WorldWideScience

Sample records for delayed effective date

  1. 78 FR 6025 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E) Temporary Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Part 1005 RIN 3170-AA33 Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E) Temporary Delay of Effective Date... Financial Protection (Bureau) is issuing this final rule to delay the February 7, 2013, effective date of... delaying the effective date of the 2012 Final Rule pending the finalization of a proposal, published...

  2. 31 CFR 560.515 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. 560.515 Section 560.515 Money and Finance: Treasury....515 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. (a) All... involving Iran (a pre-existing trade contract), including the exportation of goods, services...

  3. 78 FR 68364 - Payment for Home Health Services and Hospice Care to Non-VA Providers; Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN98 Payment for Home Health Services and Hospice Care to Non-VA Providers... services and hospice care. The preamble of that final rule stated the effective date was November 15, 2013..., applicable to non-VA home health services and hospice care. Section 17.56 provides, among other things,...

  4. Does delaying the first mowing date benefit biodiversity in meadowland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humbert Jean-Yves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meadows are regularly mown in order to provide fodder or litter for livestock and to prevent vegetation succession. However, the time of year at which meadows should be first mown in order to maximize biological diversity remains controversial and may vary with respect to context and focal taxa. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of delaying the first mowing date upon plants and invertebrates in European meadowlands. Methods Following a CEE protocol, ISI Web of Science, Science Direct, JSTOR, Google and Google Scholar were searched. We recorded all studies that compared the species richness of plants, or the species richness or abundance of invertebrates, between grassland plots mown at a postponed date (treatment vs plots mown earlier (control. In order to be included in the meta-analysis, compared plots had to be similar in all management respects, except the date of the first cut that was (mostly experimentally manipulated. They were also to be located in the same meadow type. Meta-analyses applying Hedges’d statistic were performed. Results Plant species richness responded differently to the date to which mowing was postponed. Delaying mowing from spring to summer had a positive effect, while delaying either from spring to fall, or from early summer to later in the season had a negative effect. Invertebrates were expected to show a strong response to delayed mowing due to their dependence on sward structure, but only species richness showed a clearly significant positive response. Invertebrate abundance was positively influenced in only a few studies. Conclusions The present meta-analysis shows that in general delaying the first mowing date in European meadowlands has either positive or neutral effects on plant and invertebrate biodiversity (except for plant species richness when delaying from spring to fall or from early summer to later. Overall, there was also strong between

  5. 77 FR 22186 - Removal of Category IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc Definitions; Delay of Effective Date and Reopening of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Organization (ICAO) has requested additional time to adequately analyze the Direct Final Rule and prepare... rule be received on or before March 19, 2012. By letter dated March 16, 2012, ICAO requested that the... international process. ICAO stated that due to the short time frame, it was not in the position to...

  6. The Benefits of Delayed Primary School Enrollment: Discontinuity Estimates Using Exact Birth Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.; Shapiro, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper estimates the effect of delayed school enrollment on student outcomes, using administrative data on Chilean students that include exact birth dates. Regression-discontinuity estimates, based on enrollment cutoffs, show that a one-year delay decreases the probability of repeating first grade by two percentage points, and increases fourth…

  7. 31 CFR 536.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 536.302 Section 536... Definitions § 536.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... of specially designated narcotics traffickers designated after that date, the earlier of the date...

  8. 31 CFR 595.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 595.302 Section 595... § 595.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... of specially designated terrorists designated after that date, the earlier of the date on which...

  9. 31 CFR 593.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 593.302 Section 593... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date...)(2), the earlier of the date of actual or constructive notice of such person's designation....

  10. 31 CFR 548.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 548.302 Section 548....302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... pursuant to § 548.201(a), the earlier of the date of actual or constructive notice that such...

  11. 31 CFR 541.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 541.302 Section 541... § 541.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable....201(a)(2), the earlier of the date on which either actual notice or constructive notice is received...

  12. 31 CFR 544.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 544.302 Section 544... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date... property are blocked pursuant to § 544.201(a)(2), (a)(3), or (a)(4), the earlier of the date of actual...

  13. 31 CFR 547.303 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 547.303 Section 547... General Definitions § 547.303 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the... blocked pursuant to § 547.201(a)(2), the earlier of the date of actual or constructive notice of...

  14. 31 CFR 551.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 551.302 Section 551....302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... the date of actual or constructive notice that such person's property and interests in property...

  15. 31 CFR 546.303 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 546.303 Section 546....303 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... § 546.201(a)(2), the earlier of the date of actual or constructive notice of such person's designation....

  16. 31 CFR 543.303 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 543.303 Section 543... Definitions § 543.303 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... § 543.201(a)(2), the earlier of the date of actual or constructive notice of such person's designation....

  17. 31 CFR 537.303 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 537.303 Section 537....303 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... property of persons designated pursuant to § 537.201(a)(2), the earlier of the date on which either...

  18. 31 CFR 594.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 594.302 Section 594... Definitions § 594.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... to § 594.201(a)(2), (a)(3), or (a)(4), the earlier of the date on which is received actual...

  19. 31 CFR 588.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 588.302 Section 588... Definitions § 588.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... § 588.201(a)(2), the earlier of the date on which is received actual or constructive notice of...

  20. 31 CFR 575.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 575.302 Section 575.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable...

  1. 31 CFR 538.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 538.302 Section 538.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the...

  2. 31 CFR 592.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 592.302 Section 592.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 592.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the...

  3. 31 CFR 587.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 587.302 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable prohibitions and directives contained in this part, which...

  4. 10 CFR 2.807 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 2.807 Section 2.807 Energy NUCLEAR... § 2.807 Effective date. The notice of adoption of a regulation will specify the effective date... relieving from restrictions, will be made not less than thirty (30) days prior to the effective date...

  5. 31 CFR 597.305 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 597.305 Section 597... General Definitions § 597.305 Effective date. Except as that term is used in § 597.201(d), the term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable prohibitions and directives contained in...

  6. 40 CFR 141.60 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 141.60 Section 141.60... and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.60 Effective dates. (a) The effective dates for § 141.61 are as follows: (1) The effective date for paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(8) of § 141.61 is...

  7. 31 CFR 560.301 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 560.301 Section 560... § 560.301 Effective date. The effective date of the prohibitions and directives contained in subpart B of this part is 12:01 a.m., Eastern Daylight Time, August 20, 1997. For the effective date of...

  8. 31 CFR 596.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 596.302 Section 596.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of...

  9. 31 CFR 545.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 545.302 Section 545.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the...

  10. 31 CFR 586.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 586.302 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable prohibitions and directives contained in this part which...

  11. 31 CFR 585.301 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 585.301 Section 585.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.301 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of...

  12. 18 CFR 11.7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 11.7... Dams § 11.7 Effective date. All annual charges imposed under this subpart will be computed beginning on the effective date of the license unless some other date is fixed in the license....

  13. 31 CFR 542.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 542.302 Section 542....302 Effective date. With respect to a person whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to a designation under § 542.201(a), the effective date is the earlier of the date on which...

  14. 36 CFR 1258.16 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 1258.16... AVAILABILITY AND USE FEES § 1258.16 Effective date. The fees in this part are effective on October 1, 2007. If your order was received by NARA before this effective date, we will charge the fees in effect at...

  15. The effects of the framing of time on delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHart, William Brady; Odum, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of the framing of time on delay discounting. Delay discounting is the process by which delayed outcomes are devalued as a function of time. Time in a titrating delay discounting task is often framed in calendar units (e.g., as 1 week, 1 month, etc.). When time is framed as a specific date, delayed outcomes are discounted less compared to the calendar format. Other forms of framing time; however, have not been explored. All participants completed a titrating calendar unit delay-discounting task for money. Participants were also assigned to one of two delay discounting tasks: time as dates (e.g., June 1st, 2015) or time in units of days (e.g., 5000 days), using the same delay distribution as the calendar delay-discounting task. Time framed as dates resulted in less discounting compared to the calendar method, whereas time framed as days resulted in greater discounting compared to the calendar method. The hyperboloid model fit best compared to the hyperbola and exponential models. How time is framed may alter how participants attend to the delays as well as how the delayed outcome is valued. Altering how time is framed may serve to improve adherence to goals with delayed outcomes.

  16. 40 CFR 1506.12 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 1506.12 Section 1506... Effective date. The effective date of these regulations is July 30, 1979, except that for agencies that... extent practicable to ongoing activities and environmental documents begun before the effective...

  17. 31 CFR 540.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 540.302 Section 540.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective...

  18. Dating violence and self-efficacy for delayed sex among adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boafo, Isaac M; Dagbanu, Emmanuel A; Asante, Kwaku Oppong

    2014-06-01

    In South Africa, dating violence is known to be widespread among adolescents, and is therefore a major public health issue because of its association with sexual risk behaviours. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between dating violence and self-efficacy for delayed sex among school-going adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa. The study is based on analyses of data from a school-based health education programme targeting sexual and reproductive health issues.The study involved 3,655 school-going adolescents aged between 12 and 17 in Cape Town, South Africa. The data was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire composed of 153 items on sexual and reproductive health, dating violence as well as sociodemographic characteristics. The results indicated that males showed a higher percentage of both dating violence victimization and perpetration, as compared to females. It was also found that adolescents from lower socio-economic backgrounds were more likely to be the victims of dating violence as compared to those from a higher socio-economic background. Female learners showed higher levels of self-efficacy for delayed sex than their male counterparts. Although the result revealed that there was a significant association between self-efficacy for delayed sex and socio-economic status, this link decreased with age. It is concluded that educational programmes aimed solely at improving self-efficacy for delayed sex is insufficient. Such programmes must also aim at preventing dating violence and equipping adolescents with the skills to negotiate their way out of dating violence.

