.2±5.7% as compared with those with EST (4.3±3.0% and LST (5.5±3.8% (P = 0.03. Eosinophil fraction in the aspirated thrombi was significantly higher in 12 VLST patients with angiographic peri-stent contrast staining (PSS and/or incomplete stent apposition (ISA by intravascular ultrasound than in 12 VLST patients without PSS or ISA (10.6±6.1% versus 5.8±4.1%, P = 0.03. Evidences for fragments of atherosclerotic plaques in the aspirated thrombi were observed only in 3 (13% out of 24 patients with DES VLST.Eosinophil fraction in the aspirated thrombi was significantly higher in patients with DES VLST as compared with those with EST and LST. Evidences for fragments of atherosclerotic plaques were relatively uncommon in patients with DES VLST.

  7. [Pulmonary reaction after furazidin (Furagin). Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, T M; Demkow, U; Kuś, J

    1997-05-01

    For the first time in Poland we present the case of pulmonary reaction to furazidin which is by chemical structure closely related to nitrofurantoin. 63 years old woman presented generalized symptoms of acute hypersensitivity reaction induced by furazidin as well as features of chronic pulmonary fibrosis. After few months of treatment with this drug patients complained of weight loss, dyspnea on effort, non-productive cough, chills and fever. Radiological and functional evaluation of respiratory system confirmed features of lung fibrosis. Drug provocation test was positive. In vitro furazidin in low concentrations stimulated proliferation of patient's lymphocytes. After cessation of treatment we have observed rapid improvement of clinical, radiological, biochemical and functional parameters.

  8. Adrenergic β2-receptors mediates visceral hypersensitivity induced by heterotypic intermittent stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Zhang

    Full Text Available Chronic visceral pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS has been difficult to treat effectively partially because its pathophysiology is not fully understood. Recent studies show that norepinephrine (NE plays an important role in the development of visceral hypersensitivity. In this study, we designed to investigate the role of adrenergic signaling in visceral hypersensitivity induced by heterotypical intermittent stress (HIS. Abdominal withdrawal reflex scores (AWRs used as visceral sensitivity were determined by measuring the visceromoter responses to colorectal distension. Colon-specific dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRGs were labeled by injection of DiI into the colon wall and were acutely dissociated for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Blood plasma level of NE was measured using radioimmunoassay kits. The expression of β2-adrenoceptors was measured by western blotting. We showed that HIS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was attenuated by systemic administration of a β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, in a dose-dependent manner, but not by a α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine. Using specific β-adrenoceptor antagonists, HIS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was alleviated by β2 adrenoceptor antagonist but not by β1- or β3-adrenoceptor antagonist. Administration of a selective β2-adrenoceptor antagonist also normalized hyperexcitability of colon-innervating DRG neurons of HIS rats. Furthermore, administration of β-adrenoceptor antagonist suppressed sustained potassium current density (IK without any alteration of fast-inactivating potassium current density (IA. Conversely, administration of NE enhanced the neuronal excitability and produced visceral hypersensitivity in healthy control rats, and blocked by β2-adrenoceptor antagonists. In addition, HIS significantly enhanced the NE concentration in the blood plasma but did not change the expression of β2-adrenoceptor in DRGs and the muscularis externa of the

  9. Desensitization to rituximab in a multidisciplinary setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós-Reboredo, Patrícia; Sánchez-López, Jaime; Bastida-Fernández, Carla; do Pazo-Oubiña, Fernando; Borràs-Maixenchs, Núria; Giné, Eva; Valero, Antonio; Creus-Baró, Natàlia

    2015-10-01

    The need to offer first-line therapy to the increasing number of patients who have suffered an hypersensitivity reaction has stimulated the use of rapid desensitization protocols. To present our experience working as a multidisciplinary team using a rituximab rapid desensitization scheme. Patient demographics, allergic reaction, skin tests to rituximab, number of desensitizations, reactions during the desensitization protocol and actions taken, number of administered and completed cycles, were retrospectively collected in patients who received at least one desensitization to rituximab. Number of desensitizations successfully managed. Between 2012 and June 2013 five patients received a total of 19 desensitizations to rituximab using a 12 step rapid desensitization protocol. All patients received the scheduled chemotherapeutic cycles as inpatients, with no delay in administration dates. Three patients presented a hypersensitivity reaction during the first desensitization and in one patient the event occurred again during the second treatment cycle. All reactions occurred in the last step, when the infusion rate reached the maximum speed. The developed protocol for rapid desensitization was successful in five patients receiving rituximab. Patients could receive the full intended dose.

  10. Re-exposure to low osmolar iodinated contrast media in patients with prior moderate-to-severe hypersensitivity reactions: A multicentre retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Jung; Park, Jung-Won; Yang, Min-Suk; Kim, Mi-Yeong; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Nam, Young-Hee; Kim, Gun-Woo; Kim, Sujeong; Park, Hye-Kyung; Jung, Jae-Woo; Park, Jong-Sook; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of re-exposure to low-osmolar iodinated contrast medium (LOCM) in patients with a history of moderate-to-severe hypersensitivity reaction (HSR). We retrospectively evaluated a cohort comprising all subjects satisfying the following conditions at 11 centres: (1) experienced a moderate-to-severe HSR to LOCM by December 2014, and (2) underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography after the initial HSR between January 2014 and December 2014. A total of 150 patients with 328 instances of re-exposure were included; the recurrence rate of HSR was 19.5%. Patients with severe initial HSR exhibited a higher recurrence rate of severe HSR compared to patients with moderate initial HSR, despite more intensive premedication. In the multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for recurrence of HSR were diabetes, chronic urticaria, drug allergy other than to iodinated contrast media (ICM) and severe initial HSR. The risk of recurrent HSR was 67.1% lower in cases where the implicated ICM was changed to another one (odds ratio: 0.329; P = 0.001). However, steroid premedication did not show protective effects against recurrent HSR. In high-risk patients who have previously experienced a moderate-to-severe initial HSR to LOCM, we should consider changing the implicated ICM to reduce recurrence risk. • In patients with moderate-to-severe HSR, steroid premedication only shows limited effectiveness. • Changing the implicated ICM can reduce the recurrence of HSR to ICM. • Diabetes, chronic urticaria and drug allergies increase the risk of ICM HSR.

  11. Visceral hypersensitivity is provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced ileitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Shah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Crohn’s Disease (CD, a chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease, can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but most frequently in the ileum. Visceral hypersensitivity contributes for development of chronic abdominal pain in this disease. Currently, the understanding of the mechanism underlying hypersensitivity of Crohn’s ileitis has been hindered by a lack of specific animal model. The present study is undertaken to investigate the visceral hypersensitivity provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS-induced ileitis rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and laparotomized for intraileal injection of TNBS (0.6 ml, 80 mg/kg body weight in 30% ethanol, n = 48, an equal volume of 30% Ethanol (n = 24 and Saline (n = 24, respectively. Visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by visceromotor responses (VMR to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mmHg colorectal distension pressure (CRD at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Immediately after CRD test, the rats were euthanized for collecting the terminal ileal segment for histopathological examinations and ELISA of myleoperoxidase and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and dorsal root ganglia (T11 for determination of calcitonin gene-related peptide by immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Among all groups, TNBS-treatment showed transmural inflammation initially at 3 days, reached maximum at 7 days and persisted up to 21 days. The rats with ileitis exhibited (P < 0.05 VMR to CRD at day 7 to day 21. The calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive positive cells increased (P < 0.05 in dorsal root ganglia at day 7 to 21, which was persistently consistent with visceral hypersensitivity in TNBS-treated rats.Conclusions: TNBS injection into the ileum induced transmural ileitis including granuloma and visceral hypersensitivity. As this model mimics clinical manifestations of CD, it may provide a road map to probe the pathogenesis of gut inflammation and visceral

  12. Skin reactions to histamine of healthy subjects after hypnotically induced emotions of sadness, anger, and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariae, R; Jørgensen, M M; Egekvist, H; Bjerring, P

    2001-08-01

    The severity of symptoms in asthma and other hypersensitivity-related disorders has been associated with changes in mood but little is known about the mechanisms possibly mediating such a relationship. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mood on skin reactivity to histamine by comparing the effects of hypnotically induced emotions on flare and wheal reactions to cutaneous histamine prick tests. Fifteen highly hypnotically susceptible volunteers had their cutaneous reactivity to histamine measured before hypnosis at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, and 15 min after the histamine prick. These measurements were repeated under three hypnotically induced emotions of sadness, anger, and happiness presented in a counterbalanced order. Skin reactions were measured as change in histamine flare and wheal area in mm2 per minute. The increase in flare reaction in the time interval from 1 to 3 min during happiness and anger was significantly smaller than flare reactions during sadness (P<0.05). No effect of emotion was found for wheal reactions. Hypnotic susceptibility scores were associated with increased flare reactions at baseline (r=0.56; P<0.05) and during the condition of happiness (r=0.56; P<0.05). Our results agree with previous studies showing mood to be a predictor of cutaneous immediate-type hypersensitivity and histamine skin reactions. The results are also in concordance with earlier findings of an association between hypnotic susceptibility and increased reactivity to an allergen.

  13. Defense responses regulated by jasmonate and delayed senescence caused by ethylene receptor mutation contribute to tolerance of petunia to Botrytis cinerea

    Science.gov (United States)

    The death of cells can be a programmed event that occurs when plants are attacked by pathogens. Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea), a model necrotrophic pathogen, triggers the host cell death response because it produces toxins. A hypersensitive reaction (HR) occurs at the site of contact. In Arabidopsis...

  14. Changes in risk of immediate adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media by repeated administrations in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Naoto; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Akahane, Masaaki; Taguri, Masataka; Minami, Tatsuya; Mikami, Shintaro; Sato, Masaya; Uchino, Koji; Uchino, Kouji; Enooku, Kenichiro; Kondo, Yuji; Asaoka, Yoshinari; Yamashiki, Noriyo; Goto, Tadashi; Shiina, Shuichiro; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Ohtomo, Kuni; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate whether repeated exposures to iodinated contrast media increase the risk of adverse reaction. We retrospectively reviewed 1,861 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who visited authors' institution, a tertiary referral center, between 2004 and 2008. We analyzed cumulative probability of adverse reactions and risk factors. We categorized all symptoms into hypersensitivity reactions, physiologic reactions, and other reactions, according to the American College of Radiology guidelines, and evaluated each category as an event. We estimated the association between hazard for adverse reactions and the number of cumulative exposures to contrast media. We also evaluated subsequent contrast media injections and adverse reactions. There were 23,684 contrast media injections in 1,729 patients. One hundred and thirty-two patients were excluded because they were given no contrast media during the study period. Adverse reactions occurred in 196 (0.83%) patients. The cumulative incidence at 10(th), 20(th), and 30(th) examination was 7.9%, 15.2%, and 24.1%, respectively. Presence of renal impairment was found to be one of risk factors for adverse reactions. The estimated hazard of overall adverse reaction gradually decreased until around 10(th) exposure and rose with subsequent exposures. The estimated hazard of hypersensitivity showed V-shaped change with cumulative number of exposures. The estimated hazard of physiologic reaction had a tendency toward decreasing and that of other reaction had a tendency toward increasing. Second adverse reaction was more severe than the initial in only one among 130 patients receiving subsequent injections. Repeated exposures to iodinated contrast media increase the risk of adverse reaction.

