WorldWideScience

Sample records for delayed environmental costs

  1. Cost of delay and endogenous price leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Pastine, Tuvana

    2004-01-01

    We study the effects of discounting in a standard endogenous price leadership model. We show that there will be occasional changes in the identity of the leader with any cost of delay or discounting, however small. By analyzing the incentives that induce a firm to take up the leader position, we derive positive predictions about which firm will lead most price changes. Firms with shorter reaction times will be more likely to become the price leader, as will firms with lower cost o...

  2. Environmental costs of meat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to address two questions: First, what is the real cost of meat to society if taking into account the environmental costs arising throughout the product life cycle; and second, whether and how the environmental costs related to meat production can be reduced. In addressing the issues......, we use pig meat production in the EU as a case study. The environmental costs of meat are displayed first as characterized results at different midpoint categories e.g. global warming, nature occupation, acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity, etc., and then aggregated into a single score using...

  3. Delay-dependent guaranteed cost control for uncertain systems with both state and input delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuanfang YANG; Wuhua CHEN; Huajing FANG

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the guaranteed cost control problem for a class of uncertain linear systems with both state and input delays.By representing the time-delay system in the descriptor system form and using a recent result on bounding of cross products of vectors,we obtain new delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the existence of the guaranteed cost controller in terms of linear matrix inequalities.Two examples are presented which show the effectiveness of our approach.

  4. Environmental protection using social costing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.

    1993-10-01

    Emissions and other residual wastes come from industrial production, commercial and household activities, and transportation. These wastes damage the environment, including human health. As economies grow, so does concern about balancing that growth with the desire for environmental protection. At issue is how much environmental protection we should have. We address this issue using the concept of social costing. The issue is discussed in the context of electric power generation. There is particular concern about the use of fossil fuels such as petroleum, the major fuel used in the Republic of China, and coal which is the most common fuel used in the U. S. Electric power generation is a major source of airborne pollutants such as SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, CO, and CO{sub 2}. It also results in liquid and solid wastes, and other effects such as changes in land use. To generate electric power, fuel (such as petroleum, coal or enriched uranium) or some other resource (e.g., wind or geothermal) is needed. A fuel cycle consists of a sequence of activities and processes involved in generating electric power. These activities include fuel extraction, treatment and processing; fuel conversion into electricity; transmission; waste disposal; and transportation of fuel and wastes between the different stages of the fuel cycle. Each stage results in emissions or other residuals. Several recent-studies have been about the environmental costs of electricity.

  5. Environmental benefits and social cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, H.J.; Kjær, J.; Brüsh, W.

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for introducing interdisciplinary tools and approaches in water management for participatory integrated assessment of water protection costs and environmental benefits for different management scenarios. This is required for the Water Framework Directive. Bayesian belief networks...... (BN) are one example of a possible tool for participatory integrated assessment. BNs allow knowledge and data from economic, social and hydrological domains to be integrated in a transparent, coherent and equitable way. The paper reports on the construction of a BN to assess impacts of pesticide...

  6. Costs Climb on Materials for Schools: Construction Projects Delayed, Scrapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2004-01-01

    The rapidly rising cost of steel and other construction materials is forcing some districts that are building new schools to scramble for more money, delay work, or redesign projects. Nationwide, contractors and architects are finding it harder to give accurate estimates on projects, and some have even had to renegotiate contracts with districts.…

  7. Algorithm for Delay-Constrained Minimal Cost Group Multicasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yugeng; WANG Yanlin; YAN Xinfang

    2005-01-01

    Group multicast routing algorithms satisfying quality of service requirements of real-time applications are essential for high-speed networks. A heuristic algorithm was presented for group multicast routing with bandwidth and delay constrained. A new metric was designed as a function of available bandwidth and delay of link. And source-specific routing trees for each member were generated in the algorithm by using the metric, which satisfy member′s bandwidth and end-to-end delay requirements. Simulations over random network were carried out to compare the performance of the proposed algorithm with that from literature.Experimental results show that the algorithm performs better in terms of network cost and ability in constructing feasible multicast trees for group members. Moreover,the algorithm can avoid link blocking and enhance the network behavior efficiently.

  8. Cost of delay, deadlines and endogenous price leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Pastine, Tuvana; Pastine, Ivan

    2001-01-01

    This Paper analyses endogenous price leadership in a duopolistic market with differentiated products and symmetrically informed firms. We study the effects of deadlines and discounting in a standard endogenous leadership model. We show that there will be occasional changes in the identity of the price leader with any cost of delay or discounting, however small. By analyzing the incentives that induce a firm to take up the leader position we derive positive predictions about which firm will le...

  9. Influences of transaction costs in environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggan, Anthea [CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, 306 Carmody Rd., St. Lucia, Qld, 4067 (Australia); Whitten, Stuart M. [CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Gungahlin Homestead, Bellenden St., Gungahlin, Canberra (Australia); Bennett, Jeff [Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    There is a growing literature reporting the extent of transaction costs for environmental policies. However understanding why transaction costs occur and why they are small or large is also important for efficient policy selection and evaluation. Following an analysis of the organisational economics literature and reports of the extent of transaction costs for a number of environmental policies, three key influences to transaction costs in environmental policies are identified. These are the following: (1) the characteristics of the transaction for the environmental good; (2) the nature of the transactors; and (3) the current institutional environment and arrangements. These affect transaction costs to the government and all other parties influenced by a policy. Transaction costs occur due to actions of information collection and policy design, policy enactment and establishment, implementation and contracting, administration and monitoring, and enforcement. An interrogation of transaction cost influences reveals that: (1) the influence varies between parties and is affected by the actions and interactions of and between all parties to a policy; (2) how transaction costs are experienced varies across time; and (3) who experiences transaction costs depends on the policy itself. Future policy selection and refinement will benefit from empirical analysis of the causes of transaction costs. (author)

  10. Environmental costs of mercury pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylander, Lars D. [Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Goodsite, Michael E. [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry Research Group, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2500 and 1.1 million US$ kg{sup -1} Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective. (author)

  11. Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-09-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals.

  12. Delayed bet-hedging resilience strategies under environmental fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Masaki; Wakaiki, Masashi; Rubin, Harvey; Preciado, Victor M.

    2017-05-01

    Many biological populations, such as bacterial colonies, have developed through evolution a protection mechanism, called bet hedging, to increase their probability of survival under stressful environmental fluctuation. In this context, the concept of preadaptation refers to a common type of bet-hedging protection strategy in which a relatively small number of individuals in a population stochastically switch their phenotypes to a dormant metabolic state in which they increase their probability of survival against potential environmental shocks. Hence, if an environmental shock took place at some point in time, preadapted organisms would be better adapted to survive and proliferate once the shock is over. In many biological populations, the mechanisms of preadaptation and proliferation present delays whose influence in the fitness of the population are not well understood. In this paper, we propose a rigorous mathematical framework to analyze the role of delays in both preadaptation and proliferation mechanisms in the survival of biological populations, with an emphasis on bacterial colonies. Our theoretical framework allows us to analytically quantify the average growth rate of a bet-hedging bacterial colony with stochastically delayed reactions with arbitrary precision. We verify the accuracy of the proposed method by numerical simulations and conclude that the growth rate of a bet-hedging population shows a nontrivial dependency on their preadaptation and proliferation delays. Contrary to the current belief, our results show that faster reactions do not, in general, increase the overall fitness of a biological population.

  13. Optimizing Data Centre Energy and Environmental Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikema, David Hendrik

    Data centres use an estimated 2% of US electrical power which accounts for much of their total cost of ownership. This consumption continues to grow, further straining power grids attempting to integrate more renewable energy. This dissertation focuses on assessing and reducing data centre environmental and financial costs. Emissions of projects undertaken to lower the data centre environmental footprints can be assessed and the emission reduction projects compared using an ISO-14064-2-compliant greenhouse gas reduction protocol outlined herein. I was closely involved with the development of the protocol. Full lifecycle analysis and verifying that projects exceed business-as-usual expectations are addressed, and a test project is described. Consuming power when it is low cost or when renewable energy is available can be used to reduce the financial and environmental costs of computing. Adaptation based on the power price showed 10--50% potential savings in typical cases, and local renewable energy use could be increased by 10--80%. Allowing a fraction of high-priority tasks to proceed unimpeded still allows significant savings. Power grid operators use mechanisms called ancillary services to address variation and system failures, paying organizations to alter power consumption on request. By bidding to offer these services, data centres may be able to lower their energy costs while reducing their environmental impact. If providing contingency reserves which require only infrequent action, savings of up to 12% were seen in simulations. Greater power cost savings are possible for those ceding more control to the power grid operator. Coordinating multiple data centres adds overhead, and altering at which data centre requests are processed based on changes in the financial or environmental costs of power is likely to increase this overhead. Tests of virtual machine migrations showed that in some cases there was no visible increase in power use while in others power use

  14. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  15. Environmental impacts and costs of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V

    2006-09-01

    Environmental damage is one of the main justifications for continued efforts to reduce energy consumption and to shift to cleaner sources such as solar energy. In recent years there has been much progress in the analysis of environmental damages, in particular thanks to the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. This article presents a summary of the methodology and key results for the external costs of the major energy technologies. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, No(x), and SO(2)) from fossil fuels impose significant public health costs, comparable to the cost of global warming from CO(2) emissions. The total external costs are relatively low for natural gas (in the range of about 0.5-1 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries), but much higher for coal and lignite (in the range of about 2-6 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries). By contrast, the external costs of nuclear, wind, and photovoltaics are very low. The external costs of hydro are extremely variable from site to site, and the ones of biomass depend strongly on the specific technologies used and can be quite large for combustion.

  16. Environmental Cost Accounting – Assessing the Environmental Responsibility Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Marcel Nuțǎ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper’s aim is to evaluate different approaches of environmental cost accounting used aroundthe world. One of the main issues of modern enterprise is to affirm its responsible behavior and to connect itwith a positive economic benefit for the shareholders. Practically the management systems must find a way toaddress all the stakeholders’ interests and needs.

  17. The Optimal Sequence of Production Orders, Taking into Account the Cost of Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylewski Robert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In flexible manufacturing systems the most important element in determining the proper course of technological processes, transport and storage is the control and planning subsystem. The key planning task is to determine the optimal sequence of production orders. This paper proposes a new method of determining the optimal sequence of production orders in view of the sum of the costs related to the delayed execution of orders. It takes into account the different unit costs of delays of individual orders and the amount of allowable delays of orders involving no delay costs. The optimum sequence of orders, in the single-machine problem, in view of the sum of the costs of delays may be significantly different from the optimal order, taking into account the sum of delay times.

  18. The Cost of Delaying Approval of Golden Rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Kaplan, S.; Zilberman, D.

    2014-01-01

    More than 250,000 children go blind every year because of Vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A intake can be enhanced by consuming Golden Rice—a genetically engineered variety of rice. It was available for commercialization in 2002, but approval has been delayed. We estimate that this delay has resulted

  19. The Cost of Delaying Approval of Golden Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Kaplan, S; Zilberman, D.

    2014-01-01

    More than 250,000 children go blind every year because of Vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A intake can be enhanced by consuming Golden Rice—a genetically engineered variety of rice. It was available for commercialization in 2002, but approval has been delayed. We estimate that this delay has resulted in 600,000 to 1.2 million additional cases of blindness.

  20. Guaranteed cost control for uncertain stochastic fuzzy systems with time delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Huaguang; WANG Yingchun

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies a delay-dependent guaranteed cost control problem for a class of uncertain nonlinear stochastic systems with time delay represented by the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model with uncertain parameters. The descriptor system method and Gu's inequality are employed to obtain delay-dependent sufficient conditions such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable with a certain guaranteed cost control performance. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by a simulation example.

  1. GUARANTEED COST CONTROL OF CONTINUOUS-TIME UNCERTAIN SINGULAR SYSTEM WITH BOTH STATE AND INPUT DELAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The guaranteed cost control problem for a continuous-time uncertain singular system with state and control delays, and a given quadratic cost function is studied in this paper. Sufficient conditions for the existence of the guaranteed cost controller are derived based on the linear inequality (LMI) approach. A parameterized characterization of the guaranteed cost laws is given in terms of the feasible solutions to a certain LMI, and the cost function of guaranteed cost controller exists an upper bound.

  2. Schedule Matters: Understanding the Relationship between Schedule Delays and Costs on Overruns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerowicz, Walt; Shinn, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between schedule delays and cost overruns on complex projects. It is generally accepted by many project practitioners that cost overruns are directly related to schedule delays. But what does "directly related to" actually mean? Some reasons or root causes for schedule delays and associated cost overruns are obvious, if only in hindsight. For example, unrealistic estimates, supply chain difficulties, insufficient schedule margin, technical problems, scope changes, or the occurrence of risk events can negatively impact schedule performance. Other factors driving schedule delays and cost overruns may be less obvious and more difficult to quantify. Examples of these less obvious factors include project complexity, flawed estimating assumptions, over-optimism, political factors, "black swan" events, or even poor leadership and communication. Indeed, is it even possible the schedule itself could be a source of delay and subsequent cost overrun? Through literature review, surveys of project practitioners, and the authors' own experience on NASA programs and projects, the authors will categorize and examine the various factors affecting the relationship between project schedule delays and cost growth. The authors will also propose some ideas for organizations to consider to help create an awareness of the factors which could cause or influence schedule delays and associated cost growth on complex projects.

  3. Control of delay dominant systems with costs related to switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Honglian; Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to extend a novel low complexity method for optimizing switch control developed by the authors earlier to work with delay dominant systems and demonstrate that the method works in practice with a refrigeration test system. The extended method solves switching problems...

  4. Optimal guaranteed cost control for fuzzy descriptor systems with time-varying delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Weihua; Zhang Huaguang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the delay-independent rule, the problem of optimal guaranteed cost control for a class of Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy descriptor systems with time-varying delay is studied. A linear quadratic cost function is considered as the performance index of the closed-loop system. Sufficient conditions for the existence of guaranteed cost controllers via state feedback are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), and the design of an optimal guaranteed cost controller can be reduced to a convex optimization problem. It is shown that the designed controller not only guarantees the asymptotic stability of the closed-loop fuzzy descriptor delay system, but also provides an optimized upper bound of the guaranteed cost. At last, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and the perfect performance of the optimal guaranteed cost controller.

  5. A Genetic Algorithm for Delay-constrained Least-cost Multicast Routing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The delay-constrained least-cost multicast routing problem is introduced and then a related genetic algorithm is proposed. Finally, simulation results are shown to prove that the genetic algorithm is fast and effective.

  6. OPPORTUNITY COSTS OF REWARD DELAYS AND THE DISCOUNTING OF HYPOTHETICAL MONEY AND CIGARETTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick S.; Herrmann, Evan S.; Johnson, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are reported to discount delayed rewards at lower rates than nonhumans. However, nonhumans are studied in tasks that restrict reinforcement during delays, whereas humans are typically studied in tasks that do not restrict reinforcement during delays. In nonhuman tasks, the opportunity cost of restricted reinforcement during delays may increase delay discounting rates. The present within-subjects study used online crowdsourcing (Amazon Mechanical Turk, or MTurk) to assess the discounting of hypothetical delayed money (and cigarettes in smokers) under four hypothetical framing conditions differing in the availability of reinforcement during delays. At one extreme, participants were free to leave their computer without returning, and engage in any behavior during reward delays (modeling typical human tasks). At the opposite extreme, participants were required to stay at their computer and engage in little other behavior during reward delays (modeling typical nonhuman tasks). Discounting rates increased as an orderly function of opportunity cost. Results also indicated predominantly hyperbolic discounting, the “magnitude effect,” steeper discounting of cigarettes than money, and positive correlations between discounting rates of these commodities. This is the first study to test the effects of opportunity costs on discounting, and suggests that procedural differences may partially account for observed species differences in discounting. PMID:25388973

  7. The environmental costs of China’s industrial development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 姚磊磊; 马岩

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates China’s industrial costs under the virtual cost accounting approach.The estimation results show that Chinese industries have disbursed an increasing amount of environmental costs since 1992 while expanding environmental investment;China’s industrial cleanness has been on the rise since 1998;the virtual industrial environmental costs have been in decline since 1998.In 2007,the total industrial environmental costs accounted for merely 0.73%of gross industrial output value and only 2.52%of industrial value added;the virtual environmental costs accounted for merely 0.23%of gross industrial output value and only 0.81%of industrial value added.These figures indicate that the effects of environmental costs on the international competitiveness of Chinese industries are very limited even if China complies with the highest environmental standards.

  8. Delay-independent robust guaranteed-cost control for uncertain linear neutral systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongfei; Zhou Jun

    2007-01-01

    This article concerns the delay-independent guaranteed-cost control problem via memoryless state feedback for a class of neutral-type systems with structural uncertainty and a given quadratic cost function. New delay-independent conditions for the existence of the guaranteed-cost controller are presented in the term of LMIs. An algorithm involving optimization is proposed to design a controller achieving an optimal guaranteed-cost, such that, the system can be stabilized for all admissible uncertainties. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  9. A new delay line loops shrinking time-to-digital converter in low-cost FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie, E-mail: zhangjie071063@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s Dynamics, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, CAS, Wuhan, China, 430077 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 100049 (China); Zhou, Dongming [State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s Dynamics, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, CAS, Wuhan, China, 430077 (China)

    2015-01-21

    The article provides the design and test results of a new time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on delay line loops shrinking method and implemented in a low-cost field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. A technique that achieves high resolution with low cost and flexibility is presented. The technique is based on two delay line loops which are used to directly shrink the measured time interval in the designed TDC, and the resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delay times of the two delay line loops. In order to realize high resolution and eliminate temperature influence, the two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number. A delay-locked loop (DLL) is used to stabilize the resolution against process variations and ambient conditions. Meanwhile, one method is used to accurately evaluate the resolution of the implemented TDC. The converter has been implemented in a general-propose FPGA device (Actel SmartFusion A2F200M3). A single shot resolution of the implemented converter is 63.3 ps and the measurement standard deviation is about 61.7 ps within the measurement range of 5 ns. - Highlights: • We provide a new FPGA-integrated time-to-digital converter based on delay line loops method which used two delay line loops to directly shrink time intervals with only rising edges. • The two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number and symmetrical structure. • The resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delays of the two delay line loops. • We use delay-locked loop to stabilize the resolution against temperature and supply voltage.

  10. Environmental standards need cost/benefit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeltman, E.W.

    1978-02-01

    To illustrate the basic advantages of employing cost/benefit analyses in the determination of emission limits for various sources of pollution, General Electric Co. discusses the activities of the US Environmental Protection Agency in the development of new source performance standards for combustion turbines. A review of specific decisions and their consequences regarding the emission of SO/sub 2/, CO, and NO/sub x/ from gas and oil turbines shows that to ensure good regulation, regulators must consider all sides of the issue; industry, in turn, must present its case in the most technically accurate manner possible to avoid the decrease in reliability, safety, and availability of equipment that can result from too restrictive emission limits.

  11. Guaranteed cost control of uncertain system with input time-delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡乃平; 唐功友

    2003-01-01

    For the uncertain continuous-time systems with input time-delay that widely exist in the production processes, we can get the existent conditions for the guaranteed cost control of these systems by using the Lyapunov stability theory, linear matrix inequalities theory and quadratic cost criterion. We can achieve the guaranteed cost control of this system by solving a matrix inequality. A state feed back guaranteed cost control law can be constructed by solving certain parameter-dependent Riccati matrix equation.

  12. Robust guaranteed cost filtering for uncertain time-delay systems with Markovian jumping parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yanming; Zhang Ying; Duan Guangren; Chai Qingxuan

    2005-01-01

    The robust guaranteed cost filtering problem for a class of linear uncertain stochastic systems with time delays is investigated. The system under study involves time delays, jumping parameters and Brownian motions. The transition of the jumping parameters in systems is governed by a finite-state Markov process. The objective is to design linear memoryless filters such that for all uncertainties, the resulting augmented system is robust stochastically stable independent of delays and satisfies the proposed guaranteed cost performance. Based on stability theory in stochastic differential equations, a sufficient condition on the existence of robust guaranteed cost filters is derived. Robust guaranteed cost filters are designed in terms of linear matrix inequalities. A convex optimization problem with LMI constraints is formulated to design the suboptimal guaranteed cost filters.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of 'immediate IVF' versus 'delayed IVF': a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkemans, M.J.; Kersten, F.A.M.; Lintsen, A.M.E.; Hunault, C.C.; Bouwmans, C.A.; Roijen, L.H.; Habbema, J.D.; Braat, D.D.M.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: How does the cost-effectiveness (CE) of immediate IVF compared with postponing IVF for 1 year, depend on prognostic characteristics of the couple? SUMMARY ANSWER: The CE ratio, i.e. the incremental costs of immediate versus delayed IVF per extra live birth, is the highest (range of

  14. Delayed otolaryngology referral for voice disorders increases health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Seth M; Kim, Jaewhan; Roy, Nelson; Courey, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Despite the accepted role of laryngoscopy in assessing patients with laryngeal/voice disorders, controversy surrounds its timing. This study sought to determine how increased time from first primary care to first otolaryngology outpatient visit affected the health care costs of patients with laryngeal/voice disorders. Retrospective analysis of a large, national administrative claims database was performed. Patients had an International Classification of Diseases, 9(th) Revision-coded diagnosis of a laryngeal/voice disorder; initially saw a primary care physician and, subsequently, an otolaryngologist as outpatients; and provided 6 months of follow-up data after the first otolaryngology evaluation. The outpatient health care costs accrued from the first primary care outpatient visit through the 6 months after the first otolaryngology outpatient visit were determined. There were 260,095 unique patients who saw a primary care physician as an outpatient for a laryngeal/voice disorder, with 8999 (3.5%) subsequently seeing an otolaryngologist and with 6 months postotolaryngology follow-up data. A generalized linear regression model revealed that, compared with patients who saw an otolaryngologist ≤1 month after the first primary care visit, patients in the >1-month and ≤3-months and >3-months time periods had relative mean cost increases of $271.34 (95% confidence interval $115.95-$426.73) and $711.38 (95% confidence interval $428.43-$993.34), respectively. Increased time from first primary care to first otolaryngology evaluation is associated with increased outpatient health care costs. Earlier otolaryngology examination may reduce health care expenditures in the evaluation and management of patients with laryngeal/voice disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Conflict translates environmental and social risk into business costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Daniel M.; Davis, Rachel; Bebbington, Anthony J.; Ali, Saleem H.; Kemp, Deanna; Scurrah, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability science has grown as a field of inquiry, but has said little about the role of large-scale private sector actors in socio-ecological systems change. However, the shaping of global trends and transitions depends greatly on the private sector and its development impact. Market-based and command-and-control policy instruments have, along with corporate citizenship, been the predominant means for bringing sustainable development priorities into private sector decision-making. This research identifies conflict as a further means through which environmental and social risks are translated into business costs and decision making. Through in-depth interviews with finance, legal, and sustainability professionals in the extractive industries, and empirical case analysis of 50 projects worldwide, this research reports on the financial value at stake when conflict erupts with local communities. Over the past decade, high commodity prices have fueled the expansion of mining and hydrocarbon extraction. These developments profoundly transform environments, communities, and economies, and frequently generate social conflict. Our analysis shows that mining and hydrocarbon companies fail to factor in the full scale of the costs of conflict. For example, as a result of conflict, a major, world-class mining project with capital expenditure of between US$3 and US$5 billion was reported to suffer roughly US$20 million per week of delayed production in net present value terms. Clear analysis of the costs of conflict provides sustainability professionals with a strengthened basis to influence corporate decision making, particularly when linked to corporate values. Perverse outcomes of overemphasizing a cost analysis are also discussed. PMID:24821758

  16. Conflict translates environmental and social risk into business costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Daniel M; Davis, Rachel; Bebbington, Anthony J; Ali, Saleem H; Kemp, Deanna; Scurrah, Martin

    2014-05-27

    Sustainability science has grown as a field of inquiry, but has said little about the role of large-scale private sector actors in socio-ecological systems change. However, the shaping of global trends and transitions depends greatly on the private sector and its development impact. Market-based and command-and-control policy instruments have, along with corporate citizenship, been the predominant means for bringing sustainable development priorities into private sector decision-making. This research identifies conflict as a further means through which environmental and social risks are translated into business costs and decision making. Through in-depth interviews with finance, legal, and sustainability professionals in the extractive industries, and empirical case analysis of 50 projects worldwide, this research reports on the financial value at stake when conflict erupts with local communities. Over the past decade, high commodity prices have fueled the expansion of mining and hydrocarbon extraction. These developments profoundly transform environments, communities, and economies, and frequently generate social conflict. Our analysis shows that mining and hydrocarbon companies fail to factor in the full scale of the costs of conflict. For example, as a result of conflict, a major, world-class mining project with capital expenditure of between US$3 and US$5 billion was reported to suffer roughly US$20 million per week of delayed production in net present value terms. Clear analysis of the costs of conflict provides sustainability professionals with a strengthened basis to influence corporate decision making, particularly when linked to corporate values. Perverse outcomes of overemphasizing a cost analysis are also discussed.

  17. Environmental Cost Accounting Information and Strategic Business Decision in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebipanipre Gabriel Mieseigha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at examining environmental cost accounting information and strategic business decision in Nigeria. The general assumption that conventional cost accounting does not have the ability to provide absolute information for evaluating the environmental behaviour of an organization and its economic consequences has motivated this study. Towards achieving this, secondary data was employed and a linear model was specified. Findings indicated that environmental cost accounting information as it relates to strategic business decision is valuerelevant. It was on this note that we recommended firms to constantly reposition their accounting system in order to provide information on environmental costs so that the true costs in an organization can be ascertained and properly allocated. Also, due attention should be paid to waste management costs, employee health costs, investment financing costs, compliance and environmental costs and all environmental related costs by manufacturing concerns since they influence strategic decision. Our study is one of those that have explored the issue of environmental cost accounting relevance in strategic business decision in the Nigerian context.

  18. Robust guaranteed cost observer design for linear uncertain jump systems with state delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yan-ming; ZHANG Bo; DUAN Guang-ren

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the robust guaranteed cost observer with guaranteed cost performance for a class of linear uncertain jump systems with state delay. The transition of the jumping parameters in systems is governed by a finite-state Markov process. Based on the stability theory in stochastic differential equations, a sufficient condition on the existence of the proposed robust guaranteed cost observer is derived. Robust guaran-teed cost observers are designed in terms of a set of linear coupled matrix inequalities. A convex optimization problem with LMI constraints is formulated to design the suboptimal guaranteed cost observers.

  19. 75 FR 26270 - Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Mitigation Policy AGENCY: Federal... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is accepting comments on a draft Environmental Planning and Historic...

  20. Internalizing Environmental Costs on the road freight transport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ferrón Vílchez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Prior literature noted the potential that advanced environmental management might have in the generation of valuable organizational capabilities regarding costs minimization. More-over, during last years, one of the most important objectives in the development of transport public policies has been the internalization of environmental costs. Thus, this study attempts, firstly, to analyze how transport companies could successfully face the challenge of internalis-ing environmental costs, and second, to highlight how the existence of an environmentally proactive pattern of behaviour might reduce the environmental costs on transport sector. In doing so, a case study in the Spanish industry of road freight transport has been elaborated. Despite nowadays companies face the environmental challenge not beyond legal require-ments, the main conclusion of this study is that an environmentally proactive behaviour re-inforces the sustainable development of companies.

  1. A new delay line loops shrinking time-to-digital converter in low-cost FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    The article provides the design and test results of a new time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on delay line loops shrinking method and implemented in a low-cost field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. A technique that achieves high resolution with low cost and flexibility is presented. The technique is based on two delay line loops which are used to directly shrink the measured time interval in the designed TDC, and the resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delay times of the two delay line loops. In order to realize high resolution and eliminate temperature influence, the two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number. A delay-locked loop (DLL) is used to stabilize the resolution against process variations and ambient conditions. Meanwhile, one method is used to accurately evaluate the resolution of the implemented TDC. The converter has been implemented in a general-propose FPGA device (Actel SmartFusion A2F200M3). A single shot resolution of the implemented converter is 63.3 ps and the measurement standard deviation is about 61.7 ps within the measurement range of 5 ns.

  2. Construction delays causing risks on time and cost - a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidambaram Ramanathan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an increase in the number of construction projects experiencing extensive delays leading to exceeding initial time and cost budget.  This paper reviews 41 studies around the world which surveyed the delay factors and classified them into Groups.  The main purpose of this paper is to review literature, each of which have categorized the causes that are responsible for time delays and cost overrun in projects. The collected list has 113 causes for delays categorized in to 18 different groups.  Most of the researches have analysed the responses from the Questionnaire survey.    The collected data are used to rank the problem.  The data are further used to investigate and analyse Important Index, Frequency Index, Severity Index, Relative Important Index, Relative Importance Weight, Weighted Average, Mean, Standard Deviation and Variance.  The collective comparison has revealed that the ranking given by all the researchers is not the same.  Further each and every study has different rank ratings for the different group of the delays.  This review paper attempts to provide an updated compilation of the earlier studies on ranking of the delay causers, which are never similar and constant for universal projects.  It is concluded that a separate study is required for identifying the factors causing delay for projects operated in Sabah, East Malaysia.

  3. The cost of environmental lead (Pb) poisoning in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cost of environmental lead (Pb) poisoning in Nigeria. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Nigerian children, costing the health and education sectors $0.38 – 1.15 billion year-1 for every 1 μg/dL increase in BLL.

  4. Recognition of the Environmental Costs of Fossil Fuel Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı FINDIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Environment that is the natural residential area of live life is among the interests of the various sciences. Within the scope of accounting science, the concept of social awareness requires a social responsibility based approach and this causes some additional environmental costs emerged when interaction of business with their environment considered. In the Uniform Accounting Plan there exists a special account relating with monitoring, controlling and managing of environmental costs. This study deals with environmental accounting for enterprises and introduces determination and recognition of the environmental costs of fossil fuel plants that use coal as a fuel

  5. A GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR CONSTRUCTING BROADCAST TREES WITH COST AND DELAY CONSTRAINTS IN COMPUTER NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Y. Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We refer to the problem of constructing broadcast trees with cost and delay constraints in the networks as a delay-constrained minimum spanning tree problem in directed networks. Hence it is necessary determining a spanning tree of minimal cost to connect the source node to all nodes subject to delay constraints on broadcast routing. In this paper, we proposed a genetic algorithm for solving broadcast routing by finding the low-cost broadcast tree with minimum cost and delay constraints. In this research we present a genetic algorithm to find the broadcast routing tree of a given network in terms of its links. The algorithm uses the connection matrix of the given network to find the spanning trees and considers the weights of the links to obtain the minimum spanning tree. Our proposed algorithm is able to find a better solution, fast convergence speed and high reliability. The scalability and the performance of the algorithm with increasing number of network nodes are also encouraging.

  6. ROBUST STABILITY WITH GUARANTEEING COST FOR DISCRETE TIME-DELAY SYSTEMS WITH NONLINEAR PERTURBATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xinchun; ZHENG Nanning; LIU Yuehu

    2005-01-01

    The problems of robust stability and robust stability with a guaranteeing cost for discrete time-delay systems with nonlinear perturbation are discussed. A sufficient criterion for robust stability is established in an LMI framework and a linear convex optimization problem with LMI constraints for computing maximal perturbation bound is proposed. Meanwhile, a sufficient criterion for robust stability with a guaranteeing cost for such systems is obtained, and an optimal procedure for decreasing the value of guaranteeing cost is put forward. Two examples are used to illustrate the efficiency of the results.

  7. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  8. Coping with persistent environmental problems: systemic delays in reducing eutrophication of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riku Varjopuro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on systemic delays in the Baltic Sea that cause the problem of eutrophication to persist. These problems are demonstrated in our study by addressing three types of delays: (1 decision delay: the time it takes for an idea or perceived need to be launched as a policy; (2 implementation delay: the time from the launch of a policy to the actual implementation; (3 ecosystem delay: the time difference between the implementation and an actual measurable effects. A policy process is one characterized by delays. It may take years from problem identification to a decision to taking action and several years further for actual implementation. Ecosystem responses to measures illustrate that feedback can keep the ecosystem in a certain state and cause a delay in ecosystem response. These delays can operate on decadal scales. Our aim in this paper is to analyze these systemic delays and especially to discuss how the critical delays can be better addressed in marine protection policies by strengthening the adaptive capacity of marine protection. We conclude that the development of monitoring systems and reflexive, participatory analysis of dynamics involved in the implementation are keys to improve understanding of the systemic delays. The improved understanding is necessary for the adaptive management of a persistent environmental problem. In addition to the state of the environment, the monitoring and analysis should be targeted also at the implementation of policies to ensure that the societies are investing in the right measures.

  9. Comparing Cars--Environmental and Cost Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Most high school students are at an age when they are learning to drive. They often want to offer input when their parents decide on what vehicle to purchase, so the activity described in this article should have direct personal interest for them. It allows students to use technology and mathematics to determine the environmental impacts of…

  10. Dynamical analysis in a bioeconomic phytoplankton zooplankton system with double time delays and environmental stochasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Luping; Zhang, Qingling; Yan, Yun

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a double delayed bioeconomic phytoplankton zooplankton system with commercial harvesting on zooplankton and environmental stochasticity. Maturation delay for toxin producing phytoplankton and gestation delay for zooplankton are considered. Environmental stochasticity is incorporated into the proposed system in form of Gaussian white noises. Some sufficient conditions are derived to show that the proposed system has a unique global positive solution. In absence of double time delays, stochastic stability and existence of stochastic Hopf bifurcation are studied based on invariant measure theory and singular boundary theory of diffusion process for the proposed system. In presence of double time delays, asymptotic behaviors of the interior equilibrium are discussed by constructing some appropriate Lyapunov functions.

  11. Corporate social responsible costs in the environmental area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Boria-Reverter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To know how the application of environmental politicies facilitates the identification of unknown costs and their next reaction. Moreover we try to determine, if these costs have a connection with the different environmental strategies, which are used. Design/methodology/approach: An empiric study was done through a telephonic survey all over Spain in 2012. The idea was to obtain a representative sample. From 943 companies, the survey was answered by 141 of them. Findings and Originality/value: It is shown the relationship between the costs behavior, knowledge of the unknown and hidden costs with the environmental strategies. Research limitations/implications: To dispose a bigger sample, this allowed us to obtain results in relationship with sectors type and to verify the result for regions. Practical implications: The organizations can be aware of costs reaction, depending on their action in the environmental area. Originality/value: Environmental politicies in the CSR field facilitate unknown or hidden costs detection and they allow their evaluation and the decisions about them. The obtained improvements can revert to the society due to the development of environmental politicies and they offer a competitive advantage for the company.

  12. High Environmental Cost behind Low China Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Xiaoshan; Gao Jixi

    2007-01-01

    China has won the name of the world factory being famous for exporting a great deal of and various kinds of low-price merchandise.However,most of Chinese exports are primary goods or manufactured products that create heavy pollution and require intensive use of resources.Chinese products go abroad,but their following harms stay behind.The article analyzes many obvious low-price facts in China and their concomitant terrible environmental results in detail,and points out that there are huge hidden troubles in the way of China's sustainable development behind her seemingly flourishing economy.

  13. Equitable traffic assignment with environmental cost functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedek, C.M. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Rilett, L.R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1998-01-01

    In the past 10 years increased importance has been placed on public participation and environmental concerns in transportation system decision-making. While there are numerous societal objectives to consider when planning and operating a transportation system, it is not clear whether the optimal strategy with respect to one objective is also the optimal strategy with respect to the other objectives. This paper examines how new objectives and environmental considerations can be modeled within the traditional, macroscopic traffic assignment methodology. In addition, a new methodology for modeling the assignment of vehicles in realistic networks is developed based on equitable, rather than user-equilibrium or system-optimal, principles. The basic premise is that with the advent of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) the operation of the transportation system based on the objectives of the general public, rather than the traveling public and system operators, is feasible. A methodology for modeling these situations is required. All of the approaches discussed here were tested on a calibrated network from Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

  14. A Maintainability Prediction Method Considering Environmental Impacts and Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Maintainability prediction is one kind of primary maintainability action. Design deficiency would be found through predicting maintainability parameters under certain conditions. Now a maintainability prediction method that mainly considers maintenance time or maintenance man-hour is a kind of prediction method with a single index. With increasing product complexity and people's environmental consciousness, more attention is paid to environment impacts and maintenance cost or resource consumption in the maintenance process. It is necessary for a maintainability prediction method that can predict maintenance cost and maintenance environmental impacts. A new maintainability prediction method is presented in this paper based on analyzing existing maintainability prediction methods.The method is MABTCE (maintenance activity based timing/costing/environment impact assessment )and can predict maintenance time, maintenance costing and maintenance environmental impacts andthen improve maintainability design with prediction results.

  15. Robust reliable guaranteed cost control for nonlinear singular stochastic systems with time delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Aiqing; Fang Huajing

    2008-01-01

    To study the design problem of robust reliable guaranteed cost controller for nonlinear singular stochastic systems,the Takagi-Sugeno(T-S)fuzzy model is used to represent a nonlinear singular stochastic system with norm-bounded parameter uncertainties and time delay.Based on the linear matrix inequality(LMI)techniques and stability theory of stochastic differential equations,a stochastic Lyapunov function method is adopted to design a state feedback fuzzy controller.The resulting closed-loop fuzzy system is robustly reliable stochastically stable,and the corresponding quadratic cost function is guarauteed to be no more than a certain upper bound for all admissible uncertainties,as well as different actuator fault cases.A sufficient condition of existence and design method of robust reliable guaranteed cost controller is presented.Finally,a numerical simulation is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. The environmental costs of wind energy in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares Llamas, P. [CIEMAT-IEE, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    This article summarizes the assessment of the environmental costs of the wind fuel cycle in Spain. It has been carried out within the ExternE project of the European Commission, and so it has been done following a site-, technology-specific methodology. The main impacts identified have been noise, and the loss of visual amenity. As a result some values for the external costs of wind energy have been obtained, which have shown to be much lower than those of conventional fuel cycles. It is also important to note that careful planning would avoid most of these costs. (author)

  17. Army Corps of Engineers: Factors Contributing to Cost Increases and Schedule Delays in the Olmsted Locks and Dam Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    and Dam Project The following information appears as interactive content in figure 3 when viewed electronically . • 1985: Lower Ohio River...ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS Factors Contributing to Cost Increases and Schedule Delays in the Olmsted Locks and Dam Project ...Contributing to Cost Increases and Schedule Delays in the Olmsted Locks and Dam Project What GAO Found Reports by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

  18. Hopf bifurcation in a environmental defensive expenditures model with time delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russu, Paolo [D.E.I.R., University of Sassari, Via Torre Tonda, 34, 07100 Sassari (Italy)], E-mail: russu@uniss.it

    2009-12-15

    In this paper a three-dimensional environmental defensive expenditures model with delay is considered. The model is based on the interactions among visitors V, quality of ecosystem goods E, and capital K, intended as accommodation and entertainment facilities, in Protected Areas (PAs). The tourism user fees (TUFs) are used partly as a defensive expenditure and partly to increase the capital stock. The stability and existence of Hopf bifurcation are investigated. It is that stability switches and Hopf bifurcation occurs when the delay t passes through a sequence of critical values, {tau}{sub 0}. It has been that the introduction of a delay is a destabilizing process, in the sense that increasing the delay could cause the bio-economics to fluctuate. Formulas about the stability of bifurcating periodic solution and the direction of Hopf bifurcation are exhibited by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate the results.

  19. Cost-benefit analysis for design of environmentally conscious manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matysiak, L.M.

    1993-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been focused on reducing the environmental impacts of products and manufacturing processes. Concerned about rising compliance costs and stringent regulatory requirements, companies are carefully evaluating the environmental impacts of their products. In response, designers, engineers, and managers are beginning to use life-cycle analysis, design for environment techniques, and environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) as tools to help them to not only do what is best for the environment, but also to do what is best for their company. These tools are also a useful aid in evaluating the trade-offs that may exist between different product and process alternatives. However, how does one choose the optimal solution from these various product and process alternatives? Cost versus benefit analysis is an effective tool that can be used to evaluate various manufacturing alternatives and to choose a solution that is both cost effective and environmentally compatible. Many companies are beginning to use cost benefit analyses as a means to justify product or process modifications that result in a benefit to the environment.

  20. Environmental and Cost Assessment of a Polypropylene Nanocomposite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roes, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/303022388; Marsili, E.; Nieuwlaar, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073931373; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a study on the use of a polypropylene (PP)/layered silicate nanocomposite as packaging film, agricultural film, and automotive panels. The study’s main question was “Are the environmental impacts and costs throughout the life cycle of nanocomposite products lower than those of

  1. The environmental cost of subsistence: Optimizing diets to minimize footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A; Davis, Kyle F; Emery, Kyle A; Leach, Allison M; Galloway, James N; Pace, Michael L

    2016-05-15

    The question of how to minimize monetary cost while meeting basic nutrient requirements (a subsistence diet) was posed by George Stigler in 1945. The problem, known as Stigler's diet problem, was famously solved using the simplex algorithm. Today, we are not only concerned with the monetary cost of food, but also the environmental cost. Efforts to quantify environmental impacts led to the development of footprint (FP) indicators. The environmental footprints of food production span multiple dimensions, including greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint), nitrogen release (nitrogen footprint), water use (blue and green water footprint) and land use (land footprint), and a diet minimizing one of these impacts could result in higher impacts in another dimension. In this study based on nutritional and population data for the United States, we identify diets that minimize each of these four footprints subject to nutrient constraints. We then calculate tradeoffs by taking the composition of each footprint's minimum diet and calculating the other three footprints. We find that diets for the minimized footprints tend to be similar for the four footprints, suggesting there are generally synergies, rather than tradeoffs, among low footprint diets. Plant-based food and seafood (fish and other aquatic foods) commonly appear in minimized diets and tend to most efficiently supply macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. Livestock products rarely appear in minimized diets, suggesting these foods tend to be less efficient from an environmental perspective, even when nutrient content is considered. The results' emphasis on seafood is complicated by the environmental impacts of aquaculture versus capture fisheries, increasing in aquaculture, and shifting compositions of aquaculture feeds. While this analysis does not make specific diet recommendations, our approach demonstrates potential environmental synergies of plant- and seafood-based diets. As a result, this study

  2. Development of a Low-cost, FPGA-based, Delay Line Particle Detector for Satellite and Sounding Rocket Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, M.; Kujawski, J. T.; Adrian, M. L.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    Electrons are, by definition, a fundamental, chemical and electromagnetic constituent of any plasma. This is especially true within the partially ionized plasmas of Earth's ionosphere where electrons are a critical component of a vast array of plasma processes. Siena College is working on a novel method of processing information from electron spectrometer anodes using delay line techniques and inexpensive COTS electronics to track the movement of high-energy particles. Electron spectrometers use a variety of techniques to determine where an amplified electron cloud falls onto a collecting surface. One traditional method divides the collecting surface into sectors and uses a single detector for each sector. However, as the angular and spatial resolution increases, so does the number of detectors, increasing power consumption, cost, size, and weight of the system. An alternative approach is to connect each sector with a delay line built within the PCB material which is shielded from cross talk by a flooded ground plane. Only one pair of detectors (e.g., one at each end of the chain) are needed with the delay line technique which is different from traditional delay line detectors which use either Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) or very fast clocks. In this paper, we report on the implementation and testing of a delay line detector using a low-cost Xilinx FPGA and a thirty-two sector delay system. This Delay Line Detector has potential satellite and rocket flight applications due to its low cost, small size and power efficiency

  3. Environmental costing for agriculture: Will it be standard fare in the farm bill of 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.K. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States))

    1992-12-01

    This paper starts by discussing and estimating the environmental costs of agricultural production. The author uses a separate benefit transfer intended to expose methodological issues to construct each cost category of agricultures's external effects. This is followed by a simple description of the framework for production decisions that account for environmental costs. Included are attribution of environmental externalities and measurement of environmental costs. Finally the author discusses research implications of environmental costing, including TQM and environmental policy analyses, environmental services and their unit values, strategies for measuring environmental values, and prognosis for agricultural adders. 42 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. A retrospective analysis of delays in the diagnosis of lung cancer and associated costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildea TR

    2017-05-01

    IV disease and lowest among patients diagnosed at Stage I disease ($7,239 Stage I, $9,484 Stage II, $11,193 Stage IIIa, $17,415 Stage IIIb, and $21,441 Stage IV. Conclusion: This study showed that most patients experienced long periods of delay between their first diagnostic test for lung cancer and a definitive diagnosis, and the majority were diagnosed at advanced stages of disease. Costs associated with the management of lung cancer increased substantially with higher stages at diagnosis. Procedures that diagnose lung cancer at earlier stages may allow for less resource use and costs among patients with lung cancer. Keywords: biopsy (lung, cost, health care utilization, pulmonary nodule, staging

  5. Slow down and remember to remember! A delay theory of prospective memory costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Andrew; Loft, Shayne; Remington, Roger W

    2015-04-01

    Event-based prospective memory (PM) requires a deferred action to be performed when a target event is encountered in the future. Individuals are often slower to perform a concurrent ongoing task when they have PM task requirements relative to performing the ongoing task in isolation. Theories differ in their detailed interpretations of this PM cost, but all assume that the PM task shares limited-capacity resources with the ongoing task. In what was interpreted as support of this core assumption, diffusion model fits reported by Boywitt and Rummel (2012) and Horn, Bayen, and Smith (2011) indicated that PM demands reduced the rate of accumulation of evidence about ongoing task choices. We revaluate this support by fitting both the diffusion and linear ballistic accumulator (Brown & Heathcote, 2008) models to these same data sets and 2 new data sets better suited to model fitting. There was little effect of PM demands on evidence accumulation rates, but PM demands consistently increased the evidence required for ongoing task response selection (response thresholds). A further analysis of data reported by Lourenço, White, and Maylor (2013) found that participants differentially adjusted their response thresholds to slow responses associated with stimuli potentially containing PM targets. These findings are consistent with a delay theory account of costs, which contends that individuals slow ongoing task responses to allow more time for PM response selection to occur. Our results call for a fundamental reevaluation of current capacity-sharing theories of PM cost that until now have dominated the PM literature.

  6. Robust optimization for nonlinear time-delay dynamical system of dha regulon with cost sensitivity constraint in batch culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinlong; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Chongyang; Chang, Liang; Xie, Jun; Feng, Enmin; Yin, Hongchao; Xiu, Zhilong

    2016-09-01

    Time-delay dynamical systems, which depend on both the current state of the system and the state at delayed times, have been an active area of research in many real-world applications. In this paper, we consider a nonlinear time-delay dynamical system of dha-regulonwith unknown time-delays in batch culture of glycerol bioconversion to 1,3-propanediol induced by Klebsiella pneumonia. Some important properties and strong positive invariance are discussed. Because of the difficulty in accurately measuring the concentrations of intracellular substances and the absence of equilibrium points for the time-delay system, a quantitative biological robustness for the concentrations of intracellular substances is defined by penalizing a weighted sum of the expectation and variance of the relative deviation between system outputs before and after the time-delays are perturbed. Our goal is to determine optimal values of the time-delays. To this end, we formulate an optimization problem in which the time delays are decision variables and the cost function is to minimize the biological robustness. This optimization problem is subject to the time-delay system, parameter constraints, continuous state inequality constraints for ensuring that the concentrations of extracellular and intracellular substances lie within specified limits, a quality constraint to reflect operational requirements and a cost sensitivity constraint for ensuring that an acceptable level of the system performance is achieved. It is approximated as a sequence of nonlinear programming sub-problems through the application of constraint transcription and local smoothing approximation techniques. Due to the highly complex nature of this optimization problem, the computational cost is high. Thus, a parallel algorithm is proposed to solve these nonlinear programming sub-problems based on the filled function method. Finally, it is observed that the obtained optimal estimates for the time-delays are highly satisfactory

  7. Environmental cost of using poor decision metrics to prioritize environmental projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, David J; Gibson, Fiona L

    2016-04-01

    Conservation decision makers commonly use project-scoring metrics that are inconsistent with theory on optimal ranking of projects. As a result, there may often be a loss of environmental benefits. We estimated the magnitudes of these losses for various metrics that deviate from theory in ways that are common in practice. These metrics included cases where relevant variables were omitted from the benefits metric, project costs were omitted, and benefits were calculated using a faulty functional form. We estimated distributions of parameters from 129 environmental projects from Australia, New Zealand, and Italy for which detailed analyses had been completed previously. The cost of using poor prioritization metrics (in terms of lost environmental values) was often high--up to 80% in the scenarios we examined. The cost in percentage terms was greater when the budget was smaller. The most costly errors were omitting information about environmental values (up to 31% loss of environmental values), omitting project costs (up to 35% loss), omitting the effectiveness of management actions (up to 9% loss), and using a weighted-additive decision metric for variables that should be multiplied (up to 23% loss). The latter 3 are errors that occur commonly in real-world decision metrics, in combination often reducing potential benefits from conservation investments by 30-50%. Uncertainty about parameter values also reduced the benefits from investments in conservation projects but often not by as much as faulty prioritization metrics. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Guaranteed Cost Control for Uncertain Nonlinear Time-Delay Neutral Systems Based on T-S Fuzzy Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The problem of guaranteed cost fuzzy controller is studied for a class of nonlinear time-delay neutral systems with norm-bounded uncertainty based on T-S model. The sufficient conditions are first derived for the existence of guaranteed cost fuzzy controllers. These sufficient conditions are equivalent to a kind of linear matrix inequalities. Furthermore, a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints is formulated to design the optimal guaranteed cost controller.

  9. Consensus of Discrete Multiagent System with Various Time Delays and Environmental Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheping Yan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the consensus problem of discrete multiagent systems with time varying sampling periods is studied. Firstly, with thorough analysis of various delays among agents, the control input of each agent is designed with consideration of sending delay and receiving delay. With construction of discrete dynamics of state error vector, it is proved by applying Halanay inequality that consensus of the system can be reached. Further, the definition of bounded consensus is proposed in the situation where environmental disturbances exist. In order to handle this problem, the Halanay inequality is extended into a more general one with boundedness property. Based on the new Halanay inequality obtained, the boundedness of consensus error is guaranteed. At last, simulation examples are presented to demonstrate the theoretical conclusions.

  10. Predicting Freeway Work Zone Delays and Costs with a Hybrid Machine-Learning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid machine-learning model, integrating an artificial neural network (ANN and a support vector machine (SVM model, is developed to predict spatiotemporal delays, subject to road geometry, number of lane closures, and work zone duration in different periods of a day and in the days of a week. The model is very user friendly, allowing the least inputs from the users. With that the delays caused by a work zone on any location of a New Jersey freeway can be predicted. To this end, tremendous amounts of data from different sources were collected to establish the relationship between the model inputs and outputs. A comparative analysis was conducted, and results indicate that the proposed model outperforms others in terms of the least root mean square error (RMSE. The proposed hybrid model can be used to calculate contractor penalty in terms of cost overruns as well as incentive reward schedule in case of early work competition. Additionally, it can assist work zone planners in determining the best start and end times of a work zone for developing and evaluating traffic mitigation and management plans.