  19. 40 CFR 62.6612 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../medical/infectious Waste Incinerators § 62.6612 Effective date. The effective date for the portion of the plan applicable to existing hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators is August 21, 2000. Fluoride Emissions From Existing Phosphate Fertilizer Plants...

  20. 40 CFR 62.1352 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.1352 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is September 28, 1998. Air Emissions From Hospital/Medical/Infectious...

  1. 40 CFR 62.11122 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hospital/medical/infectious Waste Incinerators § 62.11122 Effective date. The effective date for the portion of the plan applicable to existing hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators is August 21... Tons Per Day of Municipal Solid Waste...

  2. 40 CFR 62.3342 - Effective Date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Compounds and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Existing Hospital / Medical Infectious Waste Incinerators § 62.3342 Effective Date. The effective date of the Illinois State Plan for existing Hospital/Medical... Day of Municipal Solid Waste...

  3. 40 CFR 62.8602 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.8602 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is February 13, 1998. Air Emissions From Hospital/Medical/Infectious...

  4. 40 CFR 62.8872 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.8872 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is October 6, 1998. Emissions From Hospital, Medical, and Infectious Waste...

  5. 40 CFR 62.6602 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.6602 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is September 8, 1998. Air Emissions From Hospital/Medical/Infectious...

  6. 40 CFR 62.9662 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hospital/medical/infectious Waste Incinerators (hmiwis) (section 111(d)/129 Plan) § 62.9662 Effective date. The effective date of the plan is June 6, 2000. Emissions From Existing Commercial/Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units...

  7. 75 FR 17050 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Extension of Compliance Date for Posting of Flight Delay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Part 234 RIN No. 2105-AE00 Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections... date of the provision in its final rule entitled ``Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections'' that requires airlines to publish flight delay information on their Web sites. This extension is in response to...

  8. 42 CFR 423.40 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective dates. 423.40 Section 423.40 Public... Effective dates. (a) Initial enrollment period. (1) An enrollment made prior to the month of entitlement to... period specified in § 423.38(c), the effective date is determined by CMS, which, to the...

  9. 18 CFR 1308.7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1308.7... General Matters § 1308.7 Effective date. Subject to § 1308.3(a), this part applies to any TVA contract having an effective date on or after March 1, 1979....

  10. 40 CFR 141.6 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 141.6 Section 141.6... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS General § 141.6 Effective dates. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs...) shall take effect 2 years after the date of promulgation of these regulations for community...

  11. 31 CFR 575.212 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 575.212 Section 575.212 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Effective dates. The effective dates of the prohibitions and directives contained in this subpart B are...

  12. 38 CFR 8a.3 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 8a.3... INSURANCE § 8a.3 Effective date. (a) Where the grant was approved prior to August 11, 1971, VMLI shall be effective August 11, 1971, if on that date, the eligible veteran was obligated under a mortgage loan,...

  13. 34 CFR 105.42 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 105.42 Section 105.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION § 105.42 Effective date. The effective date of this part is October 9, 1990....

  14. 40 CFR 141.152 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 141.152 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Consumer Confidence Reports § 141.152 Effective dates. (a) The... 1, 2000, and by April 1 annually thereafter or (2) On a date mutually agreed upon by the seller...

  15. 29 CFR 452.137 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 452.137 Section 452.137 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... OF 1959 Dates and Scope of Application § 452.137 Effective dates. (a) Section 404 states when...

  16. Distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities; Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; delay of applicability date. Final rule; delay of applicability date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-13

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is further delaying, until December 1, 2008, the applicability date of a certain requirement of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720) (the final rule). The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The provisions of the final rule became effective on December 4, 2000, except for certain provisions whose effective or applicability dates were delayed in five subsequent Federal Register notices, until December 1, 2006. The provision with the delayed applicability date would prohibit wholesale distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that meet the definition of a "health care entity." In the Federal Register of February 1, 2006 (71 FR 5200), FDA published a proposed rule specific to the distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities (the proposed rule). The proposed rule would amend certain limited provisions of the final rule to allow certain registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities to distribute blood derivatives. In response to the proposed rule, FDA received substantive comments. As explained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this document, further delaying the applicability of Sec. 203.3(q) (21 CFR 203.3(q)) to the wholesale distribution of blood derivatives by health care entities is necessary to give the agency additional time to address comments on the proposed rule, consider whether regulatory changes are appropriate, and, if so, to initiate such changes.

  17. 32 CFR 242a.8 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 242a.8 Section 242a.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... § 242a.8 Effective date. This part shall become effective on March 12, 1977....

  18. 32 CFR 270.3 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 270.3 Section 270.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Effective date. This part is effective on May 15, 1997....

  19. 49 CFR 325.3 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 325.3 Section 325.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... STANDARDS General Provisions § 325.3 Effective date. The rules in this part are effective on October...

  20. 31 CFR 226.7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 226.7 Section 226.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... LOAN DEPOSITARIES § 226.7 Effective date. The provisions of this part become effective November 2, 1978....

  1. 18 CFR 808.19 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 808.19 Section 808.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.19 Effective date. This part shall be effective...

  2. 18 CFR 807.4 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 807.4 Section 807.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION WATER WITHDRAWAL REGISTRATION § 807.4 Effective date. This part shall be effective on January 1, 2007....

  3. 16 CFR 1209.11 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard § 1209.11 Effective date. All cellulose insulation...

  4. 40 CFR 62.12612 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from Hospital/medical/infectious Waste Incinerators § 62.12612 Effective date. The effective date for the portion of the plan applicable to existing hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators is... Than 250 Tons Per Day of Municipal Solid Waste...

  5. 40 CFR 62.10352 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions from Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.10352 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is August 2, 1999. Air Emissions From Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Source: Sections 62.10360 through 62.10362 appear at 65 FR 38740, June 22,...

  6. 40 CFR 62.5152 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (section 111(d) Plan) § 62.5152 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is November 8, 1999. Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators (HMIWIs)(Section 111(d)/129 Plan) Source: Sections 62.5160...

  7. 40 CFR 62.3632 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.3632 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is May 30, 2000. Metals, Acid Gases, Organic Compounds and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical Infectious Waste Incinerators Source: Sections 62.3640 through...

  8. 40 CFR 62.10362 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions from Hospital/medical/infectious Waste Incinerators § 62.10362 Effective date. The effective date for the portion of the plan applicable to existing hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators is... Than 250 Tons Per Day of Municipal Solid Waste...

  9. 40 CFR 62.11112 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions from Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.11112 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is March 16, 1998. Air Emissions From Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Source: Sections 62.11120 through 62.11122 appear at 65 FR 38740, June 22,...

  10. 40 CFR 62.12602 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions from Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.12602 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is July 31, 1998. Air Emissions From Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Source: Sections 62.12610 through 62.12612 appear at 65 FR 38740, June 22,...

  11. 40 CFR 62.12127 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Emissions from Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (section 111(d) Plan) § 62.12127 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is July 23, 2001. Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators (HMIWIs) (Section 111(d)/129 Plan)...

  12. 44 CFR 206.17 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 206.17 Section 206.17 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE General § 206.17 Effective date....

  13. 31 CFR 357.1 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 357.1 Section 357.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... AND BILLS HELD IN LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT General Information § 357.1 Effective date. Subpart B of...

  14. 31 CFR 10.93 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 10.93 Section 10.93 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE BEFORE THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE General Provisions § 10.93 Effective date. Except as otherwise provided in each section...

  15. 32 CFR 191.10 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 191.10 Section 191.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS THE DOD CIVILIAN EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY (EEO) PROGRAM § 191.10 Effective date. This part...

  16. 7 CFR 1730.65 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective dates. 1730.65 Section 1730.65 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... dates. (a) All electric program borrowers with an approved electric program loan as of July 8,...

  17. The estimated magnitude of AIDS in Brazil: a delay correction applied to cases with lost dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Maria Tereza S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of HIV-infected people is an important measure of the magnitude of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil and allows for comparison with epidemic patterns in other countries. This quantity can be estimated from the number of reported AIDS cases, which in turn needs to be corrected for the distribution of reporting delays and under-recording of cases. These distributions are unknown and must also be estimated from the recorded dates, which were missed to the Brazilian National AIDS registry. This paper estimates the number of AIDS cases diagnosed by imputing the lost information based on an estimate of the pattern in registration delay until 1996. We first fitted a non-stationary bivariate Poisson regression model to estimate the pattern in reporting delay. In the subsequent steps these models were applied to impute new data, thus replacing the missing information, and to estimate the magnitude of the AIDS epidemic in the country. Model estimates ranged from 36,000 to 50,000 AIDS cases diagnosed in Brazil and still unreported. Therefore, the epidemic was 20 to 30% greater than known from the available information as of February 1999. To be useful to health policy-makers, the surveillance system based on officially reported AIDS cases must be continuously improved.