  15. Defective DNA cross-link removal in Chinese hamster cell mutants hypersensitive to bifunctional alkylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoy, C.A.; Thompson, L.H.; Mooney, C.L.; Salazar, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    DNA repair-deficient mutants from five genetic complementation groups isolated previously from Chinese hamster cells were assayed for survival after exposure to the bifunctional alkylating agents mitomycin C or diepoxybutane. Groups 1, 3, and 5 exhibited 1.6- to 3-fold hypersensitivity compared to the wild-type cells, whereas Groups 2 and 4 exhibited extraordinary hypersensitivity. Mutants from Groups 1 and 2 were exposed to 22 other bifunctional alkylating agents in a rapid assay that compared cytotoxicity of the mutants to the wild-type parental strain, AA8. With all but two of the compounds, the Group 2 mutant (UV4) was 15- to 60-fold more sensitive than AA8 or the Group 1 mutant (UV5). UV4 showed only 6-fold hypersensitivity to quinacrine mustard. Alkaline elution measurements showed that this compound produced few DNA interstrand cross-links but numerous strand breaks. Therefore, the extreme hypersensitivity of mutants from Groups 2 and 4 appeared specific for compounds the main cytotoxic lesions of which were DNA cross-links. Mutant UV5 was only 1- to 4-fold hypersensitive to all the compounds. Although the initial number of cross-links was similar for the three cell lines, the efficiency of removal of cross-links was lowest in UV4 and intermediate in UV5. These results suggest that the different levels of sensitivity are specifically related to different efficiencies of DNA cross-link removal. The phenotype of hypersensitivity to both UV radiation and cross-link damage exhibited by the mutants in Groups 2 and 4 appears to differ from those of the known human DNA repair syndromes

  16. Metalworking fluid-associated hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a workshop summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, K; Cox-Ganser, J

    1997-10-01

    A workshop discussing eight clusters of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in the automotive industry among metalworking fluid-exposed workers concluded that a risk exists for this granulomatous lung disease where water-based fluids are used and unusual microbial contaminants predominate. Strong candidates for microbial etiology are nontuberculous mycobacteria and fungi. Cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis occur among cases with other work-related respiratory symptoms and chest diseases. Reversibility of disease has occurred in many cases with exposure cessation, allowing return to work to jobs without metalworking fluid exposures or, in some situations, to jobs without the same metalworking fluid exposures. Cases have been recognized with metalworking fluid exposures generally less than 0.5 mg/m3. The workshop participants identified knowledge gaps regarding risk factors, exposure-response relationships, intervention efficacy, and natural history, as well as surveillance needs to define the extent of the problem in this industry. In the absence of answers to these questions, guidance for prevention is necessarily limited.

  17. Suspected zonisamide-related anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinet, Audrey; Sammut, Veronique

    2017-12-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for sudden onset of cluster seizures. CLINICAL FINDINGS At an emergency clinic, the cat had hyperimmunoglobulinemia and thrombocytopenia. On referral, treatment with levetiracetam, zonisamide, and phenobarbital initially provided good control of cluster seizure activity (attributable to epilepsy of unknow origin). Two weeks later, assessments revealed that serum phenobarbital concentration was within the ideal range but serum zonisamide concentration exceeded the recommended therapeutic range. The dosage of zonisamide was therefore decreased. Four days after dosage reduction, the cat developed generalized lymphadenopathy. Cytologic analysis of lymph node aspirate samples revealed a heterogeneous population of well-differentiated lymphocytes, interpreted as marked reactivity. Although neoplasia could not be ruled out, hypersensitivity to phenobarbital was suspected, and this treatment was discontinued. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Despite cessation of phenobarbital administration, generalized peripheral lymphadenopathy progressed and hyperglobulinemia and cytopenias developed. These abnormalities resolved after discontinuation of zonisamide administration. The cat remained seizure free with no recurrence of the aforementioned concerns after reinstitution of phenobarbital treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of zonisamide-related lymphadenopathy, hyperglobulinemia, and cytopenias in a cat. Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome is well documented in human medicine, but little information has been published in the veterinary medical literature. Although the effects of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome in this cat were serious, these effects were reversible with treatment discontinuation.

  18. A perspective of nanotechnology in hypersensitivity reactions including drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montañez, Maria Isabel; Ruiz-Sanchez, Antonio J; Perez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel

    2010-08-01

    We provide an overview of the application of the concepts of nanoscience and nanotechnology as a novel scientific approach to the area of nanomedicine related to the domain of the immune system. Particular emphasis will be paid to studies on drug allergy reactions. Several well defined chemical structures arranged in the dimension of the nanoscale are currently being studied for biomedical purposes. By interacting with the immune system, some of these show promising applications as vaccines, diagnostic tools and activators/effectors of the immune response. Even a brief listing of some key applications of nanostructured materials shows how broad and intense this area of nanomedicine is. As a result of the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology applied to medicine, new approaches can be envisioned for problems related to the modulation of the immune response, as well as in immunodiagnosis, and to design new tools to solve related medical challenges. Nanoparticles offer unique advantages with which to exploit new properties and for materials to play a major role in new diagnostic techniques and therapies. Fullerene-C60 and multivalent functionalized gold nanoparticles of various sizes have led to new tools and opened up new ways to study and interact with the immune system. Some of the most versatile nanostructures are dendrimers. In their interaction with the immune system they can naturally occurring macromolecules, taking advantage of the fact that dendrimers can be synthesized into nanosized structures. Their multivalence can be successfully exploited in vaccines and diagnostic tests for allergic reactions.

  19. Effect of Rap1 binding on DNA distortion and potassium permanganate hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Yann-Vaï; Matot, Béatrice; Pietrement, Olivier; Giraud-Panis, Marie-Josèphe; Gasparini, Sylvaine; Le Cam, Eric; Gilson, Eric; Sclavi, Bianca; Miron, Simona; Le Du, Marie-Hélène

    2013-03-01

    Repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) is an essential factor involved in transcription and telomere stability in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Its interaction with DNA causes hypersensitivity to potassium permanganate, suggesting local DNA melting and/or distortion. In this study, various Rap1-DNA crystal forms were obtained using specifically designed crystal screens. Analysis of the DNA conformation showed that its distortion was not sufficient to explain the permanganate reactivity. However, anomalous data collected at the Mn edge using a Rap1-DNA crystal soaked in potassium permanganate solution indicated that the DNA conformation in the crystal was compatible with interaction with permanganate ions. Sequence-conservation analysis revealed that double-Myb-containing Rap1 proteins all carry a fully conserved Arg580 at a position that may favour interaction with permanganate ions, although it is not involved in the hypersensitive cytosine distortion. Permanganate reactivity assays with wild-type Rap1 and the Rap1[R580A] mutant demonstrated that Arg580 is essential for hypersensitivity. AFM experiments showed that wild-type Rap1 and the Rap1[R580A] mutant interact with DNA over 16 successive binding sites, leading to local DNA stiffening but not to accumulation of the observed local distortion. Therefore, Rap1 may cause permanganate hypersensitivity of DNA by forming a pocket between the reactive cytosine and Arg580, driving the permanganate ion towards the C5-C6 bond of the cytosine.

  20. Pharmacological evaluation of NSAID-induced gastropathy as a "Translatable" model of referred visceral hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Michele; Knappenberger, Terri; Reilly, Meghan; Whiteside, Garth T

    2017-09-07

    To evaluate whether non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced gastropathy is a clinically predictive model of referred visceral hypersensitivity. Gastric ulcer pain was induced by the oral administration of indomethacin to male, CD1 mice ( n = 10/group) and then assessed by measuring referred abdominal hypersensitivity to tactile application. A diverse range of pharmacological mechanisms contributing to the pain were subsequently investigated. These mechanisms included: transient receptor potential (TRP), sodium and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) as well as opioid receptors and guanylate cyclase C (GC-C). Results showed that two opioids and a GC-C agonist, morphine, asimadoline and linaclotide, respectively, the TRP antagonists, AMG9810 and HC-030031 and the sodium channel blocker, carbamazepine, elicited a dose- and/or time-dependent attenuation of referred visceral hypersensitivity, while the ASIC blocker, amiloride, was ineffective at all doses tested. Together, these findings implicate opioid receptors, GC-C, and sodium and TRP channel activation as possible mechanisms associated with visceral hypersensitivity. More importantly, these findings also validate NSAID-induced gastropathy as a sensitive and clinically predictive mouse model suitable for assessing novel molecules with potential pain-attenuating properties.

  1. Upregulation of Ih expressed in IB4-negative Aδ nociceptive DRG neurons contributes to mechanical hypersensitivity associated with cervical radiculopathic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da-Lu; Lu, Na; Han, Wen-Juan; Chen, Rong-Gui; Cong, Rui; Xie, Rou-Gang; Zhang, Yu-Fei; Kong, Wei-Wei; Hu, San-Jue; Luo, Ceng

    2015-01-01

    Cervical radiculopathy represents aberrant mechanical hypersensitivity. Primary sensory neuron’s ability to sense mechanical force forms mechanotransduction. However, whether this property undergoes activity-dependent plastic changes and underlies mechanical hypersensitivity associated with cervical radiculopathic pain (CRP) is not clear. Here we show a new CRP model producing stable mechanical compression of dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which induces dramatic behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity. Amongst nociceptive DRG neurons, a mechanically sensitive neuron, isolectin B4 negative Aδ-type (IB4− Aδ) DRG neuron displays spontaneous activity with hyperexcitability after chronic compression of cervical DRGs. Focal mechanical stimulation on somata of IB4- Aδ neuron induces abnormal hypersensitivity. Upregulated HCN1 and HCN3 channels and increased Ih current on this subset of primary nociceptors underlies the spontaneous activity together with neuronal mechanical hypersensitivity, which further contributes to the behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity associated with CRP. This study sheds new light on the functional plasticity of a specific subset of nociceptive DRG neurons to mechanical stimulation and reveals a novel mechanism that could underlie the mechanical hypersensitivity associated with cervical radiculopathy. PMID:26577374

  2. The Role of Esophageal Hypersensitivity in Functional Esophageal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Adam D; Ruffle, James K; Aziz, Qasim

    2017-02-01

    The Rome IV diagnostic criteria delineates 5 functional esophageal disorders which include functional chest pain, functional heartburn, reflux hypersensitivity, globus, and functional dysphagia. These are a heterogenous group of disorders which, despite having characteristic symptom profiles attributable to esophageal pathology, fail to demonstrate any structural, motility or inflammatory abnormalities on standard clinical testing. These disorders are associated with a marked reduction in patient quality of life, not least considerable healthcare resources. Furthermore, the pathophysiology of these disorders is incompletely understood. In this narrative review we provide the reader with an introductory primer to the structure and function of esophageal perception, including nociception that forms the basis of the putative mechanisms that may give rise to symptoms in functional esophageal disorders. We also discuss the provocative techniques and outcome measures by which esophageal hypersensitivity can be established.

  3. Auditory Hypersensitivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucker, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    A review of records was completed to determine whether children with auditory hypersensitivities have difficulty tolerating loud sounds due to auditory-system factors or some other factors not directly involving the auditory system. Records of 150 children identified as not meeting autism spectrum disorders (ASD) criteria and another 50 meeting…

  4. A garlic extract protects from ultraviolet B (280-320 nm) radiation-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, V.E.; Bosnic, M.; Rozinova, E.; Boehm-Wilcox, C.

    1993-01-01

    Lyophilized aged garlic extract has been incorporated at concentrations of 0.1%, 1% and 4% by weight into semi purified powdered diets and fed to hairless mice. Under moderate UVB exposure conditions resulting in 58% suppression of the systemic contact hypersensitivity response in control-fed mice, a dose-responsive protection was observed in the garlic-fed mice; contact hypersensitivity in the UVB-exposed mice fed 4% garlic extract was suppressed by only 19%. If the UVB exposure was replaced by topical application of one of a series of lotions containing increasing concentrations of cis-urocanic acid, a dose-responsive suppression of contact hypersensitivity was demonstrated in control-fed mice (urocanic acid at 25, 50, 100 and 200 micrograms per mouse resulting in 22-46% suppression). Mice fed a diet containing 1% aged garlic extract were partially protected from cis-urocanic acid-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity, with greater protection from the lower concentrations of urocanic acid. Mice fed a diet containing 4% aged garlic extract were protected from all concentrations of urocanic acid. The results indicate that aged garlic extract contains ingredient(s) that protect from UVB-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity and suggest that the mechanism of protection is by antagonism of the cis-urocanic acid mediation of this form of immunosuppression

  5. Dentinal hypersensitivity following scaling and root planing: comparison of low-level laser and topical fluoride treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesevska, Snezana; Nakova, Marija; Ivanovski, Kiro; Angelov, Nikola; Kesic, Ljiljana; Obradovic, Radmila; Mindova, Sonja; Nares, Salvador

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of low-level laser irradiation to traditional topical fluoride treatment for treatment choices of dentinal hypersensitivity following scaling and root planing. The experimental group (15 patients) was treated with low-energy-level diode laser at each site of dentinal hypersensitivity following scaling and root planning. The control group (15 patients) received topical fluoride treatment (protective varnish for desensitization). All the patients were treated at baseline visit, and then at day 2 and 4 after the initial treatment; the pain was subjectively assessed by the patients as strong, medium, medium low, low, or no pain. Total absence of the dental hypersensitivity was reported in 26.66% of the examined group even after the second visit, compared to the control group where complete resolution of the hypersensitivity was not present after the second visit in any of the treated cases. Complete absence of pain was achieved in 86.6% of patients treated with laser and only in 26.6% in the fluoride treated group, after the third visit. Based on our findings, we conclude that low-energy biostimulative laser treatment can be successfully used for treatment of dental hypersensitivity following scaling and root planing.