  11. HOW TO CALCULATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS? CASE COMPANY GRAFICA CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitel, Becerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world urgently needs to protect the environment, many companies and organizations devote huge resources to reach that goal and achieve sustainable development as the highest standard of achievement for any country or organization. It then becomes imperative to determine how much the companies spend on the environment, taking into account that the Entities have an implicit contract with society and the environment, the product of the resources used and waste and waste pouring, which is why one needs to calculate and record the environmental costs of products to enhance the environmental management of the entity and thus promote an excellent decision-making. The following research seeks a procedure which allows solving this problem, making its composition with the use of various techniques within which highlights the environmental checklists and product life cycle, which also allows knowing separately as each process and product impacts the environment.

  12. Guaranteed Cost Fault-tolerant Control of Networked Control Systems with Short Output Delay and Short Control Delay Based on State Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomao Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Supposing that the sensor and controller nodes were time-driven and the actuator node was event-driven, the problem of integrity against sensor failures for the networked control systems with short output delay and short control delay was discussed based on observer. The state observer of the system according to the time-delay compensation strategy was designed. Then, considering possible sensor failures, an augmented mathematic model for the networked control systems based on observer was developed. In terms of the given quadratic performance index function, the integrity condition of the system was given and the designs for guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller and observer were presented respectively by using the cooperative design approach of the controller and observer and the approach of bilinear matrix inequalities. Finally, a numerical simulation example demonstrated the conclusions are feasible and effective. The proposed control method meets the requirements in industrial networked control systems.

  13. Delay-dependent guaranteed cost control for state-delayed system with disturbance and its application to engine idle speed control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihu WU; Run PEI

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a delay-dependent guaranteed cost control scheme for engine idle speed control (ISC) with induction-to-torque delay and external load disturbance.An augmented linearization model of engine at idle speed operating mode was developed based on physical principle and experiment data.To provide a compromise between disturbance rejection and other performance requirements of ISC,a multi-objective cost function upper bound was given,which can help us to take into account the fuel economy and disturbance rejection performance together in ISC.Poles constraint was added to the closed-loop system to guarantee convergence rates of state.The whole optimization solution to ISC can be solved under the framework of LMI.A commercial engine model was utilized to assess the performance of the controller.Simulation results on this model show us that designed controller can achieve desired performance.

  14. Justifying Environmental Cost Allocation in a Multiple Product Firm: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study examines the effect of environmental cost allocation on production cost and the outcome for environmental management decisions. Using a revised cost allocation – referred to in this paper as environmental cost allocation – the paper contrasts overhead allocation between traditional cost allocation and environmental cost allocation. In addition, production cost derived from the traditional allocation of waste cost is compared with the revised environmental cost allocation. Findings indicate that a revised environmental cost allocation discloses more accurate overhead cost and hence production cost; and that management is motivated to make informed environmental management decisions if a product related environmental cost is made to reflect in the production cost of the polluting product. The paper highlights the practical significance of objective environmental cost allocation on corporate waste management, which thus creates a valuable awareness on the part of the management and accountants of firms in developing countries for the need to fine-tune the dominant traditional costing system. It also suggests avenues for further research to examine the impact of costing systems on environmental investments.

  15. The environmental cost of subsistence: Optimizing diets to minimize footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Davis, Kyle F. [University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences, 291 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Emery, Kyle A. [University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences, 291 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); University of California, Santa Barbara. Marine Science Institute, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Leach, Allison M. [University of New Hampshire, 107 Nesmith Hall, 131 Main Street, Durham, NH, 03824 (United States); Galloway, James N.; Pace, Michael L. [University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences, 291 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The question of how to minimize monetary cost while meeting basic nutrient requirements (a subsistence diet) was posed by George Stigler in 1945. The problem, known as Stigler's diet problem, was famously solved using the simplex algorithm. Today, we are not only concerned with the monetary cost of food, but also the environmental cost. Efforts to quantify environmental impacts led to the development of footprint (FP) indicators. The environmental footprints of food production span multiple dimensions, including greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint), nitrogen release (nitrogen footprint), water use (blue and green water footprint) and land use (land footprint), and a diet minimizing one of these impacts could result in higher impacts in another dimension. In this study based on nutritional and population data for the United States, we identify diets that minimize each of these four footprints subject to nutrient constraints. We then calculate tradeoffs by taking the composition of each footprint's minimum diet and calculating the other three footprints. We find that diets for the minimized footprints tend to be similar for the four footprints, suggesting there are generally synergies, rather than tradeoffs, among low footprint diets. Plant-based food and seafood (fish and other aquatic foods) commonly appear in minimized diets and tend to most efficiently supply macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. Livestock products rarely appear in minimized diets, suggesting these foods tend to be less efficient from an environmental perspective, even when nutrient content is considered. The results' emphasis on seafood is complicated by the environmental impacts of aquaculture versus capture fisheries, increasing in aquaculture, and shifting compositions of aquaculture feeds. While this analysis does not make specific diet recommendations, our approach demonstrates potential environmental synergies of plant- and seafood-based diets. As a result

  16. Inventory model with cash flow oriented and time-dependent holding cost under permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an inventory model for determining an optimal ordering policy for non-deteriorating items and time-dependent holding cost with delayed payments permitted by the supplier under inflation and time-discounting. The discounted cash flows approach is applied to study the problem analysis. Mathematical models have been derived under two different situations i.e. case I: The permissible delay period is less than cycle time for settling the account and case II: The permissible delay period is greater than or equal to cycle time for settling the account. An algorithm is used to obtain minimum total present value of the costs over the time horizon H. Finally, numerical example and sensitivity analysis demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal cycle time and optimal payment time for an item so that annual total relevant cost is minimized.

  17. Identifying The Effective Factors for Cost Overrun and Time Delay in Water Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mirzai Matin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Water construction projects in Iran frequently face problems which cause cost overrun and time delay, the two most common issues in construction projects in general. The objective of this survey is to identify and quantify these problems and thus help in avoiding them. This survey represents a collection of the most significant problems found in the literature, classified into 11 groups according to their source. The questionnaire form used contains 84 questions which were answered by random engineers who work in water construction projects. The Relative Importance Weight (RIW method is used to weight the importance of each one of the 84 problems. The focus of this survey is on overall top ten issues which are: bureaucracy in bidding method, inflation, economical condition of the government, not enough information gathered and surveys done before design, monthly payment difficulties, material cost changes, law changes by the government, financial difficulties, mode of financing and payment for completed work and changes made by the owner. A section for each of these issues provides additional information about them. In the full text of this survey the same weighting method is used to classify the main groups, and the results show that issues related to the groups of government, owner and consultant has the most significant impact. The last part of this survey describes the point of view of the engineers who took part in this survey and the recommendations they made.

  18. Environmental costs and reverse logistics: a systemic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the articles most relevant to the themes inherent environmental costs from the perspective of reverse logistics, identifying gaps for these two approaches through systemic analysis. In order to achieve the purpose of this article, the intervention instrument used was ProKnow-C (Knowledge Process Development - Constructivist. The application of this methodology resulted in gross bank of articles, comprising 1225 items obtained from four international databases: Science Direct, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Wiley Online Library. The raw bank was filtered in relation to redundancy, the alignment of the title and the scientific relevance. The filtering had resulted in a set of 15 articles aligned with two axes of research. The analysis of the selected articles identified the most cited article and the author most cited, concluding that the issue environmental costs associated with reverse logistics is studied by several authors and universities. Moreover, it was found that the keyword most presented in the articles was reverse logistics. The analysis of 1117 references of the 15 articles has shown the most cited articles, as well as the most countrast journals and academic relevance of authors and their selected articles. A systemic analysis of the 15 selected articles showed that the two lines of research are related mainly to issues of environmental sustainability, competitiveness and business efficiency.

  19. Optimal guaranteed cost control for an uncertain discrete T-S fuzzy system with time-delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renming WANG; Thierry Marie GUERRA; Juntao PAN

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the guaranteed cost control problem for a class of uncertain discrete T-S fuzzy systems with time delay and a given quadratic cost function. Sufficient conditions for the existence of such controllers are derived based on the linear matrix inequalities (LMI) approach by constructing a specific nonquadratic Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and a nonlinear PDC-like control law. A convex optimization problem is also formulated to select the optimal guaranteed cost controller that minimizes the upper bound of the closed-loop cost function. Finally, numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  20. Study on environmental cost accounting under low-carbon economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhoukun

    2017-03-01

    With the strengthen of people's ability to use and transform nature, on the one hand, people acquire more resources from nature and make life more comfortable, on the other hand, the amount of waste that people emit has also increased rapidly. Excessive excavation of resources and disposal of waste emissions led to the deterioration of the environment, affecting the country's sustainable development and the Earth's ecological balance. In this paper, from the perspective of low-carbon economy, to explore corporate environmental cost recognition, measurement, collection, distribution methods, expectations for the relevant enterprises, especially high-polluting, high-emission energy-based enterprises to learn from.

  1. Environmentally Benign Energetic Time Delay Compositions: Alternatives for the U.S. Army Hand-Held Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-13

    2014, pp 305-314 305 Environmentally Benign Energetic Time Delay Compositions: Alternatives for the U.S. Army Hand- Held Signal Jay C. Poret...munitions such as hand grenades and signaling devices. For example, U.S. Army hand- held signals (HHS) use a pyrotechnic delay element to properly time...compositions for use in the U.S. Army hand- held signal. The large thermal mass of the HHS delay housing, combined with the long burning time requirement

  2. Performance and Aging of Mn/MnO2 as an Environmentally Friendly Energetic Time Delay Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-16

    toxic delay composition with good longevity. KEYWORDS: Pyrotechnic, Environmentally benign, Microchannel combustion, Pyrotechnic time delays, Manganese ... Manganese dioxide, Aging ■ INTRODUCTION Combustion of pyrotechnic time delay compositions are engineered to provide a repeatable time increment in...products can contain toxic chemicals such as BaCrO4. 4 X-ray diffraction analysis of the combustion products for the Mn/MnO2 system is shown in Figure 6

  3. Guaranteed Cost Control for Exponential Synchronization of Cellular Neural Networks with Mixed Time-Varying Delays via Hybrid Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Botmart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of guaranteed cost control for exponential synchronization of cellular neural networks with interval nondifferentiable and distributed time-varying delays via hybrid feedback control is considered. The interval time-varying delay function is not necessary to be differentiable. Based on the construction of improved Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals is combined with Leibniz-Newton's formula and the technique of dealing with some integral terms. New delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the exponential synchronization of the error systems with memoryless hybrid feedback control are first established in terms of LMIs without introducing any free-weighting matrices. The optimal guaranteed cost control with linear error hybrid feedback is turned into the solvable problem of a set of LMIs. A numerical example is also given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Reconstruction Versus Rehabilitation and Delayed Reconstruction for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Richard C; Hettrich, Carolyn M; Dunn, Warren R; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R; Huston, Laura J; Reinke, Emily K; Spindler, Kurt P

    2014-07-01

    An initial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear can be treated with surgical reconstruction or focused rehabilitation. The KANON (Knee Anterior cruciate ligament, NON-surgical versus surgical treatment) randomized controlled trial compared rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction (ACLR) to rehabilitation plus optional delayed ACLR and found no difference at 2 years by an intention-to-treat analysis of total Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) results. To compare the cost-effectiveness of early versus delayed ACLR. Economic and decision analysis; Level of evidence, 2. A Markov decision model was constructed for a cost-utility analysis of early reconstruction (ER) versus rehabilitation plus optional delayed reconstruction (DR). Outcome probabilities and effectiveness were derived from 2 sources: the KANON study and the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) database. Collectively, these 2 sources provided data from 928 ACL-injured patients. Utilities were measured by the Short Form-6 dimensions (SF-6D). Costs were estimated from a societal perspective in 2012 US dollars. Costs and utilities were discounted in accordance with the United States Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. Principal outcome measures were average incremental costs, incremental effectiveness (as measured by QALYs), and net health benefits. Willingness to pay was set at $50,000, which is the currently accepted standard in the United States. In the base case, the ER group resulted in an incremental gain of 0.28 QALYs over the DR group, with a corresponding lower overall cost to society of $1572. Effectiveness gains were driven by the low utility of an unstable knee and the lower utility for the DR group. The cost of rehabilitation and the rate of additional surgery drove the increased cost of the DR group. The most sensitive variable was the rate of knee instability after initial

  5. Guidebook in using Cost Benefit Analysis and strategic environmental assessment for environmental planning in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Environmental planning in China may benefit from greater use of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) methodologies. We provide guidance on using these methodologies. Part I and II show the principles behind the methodologies as well as their theoretical structure. Part III demonstrates the methodologies in action in a range of different good practice examples. The case studies and theoretical expositions are intended to teach by way of example as well as by understanding the principles, and to help planners use the methodologies as correctly as possible.(auth)

  6. Robust Guaranteed Cost Observer Design for Singular Markovian Jump Time-Delay Systems with Generally Incomplete Transition Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the investigation of the design of robust guaranteed cost observer for a class of linear singular Markovian jump time-delay systems with generally incomplete transition probability. In this singular model, each transition rate can be completely unknown or only its estimate value is known. Based on stability theory of stochastic differential equations and linear matrix inequality (LMI technique, we design an observer to ensure that, for all uncertainties, the resulting augmented system is regular, impulse free, and robust stochastically stable with the proposed guaranteed cost performance. Finally, a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints is formulated to design the suboptimal guaranteed cost filters for linear singular Markovian jump time-delay systems with generally incomplete transition probability.

  7. Guaranteed Cost Active Fault-tolerant Control of Networked Control System with Packet Dropout and Transmission Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yuan Luo; Mei-Jie Shang; Cai-Lian Chen; Xin-Ping Guan

    2010-01-01

    The problem of guaranteed cost active fault-tolerant controller (AFTC) design for networked control systems (NCSs)with both packet dropout and transmission delay is studied in this paper.Considering the packet dropout and transmission delay,a piecewise constant controller is adopted.With a guaranteed cost function,optimal controllers whose number is equal to the number of actuators are designed,and the design process is formulated as a convex optimal problem that can be solved by existing software.The control strategy is proposed as follows:when actuator failures appear,the fault detection and isolation unit sends out the information to the controller choosing strategy,and then the optimal stabilizing controller with the smallest guaranteed cost value is chosen.Two illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.By comparing with the existing methods,it can be seen that our method has a better performance.

  8. Distributed utility technology cost, performance, and environmental characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y; Adelman, S

    1995-06-01

    Distributed Utility (DU) is an emerging concept in which modular generation and storage technologies sited near customer loads in distribution systems and specifically targeted demand-side management programs are used to supplement conventional central station generation plants to meet customer energy service needs. Research has shown that implementation of the DU concept could provide substantial benefits to utilities. This report summarizes the cost, performance, and environmental and siting characteristics of existing and emerging modular generation and storage technologies that are applicable under the DU concept. It is intended to be a practical reference guide for utility planners and engineers seeking information on DU technology options. This work was funded by the Office of Utility Technologies of the US Department of Energy.

  9. A low-cost miniaturised detector for environmental radioactivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen; Briggs, Aaron; Hastings, Peter; Harrison, R. Giles; Marlton, Graeme; Baird, Adam

    2017-04-01

    We have developed a low-cost (£ few hundred), low-power (40mA), low-mass (30g) detector for environmental radioactivity measurements, using scintillator and solid state technology. The detector can measure energy and therefore has the capability to distinguish between different types of energetic particle. Results from recent tests, when our detector was integrated with a meteorological radiosonde system, and flew on a balloon up to 25km, identified the transition region between energetic particles near the surface, dominated by terrestrial gamma emissions, and higher-energy particles in the free troposphere from cosmic rays. The detector can be used with Bluetooth technology for remote monitoring, which is particularly useful for hazardous areas. It is also small and cheap enough to be used in sensor networks for a wide range of applications, from atmospheric science to disaster monitoring.

  10. Guaranteed cost consensus protocol design for linear multi-agent systems with sampled-data information: An input delay approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yadong; Zhang, Weidong

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the energy consumption involved in a sampled-data consensus process, the problem of guaranteed cost consensus for sampled-data linear multi-agent systems is considered. By using an input delay approach, an equivalent system is constructed to convert the guaranteed cost consensus problem to a guaranteed cost stabilization problem. A sufficient condition for guaranteed cost consensus is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), based on a refined time-dependent Lyapunov functional analysis. Reduced-order protocol design methodologies are proposed, with further discussions on determining sub-optimal protocol gain and enlarging allowable sampling interval bound made as a complement. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  11. Environmental management requirements/defensible costs project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) used a systems engineering approach to develop the first formal requirements baseline for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Management (EM) Programs. The recently signed Settlement Agreement with the State of Idaho (Batt Agreement), along with dramatically reduced EM funding targets from Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters, drove the immediacy of this effort. Programs have linked top-level requirements to work scope to cost estimates. All EM work, grouped by decision units, was scrubbed by INEL EM programs and by an independent {open_quotes}Murder Board.{close_quotes} Direct participation of upper level management from LITCO and the DOE-Idaho Operations Office ensured best information and decisions. The result is a scrubbed down, defensible budget tied to top-level requirements for use in the upcoming DOE-Headquarters` budget workout, the Internal Review Board, the FY98 Activity Data Sheets submittal, and preparation of the FY97 control accounts and out-year plans. In addition to the remarkable accomplishments during the past eight weeks, major issues were identified and documented and follow-on tasks are underway which will lead to further improvements in INEL EM program management.

  12. The evaluation of Spanish environmental impact. Costs and limitations; La evaluacion de impacto ambiental en Espana. Coste y limitaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, S.; Riera, P.; Borrego, A.

    2009-07-01

    The environmental impact assessment applies to new investments in public infrastructure and in industrial activities. The latter accounts for most of the environmental impact studies undertaken in Spain. This evaluation tool has a number of limitations and weaknesses, both in the analysis and its implementation. This article discusses some of these limitations, including the private cost of the process. (Author) 14 refs.

  13. Non-fragile robust optimal guaranteed cost control of uncertain 2-D discrete state-delayed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Akshata; Dhawan, Amit

    2016-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of non-fragile robust optimal guaranteed cost control for a class of uncertain two-dimensional (2-D) discrete state-delayed systems described by the general model with norm-bounded uncertainties. Our attention is focused on the design of non-fragile state feedback controllers such that the resulting closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and the closed-loop cost function value is not more than a specified upper bound for all admissible parameter uncertainties and controller gain variations. A sufficient condition for the existence of such controllers is established under the linear matrix inequality framework. Moreover, a convex optimisation problem is proposed to select a non-fragile robust optimal guaranteed cost controller stabilising the 2-D discrete state-delayed system as well as achieving the least guaranteed cost for the resulting closed-loop system. The proposed method is compared with the previously reported criterion. Finally, illustrative examples are given to show the potential of the proposed technique.

  14. Department of defense environmental cleanup cost allowability policy. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdock, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the factors affecting the allowability determination of defense contractor environmental remediation costs. The primary objective of this thesis was to determine what policies and contracting cost principles the Department of Defense (DOD) should develop to address environmental costs in a consistent manner, providing a `single face` to industry. A secondary objective was to develop an audit framework and questions to allow for consistent policy analysis and application to a contractor`s proposed environmental remediation costs based upon the materiality of the situation. Background material was presented to show the amount and complexity of environmental regulations, the effects of current judicial decisions and DOD`s efforts to develop a consistent policy. Research material was provided from Congress, the General Accounting Office, DOD, defense contractors, California, Washington, industry associations and environmental protection coalitions. The researcher`s analysis of the material produced an environmental cost principle. This cost principle was applied to a current environmental claim, producing an audit framework and tailored list of cost and/or pricing data analysis, questions. Both the cost principle and audit framework are recommended for incorporation into DOD`s final environmental cost allowability decision.

  15. Study of the environmental costs to nuclear power plants using the SIMPACTS program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Francine; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Mutarelli, Rita de Cassia, E-mail: fmenzel@ipen.b, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The nuclear energy presents advantages in comparison with other kinds of energy sources, when their externalities are evaluated. Externality is a term that represents the side effects of production of goods or services on other people not directly involved in the activity. The externalities can be identified and related to the term environmental cost. The environmental cost is a externality that somehow affects the environment, converted into economic terms, to then be compared with other costs of an action or enterprise. The environmental cost can be calculated through programs for that purpose, however for the nuclear area is the most used SIMPACTS, developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The motivation for this work arose from the need to have a complete assessment of environmental costs from nuclear power reactors, although it is known that this kind of form of energy generation show an advantage over others with regard to externalities. This work is the first step in implementing the program SIMPACTS in plant Angra 2 in order to calculate the environmental cost of their operation. The objective is to develop a methodology for calculating environmental cost for nuclear power reactors. SIMPACTS program will be used to identify the advantages and disadvantages of a cost analysis of environmental and perform the calculation of environmental costs for Angra 2, with the aim of minimizing the environmental impacts of its operation. From an extensive literature search, is presented in this paper the methodology for calculating the environmental cost of the program SIMPACTS and some results of calculations with the environmental cost in international power reactors other power generation plants. (author)

  16. A cost-analysis of complex workplace nutrition education and environmental dietary modification interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Sarah; Kirby, Ann; Murphy, Aileen; Geaney, Fiona; Perry, Ivan J

    2017-01-09

    The workplace has been identified as a priority setting to positively influence individuals' dietary behaviours. However, a dearth of evidence exists regarding the costs of implementing and delivering workplace dietary interventions. This study aimed to conduct a cost-analysis of workplace nutrition education and environmental dietary modification interventions from an employer's perspective. Cost data were obtained from a workplace dietary intervention trial, the Food Choice at Work Study. Micro-costing methods estimated costs associated with implementing and delivering the interventions for 1 year in four multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork, Ireland. The workplaces were allocated to one of the following groups: control, nutrition education alone, environmental dietary modification alone and nutrition education and environmental dietary modification combined. A total of 850 employees were recruited across the four workplaces. For comparison purposes, total costs were standardised for 500 employees per workplace. The combined intervention reported the highest total costs of €31,108. The nutrition education intervention reported total costs of €28,529. Total costs for the environmental dietary modification intervention were €3689. Total costs for the control workplace were zero. The average annual cost per employee was; combined intervention: €62, nutrition education: €57, environmental modification: €7 and control: €0. Nutritionist's time was the main cost contributor across all interventions, (ranging from 53 to 75% of total costs). Within multi-component interventions, the relative cost of implementing and delivering nutrition education elements is high compared to environmental modification strategies. A workplace environmental modification strategy added marginal additional cost, relative to the control. Findings will inform employers and public health policy-makers regarding the economic feasibility of implementing and scaling dietary

  17. Environmental costs and renewable energy: re-visiting the Environmental Kuznets Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Menéndez, Ana Jesús; Pérez, Rigoberto; Moreno, Blanca

    2014-12-01

    The environmental costs of economic development have received increasing attention during the last years. According to the World Energy Outlook (2013) sustainable energy policies should be promoted in order to spur economic growth and environmental protection in a global context, particularly in terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. Within this framework, the European Union aims to achieve the "20-20-20" targets, including a 20% reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels, a raise in the share of EU energy consumption produced from renewable resources to 20% and a 20% improvement in the EU's energy efficiency. Furthermore, the EU "Energy Roadmap 2050" has been recently adopted as a basis for developing a long-term European energy framework, fighting against climate change through the implementation of energy efficiency measures and the reduction of emissions. This paper focuses on the European context and attempts to explain the impact of economic growth on CO2 emissions through the estimation of an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) using panel data. Moreover, since energy seems to be at the heart of the environmental problem it should also form the core of the solution, and therefore we provide some extensions of the EKC by including renewable energy sources as explanatory variables in the proposed models. Our data sets are referred to the 27 countries of the European Union during the period 1996-2010. With this information, our empirical results provide some interesting evidence about the significant impacts of renewable energies on CO2 emissions, suggesting the existence of an extended EKC.

  18. Why does environmental compliance cost more than penalty?-A legal analysis on environmental acts of enterprises in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Hongwei

    2007-01-01

    In the environmental protection field of China,due to"lower law-breaking cost but higher law-abiding cost",it is a common case that the enterprise chooses to break through the law on purpose.The punishment to the unlawful practices by the law directly decides the law-breaking cost of the enterprise,furthermore,influences the willingness to abide by the law and the trend to break through the law.The law-breaking cost of enterprises is jointly decided by the administrative liability,civil liability and criminal liability.However,in China,the enterprises breaking through the law are mainly penalized for the administrative liabilities,focusing less on the civil compensation liability on the environmental damage and criminal liabilities on the environmental crimes.Nevertheless,a complete environmental liability system is composed by administrative punishment,civil compensation and criminal sanction,none of which is dispensable.There fore,the three layers defense could be established on punishing and deterring the environmental law-breakers.Considering all three aspects,administrative liability,civil liability and criminal liability,this paper analyzes the systemic disadvan tages of the current environmental administrative punishment,civil compensation and criminal sanction in China,and inves tigates the legitimate reasons for the higher law-abiding cost compared with the law-breaking cost,and it is finalized with the measures and suggestions to solve this problem.

  19. Low Cost Environmental Sensors for Spaceflight: NMP Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Buehler, Martin G.; Brinza, D.; Patel, J. U.

    2005-01-01

    An outstanding problem in spaceflight is the lack of adequate sensors for monitoring the space environment and its effects on engineering systems. By adequate, we mean low cost in terms of mission impact (e.g., low price, low mass/size, low power, low data rate, and low design impact). The New Millennium Program (NMP) is investigating the development of such a low-cost Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) package for inclusion on its technology validation flights. This effort follows from the need by NMP to characterize the space environment during testing so that potential users can extrapolate the test results to end-use conditions. The immediate objective of this effort is to develop a small diagnostic sensor package that could be obtained from commercial sources. Environments being considered are: contamination, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, cosmic radiation, EMI, and temperature. This talk describes the requirements and rational for selecting these environments and reviews a preliminary design that includes a micro-controller data logger with data storage and interfaces to the sensors and spacecraft. If successful, such a sensor package could be the basis of a unique, long term program for monitoring the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems.

  20. Environmental Management Accounting (EMA: Reflection of Environmental Factors in the Accounting Processes through the Identification of the Environmental Costs Attached to Products, Processes and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available EMA can be defined as the identification, collection, estimation, analysis, internal reporting, and use of materials and energy flow information, environmental cost information, and other cost information for both conventional and environmental decision-making within an organization. Thus EMA incorporates and integrates two of the three building blocks of sustainable development – environment and economics – as they relate to an organization’s internal decision-making. EMA is a relatively new tool in environmental management. Decades ago environmental costs were very low, so it seemed wise to include them in the overhead account for simplicity and convenience. Recently there has been a steep rise in all environmental costs, including energy and water prices as well as liabilities.

  1. Environmental Management Accounting (EMA: Reflection of Environmental Factors in the Accounting Processes through the Identification of the Environmental Costs Attached to Products, Processes and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantin Roman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available EMA can be defined as the identification, collection, estimation, analysis, internal reporting, and use of materials and energy flow information, environmental cost information, and other cost information for both conventional and environmental decision-making within an organization. Thus EMA incorporates and integrates two of the three building blocks of sustainable development – environment and economics – as they relate to an organization’s internal decision-making. EMA is a relatively new tool in environmental management. Decades ago environmental costs were very low, so it seemed wise to include them in the overhead account for simplicity and convenience. Recently there has been a steep rise in all environmental costs, including energy and water prices as well as liabilities.

  2. Cost And Environmental Optimization Of Waste Supply Chains Using Clca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchi, Romain; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Prosman, Ernst Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Although circular supply chains are widely perceived as a huge leap towards a more environmentally friendly economy, supply chain literature lacks environmental supplier selection criteria (E-SSC) for circular supply chains. Taking into account the various characteristics of circular supply chains...... such as recycling versus remanufacturing and the related transport and quality of returned products, we identify E-SSC for circular supply chains. We demonstrate the need and applicability of the proposed E-SSC by conducting a life cycle assessment (LCA) in the cement industry. Moreover, in doing so, we explore...... the underlying mechanisms explaining the environmental performance of circular supply chains....

  3. Partial analysis of the environmental costs generated by hotels in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, W.W. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Hung Hom (China). School of Hotel and Tourism Management

    2005-12-15

    This paper investigates the environmental costs attributable to the various activities involved in operating a hotel such as energy usage, water consumption, and solid waste disposal. A control cost approach and a pro-rated model were used in environmental costing. A holistic analysis of the environmental costs was then made. It was found that, in the early 1990s, the environmental costs incurred in controlling air pollution was higher than for other types of pollution. However, the situation changed during the late 1990s as the government invested more in building large-scale sewage treatment systems and landfills. At present, the environmental costs attributable to water protection and solid waste management have been larger than the environmental costs of air pollution. This implies that hotel operators should place a greater focus on mitigating the pressure on the environment from the consumption of water and disposal of solid waste. Also based on the methodologies, recommendations on environmental accounting on three levels are made. (Author)

  4. Environmental damage costs from fossil electricity generation in China, 2000~2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Electricity consumption increases rapidly with the rapid development of China. The environmental damage costs of electricity generation are very important for both policy analysis and the proper management of the environment. A method was developed in this work to estimate gross environmental damage costs according to emission inventory and environmental cost factors, and to extend the costs from provincial to national level with population density. In this paper, sulfur dioxide (SO2),nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), and carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fired power plants over 6000 kW were selected as index pollutants to quantify the environmental costs of damages on human health and global warming. With the new developed method, environmental damage costs, caused by 3 types of fired power plants in 30 provinces and 6 economic sectors during the years 2000 to 2003, were evaluated and analyzed. It can be seen that the calculated total national environmental damage costs of electricity have rapidly increased from 94930.87× 106 USD in 2000 to about 141041.39× 106 USD in 2003, with an average annual growth rate of 14.11%. Environmental damage costs of SO2, NOx, PM10, and CO2 are 69475.69× 106, 30079.29×106, 28931.84× 106, and 12554.57× 106 USD and account for 49.26%, 21.33%, 20.51%, and 8.90% of total environmental costs in fossil electricity generation, respectively. With regard to regional distribution, external costs caused by fossil electricity generation are mainly concentrated in the more populated and industrialized areas of China, i.e., the Eastern Central and Southeastern areas.

  5. Quantifying the total cost of infrastructure to enable environmentally preferable decisions: the case of urban roadway design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosse, Conrad A.; Clarens, Andres F.

    2013-03-01

    Efforts to reduce the environmental impacts of transportation infrastructure have generally overlooked many of the efficiencies that can be obtained by considering the relevant engineering and economic aspects as a system. Here, we present a framework for quantifying the burdens of ground transportation in urban settings that incorporates travel time, vehicle fuel and pavement maintenance costs. A Pareto set of bi-directional lane configurations for two-lane roadways yields non-dominated combinations of lane width, bicycle lanes and curb parking. Probabilistic analysis and microsimulation both show dramatic mobility reductions on road segments of insufficient width for heavy vehicles to pass bicycles without encroaching on oncoming traffic. This delay is positively correlated with uphill grades and increasing traffic volumes and inversely proportional to total pavement width. The response is nonlinear with grade and yields mixed uphill/downhill optimal lane configurations. Increasing bicycle mode share is negatively correlated with total costs and emissions for lane configurations allowing motor vehicles to safely pass bicycles, while the opposite is true for configurations that fail to facilitate passing. Spatial impacts on mobility also dictate that curb parking exhibits significant spatial opportunity costs related to the total cost Pareto curve. The proposed framework provides a means to evaluate relatively inexpensive lane reconfiguration options in response to changing modal share and priorities. These results provide quantitative evidence that efforts to reallocate limited pavement space to bicycles, like those being adopted in several US cities, could appreciably reduce costs for all users.

  6. Full environmental life cycle cost analysis of concentrating solar power technology: contribution of externalities to overall energy costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Cerrajero, E.; San Miguel, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the use of Full Environmental Life Cycle Costing (FeLCC) methodology to evaluate the economic performance of a 50 MW parabolic trough Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant operating in hybrid mode with different natural gas inputs (between 0% and 30%). The analy

  7. Full environmental life cycle cost analysis of concentrating solar power technology: contribution of externalities to overall energy costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Cerrajero, E.; San Miguel, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the use of Full Environmental Life Cycle Costing (FeLCC) methodology to evaluate the economic performance of a 50 MW parabolic trough Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant operating in hybrid mode with different natural gas inputs (between 0% and 30%). The

  8. DYPES: Vertical differentiation, schedule delay and entry deterrence: Low cost vs. full service airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Valido; M. Pilar Socorro; Francesca Medda

    2013-01-01

    We consider a market with a full-service (FS) carrier (the incumbent) and a low-cost (LC) carrier (the potential entrant). If the LC carrier enters the market, airlines compete in ticket prices and frequency with vertically differentiated products. The higher the frequency, the lower passenger’s generalized price. Thus, more frequency allows airlines to increase ticket prices without losing demand. In this context, we show that the incumbent may increase the frequency offered in order to dete...

  9. Risk management considerations for cost-effective environmental decisionmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M.A.

    1995-09-14

    Scientific publications and media reports continually remind us about the environmental hazards that surround us. We are appraised of the environmental legacies left by chemical industries, the defense complex, and even our local dry cleaning establishments. Governmental regulations have dictated that industry provide detailed listings of their input materials, wastes, and emissions to the public and perform risk assessments to demonstrate compliance with standards. These regulations were designed to make industry more accountable and to give the public information that would allow them to understand risks and either work for change or accept their living conditions. This process would appear to be rational, fair, and acceptable to both industry and the public. However, our inability to reach agreement on questions such as ``How Clean is Clean?`` or ``Is It Safe?`` after more than ten years of scientific and public discussions, coupled with the frequency of environmental demonstrations throughout the world, serves as evidence that ``acceptable risk`` has not yet been defined.

  10. A Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem with Controllable Processing Times to Optimize Total Cost of Delay and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mokhtari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the flexible job shop scheduling problem with machine flexibility and controllable process times is studied. The main idea is that the processing times of operations may be controlled by consumptions of additional resources. The purpose of this paper to find the best trade-off between processing cost and delay cost in order to minimize the total costs. The proposed model, flexible job shop scheduling with controllable processing times (FJCPT, is formulated as an integer non-linear programming (INLP model and then it is converted into an integer linear programming (ILP model. Due to NP-hardness of FJCPT, conventional analytic optimization methods are not efficient. Hence, in order to solve the problem, a Scatter Search (SS, as an efficient metaheuristic method, is developed. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, numerical experiments are conducted. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of a genetic algorithm (GA available in the literature for solving FJSP problem. The results showed that the proposed SS provide better solutions than the existing GA.

  11. Valuing the cost of environmental degradation in the face of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Peter Odjugo

    policy makers to take action. It is on this .... Flooding also has advantages since it encourages street trading ... Environmental Study/Action Team (NEST, 2003) provided .... increase in price is worst when the flood occurs during the rush hours ...

  12. Environmental Compliance Costs in Developed Country Agricultures: Implications for Trade and Competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, G.; Brouwer, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reflects on the costs of compliance with environmental regulations and standards in agriculture in developed countries, and its implications for trade and competitiveness. It highlights the importance of enforcement mechanisms and implementation, subjects which often have been undervalu

  13. Green procurement of buildings: estimation of environmental impact and life-cycle cost

    OpenAIRE

    Sterner, Eva

    2002-01-01

    This thesis focuses on environmental impact reduction and life-cycle cost estimations in building procurement. The aim for the work presented in this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of whether costs and environmental impact of a building can be integrated in a, from the users perspective, practical model applied for tender evaluation. The model should also be able to use as a base of evaluating different solutions in the design phase. Specifically this means to: Increase knowledg...

  14. The Boundary and Object for Evaluation on Environmental Cost for Commercial Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The improper cultivation of commercial plantation, which is a management activity with the properties of economy, will lead to environment losses such as land degradation, soil erosion, pests and diseases. Environmental cost is easily neglected by executives, however, it exists actually. The variety, intersecting and overlapping of environment losses decide the boundary of evaluation and the necessity of indices on environmental cost. The research analyzes the characteristics and disciplinarians of envi...

  15. A LOCATION-INVENTORY MODEL INCLUDING DELIVERY DELAY COST AND CAPACITY CONSTRAINTS IN A STOCHASTIC DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmadi Javid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present a distribution network design problem in a supply chain system that minimises the total cost of location, inventory, and delivery delay. Customers’ demands are random, and multiple capacity levels are available for the distribution centers. The problem is first formulated as a mixed integer convex programming model to optimally solve medium-sized instances, and then a heuristic is developed for solving large-sized instances.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie artikel word ‘n distribusienetwerkprobleem in ‘n voorsieningsketting voorgehou waar die totale koste van die ligging, voorraad en afleweringsvertragings geminimiseer word. Die vraag is lukraak en verskeie kapasiteitsvlakke is beskikbaar in die verspreidingsentra. Die problem word eers geformuleer as ‘n gemengde-heeltal-konvekse model sodat mediumgrootte gevalle geoptimiseer kan word, waarna ‘n heuristieke benadering ontwikkel word vir die oplos van grootskaalse aktiwiteite.

  16. Environmental costs of sugarcane agroecosystems; Custos ambientais de agroecossistemas da cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Renato de

    1997-07-01

    This thesis analyzes and evaluates sugarcane agroecosystems, taking into account the environmental implications and the use of natural resources as production factors. The costs are estimated in financial and energetic measures, from the implantation of the culture to the delivery of the cane to the mill. In order to perform the basic model, a business group, that presently represents the paradigm in Brazil, was selected and from those data on, scenarios of financial and energetic costs of alternative production systems were structured. The environmental aspects were evaluated as production factors and also include in the tables. Using the costs and the energetic tables, combined with the environmental implication data of the agroecosystems, three scenarios were established. The basic scenario takes into account the commercial energy used and the environment was not considered as a part of the production. In the second scenario the environmental impacts and the use of natural resources are estimated as production factors and involve costs. The third scenario simulates a situation where the agroecosystem is planned to be sustained and the environmental damages are minimized. The results indicated higher costs for the scenarios of inserting environmental costs than for the others scenarios. They also indicated that it is possible to achieve a profitable production in a sustainable ecosystem and that the differences of the energy amount between the systems remain still small, and that the sustainable perspective will only be attractive if it were based on the social definition of higher values to the natural environment. (author)

  17. Evaluation of Contrail Reduction Strategies Based on Environmental and Operational Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neil Y.; Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Li, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates a set of contrail reduction strategies based on environmental and operational costs. A linear climate model was first used to convert climate effects of carbon dioxide emissions and aircraft contrails to changes in Absolute Global Temperature Potential, a metric that measures the mean surface temperature change due to aircraft emissions and persistent contrail formations. The concept of social cost of carbon and the carbon auction price from recent California's cap-and-trade system were then used to relate the carbon dioxide emissions and contrail formations to an environmental cost index. The strategy for contrail reduction is based on minimizing contrail formations by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude. The strategy uses a user-defined factor to trade off between contrail reduction and additional fuel burn and carbon dioxide emissions. A higher value of tradeoff factor results in more contrail reduction but also more fuel burn and carbon emissions. The strategy is considered favorable when the net environmental cost benefit exceeds the operational cost. The results show how the net environmental benefit varies with different decision-making time-horizon and different carbon cost. The cost models provide a guidance to select the trade-off factor that will result in the most net environmental benefit.

  18. Measuring and minimizing the social cost of environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The various impacts to the environmental protection movement on the largest corporations in several industries which had the most serious pollution problem are discussed. The purpose was to examine the impacts from the point of view of top corporation managers so that a broader perspective could be provided for all concerned parties- citizens, environmentalists, legislators, governmental administrators and agency personnel, scientists, engineers, and other industrial managers.

  19. A cost-analysis of complex workplace nutrition education and environmental dietary modification interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Sarah; Kirby, Ann; Murphy, Aileen; Geaney, Fiona; Perry, Ivan J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The workplace has been identified as a priority setting to positively influence individuals’ dietary behaviours. However, a dearth of evidence exists regarding the costs of implementing and delivering workplace dietary interventions. This study aimed to conduct a cost-analysis of workplace nutrition education and environmental dietary modification interventions from an employer’s perspective. Methods Cost data were obtained from a workplace dietary intervention trial, the Food Choi...

  20. A cost-analysis of complex workplace nutrition education and environmental dietary modification interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Sarah; Kirby, Ann; Murphy, Aileen; Geaney, Fiona; Perry, Ivan J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The workplace has been identified as a priority setting to positively influence individuals’ dietary behaviours. However, a dearth of evidence exists regarding the costs of implementing and delivering workplace dietary interventions. This study aimed to conduct a cost-analysis of workplace nutrition education and environmental dietary modification interventions from an employer’s perspective. Methods: Cost data were obtained from a workplace dietary intervention trial, the Food Ch...

  1. 42 CFR 137.301 - How are project and program environmental review costs identified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are project and program environmental review... HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.301 How are project and program environmental review costs identified? (a)...

  2. Using Low Cost Environmental Sensors in Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, J.; Ammon, C. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in process technology have drastically reduced the cost of manufacturing almost every type of sensor and micro-controller, putting low-to-mid grade sensor technology in the reach of educators and hobbyists. We demonstrate how a low cost magnetometer and an Arduino micro-controller can be used in education. Students can easily connect the sensor to the Arduino and collect three-component magnetic field data. Experiments can easily be turned into long-term monitoring projects by connecting sensors to the internet and providing an Internet-of-Things interface to store and to display the data in near-real time. Low-cost sensors are generally much noisier than their research grade counterparts, but can still provide an opportunity for students to learn about fundamental concepts such as signal quality, sampling, averaging, and filtering and to gain hands-on, concrete experience with observations. Sensors can be placed at different locations and compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. For example, with an inexpensive magnetometer, students can examine diurnal magnetic field variations and look for magnetic storms. Magnetic field orientation can be calculated and compared to the predicted geomagnetic field orientation at a given location. Data can be stored in simple text files to facilitate analysis with any convenient package. We illustrate the idea using Python notebooks, allowing students to explore the data interactively and to learn the basic principles of programming and reproducible research. Using an Arduino encourages students to interact with open-source data collection hardware and to experiment with ways to quickly, cheaply, and effectively measure the environment. Analysis of these data can lead to a deeper understanding of both geoscience and data processing.

  3. Biodiesel fuel costs and environmental issues when powering railway locomotives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Abdul; Ziemer, Norbert; Tatara, Robert; Moraga, Reinaldo; Mirman, Clifford; Vohra, Promod

    2010-09-15

    Issues for adopting biodiesel fuel, instead of petrodiesel, to power railroad locomotives are engine performance and emissions, fuel infrastructure, and fuel cost. These are evaluated for B2 through B100 blends. Biodiesel's solvent action on fuel systems is addressed. With biodiesel, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and particulate emissions are unchanged or reduced. Nitrogen oxides are elevated but it is believed that engine alterations can minimize these emissions. A Transportation Model, using data from a major railway, has demonstrated that refueling depots can be fully supplied with biodiesel at a pricing premium of 1% to 26%, depending on blend and geographical location.

  4. Evaluation of trade-offs in costs and environmental impacts for returnable packaging implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarupan, Lerpong; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-02-01

    The main thrust of returnable packaging these days is to provide logistical services through transportation and distribution of products and be environmentally friendly. Returnable packaging and reverse logistics concepts have converged to mitigate the adverse effect of packaging materials entering the solid waste stream. Returnable packaging must be designed by considering the trade-offs between costs and environmental impact to satisfy manufacturers and environmentalists alike. The cost of returnable packaging entails such items as materials, manufacturing, collection, storage and disposal. Environmental impacts are explicitly linked with solid waste, air pollution, and water pollution. This paper presents a multi-criteria evaluation technique to assist decision-makers for evaluating the trade-offs in costs and environmental impact during the returnable packaging design process. The proposed evaluation technique involves a combination of multiple objective integer linear programming and analytic hierarchy process. A numerical example is used to illustrate the methodology.

  5. Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Peter; Vadasz, Gyongyver; Kiss-Illes, Blanka; Horvath, Gabor; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Koppan, Miklos

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia. PMID:24232451

  6. Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kiss

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia.

  7. Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods.

  8. The costs of avoiding environmental impacts from shale-gas surface infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milt, Austin W; Gagnolet, Tamara D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Growing energy demand has increased the need to manage conflicts between energy production and the environment. As an example, shale-gas extraction requires substantial surface infrastructure, which fragments habitats, erodes soils, degrades freshwater systems, and displaces rare species. Strategic planning of shale-gas infrastructure can reduce trade-offs between economic and environmental objectives, but the specific nature of these trade-offs is not known. We estimated the cost of avoiding impacts from land-use change on forests, wetlands, rare species, and streams from shale-energy development within leaseholds. We created software for optimally siting shale-gas surface infrastructure to minimize its environmental impacts at reasonable construction cost. We visually assessed sites before infrastructure optimization to test whether such inspection could be used to predict whether impacts could be avoided at the site. On average, up to 38% of aggregate environmental impacts of infrastructure could be avoided for 20% greater development costs by spatially optimizing infrastructure. However, we found trade-offs between environmental impacts and costs among sites. In visual inspections, we often distinguished between sites that could be developed to avoid impacts at relatively low cost (29%) and those that could not (20%). Reductions in a metric of aggregate environmental impact could be largely attributed to potential displacement of rare species, sedimentation, and forest fragmentation. Planners and regulators can estimate and use heterogeneous trade-offs among development sites to create industry-wide improvements in environmental performance and do so at reasonable costs by, for example, leveraging low-cost avoidance of impacts at some sites to offset others. This could require substantial effort, but the results and software we provide can facilitate the process. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Environmental costs connected to various types of waste; Miljoekostander knyttet til ulike typer avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vennemo, Haakon

    1995-07-01

    The report estimates environmental costs (external impacts) from municipal waste through discharges into air, water and soil. We look at the wastes paper/cardboard, plastic, metal, wood and glass and give separate estimates for wastes at fillings with and without gaseous collection and combusted waste. The figure estimates are uncertain. Paper/cardboard at fillings without gas exhaust have the highest external impacts, about 2.5 pr. kg as the best estimate. The main reason is methane discharge. Plastic and wood at fillings also have high external impacts. These components ought to be combusted if the aim is low environmental costs. Metal and glass have external impacts beneath 0.01 pr. kg at the fillings. This is due to discharges from the fillings take long time and do not go into air. These components ought to be deposited if the aim is low environmental costs.

  10. A multiple ship routing and speed optimization problem under time, cost and environmental objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, M.; Pacino, Dario; Kontovas, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate a multiple ship routing and speed optimization problem under time, cost and environmental objectives. A branch and price algorithm as well as a constraint programming model are developed that consider (a) fuel consumption as a function of payload, (b......) fuel price as an explicit input, (c) freight rate as an input, and (d) in-transit cargo inventory costs. The alternative objective functions are minimum total trip duration, minimum total cost and minimum emissions. Computational experience with the algorithm is reported on a variety of scenarios....

  11. The Imposition Environmental Cost-Loading Of Companies Investing In Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Risman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The instrument of environment is an effort to prevent environmental problems caused by mining activities both in forms and its nature. The aims of the study are to analyze and understanding the essence of environment cost-loading in order to restore the environment from coal mining activities both when mining taken place and post-mining. The type of research used is a normative-legal research. This research was conducted in the province of South Kalimantan with the consideration that the South Kalimantan is one of the largest coal-producing Provinces in Indonesia. In addition the environment cost-loading for investor in coal mining have the same properties in all coal mining sites in Indonesia. The results of the research indicated that the imposition and environment-cost in investment activity in the field of coal mining can be seen from the two approaches i.e the economic and legal approach. Economic approach is an approach that emphasizes the economic benefits gained by the owner of activities when they comply with the environmental requirements stipulated by laws and environmental regulations. Realizing the importance of environmental cost-loading for the company that manages the coal mining especially for the utilization of prevention of pollution caused by coal mining activity it is necessary to develop an institutional guarantee of recovery from the effects of pollution by establishing fund insurance for environmental restoration as a result of pollution. Thus in order to optimize the implementation of guarantee fund for environmental restoration are specifically utilized for post-mining reclamation then granting the status of Clean and Clear C amp C for coal mining investor must be presupposing the proof of guarantee fund has been placed for environmental restoration post-mining.

  12. An Environmentally Friendly, Cost-Effective Determination of Lead in Environmental Samples Using Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Underwood, Melinda N.; Cloud, Joshua L.; Harshman, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with heavy metals such as lead presents many health risks. Simple, effective, and field-portable methods for the measurement of toxic metals in environmental samples are vital tools for evaluating the risks that these contaminants pose. This article describes the use of new developments in anodic stripping…

  13. Analysis of Environmental Costs of Mobility due to Urban Sprawl - A Modelling Study on Italian Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travisi, Chiara M.; Camagni, Roberto; Nijkamp, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A sound empirical and quantitative analysis on the relationship between different patterns of urban expansion and the environmental or social costs of mobility is rare, and the few studies available provide at best a qualitative discussion of these issues. Some recent tentative studies on the

  14. Decentralized robust guaranteed cost control for a class of interconnected singular large-scale systems with time-delay and parameter uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wo Songlin; Shi Guodong; Zou Yun

    2007-01-01

    The decentralized robust guaranteed cost control problem is studied for a class ofinterconnected singular large-scale systems with time-delay and norm-bounded time-invariant parameter uncertainty under a given quadratic cost performance function. The problem that is addressed in this study is to design a decentralized robust guaranteed cost state feedback controller such that the closed-loop system is not only regular, impulse-free and stable, but also guarantees an adequate level of performance for all admissible uncertainties. A sufficient condition for the existence of the decentralized robust guaranteed cost state feedback controllers is proposed in terms of a linear matrix inequality (LMI) via LMI approach. When this condition is feasible, the desired state feedback decentralized robust guaranteed cost controller gain matrices can be obtained. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Cost Distribution of Environmental Flow Demands in a Large Scale Multi-Reservoir System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, G.; Tilmant, A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the recovery of a prescribed flow regime through reservoir system reoperation, focusing on the associated costs and losses imposed on different power plants depending on flows, power plant and reservoir characteristics and systems topology. In large-scale reservoir systems such cost distribution is not trivial, and it should be properly evaluated to identify coordinated operating solutions that avoid penalizing a single reservoir. The methods combine an efficient stochastic dual dynamic programming algorithm for reservoir optimization subject to environmental flow targets with specific magnitude, duration and return period, which effects on fish recruitment are already known. Results indicate that the distribution of the effect of meeting the environmental flow demands throughout the reservoir cascade differs largely, and in some reservoirs power production and revenue are increased, while in others it is reduced. Most importantly, for the example system modeled here (10 reservoirs in the Parana River basin, Brazil) meeting the target environmental flows was possible without reducing the total energy produced in the year, at a cost of $25 Million/year in foregone hydropower revenues (3% reduction). Finally, the results and methods are useful in (a) quantifying the foregone hydropower and revenues resulting from meeting a specific environmental flow demand, (b) identifying the distribution and reallocation of the foregone hydropower and revenue across a large scale system, and (c) identifying optimal reservoir operating strategies to meet environmental flow demands in a large scale multi-reservoir system.