  18. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    of magnitude and degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants, and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 14C years can occur within one river. The freshwater reservoir effect has also implications...... for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany. The surprisingly old ages of the earliest pottery most probably are caused by a freshwater reservoir effect. In a sediment core from the Limfjord, northern Denmark, the impact of the freshwater reservoir...... effect on radiocarbon dating in an estuarine environment is examined. Here, freshwater influence causes reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 14C years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. The examples in this study show clearly that the freshwater reservoir effect can seriously corrupt radiocarbon...

  19. 16 CFR 1209.41 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION Certification § 1209.41 Effective date. The requirements of this subpart B of part 1209 shall become effective on October 16, 1979. Any cellulose insulation manufactured after October 15, 1979 must be certified as complying with the standard. Cellulose insulation which is...

  20. 40 CFR 1043.5 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 1043.5 Section 1043.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF NOX... Protocol is in effect. (b) The amendments to Annex VI adopted on October 8, 2008 enter into force July...

  1. 75 FR 10411 - Borrower Rights; Effective Interest Rates; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... 12 CFR Part 617 RIN 3052-AC45 Borrower Rights; Effective Interest Rates; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA or... efficient manner. In accordance with 12 U.S.C. 2252, the effective date of the final rule is 30 days...

  2. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    case studies will show the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 years can occur within one river. In the Limfjord, freshwater influence...... caused reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. Finally, I will discuss the implications of the freshwater reservoir effect for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany....

  3. 7 CFR 2900.6 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 2900.6 Section 2900.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.6...

  4. 40 CFR 190.12 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 190.12 Section 190.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER OPERATIONS Environmental Standards for...

  5. 17 CFR 450.5 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 450.5 Section 450.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

  6. 49 CFR 30.5 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO SUPPLIERS OF GOODS AND SERVICES OF COUNTRIES THAT DENY PROCUREMENT MARKET ACCESS TO U.S. CONTRACTORS § 30.5 Effective dates. The... the waiver provisions of § 30.17 of this part. All public works or public buildings contracts...

  7. 31 CFR 539.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 539.302 Section 539.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL...

  8. 24 CFR 100.148 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISCRIMINATORY CONDUCT UNDER THE FAIR HOUSING ACT Discrimination in Residential Real Estate-Related Transactions... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 100.148 Section 100.148 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE...

  9. 26 CFR 1.771-1 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.771-1 Section 1.771-1 Internal... TAXES Effective Date for Subchapter K, Chapter 1 of the Code § 1.771-1 Effective date. (a) General rule.... Certain provisions of section 771 apply after specific dates in 1954, as follows: (1) Adoption of...

  10. 26 CFR 1.547-7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Effective date. 1.547-7 Section 1.547-7 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Personal Holding Companies § 1.547-7 Effective date. The deduction for deficiency... determinations under section 547(c) made after November 14, 1954 (the date falling 90 days after the date of...

  11. Effect of Delay on Children's Delay-Execute Prospective Memory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Peter G.; Vella, Melissa J.; Kliegel, Matthias; Terrett, Gill

    2009-01-01

    To date, little work has been done investigating prospective memory in children, particularly using a delay-execute paradigm. Two experiments were conducted to investigate this issue with children aged 5-11 years. While playing a computer driving game, children's ability to carry out a delayed intention either immediately a target cue appeared or…

  12. Determining the date of diagnosis – is it a simple matter? The impact of different approaches to dating diagnosis on estimates of delayed care for ovarian cancer in UK primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Sarah R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of cancer incidence and early management will increasingly draw on routine electronic patient records. However, data may be incomplete or inaccurate. We developed a generalisable strategy for investigating presenting symptoms and delays in diagnosis using ovarian cancer as an example. Methods The General Practice Research Database was used to investigate the time between first report of symptom and diagnosis of 344 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer between 01/06/2002 and 31/05/2008. Effects of possible inaccuracies in dating of diagnosis on the frequencies and timing of the most commonly reported symptoms were investigated using four increasingly inclusive definitions of first diagnosis/suspicion: 1. "Definite diagnosis" 2. "Ambiguous diagnosis" 3. "First treatment or complication suggesting pre-existing diagnosis", 4 "First relevant test or referral". Results The most commonly coded symptoms before a definite diagnosis of ovarian cancer, were abdominal pain (41%, urogenital problems(25%, abdominal distension (24%, constipation/change in bowel habits (23% with 70% of cases reporting at least one of these. The median time between first reporting each of these symptoms and diagnosis was 13, 21, 9.5 and 8.5 weeks respectively. 19% had a code for definitions 2 or 3 prior to definite diagnosis and 73% a code for 4. However, the proportion with symptoms and the delays were similar for all four definitions except 4, where the median delay was 8, 8, 3, 10 and 0 weeks respectively. Conclusion Symptoms recorded in the General Practice Research Database are similar to those reported in the literature, although their frequency is lower than in studies based on self-report. Generalisable strategies for exploring the impact of recording practice on date of diagnosis in electronic patient records are recommended, and studies which date diagnoses in GP records need to present sensitivity analyses based on investigation, referral

  13. Determining the date of diagnosis--is it a simple matter? The impact of different approaches to dating diagnosis on estimates of delayed care for ovarian cancer in UK primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, A Rosemary; Martin, Alexander G R; Murray-Thomas, Tarita; Anderson, Sarah R; Cassell, Jackie A

    2009-06-23

    Studies of cancer incidence and early management will increasingly draw on routine electronic patient records. However, data may be incomplete or inaccurate. We developed a generalizable strategy for investigating presenting symptoms and delays in diagnosis using ovarian cancer as an example. The General Practice Research Database was used to investigate the time between first report of symptom and diagnosis of 344 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer between 01/06/2002 and 31/05/2008. Effects of possible inaccuracies in dating of diagnosis on the frequencies and timing of the most commonly reported symptoms were investigated using four increasingly inclusive definitions of first diagnosis/suspicion: 1. "Definite diagnosis" 2. "Ambiguous diagnosis" 3. "First treatment or complication suggesting pre-existing diagnosis", 4 "First relevant test or referral". The most commonly coded symptoms before a definite diagnosis of ovarian cancer, were abdominal pain (41%), urogenital problems(25%), abdominal distension (24%), constipation/change in bowel habits (23%) with 70% of cases reporting at least one of these. The median time between first reporting each of these symptoms and diagnosis was 13, 21, 9.5 and 8.5 weeks respectively. 19% had a code for definitions 2 or 3 prior to definite diagnosis and 73% a code for 4. However, the proportion with symptoms and the delays were similar for all four definitions except 4, where the median delay was 8, 8, 3, 10 and 0 weeks respectively. Symptoms recorded in the General Practice Research Database are similar to those reported in the literature, although their frequency is lower than in studies based on self-report. Generalizable strategies for exploring the impact of recording practice on date of diagnosis in electronic patient records are recommended, and studies which date diagnoses in GP records need to present sensitivity analyses based on investigation, referral and diagnosis data. Free text information may be essential in

  14. 48 CFR 1201.301-71 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 1201.301... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-71 Effective date. Unless... therein is “effective upon receipt,” “upon a specified date,” or that changes set forth in the...

  15. 41 CFR 60-1.47 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effective date. 60-1.47...-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS Ancillary Matters § 60-1.47 Effective date. The regulations... said effective date, and for all negotiated contracts which have not been executed as of said...

  16. 26 CFR 1.475(g)-1 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.475(g)-1 Section 1.475(g)-1...) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.475(g)-1 Effective dates. (a)-(b) (c) Section 1.475(a)-3 (concerning... to apply to the security solely because of the effective dates in this paragraph (d) (rather...

  17. 46 CFR 151.01-30 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 151.01-30 Section 151.01-30 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES General § 151.01-30 Effective date. (a) The regulations in this... effective ninety (90) days after the date of publication in the Federal Register unless the Commandant...

  18. 78 FR 63379 - Registration of Mortgage Loan Originators; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... 12 CFR Part 610 RIN 3052-AC78 Registration of Mortgage Loan Originators; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA... interim rule, and we now adopt it as final. In accordance with the law, the effective date of the rule...

  19. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-2 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.410(a)-2 Section 1.410(a)-2...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.410(a)-2 Effective dates. (a) Plans not... plan is merged or consolidated shall also be considered to be in existence on such date. (d)...

  20. 26 CFR 1.679-7 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.679-7 Section 1.679-7...) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-7 Effective dates. (a) In general... an obligation issued on or before February 6, 1995, is modified after that date, and the...

  1. 26 CFR 1.411(a)-2 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.411(a)-2 Section 1.411(a)-2...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.411(a)-2 Effective dates. (a) Plan not... plan is merged or consolidated shall also be considered to be in existence on such date. (d)...

  2. 26 CFR 1.453-10 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.453-10 Section 1.453-10...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.453-10 Effective date. (a) Except... other dispositions of installment obligations occurring after such date....