  6. Analysis of results from delay studies of isol-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudstam, G.

    1980-01-01

    The delay between production and measurement is an important effect in ISOL-experiments aiming at the determination of nuclear reaction yields. The present report discusses methods to correct for decay losses caused by the delay in the target - ion source system of the isotope separator. (author)

  7. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in two horse populations in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schurink Anouk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect bite hypersensitivity is a common allergic disease in horse populations worldwide. Insect bite hypersensitivity is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. However, little is known about genes contributing to the genetic variance associated with insect bite hypersensitivity. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify and quantify genomic associations with insect bite hypersensitivity in Shetland pony mares and Icelandic horses in the Netherlands. Methods Data on 200 Shetland pony mares and 146 Icelandic horses were collected according to a matched case–control design. Cases and controls were matched on various factors (e.g. region, sire to minimize effects of population stratification. Breed-specific genome-wide association studies were performed using 70 k single nucleotide polymorphisms genotypes. Bayesian variable selection method Bayes-C with a threshold model implemented in GenSel software was applied. A 1 Mb non-overlapping window approach that accumulated contributions of adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms was used to identify associated genomic regions. Results The percentage of variance explained by all single nucleotide polymorphisms was 13% in Shetland pony mares and 28% in Icelandic horses. The 20 non-overlapping windows explaining the largest percentages of genetic variance were found on nine chromosomes in Shetland pony mares and on 14 chromosomes in Icelandic horses. Overlap in identified associated genomic regions between breeds would suggest interesting candidate regions to follow-up on. Such regions common to both breeds (within 15 Mb were found on chromosomes 3, 7, 11, 20 and 23. Positional candidate genes within 2 Mb from the associated windows were identified on chromosome 20 in both breeds. Candidate genes are within the equine lymphocyte antigen class II region, which evokes an immune response by recognizing many foreign molecules. Conclusions The genome-wide association

  8. Noise transmission and delay-induced stochastic oscillations in biochemical network motifs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sheng-Jun; Wang Qi; Liu Bo; Yan Shi-Wei; Sakata Fumihiko

    2011-01-01

    With the aid of stochastic delayed-feedback differential equations, we derive an analytic expression for the power spectra of reacting molecules included in a generic biological network motif that is incorporated with a feedback mechanism and time delays in gene regulation. We systematically analyse the effects of time delays, the feedback mechanism, and biological stochasticity on the power spectra. It has been clarified that the time delays together with the feedback mechanism can induce stochastic oscillations at the molecular level and invalidate the noise addition rule for a modular description of the noise propagator. Delay-induced stochastic resonance can be expected, which is related to the stability loss of the reaction systems and Hopf bifurcation occurring for solutions of the corresponding deterministic reaction equations. Through the analysis of the power spectrum, a new approach is proposed to estimate the oscillation period. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  9. Production of TNF-alpha by skin explants of dinitrochlorobenzene-challenged ears in rats: A model for the evaluation of contact hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataranovski Milena

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Contact hypersensitivity (CHS is a local inflammatory response of the skin following challenge of hapten-sensitized animals. It is the consequence of cell infiltration of derm and the release of inflammation mediators, among which Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α is one of the most important factors. The intensity of the inflammation could be quantified by ear swelling which is the classical manifestation of the reaction. This study was testing the working hypothesis that levels of TNF-α in skin organ culture medium should correlate with the intensity of CHS reaction measured in vivo by ear swelling assay, and with the density of dermal infiltrate in ear skin samples. In order to test the working hypothesis, the intensity of inflammatory reaction following challenge was evaluated by classical measurements of ear swelling, by the determination of TNF-α levels in culture fluids of ear skin following epicutaneous application of dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB into the ears of sensitized animals. Methods. Animal model of CHS reaction to DNCB in Albino Oxford rats was used as described. Ear swelling was quantified in percentage terms as the difference in thickness between the challenged and nontreated ears of the same animal. Dermal infiltrate density in histopathologically analyzed samples of ear skin was evaluated by computer-assisted image analysis. Ear skin samples were cultured in standard medium for 24 h, and TNF-α concentration in the conditioned medium was subsequently determined with ELISA test. Results. Dose-dependent increase in the density of the dermal infiltrate and in TNF-α in CM were noted following the application of 0.65%, 1.3% and 2.6% of DNCB to the ears of previously sensitized rats. The correlation between ear swelling and the levels of TNF-α (r=0.933, p<0.001 in CM, and between ear swelling and dermal infiltrate density (r=0.916, p<0.001 was found. Correlation was also found between the density of the dermal

  10. Long-term sensitization of mechanosensitive and -insensitive afferents in mice with persistent colorectal hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Bin; La, Jun-ho; Schwartz, Erica S.; Tanaka, Takahiro; McMurray, Timothy P.; Gebhart, G. F.

    2012-01-01

    Afferent input contributes significantly to the pain and colorectal hypersensitivity that characterize irritable bowel syndrome. In the present study, we investigated the contributions of mechanically sensitive and mechanically insensitive afferents (MIAs; or silent afferents) to colorectal hypersensitivity. The visceromotor response to colorectal distension (CRD; 15–60 mmHg) was recorded in mice before and for weeks after intracolonic treatment with zymosan or saline. After CRD tests, the di...

  11. Changes in risk of immediate adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media by repeated administrations in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Fujiwara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To elucidate whether repeated exposures to iodinated contrast media increase the risk of adverse reaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 1,861 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who visited authors' institution, a tertiary referral center, between 2004 and 2008. We analyzed cumulative probability of adverse reactions and risk factors. We categorized all symptoms into hypersensitivity reactions, physiologic reactions, and other reactions, according to the American College of Radiology guidelines, and evaluated each category as an event. We estimated the association between hazard for adverse reactions and the number of cumulative exposures to contrast media. We also evaluated subsequent contrast media injections and adverse reactions. RESULTS: There were 23,684 contrast media injections in 1,729 patients. One hundred and thirty-two patients were excluded because they were given no contrast media during the study period. Adverse reactions occurred in 196 (0.83% patients. The cumulative incidence at 10(th, 20(th, and 30(th examination was 7.9%, 15.2%, and 24.1%, respectively. Presence of renal impairment was found to be one of risk factors for adverse reactions. The estimated hazard of overall adverse reaction gradually decreased until around 10(th exposure and rose with subsequent exposures. The estimated hazard of hypersensitivity showed V-shaped change with cumulative number of exposures. The estimated hazard of physiologic reaction had a tendency toward decreasing and that of other reaction had a tendency toward increasing. Second adverse reaction was more severe than the initial in only one among 130 patients receiving subsequent injections. CONCLUSION: Repeated exposures to iodinated contrast media increase the risk of adverse reaction.

  12. Caracterização da hipersensibilidade a luvas de látex em profissionais da odontologia = Rubber latex gloves hypersensitivities in dental workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Sukekava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As reações alérgicas ao látex vêm aumentando em profissionais da saúde e se manifestam como um incômodo local ou sintomatologia sistêmica. Para conhecer a freqüência das manifestações alérgicas nos usuários de luvas de látex foi realizada busca entre os profissionais da odontologia via aplicação de questionários. Foram aplicados 450questionários e, dentre os respondedores (140, 19% relataram manifestar reações locais ao contato com as luvas de látex e 5% reações sistêmicas a outros produtos de látex. Cerca de 2,5% declararam dermatite de contato e reações sistêmicas (anafiláticas, 1,5% apenas dermatite de contato e 1% sintomas de anafilaxia ao uso das luvas. Vinte por cento dos profissionais atenderam pacientes com alergia ao látex e 29% declararam questionar, durante a anamnese, a respeito de alergia ao látex. As reações alérgicas a luvas de látex foram freqüentes e é objeto de preocupação entre os profissionais da odontologia.Allergic reactions to natural rubber latex have increased in dental practice affecting both the professional and the patients. Allergic reactions may range from skin disease to asthma and anaphylaxis. This study aimed at determining the incidence of latex gloves allergy amongdental care workers. 450 allergy questionnaires were used to collect information on latex gloves reactions and 140 dental works answered them. Latex gloves reaction occurred in 19% of them and 5% reported allergic reactions to other latex products. 2.5% reported symptoms suggesting contact dermatitis and anaphylaxis hypersensitivities, 1.5% contact dermatitis, and 1% reported anaphylaxis symptoms when wearing them. 20% of them had patients who presented symptoms suggestive of anaphylaxis hypersensitivity to rubber gloves latex. Our study confirms that rubber latex gloves reactions are frequent among dental care workers, and dentists must be aware of the latex allergy in dental practice.

  13. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome in a patient taking phenytoin and levetiracetam: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall David Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome is a potentially life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction with rash, fever, and internal organ involvement, often hepatitis, occurring most commonly two to eight weeks after initiation of a medication. The present case is an example of severe and potentially life-threatening hepatitis as a manifestation of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome. Case presentation We report a case of anti-epileptic-induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome in an 18-year-old African-American man who presented with a five-day history of rash, periorbital and upper extremity edema, hepatitis and fever. Laboratory findings revealed an atypical lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, and elevated serum transaminases. No drug allergies were reported at the time of presentation, but phenytoin and levetiracetam therapy had been initiated five weeks prior to hospital admission for new-onset seizures. Both medications were discontinued on hospital admission, and after three days of high-dose corticosteroid therapy the patient experienced resolution of both his symptoms and laboratory markers of inflammation. Conclusion Given the significant mortality attributed to drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome, medical personnel should be aware of the potential for this severe hypersensitivity reaction and should ensure close follow-up and offer anticipatory guidance when beginning any new medication, particularly anti-epileptic therapy. Early recognition of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome and initiation of appropriate therapy are imperative in limiting morbidity.