  16. Modeling of Energy and Environmental Costs for Sustainability of Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfonso ARANDA

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of this paper is to preent the results achieved by the prac-tical application of energy modelling to urban areas based on two inter related concepts: energy costs and environmental costs. The analysis has been carried out in three standard Municipalities located in a Mediterr-nean Zone (Spain selected based on their different size and socio-economic activities in order to facilitate the extrapolation of results. Energy flows of the chosen areas have been quantified and classified. In addition, energy and environmental costs have been aggregated for each productive sector.Using the methodology proposed in this paper in novative solutions could bespecially designed for diffe ent areas in order to ensure the sustainable development of u ban areas. F nally, the basis for changing the present deveopment model in the Municipalities is set out by means of the applica tion of sustainability prin ci ples set in Agenda 21.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of CT angiography and perfusion imaging for delayed cerebral ischemia and vasospasm in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Sanelli (Pina C.); A. Pandya; A.Z. Segal; A. Gupta; S. Hurtado-Rua; J. Ivanidze; K. Kesavabhotla; D. Mir; A.I. Mushlin; M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Delayed cerebral ischemia and vasospasm are significant complications following SAH leading to cerebral infarction, functional disability, and death. In recent years, CTA and CTP have been used to increase the detection of delayed cerebral ischemia and vasospasm.

  18. Trade in the US and Mexico helps reduce environmental costs of agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Melendez, Luz A.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-05-01

    Increasing international crop trade has enlarged global shares of cropland, water and fertilizers used to grow crops for export. Crop trade can reduce the environmental burden on importing countries, which benefit from embedded environmental resources in imported crops, and from avoided environmental impacts of production in their territory. International trade can also reduce the universal environmental impact of food production if crops are grown where they are produced in the most environmentally efficient way. We compared production efficiencies for the same crops in the US and Mexico to determine whether current crop trade between these two countries provides an overall benefit to the environment. Our economic and environmental accounting for the key traded crops from 2010 to 2014 shows that exports to Mexico are just 3% (∼16 thousand Gg) of the total production of these crops in the US, and exports to US represent roughly 0.13% (∼46 Gg) of Mexican total production of the same crops. Yields were higher in US than Mexico for all crops except wheat. Use of nitrogen fertilizer was higher in US than in Mexico for all crops except corn. Current trade reduces some, but not all, environmental costs of agriculture. A counterfactual trade scenario showed that an overall annual reduction in cultivated land (∼371 thousand ha), water use (∼923 million m3), fertilizer use (∼122 Gg; ∼68 Gg nitrogen) and pollution (∼681 tonnes of N2O emissions to the atmosphere and ∼511 tonnes of leached nitrogen) can be achieved by changing the composition of food products traded. In this case, corn, soybeans and rice should be grown in the US, while wheat, sorghum and barley should be grown in Mexico. Assigning greater economic weight to the environmental costs of agriculture might improve the balance of trade to be more universally beneficial, environmentally.

  19. Documenting cost and performance for environmental remediation projects: Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-08

    The purpose of this DOE guide is to facilitate the use of consistent procedures to document cost and performance information for projects involving the remediation of media contaminated with hazardous and radioactive wastes. It provides remedial action project managers with a standardized set of data to document completed remediation projects. Standardized reporting of data will broaden the utility of the information, increase confidence in the effectiveness of future remedial technologies, and enhance the organization, storage and retrieval of relevant information for future cleanup projects. The foundation for this guide was laid down by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR) in their publication, Guide to Documenting Cost and Performance for Remediation Projects, EPA-542-B- 95-002. Member agencies of the FRTR include the US EPA, the US DOD, the US DOE, and the US DOI. All the member agencies are involved in site remediation projects and anticipate following the guidance provided in the above reference. Therefore, there is much to be gained for DOE to be consistent with the other member agencies as it will be easier to compare projects across different agencies and also to learn from the experiences of a wider spectrum of prior completed projects.

  20. Using a choice experiment to measure the environmental costs of air pollution impacts in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Kwak, Seung-Jun; Lee, Joo-Suk

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution, a by-product of economic growth, has been incurring extensive environmental costs in Seoul, Korea. Unfortunately, air pollution impacts are not treated as a commercial item, and thus it is difficult to measure the environmental costs arising from air pollution. There is an imminent need to find a way to measure air pollution impacts so that appropriate actions can be taken to control air pollution. Therefore, this study attempts to apply a choice experiment to quantifying the environmental costs of four air pollution impacts (mortality, morbidity, soiling damage, and poor visibility), using a specific case study of Seoul. We consider the trade-offs between price and attributes of air pollution impacts for selecting a preferred alternative and derive the marginal willingness to pay (WTP) estimate for each attribute. According to the results, the households' monthly WTP for a 10% reduction in the concentrations of major pollutants in Seoul was found to be approximately 5494 Korean won (USD 4.6) and the total annual WTP for the entire population of Seoul was about 203.4 billion Korean won (USD 169.5 million). This study is expected to provide policy-makers with useful information for evaluating and planning environmental policies relating specifically to air pollution.

  1. Environmental cost and pollution risk caused by the industrial transfer in Qinghai Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qun'ou; Tang, Chengcai; Zhan, Jinyan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Feng

    2014-09-01

    With the rising pressure due to energy consumption and costs of environmental protection and recovery, industrial transfer from the eastern to central and western areas has surged in China. However, extremely fragile ecological conditions and severe water shortage are significant hurdles for industry development in Western China. Whether the vulnerable environment can bear the pollution caused by the transferred industry from Eastern China becomes a significant issue. This study firstly estimates energy and environmental costs in different areas of China, and assesses the necessity to upgrade the industrial structure of Qinghai Province. Then the emissions of waste water, waste gas, and smoke caused by transferred industries are calculated by Input-Output Model. On the basis of the effect analysis of waste emission on environment, pollution risks of Qinghai province are assessed. The results illustrate that the costs of environmental protection and recovery in China have a gradient distribution, of which the energy efficiency is lower while environmental costs are higher in Western China. Industrial structure adjustment has different impacts on the pollution of different sectors. Although the development of machinery and equipment, hotels and catering services, and real estate, leasing, and business services has increased the emission of pollutants, it is offset by the decreasing emissions caused by other industries such as construction and metal products. Therefore, although economic development will increase environmental pollution, industrial adjustments can effectively decrease waste water and waste gas emissions to reduce the pollution risk. It should be noted that there are still tremendous challenges for industrial transfer in Qinghai Province to coordinate the environment and industry development.

  2. Robust Non-Fragile Guaranteed Cost Control for Nonlinear Time Delay Discrete-Time Systems Based on T-S Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Ping Zhang; Hong Zhu; Shou-Ming Zhong

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns the robust non-fragile guaranteed cost control for nonlinear time delay discrete-time systems based on Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) model. The problem is to design a guaranteed cost state feedback controller which can tolerate uncertainties from both models and gain variation. Sufficient conditions for the existence of such controller are given based on the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach combined with Lyapunov method and inequality technique. A numerical example is given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our result.

  3. The cost of hypertension-related ill-health attributable to environmental noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Helen Harding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension (HT is associated with environmental noise exposure and is a risk factor for a range of health outcomes. The study aims were to identify key HT related health outcomes and to quantify and monetize the impact on health outcomes attributable to environmental noise-related HT. A reiterative literature review identified key HT related health outcomes and their quantitative links with HT. The health impact of increases in environmental noise above recommended daytime noise levels (55 dB[A] were quantified in terms of quality adjusted life years and then monetized. A case study evaluated the cost of environmental noise, using published data on health risks and the number of people exposed to various bands of environmental noise levels in the United Kingdom (UK. Three health outcomes were selected based on the strength of evidence linking them with HT and their current impact on society: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI, stroke and dementia. In the UK population, an additional 542 cases of HT-related AMI, 788 cases of stroke and 1169 cases of dementia were expected per year due to daytime noise levels ≥55 dB(A. The cost of these additional cases was valued at around £1.09 billion, with dementia accounting for 44%. The methodology is dependent on the availability and quality of published data and the resulting valuations reflect these limitations. The estimated intangible cost provides an insight into the scale of the health impacts and conversely the benefits that the implementation of policies to manage environmental noise may confer.

  4. The cost of hypertension-related ill-health attributable to environmental noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Anne-Helen; Frost, Gillian A; Tan, Emma; Tsuchiya, Aki; Mason, Howard M

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension (HT) is associated with environmental noise exposure and is a risk factor for a range of health outcomes. The study aims were to identify key HT related health outcomes and to quantify and monetize the impact on health outcomes attributable to environmental noise-related HT. A reiterative literature review identified key HT related health outcomes and their quantitative links with HT. The health impact of increases in environmental noise above recommended daytime noise levels (55 dB[A]) were quantified in terms of quality adjusted life years and then monetized. A case study evaluated the cost of environmental noise, using published data on health risks and the number of people exposed to various bands of environmental noise levels in the United Kingdom (UK). Three health outcomes were selected based on the strength of evidence linking them with HT and their current impact on society: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke and dementia. In the UK population, an additional 542 cases of HT-related AMI, 788 cases of stroke and 1169 cases of dementia were expected per year due to daytime noise levels ≥55 dB(A). The cost of these additional cases was valued at around £1.09 billion, with dementia accounting for 44%. The methodology is dependent on the availability and quality of published data and the resulting valuations reflect these limitations. The estimated intangible cost provides an insight into the scale of the health impacts and conversely the benefits that the implementation of policies to manage environmental noise may confer.

  5. Environmental cost-effectiveness analysis in intertemporal natural resource policy: evaluation of selective fishing gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Vestergaard, Niels

    2013-12-15

    In most decision-making involving natural resources, the achievements of a given policy (e.g., improved ecosystem or biodiversity) are rather difficult to measure in monetary units. To address this problem, the current paper develops an environmental cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to include intangible benefits in intertemporal natural resource problems. This approach can assist managers in prioritizing management actions as least cost solutions to achieve quantitative policy targets. The ECEA framework is applied to a selective gear policy case in Danish mixed trawl fisheries in Kattegat and Skagerrak. The empirical analysis demonstrates how a policy with large negative net benefits might be justified if the intangible benefits are included.

  6. Strategies for compensating for higher costs of geothermal electricity with environmental benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, H. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Institute for Resources and Environment; Niitsuma, Hiroaki [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Technology

    1999-12-01

    After very high growth in the 1980s, geothermal electricity production has slowed in the mid- and late-1990s. While Japanese, Indonesian and Philippine geothermal growth has remained high as a consequence of supportive government policies, geothermal electricity production has been flat or reduced in much of Europe and North America. Low prices for coal and natural gas, combined with deregulation, means that in much of the world electricity from new fuel-burning electricity plants can be provided at half the cost of new geothermal electricity. Cost-cutting must be pursued, but is unlikely to close the price gap by itself. Geothermal production is widely perceived as being environmentally clean, but this is not unambiguously true, and requires reinjection to be fully realized. Strategies for monetizing the environmental advantages of geothermal, including the carbon tax, are discussed. (author)

  7. Environmental residuals and capital costs of energy recovery from municipal sludge and feedlot manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballou, S W; Dale, L; Johnson, R; Chambers, W; Mittelhauser, H

    1980-09-01

    The capital and environmental cost of energy recovery from municipal sludge and feedlot manure is analyzed. Literature on waste processing and energy conversion and interviews with manufacturers were used for baseline data for construction of theoretical models using three energy conversion processes: anaerobic digestion, incineration, and pyrolysis. Process characteristics, environmental impact data, and capital costs are presented in detail for each conversion system. The energy recovery systems described would probably be sited near large sources of sludge and manure, i.e., metropolitan sewage treatment plants and large feedlots in cattle-raising states. Although the systems would provide benefits in terms of waste disposal as well as energy production, they would also involve additional pollution of air and water. Analysis of potential siting patterns and pollution conflicts is needed before energy recovery systems using municipal sludge can be considered as feasible energy sources.

  8. The Cost of Jointness: Insights from Environmental Monitoring Systems in Low-Earth Orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Morgan Maeve [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of doctoral research that explored the cost impact of acquiring complex government systems jointly. The report begins by reviewing recent evidence that suggests that joint programs experience greater cost growth than non-joint programs. It continues by proposing an alternative approach for studying cost growth on government acquisition programs and demonstrates the utility of this approach by applying it to study the cost of jointness on three past programs that developed environmental monitoring systems for low-Earth orbit. Ultimately, the report concludes that joint programs' costs grow when the collaborating government agencies take action to retain or regain their autonomy. The report provides detailed qualitative and quantitative data in support of this conclusion and generalizes its findings to other joint programs that were not explicitly studied here. Finally, it concludes by presenting a quantitative model that assesses the cost impacts of jointness and by demonstrating how government agencies can more effectively architect joint programs in the future.

  9. Environmental assessment and cost estimation of drinking water and wastewater systems for transition areas in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, A; Erlandsson, A; Kärrman, E

    2008-01-01

    In the Stockholm region there are around 90,000 households with single systems. These households cause larger phosphorus flows to the Baltic Sea than the 1.8 million people connected to four advanced large-scale treatment plants in the same region. According to city plans, some of these areas with on-site systems in transition to permanent living shall be connected to central systems. The problem is however that this sewer system will take decades to complete. It is also not ensured whether or not all peripheral areas with on-site systems could be connected to the central systems. To help support environmental decisions for the selection of wastewater systems for these areas, an Excel-based model has been developed where the cost for the systems can be assessed and evaluated in relation to their environmental impact. The model deals with two types of environmental issues: substance flow analysis and energy analysis. The cost part considers investigations, investments, design, operation, maintenance and supervision, and calculates total annual cost for the water and wastewater system per person.

  10. Cost versus life cycle assessment-based environmental impact optimization of drinking water production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanescu, F; Rege, S; Marvuglia, A; Benetto, E; Ahmadi, A; Gutiérrez, T Navarrete; Tiruta-Barna, L

    2016-07-15

    Empowering decision makers with cost-effective solutions for reducing industrial processes environmental burden, at both design and operation stages, is nowadays a major worldwide concern. The paper addresses this issue for the sector of drinking water production plants (DWPPs), seeking for optimal solutions trading-off operation cost and life cycle assessment (LCA)-based environmental impact while satisfying outlet water quality criteria. This leads to a challenging bi-objective constrained optimization problem, which relies on a computationally expensive intricate process-modelling simulator of the DWPP and has to be solved with limited computational budget. Since mathematical programming methods are unusable in this case, the paper examines the performances in tackling these challenges of six off-the-shelf state-of-the-art global meta-heuristic optimization algorithms, suitable for such simulation-based optimization, namely Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2), Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II), Indicator-based Evolutionary Algorithm (IBEA), Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition (MOEA/D), Differential Evolution (DE), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The results of optimization reveal that good reduction in both operating cost and environmental impact of the DWPP can be obtained. Furthermore, NSGA-II outperforms the other competing algorithms while MOEA/D and DE perform unexpectedly poorly.

  11. Estimating the environmental and resource costs of leakage in water distribution systems: A shadow price approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Mocholí-Arce, Manuel; Sala-Garrido, Ramon

    2016-10-15

    Water scarcity is one of the main problems faced by many regions in the XXIst century. In this context, the need to reduce leakages from water distribution systems has gained almost universal acceptance. The concept of sustainable economic level of leakage (SELL) has been proposed to internalize the environmental and resource costs within economic level of leakage calculations. However, because these costs are not set by the market, they have not often been calculated. In this paper, the directional-distance function was used to estimate the shadow price of leakages as a proxy of their environmental and resource costs. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of leakage externalities. An empirical application was carried out for the main Chilean water companies. The estimated results indicated that for 2014, the average shadow price of leakages was approximately 32% of the price of the water delivered. Moreover, as a sensitivity analysis, the shadow prices of the leakages were calculated from the perspective of the water companies' managers and the regulator. The methodology and findings of this study are essential for supporting the decision process of reducing leakage, contributing to the improvement of economic, social and environmental efficiency and sustainability of urban water supplies.

  12. Linkage of ICF-CY codes with environmental factors in studies of developmental outcomes of infants and toddlers with or at risk for motor delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ai-Wen; Liao, Hua-Fang; Granlund, Mats; Simeonsson, Rune J; Kang, Lin-Ju; Pan, Yi-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Environmental variables have been explored in studies of the development of young children with motor delays. Linking environmental variables to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY), environmental factors (EFs) categories can provide a common language for documenting their contribution to developmental outcomes. This review of studies aimed to (1) link EFs for developmental outcomes in infants with or at risk for motor delays to ICF-CY categories and (2) synthesize the influences of EFs (with ICF-CY linkage) on developmental outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed of multiple databases. After applying selection criteria, environmental variables in 28 articles were linked to ICF-CY categories and underwent qualitative synthesis. Results indicated that physical environmental variables could be linked successfully to ICF-CY EFs categories, but not social environmental variables. Multiple environmental variables were associated with motor and other developmental outcomes. Difficulties in linking social factors to ICF-CY categories indicate that additional EFs codes may need to be considered in the ICF-CY revision processes. The review provides empirical data on relationships between EFs and developmental outcomes in children with or at risk for motor delay.

  13. Measuring and Managing the Environmental Cost of Coffee Production in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arce Victor Julio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is a major international commodity, and because of this, coffee production has the potential for considerable global impacts on the environment. These impacts can include the consumption of energy, water, land and the loss of native forest. Here we quantify these costs using Costa Rica as a case study, and describe an initiative undertaken at the Montes de Oro Cooperative in which these impacts are reduced substantially through the development and application of alternative technologies. We show how these processes reduce the consumption of resources, and also reduce economic costs to the farmer, thus providing a market-based incentive for conservation. The initiatives undertaken at Montes de Oro can provide a model for the future, for reducing the environmental costs of coffee production, while simultaneously improving the economic conditions of the people in coffee producing regions.

  14. Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost-benefit assessment of climate policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L; Lenton, Timothy M; Lontzek, Thomas S; Narita, Daiju

    2015-04-14

    Most current cost-benefit analyses of climate change policies suggest an optimal global climate policy that is significantly less stringent than the level required to meet the internationally agreed 2 °C target. This is partly because the sum of estimated economic damage of climate change across various sectors, such as energy use and changes in agricultural production, results in only a small economic loss or even a small economic gain in the gross world product under predicted levels of climate change. However, those cost-benefit analyses rarely take account of environmental tipping points leading to abrupt and irreversible impacts on market and nonmarket goods and services, including those provided by the climate and by ecosystems. Here we show that including environmental tipping point impacts in a stochastic dynamic integrated assessment model profoundly alters cost-benefit assessment of global climate policy. The risk of a tipping point, even if it only has nonmarket impacts, could substantially increase the present optimal carbon tax. For example, a risk of only 5% loss in nonmarket goods that occurs with a 5% annual probability at 4 °C increase of the global surface temperature causes an immediate two-thirds increase in optimal carbon tax. If the tipping point also has a 5% impact on market goods, the optimal carbon tax increases by more than a factor of 3. Hence existing cost-benefit assessments of global climate policy may be significantly underestimating the needs for controlling climate change.

  15. Cost-effective temporary microirrigation system for grass establishment on environmentally sensitive steep slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyasi-Agyei, Y. [University of Central Queensland, Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia). James Goldston Faculty of Engineering & Physical Systems

    2004-05-15

    An advanced technology cost-effective drip irrigation system design and setup on environmentally sensitive elevated steep slopes (batters) of a coal train derailment site in Central Queensland, Australia, are presented. The final profile of the coal burial site consists of six batters and associated berms with a drop in elevation of about 35 m. A small dam constructed downstream of the confluence of the two main drainage channels at the site supplied water for irrigation of the batters to aid the establishment of grass to control erosion. Water was periodically pumped from the small dam to three storage tanks using a petrol (gas) pump. Three solar pumps drew water from the storage tanks and dam to irrigate the top four batters. Contactors, pressure switches and irrigation control valves in turn shared a single solar power source between the solar pumps. Level balls (floating switches) placed in the storage tanks cut the solar power supply to the pumps when the storage tanks were nearly empty. On the whole, the irrigation system worked very well and excellent grass cover was established within 12 weeks. Given the environmental risks associated with the on-site burying of coal, and the estimated cost of about AU$11.73/m{sup 2} (every 10 years) in maintenance if the railway batters are not treated, the estimated total cost of AU$4.61/m{sup 2} of batter area treated with irrigation, including AU$3.08/m{sup 2} in irrigation cost, is justified.

  16. Addressing critical environmental data gaps via low-cost, real-time, cellular-based environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caylor, K. K.; Wolf, A.; Siegfried, B.

    2014-12-01

    Models in the environmental sciences are repositories in a sense of the current state of understanding of critical processes. However, as our understanding of these processes (and their accompanying models) become more granular, the data requirements to parameterize them become more limiting. In addition, as these models become more useful, they are often pressed into service for decision support, meaning that they cannot accept the data latency typical of most environmental observations. Finally, the vast majority of environmental data is generated at highly-instrumented, infrastructure-rich "mega sites" in the US/Europe, while many of the most pressing environmental issues are in rural locales and in the developing world. Cellular-based environmental sensing is a promising means to provide granular data in real time from remote locales to improve model-based forecasting using data assimilation. Applications we are working on include drought forecasting and food security; forest and crop responses to weather and climate change; and rural water usage. Over the past two years, we have developed a suite of integrated hardware, firmware, and backend APIs that accommodates an unlimited variety of sensors, and propagates these data onto the internet over mobile networks. Scientific data holds a unique role for demanding well-characterized information on sensor error and our design attempts to balance error reduction with low costs. The result is a deployment system that undercuts competing commercial products by as much as 90%, allowing more ubiquitous deployment with lower risks associated with sensor loss. Enclosure design and power management are critical ingredients for remote deployments under variable environmental conditions. Sensors push data onto cloud storage and make this data available via public API's via a backend server that accommodates additional metadata essential for interpreting observations, particularly their measurement errors. The data these pods

  17. I Evolution of Environmental Costs Discolsur: A Study in Cellulose and Paper Companies - Members of Corporate Sustainability Index - CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fonseca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyse, in relation to previous studies, the evolution of classification and disclosure of environmental costs on cellulose and paper companies listed on the CSI. The research, of a descriptive, documentary and qualitative nature, was based on content analysis of financial statements, accompanying notes, management reports and sustainability reports in the fiscal years 2010 to 2014. The results indicate that companies show environmental costs mainly in a qualitative way and of the positive type. The most part of this information is contained in the sustainability report. As to the classification, the highlighted environmental costs are of these types, (a prevention costs; (b internal failure costs; (c indirect costs; (d internal costs; (e costs for contingencies; (f potentially hidden costs; (g image and relationship costs, though not by these names. These results demonstrate a change, compared to previous studies on the quality and quantity of disclosure of environmental costs. It is suggested for future research the broadening of samples for other organizational activity sectors, with the aim of possible understanding of the Brazilian environment.

  18. The electric system in the Iberian Peninsula. Environmental aspects and social costs; El sistema electrico en la Peninsula Iberica. Aspectos medioambientales y costes sociales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabal, H.; Lechon, Y.; Izquierdo, L.; Caldes, N.; Saez, R.

    2007-07-01

    In this book, the present Spanish and Portuguese electric systems have been analysed emphasising the economic, energy and environmental aspects. Secondly, from the results of two EC funded projects , an environmental evaluation on the main present and future power generation technologies has been carried out. The methodology used has been the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). Finally, environmental external costs due to air emissions of those technologies have been estimated for the same time periods. The ExternE methodology has been used for this purpose. The results from both analyses allow a good comparison of the environmental behaviour of the electricity generation technologies, now and in the future. (Author)

  19. Low-cost scalable quartz crystal microbalance array for environmental sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anazagasty, Cristain [University of Puerto Rico; Hianik, Tibor [Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation of environmental sensors for internet of things (IoT) applications has increased the need for low-cost platforms capable of accommodating multiple sensors. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) crystals coated with nanometer-thin sensor films are suitable for use in high-resolution (~1 ng) selective gas sensor applications. We demonstrate a scalable array for measuring frequency response of six QCM sensors controlled by low-cost Arduino microcontrollers and a USB multiplexer. Gas pulses and data acquisition were controlled by a LabVIEW user interface. We test the sensor array by measuring the frequency shift of crystals coated with different compositions of polymer composites based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) while films are exposed to water vapor and oxygen inside a controlled environmental chamber. Our sensor array exhibits comparable performance to that of a commercial QCM system, while enabling high-throughput 6 QCM testing for under $1,000. We use deep neural network structures to process sensor response and demonstrate that the QCM array is suitable for gas sensing, environmental monitoring, and electronic-nose applications.

  20. Environmental Impacts and Costs of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oils, Transesterified Lipids and Woody BTL—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Brekke

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews and compares assessments of three biodiesel fuels: (1 transesterified lipids, (2 hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO, and (3 woody biomass-to-liquid (BTL Fischer-Tropsch diesel and selected feedstock options. The article attempts to rank the environmental performance and costs of fuel and feedstock combinations. Due to inter-study differences in goal and study assumptions, the ranking was mostly qualitative and intra-study results are emphasized. Results indicate that HVO made from wastes or by-products such as tall oil, tallow or used cooking oil outperform transesterified lipids and BTL from woody material, both with respect to environmental life cycle impacts and costs. These feedstock options are, however, of limited availability, and to produce larger volumes of biofuels other raw materials must also be used. BTL from woody biomass seems promising with good environmental performance and the ability not to compete with food production. Production of biofuels from agricultural feedstock sources requires much energy and leads to considerable emissions due to agrochemical inputs. Thus, such biodiesel fuels are ranked lowest in this comparison. Production of feedstock is the most important life cycle stage. Avoiding detrimental land use changes and maintaining good agricultural or forestry management practices are the main challenges to ensure that biofuels can be a sustainable option for the future transport sector.

  1. Low-cost scalable quartz crystal microbalance array for environmental sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckley, Eric S.; Anazagasty, Cristain; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Hianik, Tibor; Ivanov, Ilia N.

    2016-09-01

    Proliferation of environmental sensors for internet of things (IoT) applications has increased the need for low-cost platforms capable of accommodating multiple sensors. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) crystals coated with nanometer-thin sensor films are suitable for use in high-resolution ( 1 ng) selective gas sensor applications. We demonstrate a scalable array for measuring frequency response of six QCM sensors controlled by low-cost Arduino microcontrollers and a USB multiplexer. Gas pulses and data acquisition were controlled by a LabVIEW user interface. We test the sensor array by measuring the frequency shift of crystals coated with different compositions of polymer composites based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) while films are exposed to water vapor and oxygen inside a controlled environmental chamber. Our sensor array exhibits comparable performance to that of a commercial QCM system, while enabling high-throughput 6 QCM testing for under $1,000. We use deep neural network structures to process sensor response and demonstrate that the QCM array is suitable for gas sensing, environmental monitoring, and electronic-nose applications.

  2. Study of Low Cost and Environmentally Friendly Fruit Nursery Paper Using a Printing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyun Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruit nursery paper is a protective technical paper that is used in agriculture to improve the percentage of the fruit that meets quality standards and the fruit’s exterior qualities, such as the smooth surface finish and fruit color. In this work, a more efficient and environmentally friendly method, i.e., the printing method, was proposed in order to minimize environmental pollution, reduce the loss of carbon black, and lower the high production cost caused by the traditional method of directly adding carbon black. The effects of printing pressure and inking amount on the properties of the fruit nursery paper were investigated. The durability and safety of the fruit nursery paper produced by the printing method were also studied. The optimal inking amount and printing pressure under laboratory conditions were 1 mL and 350 N, respectively. The amount of ink transferred to the paper surface increased with increasing printing pressure, which led to better opacity but slightly decreased porosity and softness. A more important finding was that the fruit nursery paper produced by the printing method had excellent durability, and the properties can satisfy the requirements of the end use and safety standards of 94/62/EC stipulated by the Europeon Parliament and Councile directive. Based on these low-cost, environmentally friendly characteristics, the development of this new fruit nursery paper could be beneficial.

  3. Mind the costs: rescaling and multi-level environmental governance in Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggero, Matteo; Fritsch, Oliver

    2010-07-01

    Competences over environmental matters are distributed across agencies at different scales on a national-to-local continuum. This article adopts a transaction costs economics perspective in order to explore the question whether, in the light of a particular problem, the scale at which a certain competence is attributed can be reconsidered. Specifically, it tests whether a presumption of least-cost operation concerning an agency at a given scale can hold. By doing so, it investigates whether the rescaling of certain tasks, aiming at solving a scale-related problem, is likely to produce an increase in costs for day-to-day agency operations as compared to the status quo. The article explores such a perspective for the case of Venice Lagoon. The negative aspects of the present arrangement concerning fishery management and morphological remediation are directly linked to the scale of the agencies involved. The analysis suggests that scales have been chosen correctly, at least from the point of view of the costs incurred to the agencies involved. Consequently, a rescaling of those agencies does not represent a viable option.

  4. The Imposition Environmental Cost-Loading Of Companies Investing In Coal Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Tomi Risman; Marthen Arie; Abrar Saleng; M. Yunus Wahid

    2015-01-01

    The instrument of environment is an effort to prevent environmental problems caused by mining activities both in forms and its nature. The aims of the study are to analyze and understanding the essence of environment cost-loading in order to restore the environment from coal mining activities both when mining taken place and post-mining. The type of research used is a normative-legal research. This research was conducted in the province of South Kalimantan with the consideration that the Sout...

  5. The environmental costs and benefits of biomass energy use in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, G. [Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The California renewable energy industries have worked diligently during the past couple of years to develop public policies conducive to the future of renewable energy production within the context of electric market restructuring and the evolving competitive electric services industry. The state`s biomass power industry has organized itself as the California Biomass Energy Alliance (CBEA), and has participated vigorously in the regulatory and legislative processes. In order to reward biomass power generators for the special services they provide, CBEA has promoted the concept of providing incentives specifically targeted to biomass within the context of any renewables program enacted in the state. This concept has been embraced by the other renewables industry organizations, but resisted by the utilities. This study represents an effort to identify, characterize, ad quantify the environmental costs and benefits of biomass energy use in California, and to elucidate the future role of biomass power production within the context of the evolving deregulation of the California electricity industry. The report begins with a review of the development and growth of the California biomass power industry during the past 15 years. This is followed by an analysis of the biomass fuels market development during the same period. It examines trends in the types and costs of biomass fuels. The environmental performance of the mature California biomass energy industry is analyzed, and takes into account the environmental impacts of the industry, and the impacts that would be associated with disposing of the materials used as fuels if the biomass power industry were not in operation. The analysis is then extended to consider the environmental and economic consequences of the loss of biomass generating capacity since 1993. The report ends with a consideration of the future prospects for the industry in the context of restructuring.

  6. Economic valuation of environmental costs of soil erosion and the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services caused by food wastage

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Schwegler

    2015-01-01

    Food wastage costs society far more than the direct economic loss of US$ 750 billion per year. When food is discarded, all embodied natural resources are wasted, too. The aim of this study is to estimate global environmental costs of soil erosion and the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services caused by food wastage. Firstly, environmental indicators and their quantities such as soil erosion rates, N, P and pesticide inputs and land use changes to agricultural production were assessed thr...

  7. Environmental costs os service sector and new economy; Los costes ambientales del sector servicios y la nueva economia: entre la desmaterializacion y efecto rebote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, O.

    2003-07-01

    The growing size of the service sector in developed countries and the recent emergence of the new economy have contributed to extend a controversial message: the service sector and the Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) are less intensive in energy and materials use than industrial and agricultural activities. then, it is possible to maintain the current pattern of economic growth without taking into account its environmental costs. This paper explores the truthfulness, of those arguments, paying particular attention to some empirical evidences. These facts invite to caution when it comes to evaluating the green influence of ICTs in the reduction of the environmental costs of industrial economies. (Author)

  8. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  9. Green open location-routing problem considering economic and environmental costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana M. Toro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new bi-objective vehicle routing problem that integrates the Open Location Routing Problem (OLRP, recently presented in the literature, coupled with the growing need for fuel consumption minimization, named Green OLRP (G-OLRP. Open routing problems (ORP are known to be NP-hard problems, in which vehicles start from the set of existing depots and are not required to return to the starting depot after completing their service. The OLRP is a strategic-level problem involving the selection of one or many depots from a set of candidate locations and the planning of delivery radial routes from the selected depots to a set of customers. The concept of radial paths allows us to use a set of constraints focused on maintaining the radiality condition of the paths, which significantly simplifies the set of constraints associated with the connectivity and capacity requirements and provides a suitable alternative when compared with the elimination problem of sub-tours traditionally addressed in the literature. The emphasis in the paper will be placed on modeling rather than solution methods. The model proposed is formulated as a bi-objective problem, considering the minimization of operational costs and the minimization of environmental effects, and it is solved by using the epsilon constraint technique. The results illustrate that the proposed model is able to generate a set of trade-off solutions leading to interesting conclusions about the relationship between operational costs and environmental impact.

  10. Wind farm topology-finding algorithm considering performance, costs, and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazi, Nacef; Chatelet, Eric; Bouzidi, Youcef; Meziane, Rachid

    2017-06-05

    Optimal power in wind farms turns to be a modern problem for investors and decision makers; onshore wind farms are subject to performance and economic and environmental constraints. The aim of this work is to define the best installed capacity (best topology) with maximum performance and profits and consider environmental impacts as well. In this article, we continue the work recently done on wind farm topology-finding algorithm. The proposed resolution technique is based on finding the best topology of the system that maximizes the wind farm performance (availability) under the constraints of costs and capital investments. Global warming potential of wind farm is calculated and taken into account in the results. A case study is done using data and constraints similar to those collected from wind farm constructors, managers, and maintainers. Multi-state systems (MSS), universal generating function (UGF), wind, and load charge functions are applied. An economic study was conducted to assess the wind farm investment. Net present value (NPV) and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated for best topologies found.

  11. Too Big, Too Small, or Just Right? Cost-Efficiency of Environmental Inspection Services in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeffrey P; Checko, Patricia J

    2017-07-20

    To assess optimal activity size/mix of Connecticut local public health jurisdictions, through estimating economies of scale/scope/specialization for environmental inspections/services. Connecticut's 74 local health jurisdictions (LHJs) must provide environmental health services, but their efficiency or reasons for wide cost variation are unknown. The public health system is decentralized, with variation in organizational structure/size. We develop/compile a longitudinal dataset covering all 74 LHJs, annually from 2005 to 2012. We estimate a public health services/inspections cost function, where inputs are translated into outputs. We consider separate estimates of economies of scale/scope/specialization for four mandated inspection types. We obtain data from Connecticut Department of Public Health databases, reports, and other publicly available sources. There has been no known previous utilization of this combined dataset. On average, regional districts, municipal departments, and part-time LHJs are performing fewer than the efficient number of inspections. The full-time municipal departments and regional districts are more efficient but still not at the minimum efficient scale. The regional districts' elasticities of scale are larger, implying they are more efficient than municipal health departments. Local health jurisdictions may enhance efficiency by increasing inspections and/or sharing some services. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. Risk information in support of cost estimates for the Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). Section 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelston, G.M.; Jarvis, M.F.; Warren, B.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Von Berg, R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)(1) effort on the overall Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR) project consists of four installation-specific work components performed in succession. These components include (1) development of source terms, 92) collection of data and preparation of environmental settings reports, (3) calculation of unit risk factors, and (4) utilization of the unit risk factors in Automated Remedial Action Methodology (ARAM) for computation of target concentrations and cost estimates. This report documents work completed for the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, for components 2 and 3. The product of this phase of the BEMR project is the development of unit factors (i.e., unit transport factors, unit exposure factors, and unit risk factors). Thousands of these unit factors are gene rated and fill approximately one megabyte of computer information per installation. The final unit risk factors (URF) are transmitted electronically to BEMR-Cost task personnel as input to a computer program (ARAM). Abstracted files and exhibits of the URF information are included in this report. These visual formats are intended to provide a sample of the final task deliverable (the URF files) which can be easily read without a computer.

  13. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

    2013-03-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

  14. Does the environmental gain of switching to the healthy New Nordic Diet outweigh the increased consumer cost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2014-01-01

    important environmental impacts by 16-22%, mainly caused by reduced meat content. The surcharge to consumers of the ADD-to-NND diet-shift was €216/capita/year. In monetary terms, the savings related to the environmental impact of the diet-shift were €151/capita/year. 70% of the increased consumer cost...

  15. Cost-utility and value-of-information analysis of early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, E; Gurusamy, K; Gluud, C

    2010-01-01

    -of-information analysis estimated the likely return from further investment in research in this area. RESULTS:: ELC is less costly (approximately - pound820 per patient) and results in better quality of life (+0.05 QALYs per patient) than DLC. Given a willingness-to-pay threshold of pound20 000 per QALY gained......, there is a 70.9 per cent probability that ELC is cost effective compared with DLC. Full implementation of ELC could save the NHS pound8.5 million per annum. CONCLUSION:: The results of this decision analytic modelling study suggest that on average ELC is less expensive and results in better quality of life than...

  16. Air congestion delay: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alberto Pamplona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a literature review of the air congestion delay and its costs. Air congestion is a worldwide problem. Its existence brings costs for airlines and discomfort for passengers. With the increasing demand for air transport, the study of air congestion has attracted the attention of many researchers around the world. The cause for the delays is erroneously attributed only to the lack of infrastructure investments. The literature review shows that other factors such as population growth, increasing standards of living, lack of operational planning and environmental issues exercise decisive influence. Several studies have been conducted in order to analyze and propose solutions to this problem that affects society as a whole.

  17. Design and application of new low-cost instruments for marine environmental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Piermattei, Viviana; Madonia, Alice; Mainardi, Umberto

    2014-12-05

    The development of low-cost instrumentation plays a key role in marine environmental studies and represents one of the most innovative aspects of current oceanographic research. These kinds of devices can be used for several applications, ranging from vertical profilers to stand-alone systems, and can be installed on different platforms (buoys, Voluntary Observing Ships, underwater vehicles, etc.). The availability of low-cost technologies enables the realization of extended observatory networks for the study of marine physical and biological processes through an integrated approach merging in situ observations, forecasting models and remotely sensed data. We present new low-cost sensors and probes developed to measure marine temperature, conductivity, chlorophyll a and Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter fluorescence, focusing on sensing strategies, general architecture, laboratory trials, in situ tests and comparison with standard instruments. Furthermore, we report the expendable (New T-FLaP), vertical profiler (T-FLaPpro) and stand-alone (Spectra) applications of these technological developments that were tested during several oceanographic surveys in the Mediterranean Sea.

  18. Design and Application of New Low-Cost Instruments for Marine Environmental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marcelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of low-cost instrumentation plays a key role in marine environmental studies and represents one of the most innovative aspects of current oceanographic research. These kinds of devices can be used for several applications, ranging from vertical profilers to stand-alone systems, and can be installed on different platforms (buoys, Voluntary Observing Ships, underwater vehicles, etc.. The availability of low-cost technologies enables the realization of extended observatory networks for the study of marine physical and biological processes through an integrated approach merging in situ observations, forecasting models and remotely sensed data. We present new low-cost sensors and probes developed to measure marine temperature, conductivity, chlorophyll a and Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter fluorescence, focusing on sensing strategies, general architecture, laboratory trials, in situ tests and comparison with standard instruments. Furthermore, we report the expendable (New T-FLaP, vertical profiler (T-FLaPpro and stand-alone (Spectra applications of these technological developments that were tested during several oceanographic surveys in the Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Grain production versus resource and environmental costs: towards increasing sustainability of nutrient use in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiaoqiang; Lyu, Yang; Wu, Xiaobin; Li, Haigang; Cheng, Lingyun; Zhang, Chaochun; Yuan, Lixing; Jiang, Rongfeng; Jiang, Baiwen; Rengel, Zed; Zhang, Fusuo; Davies, William J; Shen, Jianbo

    2016-09-01

    Over the past five decades, Chinese grain production has increased 4-fold, from 110 Mt in 1961 to 557 Mt in 2014, with less than 9% of the world's arable land feeding 22% of the world's population, indicating a substantial contribution to global food security. However, compared with developed economies, such as the USA and the European Union, more than half of the increased crop production in China can be attributed to a rapid increase in the consumption of chemicals, particularly fertilizers. Excessive fertilization has caused low nutrient use efficiency and high environmental costs in grain production. We analysed the key requirements underpinning increased sustainability of crop production in China, as follows: (i) enhance nutrient use efficiency and reduce nutrient losses by fertilizing roots not soil to maximize root/rhizosphere efficiency with innovative root zone nutrient management; (ii) improve crop productivity and resource use efficiency by matching the best agronomic management practices with crop improvement; and (iii) promote technology transfer of the root zone nutrient management to achieve the target of high yields and high efficiency with low environmental risks on a broad scale. Coordinating grain production and environmental protection by increasing the sustainability of nutrient use will be a key step in achieving sustainable crop production in Chinese agriculture.

  20. Assessing costs and benefits of measures to achieve Good Environmental Status in European regional seas: Challenges, opportunities and lessons learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Börger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD requires Member States to assess the costs and benefits of Programmes of Measures (PoMs put in place to ensure that European marine waters achieve Good Environmental Status by 2020. An interdisciplinary approach is needed to carry out such an assessment whereby economic analysis is used to evaluate the outputs from ecological analysis that determines the expected effects of such management measures. This paper applies and tests an existing six-step approach to assess costs and benefits of management measures with potential to support the overall goal of the MSFD and discusses a range of ecological and economic analytical tools applicable to this task. Environmental cost-benefit analyses are considered for selected PoMs in three European case studies: Baltic Sea (Finland, East Coast Marine Plan area (UK and the Bay of Biscay (Spain. These contrasting case studies are used to investigate the application of environmental cost-benefit analysis including the challenges, opportunities and lessons learnt from using this approach. This paper demonstrates that there are opportunities in applying the six-step environmental cost-benefit analysis framework presented to assess the impact of PoMs. However, given demonstrated limitations of knowledge and data availability, application of other economic techniques should also be considered (although not applied here to complement the more formal environmental cost-benefit analysis approach.

  1. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2013-09-30

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects, as well as expert opinion of marine environmental research professionals. Cost estimates have been developed at the pilot and commercial scale. The reference model described in this document is an oscillating water column device deployed in Northern California at approximately 50 meters water depth.

  2. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, Luke A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects, as well as expert opinion of marine environmental research professionals. Cost estimates have been developed at the pilot and commercial scale. The reference model described in this document is an oscillating water column device deployed in Northern California at approximately 50 meters water depth.

  3. From the Cover: Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-01

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. corn | soybean | life-cycle accounting | agriculture | fossil fuel

  4. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-25

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels.

  5. 巴勒斯坦建设项目延期和超支分析--加沙地带案例%ANALYSIS OF CONSTRUCTION DELAYS AND COST OVERRUNS IN PALESTINE --THE CASE OF GAZA STRIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿南·恩沙西

    2003-01-01

    Successful project management depends upon control over costs, quality, and scheduling. Project management is one ofthe key activities in the construction process. Without it the best planned project has an overwhelming chance of failure. Onthe other hand, a faltering project may be saved from disaster if strong construction managing techniques are implemented atthe right time. Designers of construction projects in Gaza Strip frequently do not have the technical, environmental, social,and statistical data to complete the design. Foreign contractors and consultants may not be familiar with the material and humanresources of the country nor have knowledge of the social and local regulations factor affecting the project. Because of these andother reasons projects in Gaza Strip often suffer from delays and cost overruns which may offset some of their intended benefits.The goal of the present research is to investigate and analyze the nature, length, and cost of delays that occurred in construc-tion projects in Gaza Strip. Data for this study was obtained from 35 construction projects in several locations in the GazaStrip. This paper first discusses the circumstances that give rise to delays, the classification of these according to responsibili-ty, and the effects they have on the project cost and schedule. The data are presented, analyzed, and conclusions are drawn.Perhaps the most significant conclusion from the present study is that adequate planning at very early stages of the project isimportant to limiting delays and cost overruns.%成功的项目管理来自于对费用、质量和进度计划的控制.项目管理是施工过程中的关键部分.没有项目管理,即使是经过周密计划的项目也很有可能会失败.反之,在适当的时候运用有效的建设管理技术,可能将一个蹒跚不前的项目挽救过来.加沙地区的建设项目的设计人员常常没有技术上、环境上、社会上和统计上的数据来支持设计,而外

  6. An Inferential Study of Environmental Costs and of Water Treatment Stations in Laundry of Polo Clothes of Agreste Pernambucano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavoisiene Rodrigues de Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article checks for impact on operating costs by implementing sustainable measures such as installing a water treatment plant in the textile laundries Polo Clothes do Agreste Pernambucano. Sample consisted of 45 (forty five textile laundries jeans. The hypotheses are to assess no influence of internal or external environmental costs on the operational management of the company; and the second premise was to determine whether the water treatment plant influence on the investigated laundries costs. So after using SPSS software version 20 , can be seen through the Fischer method which is accepted in part both assumptions for the variables of internal and external environmental costs demonstrated significance with the independent variables , so it can be concluded that sustainability can I came to cut costs and avoid penalties in addition to benefit the whole society.

  7. Analysis of methods for evaluating environmental costs: a view from environmental accounting research. case: construction of highway, vía al mar Cartagena-Barranquilla section 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Julio Vergara Arrieta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This document is the first breakthrough in the research project entitled “Measurement and assessment of social and environmental costs of Dual Carriageway Vía al Mar Cartagena- Barranquilla section 1 Barrio Crespo – Entrance Villages Tierra Baja and Puerto Rey” funded by the University of San Buenaventura Cartagena. In it the conclusions of the search and theoretical-critical analysis of the different methods, methodologies or techniques that address the issue of valuation of environmental quality in order to develop the first approaches to valuation exercise environmental costs are collected. The position for the present analysis is adopted from an investigative standpoint of accounting field, based on performing and / or environmental reality heterodox approaches.

  8. Impact of energy and environmental legislation on industry: problems of regulatory cost assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P; Brown, S

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of some of the problems of environmental impact assessment in the industrial sector, with particular attention to some important methodological problems frequently ignored. Some general problems of impact analysis are addressed in Section 2. This is followed in Section 3 by an overview of these major issues: the level of import substitutions, capital expenditures on pollution control, and a brief examination at how the industrial sector responded to post embargo energy price changes. Section 4 investigates marketplace responses to changes in manufacturing costs induced by regulatory requirements, from a general, theoretical microeconomics perspective. How industry responses can be estimated quantitatively for practical assessment purposes is taken up in Section 5, with a focus on the advantages and limitations of the two major modeling approaches (econometric and process models). These models allow investigations of the effects of different policies. (MCW)

  9. A proposed framework for establishing integrated cost and performance criteria for environmental technologies: A summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    This document presents a summary of results of a joint EPA/DOE project aimed at establishing a suite of standard cost and performance criteria for evaluating environmental cleanup technologies for DOE sites. Project findings include: (1) decisionmakers have quite different perspectives with interests and information needs varying among decisionmaker groups, (2) previous criteria development efforts may be too narrowly focused to apply to all decisionmakers, (3) criteria must include social/political/economic interests of decisionmakers as well as site-specific variations, and (4) there are 5 core questions that all decisionmakers are likely to ask when considering a technology for use at a site. The resource developed in the project offers decisionmakers a first-time comprehensive assessment of major technology evaluation issues.

  10. Evaluation of the environmental costs in the fields power and traffic. Recommendations of the Federal Environmental Agency; Schaetzung der Umweltkosten in den Bereichen Energie und Verkehr. Empfehlungen des Umweltbundesamtes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The scientific evidence for the estimation of environmental costs was steadily improved in the recent years. The Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) summarizes the scientific progress in this field by means of the methods convention. Environmental costs are macro-economically very important. Emissions of greenhouse gases, air pollutants and noise pollution, land use and the consumption of scarce resources result in high costs for health and environment. Estimates of environmental costs point out the negative impacts of a neglected environmental protection and substantiate the necessity to pursue the ambitious environmental targets. Environmental costs are also suitable for the assessment of measures and instruments of the environmental protection. Municipalities, businesses and households also can use estimates of environmental costs - especially for environment-related investment decisions.

  11. The environmental sustainability. The physical cost of replacement of mineral reserves; La sostenibilidad ambiental a escala planetaria. El coste fisico de reposicion del Capital Mineral de la Tierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, A.; Martinez, A.; Botero, E.

    2003-07-01

    In order to evaluate the physical value of mineral and water reserves, the concept of Exergy Replacement Cost has been defined as the energy required by the best available technologies to return a resource to the same conditions as it was delivered by the ecosystem. In the case of fossil fuel reserves, a new concept called exergy abatement cost has been proposed as a physical way of measuring the exergy cost of the best available technology for avoiding the environmental externalities associated with the use of fossil fuels. According to the results obtained, the physical value of mineral reserves is 15.4% of oil reserves. In the case of water reserves, 0,4 to 6,4 times the fossil energy consumed would be needed each year to supply only a part of the functions of the hydrological cycle. The global exegetic abatement costs would be 11,3% of the proven world exegetic reserves in fossil fuels. (Author)

  12. Low-Cost Inkjet-Printed Wireless Sensor Nodes for Environmental and Health Monitoring Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2016-11-01

    Increase in population and limited resources have created a growing demand for a futuristic living environment where technology enables the efficient utilization and management of resources in order to increase quality of life. One characteristic of such a society, which is often referred to as a ‘Smart City’, is that the people are well informed about their physiological being as well as the environment around them, which makes them better equipped to handle crisis situations. There is a need, therefore, to develop wireless sensors which can provide early warnings and feedback during calamities such as floods, fires, and industrial leaks, and provide remote health care facilities. For these situations, low-cost sensor nodes with small form factors are required. For this purpose, the use of a low-cost, mass manufacturing technique such as inkjet printing can be beneficial due to its digitally controlled additive nature of depositing material on a variety of substrates. Inkjet printing can permit economical use of material on cheap flexible substrates that allows for the development of miniaturized freeform electronics. This thesis describes how low-cost, inkjet-printed, wireless sensors have been developed for real-time monitoring applications. A 3D buoyant mobile wireless sensor node has been demonstrated that can provide early warnings as well as real-time data for flood monitoring. This disposable paper-based module can communicate while floating in water up to a distance of 50 m, regardless of its orientation in the water. Moreover, fully inkjet-printed sensors have been developed to monitor temperature, humidity and gas levels for wireless environmental monitoring. The sensors are integrated and packaged using 3D inkjet printing technology. Finally, in order to demonstrate the benefits of such wireless sensor systems for health care applications, a low-cost, wearable, wireless sensing system has been developed for chronic wound monitoring. The system

  13. UK's climate change levy: cost effectiveness, competitiveness and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Adarsh [Hull Univ., School of Economic Studies, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    This paper intends to examine the cost effectiveness of UK's climate change levy (CCL), its implications on competitiveness of firms and the environmental impact. The paper briefly describes the levy and analyses it under the canons of a good taxation policy. The economic implications of the levy are discussed with theoretical and empirical perspectives. Change in net exports, investment patterns and productivity and inclusion of compliance cost forms the basis for analysing the effect on competitiveness. It discusses the options available to firms to safeguard their competitiveness if it is adversely affected by the CCL. A description of the current scenario of the levy since its inception is also presented. The paper argues the need for a comprehensive policy involving the use of standards, emission trading as well as energy taxes to achieve emission and energy-use reductions. A focal point of this paper is to elucidate the pros and cons of the CCL (energy tax) with respect to an emission trading scheme. (Author)

  14. Performance, cost and environmental assessment of gasification-based electricity in India: A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Abha; Singh, Udayan; Jayant; Singh, Ajay K.; Sankar Mahapatra, Siba

    2017-07-01

    Coal gasification processes are crucial to decarbonisation in the power sector. While underground coal gasification (UCG) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) are different in terms of the site of gasification, they have considerable similarities in terms of the types of gasifiers used. Of course, UCG offers some additional advantages such as reduction of the fugitive methane emissions accompanying the coal mining process. Nevertheless, simulation of IGCC plants involving surface coal gasification is likely to give reasonable indication of the 3E (efficiency, economics and emissions) prospects of the gasification pathway towards electricity. This paper will aim at Estimating 3E impacts (efficiency, environment, economics) of gasification processes using simulation carried out in the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) software framework. Key plant level controls which will be studied in this paper will be based on Indian financial regulations and operating costs which are specific to the country. Also, impacts of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in these plants will be studied. The various parameters that can be studied are plant load factor, impact of coal quality and price, type of CO2 capture process, capital costs etc. It is hoped that relevant insights into electricity generation from gasification may be obtained with this paper.