  3. Delayed onset muscle soreness: is massage effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nicole

    2013-10-01

    Despite the widespread occurrence of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), there is little consensus as to the exact cause or which treatments may be most effective at alleviating symptoms. Greater understanding of DOMS can give sports medicine and fitness professionals an opportunity to help prevent or speed recovery of this performance limiting condition. This article will review the DOMS literature, including the potential role of psychosocial factors and explore studies which involve massage therapy as a treatment modality. Articles from PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and references from articles are included in this review. Search words and phrases included delayed onset muscle soreness, repeated bout effect, massage effectiveness, exercise induced muscle damage, and eccentric exercise.

  4. 26 CFR 1.408A-9 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.408A-9 Section 1.408A-9...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-9 Effective date. This section contains the following question and answer providing the effective date of §§ 1.408A-1 through 1.408A-8:...

  5. 26 CFR 1.663(c)-6 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.663(c)-6 Section 1.663(c)-6... Effective dates. Sections 1.663(c)-1 through 1.663(c)-5 are applicable for estates and qualified revocable... date that section 1307 of the Tax Reform Act of 1997 became effective but before December 28, 1999,...

  6. 41 CFR 60-741.84 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effective date. 60-741.84 Section 60-741.84 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... WITH DISABILITIES Ancillary Matters § 60-741.84 Effective date. This part shall become effective...

  7. 39 CFR 955.36 - Effective dates and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates and applicability. 955.36 Section 955.36 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE BEFORE THE POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.36 Effective dates and applicability. These revised rules govern...

  8. 5 CFR 870.1004 - Effective date of insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Benefits for United States Hostages in Iraq and Kuwait and United States Hostages Captured in Lebanon § 870.1004 Effective date of insurance... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date of insurance....

  9. 12 CFR 308.158 - Filing papers and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing papers and effective date. 308.158 Section 308.158 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE... Section 19 of the FDIA § 308.158 Filing papers and effective date. (a) Filing with the regional...

  10. 40 CFR 89.121 - Certificate of conformity effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of conformity effective... Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.121 Certificate of conformity effective dates. The certificate of conformity is valid from the date of issuance by EPA until 31 December of the model year...

  11. 26 CFR 1.684-5 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.684-5 Section 1.684-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous § 1.684-5 Effective date. Sections 1.684-1 through 1.684-4 apply to transfers...

  12. 26 CFR 1.441-4 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.441-4 Section 1.441-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Accounting Periods § 1.441-4 Effective date. Sections 1.441-0 through 1.441-3 are applicable...

  13. 26 CFR 301.9000-7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 301.9000-7 Section 301.9000-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND... Effective date. These regulations are applicable on February 14, 2005....

  14. 26 CFR 301.7430-6 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 301.7430-6 Section 301.7430-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND... Effective dates. Sections 301.7430-2 through 301.7430-6, other than §§ 301.7430-2(b)(2), (c)(3)(i)(B),...

  15. 26 CFR 1.414(c)-6 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.414(c)-6 Section 1.414(c)-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(c)-6 Effective date. (a)...

  16. 26 CFR 1.6015-9 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.6015-9 Section 1.6015-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6015-9 Effective date. Sections 1.6015-0 through 1.6015-9...

  17. 41 CFR 50-203.12 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effective date. 50-203.12 Section 50-203.12 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts...-Healey Public Contracts Act § 50-203.12 Effective date. The amendments to Subpart A shall...

  18. 26 CFR 1.642(c)-0 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.642(c)-0 Section 1.642(c)-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(c)-0 Effective dates. The provisions of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.737-5 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.737-5 Section 1.737-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions by A Partnership § 1.737-5 Effective dates. Sections 1.737-1, 1.737-2,...

  20. 40 CFR 62.12152 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from Existing Hospital/medical/infectious Waste Incinerators (hmiwis) (section 111(d)/129 Plan) § 62... effective October 2, 2009. Emissions From Existing Commercial Industrial Solid Waste Incinerators...

  1. Effects of light exposure on the TL dating of pottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Bleaching experiments on Chinese pottery fine grains were conducted under sunlight and laboratory light conditions. It is found that the thermoluminescence (TL) at high temperatures can be bleached significantly, but no effects were observed on TL signals used for the pre-dose dating technique. It is concluded that the pre-dose dating technique can be applied to samples even after light exposures. Pottery samples of Tang Dynasty and New Stone Age were studied. Modifications to routine pre-dose dating technique are proposed with adding preheat procedures and using saturation exponential fitting for the sensitivity change data. The modified technique can extend the dating range to New Stone Age.

  2. Effects of Delayed Second Cochlear Implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Rui-ming; WU Xi-hong; JANG Zi-gang; JING Yuan-yuan; LIN Yun-juan; YU Li-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective Since Helms' successful bilateral cochlear implantation with good results in 1996, there have been increasing number of reports on bilateral cochlear implantation. Most second device have been implantated within one year after the first. Considering effects of long time auditory deprivation, it is not clear whether a delayed second cochlear implant serves to add additional benefits and how it may interact with central nervous system plasticity. Methods Three cases who received delayed second cochlear implants at People's Hospital of Peking University from 2002 to 2005 were reviewed. The interval between the first and second implants was longer than 2 years in all three patients. Sound perception, and unilateral/bilateral speech discrimination in quiet and noise were evaluated. In addition, GAP detection test was conducted in one patient. Results In one case,having both implants on provided improved performance compared to using only one implant both in quiet and noise. Presumably due to visual interference from lip-reading or short interval between second implant and testing,one patient showed no improvement from using the second implant either in quiet or noise, while the last case demonstrated additional benefits from the second implant only in quiet. In all three patients, performance in recognizing the four tones in Mandarin was superior over word recognition. Conclusions Considerable plasticity in the cerebral auditory center is preserved, despite long acoustic deprivation in some children who have received unilateral cochlear implant. Delayed second implants can result in significant improvements in some of these children. Visual interference from lip-reading may be an obstacle during retraining. The better recognition of tones in the Mandarin language may represent a different sound discrimination mechanism in the auditory system,although it may also be related to the signal processing mechanisms of the implant used (MED-EL COMBI 40+).

  3. 40 CFR 745.81 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sampling technician without accreditation from EPA under § 745.225. Training programs may apply for... revising paragraph (a)(4), effective July 6, 2010. For the convenience of the user, the revised text is set...

  4. Angular dependence of Wigner time delay: Relativistic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Manson, S. T.; Kkeifets, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Laser assisted photoionization time delay mainly consists of two parts: Wigner time delay, and time delay in continuum-continuum transition. Wigner time delay results from the energy derivative of the phase of the photoionization amplitude (matrix element). In general, the photoionization time delay is not the same in all directions relative to the incident photon polarization, although when a single transition dominates the amplitude, the resultant time delay is essentially isotropic. The relativistic-random-phase approximation is employed to determine the Wigner time delay in photoionization from the outer np subshells of the noble gas atoms, Ne through Xe. The time delay is found to significantly depend on angle, as well as energy. The angular dependence of the time delay is found to be quite sensitive to atomic dynamics and relativistic effects, and exhibit strong energy and angular variation in the neighborhood of Cooper minima. Work supported by DOE, Office of Chemical Sciences and DST (India).

  5. The Effects of Delay of Feedback on a Delayed Concept Formation Transfer Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    Delay and completeness of verbal information feedback were investigated within a transfer of learning paradigm involving concept formation. An experiment with 192 undergraduates indicates that, although delay of feedback (up to 30 seconds) slows speed of learning on the initial task, it has positive effects on the transfer task. (SLD)

  6. Antioxidant therapy effectiveness: an up to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannitti, T; Palmieri, B

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidants are chemical compounds that giving an electron to free radical molecules convert them to an harmless configuration, avoiding damaging chain reaction, which can involve lipids, proteins enzymes carbohydrates, DNA, cell and nuclear membranes up to the cell death. Being either exogenous or endogenous they are addressed to prevent the oxidation induced damage, a process that causes damage in all tissues through free radicals chemical reactivity. A lot of natural, nutraceutical or chemical compounds are being actually marketed with a lot of different claims and are prescribed by doctors or sold over the counter. Unfortunately, in the medical literature many heterogeneous published articles support the use of this class of drugs, but most of them cannot be compared or pooled to achieve statistical significance of effectiveness. Our review aims at defining the state of the art of antioxidant therapy, with specific reference on the evidence based clinical use.

  7. Delay time and Hartman effect in strain engineered graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi, E-mail: xchen@shu.edu.cn; Deng, Zhi-Yong [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 200444 Shanghai (China); Ban, Yue, E-mail: yban@shu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Information Materials, Shanghai University, 200444 Shanghai (China)

    2014-05-07

    Tunneling times, including group delay and dwell time, are studied for massless Dirac electrons transmitting through a one-dimensional barrier in strain-engineered graphene. The Hartman effect, the independence of group delay on barrier length, is induced by the strain effect, and associated with the transmission gap and the evanescent mode. The influence of barrier height/length and strain modulus/direction on the group delay is also discussed, which provides the flexibility to control the group delay with applications in graphene-based devices. The relationship between group delay and dwell time is finally derived to clarify the nature of the Hartman effect.