  14. Occupational trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome: human herpesvirus 6 reactivation and rash phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijima, Michihiro; Wang, Hailan; Yamanoshita, Osamu; Ito, Yuki; Xia, Lihua; Yanagiba, Yukie; Chen, Cishan; Okamura, Ai; Huang, Zhenlie; Qiu, Xinxiang; Song, Xiangrong; Cai, Tingfeng; Liu, Lili; Ge, Yichen; Deng, Yingyu; Naito, Hisao; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Tohyama, Mikiko; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Nakajima, Tamie

    2013-12-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent which can cause severe generalized dermatitis, i.e., occupational TCE hypersensitivity syndrome. Reactivation of latent human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) can occur in such patients, which has made TCE known as a causative chemical of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS). This study aimed to clarify HHV6 status, cytokine profiles and their association with rash phenotypes in patients with TCE hypersensitivity syndrome. HHV6 DNA copy numbers, anti-HHV6 antibody titers, and cytokines were measured in blood prospectively sampled 5-7 times from 28 hospitalized patients with the disease. The patients (19 had exfoliative dermatitis (ED) and 9 had non-ED type rash) generally met the diagnostic criteria for DIHS. Viral reactivation defined as increases in either HHV6 DNA (≥100 genomic copies/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells) or antibody titers was identified in 24 (89%) patients. HHV6 DNA, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations were remarkably higher in the patients than in the healthy workers (p<0.01). Positive correlations between HHV6 DNA, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 were significant (p<0.05) except for that between HHV6 DNA and IFN-γ. An increase in HHV6 DNA was positively associated with an increase in TNF-α on admission (p<0.01). HHV6 DNA, the antibody titers, TNF-α and IL-10 concentrations were significantly higher in ED than in the non-ED type (p<0.05). Reactivated HHV6 and the increased cytokines could be biomarkers of TCE hypersensitivity syndrome. The higher-level reactivation and stronger humoral responses were associated with ED-type rash. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of Esophageal Hypersensitivity in Functional Heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takashi; Miwa, Hiroto

    2017-08-01

    Functional heartburn (FH) is defined as a functional esophageal disorder characterized by symptoms of chronic heartburn with no apparent correlation to acid or nonacid reflux. In addition, its symptoms persist despite the lack of organic abnormalities or inflammation, esophageal motility disorders, or metabolic disorders. Although conditions presenting with esophageal symptoms without endoscopic abnormalities were previously categorized as nonerosive reflux disease, such conditions are now classified into 3 categories under Rome IV criteria: nonerosive reflux disease, reflux hypersensitivity, and FH. Although many aspects of FH remain unclear, its onset mechanism is considered to be strongly associated with peripheral or central sensitization, given the fact that its symptoms seem to be unrelated to gastroesophageal reflux. In addition, the cause of such hypersensitivity is an interesting topic in itself, and psychological factors, such as stress followed by increasing esophageal permeability are gaining attention as factors that can potentially influence this condition. There is a great unmet clinical need for therapeutic drugs that can be used to treat FH, and the development of novel drugs, diagnostic tests and biomarkers is eagerly awaited.

  16. Cow's milk protein allergy and other food hypersensitivities in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Carina

    2009-01-01

    Food hypersensitivity (FHS) is the umbrella term used to describe both food allergy, which involves the immune system, and food intolerances, which do not. It is therefore important that the diagnosis is made by a specialist health care professional such as a paediatrician or allergist. Some experienced dietitians and health visitors may be able to assist in making a diagnosis. The diagnostic work-up includes a medical history and blood tests/skin tests (where applicable). A food and symptom diary followed by a special test diet to identify the foods causing the infant's symptoms may also be needed. Once a diagnosis is made, dietary advice should be given to eliminate or reduce the intake of the offending foods. For cow's milk hypersensitivity in infants, this will include choosing the most appropriate specialised infant formula.

  17. Energetic change of the primary quinone in photosynthetic reaction center. Mutation, delayed fluorescence and model calculations (Theses of the Ph.D. dissertation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinyu, L.

    2007-01-01

    intensities of prompt and delayed fluorescence emitted by the primary donor of the reaction center. By use of the values of the free energy gaps, I calculated the in situ midpoint redox potential of the Q A /Q A - redox couple in the mutants and the wild type and compared these values with each other. Based on the available data of reaction center structures I gave a possible explanation to the substantial change in E m of Q A in case of mutants. The available X-ray structures of reaction center make possible to calculate the thermo- dynamic properties of the mutants with computer simulations. Using docking simulations in wild type and mutant reaction centers, I calculated the binding free energies of the quinone and semiquinone molecules to the Q A packet and estimated the midpoint redox potential of the Q A /Q A - redox couple. Additionally, by use of the free energy perturbation method, I modeled the reductions process of the primary quinone molecule in wild-type and mutant re- action centers. With the application of cardiolipin (diphosphatide-glycerol) as a model-lipid, I investigated the interaction between the reaction center protein and the lipid environment. I described how it affects to the charge-recombination process and how it influences the free energy level of the charge couple (P + Q A - ) relative to the free energy level of the excited primary donor. With the investigation of the delayed fluorescence emission of the reaction center embedded into membrane fragment (chromatophore) I gave further information about the effects of reaction center proteins and lipid membranes on the energetic properties of Q A . In addition to these studies, I characterized the complex kinetics of the decay of delayed fluorescence emitted by chromatophore and also gave a description of the new fastest kinetic component

  18. Cyproterone acetate in the treatment of oestrogen hypersensitivity vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Yvonne; Bradford, Jennifer; Fischer, Gayle

    2018-02-01

    Oestrogen hypersensitivity vulvovaginitis is a rare chronic cyclical vulvovaginitis responsive to oestrogen suppression or antagonism. We present a case series of 16 patients with refractory cyclical vulvovaginitis, all of whom responded to oestrogen suppression with cyproterone acetate. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  19. Is Tadpole Pupil in an Adolescent Girl Caused by Denervation Hypersensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jonas Kjeldbjerg; Møller, Hans Ulrik

    2017-06-01

    Tadpole pupil is a rarely encountered phenomenon caused by episodic, segmental iris dilator muscle spasm of short duration (2-15 minutes), occurring in clusters without a known precipitating factor. It has most commonly been described in women aged 28 to 48 years. A few hypotheses on pathogenesis have been discussed but none has been proved. Here, we present an adolescent girl with bilateral tadpole pupil that appeared during physical exercise. This is the first pediatric case of tadpole pupil, not caused by preceding surgery, to be published. Based on (1) this case in which tadpole pupil developed when the norepinephrine level rose during exercise, (2) the high ratio of patients with tadpole pupil who concurrently have or later develop Horner syndrome, in which denervation hypersensitivity is well described, (3) a previous report of a patient with both tadpole pupil and Horner syndrome who had denervation hypersensitivity on pharmacological testing, (4) a 29-year-old man with unilateral tadpole pupil induced by exercise, and (5) a 19-year-old man with bilateral tadpole pupil and possible autonomic neuropathy, we suggest denervation hypersensitivity as a probable pathogenic mechanism causing tadpole pupil. In addition, a suggestion for investigations to be performed in future pediatric cases is provided. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Akitoshi; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  1. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Akitoshi, E-mail: akitoshi-tamura@ds-pharma.co.jp; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  2. Tweeting and Eating: The Effect of Links and Likes on Food-Hypersensitive Consumers' Perceptions of Tweets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamshaw, Richard J T; Barnett, Julie; Lucas, Jane S

    2018-01-01

    Moving on from literature that focuses on how consumers use social media and the benefits of organizations utilizing platforms for health and risk communication, this study explores how specific characteristics of tweets affect the way in which they are perceived. An online survey with 251 participants with self-reported food hypersensitivity (FH) took part in an online experiment to consider the impact of tweet characteristics on perceptions of source credibility, message credibility, persuasiveness, and intention to act upon the presented information. Positioning the research hypotheses within the framework of the Elaboration Likelihood Model and Uses and Gratifications Theory, the study explored motivations for using social media and tested the impact of the affordances of Twitter-(1) the inclusion of links and (2) the number of social validation indicators (likes and retweets). Having links accompanying tweets significantly increased ratings of the tweets' message credibility, as well as persuasiveness of their content. Socially validated tweets had no effect on these same variables. Parents of FH children were found to utilize social media for social reasons more than hypersensitive adults; concern level surrounding a reaction did not appear to alter the level of use. Links were considered valuable in obtaining social media users to attend to useful or essential food health and risk information. Future research in this area can usefully consider the nature and the effects of social validation in relation to other social media platforms and with other groups.

  3. Tweeting and Eating: The Effect of Links and Likes on Food-Hypersensitive Consumers’ Perceptions of Tweets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. T. Hamshaw

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Moving on from literature that focuses on how consumers use social media and the benefits of organizations utilizing platforms for health and risk communication, this study explores how specific characteristics of tweets affect the way in which they are perceived. An online survey with 251 participants with self-reported food hypersensitivity (FH took part in an online experiment to consider the impact of tweet characteristics on perceptions of source credibility, message credibility, persuasiveness, and intention to act upon the presented information. Positioning the research hypotheses within the framework of the Elaboration Likelihood Model and Uses and Gratifications Theory, the study explored motivations for using social media and tested the impact of the affordances of Twitter—(1 the inclusion of links and (2 the number of social validation indicators (likes and retweets. Having links accompanying tweets significantly increased ratings of the tweets’ message credibility, as well as persuasiveness of their content. Socially validated tweets had no effect on these same variables. Parents of FH children were found to utilize social media for social reasons more than hypersensitive adults; concern level surrounding a reaction did not appear to alter the level of use. Links were considered valuable in obtaining social media users to attend to useful or essential food health and risk information. Future research in this area can usefully consider the nature and the effects of social validation in relation to other social media platforms and with other groups.

  4. Tweeting and Eating: The Effect of Links and Likes on Food-Hypersensitive Consumers’ Perceptions of Tweets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamshaw, Richard J. T.; Barnett, Julie; Lucas, Jane S.

    2018-01-01

    Moving on from literature that focuses on how consumers use social media and the benefits of organizations utilizing platforms for health and risk communication, this study explores how specific characteristics of tweets affect the way in which they are perceived. An online survey with 251 participants with self-reported food hypersensitivity (FH) took part in an online experiment to consider the impact of tweet characteristics on perceptions of source credibility, message credibility, persuasiveness, and intention to act upon the presented information. Positioning the research hypotheses within the framework of the Elaboration Likelihood Model and Uses and Gratifications Theory, the study explored motivations for using social media and tested the impact of the affordances of Twitter—(1) the inclusion of links and (2) the number of social validation indicators (likes and retweets). Having links accompanying tweets significantly increased ratings of the tweets’ message credibility, as well as persuasiveness of their content. Socially validated tweets had no effect on these same variables. Parents of FH children were found to utilize social media for social reasons more than hypersensitive adults; concern level surrounding a reaction did not appear to alter the level of use. Links were considered valuable in obtaining social media users to attend to useful or essential food health and risk information. Future research in this area can usefully consider the nature and the effects of social validation in relation to other social media platforms and with other groups. PMID:29740573

  5. Transmission of the allergy reaction of a delayed type against Salmonella abortus ovis through blood plasma of gamma-irradiated guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, G.

    1977-01-01

    Use is made of blood plasma taken from guinea pigs (sensibilized with a live culture of Salmonella abortus ovis and then irradiated with 800 rad gamma-rays) to transmit the skin allergy reaction to normal, nonsensibilized guinea pigs. The allergy reaction has been demonstrated in the recipients of plasma as early as the 3-4th hour following the injection of the allergen into the skin. It reaches its peak at the 12-24th hour and later on strongly diminishes, remaining in few of the animals only up to the 48th hour. The infiltrate at the site of injection in the skin of positively reacting animals contains at the 24th hour cells of the polymorphonuclear type, which predominate, while the cells of the mononuclear type are few in number. There are no precipitins in the plasma of the donors, and the titer of the agglutinins and the cytophile antibodies is very low. Regardless of these findings it is concluded that the transmitted allergy reaction is of the fast type (after Arthuss), and not of the delayed one. (author)

  6. Evidence of isolate-specificity in non-hypersensitive resistance in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) to wheat leaf rust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qamar, Maqsood; Niks, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Isolate-specific aspect of non-hypersensitive resistance in wheat to wheat leaf rust was studied at seedling stage in the green house. Isolate-specific response of non-hypersensitive resistance was assessed from latency period (LP) and infection frequency (IF) of two single-pustule isolates of

  7. Activated platelets release sphingosine 1-phosphate and induce hypersensitivity to noxious heat stimuli in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eWeth

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available At the site of injury activated platelets release various mediators, one of which is sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P. It was the aim of this study to explore whether activated human platelets had a pronociceptive effect in an in vivo mouse model and whether this effect was based on the release of S1P and subsequent activation of neuronal S1P receptors 1 or 3. Human platelets were prepared in different concentrations (105/µl, 106/µl, 107/µl and assessed in mice with different genetic backgrounds (WT, S1P1fl/fl, SNS-S1P1-/-, S1P3-/-. Intracutaneous injections of activated human platelets induced a significant, dose-dependent hypersensitivity to noxious thermal stimulation. The degree of heat hypersensitivity correlated with the platelet concentration as well as the platelet S1P content and the amount of S1P released upon platelet activation as measured with LC MS/MS. Despite the significant correlations between S1P and platelet count, no difference in paw withdrawal latency (PWL was observed in mice with a global null mutation of the S1P3 receptor or a conditional deletion of the S1P1 receptor in nociceptive primary afferents. Furthermore, neutralisation of S1P with a selective anti-S1P antibody did not abolish platelet induced heat hypersensitivity. Our results suggest that activated platelets release S1P and induce heat hypersensitivity in vivo. However, the platelet induced heat hypersensitivity was caused by mediators other than S1P.