  15. Cost-effective synthesis of environmentally benign materials on the basis of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Häberlein

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available As an example for an environmentally benign and low-cost material we prepared blends from 1. copolyester-urethanes (PEU and 2. cellulose acetate recycling material (CAR. The copolyester-urethanes were prepared by joining blocks of alpha, omega-(poly-(R-3-hydroxybutyrate-diol and poly-butylenglycol-adipate-diol with hexamethylene diisocyanate. Fibrous CAR was transformed into a short-fiber felt by textile technology and calendared into the PEU melt. The processing of the blends was done at 80 - 100 °C mainly by injection molding. The mechanical properties of the tough-elastic materials were studied with respect to the influence of the PEU composition and the ratio of CAR admixture. The starting materials, (R-PHB and cellulose derivatives are obtained from agrarian resources. Therefore, the resulting polymers are stable under conditions of usage, yet readily bio-degradable on soil deposition. Mixing with cellulose acetate waste material allows for cost-effective production of such blends.

  16. Partnerships in winter maintenance that achieve environmental and cost saving benefits : nomination for the 2000 TAC Environmental Achievement Award

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilfillan, G.B. [Insurance Corp. of British Columbia, North Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Transportation agencies face the challenge of providing safe and efficient transportation systems while trying to maintain a balanced ecosystem. Long winters are an added challenge in Canada. The transportation industry has found an unlikely advocate in the field of auto insurance. The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) has taken the initiative to improve winter road maintenance practices that will have lasting positive effects on the environment and safety of the motoring public. Numerous agencies, associations, municipalities, businesses and individuals have expressed a commitment to initiatives such as the anti-icing/prewetting pilot project called the Winter Road Research project. The project includes the use of liquid magnesium chloride to prevent ice from forming a bond with the road surface. Pre-wetting was used with traditional solid winter maintenance materials. Salt or aggregate is pre-wet with the same anti-icing liquid just before they contact the roadway surface. The deicer enables the sand and salt granules to remain on the road surface for longer periods of time. Pre-wetting of salt with a liquid anti-icer reduces the amount of chemicals needed in winter maintenance operations while maintaining the same level of service. In addition, this program addresses the issue of heavy heavy metals which are an increasing environmental concern. The reduction in the amount of abrasives placed on the roads is beneficial to the environment in terms of reduced heavy metals to roadside vegetation, streams and city drains. The program was first launched in Kamloops, British Columbia but has now expanded throughout the province to include 43 municipalities. The ICBC has provided more than $3 million for the purchase of 125 anti-icing vehicles and 1100 prewet kits. The program has resulted in significant cost savings and a reduction in weather related accidents. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Thermal, Economic and Environmental Analysis of a Low-Cost House in Alice, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overen Ochuko Kelvin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Indoor and outdoor temperature variation results in heat transfer between the inner and outer space of a house, subsequently drifting the indoor temperature out of the thermal comfort zone. This leads to occupants spending a significant amount of their income on space heating and cooling to achieve thermal comfort. The aim of this study is to analyze the thermal, economic and environmental impact of a low-cost house. A low-cost house located in Golf Course, Alice was used as a case study. The outdoor and indoor weather conditions of the house were monitored for periods covering summer and winter seasons. To maintain indoor thermal comfort, 3412.57 kWh of heating and 3214.75 kWh cooling energy were required in winter and summer seasons, respectively. At a rate of 1 ZAR equal to 13.34 USD and 29.39 c/kWh, the energy consumption results in $1003.02 worth of heating energy in winter and $944.88 of cooling energy in summer. In both seasons, to supply the equivalent amount of thermal energy used in the house from a coal-fired power plant, 9.65 ton of CO2, 81.71 kg of SO2 and 39.50 kg of NO2 gases will be emitted into the atmosphere. Promoting and enforcing energy efficient design in low-cost housing will not only bring about energy savings, but will also provide a year-round indoor thermal comfort.

  18. Minimization of biosynthetic costs in adaptive gene expression responses of yeast to environmental changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Vilaprinyo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Yeast successfully adapts to an environmental stress by altering physiology and fine-tuning metabolism. This fine-tuning is achieved through regulation of both gene expression and protein activity, and it is shaped by various physiological requirements. Such requirements impose a sustained evolutionary pressure that ultimately selects a specific gene expression profile, generating a suitable adaptive response to each environmental change. Although some of the requirements are stress specific, it is likely that others are common to various situations. We hypothesize that an evolutionary pressure for minimizing biosynthetic costs might have left signatures in the physicochemical properties of proteins whose gene expression is fine-tuned during adaptive responses. To test this hypothesis we analyze existing yeast transcriptomic data for such responses and investigate how several properties of proteins correlate to changes in gene expression. Our results reveal signatures that are consistent with a selective pressure for economy in protein synthesis during adaptive response of yeast to various types of stress. These signatures differentiate two groups of adaptive responses with respect to how cells manage expenditure in protein biosynthesis. In one group, significant trends towards downregulation of large proteins and upregulation of small ones are observed. In the other group we find no such trends. These results are consistent with resource limitation being important in the evolution of the first group of stress responses.

  19. Towards a personalized environmental health information service using low-cost sensors and crowdsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Liu, Hai-Ying; Schneider, Philipp; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2015-04-01

    Most European cities exceed the air quality guidelines established by the WHO to protect human health. As such, citizens are exposed to potentially harmful pollutant levels. Some cities have services (e.g., web pages, mobile apps, etc.) which provide timely air quality information to the public. However, air quality data at individual level is currently scarce or non-existent. Making this information directly useful to individuals poses a challenge. For instance, if a user is informed that the air quality is "poor", what does that mean for him/her, and how can this information be acted upon? Despite individuals having a unique relationship with their environment, the information on the state of atmospheric components and related hazards is currently mostly generic, and seldom personally relevant. This undermines citizens' interest in their environment, and consequently limits their ability to recognize and change both their contribution and their exposure to air pollution. In Oslo, two EU founded projects, CITI-SENSE (Engelken-Jorge et al., 2014) and Citi-Sense-MOB (Castell et al., 2014), are trying to establish a dialogue with citizens by providing them with the possibility of getting personalized air quality information on their smartphones. The users are able to check the air quality in their immediate surroundings and track their individual exposure while moving through the urban environment (Castell et al., 2014). In this way, they may be able to reduce their exposure such as by changing transport modes or routes, for example by selecting less polluted streets to walk or cycle through. Using a smartphone application, citizens are engaged in collecting and sharing environmental data generated by low-cost air quality sensors, and in reporting their individual perception (turning citizens into sensors themselves). The highly spatially resolved data on air quality and perception is geo-located. This allows for simultaneous visualization of both kinds of the sensor

  20. Electric Car Users’ Time of Charging Problem under Peak Load Pricing When Delay in Charging Time Involves Uncertain Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie

    such as electricity, transport (con- gestion), water and telecommunication. Linear and non-linear peak load pricing alternatives have been suggested to curb this problem, particularly when demand is cyclical (Mohsenian-Rad and Leon-Garcia, 2010; Tan and Varaiya, 1993; Chao et al., 1986; Finsinger; Roberts, 1979...... of electricity. The electric vehicle (EV) users choice of time of charging problem under PLP is different from that of general households using energy for house appliances since there is uncertain cost to the former as- sociated with likelihood occurrence of unanticipated trips such as visiting hospital...... and commuting to lately informed social events, etc. In this paper, we consider EV user’s choice of time of charging problem when there is PLP of electricity used for charging the battery of EVs. Specifically, this paper aims to present a model of optimal time of charging when EV users have to trade-of between...

  1. Sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost but does not constrain the acquisition of environmental information in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Moreno, Céline; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Across animals, sexual harassment induces fitness costs for females and males. However, little is known about the cognitive costs involved, i.e. whether it constrains learning processes, which could ultimately affect an individual's fitness. Here we evaluate the acquisition of environmental information in groups of fruit flies challenged with various levels of male sexual harassment. We show that, although high sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost for females, all fly groups of both sexes exhibit similar levels of learning. This suggests that, in fruit flies, the fitness benefits of acquiring environmental information are not affected by the fitness costs of sexual harassment, and that selection may favour cognition even in unfavourable social contexts. Our study provides novel insights into the relationship between sexual conflicts and cognition and the evolution of female counterstrategies against male sexual harassment.

  2. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2014-06-30

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects. Costs have been developed at the pilot scale and for commercial arrays for a surge wave energy converter

  3. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, Luke A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects. Costs have been developed at the pilot scale and for commercial arrays for a surge wave energy converter

  4. Does the environmental gain of switching to the healthy New Nordic Diet outweigh the increased consumer cost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2014-01-01

    The new Nordic diet (NND) was designed by gastronomic, nutritional and environmental specialists to be a palatable, healthy and sustainable diet containing 30%-40% less meat than the average Danish diet (ADD), ≥ 75% organics, and more locally grown wholegrain products, nuts, fruit and vegetables....... In this study, the NND was based on economic modelling to represent a “realistic NND bought by Danish consumers”. The objective was to investigate whether the ADD-to-NND diet-shift has environmental consequences that outweigh the increased consumer cost of the diet-shift. The diet-shift reduced the three most...... important environmental impacts by 16%-22%, mainly caused by reduced meat content. The surcharge to consumers of the ADD-to-NND diet-shift was €216/capita/year. In monetary terms, the savings related to the environmental impact of the diet-shift were €151/capita/year. 70% of the increased consumer cost...

  5. Does the environmental gain of switching to the healthy New Nordic Diet outweigh the increased consumer cost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2014-01-01

    The New Nordic Diet (NND) was designed by gastronomic, nutritional and environmental specialists to be a palatable, healthy and sustainable diet containing 30-40% less meat than the Average Danish Diet (ADD), ≥75% organics, and more locally grown wholegrain products, nuts, fruit and vegetables....... In this study, the NND was based on economic modelling to represent a “realistic NND bought by Danish consumers”. The objective was to investigate whether the ADD-to-NND diet-shift has environmental consequences that outweigh the increased consumer cost of the diet-shift. The diet-shift reduced the three most...... important environmental impacts by 16-22%, mainly caused by reduced meat content. The surcharge to consumers of the ADD-to-NND diet-shift was €216/capita/year. In monetary terms, the savings related to the environmental impact of the diet-shift were €151/capita/year. 70% of the increased consumer cost...

  6. Does the Environmental Gain of Switching to the Healthy New Nordic Diet Outweigh the Increased Consumer Cost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgard

    2014-01-01

    The new Nordic diet (NND) was designed by gastronomic, nutritional and environmental specialists to be a palatable, healthy and sustainable diet containing 30%-40% less meat than the average Danish diet (ADD), ≥ 75% organics, and more locally grown wholegrain products, nuts, fruit and vegetables....... In this study, the NND was based on economic modelling to represent a “realistic NND bought by Danish consumers”. The objective was to investigate whether the ADD-to-NND diet-shift has environmental consequences that outweigh the increased consumer cost of the diet-shift. The diet-shift reduced the three most...... important environmental impacts by 16%-22%, mainly caused by reduced meat content. The surcharge to consumers of the ADD-to-NND diet-shift was €216/capita/year. In monetary terms, the savings related to the environmental impact of the diet-shift were €151/capita/year. 70% of the increased consumer cost...

  7. The methodological convention 2,0 for the estimation of environmental costs. An economic evaluation of environmental damages; Methodenkonvention 2.0 zur Schaetzung von Umweltkosten. Oekonomische Bewertung von Umweltschaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The reliable estimation of environmental damage costs requires a high degree of transparency of the objectives, assumptions and methods of assessment in order to ensure a correct classification and comparability of the cost factors. The methods convention under consideration aims to develop uniform standards for the technical evaluation of environmental costs and to improve the transparency of the estimates.

  8. Decision-Making Tool for Cost-Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Wood Mobilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Triplat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: With development of forest management technologies, the efficiency of wood production was significantly improved, and thus the impact on forests has changed as well. The article presents a practical decision-making tool for selection of most suitable harvesting system, considering given terrain as well as expected soil conditions on harvesting sites. The decision-making tool should support cost-efficient and environmentally friendly mobilisation of wood. Materials and Methods: The presented decision-making tool is based on ground bearing capacities (relevant environmental parameter and nominal ground pressure (harvesting system characteristics. Soil and terrain (slope characteristics were taken into account for selection of the most suitable harvesting system. Three-step methodological approach was suggested, where soil and terrain conditions were defined in first step, while harvesting system were described using wood process charts (“functiogramms” in second step. In final step ecological and technological requirements were matched. Results: To exemplify the three-step methodology, a decision-making tool was prepared for the three selected harvesting systems. The proposed harvesting systems differ in technological, ecological and economic aspects, but each is limited by at least one of the aspect. Conclusions: The decision-making tool in combination with the presented wood process charts (“functiogramms” can simplify and facilitate forest production planning, although it can also be used in case of unforeseen event e.g. changing of soil moisture, machinery failure and insufficient current capacities. Considering the envisaged quantities and types of forest wooden assortments, it is possible to use the decision-making tool for a basic selection of most appropriate harvesting systems. The main idea behind the suggested three step methodological approach is that forest workers can prepare individual decision

  9. Modelling the effects of environmental and individual variability when measuring the costs of first reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbraud, C.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available How do animals balance their investment in young against their own chances to survive and reproduce in the future? This life–history trade–off, referred to as the cost of reproduction (Williams, 1966, holds a central place in life–history theory (Roff, 1992; Stearns, 1992; McNamara & Houston, 1996. Because individuals can only acquire a limited amount of energy, reproduction and survival as well as current and future reproduction are considered as functions competing for the same resources. In this framework, individuals may optimise life–history decisions. If the reproductive effort in one year leads to a loss in future reproductive output through decreased adult survival or reduced fecundity, then the optimal effort in the current season is less than the effort that would maximize the number of offspring produced in that season (Charnov & Krebs, 1974. There are at least two kinds of factors likely to confound the measurement of the costs of reproduction in the wild. First, there could be differences in the amount of energy individuals acquire and allocate to various functions. This phenotypic heterogeneity can mask or exacerbate individual allocation patterns when trends are averaged across a population (Vaupel & Yashin, 1985; McDonald et al., 1996; Cam & Monnat, 2000. Second, there could be variations in resource availability affecting energy acquisition and allocation. Theoretical models examining the optimal phenotypic balance between reproduction and survival under variable breeding conditions have investigated the influence of environmental stochasticity on the cost of reproduction in birds (Erikstad et al., 1998; Orzack & Tuljapurkar, 2001. However, there is little empirical evidence supporting these theoretical models. Here, we present analysis of the influence of experience, but also of the differential effects of environmental and individual variation on survival and future breeding probability. We address the question of the

  10. 网络控制系统的状态反馈保成本控制器设计%Guaranteed Cost Controller Design of Networked Control Systems with State Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢劲松; 范炳全; Young Sam Lee; 杨进

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the state-feedback guaranteed cost controller design for a class of networked control systems (NCSs) with state-delay. A new model of the NCSs is provided under consideration of the network-induced delay. A sufficient condition for the existence of a guaranteed cost controller for NCSs is presented by a set of linear matrix inequalities(LMIs). A method, which can transform non-convex to the convex, is applied. Accordingly, a numerical algorithm is proposed to obtain the lower bound. Theoretical analysis through an example shows the effectiveness of the method.

  11. Phenotypic Differentiation Is Associated with Gender Plasticity and Its Responsive Delay to Environmental Changes in Alternanthera philoxeroides – Phenotypic Differentiation in Alligator Weed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Deng, Ru-Fang; Liu, Wen-Ping; Wang, Zhang-Ming; Ye, Wan-Hui; Wang, Lan-Ying; Cao, Hong-Lin; Shen, Hao

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is common in many taxa, and it may increase an organism's fitness in heterogeneous environments. However, in some cases, the frequency of environmental changes can be faster than the ability of the individual to produce new adaptive phenotypes. The importance of such a time delay in terms of individual fitness and species adaptability has not been well studied. Here, we studied gender plasticity of Alternanthera philoxeroides to address this issue through a reciprocal transplant experiment. We observed that the genders of A. philoxeroides were plastic and reversible between monoclinous and pistillody depending on habitats, the offspring maintained the maternal genders in the first year but changed from year 2 to 5, and there was a cubic relationship between the rate of population gender changes and environmental variations. This relationship indicates that the species must overcome a threshold of environmental variations to switch its developmental path ways between the two genders. This threshold and the maternal gender stability cause a significant delay of gender changes in new environments. At the same time, they result in and maintain the two distinct habitat dependent gender phenotypes. We also observed that there was a significant and adaptive life-history differentiation between monoclinous and pistillody individuals and the gender phenotypes were developmentally linked with the life-history traits. Therefore, the gender phenotypes are adaptive. Low seed production, seed germination failure and matching phenotypes to habitats by gender plasticity indicate that the adaptive phenotypic diversity in A. philoxeroides may not be the result of ecological selection, but of gender plasticity. The delay of the adaptive gender phenotype realization in changing environments can maintain the differentiation between gender systems and their associated life-history traits, which may be an important component in evolution of novel traits and

  12. Phenotypic differentiation is associated with gender plasticity and its responsive delay to environmental changes in Alternanthera philoxeroides--phenotypic differentiation in alligator weed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is common in many taxa, and it may increase an organism's fitness in heterogeneous environments. However, in some cases, the frequency of environmental changes can be faster than the ability of the individual to produce new adaptive phenotypes. The importance of such a time delay in terms of individual fitness and species adaptability has not been well studied. Here, we studied gender plasticity of Alternanthera philoxeroides to address this issue through a reciprocal transplant experiment. We observed that the genders of A. philoxeroides were plastic and reversible between monoclinous and pistillody depending on habitats, the offspring maintained the maternal genders in the first year but changed from year 2 to 5, and there was a cubic relationship between the rate of population gender changes and environmental variations. This relationship indicates that the species must overcome a threshold of environmental variations to switch its developmental path ways between the two genders. This threshold and the maternal gender stability cause a significant delay of gender changes in new environments. At the same time, they result in and maintain the two distinct habitat dependent gender phenotypes. We also observed that there was a significant and adaptive life-history differentiation between monoclinous and pistillody individuals and the gender phenotypes were developmentally linked with the life-history traits. Therefore, the gender phenotypes are adaptive. Low seed production, seed germination failure and matching phenotypes to habitats by gender plasticity indicate that the adaptive phenotypic diversity in A. philoxeroides may not be the result of ecological selection, but of gender plasticity. The delay of the adaptive gender phenotype realization in changing environments can maintain the differentiation between gender systems and their associated life-history traits, which may be an important component in evolution of novel

  13. Environmental Management Accounting for Cleaner Production: Systematization of Material Flow Cost Accounting (MCFA) into Corporate Management System

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAJIMA, Michiyasu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to consider the structure of a management system which supports countermeasures for the environment in the manufacturing process by Environmental Management Accounting and particularly by Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA) and the features of its management system.

  14. Life cycle assessment of mobility options using wood based fuels--comparison of selected environmental effects and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Jana; Kaltschmitt, Martin

    2013-12-01

    An environmental assessment and a cost analysis were conducted for mobility options using electricity, hydrogen, ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and methane derived from wood. Therefore, the overall life cycle with regard to greenhouse gas emissions, acidifying emissions and fossil energy demand as well as costs is analysed. The investigation is carried out for mobility options in 2010 and gives an outlook to the year 2030. Results show that methane utilization in the car is beneficial with regard to environmental impacts (e.g. 58.5 g CO2-eq./km) and costs (23.1 €-ct./km) in 2010, especially in comparison to hydrogen usage (132.4 g CO2-eq./km and 63.9 €-ct./km). The electric vehicle construction has high environmental impacts and costs compared to conventional vehicles today, but with technical improvements and further market penetration, battery electric vehicles can reach the level of concepts with combustion engines in future applications (e.g. cost decrease from 38.7 to 23.4 €-ct./km). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental cost-benefit analysis of alternative timing strategies in greenhouse gas abatement. A data envelopment analysis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuosmanen, Timo [Economic Research Unit, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Luutnantintie 13, 00410 Helsinki (Finland); Bijsterbosch, Neil [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands); MWH B.V., Rijnsburgstraat 9-11, 1059 AT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dellink, Rob [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands); Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    Assessing the benefits of climate policies is complicated due to ancillary benefits: abatement of greenhouse gases also reduces local air pollution. The timing of the abatement measures influences both the economic costs and ancillary benefits. This paper conducts efficiency analysis of ten alternative timing strategies, taking into account the ancillary benefits. We apply the approach by Kuosmanen and Kortelainen [Valuing Environmental Factors in Cost-Benefit Analysis Using Data Envelopment Analysis, Ecological Economics 62 (2007), 56-65], which does not require prior valuation of the environmental impacts. The assessment is based on synthetic data from a dynamic applied general equilibrium model calibrated to The Netherlands. Our assessment shows that if one is only interested in GHG abatement at the lowest economic cost, then equal reduction of GHGs over time is preferred. If society is willing to pay a premium for higher ancillary benefits, an early mid-intensive reduction strategy is optimal. (author)

  16. Optimization of transport network in the Basin of Yangtze River with minimization of environmental emission and transport/investment costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Shi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of the ship-lock at the Three Gorges Dam has become bottleneck of waterway transport and caused serious congestion. In this article, a continual network design model is established to solve the problem with minimizing the transport cost and environmental emission as well as infrastructure construction cost. In this bi-level model, the upper model gives the schemes of ship-lock expansion or construction of pass-dam highway. The lower model assigns the containers in the multi-mode network and calculates the transport cost, environmental emission, and construction investment. The solution algorithm to the model is proposed. In the numerical study, scenario analyses are done to evaluate the schemes and determine the optimal one in the context of different traffic demands. The result shows that expanding the ship-lock is better than constructing pass-dam highway.

  17. The Effect of Social perception of environmental problems and goods on the practice of cost-benefit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunuel, M.; Delgado, M. L.

    2002-07-01

    When revealed, willingness to pay (WTP) is considerably lesser than willingness to accept (WTA), as economists explain. Sociological studies in Spain reveal that citizens assign a high value to the environment (high WTA), but are not ready to pay to preserve it (low WTP)because they think that it is industrial sector and the government's responsibility. This is a new factor, not studied before, that may result in underestimating environmental goods when WTP is used. The gap between WTP and WTA makes cost-benefits analysis difficult, creating the risk of environmental political judgments being replaced by pseudo scientific noise instead of by objective economic analysis.hence, it is sometimes convenient to use alternative methods to cost-benefit analysis: cost-effectiveness analysis trade-off analysis, economic-impact valuation, and risk-benefit analysis. (Author)

  18. Desalination as Groundwater Conservation: The Cost of Protecting Cultural and Environmental Resources in Chile's Region II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E. C.; Cristi, O.; Libecap, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence that groundwater overdraft is occurring worldwide. Economists argue that the cause of this overdraft is the open-access nature of the resource, which results in a "tragedy of the commons." Sustainable water management requires that some institution control the resource to limit this overdraft by reducing water extraction. This reduction creates scarcity and requires a method of rationing. The economically efficient outcome occurs when the lowest value uses of water are eliminated. This allocation, though, may have undesirable social consequences, such as the loss of small-scale farming, and political ramifications that make such an allocation unpopular to implement. This paper explores the economic cost of leaving water in low-value uses. The policy we explore is a moratorium on voluntary water sales to mining firms to protect the groundwater resource in northern Chile. This policy has accelerated the use of expensive desalinated water, whose cost is primarily driven by its heavy use of carbon-based electricity. Chile has a strong system of water property rights that economists argue ration water in a way that leads to the efficient allocation through water markets. This paper first explores the potential inefficiency of a water market when groundwater and surface water are linked, as well as when different users vary in their intensity of use. This theoretical background provides a framework for determining the economically efficient allocation of water and the losses associated with the moratorium in northern Chile. The policy does protect some environmental and cultural public goods, which potentially offset some or all of this cost. We provide a perspective on the magnitude of these public goods but do not attempt to value them explicitly. Instead, we demonstrate what their value must be so that the moratorium policy has a cost-to-benefit ratio of one. While the estimate of lost income from inefficiency is the main focus

  19. Demographic cost and mechanisms of adaptation to environmental stress in resurrected Daphnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Sommer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic feature of the Daphnia (Crustacea: Cladocera life cycle are the so-called ephippia, which are fertilised eggs that need to undergo diapause. When they are shed by the female, they sink to the lake bottom, where they may become embedded in the sediment and may remain viable for decades. Extracting and hatching ephippia in the laboratory and subjecting resurrected lineages to conditions representative of historic lake environments allows retrospective investigation of life-history responses to environmental change. Here we reanalyse data from such a resurrection experiment (Piscia et al., 2015: Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 94:46–51. Contemporary and past lineages of Daphnia galeata Sars 1863 were obtained from Lake Orta (Italy, a deep, subalpine lake with a well-documented history of industrial copper pollution. Experimental Daphnia were subjected to three copper treatments representative of two levels of historic as well as to current (i.e., unpolluted lake conditions, and life-table data were collected. With these data at hand, we first estimated vital rates (survival, maturation, and reproduction and used these rates to project the asymptotic population growth rates (λ for each population-by-treatment combination. Next, we performed life-table response experiments (LTRE to estimate the contributions of the vital rates to observed differences in λ. Finally, we used elasticity analysis to explore the functional relationship between λ and each of the vital rates. We found that survival rates were only compromised at elevated copper levels. Moreover, past, resurrected Daphnia had a higher λ at low copper concentrations compared to unpolluted conditions, but a lower λ when exposed to high copper levels. Contemporary Daphnia, on the other hand, only reproduced successfully in unpolluted water. Under these conditions, however, they had a higher population growth rate than the past Daphnia, suggesting a cost of copper

  20. SCORECARD AMBIENTAL: MONITORAÇÃO DOS CUSTOS AMBIENTAIS ATRAVÉS DA WEB ENVIRONMENTAL SCORECARD: WEB-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL COST MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Durán

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A gestão ambiental tem se transformado num dos elementos chave dentro da gestão empresarial atual. Sistemas Integrados de Gestão posicionam num mesmo plano as questões relativas às dimensões financeiras, da qualidade e do desempenho ambiental. Dentro desse contexto, a mensuração dos custos ambientais ocupa um lugar de destaque no que tange à informação para a Gestão. Entretanto, a mensuração dos custos ambientais tem esbarrado nas limitações já reconhecidas dos instrumentos da contabilidade tradicional. Pela sua natureza, a maioria destes custos é considerada como sendo custos indiretos de fabricação e/ou custos fixos dificultando, com isso, sua identificação e correta apropriação. Com a utilização do Método do Custeio Baseado em Atividades (ABC, os custos ambientais podem ser definidos a partir da identificação e mensuração dos recursos consumidos pelas atividades de controle, preservação e recuperação ambiental. Tudo isso é possível devido às características do Método ABC, adaptando-se de uma melhor forma à identificação, medição e monitoramento dos custos ambientais. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados obtidos no projeto de construção de um sistema de monitoramento dos custos ambientais via web, utilizando para isto um banco de dados e linguagem PHP. Este sistema, chamado de Scorecard Ambiental, disponibiliza a informação relativa aos custos ambientais através da web categorizados segundo quatro classes, custos de prevenção, custos de avaliação, custos de falhas internas e custos de falhas externas e permite aos usuários acompanhar o comportamento dessas variáveis ao longo dos períodos.Environmental Management has become recently a central issue of corporate management. Integrated Management Systems incorporate matters such as finances, quality and environmental performance, at the same importance level. Within that context, measuring environmental costs is today an essential aspect

  1. Quantification of the effect of spatially varying environmental contaminants into a cost model for soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broos, J.M.; Aarts, L.; Tooren, C.F.; Stein, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of spatial variability of soil contaminants on cost calculations for soil remediation. Most cost models only provide a single figure, whereas spatial variability is one of the sources to contribute to the uncertainty. A cost model is applied to a study site

  2. Sustainable Design: A Case of Environmental and Cost Life Cycle Assessment of a Kitchen Designed for Seniors and Disabled People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lewandowska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable production and consumption patterns require a change in approach at the early conceptual stages, i.e., when planning and designing products and services. This article presents an example of sustainable kitchen design aimed at the needs of seniors and people with physical disabilities, which takes into account social, economic, and environmental aspects. The interdisciplinary project team used a variety of traditional design methods such as the identification of requirements using QFD (Quality Function Deployment and FMEA (Failure Mode Effects Analysis, the development and verification of the technical concepts of the designed objects and their use, the development of construction and technological documentation, assembly drawings of the product architecture and its parts, function cost analysis, virtual and real prototyping, and tools based on the concept of a life cycle such as environmental life cycle assessment (LCA and life cycle costing (LCC. The analysis of the design solutions from the point of view of several criteria and several life cycle stages shows the complexity of the decision-making process and the difficulties in selecting a clearly favourable solution. Environmentally preferred materials may be difficult for users to accept due to their costs. On the other hand, materials that have a high environmental impact at the production stage may show great potential for final disposal.

  3. The Environmental Impact and Cost Analysis of Concrete Mixing Blast Furnace Slag Containing Titanium Gypsum and Sludge in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyoung Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the environmental effects and cost of the Industrial Waste addictive Blast Furnace Slag (W-BFS using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and compared it to general BFS. The environmental impacts of W-BFS were as follows: 1.12 × 10−1 kg-CO2 eq/kg, 3.18 × 10−5 kg-Ethylene eq/kg, 4.79 × 10−4 kg-SO2 eq/kg, 7.15 × 10−4 kg-PO43− eq/kg, 7.15 × 10−4 kg-CFC11 eq/kg and 3.94 × 10−3 kg-Antimony eq/kg. Among the environmental impact category, GWP and AP were 9.28 × 10−2 kg-CO2 eq/kg and 3.33 × 10−4 kg-SO2 eq/kg at a raw material stage, accounting for 80% and 70% of total environmental impact respectively. In EP, POCP and ADP, in addition, raw material stage accounted for a great portion in total environmental impact because of “W” among input materials. In ODP, however, compared to the environmental impact of raw materials, oil, which was used in transporting BFS to the W-BFS manufacturing factory, was more influential. In terms of GWP, POCP and ODP, W-BFS was higher than general BFS. In terms of AP, EP and ADP, in contrast, the former was lower than the latter. In terms of cost, W-BFS (41.7 US$/ton was lower than general BFS by about 17% because of the use of waste additives comprised of industrial wastes instead of natural gypsum ,which has been commonly used in general BFS. In terms of GWP and POCP, the W-BFS mixed (30% concrete was lower than plain concrete by 25%. In terms of AP and EP, the former was lower than the latter by 30%. In terms of ADP, furthermore, W-BFS mixed (30% concrete was lower than plain concrete by 11%. In aggregate-related ODP, however, almost no change was found. In terms of cost, when W-BFS was added by 10% and 30%, it was able to reduce cost by 3% and 7% respectively, compared to plain concrete. Compared to BFS-mixed concrete as well, cost could be saved by 1% additionally because W-BFS (US$41.7/ton is lower than common cement (US$100.3/ton by about 60% in terms of production costs.

  4. Estimating the Economic Value of Environmental Amenities of Isfahan Sofeh Highland Park (The Individual Revealed and Expressed Travel Cost Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Amirnejad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural resources and the environment, such as mountains are considered public goods. The main features of these public goods are lack of market and price for exchange. This issue leads to a worthless impression about these goods, lack of effort for their conservation and preventing resource degradation. One of the major benefits of environmental resources, such as mountains, is their function as environmental amenities (for leisure and recreation. The estimation of their recreational worth is important as a part of the total value of such resources. In this context, the aim of this study is to estimate the economic value of environmental amenities of Sofeh Highland Park in Isfahan by individual travel cost method. Materials and Methods: Travel cost method is used for the evaluation of public goods or environmental non-market commodities. It is applied to a wide range of areas, including tourism values of lakes and wetlands, coral reefs, biodiversity and national parks, recreational fishing and mountaineering. The travel cost approach does not ask willingness to pay directly, but imputes it from the observed behavior of other visitors through an estimated demand function, which relates the number of observed trips to the incurred travel cost. Underpinning the travel cost method is for the estimation of the recreational demand function, from which consumer surplus estimates can be derived. Consumer surplus -the measure of non-market benefits to the visitors- is the difference between what the visitor would be (theoretically willing to pay to go the intended recreational location, and what they are actually required to pay. In this research, the individual travel cost method was used. For this purpose, a 290 item questionnaire with simple random sampling was filled by travelers in the area in 2013. Then the demand function of environmental amenities (tourism demand was estimated in two scenarios by using negative binomial regression

  5. Convoy Active Safety Technology - Environmental Understanding and Navigation With Use of Low Cost Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    program, which was created to design a low cost, optionally manned vehicle ( OMV ) solution for tactical wheeled vehicle (TWV) fleet. This paper will...Active Safety Technology (CAST) development program sought to develop a low cost, optionally manned vehicle ( OMV ) solution. An objective of the CAST...Active Safety Technology (CAST) program, which was created to design a low cost, optionally manned vehicle ( OMV ) solution for tactical wheeled vehicle (TWV

  6. Oil spills and gas leaks: environmental response, prevention, and cost recovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Testa, Stephen M; Jacobs, James, A

    2013-01-01

    Oil Spills and Gas Leaks highlights the complex nature of petroleum hydrocarbon fuel extraction methods, the unintended consequences when disasters occur, spill behavior, and environmental impact mitigation...

  7. Brazil's worst mining disaster: Corporations must be compelled to pay the actual environmental costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Letícia Couto; Ribeiro, Danilo Bandini; de Oliveira Roque, Fabio; Ochoa-Quintero, Jose Manuel; Laurance, William F

    2017-01-01

    In November 2015, a large mine-tailing dam owned by Samarco Corporation collapsed in Brazil, generating a massive wave of toxic mud that spread down the Doce River, killing 20 people and affecting biodiversity across hundreds of kilometers of river, riparian lands, and Atlantic coast. Besides the disaster's serious human and socioeconomic tolls, we estimate the regional loss of environmental services to be ~US$521 million per year. Although our estimate is conservative, it is still six times higher than the fine imposed on Samarco by Brazilian environmental authorities. To reduce such disparities between estimated damages and levied fines, we advocate for an environmental bond policy that considers potential risks and environmental services that could possibly be impacted by irresponsible mining activity. Environmental bonds and insurance are commonly used policy instruments in many countries, but there are no clear environmental bond policies in Brazil. Environmental bonds are likely to be more effective at securing environmental restitution than post-disaster fines, which generally are inadequate and often unpaid. We estimate that at least 126 mining dams in Brazil are vulnerable to failure in the forthcoming years. Any such event could have severe social-environmental consequences, underscoring the need for effective disaster-management strategies for large-scale mining operations.

  8. Industry-Cost-Curve Approach for Modeling the Environmental Impact of Introducing New Technologies in Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätelhön, Arne; von der Assen, Niklas; Suh, Sangwon; Jung, Johannes; Bardow, André

    2015-07-07

    The environmental costs and benefits of introducing a new technology depend not only on the technology itself, but also on the responses of the market where substitution or displacement of competing technologies may occur. An internationally accepted method taking both technological and market-mediated effects into account, however, is still lacking in life cycle assessment (LCA). For the introduction of a new technology, we here present a new approach for modeling the environmental impacts within the framework of LCA. Our approach is motivated by consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) and aims to contribute to the discussion on how to operationalize consequential thinking in LCA practice. In our approach, we focus on new technologies producing homogeneous products such as chemicals or raw materials. We employ the industry cost-curve (ICC) for modeling market-mediated effects. Thereby, we can determine substitution effects at a level of granularity sufficient to distinguish between competing technologies. In our approach, a new technology alters the ICC potentially replacing the highest-cost producer(s). The technologies that remain competitive after the new technology's introduction determine the new environmental impact profile of the product. We apply our approach in a case study on a new technology for chlor-alkali electrolysis to be introduced in Germany.

  9. An approach to assess the marginal environmental costs for flow regulation: an example in three European rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jalon Diego, Garcia; de Jalon Silvestre, Garcia; Tanago Marta, Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades there has been a growing concern about water environmental costs. 'Polluter should pay' has been a phrase repeated in numerous policy-making processes. Water abstraction for Irrigation, Hydropower or water supply for Domestic or Industrial porpoises alters natural flow regimes impacting severely fluvial Ecosystems. The objective of this paper is to develop an evaluation of the marginal environmental costs for flow regulation. This approach is based on the idea 'who regulates flows should pay' and the amount to be paid should be proportional on the intensity, duration and frequency of the resulting regulated flows. The methodology proposed includes three separated steps: (i) estimating the natural flow regime of a river segment through studying the hydrologic conditions before the river is affected by a determined anthropogenic impact, (ii) assessing the hydrologic alteration of the river segment according to the estimated natural flow regime, and (iii) calculating marginal environmental costs of water supply. The three different case studies where the methodology was applied were the Esla River (Spain), the Upper River Tyne (England) and the Marna River (Norway).

  10. Predicted costs of environmental controls for a commercial oil shale industry. Volume 1. An engineering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevens, T.D.; Culbertson, W.J. Jr.; Wallace, J.R.; Taylor, G.C.; Jovanovich, A.P.; Prien, C.H.; Hicks, R.E.; Probstein, R.F.; Domahidy, G.

    1979-07-01

    The pollution control costs for a commercial oil shale industry were determined in a joint effort by Denver Research Institute, Water Purification Associates of Cambridge, and Stone and Webster Engineering of Boston and Denver. Four commercial oil shale processes were considered. The results in terms of cost per barrel of syncrude oil are predicted to be as follows: Paraho Process, $0.67 to $1.01; TOSCO II Process, $1.43 to $1.91; MIS Process, $2.02 to $3.03; and MIS/Lurgi-Ruhrgas Process, $1.68 to $2.43. Alternative pollution control equipment and integrated pollution control strategies were considered and optimal systems selected for each full-scale plant. A detailed inventory of equipment (along with the rationale for selection), a detailed description of control strategies, itemized costs and predicted emission levels are presented for each process. Capital and operating cost data are converted to a cost per barrel basis using detailed economic evaluation procedures. Ranges of cost are determined using a subjective self-assessment of uncertainty approach. An accepted methodology for probability encoding was used, and cost ranges are presented as subjective probability distributions. Volume I presents the detailed engineering results. Volume II presents the detailed analysis of uncertainty in the predicted costs.

  11. Does the environmental gain of switching to the healthy New Nordic Diet outweigh the increased consumer cost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2014-01-01

    The New Nordic Diet (NND) was designed by gastronomic, nutritional and environmental specialists to be a palatable, healthy and sus-tainable diet containing 30-40% less meat than the Average Danish Diet (ADD), ≥75% organics, and more locally grown wholegrain products, nuts, fruit and vegetables....... In this study, the NND was based on economic modelling to represent a “realistic NND bought by Danish consumers”. The objective was to investigate whether the ADD-to-NND diet-shift has environmental consequences that outweigh the increased consumer cost of the diet-shift. The diet-shift reduced the three most...... important environmental impacts by 16-22%, mainly caused by reduced meat content. The surcharge to consumers of the ADD-to-NND diet-shift was €216/capita/year. In monetary terms, the savings related to the environmental impact of the diet-shift were €151/capita/year. 70% of the increased consumer cost...

  12. Beyond Linear Delay Multipliers in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddik Belkoura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Delays are considered one of the most important burdens of air transport, both for their social and environmental consequences and for the cost they cause for airlines and passengers. It is therefore not surprising that a large effort has been devoted to study how they propagate through the system. One of the most important indicators to assess such propagation is the delay multiplier, a ratio between outbound and inbound average delays; in spite of its widespread utilisation, its simplicity precludes capturing all details about the dynamics behind the diffusion process. Here we present a methodology that extracts a more complete relationship between the in- and outbound delays, distinguishing a linear and a nonlinear phase and thus yielding a richer description of the system’s response as a function of the delay magnitude. We validate the methodology through the study of a historical data set of flights crossing the European airspace and show how its most important airports have heterogeneous ways of reacting to extreme delays and that this reaction strongly depends on some of their global properties.

  13. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  14. Recovery of Utility Fixed Costs: Utility, Consumer, Environmental and Economist Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Lisa [Inst. for Electric Innovation and The Edison Foundation, Washington DC (United States); Hemphill, Ross [RCHemphill Solutions, Columbus, OH (United States); Howat, John [National Consumer Law Center, Boston, MA (United States); Cavanagh, Ralph [Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, NY (United States); Borenstein, Severin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Utilities recover costs for providing electric service to retail customers through a combination of rate components that together comprise customers’ monthly electric bills. Rates and rate designs are set by state regulators and vary by jurisdiction, utility and customer class. In addition to the fundamental tenet of setting fair and reasonable rates, rate design balances economic efficiency, equity and fairness, customer satisfaction, utility revenue stability, and customer price and bill stability.1 At the most basic level, retail electricity bills in the United States typically include a fixed monthly customer charge — a set dollar amount regardless of energy usage — and a volumetric energy charge for each kilowatt-hour consumed.2 The energy charge may be flat across all hours, vary by usage level (for example, higher rates at higher levels of usage), or vary based on time of consumption.3 While some utility costs, such as fuel costs, clearly vary according to electricity usage, other costs are “fixed” over the short run — generally, those that do not vary over the course of a year. Depending on your point of view, and whether the state’s electricity industry has been restructured or remains vertically integrated, the set of costs that are “fixed” may be quite limited. Or the set may extend to all capacity costs for generation, transmission and distribution. In the long run, all costs are variable. In the context of flat or declining loads in some regions, utilities are proposing a variety of changes to retail rate designs, particularly for residential customers, to recover fixed costs. In this report, authors representing utility (Chapter 1), consumer (Chapter 2), environmentalist (Chapter 3) and economist (Chapter 4) perspectives discuss fixed costs for electric utilities and set out their principles for recovering those costs. The table on the next page summarizes each author’s relative preferences for various options for fixed cost

  15. Impact of a University-Based Outpatient Telemedicine Program on Time Savings, Travel Costs, and Environmental Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullet, Navjit W; Geraghty, Estella M; Kaufman, Taylor; Kissee, Jamie L; King, Jesse; Dharmar, Madan; Smith, Anthony C; Marcin, James P

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate travel-related and environmental savings resulting from the use of telemedicine for outpatient specialty consultations with a university telemedicine program. The study was designed to retrospectively analyze the telemedicine consultation database at the University of California Davis Health System (UCDHS) between July 1996 and December 2013. Travel distances and travel times were calculated between the patient home, the telemedicine clinic, and the UCDHS in-person clinic. Travel cost savings and environmental impact were calculated by determining differences in mileage reimbursement rate and emissions between those incurred in attending telemedicine appointments and those that would have been incurred if a visit to the hub site had been necessary. There were 19,246 consultations identified among 11,281 unique patients. Telemedicine visits resulted in a total travel distance savings of 5,345,602 miles, a total travel time savings of 4,708,891 minutes or 8.96 years, and a total direct travel cost savings of $2,882,056. The mean per-consultation round-trip distance savings were 278 miles, average travel time savings were 245 minutes, and average cost savings were $156. Telemedicine consultations resulted in a total emissions savings of 1969 metric tons of CO2, 50 metric tons of CO, 3.7 metric tons of NOx, and 5.5 metric tons of volatile organic compounds. This study demonstrates the positive impact of a health system's outpatient telemedicine program on patient travel time, patient travel costs, and environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Methods development for cost-effective marine environmental monitoring at offshore wind farms in Norwegian waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgren, Thomas; Schlaeppy, Marie-Lise; Olenin, Sergej; Shashkov, Alexej; Heggoey, Erling; Troedsson, Christofer

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Current understanding of the environmental impact from offshore wind farms and experiences in monitoring practices, are restricted to soft-bottom habitats. Due to the large expansion of this source of energy, and the national and international drive to place large parks offshore, there is at present a strong need to further increase our knowledge of the impact on the marine environment in a wider range of habitats. At a national level, it is of importance to develop monitoring methods that are suitable for Norwegian sites and that are adjusted to impact levels expected from wind parks. Biological data on the impact of offshore wind farms in marine ecosystems are predominantly focused on the southern Baltic and southern North Sea. It is shown that large wind farms do have an impact on the marine ecosystem. The most studied effects relate to the introduction of hard substrate (the turbine foundation and scour protection) in an area made exclusively of soft sediments. This leads to an introduction of a new category of fauna, a higher productivity and a shift in community structure and species composition. In addition, the construction of an offshore wind farm excludes other activities with potentially high negative impacts on the marine ecosystem such as bottom trawling. These findings are not necessary applicable to rocky shorelines such as those bordering the Norwegian coast and the first full-scale offshore wind farm, Havsul 1. The Havsul site borders an open ocean with high average yearly wind-speeds of more than 20 knots. A relatively narrow shelf and steep underwater topography creates waves of substantial heights and a benthic marine ecosystem that is fundamentally different from the shallow water, soft sediment substrates in the southern Baltic and North Seas. Instead, areas in Norway with water depths suitable for today.s design of offshore wind farms (down to a depth of about 30-50 m) have a complex topography and a mosaic of substrate types are

  17. COST action TD1407: network on technology-critical elements (NOTICE)--from environmental processes to human health threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobelo-García, A; Filella, M; Croot, P; Frazzoli, C; Du Laing, G; Ospina-Alvarez, N; Rauch, S; Salaun, P; Schäfer, J; Zimmermann, S

    2015-10-01

    The current socio-economic, environmental and public health challenges that countries are facing clearly need common-defined strategies to inform and support our transition to a sustainable economy. Here, the technology-critical elements (which includes Ga, Ge, In, Te, Nb, Ta, Tl, the Platinum Group Elements and most of the rare-earth elements) are of great relevance in the development of emerging key technologies-including renewable energy, energy efficiency, electronics or the aerospace industry. In this context, the increasing use of technology-critical elements (TCEs) and associated environmental impacts (from mining to end-of-life waste products) is not restricted to a national level but covers most likely a global scale. Accordingly, the European COST Action TD1407: Network on Technology-Critical Elements (NOTICE)-from environmental processes to human health threats, has an overall objective for creating a network of scientists and practitioners interested in TCEs, from the evaluation of their environmental processes to understanding potential human health threats, with the aim of defining the current state of knowledge and gaps, proposing priority research lines/activities and acting as a platform for new collaborations and joint research projects. The Action is focused on three major scientific areas: (i) analytical chemistry, (ii) environmental biogeochemistry and (iii) human exposure and (eco)-toxicology.

  18. What weight should be assigned to future environmental impacts? A probabilistic cost benefit analysis using recent advances on discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansa, Carmen; Martínez-Paz, José M

    2011-03-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is a standard methodological platform for public investment evaluation. In high environmental impact projects, with a long-term effect on future generations, the choice of discount rate and time horizon is of particular relevance, because it can lead to very different profitability assessments. This paper describes some recent approaches to environmental discounting and applies them, together with a number of classical procedures, to the economic evaluation of a plant for the desalination of irrigation return water from intensive farming, aimed at halting the degradation of an area of great ecological value, the Mar Menor, in South Eastern Spain. A Monte Carlo procedure is used in four CBA approaches and three time horizons to carry out a probabilistic sensitivity analysis designed to integrate the views of an international panel of experts in environmental discounting with the uncertainty affecting the market price of the project's main output, i.e., irrigation water for a water-deprived area. The results show which discounting scenarios most accurately estimate the socio-environmental profitability of the project while also considering the risk associated with these two key parameters. The analysis also provides some methodological findings regarding ways of assessing financial and environmental profitability in decisions concerning public investment in the environment.

  19. Parametric Analysis of the Exergoeconomic Operation Costs, Environmental and Human Toxicity Indexes of the MF501F3 Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Vicente Torres-González

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an energetic, exergoeconomic, environmental, and toxicity analysis of the simple gas turbine M501F3 based on a parametric analysis of energetic (thermal efficiency, fuel and air flow rates, and specific work output, exergoeconomic (exergetic efficiency and exergoeconomic operation costs, environmental (global warming, smog formation, acid rain indexes, and human toxicity indexes, by taking the compressor pressure ratio and the turbine inlet temperature as the operating parameters. The aim of this paper is to provide an integral, systematic, and powerful diagnostic tool to establish possible operation and maintenance actions to improve the gas turbine’s exergoeconomic, environmental, and human toxicity indexes. Despite the continuous changes in the price of natural gas, the compressor, combustion chamber, and turbine always contribute 18.96%, 53.02%, and 28%, respectively, to the gas turbine’s exergoeconomic operation costs. The application of this methodology can be extended to other simple gas turbines using the pressure drops and isentropic efficiencies, among others, as the degradation parameters, as well as to other energetic systems, without loss of generality.

  20. Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry...

  1. Costs of Alternative Environmental Policy Instruments in the Presence of Industry Compensation Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; Goulder, L.H.; Jacobson, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how the costs of meeting given aggregate targets for pollution emissions change with the imposition of the requirement that key pollution-related industries be compensated for potential losses of profit from the pollution regulation.Using analytically and numerically solved equil

  2. Costs of Alternative Environmental Policy Instruments in the Presence of Industry Compensation Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; Goulder, L.H.; Jacobson, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how the costs of meeting given aggregate targets for pollution emissions change with the imposition of the requirement that key pollution-related industries be compensated for potential losses of profit from the pollution regulation.Using analytically and numerically solved

  3. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  4. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  5. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development of…

  6. Harvesting costs and environmental impacts associated with skyline yarding shelterwood harvests and thinning in Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Baumgras; C. B. LeDoux; J. R. Sherar

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the potential for moderating the visual impact and soil disturbance associated with timber harvesting on steep-slope hardwood sites, thinning and shelterwood harvests were conducted with a skyline yarding system. Operations were monitored to document harvesting production, residual stand damage, soil disturbance, and visual quality. Yarding costs for...