  8. Propofol effects on atrial fibrillation wavefront delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervigón, Raquel; Moreno, Javier; Millet, José; Pérez-Villacastín, Julián; Castells, Francisco

    2010-08-01

    Since the cardiac activity during atrial fibrillation (AF) may be influenced by autonomic modulations, in this study, a novel method to quantify the effects of the most common anesthetic agent (propofol) in AF ablation procedures is introduced. This study has two main objectives: first, to assess whether the sedation earlier to radio frequency ablation affects the arrhythmia itself, and second, to provide new information that contributes to a better understanding of the influence of the autonomic nervous system on AF. The methodology presented is based on the measurement of synchronization and delay indexes between two atrial activations at adjacent intracavitary electrodes. These parameters aim to estimate whether two activations at different sites may be caused by the same propagating wavefront, or otherwise, are the consequence of independent wavefronts. The results showed that the mentioned indexes have a different behavior at both atria: the right atrium becomes more synchronized with propofol administration, whereas the synchronization index decreases at the left atrium.

  9. 5 CFR 890.605 - Persons confined on effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Transfers From Retired Federal Employees... persons who, on the effective date of an enrollment under § 890.602, are confined in a hospital or...

  10. 21 CFR 12.38 - Effective date of an order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Commissioner will— (1) Publish a final order denying or withdrawing approval of an NDA, NADA, device premarket... effective date of the order; and (2) If the order involves withdrawal of approval of an NADA,...

  11. 26 CFR 1.481-5 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.481-5 Section 1.481-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Adjustments § 1.481-5 Effective dates. Sections 1.481-1, 1.481-2, 1.481-3, and 1.481-4...

  12. Tunable delay time and Hartman effect in graphene magnetic barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Yue; Wang, Lin-Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Chen, Xi, E-mail: xchen@shu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2015-04-28

    Tunable group delay and Hartman effect have been investigated for massless Dirac electrons in graphene magnetic barriers. In the presence of magnetic field, dwell time is found to be equal to net group delay plus the group delay contributing from the lateral shifts. The group delay times are discussed in both cases of normal and oblique incidence, to clarify the nature of Hartman effect. In addition, the group delay in transmission can be modulated from subluminality to superluminality by adjusting the magnetic field, which may also lead to potential applications in graphene-based microelectronics.

  13. Effect of speedup delay on shuttle bus schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We study the bus schedule in the shuttle bus transportation system controlled by speedup. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamic motion of the bus. The motion of a shuttle bus depends on the inflow rate of passengers and the delayed speedup control. The delayed speedup control has an important effect on the dynamic motion of the bus. We present the delayed map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus with the delayed speedup control. The bus motion changes from a stable state, through a periodic state, to a quasi-periodic state by the delayed speedup control. The return map of the tour time displays a smooth closed curve and the bus motion is quasi-periodic. The dynamic transition to the quasi-periodic motion changes greatly with the delay time. We clarify the effect of the delayed speedup control on the bus schedule.

  14. Interaction Effects of Planting Date and Weed Competition on Yield and Yield Components of Three white Bean Cultivars in Semirom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yadavi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable planting and weed competition are the most important factors that greatly reduce the yield of bean. In order to study the effect of planting date on yield and yield components of three white bean cultivars in weed infest and weed free condition a factorial experiment with randomized complete block design and three replications was carried out at Semirom in 2009. The treatments were planting date (May10, May 25 and June 9 and white bean cultivars (Shekofa, Pak and Daneshkade and two levels of weed infestation (weedy and weed free. Results showed that planting date, weed competition and cultivars had significant effects on yield and yield components of white bean. The 30-day delay in planting date reduced the number of pods per plant, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and biological yield of white bean cultivars, 22.5, 18, 20.1 and 22.5 percent respectively. Also weed competition, reduced the number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and biological yield respectively by 13.5, 5.7 and 27.1 percent. Result of planting date and weed competition interaction effects indicated that the weed competition decreased grain yield (53% in third planting date more than others and delay in planting date was companion with increasing weed density and dry weight in flowering stage of bean. Also Shekofa cultivar had highest grain yield (3379 kg/ha at the first planting date and weed free condition.

  15. Do Longer Delays Matter? The Effect of Prolonging Delay in CTL Activation

    CERN Document Server

    Gallegos, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The activation of a specific immune response takes place in the lymphoid organs such as the spleen. We present here a simplified model of the proliferation of specific immune cells in the form of a single delay equation. We show that the system can undergo switches in stability as the delay is increased, and we interpret these results in the context of sustaining an effective immune response to a dendritic cell vaccine.

  16. 48 CFR 9904.414-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... business unit. Basis All data pertain to the cost accounting period for which the contractor prepares...-63 Section 9904.414-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.414-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as...

  17. 48 CFR 9904.409-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accounting period beginning after the receipt of a contract or subcontract to which this Standard is...-63 Section 9904.409-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.409-63 Effective date. (a) This Standard is effective...

  18. 48 CFR 9904.413-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... its next cost accounting period beginning after the receipt of a contract or subcontract to which this...-63 Section 9904.413-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.413-63 Effective date. (a) This Standard is effective as...

  19. 48 CFR 9904.412-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... its next cost accounting period beginning after the receipt of a contract or subcontract to which this...-63 Section 9904.412-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.412-63 Effective date. (a) This Standard is effective as...

  20. 48 CFR 9904.404-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accounting period beginning after the receipt of a contract or subcontract to which this Standard is...-63 Section 9904.404-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-63 Effective date. (a) This Standard is effective...

  1. Effects of delay and probability combinations on discounting in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David J; Dallery, Jesse

    2016-10-01

    To determine discount rates, researchers typically adjust the amount of an immediate or certain option relative to a delayed or uncertain option. Because this adjusting amount method can be relatively time consuming, researchers have developed more efficient procedures. One such procedure is a 5-trial adjusting delay procedure, which measures the delay at which an amount of money loses half of its value (e.g., $1000 is valued at $500 with a 10-year delay to its receipt). Experiment 1 (n=212) used 5-trial adjusting delay or probability tasks to measure delay discounting of losses, probabilistic gains, and probabilistic losses. Experiment 2 (n=98) assessed combined probabilistic and delayed alternatives. In both experiments, we compared results from 5-trial adjusting delay or probability tasks to traditional adjusting amount procedures. Results suggest both procedures produced similar rates of probability and delay discounting in six out of seven comparisons. A magnitude effect consistent with previous research was observed for probabilistic gains and losses, but not for delayed losses. Results also suggest that delay and probability interact to determine the value of money. Five-trial methods may allow researchers to assess discounting more efficiently as well as study more complex choice scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Unloading Effect on Delayed Hydride Cracking in Zirconium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Sung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    It is well-known that a tensile overload retards not only the crack growth rate (CGR) in zirconium alloys during the delayed hydride cracking (DHC) tests but also the fatigue crack growth rate in metals, the cause of which is unclear to date. A considerable decrease in the fatigue crack growth rate due to overload is suggested to occur due either to the crack closure or to compressive stresses or strains arising from unloading of the overload. However, the role of the crack closure or the compressive stress in the crack growth rate remains yet to be understood because of incomplete understanding of crack growth kinetics. The aim of this study is to resolve the effect of unloading on the CGR of zirconium alloys, which comes in last among the unresolved issues as listed above. To this end, the CGRs of the Zr-2.5Nb tubes were determined at a constant temperature under the cyclic load with the load ratio, R changing from 0.13 to 0.66 where the extent of unloading became higher at the lower R. More direct evidence for the effect of unloading after an overload is provided using Simpson's experiment investigating the effect on the CGR of a Zr-2.5Nb tube of the stress states of the prefatigue crack tip by unloading or annealing after the formation of a pre-fatigue crack

  3. 16 CFR 1404.1 - Scope, application, and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.1 Scope, application, and effective date. (a) Scope. This part 1404 establishes a requirement for manufacturers, including importers, of cellulose insulation to notify (1... exists where cellulose insulation is installed too close to the sides or over the top of a recessed...

  4. 7 CFR 15a.1 - Purpose and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 15a.1 Purpose and effective date. The purpose of this part is to effectuate title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, as amended by Public Law 93-568, 88 Stat. 1855 and Public Law 94-482, 90 Stat. 2234 (except sections 904 and 906 of those Amendments) which...

  5. 26 CFR 1.457-12 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.457-12 Effective dates. (a... plan does not fail to be an eligible plan as a result of requirements imposed by the Economic...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.415-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of its next cost accounting period beginning after the receipt of a contract or subcontract to which...-63 Section 9904.415-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.415-63 Effective date. (a) This Standard 9904.415 is...

  7. 31 CFR 317.0 - Purpose and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and effective date. 317.0 Section 317.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING AGENCIES FOR ISSUE...

  8. Effect of HF leaching on 14C dates of pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslar, Tomasz; Kozłowski, Janusz; Szmyt, Marzena; Czernik, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the experiments with 14C dating of two potsherds, which contained carbon dispersed rather homogeneously in their clay fabric. After AAA treatment, the potsherds still appeared to be contaminated with young carbon, presumably connected with humic acids. To make removal of humic acids more effective, we treated the sherds with HF acid of different concentration. The 14C results obtained demonstrate that HF treatment indeed helps to remove humic contaminants, but it also mobilizes carbon bound to raw clay, which may make 14C dates too old. We conclude therefore, that using a simple combination of HF and AAA treatment seems insufficient in reliable 14C dating of carbon homogeneously dispersed in the volume of potsherds.