  8. Targeting a Cross-Reactive Gly m 5 Soy Peptide as Responsible for Hypersensitivity Reactions in a Milk Allergy Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curciarello, Renata; Smaldini, Paola L.; Candreva, Angela M.; González, Virginia; Parisi, Gustavo; Cauerhff, Ana; Barrios, Ivana; Blanch, Luis Bruno; Fossati, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-reactivity between soybean allergens and bovine caseins has been previously reported. In this study we aimed to map epitopes of the major soybean allergen Gly m 5 that are co-recognized by casein specific antibodies, and to identify a peptide responsible for the cross-reactivity. Methods Cow's milk protein (CMP)-specific antibodies were used in different immunoassays (immunoblotting, ELISA, ELISA inhibition test) to evaluate the in vitro recognition of soybean proteins (SP). Recombinant Gly m 5 (α), a truncated fragment containing the C-terminal domain (α-T) and peptides of α-T were obtained and epitope mapping was performed with an overlapping peptide assay. Bioinformatics tools were used for epitope prediction by sequence alignment, and for modelling the cross-recognized soy proteins and peptides. The binding of SP to a monoclonal antibody was studied by surface Plasmon resonance (SPR). Finally, the in vivo cross-recognition of SP was assessed in a mouse model of milk allergy. Results Both α and α-T reacted with the different CMP-specific antibodies. α-T contains IgG and IgE epitopes in several peptides, particularly in the peptide named PA. Besides, we found similar values of association and dissociation constants between the α-casein specific mAb and the different milk and soy components. The food allergy mouse model showed that SP and PA contain the cross-reactive B and T epitopes, which triggered hypersensitivity reactions and a Th2-mediated response on CMP-sensitized mice. Conclusions Gly m 5 is a cross-reactive soy allergen and the α-T portion of the molecule contains IgG and IgE immunodominant epitopes, confined to PA, a region with enough conformation to be bound by antibodies. These findings contribute to explain the intolerance to SP observed in IgE-mediated CMA patients, primarily not sensitised to SP, as well as it sets the basis to propose a mucosal immunotherapy for milk allergy using this soy peptide. PMID:24416141

  9. Effect of the 5-HT4 receptor and serotonin transporter on visceral hypersensitivity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Yan; Liu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Hua-Hong; Li, Jun-Xia; Li, Yi-Xuan

    2012-01-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity plays an important role in motor and sensory abnormalities associated with irritable bowel syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of the 5-HT 4 receptor and the serotonin transporter (SERT) as well as their roles in chronic visceral hypersensitivity using a rat model. Neonatal male Sprague-Dawley rats received intracolonic injections of 0.5% acetic acid (0.3-0.5 mL at different times) between postnatal days 8 and 21 to establish an animal model of visceral hypersensitivity. On day 43, the threshold intensity for a visually identifiable contraction of the abdominal wall and body arching were recorded during rectal distention. Histological evaluation and the myeloperoxidase activity assay were performed to determine the severity of inflammation. The 5-HT 4 receptor and SERT expression of the ascending colon were monitored using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses; the plasma 5-HT levels were measured using an ELISA method. As expected, transient colonic irritation at the neonatal stage led to visceral hypersensitivity, but no mucosal inflammation was later detected during adulthood. Using this model, we found reduced SERT expression (0.298 ± 0.038 vs 0.634 ± 0.200, P < 0.05) and increased 5-HT 4 receptor expression (0.308 ± 0.017 vs 0.298 ± 0.021, P < 0.05). Treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg·kg −1 ·day −1 , days 36-42), tegaserod (1 mg·kg −1 ·day −1 , day 43), or the combination of both, reduced visceral hypersensitivity and plasma 5-HT levels. Fluoxetine treatment increased 5-HT 4 receptor expression (0.322 ± 0.020 vs 0.308 ± 0.017, P < 0.01) but not SERT expression (0.219 ± 0.039 vs 0.298 ± 0.038, P = 0.654). These results indicate that both the 5-HT 4 receptor and SERT play a role in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, and its mechanism may be involved in the local 5-HT level

  10. Effect of the 5-HT4 receptor and serotonin transporter on visceral hypersensitivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Yan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Visceral hypersensitivity plays an important role in motor and sensory abnormalities associated with irritable bowel syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of the 5-HT4 receptor and the serotonin transporter (SERT as well as their roles in chronic visceral hypersensitivity using a rat model. Neonatal male Sprague-Dawley rats received intracolonic injections of 0.5% acetic acid (0.3-0.5 mL at different times between postnatal days 8 and 21 to establish an animal model of visceral hypersensitivity. On day 43, the threshold intensity for a visually identifiable contraction of the abdominal wall and body arching were recorded during rectal distention. Histological evaluation and the myeloperoxidase activity assay were performed to determine the severity of inflammation. The 5-HT4 receptor and SERT expression of the ascending colon were monitored using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses; the plasma 5-HT levels were measured using an ELISA method. As expected, transient colonic irritation at the neonatal stage led to visceral hypersensitivity, but no mucosal inflammation was later detected during adulthood. Using this model, we found reduced SERT expression (0.298 ± 0.038 vs 0.634 ± 0.200, P < 0.05 and increased 5-HT4 receptor expression (0.308 ± 0.017 vs 0.298 ± 0.021, P < 0.05. Treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg·kg-1·day-1, days 36-42, tegaserod (1 mg·kg-1·day-1, day 43, or the combination of both, reduced visceral hypersensitivity and plasma 5-HT levels. Fluoxetine treatment increased 5-HT4 receptor expression (0.322 ± 0.020 vs 0.308 ± 0.017, P < 0.01 but not SERT expression (0.219 ± 0.039 vs 0.298 ± 0.038, P = 0.654. These results indicate that both the 5-HT4 receptor and SERT play a role in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, and its mechanism may be involved in the local 5-HT level.

  11. Induction of cell-mediated immunity to Mycobacterium leprae in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, P.J.; Lefford, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The immune response of mice to armadillo-derived, irradiation-killed Mycobacterium leprae (I-ML) was investigated. Following injection of 100 microgram of I-ML into the left hind footpads of mice, a state of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was engendered to antigens of M. leprae. The evidence for CMI was as follows: (1) development of delayed-type hypersensitivity to both human tuberculin purified protein derivative and soluble M. leprae antigens; (2) T-lymphocyte-dependent macrophage activation at the inoculation site; (3) specific systemaic resistance to the cross-reactive species M. tuberculosis; and (4) immunopotentiation of the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to an unrelated antigen. The CMI induced by I-ML in aqueous suspension was greater than that obtained with the same antigen in water-in-oil emulsion, even though the latter generated a more severe reaction at the site of immunization. I-ML also induced a stronger CMI response than the corresponding dose of heat-killed BCG.

  12. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira CA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos AC Pereira,1 Andréa Gimenez,2 Lilian Kuranishi,2 Karin Storrer 2 1Interstitial Lung Diseases Program, 2Pulmonology Postgraduate, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. Keywords: interstitial lung diseases, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, diffuse lung disease, lung immune response, HRCT, farmers lung

  13. An attempt to induce transient immunosuppression pre-erythrocytapheresis in a girl with sickle cell disease, a history of severe delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions and need for hip prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Cattoni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on a case of delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR occurred 7 days after an erythrocytapheresis or eritroexchange procedure (EEX treated with rituximab and glucocorticoids in a 15-years old patient with sickle cell disease. EEX was performed despite a previous diagnosis of alloimmunization, in order to reduce hemoglobin S rate before a major surgery for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. A first dose of rituximab was administered before EEX. However, rituximab couldn’t prevent DHTR that occurred with acute hemolysis, hemoglobinuria and hyper-bilirubinemia. A further dose of rituximab and three boli of methylprednisolone were given after the onset of the reaction. It is likely that the combined use of rituximab and steroids managed to gradually improve both patient’s general conditions and hemoglobin levels. Nor early or late side effects were registered in a 33-months follow-up period. This report suggests the potential effectiveness and safety of rituximab in combination with steroids in managing and mitigating the symptoms of delayed post-transfusional hemolytic reactions in alloimmunized patients affected by sickle cell disease with absolute need for erythrocytapheresis.

  14. Imipramine for Treatment of Esophageal Hypersensitivity and Functional Heartburn: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsrivilai, Julajak; Charatcharoenwitthaya, Phunchai; Pausawasdi, Nonthalee; Leelakusolvong, Somchai

    2016-02-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants could be effective in the treatment of symptoms related to hypersensitive esophagus through their pain-modulating effect. We therefore assessed the benefit of imipramine in patients with esophageal hypersensitivity and functional heartburn. Patients with normal endoscopy findings and typical reflux symptoms despite standard-dose proton-pump inhibitor therapy underwent 24-h pH-impedance monitoring. Patients with established esophageal hypersensitivity or functional heartburn were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of either once-daily imipramine 25 mg (n=43) or placebo (n=40). The primary end point was satisfactory relief of reflux symptoms, defined as a >50% reduction in the gastroesophageal reflux disease score. The secondary end point was improvement in quality-of-life (QoL) as assessed by the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey score. Patients receiving imipramine did not achieve a higher rate of satisfactory relief of reflux symptoms than did patients receiving placebo (intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis: 37.2 vs. 37.5%, respectively; odds ratio (OR), 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.41-2.41; per-protocol (PP) analysis: 45.5 vs. 41.2%, respectively; OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.45-3.13). Subgroup analysis to assess the efficacy of imipramine for either esophageal hypersensitivity or functional heartburn yielded similar results. Treatment with imipramine provided significant improvement of QoL by PP analysis (72±17 and 61±19, respectively; P=0.048), but ITT analysis did not reveal any differences between imipramine and placebo (68±19 and 61±19, respectively; P=0.26). Adverse events were similar in both groups; however, constipation was more common with imipramine than placebo (51.2 vs. 22.5%, respectively; P=0.01). Although low-dose imipramine shows potential QoL benefits, it does not relieve symptoms more effectively than does placebo in patients with either esophageal hypersensitivity or functional heartburn.

  15. Progressive anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome associated with change of drug product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabroe, T.P.; Sabers, A.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the laboratory and physical manifestations of lamotrigine-like toxicity in a young man with refractory epilepsy receiving lamotrigine presenting as anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) associated with an abrupt change of drug product Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6...