  7. An Application of the Phosphorus Consistent Rule for Environmentally Acceptable Cost-Efficient Management of Broiler Litter in Crop Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Adhikari, Murali; Martin, Neil R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We calculated the profitability of using broiler litter as a source of plant nutrients using the phosphorus consistent litter application rule. The cost saving by using litter is 37% over the use of chemical fertilizer-only option to meet the nutrient needs of major crops grown in Alabama. In the optimal solution, only a few routes of all the possible routes developed were used for inter- and intra- county litter hauling. If litter is not adopted as the sole source of crop nutrients, the best environmental policy may be to pair the phosphorus consistent rule with taxes, marketable permits, and subsidies.flaws

  8. Environmental regulation, productive efficiency and cost of pollution abatement: a case study of the sugar industry in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, M N; Kumar, Surender; Paul, Mahua

    2006-04-01

    In this paper the input distance function is estimated for the Indian Sugar industry under alternative assumptions of weak and strong disposability of bad outputs. The estimated distance function is used to make the estimates of environmental efficiency, Malmquist productivity index and shadow prices of pollutants. The technical efficiency measure estimated under the assumption of weak disposability of bad outputs is utilized to test the Porter hypothesis. Marginal costs of pollution abatement functions are estimated for different pollutants of water. Pollutant specific taxes are computed using the tax-standards method.

  9. Efficiency Costs of Meeting Industry-Distributional Constraints under Environmental Permits and Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; Goulder, L.H.; Gurney, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Many pollution-related industries wield strong political influence and can e.ectively veto policy initiatives that would harm their profits.A politically realistic approach to environmental policy therefore seems to require the alleviation of significant profitlosses to these industries.The regulato

  10. Mitigating Cost and Schedule Risk from Environmental Litigation Over DOD Projects in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Telescopes (From Environmental News Service, 2006) ..................................52 Figure 12. Superferry Route during Whale Season (From RedMaui.com... Whale Surface Sightings and Estimated Surface Density, Hawaiian Islands (From Mobley, 2004...Harbor in 1941. According to Hawaii’s Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism , in 2009, there were more than 60,000 people employed by

  11. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of biomass from dende oil for small communities of Brazilian northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Pacheco, Rafael R.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: luizastecher@usp.br, E-mail: rafaelrade@gmail.com, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The current environmental problems caused by human activity has been gaining attention in society, i.e., as it has influenced in the growth and development of the global economic. The availability of energy resources is central point to economic development and the generation of energy is responsible for a significant portion of the emissions causing the greenhouse effect nowadays. The Brazil, a developing country, still has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of individuals. In this context, it should think in the sustainable economic development, so the alternative energy sources emerge as an option for power generation. Can highlight biomass as a source in the Brazilian scenario by its wide availability and variety. Therefore, the objective of this work is to estimate the economic viability of the decentralized generation of electricity based on the use of biomass from dende oil in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast considering the environmental costs involved for the source in question. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic evaluation of environmental resources. The biomass from dende oil was adopted in this work by its characteristics and availability in the studied region. The results show that the generation of energy by biomass from dende oil, it will contribute significantly to the sustainable development of the region, already that it will bring gains environmental, social and financial to society. (author)

  12. Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity to Metals of Environmental Burden in Patients with Takotsubo Syndrome – Is There a Clinical Relevance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousek, Jan; Stejskal, Vera; Kubena, Petr; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Nemec, Petr; Lokaj, Petr; Dostalova, Ludmila; Zadakova, Andrea; Pavlusova, Marie; Benesova, Klara; Kala, Petr; Miklik, Roman; Spinar, Jindrich; Parenica, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Objective Takotsubo syndrome (TS) is a heart condition characterised by a sudden transient left ventricular dysfunction; its pathophysiology is probably associated with elevated levels of catecholamines but the exact mechanism is not known as yet. Literature and clinical experience suggest that TS affects persons with various comorbidities. This pilot work aims to evaluate the frequency of comorbidities with potential pathological immune reactivity, and to evaluate the potential association between TS and hypersensitivity to metals assessed by LTT-MELISA®. Methodology, Results A total of 24 patients (23 women, 1 man) with a history of TS attack and 27 healthy controls were evaluated. Hypersensitivity was evaluated by a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT-MELISA®); a questionnaire of environmental burden was used to select evaluated metals. A total of 19 patients (79%) had at least one condition that might potentially be associated with pathological immune reactivity (autoimmune thyroid disease, drug allergy, bronchial asthma, cancer, contact dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis). Hypersensitivity to metals was identified significantly more frequently in TS patients than in healthy controls (positive reaction to at least one metal was identified in 95.8% of TS patients and in 59.3% of controls; p = 0.003); the difference was statistically significant for mercury (45.8% and 14.8%, respectively; p = 0.029). Conclusion Our work shows that conditions with pathological immune reactivity occur frequently in TS patients, and our data suggest a possible association between TS and hypersensitivity to metals (mercury in particular) evaluated by LTT-MELISA®. We also suggest that apart from the triggering stress factor, potential existence of other serious conditions should be considered when taking medical history of TS patients. PMID:27824862

  13. Renewable Energies and CO2 Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends- 2012 Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero-Lemus, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Providing up-to-date numerical data across a range of topics related to renewable energy technologies, Renewable Energies and CO2 offers a one-stop source of key information to engineers, economists and all other professionals working in the energy and climate change sectors. The most relevant up-to-date numerical data are exposed in 201 tables and graphs, integrated in terms of units and methodology, and covering topics such as energy system capacities and lifetimes, production costs, energy payback ratios, carbon emissions, external costs, patents and literature statistics. The data are first presented and then analyzed to project potential future grid, heat and fuel parity scenarios, as well as future technology tendencies in different energy technological areas. Innovative highlights and descriptions of preproduction energy systems and components from the past four years have been gathered from selected journals and international energy departments from G20 countries. As the field develops, readers are in...

  14. An environmental cost-benefit analysis of alternative green roofing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M.; William, R. K.; Goodwell, A. E.; Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.; Stillwell, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Green roofs and cool roofs are alternative roofing strategies that mitigate urban heat island effects and improve building energy performance. Green roofs consist of soil and vegetation layers that provide runoff reduction, thermal insulation, and potential natural habitat, but can require regular maintenance. Cool roofs involve a reflective layer that reflects more sunlight than traditional roofing materials, but require additional insulation during winter months. This study evaluates several roofing strategies in terms of energy performance, urban heat island mitigation, water consumption, and economic cost. We use MLCan, a multi-layer canopy model, to simulate irrigated and non-irrigated green roof cases with shallow and deep soil depths during the spring and early summer of 2012, a drought period in central Illinois. Due to the dry conditions studied, periodic irrigation is implemented in the model to evaluate its effect on evapotranspiration. We simulate traditional and cool roof scenarios by altering surface albedo and omitting vegetation and soil layers. We find that both green roofs and cool roofs significantly reduce surface temperature compared to the traditional roof simulation. Cool roof temperatures always remain below air temperature and, similar to traditional roofs, require low maintenance. Green roofs remain close to air temperature and also provide thermal insulation, runoff reduction, and carbon uptake, but might require irrigation during dry periods. Due to the longer lifetime of a green roof compared to cool and traditional roofs, we find that green roofs realize the highest long term cost savings under simulated conditions. However, using longer-life traditional roof materials (which have a higher upfront cost) can help decrease this price differential, making cool roofs the most affordable option due to the higher maintenance costs associated with green roofs

  15. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects. Volume 2, Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dauble, D.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, R.T. [Hunt (Richard) Associates, Inc., Concord, NH (United States); Costello, R.J. [Northwest Water Resources Advisory Services (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This study examines envirorunental mitigation practices that provide upstream and downstream fish passage and protection at hydroelectric projects. The study includes a survey of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at 1,825 hydroelectric plants regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to determine frequencies of occurrence, temporal trends, and regional practices based on FERC regions. The study also describes, in general terms, the fish passage/protection mitigation costs at 50 non-Federal hydroelectric projects. Sixteen case studies are used to examine in detail the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection. The 16 case studies include 15 FERC licensed or exempted hydroelectric projects and one Federally-owned and-operated hydroelectric project. The 16 hydroelectric projects are located in 12 states and range in capacity from 400 kilowatts to 840 megawatts. The fish passage and protection mitigation methods at the case studies include fish ladders and lifts, an Eicher screen, spill flows, airburst-cleaned inclined and cylindrical wedgewire screens, vertical barrier screens, and submerged traveling screens. The costs, benefits, monitoring methods, and operating characteristics of these and other mitigation methods used at the 16 case studies are examined.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND THE OPPORTUNITY COST OF ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIN EMANUEL ARTENE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We all have seen the effects of the global economic and financial crisis and it becomes clearly that major changes have to occur in our economy in order to prevent a crisis in the use of the natural resources that are becoming more and more limited. This is why all types of organizations must turn their attention on the efficient use of resources that an environmental management system offers. Environmental management accounting presents a lot of information to managers within any organization mainly because it looks forward instead of looking back into the history of the firm such as traditional financial accounting does. Our objectives are to enlarge the scope and boundaries of environment management accounting so that managers can make efficient decisions in their organizations.

  17. Low-cost Mobile Laser Scanning and its Feasibility for Environmental Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Jaakkola, Anttoni

    2015-01-01

    Mobile laser scanning is a measurement technology that combines accurate positioning and attitude information from navigation satellites and inertial sensors with distance measurements from a laser scanner into a point cloud that represents the geometry of the environment surrounding the measurement platform. This geometrical information can be utilized in a variety of applications ranging from 3D city modelling and infrastructure maintenance to forestry and environmental monitoring. In th...

  18. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Delayed puberty can be a source of great concern and anxiety, although it usually is caused by a self-limiting variant of the normal physiological timing named constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Delayed puberty can, however, also be the first presentation of a permanent condition ...... mineral density) and psychological (e.g., low self-esteem) and underline the importance of careful clinical assessment of the patients.......Delayed puberty can be a source of great concern and anxiety, although it usually is caused by a self-limiting variant of the normal physiological timing named constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Delayed puberty can, however, also be the first presentation of a permanent condition...

  19. Delayed fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    Delayed fission is a nuclear decay process that couples {beta} decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes {beta} decay and thereby populates excited states in the daughter. If these states are of energies comparable to or greater than the fission barrier of the daughter, then fission may compete with other decay modes of the excited states in the daughter. In this paper, mechanism and some experiments of the delayed fission will be discussed. (author)

  20. Evaluating the cost effectiveness of environmental projects: Case studies in aerospace and defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunk, James F.

    1995-01-01

    Using the replacement technology of high pressure waterjet decoating systems as an example, a simple methodology is presented for developing a cost effectiveness model. The model uses a four-step process to formulate an economic justification designed for presentation to decision makers as an assessment of the value of the replacement technology over conventional methods. Three case studies from major U.S. and international airlines are used to illustrate the methodology and resulting model. Tax and depreciation impacts are also presented as potential additions to the model.

  1. Non-fragile H∞ Guaranteed Cost Control for Uncertain Generalized Systems with Multiple Time-Delay%不确定多时滞广义系统的非脆弱H∞保性能控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金花; 邢伟

    2011-01-01

    Based on linear matrix inequality, the problem of non-fragile H∞ guaranteed cost for uncertain generalized systems with multiple time-delays was discussed, which stated matrix, state delay matrix and the controller gained both exist uncertainties. Firstly, a delay-dependent sufficient condition was obtained, which ensures that the closed-loop system is asymptotic stable, with H∞ norm bound. Then a design method for non-fragile H∞ guaranteed cost controller of the system was presented. In the end, a numerical example was given to illustrate the effectiveness of the design method.%针对一类具有范数有界不确定性和多状态滞后的广义系统,基于线性矩阵不等式方法,研究状态矩阵、状态时滞矩阵和控制器都存在摄动时的非脆弱H∞保性能控制问题,得到了广义闭环系统渐近稳定且具有H∞范数界γ的时滞相关充分条件,给出了无记忆非脆弱H∞保性能控制器的设计方法,并用数值例子表明了该方法的有效性.

  2. Calotropis procera seedlings could be used as a rapid cost effective bioindicator for measuring aluminum environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Kareem A.; El-Keblawy, Ali; Najar, Atyat

    2017-04-01

    Calotropis procera seedlings could be used as a rapid cost effective bioindicator for measuring aluminum environmental pollution Kareem A. Mosa, Ali El-Keblawy, Atyat Najar Department of Applied Biology, College of Sciences, University of Sharjah, UAE Rapid industrialization and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of different heavy metals in natural resources like soil, water and air thus affecting their quality. Aluminum (Al) is a dominant heavy metal pollutant that causes serious toxic effects to living systems including plants. Therefore, it is critical to regularly monitor the changes in Al levels in natural resources. Living organisms could be used as bioindicators for monitoring and measuring the levels of heavy metals in environmental samples. The aim of this study was to develop a cost effective bioindicator for monitoring aluminum (Al) and assess the damage caused by Al bioaccumulation using the root system of Calotropis Procera seedlings. A hydroponic system was developed for growing C. Procera in four different concentrations of Al (20, 40, 60 and 80 ppm). Root length and shoot fresh and dry weights were assessed after 5, 10, 15 and 20 days of Al treatment. The results showed remarkable sensitivity of C. Procera seedlings for the different concentrations of Al. There was gradual but significant decrease in C. Procera root length with the increase in the Al concentrations. X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XRF) analysis indicated a significant increase in Al concentration in C. Procera roots with the increase of both Al concentration in the hydroponic solution and the growing period. Moreover, electrical conductivity analysis showed that Al induced damage to C. Procera root plasma membrane as indicated by the increase in electrolyte leakages. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR analysis confirmed the genotoxin effect of Al which induced C. Procera genomic DNA modification. Altogether, the result demonstrated that C. Procera could

  3. An empirical study of costs and advantages of improved corporate environmental management performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2000-01-01

    Achieving a less unsustainable development or improving the overall quality of life requires the support of the business community at large. In response to this recognition, industry has undertaken various initiatives, such as new integrated environmental management systems, social...... Danish firms were selected for the study. Furthermore, new statistical analyses of data from 4 other recent and related empirical studies have (after permission) been analysed and included in this study, which all in all makes the total number of analysed firms close to 900 enterprises....

  4. Low-cost, environmentally friendly route for producing CFRP laminates with microfibrillated cellulose interphase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. B. Uribe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a cost-effective and eco-friendly method to improve mechanical performance in continuous carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP matrix composites is presented. Unsized fiber fabric preforms are coated with self-assembling sugarcane bagasse microfibrillated cellulose, and undergo vacuum-assisted liquid epoxy resin infusion to produce solid laminates after curing at ambient temperature. Quasi-static tensile, flexural and short beam testing at room temperature indicated that the stiffness, ultimate strength and toughness at ultimate load of the brand-new two-level hierarchical composite are substantially higher than in baseline, unsized fiber-reinforced epoxy laminate. Atomic force microscopy for height and phase imaging, along with scanning electron microscopy for the fracture surface survey, revealed a 400 nm-thick fiber/matrix interphase wherein microfibrillated cellulose exerts strengthening and toughening roles in the hybrid laminate. Market expansion of this class of continuous fiber-reinforced-polymer matrix composites exhibiting remarkable mechanical performance/cost ratios is thus conceivable.

  5. Fragmentation, Cost and Environmental Effects of Plaster Stemming Method for Blasting at A Basalt Quarry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevizci, Halim

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the plaster stemming application for blasting at a basalt quarry is studied. Drill cuttings are generally used in open pits and quarries as the most common stemming material since these are most readily available at blast sites. However, dry drill cuttings eject very easily from blastholes without offering much resistance to blast energy. The plaster stemming method has been found to be better than the drill cuttings stemming method due to increased confinement inside the hole and better utilization of blast explosive energy in the rock. The main advantage of the new stemming method is the reduction in the cost of blasting. At a basalt quarry, blasting costs per unit volume of rock were reduced to 15% by increasing burden and spacing distances. In addition, better fragmentation was obtained by using the plaster stemming method. Blast trials showed that plaster stemming produced finer material. In the same blast tests, +30 cm size fragments were reduced to 47.3% of the total, compared to 32.6% in the conventional method of drill cuttings stemming. With this method of stemming, vibration and air shock values increased slightly due to more blast energy being available for rock breakage but generally these increased values were small and stayed under the permitted limit for blast damage criteria unless measuring distance is too close.

  6. Economic Benefit Assignment in Environmental Cost Allocation: Toward a Suggestion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to suggest a model to reward a ‘dirty product’ whichhas the potential to offer sales promotion services to other ‘clean products’in a multiple product firm. The paper suggests a model – economicbenefit assignment (EBA for apportionment of direct wastecosts where a polluting product offers a sales promotion benefit to other‘clean products’ of the same company, which proposes that benefitingproducts should be assigned a proportion of the direct waste cost ofthe polluting product (as a service charge based on the proportion ofpromotion benefit (sales benefit received from the polluting product.The idea is that, based on transfer pricing theory, such promotion servicewould be paid for, if offered by an outside agent. Whilst academicdebate is expected to ensue from this suggestion model, further caseresearch is imperative to demonstrate industrial applicability.

  7. Best Practice cost rates for air pollutants, traffic, power generation and heat production. Appendix B of the ''Method convention 2.0 for the evaluation of environmental costs''; Best-Practice-Kostensaetze fuer Luftschadstoffe, Verkehr, Strom- und Waermeerzeugung. Anhang B der ''Methodenkonvention 2.0 zur Schaetzung von Umweltkosten''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwermer, Sylvia [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany); Preiss, Philipp; Mueller, Wolf [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    2012-08-15

    Technically substantiated information for the estimation of environmental costs is of high environmental interest. The environmental costs provide important information on the discussion about the costs and benefits of environmental protection more objective and on the design of environmental protection instruments. The economic evaluation of environmental damages enables an estimation of the benefits of environmental policies, because environmental policies avoid costs to the environment and health in the present and in the future. The contribution under consideration contains recommendations of the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) on best practice cost rates for climate and air pollutants as well as estimations for activity-related environmental costs of transport as well as power generation and heat production. The recommendations are based in substantial part on the results of the research project.

  8. 浅议作业成本法在环境成本计算和分摊中的应用%Analysis of activity cost method used in calculation and apportionment of environmental cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼

    2013-01-01

    在目前传统会计系统下,环境成本直接计算分摊到制造费用,然后由所有产品共同分摊环境成本,造成产品成本信息扭曲。针对这一问题,采用作业成本法,可以通过设置作业成本库,并通过成本动因科学地、合理地确定计量环境成本,从而有效地解决这个问题,有利于管理层利用正确的产品成本信息做出有利于环境效应并具有长远发展能力的产品的决策。%Under current traditional accounting system,environmental cost is directly apportioned to manufacturing cost to be shared by all products thus generating twisted product cost information. To cope with this,activity cost method is employed. It establishes an activity cost pool and then scales environmental cost scientifically and reasonably based on cost drivers. This approach is helpful to decision making by management with correct product cost information,which favors development of a more environment-friendly and lasting product.

  9. A critical process analysis of wine production to improve cost, quality and environmental performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, C M; Bauer, F F; Burton, S; Lorenzen, L

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Wine production in South Africa is delocalised, with numerous small-to-medium sized producers within several regions within the Western Cape. Whilst adapting to new technological changes, producers have to respond to pressure from consumers and governments regarding the environmental consequences of winemaking, especially water usage and pollution. To date, no systematic analysis integrating the various aspects of winemaking in South Africa has been done. This study assessed both physical inputs and outputs. A detailed questionnaire was developed to broadly assess these parameters and was submitted to all cellars in South Africa. Case studies were performed at three cellars during the 2002 harvest season to validate the questionnaires and collect missing information. Based on this, and a cocurrent project, the following parameters were correlated to the tons of grapes presses per annum: effluent parameters which include chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, total dissolved solids, sodium adsorption ratio, quantity of effluent; wine produced, water consumed, and electricity consumed. These parameters were used to develop an input/output model. This model may be used by wineries to predict their water and electrical consumption, wine produced and effluent characteristics provided they know the tonnage of grapes pressed per year.

  10. Cost effective malaria risk control using remote sensing and environmental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdel Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Malaria transmission in many part of the world specifically in Bangladesh and southern African countries is unstable and epidemic. An estimate of over a million cases is reported annually. Malaria is heterogeneous, potentially due to variations in ecological settings, socio-economic status, land cover, and agricultural practices. Malaria control only relies on treatment and supply of bed networks. Drug resistance to these diseases is widespread. Vector control is minimal. Malaria control in those countries faces many formidable challenges such as inadequate accessibility to effective treatment, lack of trained manpower, inaccessibility of endemic areas, poverty, lack of education, poor health infrastructure and low health budgets. Health facilities for malaria management are limited, surveillance is inadequate, and vector control is insufficient. Control can only be successful if the right methods are used at the right time in the right place. This paper aims to improve malaria control by developing malaria risk maps and risk models using satellite remote sensing data by identifying, assessing, and mapping determinants of malaria associated with environmental, socio-economic, malaria control, and agricultural factors.

  11. Applications of isotopes. [Need and cost of stable iotopes for use as tracers in biomedical and environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby-Smith, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Current and potential applications of stable isotopes as tracers in a number of biomedical and environmental areas are discussed. It is pointed out that a wide variety of problems exist in these fields whose solutions in principle are amenable to the isotopic approach. The number and diversity of these problems as well as the unique role stable isotopes can play in their solution illustrate the importance of achieving and maintaining a broad inventory of isotopic species. Experience has demonstrated unequivocally an additional overriding requirement for widespread exploration of stable isotopes by the scientific and technical community, i.e., the need for low cost availability of the materials in quantity. Some representative applications of /sup 12/C, /sup 13/C, /sup 14/N, /sup 15/N, /sup 16/O, /sup 17/O, and /sup 18/O are discussed.

  12. CÁLCULO DO CUSTO DAS ATIVIDADES DE GESTÃO AMBIENTAL: APLICAÇÃO DO CUSTEIO BASEADO EM ATIVIDADES NUMA MONTADORA DE ÔNIBUS ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT COST CALCULATION: ACTIVITY BASED COSTING APPLIED TO BUS ASSEMBLY PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Durán

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados da aplicação da metodologia de custeio baseado em atividades para medir o impacto que as atividades de gestão ambiental podem ter no custo industrial dos produtos. Um estudo de caso é apresentado junto com a utilização de um software comercial para o cálculo dos custos.This manuscript presents an Activity Based Costing application in an environmental protection context. The aim of this work is measuring the impact of environmental management activities on product costs. Also, a case study is discussed and the utilization of commercial software is presented.

  13. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-12-03

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm(2), and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p(+-)n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  14. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-12-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm2, and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p+-n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  15. Transfer of the epoxidation of soybean oil from batch to flow chemistry guided by cost and environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralisch, Dana; Streckmann, Ina; Ott, Denise; Krtschil, Ulich; Santacesaria, Elio; Di Serio, Martino; Russo, Vincenzo; De Carlo, Lucrezia; Linhart, Walter; Christian, Engelbert; Cortese, Bruno; de Croon, Mart H J M; Hessel, Volker

    2012-02-13

    The simple transfer of established chemical production processes from batch to flow chemistry does not automatically result in more sustainable ones. Detailed process understanding and the motivation to scrutinize known process conditions are necessary factors for success. Although the focus is usually "only" on intensifying transport phenomena to operate under intrinsic kinetics, there is also a large intensification potential in chemistry under harsh conditions and in the specific design of flow processes. Such an understanding and proposed processes are required at an early stage of process design because decisions on the best-suited tools and parameters required to convert green engineering concepts into practice-typically with little chance of substantial changes later-are made during this period. Herein, we present a holistic and interdisciplinary process design approach that combines the concept of novel process windows with process modeling, simulation, and simplified cost and lifecycle assessment for the deliberate development of a cost-competitive and environmentally sustainable alternative to an existing production process for epoxidized soybean oil. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Measuring the distribution of equity in terms of energy, environmental, and economic costs in the fuel cycles of alternative fuel vehicles with hydrogen pathway scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick E.

    Numerous analyses exist which examine the energy, environmental, and economic tradeoffs between conventional gasoline vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles powered by hydrogen produced from a variety of sources. These analyses are commonly referred to as "E3" analyses because of their inclusion of Energy, Environmental, and Economic indicators. Recent research as sought a means to incorporate social Equity into E3 analyses, thus producing an "E4" analysis. However, E4 analyses in the realm of energy policy are uncommon, and in the realm of alternative transportation fuels, E4 analyses are extremely rare. This dissertation discusses the creation of a novel E4 simulation tool usable to weigh energy, environmental, economic, and equity trade-offs between conventional gasoline vehicles and alternative fuel vehicles, with specific application to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The model, dubbed the F uel Life-cycle Analysis of Solar Hydrogen -- Energy, Environment, Economic & Equity model, or FLASH-E4, is a total fuel-cycle model that combines energy, environmental, and economic analysis methodologies with the addition of an equity analysis component. The model is capable of providing results regarding total fuel-cycle energy consumption, emissions production, energy and environmental cost, and level of social equity within a population in which low-income drivers use CGV technology and high-income drivers use a number of advanced hydrogen FCV technologies. Using theories of equity and social indicators conceptually embodied in the Lorenz Curve and Gini Index, the equity of the distribution of societal energy and environmental costs are measured for a population in which some drivers use CGVs and other drivers use FCVs. It is found, based on baseline input data representative of the United States (US), that the distribution of energy and environmental costs in a population in which some drivers use CGVs and other drivers use natural gas-based hydrogen FCVs can be

  17. Market segmentation and industry overcapacity considering input resources and environmental costs through the lens of governmental intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Jin, Peizhen; Mishra, Nishikant; Song, Malin

    2017-07-25

    The problems with China's regional industrial overcapacity are often influenced by local governments. This study constructs a framework that includes the resource and environmental costs to analyze overcapacity using the non-radial direction distance function and the price method to measure industrial capacity utilization and market segmentation in 29 provinces in China from 2002 to 2014. The empirical analysis of the spatial panel econometric model shows that (1) the industrial capacity utilization in China's provinces has a ladder-type distribution with a gradual decrease from east to west and there is a severe overcapacity in the traditional heavy industry areas; (2) local government intervention has serious negative effects on regional industry utilization and factor market segmentation more significantly inhibits the utilization rate of regional industry than commodity market segmentation; (3) economic openness improves the utilization rate of industrial capacity while the internet penetration rate and regional environmental management investment have no significant impact; and(4) a higher degree of openness and active private economic development have a positive spatial spillover effect, while there is a significant negative spatial spillover effect from local government intervention and industrial structure sophistication. This paper includes the impact of resources and the environment in overcapacity evaluations, which should guide sustainable development in emerging economies.

  18. Delayed fracture of silicon: Silicon sheet growth development for the large area silicon sheet task of the low cost silicon solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T. J.; Knapp, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Bar specimens were cut from ingots of single crystal silicon, and acid etched prior to testing. Artificial surface flaws were introduced in specimens by indentation with a Knoop hardness tester. The specimens were loaded in four-point bending to 95 percent of the nominal fracture stress, while keeping the surface area, containing the flaw, wet with test liquids. No evidence of delayed fracture, and, therefore stress corrosion, of single crystal silicon was observed for liquid environments including water, acetone, and aqueous solutions of NaCl, NH4OH, and HNO3, when tested with a flaw parallel to a (110) surface. The fracture toughness was calculated.

  19. The environmental monitoring of Cultural Heritage through Low Cost strategies: The frescoes of the crypt of St. Francesco d'Assisi's, Irsina (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Maria; Gizzi, Fabrizio; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    One of the main tools of assessment and diagnosis used to define appropriate strategies for the preservation of cultural heritage is the environmental monitoring. To achieve an environmental monitoring are needed high costs of purchase and maintenance, high costs of instrumental and for the management of the plants and processing of results. These costs imply that the technologies for environmental monitoring are not as common but their use is limited to the study very famous monuments or sites. To extend the use and dissemination of such technologies to a greater number of monuments, through the project Pro_Cult (Advanced methodological approaches and technologies for Protection and Security of Cultural Heritage) a research aimed at testing low cost technologies has been performed. The aim of the research is to develop low cost monitoring systems, assessing their effectiveness in a comparative way with commercial high cost ones. To this aim an environmental monitoring system using the Arduino system was designed and developed. It is an electronics prototyping platform based on open-source hardware and software flexible and user friendly. This system is connected to sensors for the detection of environmental parameters of non high purchase cost but with respect to the medium potential detection sensors accurately. This low cost system was tested in the framework of a microclimate monitoring project of the crypt of St. Francis of Assisi in Irsina (Southern Italy) enriched by a precious cycle of medieval frescoes. The aim of this research was to compare two monitoring systems, the first, at low cost, using Arduino system, and the second, a standard commercial product for a full yearly cycle and assess the reliability and the results obtained by the two systems. This paper shows the results of the comparative analysis of an entire monitoring yearly cycle in relation to the problems of degradation affecting the paintings of medieval crypt [1]. The obtained results

  20. Robust Guaranteed Cost Observer for Uncertain Descriptor Time-delay Systems with Markovian Jumping Parameters%含有跳跃参数的广义时滞不确定系统的鲁棒保性能观测器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付艳明; 段广仁

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the design of robust guaranteed cost observer for a class of lineardescriptor time-delay systems with jumping parameters. The system under study involves time de-lays, jumping parameters and uncertainties. The transition of the jumping parameters in systems isgoverned by a finite-state Markov process. The objective is to design linear memoryless observers suchthat for all uncertainties, the resulting augmented system is regular, impulse free, robust stochasti-cally stable independent of delays and satisfies the proposed guaranteed cost performance. Based onstability theory in stochastic differential equations, a sufficient condition on the existence of robustguaranteed cost observers is derived. Robust guaranteed cost observers are designed in terms of linearmatrix inequalities. A convex optimization problem with LMI constraints is formulated to design thesuboptimal guaranteed cost filters.

  1. Cost optimisation and minimisation of the environmental impact through life cycle analysis of the waste water treatment plant of Bree (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gussem, K; Wambecq, T; Roels, J; Fenu, A; De Gueldre, G; Van De Steene, B

    2011-01-01

    An ASM2da model of the full-scale waste water plant of Bree (Belgium) has been made. It showed very good correlation with reference operational data. This basic model has been extended to include an accurate calculation of environmental footprint and operational costs (energy consumption, dosing of chemicals and sludge treatment). Two optimisation strategies were compared: lowest cost meeting the effluent consent versus lowest environmental footprint. Six optimisation scenarios have been studied, namely (i) implementation of an online control system based on ammonium and nitrate sensors, (ii) implementation of a control on MLSS concentration, (iii) evaluation of internal recirculation flow, (iv) oxygen set point, (v) installation of mixing in the aeration tank, and (vi) evaluation of nitrate setpoint for post denitrification. Both an environmental impact or Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based approach for optimisation are able to significantly lower the cost and environmental footprint. However, the LCA approach has some advantages over cost minimisation of an existing full-scale plant. LCA tends to chose control settings that are more logic: it results in a safer operation of the plant with less risks regarding the consents. It results in a better effluent at a slightly increased cost.

  2. Treatment of urban river contaminated sediment with ex situ advanced oxidation processes: technical feasibility, environmental discharges and cost-performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dickson Y S; Liu, Tongzhou; Lo, Irene M C

    2015-01-01

    The technical feasibility, environmental discharges and cost-performance of urban river contaminated sediment treatment with ex situ advanced oxidation processes were evaluated for the purpose of achieving an ideal treatment goal (for marine disposal) and a cost-performance treatment goal (for beneficially reusing as a filling material). Sediment samples were collected from a river located in southern China. To achieve the ideal treatment goal, sequential treatments (Fenton's reaction+activated persulphate oxidation) were carried out. One-step Fenton's reaction was applied to achieve the cost-performance treatment goal. The resulting effluent was treated and discharged, and sludge generated in wastewater treatment was characterized. The resources input throughout the treatment processes were recorded for cost estimation. After the treatment designed for achieving the ideal treatment goal, most pollutants fulfilled the treatment goal except Pb, Cd, Hg and Ag, probably because these four metals were present mainly in stable fractions of the sediment. The cost-performance treatment goal was achieved in view of low pollutant contents in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure leachate of treated sediment. The cost for achieving the cost-performance treatment goal is much less than that for achieving the ideal treatment goal. The major cost difference is attributed to chemical cost. Stringent sediment treatment goals based on existing standards would lead to massive chemical use, complex treatment and hence huge cost. A simpler treatment with fewer chemicals is adequate for sediment beneficially reused as a filling material, and is economically more advantageous than handling sediment for marine disposal.

  3. Detection limits and cost comparisons of human- and gull-associated conventional and quantitative PCR assays in artificial and environmental waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Timothy E.; Zimmer-Faust, Amity G.; Thulsiraj, Vanessa; Madi, Tania; Hanley, Kaitlyn T.; Ebentier, Darcy L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Layton, Blythe; Raith, Meredith; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Griffith, John F.; Holden, Patricia A.; Shanks, Orin C.; Weisberg, Stephen B.; Jay, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Some molecular methods for tracking fecal pollution in environmental waters have both PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays available for use. To assist managers in deciding whether to implement newer qPCR techniques in routine monitoring programs, we compared detection limits (LODs) and costs of PCR and qPCR assays with identical targets that are relevant to beach water quality assessment. For human-associated assays targeting Bacteroidales HF183 genetic marker, qPCR LODs were 70 times lower and there was no effect of target matrix (artificial freshwater, environmental creek water, and environmental marine water) on PCR or qPCR LODs. The PCR startup and annual costs were the lowest, while the per reaction cost was 62% lower than the Taqman based qPCR and 180% higher than the SYBR based qPCR. For gull-associated assays, there was no significant difference between PCR and qPCR LODs, target matrix did not effect PCR or qPCR LODs, and PCR startup, annual, and per reaction costs were lower. Upgrading to qPCR involves greater startup and annual costs, but this increase may be justified in the case of the human-associated assays with lower detection limits and reduced cost per sample.

  4. The CAMU Rule: A tool for implementing a protective, cost-effective remedy at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis-Nouille, E.M. [Fernald Environmental Management Project, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Goidell, L.C.; Strimbu, M.J. [Jacobs Engineering Group of Ohio, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a former uranium processing facility currently under remediation pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act as amended (CERCLA). Contamination at the FEMP consists of low-level radioactivity, hazardous substances, hazardous wastes and/or mixed wastes. Regulations promulgated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as amended (RCRA) are evaluated as applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remediation of the FEMP. Historically, joint CERCLA-RCRA guidance dictated that hazardous waste could not be treated, or moved out of the designated area of contiguous contamination (AOC), without triggering land disposal restrictions (LDRs) or minimum technology requirements (MTRs). To avoid invoking these stringent requirements, in situ capping was chosen as the lower cost remedy at many sites, although on-site disposal and/or treatment of hazardous wastes would have been more protective. The Corrective Action Management Units (CAMUs) and Temporary Units (TUs) Final Rule [58 FR 8658, Vol. 58, No. 29, hereinafter the {open_quotes}CAMU Rule{close_quotes}], promulgated on February 16, 1993, provides facilities regulated under RCRA corrective action authority with greater flexibility to move, treat, and dispose of wastes on site without triggering LDRs or MTRs, thereby encouraging application of innovative technologies and more protective remedies. The waste acceptance criteria for the on-site disposal facility is based on site-specific considerations including the mobility of the contaminants through the underlying site geology and the protectiveness of the engineered liners. Application of the {open_quotes}CAMU Rule{close_quotes} allows for disposition in the on-site facility based on these technical considerations rather than on regulatory classifications.

  5. Metabolic Cost of Protein Synthesis in Larvae of the Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Is Fixed Across Genotype, Phenotype, and Environmental Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimmy W; Applebaum, Scott L; Manahan, Donal T

    2016-06-01

    The energy made available through catabolism of specific biochemical reserves is constant using standard thermodynamic conversion equivalents (e.g., 24.0 J mg protein(-1)). In contrast, measurements reported for the energy cost of synthesis of specific biochemical constituents are highly variable. In this study, we measured the metabolic cost of protein synthesis and determined whether this cost was influenced by genotype, phenotype, or environment. We focused on larval stages of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, a species that offers several experimental advantages: availability of genetically pedigreed lines, manipulation of ploidy, and tractability of larval forms for in vivo studies of physiological processes. The cost of protein synthesis was measured in larvae of C. gigas for 1) multiple genotypes, 2) phenotypes with different growth rates, and 3) different environmental temperatures. For all treatments, the cost of protein synthesis was within a narrow range--near the theoretical minimum--with a fixed cost (mean ± one standard error, n = 21) of 2.1 ± 0.2 J (mg protein synthesized)(-1) We conclude that there is no genetic variation in the metabolic cost of protein synthesis, thereby simplifying bioenergetic models. Protein synthesis is a major component of larval metabolism in C. gigas, accounting for more than half the metabolic rate in diploid (59%) and triploid larvae (54%). These results provide measurements of metabolic cost of protein synthesis in larvae of C. gigas, an indicator species for impacts of ocean change, and provide a quantitative basis for evaluating the cost of resilience.

  6. Transaction costs of farmers’ participation in forest management: Policy implications of payments for environmental services schemes in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areeya Manasboonphempool

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on payments for environmental services (PES has observed that high transaction costs (TCs are incurred through the implementation of PES schemes and farmer participation. TCs incurred by households are considered to be an obstacle to the participation in and efficiency of PES policies. This study aims to understand transactions related to previous forest plantation programmes and to estimate the actual TCs incurred by farmers who participated in these programmes in a mountainous area of northwestern Vietnam. In addition, this study examines determinants of households’ TCs to test the hypothesis of whether the amount of TCs varies according to household characteristics. Results show that average TCs are not likely to be a constraint for participation since they are about 200,000 VND (USD 10 per household per contract, which is equivalent to one person’s average earnings for about two days of labour. However, TCs amount to more than one-third of the programmes’ benefits, which is relatively high compared to PES programmes in developed countries. This implies that rather than aiming to reduce TCs, an appropriate agenda for policy improvement is to balance the level of TCs with PES programme benefits to enhance the overall attractiveness of afforestation programmes for smallholder farmers. Regression analysis reveals that education, gender and perception towards PES programmes have significant effects on the magnitude of TCs. The analyses also points out the importance of local conditions on the level of TCs, with some unexpected results.

  7. Defending public interests in private lands: compliance, costs and potential environmental consequences of the Brazilian Forest Code in Mato Grosso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M; Nepstad, Daniel C; Azevedo, Andrea A; McGrath, David G

    2013-06-01

    Land-use regulations are a critical component of forest governance and conservation strategies, but their effectiveness in shaping landholder behaviour is poorly understood. We conducted a spatial and temporal analysis of the Brazilian Forest Code (BFC) to understand the patterns of regulatory compliance over time and across changes in the policy, and the implications of these compliance patterns for the perceived costs to landholders and environmental performance of agricultural landscapes in the southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso. Landholdings tended to remain in compliance or not according to their status at the beginning of the study period. The perceived economic burden of BFC compliance on soya bean and beef producers (US$3-5.6 billion in net present value of the land) may in part explain the massive, successful campaign launched by the farm lobby to change the BFC. The ecological benefits of compliance (e.g. greater connectivity and carbon) with the BFC are diffuse and do not compete effectively with the economic benefits of non-compliance that are perceived by landholders. Volatile regulation of land-use decisions that affect billions in economic rent that could be captured is an inadequate forest governance instrument; effectiveness of such regulations may increase when implemented in tandem with positive incentives for forest conservation.

  8. Improved and more environmentally friendly charcoal production system using a low-cost retort-kiln (Eco-charcoal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, J.C. [Adam and Partner, Bahnhofstrasse 13, 82467 Garmisch (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Research into a low-cost retort-kiln, used to produce charcoal from sustainably managed forests in a more environmentally friendly way (Eco-Charcoal), has been completed and pilot units have been built in India and East Africa. The unit is called ICPS (Improved Charcoal Production System). Importantly, it has a much higher efficiency rating than traditional earth-mound kilns, which have until now been the main means of domestic charcoal production in developing nations. The efficiency of traditional charcoal production methods is about 10%-22% (calculated on using oven-dry wood with 0% water content) while the efficiency of the ICPS is approximately 30%-42%. As compared with traditional carbonisation processes, the ICPS reduces emissions to the atmosphere by up to 75%. The ICPS works in two different phases. During the first phase the ICPS works like a traditional kiln; however, waste wood is burned in a separate fire box to dry the wood. During the second phase of operation the harmful volatiles are burned in a hot 'fire chamber' meaning all resulting emissions are cleaner, minus these already reduced volatiles. The heat gained by flaring the wood gazes, is used and recycled to accelerate the carbonisation process. Unlike traditional methods the ICPS can complete a carbonisation cycle within 12 h. (author)

  9. A New Environmentally Safe Formulation and of Low Cost for Prolonged Release System of Atrazine and Diuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracy karla da Rocha Cortes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diuron and atrazine were incorporated in new formulations developed with the purpose to improve herbicides action through release systems, as well as to reduce the environmental toxicity. A low cost formulation (ALG/ESC was obtained by combining sodium alginate (ALG with fish scales of the Piau fish (ESC from the Leporinus elongatus species. From the crosslinking of ALG/ESC with CaCl2, the formulation ALG/ESC-CaCl2 was obtained. For ALG/ESC-CaCl2, the results are successful, showing a prolonged release of 3.5 and 4.5 days for atrazine and diuron, respectively. Based on parameters of an empirical equation used to fit the herbicide release data, it appears that the release systems of diuron and atrazine from ALG/ESC-CaCl2 are by diffusion processes due to anomalous transport, which did not follow Fick’s laws of diffusion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i3.994

  10. 道路环境成本的货币化模型研究%Study on Monetization Model of Environmental Costs of Road Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴永立; 时德禹

    2012-01-01

    公平、合理地分担外部性环境成本是实现道路交通资源最优配置的前提条件之一,而环境成本货币化评估是实现道路交通政策体现环境公平性的重要内容.介绍了在国内外对道路外部成本的研究成果,在已有研究的基础上,将我国道路交通发展的环境成本主要分解为生态影响、环境污染和温室气体排放三类,并以借助环境经济学理论基础,对给出的道路交通生态影响、环境污染和温室气体排放的货币化方法估算模型分别进行了探讨.随后,以安徽省某高速公路为例,计算出道路建设及运营的环境成本占工程总投资的7.31%,结果表明环境成本货币化有利于明确道路建设的环境影响,并纳入成本核算中.%Share responsibility of environmental costs fairly and reasonably is one of the premises of realizing optimal distribution of traffic resources.Monetization evaluating environmental external costs of road transportation is an important factor to show fairness of traffic policies. According to the existent researches, environmental external cost related to road transportation can be divided into ecological destroying, environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emission. Based on the theory of environmental economics, this paper provided the monetization model of the above three types of impacts. Furthermore, taking a highway in Anhui Province as example,it calculated that environmental costs of road construction and running account for 7.31% of total investment. It is demonstrated that monetization of environmental costs is propitious to ascertain the environmental impact of road construction and should be bring into cost accounting.

  11. Political benefits as barriers to assessment of environmental costs in Brazil's Amazonian development planning: The example of the Jatapu Dam in Roraima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M.; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    1996-09-01

    Development projects are rapidly changing the landscape in Brazilian Amazonia. Environmental impact assessments have been required since 1986, and the regulatory system is evolving as precedents are set by each new development project. The Jatapu Dam in Roraima provides an illustration of underlying impediments to assessment of environmental costs and to due consideration being given to these assessments when decisions are made. The high priority placed on the dam by the Roraima state government is unexplainable in terms of economic returns. The place of the dam in a long-term political strategy provides the best of several possible explanations, any one of which is incompatible with a “rational” weighing of economic and environmental costs and benefits. A number of lessons can be drawn from the experience of Jatapu, but some of the problems have no solution. The barriers to rational decision making illustrated by Jatapu apply to development projects in many parts of the world.

  12. Variable Speed Limit on Freeway Based on the Cost of Traffic Delay and Crash Damage%基于延误和事故损失的高速公路可变限速控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 林永杰

    2016-01-01

    以交通检测系统获取的车道流量和速度为模型输入,分别提出基于延误损失、事故损失和综合损失等3类步进式可变限速控制。综合现有基于流量和基于车速离散性算法估计了高速公路事故发生率,提出了基于延误和事故发生率的路段综合损失计算方法。以青兰高速莱芜区约20 km的路段为实例,模拟了8组可变限速牌,通过微观仿真验证了提出的3种算法。结果证明,相比于静态控制,建立的3种模型均显著降低了主线车流的停车次数、停车延误和综合延误,改善了车辆行驶的平稳性,但主线车辆旅行时间略有增加。根据敏感性分析发现,随着驾驶员对限速值服从率的下降,可变限速控制的效益也逐渐降低,尤其低于80%时,下降显著;当低于60%时,基本保持不变。%Taking traffic volume and speed collected by traffic detection system as input variables, this paper proposes three kinds of step-by-step variable speed limit control models to minimize estimated delay cost, crash cost and comprehensive cost, respectively. The freeway crash rate is estimated based on volume-over-capacity and speed deviation by the existing model, and then the comprehensive cost is computed in terms of estimated delay and crash rate. In tests that used field freeway from about 20km segment of Qing-lan freeway with eight variable speed limit signs, these developed three controls show promise in reducing the numbers of vehicle stops, stopped delay and equivalent travel delay based on micro simulation results, smoothing traffic speed and improving traffic safety. Nevertheless, travel time of freeway vehicles is increased a little. Additionally, sensitivity analysis of driver compliance rate indicates that benefits of variable speed limit are gradually reduced as compliance rate decreased. When the compliance rate is below 80%, benefits are significantly decreased;and benefits are

  13. A proposed framework for establishing integrated cost and performance criteria for environmental technologies. A summary report to the U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    Through an Interagency Agreement between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA directed a project to establish a suite of standard cost and performance criteria to guide the evaluation of environmental cleanup technologies for DOE sites. Ideally, these criteria would be ``generic`` in that they could be used as a basis for evaluating any cleanup technology for any DOE site. To be most useful, however, these criteria would also reflect the interests of diverse decisionmakers who influence DOE technology evaluation. The project was conducted by the National Environmental Technology Applications Center (NETAC), a nonprofit organization specializing in the development and commercialization of new and innovative environmental technologies for national and international markets. To accomplish the project objective, NETAC (1) developed a data gathering questionnaire, (2) interviewed government and industry decisionmakers, (3) identified previous criteria development efforts, (4) conducted a workshop, (5) evaluated workshop discussions, and (6) applied its five years` experience in commercializing environmental technologies to analyze project findings. The project resulted in the development of a unique and comprehensive resource or tool to enhance communication among decisionmakers. This resource, a ``Proposed Framework for Establishing Integrated Cost and Performance Criteria for Evaluating Environmental Cleanup Technologies for DOE Sites,`` offers decisionmakers a first-time comprehensive assessment of major technology evaluation issues by a decisionmaker group.

  14. The external costs of electricity generation. A comparison of environmental damage of silicon photovoltaic electricity, produced with different electricity mixes, vs natural gas and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.L.; Veltkamp, A.C.; Sinke, W.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    In this paper the environmental damages of crystalline silicon photovoltaics are calculated, using the most recent photovoltaics data, and compared with those of the prevalent conventional energy technologies. A life cycle assessment of selected environmental impacts of 1kWh of electricity generated by various technologies was performed using Simapro software (version 7.2.4) in conjunction with the Ecoinvent database (version 2.2). The environmental impacts were assessed using the ReCiPe methodology. Because of the important role of coal and natural gas in the global electricity generation portfolio, special attention is given to the comparison of PV with those technologies. The environmental consequences of manufacturing PV modules with renewable, UCTE or 100% coal electricity mixes are explored. A brief update of the estimated monetarization of damages due to coal and climate change is included. A rough estimate of the true cost of coal and PV electricity is made in 2011.

  15. The role of natural gas in assessing environmental cost of fossil fuels; Il valore del gas naturale nella valutazione dei costi ambientali dei combustibili fossili

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C. [SNAM SpA (Italy)

    1999-08-01

    The actual price of a resource is the results of its internal and external costs. Internal costs means the price paid by the users in order to utilise the resource. On the other hand, externals costs, which are associated with the resource, are not paid directly by the users, but they shall be paid for by the society of the future generations. The article presents methodologies and issues relevant to energy policy decisions, when it comes to evaluating and using environmental external costs of fossil fuel life, with particular consideration to the end-use phase. The results of published studies on environmental costs of energy sources and an analysis applied to the Italia case show that natural gas as a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. The range of values depends upon the technologies considered and on the assumptions adopted when assessment environmental damages. [Italian] Il costo reale di una risorsa e' dato dalla somma del suo costo interno e del suo costo esterno. Il costo interno e' il costo che l'utente paga per poter utilizzare la risorsa. I costi esterni sono invece i costi associati alla risorsa per i quali l'utilizzatore non paga in prima persona un prezzo. Questi costi sono quindi trasferiti in blocco alla societa' o alle future generazioni. Sono presentate le metodologie e le problematiche per la valutazione e l'utilizzo nelle decisioni di politica energetica dei costi esterni ambientali del ciclo di vita dei combustibili fossili, con particolare attenzione per la fase degli usi finali. I dati di letteratura riguardanti i costi ambientali delle fonti energetiche ed un'analisi applicata al caso dell'Italia, dimostrano che il gas naturale ha un valore ambientale ben maggiore di altri combustibili fossili. Tale valore dipende dalla tecnologia considerata e dalle ipotesi adottate per la valutazione dei danni ambientali.

  16. Demonstrating the cost effectiveness of an expert occupational and environmental health nurse: application of AAOHN's success tools. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J A; Smith, P S

    2001-12-01

    According to DiBenedetto, "Occupational health nurses enhance and maximize the health, safety, and productivity of the domestic and global work force" (1999b). This project clearly defined the multiple roles and activities provided by an occupational and environmental health nurse and assistant, supported by a part time contract occupational health nurse. A well defined estimate of the personnel costs for each of these roles is helpful both in demonstrating current value and in future strategic planning for this department. The model highlighted both successes and a business cost savings opportunity for integrated disability management. The AAOHN's Success Tools (1998) were invaluable in launching the development of this cost effectiveness model. The three methods were selected from several tools of varying complexities offered. Collecting available data to develop these metrics required internal consultation with finance, human resources, and risk management, as well as communication with external health, safety, and environmental providers in the community. Benchmarks, surveys, and performance indicators can be found readily in the literature and online. The primary motivation for occupational and environmental health nurses to develop cost effectiveness analyses is to demonstrate the value and worth of their programs and services. However, it can be equally important to identify which services are not cost effective so knowledge and skills may be used in ways that continue to provide value to employers (AAOHN, 1996). As evidence based health care challenges the occupational health community to demonstrate business rationale and financial return on investment, occupational and environmental health nurses must meet that challenge if they are to define their preferred future (DiBenedetto, 2000).