  9. Assessing the Effects of Construction Delays on MARA Large Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Hameed Memon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry in Malaysia is facing a serious issue of construction delay causing a significant amount of time over run and cost over run. Various studies have addressed the issue of construction delay, however, most of studies focused on identifying causes of delay. Less attention has been paid of assessing effects of construction delay. Hence this study is aimed to assess effects of construction delay on MARA large projects. Investigation approach for study includes the site study of 30 MARA  large projects selected from various areas of Malaysia and structured questionnaire survey among client, consultant and contractor personnel’s. It is important to note that 90% of MARA projects are experiencing time overrun. Data was analyzed with statistical analysis  to calculate rank of the effects of delays and correlation with spearman formula to identify the interrelationship between attributes of effects. Results showed that time over-run and cost over-run are most significant effects of delay on MARA construction projects. Time over-run has high degree of correlation with cost over-run and moderate degree of correlation with disputes.

  10. Effect of Mixed Traffic Flow on Control Delay at Signalized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Mixed Traffic Flow on Control Delay at Signalized Intersections. ... Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice ... There are several methods available for operational analysis including mathematical models and traffic ...

  11. The effects of the evidence-based Safe Dates dating abuse prevention program on other youth violence outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Luz McNaughton; Agnew-Brune, Christine B; Simon, Thomas R; Vagi, Kevin J; Lee, Rosalyn D; Suchindran, Chiravath

    2014-12-01

    In response to recent calls for programs that can prevent multiple types of youth violence, the current study examined whether Safe Dates, an evidence-based dating violence prevention program, was effective in preventing other forms of youth violence. Using data from the original Safe Dates randomized controlled trial, this study examined (1) the effectiveness of Safe Dates in preventing peer violence victimization and perpetration and school weapon carrying 1 year after the intervention phase was completed and (2) moderation of program effects by the sex or race/ethnicity of the adolescent. Ninety percent (n = 1,690) of the eighth and ninth graders who completed baseline questionnaires completed the 1-year follow-up assessment. The sample was 51 % female and 26 % minority (of whom 69 % was black and 31 % was of another minority race/ethnicity). There were no baseline treatment group differences in violence outcomes. Treatment condition was significantly associated with peer violence victimization and school weapon carrying at follow-up; there was 12 % less victimization and 31 % less weapon carrying among those exposed to Safe Dates than those among controls. Treatment condition was significantly associated with perpetration among the minority but not among white adolescents; there was 23 % less violence perpetration among minority adolescents exposed to Safe Dates than that among controls. The observed effect sizes were comparable with those of other universal school-based youth violence prevention programs. Implementing Safe Dates may be an efficient way of preventing multiple types of youth violence.

  12. 75 FR 10413 - New Animal Drug Applications; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... of Effective Date AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Direct final rule; confirmation of effective date. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is confirming the effective date... animal drug products. This document confirms the effective date of the direct final rule....

  13. 76 FR 77670 - Research Area Within Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary; Notice of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Reef National Marine Sanctuary; Notice of Effective Date AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries...: Notice of effective date. SUMMARY: NOAA published a final rule for the establishment of a research area... is announcing the regulations became effective on December 4, 2011. DATES: Effective Date:...

  14. Effects of seasonal growth on delayed prey-predator model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gakkhar, Sunita [Department of Mathematics, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)], E-mail: sungkfma@iitr.ernet.in; Sahani, Saroj Kumar [Department of Mathematics, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)], E-mail: sarojdma@iitr.ernet.in; Negi, Kuldeep [Department of Mathematics, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)], E-mail: negikdma@iitr.ernet.in

    2009-01-15

    The dynamic behavior of a delayed predator-prey system with Holling II functional response is investigated. The stability analysis has been carried out and existence of Hopf bifurcation has been established. The complex dynamic behavior due to time delay has been explored. The effects of seasonal growth on the complex dynamics have been simulated. The model shows a rich variety of behavior, including period doubling, quasi-periodicity, chaos, transient chaos, and windows of periodicity.

  15. 76 FR 42470 - Loan Policies and Operations; Loan Purchases From FDIC; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... 12 CFR Part 614 RIN 3052-AC62 Loan Policies and Operations; Loan Purchases From FDIC; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit.... 2252, the effective date of the final rule is 30 days from the date of publication in the...

  16. 77 FR 76215 - Compensation, Retirement Programs, and Related Benefits; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-27

    ...; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date. SUMMARY: The Farm.... In accordance with the law, the effective date of the final rule is 30 days from the date of publication in the Federal Register during which either or both Houses of Congress are in session....

  17. Delayed effects of cortisol enhance fear memory of trace conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, S.; Ast, V.A. van; Joëls, M.; Kindt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroids induce rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effects that are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite and complementary ways. It is presently unknown how these time-dependent effects of cortisol affect fear memory of delay and trace conditioning. This distin

  18. Delayed effects of cortisol enhance fear memory of trace conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, S.; Ast, V.A. van; Joëls, M.; Kindt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroids induce rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effects that are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite and complementary ways. It is presently unknown how these time-dependent effects of cortisol affect fear memory of delay and trace conditioning. This distin

  19. Increased adrenal responsiveness and delayed hatching date in relation to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in Arctic-breeding black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartu, Sabrina; Lendvai, Ádám Z; Blévin, Pierre; Herzke, Dorte; Bustamante, Paco; Moe, Børge; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Chastel, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    High levels of environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and mercury (Hg) have been reported in some Arctic top predators such as seabirds. Chronic exposure to these contaminants might alter the response to environmental changes through interference with the regulation of corticosterone (CORT), a glucocorticoid stress hormone released by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Positive and negative relationships between CORT and environmental contaminants have been reported in polar seabirds. However, patterns appear inconclusive and it is difficult to attribute these relationships to a dysfunction of the HPA axis or to other confounding effects. In order to explore the relationships between the HPA axis activity and contaminants, we tested whether different aspects of the HPA axis of an Arctic seabird, the black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla, would be related to blood Hg, PCB and OCP concentrations. Male kittiwakes were caught during the incubation period in Svalbard and were subjected to different stress series: (1) a capture-restraint stress protocol, (2) an injection of dexamethasone (DEX) that enabled to test the efficacy of the HPA negative feedback and (3) an injection of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) that informed on the adrenal responsiveness. The HPA axis activity was unrelated to ΣOCPs and Hg. However, birds with high concentrations of ΣPCBs released more CORT after the ACTH injection. It is suggested that ΣPCBs may increase the number of ACTH-receptors on the adrenals. Additionally, hatching date was delayed in males with higher concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣOCPs. This study gives new evidence that PCBs and adrenal activity may be related. Thus high PCB burden may make individuals more prone to other stressors such as ongoing climate change.

  20. Effects of time delays on bifurcation and chaos in a non-autonomous system with multiple time delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Zhongkui [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)]. E-mail: sunzk205@mail.nwpu.edu.cn; Xu Wei [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)]. E-mail: weixu@nwpu.edu.cn; Yang Xiaoli [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); College of Mathematics and Information Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Fang Tong [Department of Applied Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Time delays are often sources of complex behavior in dynamic systems. Yet its complexity needs to be further explored, particularly when multiple time delays are present. As a purpose to gain insight into such complexity under multiple time delays, we investigate the mechanism for the action of multiple time delays on a particular non-autonomous system in this paper. The original mathematical model under consideration is a Duffing oscillator with harmonic excitation. A delayed system is obtained by adding delayed feedbacks to the original system. Two time delays are involved in such system, one of which in the displacement feedback and the other in the velocity feedback. The time delays are taken as adjustable parameters to study their effects on the dynamics of the system. Firstly, the stability of the trivial equilibrium of the linearized system is discussed and the condition under which the equilibrium loses its stability is obtained. This leads to a critical stability boundary where Hopf bifurcation or double Hopf bifurcation may occur. Then, the chaotic behavior of such system is investigated in detail. Particular emphasis is laid on the effect of delay difference between two time delays on the chaotic properties. A Melnikov's analysis is employed to obtain the necessary condition for onset of chaos resulting from homoclinic bifurcation. And numerical analyses via the bifurcation diagram and the top Lyapunov exponent are carried out to show the actual time delay effect. Both the results obtained by the two analyses show that the delay difference between two time delays plays a very important role in inducing or suppressing chaos, so that it can be taken as a simple but efficient 'switch' to control the motion of a system: either from order to chaos or from chaos to order.

  1. 76 FR 78145 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Extension of Effect Date for Full Fare Price...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... the amendment to 14 CFR 399.84, published April 25, 2011, at 76 FR 23110, and delayed July 28, 2011, at 76 FR 45181, is further delayed until January 26, 2012. This delay is effective December 23, 2011... Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit...