  16. Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction/hyperhemolysis syndrome in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talano, Julie-An M; Hillery, Cheryl A; Gottschall, Jerome L; Baylerian, Diane M; Scott, J Paul

    2003-06-01

    Alloimmunization in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) has a reported incidence of 5% to 36%. One complication of alloimmunization is delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction/hyperhemolysis (DHTR/H) syndrome, which has a reported incidence of 11%. In patients with SCD, clinical findings in DHTR/H syndrome occur approximately 1 week after the red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and include the onset of increased hemolysis associated with pain and profound anemia. The hemoglobin (Hb) often drops below pretransfusion levels. In many reported adult cases, the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) remains negative and no new alloantibody is detected as the cause for these transfusion reactions. To date, few pediatric cases have been reported with this phenomenon. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and laboratory findings of a case series in children who had SCD and experienced a DHTR/H syndrome at our institution. An 11-year retrospective chart review of patients with discharge diagnosis of SCD and transfusion reaction was performed. DHTR/H syndrome was defined as the abrupt onset of signs and symptoms of accelerated hemolysis evidenced by an unexplained fall in Hb, elevated lactic dehydrogenase, elevated bilirubin above baseline, and hemoglobinuria, all occurring between 4 and 10 days after an RBC transfusion. Patient characteristics, time from transfusion, symptoms, reported DAT, new autoantibody or alloantibody formation, laboratory abnormalities, and complications were recorded. Patients with acute transfusion reactions were excluded. We encountered 7 patients who developed 9 episodes of DHTR/H syndrome occurring 6 to 10 days after RBC transfusion. Each presented with fever and hemoglobinuria. All but 1 patient experienced pain initially ascribed to vaso-occlusive crisis. The DAT was positive in only 2 of the 9 episodes. The presenting Hb was lower than pretransfusion levels in 8 of the 9 events. Severe complications were observed after the onset of

  17. Peripheral and central P2X3 receptor contributions to colon mechanosensitivity and hypersensitivity in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masamichi; Feng, Bin; Gebhart, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by altered sensory qualities, namely discomfort/pain and colorectal hypersensitivity. In mice, we examined the role of P2X3 receptors in colon mechanosensitivity and intracolonic zymosan-produced hypersensitivity, a model of persistent colon hypersensitivity without colon inflammation. Methods The visceromotor response (VMR) to colon distension (15 – 60 mmHg) was determined before and after intracolonic saline or zymosan (30 mg/mL, 0.1 mL, daily for 3 days) treatment. Colon pathology and intracolonic ATP release was assessed in parallel experiments. To examine P2X3 receptor contributions to colon mechanosensation and hypersensitivity, electrophysiological experiments were performed using an in vitro colon-pelvic nerve preparation. Results VMRs to distension were significantly reduced in P2X3+/−and P2X3−/− mice relative to wildtype mice. Colon hypersensitivity produced by zymosan was virtually absent in P2X3−/− relative to wildtype or P2X3+/− mice. Intralumenal release of the endogenous P2X receptor ligand ATP did not differ between wildtype and P2X3−/− mice or change after intracolonic zymosan treatment. Responses of muscular and muscular-mucosal pelvic nerve afferents to mechanical stretch did not differ between P2X3−/− and wildtype mice. Both muscular and muscular-mucosal afferents in wildtype mice sensitized to application of an inflammatory soup, whereas only muscular-mucosal afferents did so in P2X3−/− mice. Conclusions These results suggest differential roles for peripheral and central P2X3 receptors in colon mechanosensory transduction and hypersensitivity. PMID:19549524

  18. Minimizing the source of nociception and its concurrent effect on sensory hypersensitivity: An exploratory study in chronic whiplash patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratford Paul

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cervical zygapophyseal joints may be a primary source of pain in up to 60% of individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD and may be a contributing factor for peripheral and centrally mediated pain (sensory hypersensitivity. Sensory hypersensitivity has been associated with a poor prognosis. The purpose of the study was to determine if there is a change in measures indicative of sensory hypersensitivity in patients with chronic WAD grade II following a medial branch block (MBB procedure in the cervical spine. Methods Measures of sensory hypersensitivity were taken via quantitative sensory testing (QST consisting of pressure pain thresholds (PPT's and cold pain thresholds (CPT's. In patients with chronic WAD (n = 18, the measures were taken at three sites bilaterally, pre- and post- MBB. Reduced pain thresholds at remote sites have been considered an indicator of central hypersensitivity. A healthy age and gender matched comparison group (n = 18 was measured at baseline. An independent t-test was applied to determine if there were any significant differences between the WAD and normative comparison groups at baseline with respect to cold pain and pressure pain thresholds. A dependent t-test was used to determine whether there were any significant differences between the pre and post intervention cold pain and pressure pain thresholds in the patients with chronic WAD. Results At baseline, PPT's were decreased at all three sites in the WAD group (p Conclusions The patients with chronic WAD showed evidence of widespread sensory hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli. The WAD group revealed decreased sensory hypersensitivity following a decrease in their primary source of pain stemming from the cervical zygapophyseal joints.

  19. Effect of treatment with cyclophosphamide in low doses upon the onset of delayed type hypersensitivity in mice chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi: involvement of heart interstitial dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torriceli Souza The

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi results in intense myocarditis, which progresses to a chronic, asymptomatic indeterminate form. The evolution toward this chronic cardiac form occurs in approximately 30% of all cases of T. cruzi infection. Suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH has been proposed as a potential explanation of the indeterminate form. We investigated the effect of cyclophosphamide (CYCL treatment on the regulatory mechanism of DTH and the participation of heart interstitial dendritic cells (IDCs in this process using BALB/c mice chronically infected with T. cruzi. One group was treated with CYCL (20 mg/kg body weight for one month. A DTH skin test was performed by intradermal injection of T. cruzi antigen (3 mg/mL in the hind-footpad and measured the skin thickness after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. The skin test revealed increased thickness in antigen-injected footpads, which was more evident in the mice treated with CYCL than in those mice that did not receive treatment. The thickened regions were characterised by perivascular infiltrates and areas of necrosis. Intense lesions of the myocardium were present in three/16 cases and included large areas of necrosis. Morphometric evaluation of lymphocytes showed a predominance of TCD8 cells. Heart IDCs were immunolabelled with specific antibodies (CD11b and CD11c and T. cruzi antigens were detected using a specific anti-T. cruzi antibody. Identification of T. cruzi antigens, sequestered in these cells using specific anti-T. cruzi antibodies was done, showing a significant increase in the number of these cells in treated mice. These results indicate that IDCs participate in the regulatory mechanisms of DTH response to T. cruzi infection.

  20. Upregulation of Ih expressed in IB4-negative Aδ nociceptive DRG neurons contributes to mechanical hypersensitivity associated with cervical radiculopathic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Da-Lu Liu; Na Lu; Wen-Juan Han; Rong-Gui Chen; Rui Cong; Rou-Gang Xie; Yu-Fei Zhang; Wei-Wei Kong; San-Jue Hu; Ceng Luo

    2015-01-01

    Cervical radiculopathy represents aberrant mechanical hypersensitivity. Primary sensory neuron?s ability to sense mechanical force forms mechanotransduction. However, whether this property undergoes activity-dependent plastic changes and underlies mechanical hypersensitivity associated with cervical radiculopathic pain (CRP) is not clear. Here we show a new CRP model producing stable mechanical compression of dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which induces dramatic behavioral mechanical hypersensit...

  1. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Cyphostemma glaucophilla Leaves on Some Specific and Non-specific Immune Responses in Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ojogbane Eleojo; Omale James; Nwodo Okwesili Fred Chiletugo

    2013-01-01

    Cyphostemma glaucophilla is used in the management of kwashiorkor, because impaired immune responses is associated with malnourishment the modulatory activity of aqueous leaves extract of Cyphostemma glaucophilla on primary and secondary humuoral responses, in vivo leucocyte mobilization, Delayed Type Hypersensitive Reaction (DTHR), haemoglobin, packed cell volume and white blood cell count were evaluated. The extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg stimulated significant (p&ang 0.05) dose dependent inc...

  2. Evaluation method for uncertainty of effective delayed neutron fraction βeff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukeran, Atsushi

    1999-01-01

    Uncertainty of effective delayed neutron fraction β eff is evaluated in terms of three quantities; uncertainties of the basic delayed neutron constants, energy dependence of delayed neutron yield ν d m , and the uncertainties of the fission cross sections of fuel elements. The uncertainty of β eff due to the delayed neutron yield is expressed by a linearized formula assuming that the delayed neutron yield does not depend on the incident energy, and the energy dependence is supplemented by using the detailed energy dependence proposed by D'Angelo and Filip. The third quantity, uncertainties of fission cross section, is evaluated on the basis of the generalized perturbation theory in relation to reaction rate rations such as central spectral indexes or average reaction rate ratios. Resultant uncertainty of β eff is about 4 to 5%s, in which primary factor is the delayed neutron yield, and the secondary one is the fission cross section uncertainty, especially for 238 U. The energy dependence of ν d m systematically reduces the magnitude of β eff about 1.4% to 1.7%, depending on the model of the energy vs. ν d m correlation curve. (author)

  3. Carbamazepine-hypersensitivity: assessment of clinical and in vitro chemical cross-reactivity with phenytoin and oxcarbazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirmohamed, M; Graham, A; Roberts, P; Smith, D; Chadwick, D; Breckenridge, A M; Park, B K

    1991-01-01

    1. Seven patients clinically diagnosed as being hypersensitive to carbamazepine and one patient hypersensitive to both carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine have been identified. They have been compared with a control group (hereafter referred to as 'control subjects') comprising five patients on chronic carbamazepine therapy without adverse effects and 12 healthy volunteers who have never been exposed to anticonvulsants. 2. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay employing mononuclear leucocytes as target cells has been used first, to determine the ability of 10 different human livers to bioactivate carbamazepine to a cytotoxic metabolite, and secondly, to compare the cell defences of carbamazepine-hypersensitive patients and control subjects to oxidative drug metabolites generated by a murine microsomal system, using a blinded protocol. 3. With human liver microsomes, the metabolism-dependent cytotoxicity of carbamazepine increased with increasing microsomal protein concentration. At a protein concentration of 2 mg per incubation, the cytotoxicity of carbamazepine with human liver microsomes (n = 10 livers) increased from 7.2 +/- 0.8% (baseline) to 16.4 +/- 2.1% (with NADPH; P = 0.002). 4. In the presence of phenobarbitone-induced mouse microsomes and NADPH, the mean increase in cytotoxicity above the baseline with carbamazepine was significantly greater (P less than 0.001) for the cells from the carbamazepine-hypersensitive patients (7.9 +/- 0.8%) than from control subjects (2.6 +/- 0.3%). 5. In the presence of phenobarbitone-induced mouse microsomes and NADPH, there was no significant difference in cytotoxicity between the cells from carbamazepine hypersensitive patients and from control subjects in the presence of either phenytoin or oxcarbazepine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1768568

  4. Improved reactive nanoparticles to treat dentin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Osorio, Estrella; Aguilera, Fátima S; Luis Medina-Castillo, Antonio; Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different nanoparticles-based solutions for dentin permeability reduction and to determine the viscoelastic performance of cervical dentin after their application. Four experimental nanoparticle solutions based on zinc, calcium or doxycycline-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) were applied on citric acid etched dentin, to facilitate the occlusion and the reduction of the fluid flow at the dentinal tubules. After 24 h and 7 d of storage, cervical dentin was evaluated for fluid filtration. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis, AFM and Nano-DMA analysis were also performed. Complex, storage, loss modulus and tan delta (δ) were assessed. Doxycycline-loaded NPs impaired tubule occlusion and fluid flow reduction trough dentin. Tubules were 100% occluded in dentin treated with calcium-loaded NPs or zinc-loaded NPs, analyzed at 7 d. Dentin treated with both zinc-NPs and calcium-NPs attained the highest reduction of dentinal fluid flow. Moreover, when treating dentin with zinc-NPs, complex modulus values attained at intertubular and peritubular dentin were higher than those obtained after applying calcium-NPs. Zinc-NPs are then supposed to fasten active dentin remodeling, with increased maturity and high mechanical properties. Zinc-based nanoparticles are then proposed for effective dentin remineralization and tubular occlusion. Further research to finally prove for clinical benefits in patients with dentin hypersensitivity using Zn-doped nanoparticles is encouraged. Erosion from acids provokes dentin hypersensitivity (DH) which presents with intense pain of short duration. Open dentinal tubules and demineralization favor DH. Nanogels based on Ca-nanoparticles and Zn-nanoparticles produced an efficient reduction of fluid flow. Dentinal tubules were filled by precipitation of induced calcium-phosphate deposits. When treating dentin with Zn-nanoparticles, complex modulus

  5. Tunicate-Inspired Gallic Acid/Metal Ion Complex for Instant and Efficient Treatment of Dentin Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajatelistia, Ekavianty; Ju, Sung-Won; Sanandiya, Naresh D; Jun, Sang Ho; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2016-04-20

    Dentin hypersensitivity is sharp and unpleasant pains caused by exposed dentinal tubules when enamel outside of the tooth wears away. The occlusion of dentinal tubules via in situ remineralization of hydroxyapatite is the best method to alleviate the symptoms caused by dentin hypersensitivity. Commercially available dental desensitizers are generally effective only on a specific area and are relatively toxic, and their performance usually depends on the skill of the clinician. Here, a facile and efficient dentin hypersensitivity treatment with remarkable aesthetic improvement inspired by the tunicate-self-healing process is reported. As pyrogallol groups in tunicate proteins conjugate with metal ions to heal the torn body armor of a tunicate, the ingenious mechanism by introducing gallic acid (GA) as a cheap, abundant, and edible alternative to the pyrogallol groups of the tunicate combined with a varied daily intake of metal ion sources is mimicked. In particular, the GA/Fe(3+) complex exhibits the most promising results, to the instant ≈52% blockage in tubules within 4 min and ≈87% after 7 d of immersion in artificial saliva. Overall, the GA/metal ion complex-mediated coating is facile, instant, and effective, and is suggested as an aesthetic solution for treating dentin hypersensitivity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The diagnostic accuracy of the atopy patch test in diagnosing hypersensitivity to cow's milk and hen's egg in unselected children with and without atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, Morten; Andersen, Klaus E; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that the atopy patch test (APT) may make oral challenge superfluous in diagnosing children with food hypersensitivity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical relevance of APT in predicting hypersensitivity to cow's milk and hen's egg in 486 unselected...... children 3 years of age. METHOD: The children were examined by APT, skin prick (SPT), histamine release (HR), and specific IgE followed by oral challenge when hypersensitivity to cow's milk or hen's egg was suspected. RESULTS: Food hypersensitivity confirmed by oral challenge was 1.6% to hen's egg and 0.......6% to cow's milk. No hypersensitivity to cow's milk or hen's egg was predicted by APT alone. CONCLUSION: APT could not predict food hypersensitivity not predicted by SPT, HR, or specific IgE. Thus, APT cannot be recommended in daily practice for the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to cow's milk and hen's egg...