  17. 煤炭企业环境成本控制问题及对策%Problems and Countermeasures of the environmental cost control of the coal enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美姜; 侯文哲

    2015-01-01

    作为国有企业资源类型的整合,煤炭企业的发展不仅要重视经济效益,也要注意环境成本。煤炭是当今社会经济快速发展的主要需求资源,但煤炭资源的开采给环境带来了许多负面的影响,环境成本是煤炭企业的主要成本之一。针对煤炭行业,分析其环境成本控制方面存在的问题,并提出解决对策,对该行业环境成本控制有一定的借鉴作用。%As the integration of state-owned enterprise resource types,the development of coal enterprises should not only pay attention to economic benefits,but also pay attention to the environmental cost.Coal is the main resource requirements of today's rapid social and economic development,but the exploitation of coal resources have brought many negative effects to the environment,the environmental cost is one of the main cost of coal enterprises.According to the coal industry,analysis the problems of the environmental cost control,and proposes the solution countermeasure,have certain reference function to the environmental cost control of the industry.

  18. The delay of the environmental licensing in oil activities and legal implications regarding the oil block; O atraso do licenciamento ambiental nas atividades petroliferas e as implicacoes atinentes ao cumprimento de prazo de bloco licitados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Hellen Priscilla Marinho; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This work intends to demonstrate how the delay in issuing environmental licenses by the appropriate bodies affect the correct fulfillment of the exploratory phase of blocks already bid and rendered to the lessees. Thus, it will be conducted a study of the pertaining legislation to the subject, such as Law n. 6.938/81 and its recent amendment by Complementary Law n. 140/2011, as well as the Resolutions issued by the National Environmental Council (CONAMA), addressing the vital importance of the environmental licensing process to the preservation of the environment ante the installation of potentially harmful activities. It is also acknowledged, through the analysis of articles and paragraphs, that there is a legal gap concerning the deadline for issuance of certain documents required to start the licensing procedure by the companies, which ultimately jeopardizes the fulfillment of their exploration activities in due time. Furthermore, there is not a provision regarding the return of the deadline to the lessee when it is suspended or extended due to licensing delays for reasons beyond its control, which cannot lack a reasonable answer. Therefore, as a conclusion, it will be presented a possible solution, so as to ensure the proper accomplishment of the oil activities combined with the preservation of the environment. (author)

  19. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  20. Modeling a farm population to estimate on-farm compliance costs and environmental effects of a grassland extensification scheme at the regional scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uthes, Sandra; Sattler, Claudia; Piorr, Annette

    2010-01-01

    production orientations and grassland types was modeled under the presence and absence of the grassland extensification scheme using the bio-economic model MODAM. Farms were based on available accountancy data and surveyed production data, while information on farm location within the district was derived...... and environmental effects were heterogeneous in space and farm types as a result of different agricultural production and site characteristics. On-farm costs ranged from zero up to almost 1500 Euro/ha. Such high costs occurred only in a very small part of the regional area, whereas the majority of the grassland had...

  1. Non-fragile guaranteed cost control for uncertain nonlinear systems with time-delay%不确定非线性时滞系统的非脆弱保成本控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 张凯

    2011-01-01

    研究了一类具有状态时滞的不确定非线性系统的非脆弱保成本控制问题.通过利用Lyapunov稳定性理论和线性矩阵不等式方法,设计非脆弱保成本控制律,使得闭环系统渐近稳定,并且系统的性能指标不超过某个确定的上界.通过求解一个具有线性矩阵不等式约束的凸优化问题来设计最优非脆弱保成本控制器,以使得闭环不确定系统的性能指标最小化.仿真结果验证了该控制算法的有效性.%This paper considers the non-fragile guaranteed cost control problem for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with states time-delay.The Lyapunov stability theory and the LMI approach are applied to design a non-fragile guaranteed cost control law,which results that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and the system's performance index is less than a determinate super bound.A convex optimization problem with LMI constraints is formulated to design the optimal non-fragile guaranteed cost controller for minimizing the performance index of the closed-loop uncertain system. Simulation results show the validity of the proposed control algorithm.

  2. Use of Biostratigraphy to Increase Production, Reduce Operating Costs and Risks and Reduce Environmental Concerns in Oil Well Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Marks

    2005-09-09

    out at the top of the late Miocene, early Mohnian: Bolivina aff hughesi, Rotalia becki, Suggrunda californica, Virgulina grandis, Virgulina ticensis, Bulimina ecuadorana, Denticula lauta and Nonion medio-costatum. Please see Appendix B, Fig. 1, Neogene Zones, p. 91 and Appendix C, chart 5, p. 99 By the use of Stratigraphy, employing both Paleontology and Lithology, we can increase hydrocarbon production, reduce operating costs and risks by the identification of the productive sections, and reduce environmental concerns by drilling less dry holes needlessly.

  3. Modeling the Costs and Environmental Benefits of Disposal Options for End-of-Life Electronic Equipment: The Case of Used Computer Monitors

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Karen; Macauley, Molly; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Cline, Sarah; Holsinger, Heather

    2001-01-01

    Managing the growing quantity of used electronic equipment poses challenges for waste management officials. In this paper, we focus on a large component of the electronic waste stream—computer monitors—and the disposal concerns associated with the lead embodied in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in most monitors. We develop a policy simulation model of consumers’ disposal options based on the costs of these options and their associated environmental impacts. For the stock of monitors disposed o...

  4. Interplay between thermal and immune ecology: effect of environmental temperature on insect immune response and energetic costs after an immune challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Tamara P; Wozniak, Aniela; Niemeyer, Hermann M; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Although the study of thermoregulation in insects has shown that infected animals tend to prefer higher temperatures than healthy individuals, the immune response and energetic consequences of this preference remain unknown. We examined the effect of environmental temperature and the energetic costs associated to the activation of the immune response of Tenebrio molitor larvae following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. We measured the effect of temperature on immune parameters including phenoloxidase (PO) activity and antibacterial responses. Further as proximal and distal costs of the immune response we determined the standard metabolic rate (SMR) and the loss of body mass (m(b)), respectively. Immune response was stronger at 30°C than was at 10 or 20°C. While SMR at 10 and 20°C did not differ between immune treatments, at 30°C SMR of LPS-treated larvae was almost 25-60% higher than SMR of PBS-treated and naïve larvae. In addition, the loss in m(b) was 1.9 and 4.2 times higher in LPS-treated larvae than in PBS-treated and naïve controls. The immune responses exhibited a positive correlation with temperature and both, SMR and m(b) change, were sensitive to environmental temperature. These data suggest a significant effect of environmental temperature on the immune response and on the energetic costs of immunity.

  5. The cost of environmental policies to the economy. Cost-effectiveness analyses with an applied equilibrium model. Die volkswirtschaftlichen Kosten von Umweltpolitik. Kosten-Wirksamkeitsanalysen mit einem angewandten Gleichgewichtsmodell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, M.

    1991-01-01

    After discussion of the most important previously available models for the quantification of the economic effects of environmental policies, the author's ENEAS model is presented. This is an applied equilibrium model that is used to assess total economic and sectoral costs of environmental policies. The applications of the ENEAS model are described and interpreted. The emphasis is on the comparison of the economic effects of various instruments of environmental policy. A baseline run which depicts the effects of the currently valid regulations on pollution serves as a point of comparison for the various simulations. The calculations for this are carried out especially for the economy of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The effects of the environmental policy depicted in the baseline run are compared with the effects achieved through efficient emissions taxes and subsidies for the removal of pollutants. The aim of the study is to answer practical, relevant questions on economic environmental policies using the applications of the ENEAS model. (orig./HSCH) With 36 figs.

  6. A Dynamic Navigation Model for Unmanned Aircraft Systems and an Application to Autonomous Front-On Environmental Sensing and Photography Using Low-Cost Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew James Cooper

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an unmanned aircraft system (UAS that uses a probabilistic model for autonomous front-on environmental sensing or photography of a target. The system is based on low-cost and readily-available sensor systems in dynamic environments and with the general intent of improving the capabilities of dynamic waypoint-based navigation systems for a low-cost UAS. The behavioural dynamics of target movement for the design of a Kalman filter and Markov model-based prediction algorithm are included. Geometrical concepts and the Haversine formula are applied to the maximum likelihood case in order to make a prediction regarding a future state of a target, thus delivering a new waypoint for autonomous navigation. The results of the application to aerial filming with low-cost UAS are presented, achieving the desired goal of maintained front-on perspective without significant constraint to the route or pace of target movement.

  7. Robust Resilient Guaranteed Cost Control for Singular Impulsive Switched Systems with Time-varying Delay%时变时滞奇异脉冲切换系统的鲁棒弹性保成本控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆芝; 宗广灯

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problem of robust resilient guaranteed cost control for a class of singular impulsive switched systems with time-varying delay.Based on the multiple Lyapunov functional technique,some sufficient criteria,ensuring the regularity,causality,and asymptotic stability,are obtained initially for the nominal and unforced systems.Then the resil-ient controller is designed such that the corresponding closed-loop system,for all admissible un-certainties,is regular,causal and asymptotically stable,and the cost function does not exceed a cost upper bound.Further,a minimization approach of the largest singular value of matrices and a convex optimization method are introduced to seek the optimal robust resilient guaranteed cost controller.All the conditions are cast into the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) through ingenious processing.Finally,two examples are presented to illustrate the less conser-vativeness and the effectiveness of the proposed results.%针对一类具有时变时滞的奇异脉冲切换系统,研究鲁棒弹性保成本控制问题。首先,基于多 Lyapunov泛函技术,建立标称自由系统具有正则性、因果性及渐近稳定性的充分条件。然后,给出一个弹性保性能控制器的设计方案,该方案能保证对所有容许的不确定性,闭环系统是正则的、因果的和渐近稳定的,且成本函数不超过某个上界。并进一步运用矩阵最大奇异值的最小化方法和凸优化方法,求解最优鲁棒弹性保成本控制器。所有的充分条件均巧妙地表示为线性矩阵不等式形式。最后,运用两个仿真实例验证本研究方法较少的保守性和有效性。

  8. Cost allocation for collaborative procurement on perishable products under permissible delay in payments%延期支付下的易腐品联合采购费用分配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯海荣; 李军; 曾银莲

    2013-01-01

    在激烈的市场竞争中,信用销售方式作为企业提升竞争力、扩大销售和经营规模的主要手段,受到越来越多的企业以及学者的关注.在供应商允许延期支付货款的条件下,研究了多零售商组成采购联盟向供应商联合采购某种易腐品的订货决策问题.考虑多零售商联合采购的订货费用、采购费用、库存费用、信用期内的利息收入、信用期限外的利息支出,将易腐品联合采购的费用分配问题构造成易腐品联合采购博弈,证明了博弈满足次加性和平衡性,并给出一种属于博弈核心的费用分配方法.研究发现,联盟参与者越多,最优订货周期越短;联合采购时联盟的总费用小于各零售商独立采购时的费用之和,这样零售商就有动机组成采购联盟;联合采购能降低各零售商的总费用.%Trade credit is a main source for enterprises to improve competitiveness,promote products sales,and enlarge market share in the fierce market competition.And thus,it has received tremendous attention from enterprises and scholars.This paper studies the collaborative procurement problem for multi-retailers who form a purchasing alliance under the permissible delay of payments offered by the supplier.In this paper,the ordering cost,the purchasing cost,the holding cost,the interest earned and the interest charged are considered; the cost allocation problem for collaborative procurement on perishable products is formulated as a cooperative game.It is proved that the corresponding game is subadditive and balanced.Furthermore,an allocation rule is proposed and proved to be a core allocation.The results show that the optimal replenishment cycle length will be decreasing when the scale of the purchasing alliance is increasing; the alliance1s cost is less than the sum of retailers1 independent cost,and thus retailers are prone to form a purchasing alliance; collaborative procurement leads to a decrease in each retailer1

  9. Virtual unit delay for digital frequency adaptive T/4 delay phase-locked loop system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    -controller/processor with a fixed sampling rate considering the cost and complexity, where the number of unit delays that have been adopted should be an integer. For instance, in conventional digital control systems, a single-phase T/4 Delay Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) system takes 50 unit delays (i.e., in a 50-Hz system...... Delay PLL system should be done in its implementation. This process will result in performance degradation in the digital control system, as the exactly required number of delays is not realized. Hence, in this paper, a Virtual Unit Delay (VUD) has been proposed to address such challenges to the digital...... T/4 Delay PLL system. The proposed VUD adopts linear interpolation polynomial to approximate the fractional delay induced by the varying grid frequency in such a way that the control performance is enhanced. The proposed VUD has been demonstrated on a digitally controlled T/4 Delay PLL system...

  10. Livermore blasted for project delay

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    In a 12 page report issued last week, a review committee set up by the University of California has concluded that mismanagement and poor planning are to blame for significant cost overruns and delays in the construction of NIF, the worlds largest laser (1 page).

  11. Enhancing Supply Chain Performance with Environmental Cost Information: Examples from Commonwealth Edison, Andersen Corportation, and Ashland Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collection of case studies illustrates how supply chain management practices can be improved by determining the financial impact of business activities that have an impact on a company’s environmental performance.

  12. Design and Development of nEMoS, an All-in-One, Low-Cost, Web-Connected and 3D-Printed Device for Environmental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Salamone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ refers to the quality of the environment in relation to the health and well-being of the occupants. It is a holistic concept, which considers several categories, each related to a specific environmental parameter. This article describes a low-cost and open-source hardware architecture able to detect the indoor variables necessary for the IEQ calculation as an alternative to the traditional hardware used for this purpose. The system consists of some sensors and an Arduino board. One of the key strengths of Arduino is the possibility it affords of loading the script into the board’s memory and letting it run without interfacing with computers, thus granting complete independence, portability and accuracy. Recent works have demonstrated that the cost of scientific equipment can be reduced by applying open-source principles to their design using a combination of the Arduino platform and a 3D printer. The evolution of the 3D printer has provided a new means of open design capable of accelerating self-directed development. The proposed nano Environmental Monitoring System (nEMoS instrument is shown to have good reliability and it provides the foundation for a more critical approach to the use of professional sensors as well as for conceiving new scenarios and potential applications.

  13. Design and development of nEMoS, an all-in-one, low-cost, web-connected and 3D-printed device for environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2015-06-04

    The Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) refers to the quality of the environment in relation to the health and well-being of the occupants. It is a holistic concept, which considers several categories, each related to a specific environmental parameter. This article describes a low-cost and open-source hardware architecture able to detect the indoor variables necessary for the IEQ calculation as an alternative to the traditional hardware used for this purpose. The system consists of some sensors and an Arduino board. One of the key strengths of Arduino is the possibility it affords of loading the script into the board's memory and letting it run without interfacing with computers, thus granting complete independence, portability and accuracy. Recent works have demonstrated that the cost of scientific equipment can be reduced by applying open-source principles to their design using a combination of the Arduino platform and a 3D printer. The evolution of the 3D printer has provided a new means of open design capable of accelerating self-directed development. The proposed nano Environmental Monitoring System (nEMoS) instrument is shown to have good reliability and it provides the foundation for a more critical approach to the use of professional sensors as well as for conceiving new scenarios and potential applications.

  14. Inclusion of environmental costs on a long-term expansion model of hydrothermal generation systems; Insercao dos custos ambientais em um modelo de expansao da geracao a longo prazo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Henrique Luz

    2008-02-15

    This dissertation presents the development of a mathematical model to be used in the hydrothermal generation expansion planning taking into account uncertainties, the guarantee of energy supply and issues related to the social and environmental problems caused by the power sector. Named 'MELP Ambiental', it is a version of MELP, a model developed by Machado Junior (2000). The environmental valuation was based on results of previous studies. The analysis of the environmental costs scenarios showed that the inclusion of a variable linked to externalities implies in changes on the investment schedule. These changes decrease the total cost (economic and environmental) related to long-term power supply expansion. (author)

  15. Open source hardware solutions for low-cost, do-it-yourself environmental monitoring, citizen science, and STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S. D.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Arscott, D. B.; Muenz, T.; Bressler, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    The explosion in DIY open-source hardware and software has resulted in the development of affordable and accessible technologies, like drones and weather stations, that can greatly assist the general public in monitoring environmental health and its degradation. It is widely recognized that education and support of audiences in pursuit of STEM literacy and the application of emerging technologies is a challenge for the future of citizen science and for preparing high school graduates to be actively engaged in environmental stewardship. It is also clear that detecting environmental change/degradation over time and space will be greatly enhanced with expanded use of networked, remote monitoring technologies by watershed organizations and citizen scientists if data collection and reporting are properly carried out and curated. However, there are few focused efforts to link citizen scientists and school programs with these emerging tools. We have started a multi-year program to develop hardware and teaching materials for training students and citizen scientists about the use of open source hardware in environmental monitoring. Scientists and educators around the world have started building their own dataloggers and devices using a variety of boards based on open source electronics. This new hardware is now providing researchers with an inexpensive alternative to commercial data logging and transmission hardware. We will present a variety of hardware solutions using the Arduino-compatible EnviroDIY Mayfly board (http://envirodiy.org/mayfly) that can be used to build and deploy a rugged environmental monitoring station using a wide variety of sensors and options, giving the users a fully customizable device for making measurements almost anywhere. A database and visualization system is being developed that will allow the users to view and manage the data their devices are collecting. We will also present our plan for developing curricula and leading workshops to various

  16. Environmental cost-benefit analysis of alternative timing strategies in greenhouse gas abatement: A data envelopment analysis approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuosmanen, T.K.; Bijsterbosch, N.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the benefits of climate policies is complicated due to ancillary benefits: abatement of greenhouse gases also reduces local air pollution. The timing of the abatement measures influences both the economic costs and ancillary benefits. This paper conducts efficiency analysis of ten alternat

  17. The Hazardous-Drums Project: A Multiweek Laboratory Exercise for General Chemistry Involving Environmental, Quality Control, and Cost Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David; Widanski, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to "real-world" hazardous waste management issues chemists face. The students are required to define an analytical problem, choose a laboratory analysis method, investigate cost factors, consider quality-control issues, interpret the meaning of results, and provide management…

  18. The Hazardous-Drums Project: A Multiweek Laboratory Exercise for General Chemistry Involving Environmental, Quality Control, and Cost Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David; Widanski, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to "real-world" hazardous waste management issues chemists face. The students are required to define an analytical problem, choose a laboratory analysis method, investigate cost factors, consider quality-control issues, interpret the meaning of results, and provide management…

  19. Delayed biodiversity change: no time to waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essl, Franz; Dullinger, Stefan; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Hulme, Philip E; Pyšek, Petr; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2015-07-01

    Delayed biodiversity responses to environmental forcing mean that rates of contemporary biodiversity changes are underestimated, yet these delays are rarely addressed in conservation policies. Here, we identify mechanisms that lead to such time lags, discuss shifting human perceptions, and propose how these phenomena should be addressed in biodiversity management and science.

  20. Mangrove and Freshwater Wetland Conservation Through Carbon Offsets: A Cost-Benefit Analysis for Establishing Environmental Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-González, César; Moreno-Casasola, Patricia; Hernández, María Elizabeth; Campos, Adolfo; Espejel, Ileana; Fermán-Almada, José Luis

    2017-02-01

    Mexico has extensive coastal wetlands (4,243,137 ha), and one of its most important sites is the Alvarado Lagoon System, located in the Papaloapan River Basin on the Gulf of Mexico. The land cover dedicated to livestock and sugarcane has increased: by 25 % in 2005 and 50 % in 2010, with a loss of wetland vegetation and the carbon that it stores. We found that the Net Present Value of mangrove carbon offsets profit is equal to 5822.71, that of broad-leaved marshes is 7958.86, cattail marshes 5250.33, and forested wetlands 8369.41 per hectare, during a 30-year-carbonoffset contract. However, the opportunity cost from conserving wetland instead of growing sugarcane is positive according to REDD+ methodology, e.g., broad-leaved marsh conservation ranged from 6.73 to 20 USD/t CO2e, that of cattail marshes from 12.20 to 32.65 USD/t CO2e, and forested wetlands from 7.15 to 20.60 USD/t CO2e, whereas the opportunity cost between conservation and livestock was negative, it means that conservation is more profitable. The cost-benefit analysis for assessing investment projects from a governmental perspective is useful to determine the viability of conserving coastal wetlands through carbon offset credits. It also shows why in some areas it is not possible to conserve ecosystems due to the opportunity cost of changing from one economic activity (livestock and sugarcane) to carbon offsets for protecting wetlands. Furthermore, it allows for a comparison of carbon markets and assessment in terms of REDD+ and its methods for determining the social cost per ton of carbon avoided.

  1. Mangrove and Freshwater Wetland Conservation Through Carbon Offsets: A Cost-Benefit Analysis for Establishing Environmental Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-González, César; Moreno-Casasola, Patricia; Hernández, María Elizabeth; Campos, Adolfo; Espejel, Ileana; Fermán-Almada, José Luis

    2017-02-01

    Mexico has extensive coastal wetlands (4,243,137 ha), and one of its most important sites is the Alvarado Lagoon System, located in the Papaloapan River Basin on the Gulf of Mexico. The land cover dedicated to livestock and sugarcane has increased: by 25 % in 2005 and 50 % in 2010, with a loss of wetland vegetation and the carbon that it stores. We found that the Net Present Value of mangrove carbon offsets profit is equal to $5822.71, that of broad-leaved marshes is $7958.86, cattail marshes $5250.33, and forested wetlands $8369.41 per hectare, during a 30-year-carbonoffset contract. However, the opportunity cost from conserving wetland instead of growing sugarcane is positive according to REDD+ methodology, e.g., broad-leaved marsh conservation ranged from $6.73 to $20 USD/t CO2e, that of cattail marshes from $12.20 to $32.65 USD/t CO2e, and forested wetlands from $7.15 to $20.60 USD/t CO2e, whereas the opportunity cost between conservation and livestock was negative, it means that conservation is more profitable. The cost-benefit analysis for assessing investment projects from a governmental perspective is useful to determine the viability of conserving coastal wetlands through carbon offset credits. It also shows why in some areas it is not possible to conserve ecosystems due to the opportunity cost of changing from one economic activity (livestock and sugarcane) to carbon offsets for protecting wetlands. Furthermore, it allows for a comparison of carbon markets and assessment in terms of REDD+ and its methods for determining the social cost per ton of carbon avoided.

  2. Environmental costs associated to the electric generation: hydroelectric versus natural gas thermoelectric; Custos ambientais associados a geracao eletrica: hidreletricas versus termeletricas a gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Marcelo de Miranda

    2001-01-15

    This works presents the methodologies for valuation of the environmental costs resulting from the main damages of the cycles of electric energy arrange through hydroelectric and natural gas thermoelectric. Initially theoretical concepts are established, embracing: the description of the valuation methodologies, the possible ways of damages internalization in the value of the products, the environmental impacts of hydroelectric and natural gas thermoelectric in these fuel cycles, and the methodologies that can be applied for value the main damages caused by the impacts. Then case studies are developed, with application of the methodologies in the hydroelectric plants of Simplicio and Serra da Mesa, and in the thermoelectric complex composed for RioGen and RioGen Merchant plants. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for a better future application in Brazil of the valuation methodologies are presented. (author)

  3. Delayed childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, H H

    1985-06-01

    In many Western nations, including England and Wales, Sweden, and the US, there is a current trend towards delayed childbearing because of women's pursuit of a career, later marriage, a longer interval between marriage and the 1st birth, and the increasing number of divorcees having children in a 2nd marriage. Wives of men in social classes I and II in England and Wales are, on average, having their 1st child at 27.9 years, 1.6 years later than in 1973, and in social classes IV and V, 1.0 years later than in 1973, at a mean age of 23.7 years. Consequently, the total period fertility rate for British women aged 30-34 years, 35-39 years, and 40 and over increased by 4%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, between 1982-83, in contrast to reductions of 2% and 3%, respectively, in the 15-19 year and 20-24 year age groups, with the 25-29-year-olds remaining static. The average maternal mortality for all parties in England and Wales during 1976-78 was 106/million for adolescents, 70.4/million for 20-24 year-olds, and 1162/million for those aged 40 years and older. The specific obstetric and allied conditions which increase with age are the hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, abortion, cardiac disease, caesarean section, ruptured uterus, and amniotic fluid embolism. The Swedish Medical Birth Registry of all live births and perinatal deaths since 1973 has shown that the risk of late fetal death is significantly greater in women aged 30-39 years than in those of the same parity and gravidity aged 20-24 years. The risk of giving birth to low birth weight babies preterm and at term and of premature labor are similarly increased. The early neonatal death rate also was increased for primigravidas and nulliparas in the 30-39 year age group but not in parous women. This is, in part, due to the rise in incidence of fetal abnormalities with advancing maternal age because of chromosomal and nonchromosomal anomalies. These also appear to be the cause of the

  4. A Framework for Statewide Analysis of Site Suitability, Energy Estimation, Life Cycle Costs, Financial Feasibility and Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms: A Case Study of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Indraneel

    In the last decade, Midwestern states including Indiana have experienced an unprecedented growth in utility scale wind energy farms. For example, by end of 2013, Indiana had 1.5 GW of wind turbines installed, which could provide electrical energy for as many as half-a-million homes. However, there is no statewide systematic framework available for the evaluation of wind farm impacts on endangered species, required necessary setbacks and proximity standards to infrastructure, and life cycle costs. This research is guided to fill that gap and it addresses the following questions. How much land is suitable for wind farm siting in Indiana given the constraints of environmental, ecological, cultural, settlement, physical infrastructure and wind resource parameters? How much wind energy can be obtained? What are the life cycle costs and economic and financial feasibility? Is wind energy production and development in a state an emission free undertaking? The framework developed in the study is applied to a case study of Indiana. A fuzzy logic based AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) spatial site suitability analysis for wind energy is formulated. The magnitude of wind energy that could be sited and installed comprises input for economic and financial feasibility analysis for 20-25 years life cycle of wind turbines in Indiana. Monte Carlo simulation is used to account for uncertainty and nonlinearity in various costs and price parameters. Impacts of incentives and cost variables such as production tax credits, costs of capital, and economies of scale are assessed. Further, an economic input-output (IO) based environmental assessment model is developed for wind energy, where costs from financial feasibility analysis constitute the final demand vectors. This customized model for Indiana is used to assess emissions for criteria air pollutants, hazardous air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) across life cycle events of wind turbines. The findings of the case study include

  5. Developing a cost effective environmental solution for produced water and creating a ''new'' water resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran, Glenn; Leong, Lawrence Y.C.

    2000-05-01

    The project goal is to convert a currently usable by-product of oil production, produced water, into a valuable drinking water resource. The project was located at the Placate Oil Field in Santa Clarita, California, approximately 25 miles north of Los Angeles. The project included a literature review of treatment technologies; preliminary bench-scale studies to refine a planning level cost estimate; and a 10-100 gpm pilot study to develop the conceptual design and cost estimate for a 44,000 bpd treatment facility. A reverse osmosis system was constructed, pilot tested, and the data used to develop a conceptual design and operation of four operational scenarios, two industrial waters levels and two irrigation/potable water.

  6. Transaction Costs Economics of Irreplaceability: ex ante and ex post Evaluation of Conservation Networks' Vulnerability to Environmental Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huusom, Henrik; Strange, Niels

    2008-04-01

    The theoretical concept, “asset specificity,” is applied to real data in the context of Danish nature conservation network planning in order to produce illustrative examples of an economic measure of the network’s vulnerability to exogenous shocks to the species composition. Three different measures of asset specificity are quantified from the shadow value of eliminating a key species from the individual grid cells. This represents a novel approach and a different interpretation of the term, as it is conventionally used as a qualitative indicator in the transaction cost economics literature. Apart from supplementing existing cost measures with an indicator of risk associated with investments in protected areas, this study demonstrates how the estimation and interpretation of various asset specificity measures for geographical areas may qualify policy makers’ choice of policy instrument in conservation planning. This differs from the more intuitive approach of basing policy instrument choice solely on the rarity of the species in a given area.

  7. Demonstrating the Environmental & Economic Cost-Benefits of Reusing DoD’s Pre-World War II Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Output Emission Rates • Scope 3: (1) Athena Institute EcoCalculator for Assemblies, Low Rise Structures; and (2) EIO- LCA : Economic Input-Output Life...kBtu 1,000 British thermal units kWh Kilowatt hour LCA Life Cycle Assessment LCCA Life Cycle Cost Analysis LEED Leadership in Energy and...Model (EIO- LCA ) EIO- LCA : Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO- LCA ), US 2002 Purchaser Price Model Scope 3: Transportation for

  8. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems, and high out-year cost environmental management project descriptions. Volume 3 of 3 -- Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation`s nuclear complex. Appendix C provides details about each of the Department`s 82 high cost projects and lists the EMSP research awards with potential to impact each of these projects. The high cost projects listed are those having costs greater than $50 million in constant 1998 dollars from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and having costs of quantities of material associated with an environmental management problem area. The high cost project information is grouped by operations office and organized by site and project code. Each operations office section begins with a list of research needs associated with that operations office. Potentially related research awards are listed by problem area in the Index of Research Awards by Environmental Management Problem Area, which can be found at the end of appendices B and C. For projects that address high risks to the public, workers, or the environment, refer also the Health/Ecology/Risk problem area awards. Research needs are programmatic or technical challenges that may benefit from knowledge gained through basic research.

  9. Agribusiness Opportunity Costs and Environmental Legal Protection: Investigating Trade-Off on Hotspot Preservation in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igari, Alexandre Toshiro; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Pivello, Vânia Regina

    2009-08-01

    Prior to deforestation, São Paulo State had 79,000 km2 covered by Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) physiognomies, but today less than 8.5% of this biodiversity hotspot remains, mostly in private lands. The global demand for agricultural goods has imposed strong pressure on natural areas, and the economic decisions of agribusiness managers are crucial to the fate of Cerrado domain remaining areas (CDRA) in Brazil. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Brazilian private protected areas policy, and to propose a feasible alternative to promote CDRA protection. This article assessed the main agribusiness opportunity costs for natural areas preservation: the land use profitability and the arable land price. The CDRA percentage and the opportunity costs were estimated for 349 municipal districts of São Paulo State through secondary spatial data and profitability values of 38 main agricultural products. We found that Brazilian private protected areas policy fails to preserve CDRA, although the values of non-compliance fines were higher than average opportunity costs. The scenario with very restrictive laws on private protected areas and historical high interest rates allowed us to conceive a feasible cross compliance proposal to improve environmental and agricultural policies.

  10. Joint implementation. Cost benefit analysis of global environmental care; Joint Implementation. Kosten-Nutzen-Ueberlegungen globaler Umweltvorsorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loon, M.A.P.C. van [N.V. Samenwerkende Elektriciteits-Produktiebedrijven (Sep), Arnheim (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    The strategy in SEP, the interconnected electricity supply undertaking of The Netherlands, for the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions is focussed on the implementation of cost-effective `no regret` measures at home and abroad. Here, at present, SEP is concentrating on afforestation measures. Through a daughter organization called the FACE Foundation, SEP finances world-wide afforestation projects. FACE is able to take into account, forco-financing, the CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of these forests. These re-afforestation projects have proved to be a very cost-effective way of levelling out CO{sub 2} emissions in comparison with measures in The Netherlands. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Strategie der in der Sep zusammengeschlossenen niederlaendischen Elektrizitaetswirtschaft zur Begrenzung von Treibhausgasemissionen konzentriert sich auf die Umsetzung kosteneffektiver `No-regret`-Massnahmen im In- und Ausland. Dort konzentriert sich Sep gegenwaertig auf Aufforstungsmassnahmen. Durch eine Tochterorganisation, die FACE-Stiftung, finanziert Sep weltweit Aufforstungsprojekte mit. Fuer die Mitfinanzierung laesst sich FACE die CO{sub 2}-Bindungskapzitaet dieser Waelder anrechnen. Diese Wiederaufforstungsprojekte haben sich als ein sehr kosteneffektiver Weg zum Ausgleich von CO{sub 2}-Emissionen im Vergleich zu Massnahmen in den Niederlanden herausgestellt. (orig.)

  11. A Simple and Low-Cost Monitoring System to Investigate Environmental Conditions in a Biological Research Laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Gurdita

    Full Text Available Basic equipment such as incubation and refrigeration systems plays a critical role in nearly all aspects of the traditional biological research laboratory. Their proper functioning is therefore essential to ensure reliable and repeatable experimental results. Despite this fact, in many academic laboratories little attention is paid to validating and monitoring their function, primarily due to the cost and/or technical complexity of available commercial solutions. We have therefore developed a simple and low-cost monitoring system that combines a "Raspberry Pi" single-board computer with USB-connected sensor interfaces to track and log parameters such as temperature and pressure, and send email alert messages as appropriate. The system is controlled by open-source software, and we have also generated scripts to automate software setup so that no background in programming is required to install and use it. We have applied it to investigate the behaviour of our own equipment, and present here the results along with the details of the monitoring system used to obtain them.

  12. A Simple and Low-Cost Monitoring System to Investigate Environmental Conditions in a Biological Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdita, Akshay; Vovko, Heather; Ungrin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Basic equipment such as incubation and refrigeration systems plays a critical role in nearly all aspects of the traditional biological research laboratory. Their proper functioning is therefore essential to ensure reliable and repeatable experimental results. Despite this fact, in many academic laboratories little attention is paid to validating and monitoring their function, primarily due to the cost and/or technical complexity of available commercial solutions. We have therefore developed a simple and low-cost monitoring system that combines a "Raspberry Pi" single-board computer with USB-connected sensor interfaces to track and log parameters such as temperature and pressure, and send email alert messages as appropriate. The system is controlled by open-source software, and we have also generated scripts to automate software setup so that no background in programming is required to install and use it. We have applied it to investigate the behaviour of our own equipment, and present here the results along with the details of the monitoring system used to obtain them.

  13. A Low-Cost Environmental Monitoring System: How to Prevent Systematic Errors in the Design Phase through the Combined Use of Additive Manufacturing and Thermographic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Salamone

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available nEMoS (nano Environmental Monitoring System is a 3D-printed device built following the Do-It-Yourself (DIY approach. It can be connected to the web and it can be used to assess indoor environmental quality (IEQ. It is built using some low-cost sensors connected to an Arduino microcontroller board. The device is assembled in a small-sized case and both thermohygrometric sensors used to measure the air temperature and relative humidity, and the globe thermometer used to measure the radiant temperature, can be subject to thermal effects due to overheating of some nearby components. A thermographic analysis was made to rule out this possibility. The paper shows how the pervasive technique of additive manufacturing can be combined with the more traditional thermographic techniques to redesign the case and to verify the accuracy of the optimized system in order to prevent instrumental systematic errors in terms of the difference between experimental and actual values of the above-mentioned environmental parameters.

  14. A Low-Cost Environmental Monitoring System: How to Prevent Systematic Errors in the Design Phase through the Combined Use of Additive Manufacturing and Thermographic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Francesco; Danza, Ludovico; Meroni, Italo; Pollastro, Maria Cristina

    2017-04-11

    nEMoS (nano Environmental Monitoring System) is a 3D-printed device built following the Do-It-Yourself (DIY) approach. It can be connected to the web and it can be used to assess indoor environmental quality (IEQ). It is built using some low-cost sensors connected to an Arduino microcontroller board. The device is assembled in a small-sized case and both thermohygrometric sensors used to measure the air temperature and relative humidity, and the globe thermometer used to measure the radiant temperature, can be subject to thermal effects due to overheating of some nearby components. A thermographic analysis was made to rule out this possibility. The paper shows how the pervasive technique of additive manufacturing can be combined with the more traditional thermographic techniques to redesign the case and to verify the accuracy of the optimized system in order to prevent instrumental systematic errors in terms of the difference between experimental and actual values of the above-mentioned environmental parameters.

  15. A New Arduino Datalogger Board for Simple, Low Cost Environmental Monitoring and the EnviroDIY Web Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S. D.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Montgomery, D. S.; Damiano, S. G.; Brooks, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Scientists and educators around the world have been building their own dataloggers and devices using a variety of boards based on the Arduino open source electronics platform. While there have been several useful boards on the market in the past few years, they still required significant modification or additional components in order to use them with various sensors or deploy them in remote areas. Here we introduce our new custom datalogger board that makes it very easy to build a rugged environmental monitoring system. These custom boards contain all of the essential features of a solar-powered datalogger with radio telemetry, plus they have a very convenient and modular method for attaching a wide variety of sensors and devices. Various deployment options and installations are shown, as well as the online database that is used for capturing the live streaming data from the loggers and displaying graphs on custom web pages. Following the introduction last year of the EnviroDIY online community (http://enviroDIY.org), it continues to gain new members and share new ideas about open-source hardware and software solutions for observing our environment. EnviroDIY members can showcase their gadgets or describe their projects, ask questions, or follow along with helpful tutorials. Our new datalogger board, together with the EnviroDIY website, will make it easy for anyone to build and deploy their own environmental monitoring stations.

  16. Delay banking for air traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Steven M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method and associated system for time delay banking for aircraft arrival time, aircraft departure time and/or en route flight position. The delay credit value for a given flight may decrease with passage of time and may be transferred to or traded with other flights having the same or a different user (airline owner or operator). The delay credit value for a given aircraft flight depends upon an initial delay credit value, which is determined by a central system and depends upon one or more other flight characteristics. Optionally, the delay credit value decreases with passage of time. Optionally, a transaction cost is assessed against a delay credit value that is used on behalf of another flight with the same user or is traded with a different user.

  17. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  18. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  19. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  20. Environmental Impacts, Health and Safety Impacts, and Financial Costs of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W Carlsen; Urairisa Phathanapirom; Eric Schneider; John S. Collins; Roderick G. Eggert; Brett Jordan; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. Ault; Alan G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn; William G. Halsey; Mark Sutton; Clay E. Easterly; Ryan P. Manger; C. Wilson McGinn; Stephen E. Fisher; Brent W. Dixon; Latif Yacout

    2013-07-01

    FEFC processes, unlike many of the proposed fuel cycles and technologies under consideration, involve mature operational processes presently in use at a number of facilities worldwide. This report identifies significant impacts resulting from these current FEFC processes and activities. Impacts considered to be significant are those that may be helpful in differentiating between fuel cycle performance and for which the FEFC impact is not negligible relative to those from the remainder of the full fuel cycle. This report: • Defines ‘representative’ processes that typify impacts associated with each step of the FEFC, • Establishes a framework and architecture for rolling up impacts into normalized measures that can be scaled to quantify their contribution to the total impacts associated with various fuel cycles, and • Develops and documents the bases for estimates of the impacts and costs associated with each of the representative FEFC processes.

  1. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U. S. Volume I. Sources, trends, and costs of control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W. (comp.)

    1976-05-01

    Volume I deals with sources (what the emissions are and where they come from), trends (quantities of emissions and their dispersion with time), and costs of control (what it takes in time, energy, and money to meet minimum standards). Volume II concerns itself with the public health effects of energy production and utilization. Volume III summarizes the various techniques for controlling emissions, technological as well as economic, social, and political. (For abstracts of Vols. II and III, see ERDA Energy Research Abstracts, Vol. 2, Absts. 5764 and 5670, respectively) Each volume is divided into sections dealing with the atmosphere, water, land, and social activities--each division indicating a particular sphere of man's environment affected by energy production and use. The sources of information that were used in this study included textbooks, journal articles, technical reports, memoranda, letters, and personal communications. These are cited in the text at the end of each subsection and on the applicable tables and figures.

  2. On Security Management: Improving Energy Efficiency, Decreasing Negative Environmental Impact, and Reducing Financial Costs for Data Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mazur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Security management is one of the most significant issues in nowadays data centers. Selection of appropriate security mechanisms and effective energy consumption management together with caring for the environment enforces a profound analysis of the considered system. In this paper, we propose a specialized decision support system with a multilevel, comprehensive analysis scheme. As a result of the extensive use of mathematical methods and statistics, guidelines and indicators returned by the proposed approach facilitate the decision-making process and conserve decision-maker’s time and attention. In the paper we utilized proposed multilevel analysis scheme to manage security-based data flow in the example data center. Determining the most secure, energy-efficient, environmental friendly security mechanisms, we implemented the role-based access control method in Quality of Protection Modeling Language (QoP-ML and evaluated its performance in terms of mentioned factors.

  3. Summary of activities of the life cycle costing workshop conducted by the Environmental Restoration Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    A five-day life cycle workshop was conducted by the Environmental Restoration (FR) Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop appropriate remediation scenarios for each Waste Area Grouping (WAG) at ORNL and to identify associated data needs (e.g., remedial investigations, special studies, and technology demonstrations) and required interfaces. Workshop participants represented the Department of Energy, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Bechtel National, Radian Corporation, EBASCO Corporation, and M-K Ferguson. The workshop was used to establish a technical basis for remediation activities at each WAG. The workshop results are documented in this report and provide the baseline for estimating the technical scope for each WAG. The scope and associated budgets and schedules will be summarized in baseline reports for each WAG, which, in turn, will be compiled into an overall strategy document for ORNL ER.

  4. Discussion on Internalization of Corporate Environmental Cost Based on the Life Cycle%基于生命周期的企业环境成本内部化探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金友良; 李晶晶

    2015-01-01

    随着人们环保意识的不断增强 ,企业越来越重视环境成本并将其纳入到产品成本核算中.文章基于产品生命周期的全过程 ,将产品设计研发、原材料获取、产品生产、销售、使用及回收处理各个阶段的环境成本分为企业内部环境成本和外部环境成本 ,然后根据产品生命周期阶段的外部环境成本提出了内部化措施 ,并分析了外部环境成本内部化在企业环境成本控制、经营决策、业绩评价等方面产生的效果.%With the growing awareness of people's environmental protection ,environmental costs are being taken seriously increasingly and included into product costing .Based on the entire process of product life cycle ,we classify environmental costs from the all stages of product design and development ,raw materials ,production ,sales ,use and recovery into internal and external environmental costs and then propose internalizing measures according to the external environmental costs of the product life cycle .Finally ,we analyze the effects of internalization of external environmental cost in environmental cost control ,operating decisions and performance evaluation .

  5. Environmental protection by cost minimization: Least Cost Planning for traffic. Includes a guide for the application in local communities; Umweltentlastung durch Kostenminimierung: Least Cost Planning im Verkehr. Mit Leitfaden fuer die Anwendung in Kommunen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracher, T.; Diegmann, V.; Eckart, C.F.; Liwicki, M.; Lobenberg, G.; Wetzel, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Informatik, Verkehrs- und Umweltplanung mbH (IVU), Berlin (Germany); Bergmann, M.; Uricher, A.; Lueers, A. [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Becker, U.; Karl, G.; Karl, B.; Voellings, A. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verkehrsoekologie

    1999-08-01

    An intermodal approach for the evaluation of transportation services on the municipal level was developed. Both non-motorised and motorised transportation were included. The approach aims at helping communities to provide an economically and ecologically viable transport policy. Least Cost Transportation Planning (LCTP) was developed to transfer the successful concept of Least Cost Planning from the energy sector to transportation. The conclusion from an analysis of LCTP literature and present evaluation methods was that an improved approach should be intermodal and integrate users, public bodies and transport companies as well as all planning sectors. An approach was developed firstly to identify and clarify transportation expenditures and incomes of a city within a year, and secondly for the evaluation of planning alternatives. This was illustrated for the access system of an industrial area with adjacent railway services in the town of Freiburg. Three alternatives were compared: the extension of a tramway line, the upgrading of the present bus system, and the development of a service and bicycle provision concept for rail stations and companies. Besides income and expenditure for each alternative, the effects on transport demand, the impact on air pollution and noise and on space consumption were presented. As a result, the bicycle concept is in most items better than its alternatives. The final report has three volumes and there is an extra guideline for implementing the method within municipalities. It includes a set of excel sheet tables for an easy application (all in German). (orig.) [German] Fuer die Verkehrsplanung wurde ein verkehrstraegeruebergreifendes Bewertungsverfahren fuer Kommunen entwickelt, das motorisierte und nicht motorisierte Verkehrstraeger einbezieht. Das Verfahren soll Gemeinden unterstuetzen, eine oekonomische und oekologisch vertraegliche Verkehrspolitik zu verfolgen. Least Cost Transportation Planning (LCTP) zielt darauf ab, das fuer

  6. The Environmental Accounting: an Instrument for Promoting the Environmental Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleopatra Sendroiu; Aureliana Geta Roman

    2007-01-01

    .... By identifying and controlling environmental costs, environmental accounting systems can help environmental managers to justify these cleaner production projects, and to identify new ways of saving...

  7. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M.; Wilbanks, Mitchell S. [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States); Perkins, Edward J. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Meyer, Sharon A., E-mail: meyer@ulm.edu [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1{sup +}) or erythroid (CD71{sup +}) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid

  8. Forest fires and environmental haze in Southeast Asia: using the 'stakeholder' approach to assign costs and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, E; Johnston, D

    2001-10-01

    The 'seasonal haze' problem is one which afflicts large parts of Southeast Asia in years of drought. The major cause is forest, bush and field fires in the states of Kalimantan and Sumatra in Indonesia, and to a lesser extent in Sabah, Sarawak, and other parts of Malaysia. Almost all of these fires now seem preventable, since they are intentionally set to clear land for cultivation. Theoretically, the government authorities at central, provincial and local levels in these countries should be responsible for controlling activities in their territory. In practice, however, air pollution control through regulatory policies and practices is extraordinarily difficult to implement and maintain in a situation of this kind in developing countries, especially at a time of crippling economic setbacks. Moreover, the establishment of legal liability, through an international tribunal or otherwise, hardly seems a politically feasible course of action for the government of an affluent 'victim state' such as Singapore. Faith in the usual solutions--science, regulation, law and diplomacy--is weakened by one's sense of current realities. The purpose of this paper is to review the issues and suggested responses, the cost implications of each, the responsibilities as well as entitlements that might apply to the various stakeholders, and the special role of Singapore as an affluent 'victim state'. We also discuss the incentive mechanisms that would be needed to manage forest fires.

  9. Foods and dietary patterns that are healthy, low-cost, and environmentally sustainable: a case study of optimization modeling for New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wilson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Global health challenges include non-communicable disease burdens, ensuring food security in the context of rising food prices, and environmental constraints around food production, e.g., greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions. We therefore aimed to consider optimized solutions to the mix of food items in daily diets for a developed country population: New Zealand (NZ. METHODS: We conducted scenario development and linear programming to model 16 diets (some with uncertainty. Data inputs included nutrients in foods, food prices, food wastage and food-specific GHG emissions. FINDINGS: This study identified daily dietary patterns that met key nutrient requirements for as little as a median of NZ$ 3.17 per day (US$ 2.41/d (95% simulation interval [SI] = NZ$ 2.86 to 3.50/d. Diets that included "more familiar meals" for New Zealanders, increased the cost. The optimized diets also had low GHG emission profiles compared with the estimate for the 'typical NZ diet' e.g., 1.62 kg CO2e/d for one scenario (95%SI = 1.39 to 1.85 kg CO2e compared with 10.1 kg CO2e/d, respectively. All of the optimized low-cost and low-GHG dietary patterns had likely health advantages over the current NZ dietary pattern, i.e., lower cardiovascular disease and cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: We identified optimal foods and dietary patterns that would lower the risk of non-communicable diseases at low cost and with low greenhouse gas emission profiles. These results could help guide central and local government decisions around which foods to focus policies on. That is which foods are most suitable for: food taxes (additions and exemptions; healthy food vouchers and subsidies; and for increased use by public institutions involved in food preparation.

  10. High performance, environmentally friendly and low cost anodes for lithium-ion battery based on TiO 2 anatase and water soluble binder carboxymethyl cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, M.; Nobili, F.; Tossici, R.; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, M.; Marassi, R.

    The challenge of producing lithium-ion batteries meeting performance requirements and low environmental impact is strictly related to the choice of materials as well as to the manufacturing processes. Most electrodes are currently prepared using poly(vinilydene fluoride) (PVDF) as binder. This fluorinated polymer is expensive and requires the use of a volatile and toxic organic solvent such as N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) in the processing. Water soluble sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) can be a suitable substitute for PVDF as binder for both anodes and cathodes eliminating the necessity of NMP and thus decreasing the cost and the environmental impact of battery production. In this work, CMC has been successfully used to prepare efficient and stable anatase TiO 2 anodes by optimizing the electrode manufacturing process in terms of composition and compression. The stability and the high rate performances of the TiO 2/CMC are described and compared with those of TiO 2/PVDF electrodes. The compatibility of the TiO 2/CMC with a LiFePO 4 cathode in a full-cell is also reported.

  11. Study on Management of Environmental Cost on Modern Salt Chemical Industry%现代盐化工企业环境成本管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    As ecological and green development policy of haze governance of our nation is determined, the chemical industry as high-polluting industries has faced a very serious challenge. Salt chemical companies have special characteristics, and its raw material even products were more flammable, explosive, toxic and hazardous substances. With the growing of the salt chemical industries, maturing of environmental protection systems, their chemical cost of production have an increasing obviously. So management and effective cost control of the salt chemical industry has its important economic and social significance. The paper analyzed production features of the salt chemical industry and salt chemical analysis of environmental cost management, and also improved new production concept of salt chemical industry to raise new reforms for the development of salt chemical industry.%随着国家治霾的生态化、绿色化发展方针的确定,化学工业作为一个容易产生高污染的行业面临严峻挑战。盐化工企业有着特殊的行业特征,其原材料和产品种类繁多,且多为易燃、易爆、有毒、有害的物质。随着盐化工业规模的不断壮大,环境保护制度的日趋完善,盐化工企业的生产成本越来越高,所以盐化工企业成本的管理和有效控制具有重要意义。本文从盐化工的生产特点及构成等入手,对盐化工企业环境成本管理进行分析,完善盐化工企业的新生产理念,为盐化工企业的发展提出改革思路。

  12. The usability of passenger delay models in socio-economic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Mikkel

    The following paper discusses how a passenger delay model can be used in socio-economic calculations. At present passenger delays are often omitted in the modeling phase and therefore not included in the analysis. By using a passenger delay model passenger delays can be included in a cost......-benefit analysis. Including passenger delays in the cost-benefit analysis will increase the level of details and thereby improve the accuracy of socio-economic analysis. In this paper the third generation passenger delay model is used. This model is the newest and most detailed passenger delay model created so far....... The main problem when including passenger delays is to determine the value of time for passenger delays and how to include the delays in a socio-economic analysis. This is due to the fact that passenger delays are not defined unambiguously. In general, delays can occur on different parts of a journey...

  13. The Right Delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datadien, A.H.R.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    Axonal conduction delays should not be ignored in simulations of spiking neural networks. Here it is shown that by using axonal conduction delays, neurons can display sensitivity to a specific spatio-temporal spike pattern. By using delays that complement the firing times in a pattern, spikes can ar

  14. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Domröse, Sascha; Mahnken, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 € to 294 €, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 € to 500 €, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 €. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 €. With increased revenue of 10,000 € in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 €. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. • Improving quality in terms of safety, outcome, efficiency and timeliness reduces cost. • Mismatch of demand and capacity is detrimental to quality and cost. • Full system utilization with random demand results in long waiting periods and increased cost.