  2. Effect of multiple time-delay on vibrational resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarathinam, C; Rajasekar, S; Sanjuán, M A F

    2013-03-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of multiple time-delay on vibrational resonance in a single Duffing oscillator and in a system of n Duffing oscillators coupled unidirectionally and driven by both a low- and a high-frequency periodic force. For the single oscillator, we obtain analytical expressions for the response amplitude Q and the amplitude g of the high-frequency force at which resonance occurs. The regions in parameter space of enhanced Q at resonance, as compared to the case in absence of time-delay, show a bands-like structure. For the two-coupled oscillators, we explain all the features of variation of Q with the control parameter g. For the system of n-coupled oscillators with a single time-delay coupling, the response amplitudes of the oscillators are shown to be independent of the time-delay. In the case of a multi time-delayed coupling, undamped signal propagation takes place for coupling strength (δ) above a certain critical value (denoted as δu). Moreover, the response amplitude approaches a limiting value QL with the oscillator number i. We obtain analytical expressions for both δu and QL.

  3. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor and UTM Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  4. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti; Bahar, Arifah

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  5. Effects of delayed-onset muscle soreness on masticatory function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, E.; Lobbezoo, F.; Fueki, K.; Naeije, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to clarify the effects of experimentally provoked delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in the jaw-closing muscles on subjective and objective measures of masticatory function. Twenty-one dentate female subjects, without pain-related signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, part

  6. Chaotifying delayed recurrent neural networks via impulsive effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şaylı, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Enes

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, chaotification of delayed recurrent neural networks via chaotically changing moments of impulsive actions is considered. Sufficient conditions for the presence of Li-Yorke chaos with its ingredients proximality, frequent separation, and existence of infinitely many periodic solutions are theoretically proved. Finally, effectiveness of our theoretical results is illustrated by an example with numerical simulations.

  7. Effective multicasting algorithm for dynamic membership with delay constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin; XU Zheng-quan

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an effective heuristic algorithm for dynamic multicast routing with delay-constrained DDMR.The tree constructed by DDMR has the following characteristics: (1) multicast tree changes with the dynamic memberships; (2)the cost of the tree is as small as possible at each node addition/removal event; (3) all of the path delay meet a fixed delay constraint;(4) minimal perturbation to an existing tree. The proposed algorithm is based on "damage" and "usefulness" concepts proposed in previous work, and has a new parameter bf(Balancing Factor) for judging whether or not to rearrange a tree region when membership changes. Mutation operation in Genetic Algorithm (GA) is also employed to find an attached node for a new adding node.Simulation showed that our algorithm performs well and is better than static heuristic algorithms, in term of cost especially.

  8. Delayed effects of cortisol enhance fear memory of trace conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelisse, Sandra; van Ast, Vanessa A; Joëls, Marian; Kindt, Merel

    2014-02-01

    Corticosteroids induce rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effects that are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite and complementary ways. It is presently unknown how these time-dependent effects of cortisol affect fear memory of delay and trace conditioning. This distinction is of special interest because the neural substrates underlying these types of conditioning may be differently affected by time-dependent cortisol effects. Delay conditioning is predominantly amygdala-dependent, while trace conditioning additionally requires the hippocampus. Here, we manipulated the timing of cortisol action during acquisition of delay and trace fear conditioning, by randomly assigning 63 men to one of three possible groups: (1) receiving 10mg hydrocortisone 240 min (slow cort) or (2) 60 min (rapid cort) before delay and trace acquisition, or (3) placebo at both times, in a double-blind design. The next day, we tested memory for trace and delay conditioning. Fear potentiated startle responses, skin conductance responses and unconditioned stimulus expectancy scores were measured throughout the experiment. The fear potentiated startle data show that cortisol intake 240 min before actual fear acquisition (slow cort) uniquely strengthened subsequent trace conditioned memory. No effects of cortisol delivery 60 min prior to fear acquisition were found on any measure of fear memory. Our findings emphasize that slow, presumably genomic, but not more rapid effects of corticosteroids enhance hippocampal-dependent fear memories. On a broader level, our findings underline that basic experimental research and clinically relevant pharmacological treatments employing corticosteroids should acknowledge the timing of corticosteroid administration relative to the learning phase, or therapeutic intervention.

  9. Effect of dates of closing cut on seed yield and seed quality of Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramphrai Namsilee

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this field research was to investigate the effect of dates of closing cut on seed yield and seed quality of Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184 at Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center, during May 2003 to February 2004. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Experimental treatments consisted of five dates of closing cut spaced at about 14-day intervals (27 August, 10 September, 24 September, 8 October 2003 and uncut.The results showed that date of closing cut had a significant effect on seed yields and pure germinable seed yields (PGSY of S. guianensis CIAT 184. Plots closed on 10 September produced the highest seed yield and PGSY (P<0.05 of 564 and 553 kg/ha, followed by plots closed on 24 September and 27 August (422 and 406; 405 and 391 kg/ha. Uncut plots produced low yield and plots closed on 8 October produced the lowest seed yield and PGSY (401 and 388; 365 and 356 kg/ha. There were no significant differences in seed purity percentage, germination percentage and 1000-seed weight among treatments. Among the dates of closing cut studied, forage DM yield and CP yield were subsequently increased as date of closing cut was delayed. Based on this research, it was concluded that early-September was the optimum date of closing cut for S. guianensis CIAT 184 cultivation for seed production in Northeast Thailand.

  10. Effects of light exposure on the TL dating of pottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Shenghua

    2001-01-01

    [1]l.Aitken, M, J., Thermoluminescence Dating, London: Academic, 1985, 153.[2]Wintle, A. G., Huntley, D. J., Thermoluminescence dating of a deep-sea ocean core, Nature, 1979, 279: 710-712.[3]Zirmmerman, D. W., Thermoluminescent dating using fine grains from pottery, Archaeometry 1971, 13: 29-52.[4]Fleming, S. J., The pre-dose technique: a new thermoluminescent dating method, Archaeometry, 1973, 15: 13-30.[5]Zirmmerman, 1., The radiation-induced increase of thermoluminescence sensitivity of fired quartz, Journal of Physics C:Solid Physics, 1971, 4: 3277-3291.[6]Chen, G., Li, S. H., Studies of quartz 110℃ TL peak sensitivity change and its relevance to OSL dating, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2000, 33: 437-443.

  11. Functional Inactivation of Putative Photosynthetic Electron Acceptor Ferredoxin C2 (FdC2) Induces Delayed Heading Date and Decreased Photosynthetic Rate in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Qiu, Zhennan; Ruan, Banpu; Kang, Shujing; He, Lei; Zhang, Sen; Dong, Guojun; Hu, Jiang; Zeng, Dali; Zhang, Guangheng; Gao, Zhenyu; Ren, Deyong; Hu, Xingming; Chen, Guang; Guo, Longbiao; Qian, Qian; Zhu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Ferredoxin (Fd) protein as unique electron acceptor, involved in a variety of fundamental metabolic and signaling processes, which is indispensable for plant growth. The molecular mechanisms of Fd such as regulation of electron partitioning, impact of photosynthetic rate and involvement in the carbon fixing remain elusive in rice. Here we reported a heading date delay and yellowish leaf 1 (hdy1) mutant derived from Japonica rice cultivar "Nipponbare" subjected to EMS treatment. In the paddy field, the hdy1 mutant appeared at a significantly late heading date and had yellow-green leaves during the whole growth stage. Further investigation indicated that the abnormal phenotype of hdy1 was connected with depressed pigment content and photosynthetic rate. Genetic analysis results showed that the hdy1 mutant phenotype was caused by a single recessive nuclear gene mutation. Map-based cloning revealed that OsHDY1 is located on chromosome 3 and encodes an ortholog of the AtFdC2 gene. Complementation and overexpression, transgenic plants exhibited the mutant phenotype including head date, leaf color and the transcription levels of the FdC2 were completely rescued by transformation with OsHDY1. Real-time PCR revealed that the expression product of OsHDY1 was detected in almost all of the organs except root, whereas highest expression levels were observed in seeding new leaves. The lower expression levels of HDY1 and content of iron were detected in hdy1 than WT's. The FdC2::GFP was detected in the chloroplasts of rice. Real-time PCR results showed that the expression of many photosynthetic electron transfer related genes in hdy1 were higher than WT. Our results suggest that OsFdC2 plays an important role in photosynthetic rate and development of heading date by regulating electron transfer and chlorophyll content in rice.

  12. Functional Inactivation of Putative Photosynthetic Electron Acceptor Ferredoxin C2 (FdC2 Induces Delayed Heading Date and Decreased Photosynthetic Rate in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhao

    Full Text Available Ferredoxin (Fd protein as unique electron acceptor, involved in a variety of fundamental metabolic and signaling processes, which is indispensable for plant growth. The molecular mechanisms of Fd such as regulation of electron partitioning, impact of photosynthetic rate and involvement in the carbon fixing remain elusive in rice. Here we reported a heading date delay and yellowish leaf 1 (hdy1 mutant derived from Japonica rice cultivar "Nipponbare" subjected to EMS treatment. In the paddy field, the hdy1 mutant appeared at a significantly late heading date and had yellow-green leaves during the whole growth stage. Further investigation indicated that the abnormal phenotype of hdy1 was connected with depressed pigment content and photosynthetic rate. Genetic analysis results showed that the hdy1 mutant phenotype was caused by a single recessive nuclear gene mutation. Map-based cloning revealed that OsHDY1 is located on chromosome 3 and encodes an ortholog of the AtFdC2 gene. Complementation and overexpression, transgenic plants exhibited the mutant phenotype including head date, leaf color and the transcription levels of the FdC2 were completely rescued by transformation with OsHDY1. Real-time PCR revealed that the expression product of OsHDY1 was detected in almost all of the organs except root, whereas highest expression levels were observed in seeding new leaves. The lower expression levels of HDY1 and content of iron were detected in hdy1 than WT's. The FdC2::GFP was detected in the chloroplasts of rice. Real-time PCR results showed that the expression of many photosynthetic electron transfer related genes in hdy1 were higher than WT. Our results suggest that OsFdC2 plays an important role in photosynthetic rate and development of heading date by regulating electron transfer and chlorophyll content in rice.