  7. Post-donation telephonic interview of blood donors providing an insight into delayed adverse reactions: First attempt in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Aseem K; Aggarwal, Geet; Dara, Ravi C; Arora, Dinesh; Srivastava, Khushboo; Raina, Vimarsh

    2017-04-01

    Blood donor experiences both immediate adverse reactions (IAR) and delayed adverse reactions (DAR). With limited published data available on the incidence of DAR, a study was conducted to estimate incidence and profile of DAR through telephonic interview. Study was conducted over a 45-day period for consecutive volunteer whole blood donations at tertiary care hospital. Donors were divided into first-time, repeat and regular and were monitored for IAR. They were given written copy of post-donation advice. Donors were contacted telephonically three weeks post-donation and enquired about general wellbeing and specific DAR in accordance with a standard n international (International Society of Blood Transfusion) standard format. Donors participated in the study of which 1.6% donors experienced an IAR. Much larger number reported DAR (10.3% vs.1.6% pdonors (age donors (>50 years). First time (12.3%) and repeat donors (13.5%) had similar frequency of DAR but were lower among regular donors (6.7%). DARs are more common than IAR and are of different profile. Post-donation interview has provided an insight into donor experiences and can be used as a valuable tool in donor hemovigilance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (5): discrepancies between ingredients and labeling in commercial pet foods

    OpenAIRE

    Olivry, Thierry; Mueller, Ralf S.

    2018-01-01

    Background Elimination dietary trials for the diagnosis of adverse food reactions (food allergies) in dogs and cats are often conducted with commercial pet foods while relying on their label to select those not containing previously-eaten ingredients. There are concerns that industrial pet foods might contain unlisted food sources that could negate the usefulness of performing food trials. Furthermore, unidentified ingredients might cause clinical reactions in patients hypersensitive to such ...

  9. Is Patch Testing with Food Additives Useful in Children with Atopic Eczema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catli, Gonul; Bostanci, Ilknur; Ozmen, Serap; Dibek Misirlioglu, Emine; Duman, Handan; Ertan, Ulker

    2015-01-01

    Atopy patch testing is a useful way to determine delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to foods and aeroallergens. Although food additives have been accused of worsening atopic eczema symptoms, according to recent studies the role of food additives in atopic eczema remains unclear. The purpose of our study was to investigate food additive hypersensitivity in a group of children with atopic eczema by using standardized atopy patch testing and to determine the role of food additive hypersensitivity in atopic eczema. Thirty-four children with atopic eczema and 33 healthy children were enrolled in the study. Children who consumed foods containing additives and did not use either antihistamines or local or systemic corticosteroids for at least 7 days prior to admission were enrolled in the study. All children were subjected to atopy patch testing and after 48 and 72 hours their skin reactions were evaluated by using the guidelines. Positive atopy patch test results were significantly higher in the atopic eczema group. Forty-one percent of the atopic eczema group (n = 14) and 15.2% (n = 5) of the control group had positive atopy patch test results with food additives (p = 0.036) (estimated relative risk 1.68, case odds 0.7, control odds 0.17). Carmine hypersensitivity and the consumption of foods containing carmine, such as gumdrops, salami, and sausage, were significantly higher in the children with atopic eczema. This is the first study investigating hypersensitivity to food additives in children with atopic eczema. Our results indicate that carmine may play a role in atopic eczema. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Dysmenorrhoea is associated with hypersensitivity in the sigmoid colon and rectum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkert, Willem; Dimcevski, Georg; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    if dysmenorrhoea is associated with hypersensitivity in the referred somatic skin area or in the large bowel, i.e., viscero-visceral hyperalgesia. We measured skin sensitivity in the referred area of the sigmoid colon as well as stimulus-response relationships in the sigmoid colon and rectum. The latter were...... measured using mechanical (balloon) distension applied via a Barostat in 11 dysmenorrhoea patients without gastro-intestinal complaints and 10 healthy and age matched women, again without gastrointestinal complaints. We found no skin hypersensitivity in the colonic referred area. In contrast, significantly...... lower distension volumes were seen at each threshold in dysmenorrhoea patients, particularly in the sigmoid colon. The mean reduction in colonic distension volume thresholds for dysmenorrhoea patients vs. controls was 57% at the detection threshold and 39% at the pain threshold. There were...

  11. The effect of mixed fractionation with X rays and neutrons on tumour growth delay and skin reactions in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, U.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have compared the effects of mixed fractionation schedules with X rays and neutrons on growth delay of a murine tumour and skin reactions in mice. The schedules were five daily fractions of X rays, neutrons or mixtures (NNXXX, XXXNN or NXXXN). For clamped tumours or skin all three mixed schedules had the same effect. In contrast, for unclamped tumours giving the neutrons first (NNXXX) was more effective than the other two mixed schedules. This represented a true therapeutic gain and implies that if neutrons are used clinically as only part of a course of fractionated radiotherapy, they should be given at the beginning rather than at the end of treatment. (author)

  12. A quick and robust method for quantification of the hypersensitive response in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar N. Johansson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most studied defense reactions of plants against microbial pathogens is the hypersensitive response (HR. The HR is a complex multicellular process that involves programmed cell death at the site of infection. A standard method to quantify plant defense and the HR is to measure the release of cellular electrolytes into water after infiltration with pathogenic bacteria. In this type of experiment, the bacteria are typically delivered into the plant tissue through syringe infiltration. Here we report the development of a vacuum infiltration protocol that allows multiple plant lines to be infiltrated simultaneously and assayed for defense responses. Vacuum infiltration did not induce more wounding response in Arabidopsis leaf tissue than syringe inoculation, whereas throughput and reproducibility were improved. The method was used to study HR-induced electrolyte loss after treatment with the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 harboring the effector AvrRpm1, AvrRpt2 or AvrRps4. Specifically, the influence of bacterial titer on AvrRpm1-induced HR was investigated. Not only the amplitude, but also the timing of the maximum rate of the HR reaction was found to be dose-dependent. Finally, using vacuum infiltration, we were able quantify induction of phospholipase D activity after AvrRpm1 recognition in leaves labeled with 33PO4.

  13. Evidentiation of Paramyosin (Sm-97 as a Modulating Antigen on Granulomatous Hypersensitivity to Schistosoma mansoni Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirsch Cristine

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A Schistosoma mansoni adult worm anionic fraction (PIII has previously been shown to protect mice against challenge infection and to reduce pulmonary and hepatic granulomatous hypersensitivity. Serum from PIII-immunized rabbit was used to screen a lgt11 cDNA library from S. mansoni adult worm in order to identify antigens capable of modulating granulomatous hypersensitivity. We obtained four clones with 400 (Sm-III.11, 900 (Sm-III.16, 1100 (Sm-III.10 and 1300 (Sm-III.12 bp of length. All clone-specific antibodies were able to recognize most of the PIII components. The sequence analysis showed that these clones presented high homology with S. mansoni paramyosin (Sm-97. These findings ascribe a new function to this antigen with an important role in modulation of granulomatous hypersensitivity to S. mansoni eggs

  14. Psychological stress exerts an adjuvant effect on skin dendritic cell functions in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Mezard, Pierre; Chavagnac, Cyril; Bosset, Sophie; Ionescu, Marius; Peyron, Eric; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Nicolas, Jean-Francois; Bérard, Frédéric

    2003-10-15

    Psychological stress affects the pathophysiology of infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanisms by which stress could modulate immune responses in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we report that application of a psychological stress before immunization exerts an adjuvant effect on dendritic cell (DC), resulting in increased primary and memory Ag-specific T cell immune responses. Acute stress dramatically enhanced the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to haptens, which is mediated by CD8(+) CTLs. This effect was due to increased migration of skin DCs, resulting in augmented CD8(+) T cell priming in draining lymph nodes and enhanced recruitment of CD8(+) T cell effectors in the skin upon challenge. This adjuvant effect of stress was mediated by norepinephrine (NE), but not corticosteroids, as demonstrated by normalization of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and DC migratory properties following selective depletion of NE. These results suggest that release of NE by sympathetic nerve termini during a psychological stress exerts an adjuvant effect on DC by promoting enhanced migration to lymph nodes, resulting in increased Ag-specific T cell responses. Our findings may open new ways in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, e.g., psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis.

  15. Minocycline Prevents Muscular Pain Hypersensitivity and Cutaneous Allodynia Produced by Repeated Intramuscular Injections of Hypertonic Saline in Healthy Human Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samour, Mohamad Samir; Nagi, Saad Saulat; Shortland, Peter John; Mahns, David Anthony

    2017-08-01

    Minocycline, a glial suppressor, prevents behavioral hypersensitivities in animal models of peripheral nerve injury. However, clinical trials of minocycline in human studies have produced mixed results. This study addressed 2 questions: can repeated injections of hypertonic saline (HS) in humans induce persistent hypersensitivity? Can pretreatment with minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic with microglial inhibitory effects, prevent the onset of hypersensitivity? Twenty-seven healthy participants took part in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, consisting of 6 test sessions across 2 weeks. At the beginning of every session, pressure-pain thresholds of the anterior muscle compartment of both legs were measured to determine the region distribution and intensity of muscle soreness. To measure changes in thermal sensitivity in the skin overlying the anterior muscle compartment of both legs, quantitative sensory testing was used to measure the cutaneous thermal thresholds (cold sensation, cold pain, warm sensation, and heat pain) and a mild cooling stimulus was applied to assess the presence of cold allodynia. To induce ongoing hypersensitivity, repeated injections of HS were administered into the right tibialis anterior muscle at 48-hour intervals. In the final 2 sessions (days 9 and 14), only sensory assessments were done to plot the recovery after cessation of HS administrations and drug washout. By day 9, nontreated participants experienced a significant bilateral increase in muscle soreness (P minocycline-treated participants experienced a bilateral 70% alleviation in muscle soreness (P minocycline-treated participants showed cold allodynia. This study showed that repeated injections of HS can induce a hypersensitivity that outlasts the acute response, and the development of this hypersensitivity can be reliably attenuated with minocycline pretreatment. Four repeated injections of HS at 48-hour intervals induce a state of persistent hypersensitivity in

  16. Culicoides species attracted to horses with and without insect hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijt, van der R.; Boom, van den R.; Jongema, Y.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (1) which species of Culicoides is most commonly attracted to horses, (2) whether horses suffering insect hypersensitivity attract more Culicoides spp. than unaffected horses, and (3) the times when Culicoides spp. are most active. Horses affected by insect

  17. The temporal profile of the reaction of microglia, astrocytes, and macrophages in the delayed onset paraplegia after transient spinal cord ischemia in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Mishiya; Yamashita, Atsuo; Ohtake, Kazunobu; Ishida, Kazuyoshi; Morimoto, Yasuhiro; Sakabe, Takefumi

    2003-06-01

    In the present study, we sought to elucidate the temporal profile of the reaction of microglia, astrocytes, and macrophages in the progression of delayed onset motor dysfunction after spinal cord ischemia (15 min) in rabbits. At 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after reperfusion (9 animals in each), hind limb motor function was assessed, and the lumbar spinal cord was histologically examined. Delayed motor dysfunction was observed in most animals at 48 h after ischemia, which could be predicted by a poor recovery of segmental spinal cord evoked potentials at 15 min of reperfusion. In the gray matter of the lumbar spinal cord, both microglia and astrocytes were activated early (2 h) after reperfusion. Microglia were diffusely activated and engulfed motor neurons irrespective of the recovery of segmental spinal cord evoked potentials. In contrast, early astrocytic activation was confined to the area where neurons started to show degeneration. Macrophages were first detected at 8 h after reperfusion and mainly surrounded the infarction area later. Although the precise roles of the activation of microglia, astrocytes, and macrophages are to be further determined, the results indicate that understanding functional changes of astrocytes may be important in the mechanism of delayed onset motor dysfunction including paraplegia. Microglia and macrophages play a role in removing tissue debris after transient spinal cord ischemia. Disturbance of astrocytic defense mechanism, breakdown of the blood-spinal cord barrier, or both seemed to be involved in the development of delayed motor dysfunction.