  15. Technical Progress of China's Delayed Coking Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lixin; Li Hejie

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces the recent advances of China in the fields of process technology of delayed coking, enlarged equipment size, hydraulic decoking, automatic control and environmental protection. By the end of 2004 the total capacity of delayed coking units in China had reached 37.24Mt/a with the maximum coke drum diameter equating to 9.4 m. This article also presents the investment in delayed cokers and the current production status while pointing out the existing problems and future development trends.

  16. An Analytical Delay Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Yinghua; LI Zhongcheng

    1999-01-01

    Delay consideration has been a majorissue in design and test of high performance digital circuits. Theassumption of input signal change occurring only when all internal nodesare stable restricts the increase of clock frequency. It is no longertrue for wave pipelining circuits. However, previous logical delaymodels are based on the assumption. In addition, the stable time of arobust delay test generally depends on the longest sensitizable pathdelay. Thus, a new delay model is desirable. This paper explores thenecessity first. Then, Boolean process to analytically describe thelogical and timing behavior of a digital circuit is reviewed. Theconcept of sensitization is redefined precisely in this paper. Based onthe new concept of sensitization, an analytical delay model isintroduced. As a result, many untestable delay faults under thelogical delay model can be tested if the output waveforms can be sampledat more time points. The longest sensitizable path length is computedfor circuit design and delay test.

  17. Delay-independent Fuzzy Hyperbolic Guaranteed Cost Control Design for a Class of Nonlinear Continuous-time Systems with Uncertainties%一类非线性不确定连续系统的时滞独立型模糊双曲保成本控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伦淑娴; 张化光

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops delay-independent fuzzy hyperbolic guaranteed cost control for nonlinear continuous-time systems with parameter uncertainties. Fuzzy hyperbolic model (FHM) can be used to establish the model for certain unknown complex system. The main advantage of using FHM over Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is that no premise structure identification is needed and no completeness design of premise variables space is needed. In addition, an FHM is not only a kind of valid global description but also a kind of nonlinear model in nature. A nonlinear quadratic cost function is developed as a performance measurement of the closed-loop fuzzy system based on FHM.Based on delay-independent Lyapunov functional approach, some sufficient conditions for the existence of such a fuzzy hyperbolic guaranteed cost controller via state feedback are provided. These conditions are given in terms of the feasibility of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A simulation example is provided to illustrate the design procedure of the proposed method.

  18. Integrated application of river water quality modelling and cost-benefit analysis to optimize the environmental economical value based on various aquatic waste load reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yu; Fan, Chihhao

    2017-04-01

    improvements in BOD, SS and NH3-N were estimated as 36.2%, 27.7% and 29.2%, respectively. The net present value (i.e., economical-based environmental impact) becomes positive in the sixtieth year following the original government planning. We designed two scenarios for further comparison: (i) treatment efficiency improvement of pollution control facilities, and (ii) biogas-based power generation using livestock manure. If government budget is not a limiting factor, improving the efficiency of sewage treatment plants can make the occurrence of balance between payments and revenues (i.e., net present value in this study) three years earlier. For the biogas-based power generation scenario, if all pig farms with livestock number >2000 install the on-site power generation equipment, BOD will further improve by 9% and the time span of payback period will be shortened by 1 year. If all the manure waste from pig-farms is collected for subsequent electricity generation, the BOD river pollution index is estimated to improve to lightly-polluted category for more than half the length of Erhjen Creek. In short, water quality modelling technique not only can assess the contributions of related projects, but establish a practical pollution reduction strategy using cost-benefit analysis, which allows decision-maker to find a suitable pollution reduction plan to exhibit most benefits in river water quality.

  19. Energy and environmental costs. An approach to the case of the automotive vehicles; Energia y costos ambientales: Una aproximacion al caso de los vehiculos automotores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Flores, Leonardo [Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The energy consumption of the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico (ZMVM) is presented, considering the different economic sectors and the different types of fuels used by them. The form in which this demand will impact the air quality largely depends on the energy balance. Also an inventory of the emissions in 1989 is given. It is possible to emphasize that the power balance maintains a close association with the emissions inventory, which reflects the dependency of the emissions with respect to the energy use. Finally an analysis is made of the considered environmental costs for Mexico. [Spanish] Se presenta el consumo energetico de la zona metropolitana del valle de Mexico (ZMVM), considerando los distintos sectores economicos y los diferentes tipos de combustibles utilizados por ellos. La forma en que esta demanda impactara la calidad del aire depende en buena medida del balance energetico. Tambien se muestra un inventario de las emisiones en 1989. Cabe destacar que el balance energetico mantiene una asociacion estrecha con el inventario de emisiones, lo cual refleja la dependencia de las emisiones respecto al uso de energia. Finalmente se hace un analisis de los costos ambientales estimados para Mexico.

  20. Delayed emergence after anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzabazis, Alexander; Miller, Christopher; Dobrow, Marc F; Zheng, Karl; Brock-Utne, John G

    2015-06-01

    In most instances, delayed emergence from anesthesia is attributed to residual anesthetic or analgesic medications. However, delayed emergence can be secondary to unusual causes and present diagnostic dilemmas. Data from clinical studies is scarce and most available published material is comprised of case reports. In this review, we summarize and discuss less common and difficult to diagnose reasons for delayed emergence and present cases from our own experience or reference published case reports/case series. The goal is to draw attention to less common reasons for delayed emergence, identify patient populations that are potentially at risk and to help anesthesiologists identifying a possible cause why their patient is slow to wake up.

  1. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li; Mahnken, Andreas [University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Philipps University of Marburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg (Germany); Domroese, Sascha [University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Philipps University of Marburg, Division of Controlling, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 EUR to 294 EUR, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 EUR to 500 EUR, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 EUR. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 EUR. With increased revenue of 10,000 EUR in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 EUR. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. (orig.)

  2. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  3. The Economic Promise of Delayed Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dana

    2015-12-18

    Biomedicine has made enormous progress in the last half century in treating common diseases. However, we are becoming victims of our own success. Causes of death strongly associated with biological aging, such as heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke-cluster within individuals as they grow older. These conditions increase frailty and limit the benefits of continued, disease-specific improvements. Here, we show that a "delayed-aging" scenario, modeled on the biological benefits observed in the most promising animal models, could solve this problem of competing risks. The economic value of delayed aging is estimated to be $7.1 trillion over 50 years. Total government costs, including Social Security, rise substantially with delayed aging--mainly caused by longevity increases--but we show that these can be offset by modest policy changes. Expanded biomedical research to delay aging appears to be a highly efficient way to forestall disease and extend healthy life.

  4. Management of end-of-life electronic products within environmental benign manufacturing framework: Analysis of infrastructure, cost, materials flow, and decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hai-Yong

    This research addresses a management of end-of-life (EOL) electronic products within the boundary of Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM). For the comprehensive evaluation of EOL electronic products, existing recycling programs, the roles of each stakeholder in e-waste recycling, and technologies are identified. The results show that to increase the recycling rate a steady supply of collected materials is needed, as well as effective sorting techniques, proper incorporation of Design for the Environment in early product design, and valued secondary markets for recycled goods. Technical cost modeling (TCM) results provide guidance to the recycling industry on how to maximize revenue and ensure the robust economic viability of e-waste Materials Recycling Facilities. Revenue sources with higher profit-efficiency ratios are an example. Also, process automation is demonstrated to be a major hurdle to overcome because of the high labor cost in the recycling industry combined with the randomness factor associated with the input stream. The results of the materials flow analysis (MFA) indicate that the pattern of outflow and the amount do not simply depend on the inflow pattern and amount. Also, the behavior of consumers, especially of the first user, is the most critical factor that determines the outflow of personal computer systems at the EOL stage. The combination of TCM and MFA provide a tool for estimating the infrastructure needed to treat future e-waste, such as the number of treatment facilities and the total capital investment needed. Laws that are designed to minimize the generation of toxic waste and the use of toxic substances in the U.S. and Europe are reviewed. And electronic and electrical industries in California and Massachusetts are analyzed in terms of the generation of toxic waste, the size of these industries. The results of the Analytic Hierarchy Process decision-making study indicate that the current toxic waste treatment methods practiced in

  5. Integrated fleet assignment and aircraft routing based on delay propagation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WAN-MING LIU; XING-HUI ZHU; YAN-LONG QI

    2016-07-01

    Airlines’ expensive resources, especially aircraft, are to be optimally scheduled to cover flights of timetables. However, the irregular flight, due to bad weather, mechanical fault and so on, is inevitable.Moreover, flight delays become more severe with the rapid development of the air transport industry in China and have huge irregular flight cost. In order to alleviate flight delays impact on the flight plan, we present a double objective multi-commodity network flow model of flight delay propagation-based aircraft scheduling and minimize the total delay propagation and airline operation cost as the optimization objective. Branch-and-price solution and column generation algorithm are used to solve the problem. Computational results obtained by using data from a major domestic airline show that our approach can reduce delay propagation significantly, thus improving on-time performance and robustness of aircraft scheduling, and decreasing the total cost simultaneously.

  6. American Dream Delayed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Miller, Robert A.

    This paper investigates the delay in homeownership and a subsequent reduction in homeownership rate observed over the past decades. We focus on the delay in giving birth to children and increased labor market participation as contributing factors to homeownership dynamics for prime-age female hou...

  7. Robust and non-fragile guaranteed cost controller design for uncertain systems with distributed delay%一类分布时滞不确定系统的鲁棒非脆弱保性能控制器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 张合新; 孟飞

    2011-01-01

    The robust and non-fragile guaranteed cost control of uncertain linear systems with distributed delay is investigated.Both the distributed-delay system and the state feedback controller are assumed to have time-varying uncertainties.A sufficient condition in terms of linear matrix inequality is established for the existing of the robust non-fragile guaranteed cost controller by constructing new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional with triple-integral term and using inequality technique.The proposed approach can keep the quadratic performance function below a supper bound and delay-dependent.Simulation examples show the effectiveness and feasibility of the method.%研究了一类具有分布时滞的线性不确定系统的鲁棒非脆弱保性能控制问题.考虑分布时滞系统和状态反馈控制器均具有时变不确定性,通过构造新的含三重积分项的Lyapunov-Krasovskii泛函,并结合不等式推导技巧,以线性矩阵不等式形式给出了系统鲁棒非脆弱保性能控制器存在的充分条件.该方法保证了给定的二次性能函数不超过一个确定的界并且是分布时滞相关的.仿真实例表明了该方法的可行性和有效性.

  8. Analysis of the Pace University Center for Environmental Legal Studies report of September 1990 entitled, {open_quotes}Environmental costs of electicity{close_quotes} by R.L. Ottinger, D.R. Wooley, N.A. Robinson, D.R. Hodas, Babb, S.E.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catlin, R.J. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

    1992-06-01

    This report evaluates the figures used by Pace University in its September 1990 report entitled `Environmental Costs of Electricity` and the conclusions the Pace authors come to using those figures. The data Paces uses in its report is given on pages 379-381 of the US DOE report entitled `Health and Environmental Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident.` 10 refs., 1 fig., 22 tabs.

  9. The use of efficiency assessment tools : solutions to barriers : Workpackage 3 of the European research project ROSEBUD (Road Safety and Environmental Cost-Benefit and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Use in Decision-making).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkert, A.S. & Wesemann, P. (eds.)

    2005-01-01

    In road safety, as in most other fields, efficiency is an important criterion in political and professional decision making. Efficiency Assessment Tools (EATs) like Cost Benefit Analysis and Cost Effectiveness Analysis are available to help choose the policy which gives the highest return on investm

  10. Wideband RF beamforming: architectures, time-delays and CMOS implementations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garakoui, Seyed Kasra

    2015-01-01

    A phased array antenna is a kind of antenna which is electronically reconfigurable to realize different antenna beam patterns. Delay blocks are an essential part of phased array antenna systems. Their delay-range, noise, nonlinearity, bandwidth, size, cost and power consumption have a dominant effec

  11. Emission projections for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Section 812 second prospective Clean Air Act cost/benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James H; Mullen, Maureen A; Bollman, Andrew D; Thesing, Kirstin B; Salhotra, Manish; Divita, Frank; Neumann, James E; Price, Jason C; DeMocker, James

    2008-05-01

    Section 812 of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to perform periodic, comprehensive analyses of the total costs and total benefits of programs implemented pursuant to the CAAA. The first prospective analysis was completed in 1999. The second prospective analysis was initiated during 2005. The first step in the second prospective analysis was the development of base and projection year emission estimates that will be used to generate benefit estimates of CAAA programs. This paper describes the analysis, methods, and results of the recently completed emission projections. There are several unique features of this analysis. One is the use of consistent economic assumptions from the Department of Energy's Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO 2005) projections as the basis for estimating 2010 and 2020 emissions for all sectors. Another is the analysis of the different emissions paths for both with and without CAAA scenarios. Other features of this analysis include being the first EPA analysis that uses the 2002 National Emission Inventory files as the basis for making 48-state emission projections, incorporating control factor files from the Regional Planning Organizations (RPOs) that had completed emission projections at the time the analysis was performed, and modeling the emission benefits of the expected adoption of measures to meet the 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), the Clean Air Visibility Rule, and the PM2.5 NAAQS. This analysis shows that the 1990 CAAA have produced significant reductions in criteria pollutant emissions since 1990 and that these emission reductions are expected to continue through 2020. CAAA provisions have reduced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by approximately 7 million t/yr by 2000, and are estimated to produce associated VOC emission reductions of 16.7 million t by 2020. Total oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emission reductions attributable to the

  12. commensurate point delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Sen

    2005-01-01

    nominal controller is maintained. In the current approach, the finite spectrum assignment is only considered as a particular case of the designer's choice of a (delay-dependent arbitrary spectrum assignment objective.

  13. Time Delay Cosmography

    OpenAIRE

    Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational time delays, observed in strong lens systems where the variable background source is multiply-imaged by a massive galaxy in the foreground, provide direct measurements of cosmological distance that are very complementary to other cosmographic probes. The success of the technique depends on the availability and size of a suitable sample of lensed quasars or supernovae, precise measurements of the time delays, accurate modeling of the gravitational potential of the main deflector,...

  14. Managing concrete bridges: Methods for reducing costs and user inconveniences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents experiences from modern bridge maintenance management, which has been forced to develop new and cost-efficient approaches in order to cope with the increase in overall deterioration of the aging bridge stock, the growing requirements to accessibility and the decreasing budgets....... These approaches are focused on cost reductions, but must as well lead to a reduction of the user inconveniences (traffic delays, noise, dust) and to a reduction of the environmental impact. These approaches can be based on an assessment of the structures safety, which incorporates the inaccuracies...... in the condition assessments, the models and the predictions in the strategies and the cost estimations. This may lead to increased inspection frequencies, detailed simulations, monitoring and testing to be used as alternatives to extensive repairs, rehabilitations or strengthening. The approaches will in other...

  15. Eighteen years of electric power generation by using sugar cane biomass in Cuba: retrospective, costs and environmental considerations; Dieciocho anos de generacion de electricidad con biomasa canera en Cuba: retrospectiva, costos y consideraciones ambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Pippo, Walrido; Del Rey Ocampo, Joaquin [Universidad de La Habana (Cuba). Inst. de Materiales y Reactivos]. E-mail: pippo@imre.oc.uh.cu

    2002-07-01

    From the data of the electric power cogeneration of the sugar industry behaviour , the utilization of the energy bagasse potential as industrial residue from the sugar production and the associated costs. A preliminary comparison is established on the costs of conventional electric power generation and the costa resulting from generation using bagasse. The paper also considers the industry operation regime as one of the determinant aspects for obtaining significant quantities of wastes to be used in electric power generation and also in the production of other energy carriers from the using of new thermochemical and thermo energetic conversion technologies. The paper performs a retrospective analysis of the environmental costs biomass use, under the twenty century modern criteria.

  16. 含状态和输入时滞的δ算子系统的非脆弱鲁棒保性能控制%Non-fragile Robust Guaranteed Cost Control for Delta-operator System with State and Input Time Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏丹; 肖民卿

    2011-01-01

    文章基于线性矩阵不等式(LMI)方法和Lyapunov稳定性理论,研究参数不确6定算子时滞系统的非脆弱保性能控制问题,提出非脆弱状态反馈保性能控制器的存在条件和设计方法,在此基础上,通过建立和求解一个凸优化问题,给出最优保性能控制律的设计。最后用数值算例说明方法的有效性。%Based on LMI approach and Lyapunov theory, non-fragile guaranteed cost control for a class of delta-operator uncertain time-delay systems is studied. A sufficient condition for the existence of non--fragile state feedback guaranteed cost controller is presented, and the design method of such controller is proposed. Based on that mentioned, the design problem of the optimal guaranteed cost controller is given by solving a corresponding convex optimization problem. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the feasibility and advantage of the design method.

  17. Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil; Calculo de viabilidade economica de fontes alternativas de energia considerando seus custos ambientais para pequenas comuidades da regiao nordeste brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza Chourkalo

    2014-09-01

    There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

  18. On modeling the digital gate delay under process variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Mingzhi; Ye Zuochang; Wang Yan; Yu Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    To achieve a characterization method for the gate delay library used in block based statistical static timing analysis with neither unacceptably poor accuracy nor forbiddingly high cost,we found that general-purpose gate delay models are useful as intermediaries between the circuit simulation data and the gate delay models in required forms.In this work,two gate delay models for process variation considering different driving and loading conditions are proposed.From the testing results,these two models,especially the one that combines effective dimension reduction (EDR) from statistics society with comprehensive gate delay models,offer good accuracy with low characterization cost,and they are thus competent for use in statistical timing analysis (SSTA).In addition,these two models have their own value in other SSTA techniques.

  19. 874 CONSTRUCTION COST MODELS FOR HIGHRISE OFFICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 8(Suppl. 2): 874 – 880, 2015. ... Key Words: Cost, Highrise, Models, Nigeria, Office, Construction. Introduction .... the modern trend in cost analysis and cost planning ...

  20. 森林环境资源边际机会成本定价的理论及构成%Analysis of pricing theory and composition of forest environmental resources based on marginal opportunity cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴小廷; 杨建州; 冯祥锦

    2013-01-01

    边际机会成本理论提供了一个比较好的资源定价思路,能够合理反映资源利用的生产成本、使用者成本、环境成本,符合可持续发展的思想.该理论在煤炭、水资源的定价上应用较多,但将它应用于森林环境资源定价的研究还不多见,特别是未见系统化的研究.通过对边际机会成本理论的分析和其现有应用入手,开展了将该理论应用于森林环境资源定价的可行性分析;在此基础上,结合森林环境资源的特点,提出了基于该理论的具体价格构成,为下一步开展基于边际机会成本的森林环境资源定价工作奠定理论基础.%The theory of marginal opportunity cost provides a better method for resource pricing.It can reflect the production cost,user cost and environmental cost of the resource utilization.It is consistent with the idea of sustainable development.The theory has been widely used in coal and water resources pricing.However,there is few research on forest environment resources pricing,especially no systematic research.This paper firstly reviewed the marginalopportunity cost theory and its application,followed by a feasibility analysis of applying it to forest environmental resources pricing.Considering the characteristic of forest environment resources,the research proposed a specific pricing composition based on the marginal opportunity cost theory.It has laid a theoretical foundation for the future research based on the marginal opportunity cost of forest environmental resource pricing.

  1. Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-31

    This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

  2. Time Delay Cosmography

    CERN Document Server

    Treu, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational time delays, observed in strong lens systems where the variable background source is multiply-imaged by a massive galaxy in the foreground, provide direct measurements of cosmological distance that are very complementary to other cosmographic probes. The success of the technique depends on the availability and size of a suitable sample of lensed quasars or supernovae, precise measurements of the time delays, accurate modeling of the gravitational potential of the main deflector, and our ability to characterize the distribution of mass along the line of sight to the source. We review the progress made during the last 15 years, during which the first competitive cosmological inferences with time delays were made, and look ahead to the potential of significantly larger lens samples in the near future.

  3. Prediction of delayed subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K.

    A predictive model of delayed subsidence is discussed. A numerical implementation is tested on one of the best-described study areas, Allegheny County in Pennsylvania. In planning insurance of restitution measures, a predictive model is of value in estimating the magnitude of the problem and the size of long-term budgetary commitments. Contrary to active subsidence, which occurs concurrently with mining operations, or is completed within a few days following coal extraction, delayed subsidence may take many years to appear at the surface after coal mines are abandoned. There are two principal morphological types of delayed subsidence: troughs, which are shallow depressions, and sinks, which are steep-sided crown pits. Both types are damaging to surface structures, and a variety of methods were introduced to deal with the problem, ranging from subsidence insurance to site restitution.

  4. Time delay cosmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.

    2016-07-01

    Gravitational time delays, observed in strong lens systems where the variable background source is multiply imaged by a massive galaxy in the foreground, provide direct measurements of cosmological distance that are very complementary to other cosmographic probes. The success of the technique depends on the availability and size of a suitable sample of lensed quasars or supernovae, precise measurements of the time delays, accurate modeling of the gravitational potential of the main deflector, and our ability to characterize the distribution of mass along the line of sight to the source. We review the progress made during the last 15 years, during which the first competitive cosmological inferences with time delays were made, and look ahead to the potential of significantly larger lens samples in the near future.

  5. Exploiting Deterministic TPG for Path Delay Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓维

    2000-01-01

    Detection of path delay faults requires two-pattern tests. BIST technique provides a low-cost test solution. This paper proposes an approach to designing a cost-effective deterministic test pattern generator (TPG) for path delay testing. Given a set of pre-generated test-pairs with pre-determined fault coverage, a deterministic TPG is synthesized to apply the given test-pair set in a limited test time. To achieve this objective, configurable linear feedback shift register (LFSR) structures are used. Techniques are developed to synthesize such a TPG, which is used to generate an unordered deterministic test-pair set. The resulting TPG is very efficient in terms of hardware size and speed performance. Simulation of academic benchmark circuits has given good results when compared to alternative solutions.

  6. Delayed Random Relays

    CERN Document Server

    Ohira, Toru

    2016-01-01

    We present here a system with collection of random walks relaying a signal in one dimension with a presence of a delay. We are interested in the time for a signal to travel from one end (start) to the other end (finish) of the lined group of random walkers. It is found that there is an optimal number of walkers for the signal to travel fastest if the delay is present. We discuss implications of this model and associated behaviors to physical and biological systems.

  7. Approximation of distributed delays

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Hao; Eberard, Damien; Simon, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We address in this paper the approximation problem of distributed delays. Such elements are convolution operators with kernel having bounded support, and appear in the control of time-delay systems. From the rich literature on this topic, we propose a general methodology to achieve such an approximation. For this, we enclose the approximation problem in the graph topology, and work with the norm defined over the convolution Banach algebra. The class of rational approximates is described, and a constructive approximation is proposed. Analysis in time and frequency domains is provided. This methodology is illustrated on the stabilization control problem, for which simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  8. Environmental taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekins, P.; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Vos, H.

    on their environmental effectiveness and on the political barriers to their implementation. It provides illustrative examples of environmental taxes only; comprehensive reviews are available from OECD (1995).http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/92-9167-000-6-sum/page002.html [Summary available in 10 languages]...... been identified and reviewed in this report. Within the limitations of the studies, it appears that these taxes have been environmentally effective (achieving their environmental objectives) and they seem to have achieved such objectives at reasonable cost. Examples of particularly successful taxes...... to implementation, especially of energy (particularly on specific sectors or regions); and on low income groups can be overcome by: a) careful design, b) the use of environmental taxes and respective revenues as part of policy packages and green tax reforms, c) gradual implementation; d) extensive consultation...

  9. Methods of economic evaluation. Appendix A of the ''Method convention 2,0 for estimating environmental costs''; Methoden der oekonomischen Bewertung. Anhang A der ''Methodenkonvention 2.0 zur Schaetzung von Umweltkosten''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwermer, Sylvia

    2012-08-15

    Tangible and intangible costs are essential for the selection of the evaluation method of environmental damage costs. Tangible environmental damages can be assessed by means of market prices. The contribution under consideration explains under what conditions the evaluation at market prices represents a valid estimation of the environmental damage. In order to evaluate the intangible costs, the appreciation of the individuals has to be determined from the market behavior (indirect measurement method) or by interviewing the individuals (direct measurement method). These methods are described in the present contribution. Finally, this contribution addresses the impacts of the existing estimations on a new valuation problem.

  10. Research paper 2000-B-6: adjustments in the Dutch domestic waste incineration sector in the context of the European directive 89/429/EEC. A case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch sector of domestic waste incineration in the context of the European Directive Directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/ EEC. The case study was done and indicators for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a document to coordinate the efforts in the four IMPOL countries. The European Directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/ EEC regulate Plants for Domestic waste Incineration on the emissions of several pollutants. These emissions are relevant for air quality in general, acidification and the spreading of toxic substances. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on 'existing' incineration plants, being permitted before 1990. In chapter 2 of this report the implementation of the directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/EEC in the Netherlands is described. In section 2.1 already existing 'older' Dutch policy and regulation is presented. In paragraph 2.2 the integration of the European Directives into Dutch national law is described. In chapter 2.3 the efforts and outcomes on monitoring and enforcement are presented. Chapter 3 goes into the environmental effectiveness. Section 3.1 describes the abatement performance of the whole municipal waste incineration sector during the period of research. Section 3.2 goes into factors that explain the environmental outcomes. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on a number of pollutants of existing waste incinerators. In section 3.3 the data for the existing incinerators are given. In chapter 4 the allocative efficiency of adjustments is elaborated. In section 4.1 the abatement patterns of existing municipal waste incineration plants are presented

  11. Imperative Causes of Delays in Construction Projects from Developers’ Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Project delays in the construction industry are a universal or large-scale observable fact affecting not only the construction industry but the overall economy of countries as well. As far as the Malaysian construction industry is concerned, project delays are common problems in the construction industry, particularly in housing development. The objective of this study is to evaluate and identify the causes and the consequences of project delays in private housing development projects in Malaysia, and the remedies that can minimize these delays. The top ten causes of delays are weather conditions, poor site conditions, poor site management, incomplete documents, lack of experience, financial problems, contract modifications, delay in the approval of major variations, contractor coordination problems with other parties, and construction mistakes and defective works. It has been analysed that the causes of the delays point to the contractor factors, which contribute to the major factors that cause project delays in private housing development projects. The consequences of the delays include time overrun, cost overrun, differences in opinion, negotiations, legal actions and total abandonment. Herewith are presented some recommendations to minimize these project delays.

  12. Delay Bounds for Multiclass FIFO

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yuming; Misra, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    FIFO is perhaps the simplest scheduling discipline. For single-class FIFO, its delay guarantee performance has been extensively studied: The well-known results include a stochastic delay bound for $GI/GI/1$ by Kingman and a deterministic delay bound for $D/D/1$ by Cruz. However, for multiclass FIFO, few such results are available. To fill the gap, we prove delay bounds for multiclass FIFO in this work, considering both deterministic and stochastic cases. Specifically, delay bounds are present...

  13. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of recycle uranium to UF/sub 6/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddy, J.W.; Blanco, R.E.; Finney, B.C.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1977-04-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from a model recycle uranium conversion and uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released radioactive materials on the environment. This study is designed to assist the US NRC in defining the term ''as low as reasonably achievable'' as it applies to these nuclear facilities. The base case model plant is representative of a licensable UF/sub 6/ production plant and has an annual capacity of 1500 metric tons of uranium. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The cost for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitments is calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. The methodology used in estimating the costs is presented. (34 tables, 11 figs.)

  14. 环境公益诉讼的原告模式及司法成本分析%Analysis of plaintiff mode of environmental public interest litigation and judicial cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏娜

    2012-01-01

    To date, China has accumulated more than 10 cases of environmental public interest litigation cases. These cases are both a breakthrough of the concept of dynamic justice to the parties in civil litigation sys- tem and providing a number of plaintiff modes of public interest litigation. Com- pare with judicial costs of different modes, can easily find the joint plaintiff mode of procuratorial organs supplemented by gov- ernment departments and environmental or- ganizations is the easiest to reduce the legal costs and decentralize the litigation risk, and the best for the sustainable development of environmental public interest litigation.%迄今为止,我国已累计出现10余例环境公益诉讼案件。这些案例既是“能动司法”理念对民事诉讼当事人制度的突破,也提供了公益诉讼的若干原告模式。比较不同模式的司法成本。不难发现,以检察机关为主,以政府职能部门和环保组织为辅的联合原告模式,最易于降低司法成本和分散诉讼风险,对我国环境公益诉讼的可持续发展最为有利。

  15. Air pollution: costs and paths to a solution in Hong Kong--understanding the connections among visibility, air pollution, and health costs in pursuit of accountability, environmental justice, and health protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Anthony J; McGhee, Sarah M; Barron, Bill; Chau, Patsy; Chau, June; Thach, Thuan Q; Wong, Tze-Wai; Loh, Christine; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Air quality has deteriorated in Hong Kong over more than 15 yr. As part of a program of public accountability, photographs on Poor and Better visibility days were used as representations of the relationships among visibility, air pollution, adverse health effects, and community costs for health care and lost productivity. Coefficients from time-series models and gazetted costs were used to estimate the health and economic impacts of different levels of pollution. In this population of 6.9 million, air quality improvement from the annual average to the lowest pollutant levels of Better visibility days, comparable to the World Health Organization air quality guidelines, would avoid 1335 deaths, 60,587 hospital bed days, and 6.7 million doctor visits for respiratory complaints each year. Direct costs and productivity losses avoided would be over US$240 million a year. The dissemination of these findings led to increased demands for pollution controls from the public and legislators, but denials of the need for urgent action arose from the government. The outcome demonstrates the need for more effective translation of the scientific evidence base into risk communication and public policy.

  16. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  17. Delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Bo; Che, Xiangming; Li, Xuqi; Qiu, Guanglin; He, Shicai; Fan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (TDHs) are sometimes difficult to identify at an early stage and can consequently result in diagnostic delays with life-threatening outcomes. It is the aim of this case study to highlight the difficulties encountered with the earlier detection of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias. Methods: Clinical data of patients who received treatment for delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernias in registers of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from 1998 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Six patients were included in this study. Left hemidiaphragm was affected in all of them. Most of the patients had a history of traffic accident and 1 a stab-penetrating injury. The interval from injury to developing symptoms ranged from 2 to 11 years (median 5 years). The hernial contents included the stomach, omentum, small intestine, and colon. Diaphragmatic injury was missed in all of them during the initial managements. All patients received operations once the diagnosis of delayed TDH was confirmed, and no postoperative mortality was detected. Conclusions: Delayed TDHs are not common, but can lead to serious consequences once occurred. Early detection of diaphragmatic injuries is crucial. Surgeons should maintain a high suspicion for injuries of the diaphragm in cases with abdominal or lower chest traumas, especially in the initial surgical explorations. We emphasize the need for radiographical follow-up to detect diaphragmatic injuries at an earlier stage. PMID:27512848

  18. 'No delays achiever'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  19. Assessing the Effects of Construction Delays on MARA Large Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Hameed Memon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry in Malaysia is facing a serious issue of construction delay causing a significant amount of time over run and cost over run. Various studies have addressed the issue of construction delay, however, most of studies focused on identifying causes of delay. Less attention has been paid of assessing effects of construction delay. Hence this study is aimed to assess effects of construction delay on MARA large projects. Investigation approach for study includes the site study of 30 MARA  large projects selected from various areas of Malaysia and structured questionnaire survey among client, consultant and contractor personnel’s. It is important to note that 90% of MARA projects are experiencing time overrun. Data was analyzed with statistical analysis  to calculate rank of the effects of delays and correlation with spearman formula to identify the interrelationship between attributes of effects. Results showed that time over-run and cost over-run are most significant effects of delay on MARA construction projects. Time over-run has high degree of correlation with cost over-run and moderate degree of correlation with disputes.

  20. Range and uncertainties in estimating delays in greenhouse gas mitigation potential of forest bioenergy sourced from Canadian forests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laganière, Jérôme; Paré, David; Thiffault, Evelyne; Bernier, Pierre Y

    2017-01-01

    Accurately assessing the delay before the substitution of fossil fuel by forest bioenergy starts having a net beneficial impact on atmospheric CO 2 is becoming important as the cost of delaying GHG...

  1. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  2. Delayed fluorescence in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsev, Vasilij; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Chernev, Petko; Strasser, Reto J

    2009-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a very efficient photochemical process. Nevertheless, plants emit some of the absorbed energy as light quanta. This luminescence is emitted, predominantly, by excited chlorophyll a molecules in the light-harvesting antenna, associated with Photosystem II (PS II) reaction centers. The emission that occurs before the utilization of the excitation energy in the primary photochemical reaction is called prompt fluorescence. Light emission can also be observed from repopulated excited chlorophylls as a result of recombination of the charge pairs. In this case, some time-dependent redox reactions occur before the excitation of the chlorophyll. This delays the light emission and provides the name for this phenomenon-delayed fluorescence (DF), or delayed light emission (DLE). The DF intensity is a decreasing polyphasic function of the time after illumination, which reflects the kinetics of electron transport reactions both on the (electron) donor and the (electron) acceptor sides of PS II. Two main experimental approaches are used for DF measurements: (a) recording of the DF decay in the dark after a single turnover flash or after continuous light excitation and (b) recording of the DF intensity during light adaptation of the photosynthesizing samples (induction curves), following a period of darkness. In this paper we review historical data on DF research and recent advances in the understanding of the relation between the delayed fluorescence and specific reactions in PS II. An experimental method for simultaneous recording of the induction transients of prompt and delayed chlorophyll fluorescence and decay curves of DF in the millisecond time domain is discussed.

  3. Conceptual design of cost-effective and environmentally-friendly configurations for fuel ethanol production from sugarcane by knowledge-based process synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Óscar J; Cardona, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the hierarchical decomposition methodology was used to conceptually design the production of fuel ethanol from sugarcane. The decomposition of the process into six levels of analysis was carried out. Several options of technological configurations were assessed in each level considering economic and environmental criteria. The most promising alternatives were chosen rejecting the ones with a least favorable performance. Aspen Plus was employed for simulation of each one of the technological configurations studied. Aspen Icarus was used for economic evaluation of each configuration, and WAR algorithm was utilized for calculation of the environmental criterion. The results obtained showed that the most suitable synthesized flowsheet involves the continuous cultivation of Zymomonas mobilis with cane juice as substrate and including cell recycling and the ethanol dehydration by molecular sieves. The proposed strategy demonstrated to be a powerful tool for conceptual design of biotechnological processes considering both techno-economic and environmental indicators.

  4. Menos costes medioambientales, m??s beneficios: aplicaci??n de t??cnicas ecol??gicas en la producci??n del ma??z = Less environmental costs, more benefits: application of ecological techniques in maize production

    OpenAIRE

    Fern??ndez Rodr??guez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    El tfg ???Menos costes medioambientales, m??s beneficios: Aplicaci??n de t??cnicas ecol??gicas en la producci??n del ma??z??? analiza el cultivo de este cereal desde una doble perspectiva: econ??mica y ecol??gica. El objetivo de la primera es la rentabilidad mientras que el de la ecolog??a es el respeto y preservaci??n del medio. En el pasado las actividades econ??micas se realizaban, y siguen realiz??ndose a??n en muchos pa??ses, sin tener en cuenta el da??o causado a la naturaleza. El tfg, ...

  5. The Effect of the Customer Delay to Reduce the Logistics Cost of Enterprises---Talking from the Successful Experience of HP%客户化延迟对降低企业物流成本的作用--从惠普公司的成功经验谈起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南超兰

    2013-01-01

    Today,enterprises are faced with the “personalized”buyer’s market.In order to meet the customer, enterprises must develop varieties of product categories,this leads to higher inventory costs and lower market response ability. Enterprises want to win the market,they not only satisfy the consumers “personalized”requirement,but also reduce the cost of enterprise.In the face of the global market,Hewlett-Packard Co successfully uses the method of customer delay,it not only meets the consumer demand,but also reduces the logistics cost.%经济快速发展的今天,企业面临的是消费者需求日益“个性化”的买方市场。为了满足“个性化”的客户需求,企业必须开发多种产品种类,这导致企业库存成本不断增加、市场响应能力迟缓等症状。企业要想赢得市场,既要快速地满足消费者“个性化”需求,同时又要降低企业成本。物流成本的降低,是企业的“第三利润”源泉。因此,控制物流成本对企业尤其重要。惠普公司面对全球市场,成功地运用客户化延迟方法,既满足了消费者“个性化”需求,又降低了企业的物流成本,其成功经验值得借鉴和学习。

  6. Delay or anticipatory synchronization in one-way coupled systems using variable delay with reset

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ambika; R E Amritkar

    2011-11-01

    We present a mechanism for the synchronization of one-way coupled nonlinear systems in which the coupling uses a variable delay, that is reset at finite intervals. Here the delay varies in the same way as the system in time and so the coupling function remains constant for the reset interval at the end of which it is reset to the value at that time. This leads to a novel and discrete error dynamics and the resulting general stability analysis is applicable to chaotic or hyperchaotic systems. We apply this method to standard chaotic systems and hyperchaotic time delay systems. The results of the detailed numerical analysis agree with the results from stability analysis in both cases. This method has the advantage that it is cost-effective since information from the driving system is needed only at intervals of reset. Further, in the context of time delay systems, optimization among the different time-scales depending upon the application is possible due to the flexibility among the four different time-scales in our method, viz. delay in the driving system, anticipation in the response system, system delay time and reset time. We suggest a bi-channel scheme for implementing this method in communication field with enhanced security

  7. Effects of environmental protection on forest management costs in the Nehalliston creek watershed: An analysis. FERIC special report No. SR-95, and Working paper No. WP-6-008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibodeau, E.D.

    1994-12-31

    This report presents results of a study investigating the economic impacts of environmental protection on forest management for a typical watershed in the interior of British Columbia. The study compares three scenarios representing past, present, and future generations of integrated resource management guidelines. Specific objectives of the study were to analyze, describe, and compare the sustainable flow of harvested timber over a 120-year period from the watershed, and to estimate and compare the annual costs of harvesting and related management activities for the first 20 years of each scenario. The study estimated sustainable harvest volumes over a full rotation using the ATLAS (A Tactical Landscape Analysis System) computer model.

  8. Delay-independent stabilization for teleoperation with time varying delay

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Namerikawa, Toru

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the stability for nonlinear teleoperation with time varying communication delays. The proposed method is passivity-based controllers with time varying gains which depend on the rate of change of time varying delay. In our proposed method, stability condition is independent of the magnitude of the communication delay and the damping of the system. The delay-independent stability is shown via Lyapunov stability methods. Several experimental results show the effectiveness o...

  9. Cost overruns will hit research at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Weiss, G

    2002-01-01

    To try and offset cost overruns on the LHC, CERN managers have drafted a preliminary plan that would delay start-up of the accelerator until 2007 and drastically reduces spending on longterm research programmes (1 page).

  10. [Striated and delayed nephrography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlois, O; Padovani, J; Faure, F; Devred, P; Grangier, M L; Panuel, M

    1985-10-01

    About a case of striated and delayed nephrogram seen on a diabetic child, authors come back to the different etiologies. Among them, the tubular precipitation of Tamm-Horsfall protein seems to be given like on the right possibilities. Whatever is its etiology, the mechanism of striated appearance is always the same, being founded on the radiated disposal of the collecting ducts and on a tubular stasis beeing with iodine concentration.

  11. Theoretical Delay Time Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Nelemans, Gijs; Bours, Madelon

    2012-01-01

    We briefly discuss the method of population synthesis to calculate theoretical delay time distributions of type Ia supernova progenitors. We also compare the results of the different research groups and conclude that although one of the main differences in the results for single degenerate progenitors is the retention efficiency with which accreted hydrogen is added to the white dwarf core, this cannot explain all the differences.

  12. Theoretical Delay Time Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Bours, Madelon

    2013-01-01

    We briefly discuss the method of population synthesis to calculate theoretical delay time distributions of Type Ia supernova progenitors. We also compare the results of different research groups and conclude that, although one of the main differences in the results for single degenerate progenitors is the retention efficiency with which accreted hydrogen is added to the white dwarf core, this alone cannot explain all the differences.

  13. Geometric Time Delay Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Vallisneri, Michele

    2005-01-01

    The space-based gravitational-wave observatory LISA, a NASA-ESA mission to be launched after 2012, will achieve its optimal sensitivity using Time Delay Interferometry (TDI), a LISA-specific technique needed to cancel the otherwise overwhelming laser noise in the inter-spacecraft phase measurements. The TDI observables of the Michelson and Sagnac types have been interpreted physically as the virtual measurements of a synthesized interferometer. In this paper, I present Geometric TDI, a new an...

  14. Time-Delay Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Dhurandhar Sanjeev V.; Tinto Massimo

    2005-01-01

    Equal-arm interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (...

  15. Delay in atomic photoionization

    CERN Document Server

    Kheifets, A S

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the time delay between emission of photoelectrons from the outer valence $ns$ and $np$ sub-shells in noble gas atoms following absorption of an attosecond XUV pulse. By solving the time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation and carefully examining the time evolution of the photoelectron wave packet, we establish the apparent "time zero" when the photoelectron leaves the atom. Various processes such as elastic scattering of the photoelectron on the parent ion and many-electron correlation affect the quantum phase of the dipole transition matrix element, the energy dependence of which defines the emission timing. This qualitatively explains the time delay between photoemission from the $2s$ and $2p$ sub-shells of Ne as determined experimentally by attosecond streaking [{\\em Science} {\\bf 328}, 1658 (2010)]. However, with our extensive numerical modeling, we were only able to account for less than a half of the measured time delay of $21\\pm5$~as. We argue that the XUV pulse alone cannot produce such a larg...

  16. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

  17. Delayed antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurling, Geoffrey Kp; Del Mar, Chris B; Dooley, Liz; Foxlee, Ruth; Farley, Rebecca

    2017-09-07

    Concerns exist regarding antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) owing to adverse reactions, cost, and antibacterial resistance. One proposed strategy to reduce antibiotic prescribing is to provide prescriptions, but to advise delay in antibiotic use with the expectation that symptoms will resolve first. This is an update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2007, and updated in 2010 and 2013. To evaluate the effects on clinical outcomes, antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance, and patient satisfaction of advising a delayed prescription of antibiotics in respiratory tract infections. For this 2017 update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2017), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infection Group's Specialised Register; Ovid MEDLINE (2013 to 25 May 2017); Ovid Embase (2013 to 2017 Week 21); EBSCO CINAHL Plus (1984 to 25 May 2017); Web of Science (2013 to 25 May 2017); WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (1 September 2017); and ClinicalTrials.gov (1 September 2017). Randomised controlled trials involving participants of all ages defined as having an RTI, where delayed antibiotics were compared to immediate antibiotics or no antibiotics. We defined a delayed antibiotic as advice to delay the filling of an antibiotic prescription by at least 48 hours. We considered all RTIs regardless of whether antibiotics were recommended or not. We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. Three review authors independently extracted and collated data. We assessed the risk of bias of all included trials. We contacted trial authors to obtain missing information. For this 2017 update we added one new trial involving 405 participants with uncomplicated acute respiratory infection. Overall, this review included 11 studies with a total of 3555 participants. These 11 studies involved acute respiratory infections including acute otitis media (three studies

  18. Environmental resources as the subject of international negotiations. A theoretical transaction cost analysis. Umweltressourcen als Gegenstand internationaler Verhandlungen. Eine theoretische Transaktionskostenanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, H.

    1987-01-01

    Environmental systems like the atmosphere, rivers, lakes and oceans do not stop short at national boundaries - as is demonstrated clearly in Europe in particular. This results in a profusion of trans-frontier pollution-control allocation problems which can be solved in a satisfactory way only by an international cooperation between governmental bodies and organizations owing to the nations' rights of sovereignty. The author studies the associated problem of negotiations and makes use of game theory approaches for two-country models to analyse alternative initial and marginal conditions existing both on the institutional level and within the environmental system concerned for their effects on possible negotiation results while focussing on issues of allocation and distribution theory. (orig./HP)

  19. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Delayed Speech or Language Development KidsHealth > For Parents > Delayed Speech or Language Development ... child is right on schedule. Normal Speech & Language Development It's important to discuss early speech and language ...

  20. The Distributed Network Monitoring Model with Bounded Delay Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-hui; YIN Jian-ping; LU Xi-cheng; CAI Zhi-ping; ZHAO Jian-min

    2004-01-01

    We address the problem of optimizing a distributed monitoring system and the goal of the optimization is to reduce the cost of deployment of the monitoring infrastructure by identifying a minimum aggregating set subject to delay constraint on the aggregating path. We show that this problem is NP-hard and propose approximation algorithm proving the approximation ratio with ln m+1, where is the number of monitoring nodes. At last we extend our modal with more constraint of bounded delay variation.

  1. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  2. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  3. Data-assimilation by delay-coordinate nudging

    CERN Document Server

    Pazó, D; López, J M

    2015-01-01

    A new nudging method for data assimilation, delay-coordinate nudging, is presented. Delay-coordinate nudging makes explicit use of present and past observations in the formulation of the forcing driving the model evolution at each time-step. Numerical experiments with a low order chaotic system show that the new method systematically outperforms standard nudging in different model and observational scenarios, also when using an un-optimized formulation of the delay-nudging coefficients. A connection between the optimal delay and the dominant Lyapunov exponent of the dynamics is found based on heuristic arguments and is confirmed by the numerical results, providing a guideline for the practical implementation of the algorithm. Delay-coordinate nudging preserves the easiness of implementation, the intuitive functioning and the reduced computational cost of the standard nudging, making it a potential alternative especially in the field of seasonal-to-decadal predictions with large Earth system models that limit ...

  4. Transaction Cost Analysis of Local Government Cooperation in Regional Environmental Governance%跨区域环境治理中地方政府合作的交易成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭斌

    2015-01-01

    地方政府合作可以理解为地方政府为实现区域共同利益,应对区域公共问题的互动交易过程。基于此,本文运用交易成本理论对跨区域环境治理中地方政府合作困境进行分析,提出通过培育地方政府合作共识、完善地方政府合作制度、健全地方政府合作运行机制,降低地方政府合作的交易成本,实现跨区域环境的有效治理。%Local government cooperation can be understood as the process of local government for the realiza­ tion of regional common interest,coping with the regional public problem. Based on this,This paper uses the theory of transaction cost to analysis inter local government cooperation in regional environmental governance dilemma and puts forward to cultivate the local government cooperation agreement,improve the local govern­ ment cooperation system and the cooperation mechanism of local government to reduce the transaction costs of local government cooperation and to realize the effective governance of cross regional environmental problems.

  5. The Environmental Accounting: an Instrument for Promoting the Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Companies and managers usually believe that environmental costs are not significant tothe operation of their businesses. However, often it does not occur to them that some production costshave an environmental component. By identifying and controlling environmental costs, environmentalaccounting systems can help environmental managers to justify these cleaner production projects, and toidentify new ways of saving money and improving environmental performance at the same time.

  6. Corticosterone mediated costs of reproduction link current to future breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Phillips, Richard A; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael; Williams, Tony D

    2013-11-01

    Life-history theory predicts that costs are associated with reproduction. One possible mediator of costs involves the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones, which in birds can be measured in feathers grown during the breeding period. Glucocorticoids mediate physiological responses to unpredictable environmental or other stressors, but they can also function as metabolic regulators during more predictable events such as reproduction. Here we show that corticosterone ("Cort") in feathers grown during the breeding season reflects reproductive effort in two Antarctic seabird species (giant petrels, Macronectes spp.). In females of both species, but not males, feather Cort ("fCort") was nearly 1.5-fold higher in successful than failed breeders (those that lost their eggs/chicks), suggesting a cost of successful reproduction, i.e., high fCort levels in females reflect the elevated plasma Cort levels required to support high metabolic demands of chick-rearing. Successful breeding also led to delayed moult prior to winter migration. The fCort levels and pre-migration moult score that we measured at the end of current breeding were predictive of subsequent reproductive effort in the following year. Birds with high fCort and a delayed initiation of moult were much more likely to defer breeding in the following year. Cort levels and the timing of moult thus provide a potential mechanism for the tradeoff between current and future reproduction.

  7. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M; Wilbanks, Mitchell S; Perkins, Edward J; Meyer, Sharon A

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ~50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs=47 mg/kg) in female Sprague-Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs=24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte-erythrocyte-monocyte-megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1(+)) or erythroid (CD71(+)) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Delay-dependent H2 control for discrete time-delay systems with D-stability constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man Sun; Yingmin Jia; Junping Du; Shiying Yuan

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of H2 control for a class of discrete time-delay systems with D-stability constraints. The corresponding sufficient conditions are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities. In particular, the conditions are delay-dependent, and so they are less conservative. The obtained controller can provide an upper bound for the H2 cost function. A numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed method.

  9. Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2013-02-01

    The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversarys task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

  10. Various Forms of Project Delay in the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbasirah Mohamed Alias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Project delay can be defined as an incident that causes extended time in order to complete all or part of a particular project successfully. In other words, delay is the time overrun, either ahead of the date for project completion specified by the contract or further than the extensive contract period where an addition of time has been granted. It should be pointed out that the project delay in the construction industry is a universal or large-scale observable fact affecting not only the construction industry but the overall economy of countries too. As far as world construction industry is concerned, project delays are common problems in the construction industries; particularly most common is in the housing development industries. This paper will present different types of project delay that took place around the world. Project delay involves diverse complicated issues all of which are continuously of crucial importance to the parties to the construction contract. These issues concern right to convalesce costs of the project delay or the need to lengthen the project with the considerable right to recovery costs for adjustments to the contract schedules.

  11. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bojda, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  12. 沼气工程对畜禽粪便污染环境成本的控制效果%Environmental cost control of livestock and poultry fecal pollution via biogas project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武深树; 谭美英; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    沼气工程是治理畜禽粪便污染的主要方法,可提供清洁能源,减少温室气体排放,减轻环境污染,具有良好的环境效益.本研究以湖南省洞庭湖区为例,利用《气候变化框架公约》清洁机制执行理事会批准的方法(ACM0010)和环境成本估算方法,分析了沼气工程对畜禽粪便污染的环境成本的控制潜力.结果表明,在湖南省洞庭湖区的畜禽粪便均采用沼气项目进行污染治理条件下,年出栏5 000头以上的生猪规模养殖场均进行沼气发电,其他畜禽养殖场的沼气全部用于畜禽养殖场及周边居民的供热和照明使用,则2006年可减排温室气体2 891 614 t CO2当量,减少温室气体排放环境成本为4.52亿元;同时,可减排水体污染、土壤污染、微生物污染控制的环境成本分别为4.56亿元、1.69亿元、5.32亿元.因此,要支持和鼓励养殖户利用沼气工程处理畜禽粪便,实现畜禽粪便污染治理环境效益、经济效益和社会效益的有机统一.%As a main livestock and poultry fecal pollution management method, biogas project offers several advantages including clean energy, limited greenhouse gas emissions and environmental pollution. Using the Dongting Lake District (DLD) in Hunan Province as a case study, environmental cost control potential of livestock and poultry fecal pollution management via biogas projects was analyzed. The analysis was based on small scale CDM (clean development mechanism) project (ASM III.D-versionl4), approved by the CDM Executive Board under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Environmental Cost Estimation Method. The results indicated that greenhouse gas emission was reduced by 2 891 614 ton equivalent CO2, and the environmental cost by 0.452 billion Yuan (RMB) in terms of greenhouse gas emission, provided that for the pig breeding farms with annual productions of 5 000 pigs, the biogas project was used to generate electric power in

  13. Delay Choice vs. Delay Maintenance: Different Measures of Delayed Gratification in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Macchitella, Luigi; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification involves two components: (i) delay choice (selecting a delayed reward over an immediate one), and (ii) delay maintenance (sustaining the decision to delay gratification even if the immediate reward is available during the delay). In primates, two tasks most commonly have explored these components, the Intertemporal choice task and the Accumulation task. It is unclear whether these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. Here, we compared the performance of the same capuchin monkeys, belonging to two study populations, between these tasks. We found only limited evidence of a significant correlation in performance. Consequently, in contrast to what is often assumed, our data provide only partial support to the hypothesis that these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. PMID:23544770

  14. China's Environmental Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sternfeld

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article discusses the environmental challenges of China‘s economic boom and its social consequences. Although the country has a relatively long history of institutionalized environmental policy, it is in the implementation at local level where it faces large implementation deficits. Environmental damage causes not only high economic costs, but also affects social stability.