  18. [Assessment of hypersensitivity to honey-bee venom in beekeepers by skin tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Ángeles, Martín; Núñez-Velázquez, Marco; Marín-Martínez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Beekeepers are exposed to frequent honey-bee stings, and have the risk to develop hypersensitivity to bee venom, but long-term exposure can induce immune tolerance in them. Up to 30% of beekeepers show positive skin tests with honey-bee venom. The prevalence of systemic reactions to bee stings in beekeepers is from 14% to 42%. To know the prevalence of hypersensitivity to honeybee venom in Mexican beekeepers and non-beekeepers by the use of skin tests. A group of 139 beekeepers and a group of 60 non-beekeeper volunteers had a history and physical related to age, sex, family and personal atopic history and time of exposure to bee stings. Both groups received intradermal skin tests with honey-bee venom, 0.1 mcg/mL and 1 mcg/mL, and histamine sulphate 0.1 mg/mL and Evans solution as controls. The skin tests results of both groups were compared by chi-squared test. Of the group of beekeepers, 116 were men (83%) and 23 women, average age was 39.3 years, had atopic family history 28% and personal atopy 13%, average time of exposure to bee stings was 10.9 years, skin tests with honey-bee venom were positive in 16.5% and 11% at 1 mcg/mL and 0.1 mcg/mL, respectively. In the non-beekeepers group venom skin tests were positive in 13.3% and 6.7% at 1 mcg/mL and 0.1 mcg/mL. We did not find significant differences between the two venom concentrations tested in both groups, neither in the number of positive skin tests between the two groups. We found hypersensivity to honey-bee venom slightly higher in the beekeepers than in the group apparently not exposed. Both honey-bee venom concentrations used did not show difference in the results of the skin tests. The similarity of skin tests positivity between both groups could be explained by immune tolerance due to continued exposure of beekeepers.

  19. Ignition delays, heats of combustion, and reaction rates of aluminum alkyl derivatives used as ignition and combustion enhancers for supersonic combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, T. W., III; Harlowe, W. W.; Schwab, S.

    1992-01-01

    The work was based on adapting an apparatus and procedure developed at Southwest Research Institute for rating the ignition quality of fuels for diesel engines. Aluminum alkyls and various Lewis-base adducts of these materials, both neat and mixed 50/50 with pure JP-10 hydrocarbon, were injected into the combustion bomb using a high-pressure injection system. The bomb was pre-charged with air that was set at various initial temperatures and pressures for constant oxygen density. The ignition delay times were determined for the test materials at these different initial conditions. The data are presented in absolute terms as well as comparisons with the parent alkyls. The relative heats of reaction of the various test materials were estimated based on a computation of the heat release, using the pressure data recorded during combustion in the bomb. In addition, the global reaction rates for each material were compared at a selected tmperature and pressure.

  20. Development of an acoustic steam generator leak detection system using delay-and-sum beamformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Yoshitaka

    2009-01-01

    A new acoustic steam generator leak detection system using delay-and-sum beamformer is proposed. The major advantage of the delay-and-sum beamformer is it could provide information of acoustic source direction. An acoustic source of a sodium-water reaction is supposed to be localized while the background noise of the steam generator operation is uniformly distributed in the steam generator tube region. Therefore the delay-and-sum beamformer could distinguish the acoustic source of the sodium-water reaction from steam generator background noise. In this paper, results from numerical analyses are provided to show fundamental feasibility of the new method. (author)

  1. para-Phenylenediamine Hypersensitivity: A Report From Budapest, Hungary, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pónyai, Györgyi; Diczig, Brigitte Mária; Németh, Ilona; Temesvári, Erzsébet

    2016-01-01

    para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a potent allergen with frequent exposure through use of hair dyes or henna tattoos. We wished to determine if prevalence of PPD sensitivity is changing through time as trends in its use change. A total of 3631 patients were patch tested consecutively with the environmental standard series between 2007 and 2014 to map the prevalence of PPD sensitivity and its distribution according to age, sex, and diagnosis. Two hundred nine patients (5.75%) were proven to be PPD sensitive. Most PPD-sensitive patients were approximately in their 60s in 2007, whereas in 2014, they were in their 20s and 30s. In 2014, 61.1% of the patients were younger than 35 years and 50% were younger than 25 years. Of 209 PPD-sensitive patients, 32.5% had present relevance related to hair dyeing and eyebrow or eyelash coloring procedures. All affected male patients were hairdressers. Adverse reaction to henna was detected in only 1 case after henna hair dye use. The 5.75% prevalence of PPD sensitization in our study was higher compared with that in the European data. It is alarming that PPD hypersensitivity occurred even among teenagers. This may be mainly explained by hair dyeing at an early age.

  2. Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Modulates Immune Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    In order to examine the effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the immune system we chose to examine an amplified adaptive cellular immunity response. This response is Type IV delayed-type hypersensitivity also called contact hypersensitivity. The agent fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) is a low molecular weight, lipophilic, reactive, fluorescent molecule that can be applied to the skin where it (hapten) reacts with proteins (carriers) to become a complete antigen. Exposure to FITC leads to sensitization which is easily measured as a hypersensitivity inflammatory reaction following a subsequent exposure to the ear. Ear swelling, eosinophil infiltration, immunoglobulin E production and cytokine secretion patterns characteristic of a 'Th2 polarized' immune response are the components of the reaction. The reaction requires successful implementation of antigen processing and presentation by antigen presenting Langerhans cells, communication with naïve T lymphocytes in draining lymph nodes, expansion of activated T cell clones, migration of activated T cells to the circulation, and recruitment of memory T cells, macrophages and eosinophils to the site of the secondary challenge. Using this model our approach was to quantify system function rather than relying only on indirect biomarkers of cell. We measured the FITC-induced hypersensitivity reaction over a range of doses from 2 cGy to 2 Gy. Irradiations were performed during key events or prior to key events to deplete critical cell populations. In addition to quantifying the final inflammatory response, we assessed cell populations in peripheral blood and spleen, cytokine signatures, IgE levels and expression of genes associated with key processes in sensitization and elicitation/recall. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation would produce a biphasic effect on immune system function resulting in an enhancement at low doses and a depression at higher doses and suggested that this transition would occur in

  3. Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Modulates Immune Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Gregory A. [Loma Linda Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-01-12

    In order to examine the effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the immune system we chose to examine an amplified adaptive cellular immunity response. This response is Type IV delayed-type hypersensitivity also called contact hypersensitivity. The agent fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) is a low molecular weight, lipophilic, reactive, fluorescent molecule that can be applied to the skin where it (hapten) reacts with proteins (carriers) to become a complete antigen. Exposure to FITC leads to sensitization which is easily measured as a hypersensitivity inflammatory reaction following a subsequent exposure to the ear. Ear swelling, eosinophil infiltration, immunoglobulin E production and cytokine secretion patterns characteristic of a “Th2 polarized” immune response are the components of the reaction. The reaction requires successful implementation of antigen processing and presentation by antigen presenting Langerhans cells, communication with naïve T lymphocytes in draining lymph nodes, expansion of activated T cell clones, migration of activated T cells to the circulation, and recruitment of memory T cells, macrophages and eosinophils to the site of the secondary challenge. Using this model our approach was to quantify system function rather than relying only on indirect biomarkers of cell. We measured the FITC-induced hypersensitivity reaction over a range of doses from 2 cGy to 2 Gy. Irradiations were performed during key events or prior to key events to deplete critical cell populations. In addition to quantifying the final inflammatory response, we assessed cell populations in peripheral blood and spleen, cytokine signatures, IgE levels and expression of genes associated with key processes in sensitization and elicitation/recall. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation would produce a biphasic effect on immune system function resulting in an enhancement at low doses and a depression at higher doses and suggested that this transition would occur in the

  4. Dental Erosion and Dentin Hypersensitivity among Adult Asthmatics and Non-asthmatics Hospital-based: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Zahra Hassan Abdelaziz; Awooda, Elhadi Mohieldin

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the airways leading to spasm and swelling of the airways. The medications taken for the treatment of asthma can result in dental erosion and dentin hypersensitivity. The aims of this study were to investigate the severity of dental erosion amongst adult asthmatics according to: gender, type and duration of medication taken and to compare dental erosion and dentin hypersensitivity between asthmatics and non-asthmatics. Comparative, cross-sectional hospital based study among 40 asthmatics (M=15 & F=25) and 40 non-asthmatics (M=18 & F=22) in the age range of 18-60 year selected purposefully from Al-Shaab Teaching Hospital in Khartoum city. The Basic Erosive Wear Index was used for dental erosion assessment. Dentine hypersensitivity was determined by giving ice cold water and rated using the Visual Analogue Scale. Chi-square and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis with P value ≤.05. There was an association between severity of dental erosion and presence of asthma (P=0.03), where asthmatics had a higher degree of erosion (moderate and severe) and non-asthmatics a lower degree. No significant association was found between dental erosion and gender, type and duration of medication among asthmatics group. A statistically significant difference was revealed in the degree of dentin hypersensitivity (P=0.00) among asthmatics (35.13%) and non-asthmatics (14.13%). Asthmatic patients had a higher degree of dental erosion and dentin hypersensitivity compared to non-asthmatics. Among asthmatic patients there was no association between severity of dental erosion and gender, type and duration medication was taken for.

  5. Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stančić Ivan B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged pre-insemination anestrus (i.e. delayed puberty is a major contributing factor for culling up to 30% of the replacement gilts at large breeding farm units in Vojvodina. It is imperative to determine if these gilts are acyclic (prepubertal or cyclic, but just fail to exhibit behavioural estrus. Recent investigations demonstrate that treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG can increase the diestrous phase duration in sexually mature gilts. Based on these finding, the aim of the present studies was to determine the reproductive status of delayed puberty gilts following injection with eCG. Methods Two experiments were conducted on a swine breeding farm in Vojvodina. In Exp. 1, 20 prepubertal (acyclic gilts, and 120 sexually mature (cyclic gilts were injected with a single injection of 400 IU eCG + 200 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG or with 1000 IU eCG (cyclic gilts, at d5, d11 or d17 after spontaneous estrus detection, to determine their ovarian reaction and induced estrus manifestation. In Exp. 2, sixty delayed puberty gilts (estrus not detected until 8 month of age, av. 258 days were culled from breeding herd and slaughtered to determine their reproductive status based on ovarian anatomical features. The second group of gilts (n = 60 was treated with a single 1000 IU eCG injection to determine their reproductive status, based on the interval between eCG injection to estrus detection and duration. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and Duncan’s test in the software package Statistics 10th. Results Ovulations were induced in 90% of acyclic (sexually immature and, on average, 93.3% of cyclic (sexually mature gilts after the eCG injection. On average, 4 days after the eCG injection, estrus was detected in 85% of the treated acyclic (se