  15. Costing systems design for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TURTUREA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an overall image of the way Accounting responds to nowadays user’s needs in relation to the quantification of the impact companies have towards the environment. Regarding this, there have been analyzed concepts like sustainable development, environmental accounting, environmental costs and there have been presented the main progress towards environmental cost identification and measurement from the perspective of Activity Based Costing system. To provide an overall image of this concepts, there have been used as research methodology methods the documentation from literature review, analysis, synthesis and comparison.

  16. Delaying information search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we examined factors that may temporarily attenuate information search. People are generally curious and dislike uncertainty, which typically encourages them to look for relevant information. Despite these strong forces that promote information search, people sometimes deliberately delay obtaining valuable information. We find they may do so when they are concerned that the information might interfere with future pleasurable activities. Interestingly, the decision to search or to postpone searching for information is influenced not only by the value and importance of the information itself but also by well-being maintenance goals related to possible detrimental effects that negative knowledge may have on unrelated future plans.

  17. Delay-Constrained Multicast Routing Algorithm Based on Average Distance Heuristic

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Zhou; Yu-xi, Zhu; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2212

    2010-01-01

    Multicast is the ability of a communication network to accept a single message from an application and to deliver copies of the message to multiple recipients at different location. With the development of Internet, Multicast is widely applied in all kinds of multimedia real-time application: distributed multimedia systems, collaborative computing, video-conferencing, distance education, etc. In order to construct a delay-constrained multicast routing tree, average distance heuristic (ADH) algorithm is analyzed firstly. Then a delay-constrained algorithm called DCADH (delay-constrained average distance heuristic) is presented. By using ADH a least cost multicast routing tree can be constructed; if the path delay can't meet the delay upper bound, a shortest delay path which is computed by Dijkstra algorithm will be merged into the existing multicast routing tree to meet the delay upper bound. Simulation experiments show that DCADH has a good performance in achieving a low-cost multicast routing tree.

  18. Differential AR algorithm for packet delay prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Different delay prediction algorithms have been applied in multimedia communication, among which linear prediction is attractive because of its low complexity. AR (auto regressive) algorithm is a traditional one with low computation cost, while NLMS (normalize least mean square) algorithm is more precise. In this paper, referring to ARIMA (auto regression integrated with moving averages) model, a differential AR algorithm (DIAR) is proposed based on the analyses of both AR and NLMS algorithms. The prediction precision of the new algorithm is about 5-10 db higher than that of the AR algorithm without increasing the computation complexity.Compared with NLMS algorithm, its precision slightly improves by 0.1 db on average, but the algorithm complexity reduces more than 90%. Our simulation and tests also demonstrate that this method improves the performance of the average end-to-end delay and packet loss ratio significantly.

  19. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C.; Lapresle, J. (Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France))

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. ..gamma..EG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed.

  20. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2016-08-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency.

  1. A Low - cost Method of Dealing with Environmental Protection Mist%一种低成本环保处理酸雾的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华

    2012-01-01

    利用在酸洗池上方加装酸雾收集器,在酸雾收集器内形成一定的负压,配合缓蚀剂的抑雾作用,阻隔酸雾的扩散,回收的氯化氢水溶液用于新酸洗液的配制。本方案成本低,效果显著,可适用不同大小,形状的酸洗池。%Using the mist collector was installed in the top of the pickling pool to form a certain amount of negative pressure in the mist collector, and with the role of the inhibitor of fog, the proliferation of the mist was blocked, and the recovery of hydrogen chloride aqueous solution was used for the new pickling preparation. The program was low cost, effective, and applicable to different size, shape, and pickling pool.

  2. Research paper 2000-B-4: adjustments in the Dutch electricity producing sector in the context of the European directive 88/609/EEC: a case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch electricity sector in the context of the European Directive 88/609/EEC. The indicators used in this report for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a coordinating document (Eames, 1999). The European Directive 88/609/EEC regulates Large Combustion Plants on their SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. These emissions are relevant for air quality and for the acidification problem. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on the power plants as a specific sub-group of the large combustion plants. The report starts in chapter 2 with a description of the Dutch policy on acidification and regulation that existed when 88/609/EEC was issued. This way it is clarified that the formal implementation of the European Directive was done in the Netherlands with very little effort. In section 2.4 some major information on the structure of the electricity production sector is given as well as some insights into developments. In section 2.5 details on a covenant to reduce emissions from power plants is given. The electricity sector and the government agreed upon this document as a binding agenda for change. In section 2.6 information on monitoring and enforcement is given. In chapter 3, the environmental outcomes are discussed. First the emissions of all large combustion plants are presented in time series. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on the SO{sub 2} emissions of power plants. Therefore, secondly the SO{sub 2} emissions of the power plants and the individual power plants are presented. This opens the possibility for an analysis of the found decrease of SO{sub 2} emissions. In section 3.3 the

  3. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong X. Tao; Yimin Zhu

    2012-04-26

    It has been widely recognized that the energy saving benefits of GSHP systems are best realized in the northern and central regions where heating needs are dominant or both heating and cooling loads are comparable. For hot and humid climate such as in the states of FL, LA, TX, southern AL, MS, GA, NC and SC, buildings have much larger cooling needs than heating needs. The Hybrid GSHP (HGSHP) systems therefore have been developed and installed in some locations of those states, which use additional heat sinks (such as cooling tower, domestic water heating systems) to reject excess heat. Despite the development of HGSHP the comprehensive analysis of their benefits and barriers for wide application has been limited and often yields non-conclusive results. In general, GSHP/HGSHP systems often have higher initial costs than conventional systems making short-term economics unattractive. Addressing these technical and financial barriers call for additional evaluation of innovative utility programs, incentives and delivery approaches. From scientific and technical point of view, the potential for wide applications of GSHP especially HGSHP in hot and humid climate is significant, especially towards building zero energy homes where the combined energy efficient GSHP and abundant solar energy production in hot climate can be an optimal solution. To address these challenges, this report presents gathering and analyzing data on the costs and benefits of GSHP/HGSHP systems utilized in southern states using a representative sample of building applications. The report outlines the detailed analysis to conclude that the application of GSHP in Florida (and hot and humid climate in general) shows a good potential.

  4. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  5. Summary of activities of the life cycle costing workshop conducted by the Environmental Restoration Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Enviromental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    A five-day life cycle workshop was conducted by the Environmental Restoration (FR) Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop appropriate remediation scenarios for each Waste Area Grouping (WAG) at ORNL and to identify associated data needs (e.g., remedial investigations, special studies, and technology demonstrations) and required interfaces. Workshop participants represented the Department of Energy, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Bechtel National, Radian Corporation, EBASCO Corporation, and M-K Ferguson. The workshop was used to establish a technical basis for remediation activities at each WAG. The workshop results are documented in this report and provide the baseline for estimating the technical scope for each WAG. The scope and associated budgets and schedules will be summarized in baseline reports for each WAG, which, in turn, will be compiled into an overall strategy document for ORNL ER.

  6. Preliminary report on some health, environmental, and economic costs and benefits of energy conservation and fuel substitutions. [Four scenarios for 1985 and 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P. D.; Brainard, J.; Serwer, D. P.; Hamilton, L. D.

    1978-05-10

    Four scenarios were analyzed, including the National Energy Plan, that ranged from virtually no growth (74 quads) to 139 quads in 2000. The scenarios describe reasonable paths that this country might follow and encompass a broad spectrum of fuel-mix and environmental-policy options. Analyses show only small differences in emission estimates among scenarios, even though total energy-resource consumption varies by as much as 55 quads. This apparent anomaly is caused by fuel substitutions, reduced penetration of advanced pollution-control technologies, and introduction of specific industrial-process changes that produce higher emission levels. The scenarios analyzed are based on different assumptions about energy consumption, and the uncertainty of the resulting estimates are large; nevertheless, the results suggest the following policy changes: emission-control technologies and conservation measures in the industrial sector should receive high priority in R, D, and D funding; policies that encourage substitutions of coal for gas and oil should be balanced with appropriate actions to minimize higher emissions from coal; measures that reduce the retirement rates of uncontrolled utility and industrial plants should be balanced by emission-control retrofitting requirements; load management and cogeneration, when analyzed at the national level, do not appear to conflict with environmental goals, but local impacts may be significant and remain to be assessed; conservation measures in the residential/commercial sector designed to reduce infiltration should be balanced by actions to ensure that indoor pollution levels remain below safe levels; the adverse impacts of policies that encourage shifts to smaller and lighter automobiles should be offset by actions that encourage the use of passive and active safety devices and alterations in chassis design/ energy tax policies must be carefully formulated to avoid encouraging the inefficient use of particular energy resources.

  7. Reuse and refurbish: a cost savings delivery model for specialized seating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Pi Shan, Rodney S; Chrusch, Wendy M; Linassi, Angelo G; Sankaran, Rajini; Munchinsky, Jeanine

    2012-07-01

    To describe a unique specialized seating delivery model for children with disabilities that focuses on cost containment and environmental preservation. To determine whether this delivery model achieves cost containment. A retrospective cost analysis using data from billing records and annual statistical reports of the specialized seating program, for the 2004 to 2009 billing period. The specialized seating program is a service provided on a referral basis by the Saskatchewan Abilities Council, which is under contract to Saskatchewan Health. Pediatric patients (N=40) with physical disabilities (cerebral palsy, developmental delay, acquired brain injury, spinal cord injury, Down syndrome, other) who were referred, assessed, and met inclusion criteria. Not applicable. Relative cost (in Canadian dollars) of providing units with recycled components compared with purchasing new units. The average cost of a used wheelchair was Can $698.11. The average cost of a new chair was $2143.69, leading to an average savings per chair of $1445.58. Of the 49 chairs issued, this resulted in a total cost savings of $85,393.97. When labor costs were taken into account ($50,060.26), the savings amounted to $35,333.71. Overall cost reduction was 41.3%. A retrospective analysis shows evidence of cost containment. Long-term sustainability of the program requires ongoing analysis of the cost and environmental advantages of a recycling program and review of benefits provided in relation to the ability to meet patient needs. This delivery model does incorporate accountability and a policy framework, which could serve as a model for other centers. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  9. Tracking Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  10. Environmental permitting strategies for the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, B.E.; Wallis, C.M.

    1999-07-01

    Recent trends in economic markets have caused mining companies to look harder at reducing costs for collecting information, performing studies, and conducting other necessary activities to complete environmental permitting. In some cases, it may be in the operator's best interest to delay permitting and related expenditures to the extent possible. In most cases, however, agency mandates and the need to continue operations require that permits be obtained and maintained in the most expedient and economical way possible. This paper explores some basic approaches to environmental permitting which are intended to strategically guide the permitting process through the maze of requirements in a relatively straightforward manner. Through application of common sense and KISS (Keep it simple, stupid) the authors have found that permitting can be conducted in a quicker fashion than most applicants experience. The authors explore and explain some of these basic principles by drawing on their own experiences in the Arizona Aquifer Protection Permit and other environmental permit programs.

  11. Synchronizing time delay systems using variable delay in coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambika, G., E-mail: g.ambika@iiserpune.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune 411 021 (India); Amritkar, R.E., E-mail: amritkar@prl.res.in [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Delay and anticipation in coupling function varies with system dynamics. > Delay or anticipation of the synchronized state is independent of system delay. > Stability analysis developed is quite general. > We demonstrate enhanced security in communication. > Generalized synchronization possible over a wide range of parameter mismatch. - Abstract: We present a mechanism for synchronizing time delay systems using one way coupling with a variable delay in coupling that is reset at finite intervals. We present the analysis of the error dynamics that helps to isolate regions of stability of the synchronized state in the parameter space of interest for single and multiple delays. We supplement this by numerical simulations in a standard time delay system like Mackey Glass system. This method has the advantage that it can be adjusted to be delay or anticipatory in synchronization with a time which is independent of the system delay. We demonstrate the use of this method in communication using the bi channel scheme. We show that since the synchronizing channel carries information from transmitter only at intervals of reset time, it is not susceptible to an easy reconstruction.

  12. Small delay approximation of stochastic delay differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillouzic, Steve; L'heureux, Ivan; Longtin, André

    1999-04-01

    Delay differential equations evolve in an infinite-dimensional phase space. In this paper, we consider the effect of external fluctuations (noise) on delay differential equations involving one variable, thus leading to univariate stochastic delay differential equations (SDDE's). For small delays, a univariate nondelayed stochastic differential equation approximating such a SDDE is presented. Another approximation, complementary to the first, is also obtained using an average of the SDDE's drift term over the delayed dynamical variable, which defines a conditional average drift. This second approximation is characterized by the fact that the diffusion term is identical to that of the original SDDE. For small delays, our approach yields a steady-state probability density and a conditional average drift which are in close agreement with numerical simulations of the original SDDE. We illustrate this scheme with the delayed linear Langevin equation and a stochastic version of the delayed logistic equation. The technique can be used with any type of noise, and is easily generalized to multiple delays.

  13. When good pigeons make bad decisions: Choice with probabilistic delays and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisklak, Jeffrey M; McDevitt, Margaret A; Dunn, Roger M; Spetch, Marcia L

    2015-11-01

    Pigeons chose between an (optimal) alternative that sometimes provided food after a 10-s delay and other times after a 40-s delay and another (suboptimal) alternative that sometimes provided food after 10 s but other times no food after 40 s. When outcomes were not signaled during the delays, pigeons strongly preferred the optimal alternative. When outcomes were signaled, choices of the suboptimal alternative increased and most pigeons preferred the alternative that provided no food after the long delay despite the cost in terms of obtained food. The pattern of results was similar whether the short delays occurred on 25% or 50% of the trials. Shortening the 40-s delay to food sharply reduced suboptimal choices, but shortening the delay to no food had little effect. The results suggest that a signaled delay to no food does not punish responding in probabilistic choice procedures. The findings are discussed in terms of conditioned reinforcement by signals for good news.

  14. Efectividad de la tecnología Safetac® en la disminución del dolor asociado a las heridas: un factor significativo en la demora de la cicatrización y en el incremento en los costes Effectiveness of Safetac® technology for reducing wound-related pain: a significant factor in delayed healing and increased treatment costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard White

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El dolor es una experiencia común en las personas con heridas tanto agudas como crónicas. El dolor relacionado con las heridas puede ser intenso, afectar adversamente al funcionamiento físico, prolongar el tiempo de cicatrización, causar aflicción psicológica y reducir la calidad de vida del paciente. Los procedimientos de cambio de apósitos son, a menudo, el aspecto más doloroso del cuidado de las heridas. Se sabe que el cambio de algunos apósitos adhesivos y secos causa traumatismo y dolor. La prevención/minimización de estos efectos debería ser un objetivo clave en la provisión del cuidado de las heridas, si bien no lo es siempre. Muchos clínicos parecen ignorar todavía el dolor relacionado con las heridas, el efecto perjudicial que puede tener en la cicatrización y los remedios disponibles. Además, existen también serias implicaciones en relación con el coste que deben considerarse.Pain is a common experience for people with both acute and chronic wounds. Wound-related pain can be intense, adversely affect physical functioning, prolong the time to healing, cause psychological distress and reduce patient quality of life. Dressing change procedures are often the most painful aspect of wound care. The removal of some adhesive dressings and dry dressings are known to cause trauma and pain. The prevention / minimisation of these unwanted effects should be a key objective in the provision of wound care, but this is not always so. Many clinicians remain unaware of wound-related pain, the detrimental effect that it can have on healing, and the available remedies. There are also significant cost implications to consider.

  15. Delay tolerant networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Longxiang; Luan, Tom H

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents emerging and promising communication methods for network reliability via delay tolerant networks (DTNs). Different from traditional networks, DTNs possess unique features, such as long latency and unstable network topology. As a result, DTNs can be widely applied to critical applications, such as space communications, disaster rescue, and battlefield communications. The brief provides a complete investigation of DTNs and their current applications, from an overview to the latest development in the area. The core issue of data forward in DTNs is tackled, including the importance of social characteristics, which is an essential feature if the mobile devices are used for human communication. Security and privacy issues in DTNs are discussed, and future work is also discussed.

  16. Control Strategy Tool (CoST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Strategy Tool (CoST) is a software tool for projecting potential future control scenarios, their effects on emissions and estimated costs. This tool...

  17. Stabilizing model predictive control for constrained nonlinear distributed delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboobi Esfanjani, R; Nikravesh, S K Y

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, a model predictive control scheme with guaranteed closed-loop asymptotic stability is proposed for a class of constrained nonlinear time-delay systems with discrete and distributed delays. A suitable terminal cost functional and also an appropriate terminal region are utilized to achieve asymptotic stability. To determine the terminal cost, a locally asymptotically stabilizing controller is designed and an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasoskii functional of the locally stabilized system is employed as the terminal cost. Furthermore, an invariant set for locally stabilized system which is established by using the Razumikhin Theorem is used as the terminal region. Simple conditions are derived to obtain terminal cost and terminal region in terms of Bilinear Matrix Inequalities. The method is illustrated by a numerical example.

  18. Development of Low-Cost DDGS-Based Activated Carbons and Their Applications in Environmental Remediation and High-Performance Electrodes for Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong

    2015-08-28

    Abstract: A one-step, facile method to produce 3-dimensional porous activated carbons (ACs) from corn residual dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) by microwave-assisted chemical activation was developed. The ACs’ application potentials in dye removal and supercapacitor electrodes were also demonstrated. The porous structure and surface properties of the ACs were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the surface area of the as-prepared ACs was up to 1000 m2/g. In the dye removal tests, these DDGS-based ACs exhibited a maximum adsorption ratio of 477 mg/g on methylene blue. In electric double layer capacitors, electrochemical tests indicated that the ACs had ideal capacitive and reversible behaviors and exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. The specific capacitance varied between 120 and 210 F/g under different scan rates and current densities. In addition, the capacitors showed excellent stability even after one thousand charge–discharge cycles. The specific capacitance was further increased up to 300 F/g by in situ synthesis of MnO2 particles in the ACs to induce pseudo-capacitance. This research showed that the DDGS-based ACs had great potentials in environmental remediation and energy storage applications. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  19. Polyethylenimine aqueous solution: a low-cost and environmentally friendly formulation to produce low-work-function electrodes for efficient easy-to-fabricate organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Xue; Jiang, Fangyuan; Qin, Fei; Li, Zaifang; Tong, Jinhui; Xiong, Sixing; Meng, Wei; Zhou, Yinhua

    2014-12-24

    Polyethylenimine (PEI) has been widely used to produce low-work-function electrodes. Generally, PEI modification is prepared by spin coating from 2-methoxyethanol solution. In this work, we explore the method for PEI modification on indium tin oxide (ITO) by dipping the ITO sample into PEI aqueous solution for organic solar cells. The PEI prepared in this method could reduce the work function of ITO as effectively as PEI prepared by spin coating from 2-methoxyethanol solution. H2O as the processing solvent is more environmentally friendly and much cheaper compared to the 2-methoxyethanol solvent. The dipping method is also compatible with large-area samples. With low-work-function ITO treated by the dipping method, solar cells with a simple structure of glass/ITO/PEI(dipping)/P3HT:ICBA/PEDOT:PSS(vacuum-free processing) display a high open-circuit voltage of 0.86 ± 0.01, a high fill factor of 66 ± 2%, and power conversion efficiency of 4.4 ± 0.3% under 100 mW/cm(2) illumination.

  20. Border tax adjustments for additional costs engendered by internal and EU environmental protection measures. Implementation options and WTO admissibility; Grenzsteuerausgleich fuer Mehrkosten infolge nationaler/europaeischer Umweltschutzinstrumente. Gestaltungsmoeglichkeiten und WTO-rechtliche Zulaessigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, Jacqueline; Berg, Holger (comps.)

    2008-04-15

    At the end of the year 2006, France proposed the introduction of a 'climatic tariff' into the discussion of the international climatic protection. The 'climatic tariff' shall adjust extra costs, which result from the domestic production by means of environmental protection instruments and to which the import goods are not exposed, with import/export compensatory payments in the form of import duties and/or taxes on import goods. The introduction of an import/export compensatory payment system aims to load imported goods equivalent to domestic products in order to adjust competitive disadvantages. In the contribution under consideration the authors report on possibilities and problems of design for an import/export tax compensatory. The authors examine the validity of the measures of import/export compensation from legal view the World Trade Organization (Geneva, Switzerland) based on the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

  1. On the Gravitomagnetic Time Delay

    OpenAIRE

    Ciufolini, I.; Kopeikin, S.; Mashhoon, B.; Ricci, F

    2002-01-01

    We study the gravitational time delay in ray propagation due to rotating masses in the linear approximation of general relativity. Simple expressions are given for the gravitomagnetic time delay that occurs when rays of radiation cross a slowly rotating shell and propagate in the field of a distant rotating source. Moreover, we calculate the local gravitational time delay in the Goedel universe. The observational consequences of these results in the case of weak gravitational lensing are disc...

  2. Demographic determinants of delayed divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L Y; Heaton, T B

    1989-01-01

    This study identifies factors that predict delayed divorce in the US. The findings show that factors which influence marital stability in general also correlate with delayed divorce in the same direction. Wife's age at marriage, age of the youngest child, wife's religion, region of residence, and metropolitan residence have substantial effects of delayed divorce, but the effects of race, parental divorce, premarital pregnancy, and socioeconomic status are small.

  3. Location Estimation using Delayed Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Nørgård, Peter Magnus

    1998-01-01

    When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new techn...... technique to a sensor fusion system for estimating the location of an autonomous guided vehicle. The system fuses encoder and vision measurements in an extended Kalman filter. Results from experiments in a real environment are reported...

  4. 丘陵山区环境改造灭螺费用-效果评价%Evaluation on cost-effectiveness of snail control project by environmental modification in hilly regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李水明; 陈世军; 吴晓军; 陈锡庆; 章荣平; 张建荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the snail control project by environmental modification in order to provide the evidence for quickly interrupting the transmission of schistosomiasis in hilly regions. Methods Field investigations were carried out. The changes of the snail habitat areas were compared before and after the snail control project. The direct costs of the snail control were calculated. The reduction rates of snail area and snail density were regarded as the evaluation indexes of the effectiveness. The costs for reduction of 1% of snail area and 1% of snail density were used as the unit for cost-effectiveness analysis. Results After the 15 projects were implemented, there were no snails in 12 areas. The reduction rates of snail areas were 72.22% to 100%. The reduction rates of the snail area and density were both 100% in the areas with digging new ditches to fill up the old ones and building reservoirs. The total cost of 15 projects was 1 450 800 Yuan. The average cost per unit was 0.56 Yuan/m2. After the snail control project by digging new ditches to fill up the old ones was implemented, the costs of snail area and density decreased by one unit were 300 -700 Yuan, by building reservoirs, the costs were 600 -2 600 Yuan, by building fishpond, the costs were 1 200 - 1 500 Yuan, by watershed comprehensive measures, the costs were 900 - 2 700 Yuan. The cost of digging new ditches to fill up the old ones was significantly lower than that of building reservoirs or watershed comprehensive measures, but there was no significant difference between building reservoirs and watershed comprehensive measures. Conclusions In hilly regions, the implementation of snail control project by environmental modification combined with construction of water conservancy is effective, and the cost-effectiveness of the snail control with digging new ditches to fill up the old ones is excellent.%目的 评价丘陵山区环境改造灭螺费用及效果,为

  5. A Framework for Building Efficient Environmental Permitting Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ulibarri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance as a tool for protecting air and water quality, and for mitigating impacts to protected species and ecosystems, the environmental permitting process is widely recognized to be inefficient and marked by delays. This article draws on a literature review and interviews with permitting practitioners to identify factors that contribute to delayed permit decisions. The sociopolitical context, projects that are complex or use novel technology, a fragmented and bureaucratic regulatory regime, serial permit applications and reviews, and applicant and permitting agency knowledge and resources each contribute to permitting inefficiency when they foster uncertainty, increase transaction costs, and allow divergent interests to multiply, yet remain unresolved. We then use the interviews to consider the potential of a collaborative dialogue between permitting agencies and applicants to mitigate these challenges, and argue that collaboration is well positioned to lessen permitting inefficiency.

  6. Fuzzy ABC: Modelando a Incerteza na Alocação dos Custos AmbientaisFuzzy ABC: Modeling the Uncertainty in Environmental Cost AllocationFuzzy ABC: Modelando la Incertidumbre en la Alocation de los Costos Ambientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORBA, José Alonso

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEm muitos casos, prevenir a poluição e a destruição do meio ambiente é menos oneroso do que remediar esses danos. Nesse contexto, a alocação de custos ambientais aos produtos permite uma melhor visualização e análise da rentabilidade dos produtos. Entretanto, a alocação dos custos ambientais aos produtos envolve informações estimadas e assume uma linearidade entre o consumo das atividades e os produtos, que muitas vezes não existe. Para contemplar essa não linearidade, esta pesquisa apresenta uma metodologia baseada na utilização da lógica fuzzy para modelar a incerteza e a subjetividade, inerentes ao processo de alocação dos custos ambientais. Para isso, além de um estudo de caso desenvolvido por Hansen e Mowen (2001, p. 584, que foi utilizado como referência, outras variáveis foram incorporadas. Em seguida, uma proposta de solução, que utiliza fundamentos da teoria dos conjuntos fuzzy, ou nebulosos, foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de contemplar a subjetividade e a incerteza na alocação dos custos ambientais. Para simular esse modelo, foram estabelecidas 126 regras de inferência. A etapa final da elaboração do modelo nebuloso consistiu na fuzzificação e defuzzificação dos dados existentes e dos novos direcionadores gerados por intermédio da utilização do software FuzzyTECH®. Os resultados encontrados no modelo proposto - FuzzyABC (Fuzzy Activity Based Costing - evidenciam que a lógica fuzzy pode ser utilizada como uma importante ferramenta para tratar da ambigüidade e da incerteza, inerentes ao processo de alocação dos custos ambientais.ABSTRACTIn many cases, preventing pollution and environmental destruction is cheaper than remedying these damages. In this sense, environmental cost allocation enables a better visualization and analysis of a product’s profitability. However, the environmental allocation process involves estimated information and assumes linearity between activity consumption

  7. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    period of delay can potentially be attributed to several events falling within both parties' spheres of responsibility, commonly termed concurrent delay, is rarely regulated in construction contracts in spite of its common occurrence. This book analyses both the theoretical foundations and the practical......Delay is one of the issues most frequently encountered in today’s construction industry; it causes significant economic damage to all parties involved. Construction contracts, standard and bespoke, almost invariably consider delay from a perspective of single liability. If the event causing...

  8. Time Delay of CGM Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773

  9. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    Delay is one of the issues most frequently encountered in today’s construction industry; it causes significant economic damage to all parties involved. Construction contracts, standard and bespoke, almost invariably consider delay from a perspective of single liability. If the event causing...... period of delay can potentially be attributed to several events falling within both parties' spheres of responsibility, commonly termed concurrent delay, is rarely regulated in construction contracts in spite of its common occurrence. This book analyses both the theoretical foundations and the practical...

  10. Component Cost of Fuel Oil of Waste Transportation Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhamtoro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The success of the transportation system can be measured based on four things, namely the efficiency of time, energy and fuel efficiency, environmental impact, and safety. Efficiency of energy and fuel is often stated as part of vehicle operating costs (VOC. So need to know the amount of the percentage of the fuel cost component of vehicle operating costs. The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of the fuel cost component of the total cost of transportation. Research object is a dump truck or on the SCS transport system that serves the city of Malang. Stages of research begins with getting the data needed to analyze the cost of transporting waste. Furthermore, the analysis performed to determine the percentage of each component of transport costs. Results of the analysis showed that the greatest percentage of the cost of each component of the cost of transporting waste is a component of the fuel, while the smallest percentage of the cost of the mechanical components. For the percentage of fuel costs by 28.90% of the variable cost per kilometer, while the percentage of fuel costs by 27.45% of the total cost of transporting waste on his m3each.

  11. COST 516 Tribology Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronkainen, H.; Holmberg, K. [eds.

    1998-11-01

    Cost 516 Tribology action is the first joint European research action focusing on tribology, which originates in the approval of its Memorandum of understanding in February 1994. The COST 516 Tribology Symposium took place in Espoo, Finland from 14th to 15th May 1998. This was the first Symposium of the COST 516 Tribology action. The large number of research contributions at the Symposium, altogether almost SO, and their scientific and technical level, is an indication of the importance and significance of tribology research. The symposium proceedings contain papers in a wide variety of subjects, covering the three categories of the COST 516 Tribology action, namely Grease lubrication (GRIT), Tribology of renewable environmentally adapted lubricants (REAL) and Coatings and surface treatments (CAST). (orig.)

  12. Coping with persistent environmental problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varjopuro, Riku; Andrulewicz, Eugeniusz; Brandt, Urs Steiner;

    2014-01-01

    involved in the implementation are keys to improve understanding of the systemic delays. The improved understanding is necessary for the adaptive management of a persistent environmental problem. In addition to the state of the environment, the monitoring and analysis should be targeted also......ABSTRACT In this paper we focus on systemic delays in the Baltic Sea that cause the problem of eutrophication to persist. These problems are demonstrated in our study by addressing three types of delays: (1) decision delay: the time it takes for an idea or perceived need to be launched as a policy...... is to analyze these systemic delays and especially to discuss how the critical delays can be better addressed in marine protection policies by strengthening the adaptive capacity of marine protection. We conclude that the development of monitoring systems and reflexive, participatory analysis of dynamics...

  13. Effective multicasting algorithm for dynamic membership with delay constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin; XU Zheng-quan

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an effective heuristic algorithm for dynamic multicast routing with delay-constrained DDMR.The tree constructed by DDMR has the following characteristics: (1) multicast tree changes with the dynamic memberships; (2)the cost of the tree is as small as possible at each node addition/removal event; (3) all of the path delay meet a fixed delay constraint;(4) minimal perturbation to an existing tree. The proposed algorithm is based on "damage" and "usefulness" concepts proposed in previous work, and has a new parameter bf(Balancing Factor) for judging whether or not to rearrange a tree region when membership changes. Mutation operation in Genetic Algorithm (GA) is also employed to find an attached node for a new adding node.Simulation showed that our algorithm performs well and is better than static heuristic algorithms, in term of cost especially.

  14. Rural poverty and delayed presentation to tuberculosis services in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambanis, Alexis; Yassin, Mohammed A; Ramsay, Andy; Bertel Squire, S; Arbide, Isabel; Cuevas, Luis E

    2005-04-01

    To measure time to initial presentation and assess factors influencing the decision to seek medical attention, we interviewed 243 patients undergoing sputum examination for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) at a rural health centre near Awassa, Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire was used. Median (mean+SD) patient delay was 4.3 (9.8+12.4) weeks. Delays over 4 weeks were significantly associated with rural residence, transport time over 2 h, overnight travel, transport cost exceeding US $1.40, having sold personal assets prior to the visit, and use of traditional medicine. The majority of patients cited economic or logistical barriers to health care when asked directly about causes of delay. Case-finding strategies for TB must be sensitive to patient delay and health systems must become more accessible in rural areas.

  15. Analysis and synthesis of singular systems with time-delays

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zheng-Guang; Shi, Peng; Chu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Singular time-delay systems are very suitable to describe a lot of practical systems such as manufacturing systems, networked control systems, power systems and electrical circuits. Thus, the past two decades have witnessed a significant progress on the theory of singular time-delay systems, and many fundamental and important topics have been successfully investigated including stability analysis, stabilization, guaranteed cost control, filtering, observer design, sliding mode control and so on. The main objective of this book is to present the latest developments and references in the analysis and synthesis of singular time-delay systems with or without Markov jumping parameters in a unified framework. The materials adopted in this book are mainly based on research results of the authors. This book will be of interest to academic researchers working in singular systems, time-delay systems and Markov jump systems and to graduate students interested in systems and control theory.

  16. Dark energy with gravitational lens time delays

    CERN Document Server

    Treu, T; Cyr-Racine, F -Y; Fassnacht, C D; Keeton, C R; Linder, E V; Moustakas, L A; Bradac, M; Buckley-Geer, E; Collett, T; Courbin, F; Dobler, G; Finley, D A; Hjorth, J; Kochanek, C S; Komatsu, E; Koopmans, L V E; Meylan, G; Natarajan, P; Oguri, M; Suyu, S H; Tewes, M; Wong, K C; Zabludoff, A I; Zaritsky, D; Anguita, T; Brunner, R J; Cabanac, R; Falco, E E; Fritz, A; Seidel, G; Howell, D A; Giocoli, C; Jackson, N; Lopez, S; Metcalf, R B; Motta, V; Verdugo, T

    2013-01-01

    Strong lensing gravitational time delays are a powerful and cost effective probe of dark energy. Recent studies have shown that a single lens can provide a distance measurement with 6-7 % accuracy (including random and systematic uncertainties), provided sufficient data are available to determine the time delay and reconstruct the gravitational potential of the deflector. Gravitational-time delays are a low redshift (z~0-2) probe and thus allow one to break degeneracies in the interpretation of data from higher-redshift probes like the cosmic microwave background in terms of the dark energy equation of state. Current studies are limited by the size of the sample of known lensed quasars, but this situation is about to change. Even in this decade, wide field imaging surveys are likely to discover thousands of lensed quasars, enabling the targeted study of ~100 of these systems and resulting in substantial gains in the dark energy figure of merit. In the next decade, a further order of magnitude improvement will...

  17. Investigation of the Bruce B delayed neutron detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriere, O. [Univ. of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    The present goal of this investigation is to improve the sensitivity of the Delayed Neutron Detector System. The sensitivity of the system is not as good as requested. A software upgrade if possible will be more favorable than a hardware upgrade because of the possible cost implied. (author)

  18. Study on water environmental degradation cost in Taihu Basin ba sed on water resources accounting%基于水资源核算的太湖流域水环境退化成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢智慧; 蔡梅; 蔡文婷

    2015-01-01

    为合理制定流域水价,加强流域水资源统一管理,提高水资源节约利用水平,促进水资源可持续利用,对水环境与经济社会产生的关系进行综合考量;在核算太湖流域2010年水资源的基础上,分别利用基于防护费用的评估方法和基于损害的水环境退化估价方法,计算分析2010年太湖流域水环境退化成本。结果表明:对污染物进行源头治理不仅是出于对环境保护的考虑,更是尽可能地降低水环境退化成本、避免经济损失的最佳选择。水环境退化分析为合理制定水价及水资源统一管理提供了重要参考。%In order to make reasonable water price, strengthen the unified basin water resources management, increase the water conservation utilization level and promote sustainable utilization of water resources, the relationship between water environment and economic society is considered.Based on accounting water resources of Taihu basin in 2010, the protection cost evaluation method and the damage of water environment estimating method are adopted to calculate and analyze water environmental degradation cost of Taihu basin in 2010.The results show that:pollution source management is not only out of consideration for environment protection, but also for reducing water environmental degradation cost as much as possible, which is the best choice to avoid economic losses.Water environment degradation analysis provides an important reference for making reasonable water price and water resources unified management.

  19. Oscillation and stability of delay models in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P; Saker, Samir H

    2014-01-01

    Environmental variation plays an important role in many biological and ecological dynamical systems. This monograph focuses on the study of oscillation and the stability of delay models occurring in biology. The book presents recent research results on the qualitative behavior of mathematical models under different physical and environmental conditions, covering dynamics including the distribution and consumption of food. Researchers in the fields of mathematical modeling, mathematical biology, and population dynamics will be particularly interested in this material.

  20. Impact of early or delayed elective resection in complicated diverticulitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Bachmann; Geeske Krause; Tamina Rawnaq; Lena Tomkotter; Yogesh Vashist; Shanly Shahmiri; Jakob R Izbicki; Maximilian Bockhorn

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the outcomes of early and delayed elective resection after initial antibiotic treatment in patients with complicated diverticulitis.METHODS: The study, a non-randomized comparison of the two approaches, included 421 consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection for complicated sigmoid diverticulitis (Hinchey classification Ⅰ-Ⅱ) at the Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf between 2004 and 2009. The operating procedure, duration of hospital and intensive care unit stay, outcome, complications and socioeconomic costs were analyzed, with comparison made between the early and delayed elective resection strategies. RESULTS: The severity of the diverticulitis and American Society of Anesthesiologists score were comparable for the two groups. Patients who underwent delayed elective resection had a shorter hospital stay and operating time, and the rate of successfully completed laparoscopic resections was higher (80% vs 75%). Eight patients who were scheduled for delayed elective resection required urgent surgery because of complications of the diverticulitis, which resulted in a high rate of morbidity. Analysis of the socioeconomic effects showed that hospitalization costs were significantly higher for delayed elective resection compared with early elective resection (9296 € ± 694 € vs 8423 € ± 968 €; P = 0.001). Delayed elective resection showed a trend toward lower complications, and the operation appeared simpler to perform than early elective resection. Nevertheless, delayed elective resection carries a risk of complications occurring during the period of 6-8 wk that could necessitate an urgent resection with its consequent high morbidity, which counterbalanced many of the advantages. CONCLUSION: Overall, early elective resection for complicated, non-perforated diverticulitis is shown to be a suitable alternative to delayed elective resection after 6-8 wk, with additional beneficial socioeconomic

  1. Registration Delay and Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefken, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Tracking the difference between the time a first-year student is allowed to register for a course and the time he or she does register for a course (a student's registration delay), we notice a negative correlation between registration delay and final grade in a course. The difference between a student who registers within the first two minutes…

  2. 78 FR 59422 - Delayed Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Delayed Applications AGENCY: Office of Hazardous... applications delayed more than 180 days. SUMMARY: In accordance with the requirements of 49 U.S.C. 5117(c), PHMSA is publishing the following list of special permit applications that have been in process for 180...

  3. High resolution digital delay timer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  4. Calibrating for Ionospheric Phase Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdoran, P. F.

    1985-01-01

    Technique determines ionospheric phase delay on real-time universally applicable basis in terms of electrons per meter squared by coherently modulating two L-band carrier frequencies received from two Global Positioning System satelites. Two pseudorandom number sequences cross-correlated to derive delay time.

  5. #FakeNobelDelayReasons

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Tuesday’s hour-long delay of the Nobel Prize in Physics announcement was (and still is) quite the cause for speculation. But on the Twittersphere, it was simply the catalyst for some fantastic puns, so-bad-they're-good physics jokes and other shenanigans. Here are some of our favourite #FakeNobelDelayReasons.    

  6. Imitation dynamics with time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Chang; Yu, Jie-Ru; Kurokawa, Shun; Tao, Yi

    2017-05-07

    Based on the classic imitation dynamics (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998, Evolutionary Games and Population Dynamics, Cambridge University Press), the imitation dynamics with time delay is investigated, where the probability that an individual will imitate its opponent's own strategy is assumed to depend on the comparison between the past expected payoff of this individual's own strategy and the past expected payoff of its opponent's own strategy, i.e. there is a time delay effect. For the two-phenotype model, we show that if the system has an interior equilibrium and this interior equilibrium is stable when there is no time delay, then there must be a critical value of time delay such that the system tends to a stable periodic solution when the time delay is larger than the critical value. On the other hand, for three-phenotype (rock-scissors-paper) model, the numerical analysis shows that for the stable periodic solution induced by the time delay, the amplitude and the period will increase with the increase of the time delay. These results should help to understand the evolution of behavior based on the imitation dynamics with time delay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetic bearing optical delay line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Kamphues, F.G.; Fouss, B.; Henrioulle, K.; Hogenhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    TNO TPD, in close cooperation with Micromega-Dynamics and Dutch Space, has developed an advanced Optical Delay Line (ODL) for use in PRIMA, GENIE and other ground based interferometers. The delay line design is modular and flexible, which makes scaling for other applications a relatively easy task.

  8. Time-delay damping theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪峰

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, existing damping theories are briefly reviewed. On the basis of the existing damping theories, a new kind of damping theory, i.e., the time-delay damping theory, is developed. In the time-delay damping theory, the damping force is considered to be directly proportional to the increment of displacement. The response analysis of an SDOF time-delay damping system is carried out, and the methods for obtaining the solution for a time-delay damping system in the time domain as well as the frequency domain are given. The comparison between results from different damping theories shows that the time-delay damping theory is both reasonable and convenient.

  9. Asynchronous Bounded Expected Delay Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bakhshi, Rena; Fokkink, Wan; Pang, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The commonly used asynchronous bounded delay (ABD) network models assume a fixed bound on message delay. We propose a probabilistic network model, called asynchronous bounded expected delay (ABE) model. Instead of a strict bound, the ABE model requires only a bound on the expected message delay. While the conditions of ABD networks restrict the set of possible executions, in ABE networks all asynchronous executions are possible, but executions with extremely long delays are less probable. In contrast to ABD networks, ABE networks cannot be synchronised efficiently. At the example of an election algorithm, we show that the minimal assumptions of ABE networks are sufficient for the development of efficient algorithms. For anonymous, unidirectional ABE rings of known size N we devise a probabilistic leader election algorithm having average message and time complexity O(N).

  10. Cost comparisons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    How much does the LHC cost? And how much does this represent in other currencies? Below we present a table showing some comparisons with the cost of other projects. Looking at the figures, you will see that the cost of the LHC can be likened to that of three skyscrapers, or two seasons of Formula 1 racing! One year's budget of a single large F1 team is comparable to the entire materials cost of the ATLAS or CMS experiments.   Please note that all the figures are rounded for ease of reading.    CHF € $   LHC 4.6 billions 3 billions  4 billions   Space Shuttle Endeavour (NASA) 1.9 billion 1.3 billion 1.7 billion   Hubble Space Telescope (cost at launch – NASA/...

  11. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Beppu, H.; Hirose, K.; Yamada, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author).

  12. 资源开采环境代价核算理论方法及评价分区--以湖南省冷水江市为例%Discussion on the Theoretical Method and Assessment and Division with regard to Resource Exploitation Environmental Cost Accounting-Taking the City of Lengshuijiang of Hunan Province as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石香江; 李华; 张超宇

    2013-01-01

    根据资源开采环境代价核算的边际外部成本理论和资源开采产生的环境代价核算方法--直接市场法和替代市场法,构建资源开采环境代价指标体系。以湖南省冷水江市资源开采为例,对其产生的环境代价进行了核算,根据核算结果将资源环境代价划分为严重区、较严重区和一般区,分析原因,为更好地治理恢复资源枯竭型城市提供依据。%Based on marginal external cost theory and direct marketing method and surrogate market approach with regard to resources exploitation environmental cost accounting, the index system of resources exploitation environmental cost are established. This paper calculates the environmental cost caused by resource exploitation in the city of Lengshuijiang. With accounting results, severe area, critical area and general area arte marked off from the points of resource environmental cost. And this paper analyses the reasons so as to provide a basis for better rehabilitation of the cities with exhausted natural resources.

  13. Asymptotic Behaviour and Extinction of Delay Lotka-Volterra Model with Jump-Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Li,; Jing’an Cui; Guohua Song

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of jump-diffusion random environmental perturbations on the asymptotic behaviour and extinction of Lotka-Volterra population dynamics with delays. The contributions of this paper lie in the following: (a) to consider delay stochastic differential equation with jumps, we introduce a proper initial data space, in which the initial data may be discontinuous function with downward jumps; (b) we show that the delay stochastic differential equation with jumps associate...

  14. Exploring delay causes of road construction projects in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon F. Aziz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction delays are a common phenomenon in civil engineering projects in Egypt including road construction projects. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of road construction delays. This paper studied a list of construction delay causes gathered from literature having different types of construction, different countries, different periods and different numbers of delay causes and delay groups. A questionnaire and personal interviews have formed the basis of this paper listing 293 delay causes. The questionnaire survey was distributed to 500 construction participants and 389 were received who represent consultants, contractors and site/design engineers excluding the owner representing the government in road projects as one party only. Relative Importance Index (RII is calculated and according to the highest values the top twenty and the least twenty delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the paper. The test results reveal good correlation of causes and groups between contractors and site/design engineers and between consultants and site design engineers and a somewhat low correlation between contractors and consultants. So there are no root causes that can be taking for granted to be most or least effective delay causes. Proposed model for predicting actual road construction project duration was developed; a real case study tested the accuracy of proposed model. According to the analysis of case study, the most contributing causes and groups to delays were discussed, and some future recommendations were proposed in order to control and minimize delays in road construction projects. These findings can be helpful for project managers to mitigate the road construction delays in Egypt. In order to effectively overcome the road construction delays in developing countries, suggestions are made for fundamental and large

  15. 协调中国环境污染与经济增长冲突的路径研究——基于环境退化成本的分析%Research on the Path of Adjusting Conflict Between Environmental Pollution and Economic Growth in China——Based on Analysis of Environmental Degradation Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟伟; 任保平

    2011-01-01

    This paper selects relative data of our country from 1990 to 2009. Firstly, it uses these selected data to estimate the environmental degradation cost. It is found that environmental degradation cost shows a rising trend. The environmental degradation cost mainly results from water pollution and air pollution. Second, we take this cost as the indicator of environmental pollution and combine it with the characteristics of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. We also establish the criteria of choosing a policy path to control pollution,to see whether the policy can effectively put the indicator of pollution down to a comparative lower level. According to those, we can analyse the path of the coordinating the conflicts between economic growth and environmental pollution. The empirical results indicate that not considering the effects of policies, the GDP level of our country is on the left of the tuming points of Environmental Kuznets Curve. It means that increasing the domestic products can make the environment condition worse. Another result is that when all of the controlling pollution measures are put into practice, some performances of those policies are at a low level, even of no efficiency. The last conclusion is that at present in order to guarantee the sustaineahce economic growth and reduce the environment cost, the policy path is that firstly we should pay great attention to the adjustment of industrial structure. It means we should keep the proportion of the secondary industry at a reasonable level and strictly supervise the pollution enterprises in the process of developing the tertiary;Industry. The second step is to adjust the proportion of import and export and to stimulate export. The policy of attracting foreign direct investment and the government investment to deal with pollution at the present development stage of our country can not effectively reduce the the environmental degradation cost of economic growth.%选取我国1990-2009年相关数据,首

  16. Economics of children's environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Economic analyses are increasingly appearing in the children's environmental-health literature. In this review, an illustrative selection of articles that represent cost analyses, cost-effectiveness analyses, and cost-benefit analyses is analyzed for the relative merits of each approach. Cost analyses remain the dominant approach due to lack of available data. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses in this area face challenges presented by estimation of costs of environmental interventions, whose costs are likely to decrease with further technological innovation. Benefits are also more difficult to quantify economically and can only be partially alleviated through willingness-to-pay approaches. Nevertheless, economic analyses in children's environmental health are highly informative and important informants to public-health and policy practice. Further attention and training in their appropriate use are needed.

  17. Time Delay in Molecular Photoionization

    CERN Document Server

    Hockett, P; Villeneuve, D M; Corkum, P B

    2015-01-01

    Time-delays in the photoionization of molecules are investigated. As compared to atomic ionization, the time-delays expected from molecular ionization present a much richer phenomenon, with a strong spatial dependence due to the anisotropic nature of the molecular scattering potential. We investigate this from a scattering theory perspective, and make use of molecular photoionization calculations to examine this effect in representative homonuclear and hetronuclear diatomic molecules, nitrogen and carbon monoxide. We present energy and angle-resolved maps of the Wigner delay time for single-photon valence ionization, and discuss the possibilities for experimental measurements.

  18. Environmental problems indicator under environmental modeling toward sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sutthichaimethee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to apply a model to the study and analysis of environmental and natural resource costs created in supply chains of goods and services produced in Thailand, and propose indicators for environmental problem management, caused by goods and services production, based on concepts of sustainable production and consumer behavior. The research showed that the highest environmental cost in terms of Natural Resource Materials was from pipelines and gas distribution, while the lowest was for farming coconuts. The highest environmental cost in terms of Energy and Transportation was for iron and steel. The highest environmental cost in the category of Fertilizer and Pesticides was for oil palm. For Sanitation Services, the highest environmental cost was movie theaters. Overall, the lowest environmental cost for all categories, except Natural Resource Materials, was for petroleum and refineries. Based on the cost index, coconut farming gained the highest Real Benefit to the farm owner, while pipelines and gas distribution had the lowest Real Benefit. If Thailand were to use a similar environmental problem indicator, it could be applied to formulate efficient policy and strategy for the country in three areas, namely social, economic, and environmental development.

  19. External Costs to Parties Involved in Highway Traffic Accidents: The Perspective of Highway Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Jou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores highway travellers’ willingness to pay (WTP for external costs caused by traffic accidents. There are a number of further external costs, the paper focuses on two externalities: air pollution and time delays. Data collection was performed using the face-to-face survey method, and the surveys were carried out at highway rest areas. Air pollution and time delays were divided into three levels of severity (light, moderate and severe to obtain the interviewees’ WTP according to each level of severity. The result of this study demonstrates that there are many samples with zero WTP because penalties for pollution caused by traffic accidents are not currently enforced in Taiwan. Thus, the spike model was adopted in this study to overcome any estimation error that might be caused by excessive NT$0 WTP samples. The results show that variables such as age, education, income and willingness to participate in activities of environmental protection have a positive effect on WTP for air pollution, whereas variables such as occupation, travel purpose, traveller identity, travel time and travel distance have a significantly positive effect on WTP for time delays. WTP for nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is NT$8862–11,502/metric ton (US$1 = NT$30 and WTP for carbon dioxide (CO2 is NT$1070–2693/metric ton. Moreover, WTP for time delays is NT$960–1320/h. The findings of this study not only demonstrate WTP for air pollution and time delays in the minds of parties to traffic accidents but also help to provide agencies with a basis to formulate applicable penalties in the future.

  20. Leibniz Dynamics with Time Delay

    OpenAIRE

    Albu, I. D.; Opris, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we show that several dynamical systems with time delay can be described as vector fields associated to smooth functions via a bracket of Leibniz structure. Some examples illustrate the theoretical considerations.