  13. 77 FR 53769 - Receipts-Based, Small Business Size Standard; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... and 171 RIN 3150-AJ14 Receipts-Based, Small Business Size Standard; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Direct final rule; confirmation of effective date. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is confirming the effective date of August 22, 2012,...

  14. 77 FR 75780 - Nondisplacement of Qualified Workers Under Service Contracts; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Service Contracts; Effective Date AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Department of Labor. ACTION: Final rule; notice of effective date and OMB approval of information collection requirements. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor announces the effective date of its Final Rule published on August 29, 2011, to...

  15. The Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrides on the Integrity of Zirconium Alloy Components Delayed Hydride Cracking

    CERN Document Server

    Puls, Manfred P

    2012-01-01

    By drawing together the current theoretical and experimental understanding of the phenomena of delayed hydride cracking (DHC) in zirconium alloys, The Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrides on the Integrity of Zirconium Alloy Components: Delayed Hydride Cracking provides a detailed explanation focusing on the properties of hydrogen and hydrides in these alloys. Whilst the focus lies on zirconium alloys, the combination of both the empirical and mechanistic approaches creates a solid understanding that can also be applied to other hydride forming metals.   This up-to-date reference focuses on documented research surrounding DHC, including current methodologies for design and assessment of the results of periodic in-service inspections of pressure tubes in nuclear reactors. Emphasis is placed on showing that our understanding of DHC is supported by progress across a broad range of fields. These include hysteresis associated with first-order phase transformations; phase relationships in coherent crystalline metallic...

  16. 47 CFR 1.102 - Effective dates of actions taken pursuant to delegated authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... delegated authority. 1.102 Section 1.102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL... by the Commission and Pursuant to Delegated Authority; Effective Dates and Finality Dates of Actions § 1.102 Effective dates of actions taken pursuant to delegated authority. (a) Final actions following...

  17. 76 FR 77053 - Proposed Collection; Income, Excise, and Estate and Gift Taxes Effective Dates, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Income, Excise, and Estate and Gift Taxes Effective Dates... information collection requirements related to income, excise, and estate and gift taxes; effective dates and other issues arising under the employee benefit provisions of the tax reform act of 1984. DATES: Written...

  18. 77 FR 37570 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for a Pacemaker Programmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... requirements. DATES: This rule is effective September 20, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Melissa Burns... being placed in commercial distribution. Dated: June 18, 2012. Nancy K. Stade, Deputy Director...

  19. The effects of shadow removal on across-date settlement type classification of quickbird images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luus, FPS

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available QuickBird imagery acquired on separate dates may have significant differences in viewing- and illumination geometries, which can negatively impact across-date settlement type classification accuracy. The effect of cast shadows on classification...

  20. OsBBX14 delays heading date by repressing florigen gene expression under long and short-day conditions in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bo; Zhao, Jie; Li, Yaping; Zhang, Fang; Zhou, Jinjun; Chen, Fan; Xie, Xianzhi

    2016-06-01

    B-box (BBX) proteins are zinc finger proteins containing B-box domains, which have roles in Arabidopsis growth and development. However, little is known concerning rice BBXs. Herein, we identified a rice BBX protein, Oryza sativa BBX14 (OsBBX14). OsBBX14 is highly expressed in flag leaf blades. OsBBX14 expression shows a diurnal rhythm under photoperiodic conditions and subsequent continuous white light. OsBBX14 is located in the nucleus and has transcriptional activation potential. OsBBX14-overexpression (OsBBX14-OX) lines exhibited delayed heading date under long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions, whereas RNAi lines of OsBBX14 lines had similar heading dates to the WT. The florigen genes, Hd3a and RFT1, were downregulated in the OsBBX14-OX lines under LD and SD conditions. Under LD conditions, Hd1 was expressed higher in the OsBBX14-OX lines than in the wild type (WT), and the rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes, OsLHY and OsPRR1, was changed in OsBBX14-OX lines. Thus, OsBBX14 acts as a floral repressor by promoting Hd1 expression under LD conditions, probably because of crosstalk with the circadian clock. Under SD conditions, Ehd1 expression was reduced in OsBBX14-OX lines, but Hd1 and circadian clock gene expressions were unaffected, indicating that OsBBX14 acts as a repressor of Ehd1. Our findings suggested that OsBBX14 regulates heading date differently under LD and SD conditions.

  1. Effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean, an experiment was conducted at Experimental station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in years 2004-2005. The experimental treatments comprised all combinations of four sowing dates (11 April, 25 April, 8 May and 22 May and three different fertilizers (cow manure (30 tons/ha, compost (30 tons/ha, chemical fertilizers (100 kg/ha N and 250 kg/ha of super phosphate and no fertilizer as control. Different characteristics such as plant height, main inflorescence height, number of inflorescence per plant, number of secondary stems per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant, 100 seed weight, grain yield, oil percentage and oil yield were recorded. A factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The results showed by delaying sowing date grain yield, seed oil percentage and oil yield were decreased, but there was no significant differences between 25 April, 8 May and 22 May sowing dates. Harvest index and 100 seed weight did not affect by neither sowing dates nor fertilizer treatments. The highest number of branches per plant, number of fertile inflorescences per plant, number of fertile capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant and biological yield were obtained at 8 May sowing date on chemical fertilizer. Percentage of seed oil, grain yield and oil yield was higher at the first sowing date (11 April in compost and chemical fertilizer treatments. Keywords: Castor bean, sowing date, fertilizer, grain yield, oil percentage.

  2. EFFECT OF DATE OF PLANTING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    KEY WORDS: Date of Planting, Performance, Groundnut, haulm, yield, grain yield. ... The haulms are useful in livestock feeds and as farmyard manures, and have been categorized amongst .... Soil physical and chemical properties of the experimental site at ..... Planning Monitoring and Evaluation Unit Monthly Rainfall Data.

  3. 78 FR 69411 - Idaho Power Company; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Date On November 13, 2013, the Commission issued an order that initiated a proceeding in Docket No... Company, 145 FERC ] 61,122 (2013). The refund effective date in Docket No. EL14-3-000, established pursuant to section 206(b) of the FPA, will be the date of publication of this notice in the...

  4. Effect of Algerian Varieties Dates on Glycemic, Arterial Blood Pressure and Satiety Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Gourchala Freha, Mihoub Fatma, Derradj Meriem, Henchiri Cherifa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to determine the Glycemic Indexes (GIs)of three Algerians varieties of dates in healthy subjects, evaluate the satiety and effect on arterial pressure after their consumption. We have first documented the chemical composition of the dates. 10 healthy subjects consumed the dates (carbohydrates content of 50 g) in order to determine the GIs. The responses of glycaemia were monitored during two hours after the dates taking and compared to the reference glucose. In a r...

  5. The Effects of the Moms and Teens for Safe Dates Program on Dating Abuse: a Conditional Process Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Chen, May S; Reyes, Luz McNaughton; Dixon, Kimberly S; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael

    2016-04-01

    Moms and Teens for Safe Dates (MTSD) is a dating abuse (DA) prevention program for teens exposed to domestic violence. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), MTSD prevented certain types of DA victimization (psychological and physical) and perpetration (psychological and cyber) among teens with higher, but not lower, exposure to domestic violence. We built on these findings by using moderated mediation analysis to examine whether level of teen exposure to domestic violence conditioned the indirect effects of MTSD on these types of DA through targeted mediators. MTSD consisted of six mailed activity booklets. Mothers who had been former victims of domestic violence delivered the program to their teens. Mother and teen pairs were recruited into the RCT through community advertising and completed baseline and 6-month follow-up interviews (N = 277 pairs). As expected, MTSD had significant favorable effects for teens with higher but not lower exposure to domestic violence on several mediators that guided program content, including teen conflict management skills and mother-perceived severity of DA, self-efficacy for enacting DA prevention efforts, and comfort in communicating with her teen. MTSD had significant main effects on other mediators including teen feeling of family closeness and cohesion and mother-perceived susceptibility of her teen to DA. As expected, all significant indirect effects of MTSD on DA outcomes through mediators were for teens with higher exposure to domestic violence. Findings have implications for developing DA victimization and perpetration prevention programs for teens with high exposure to domestic violence.

  6. Review of experimental methods for evaluating effective delayed neutron fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Yoshihiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    The International Effective Delayed Neutron Fraction ({beta}{sub eff}) Benchmark Experiments have been carried out at the Fast Critical Assembly of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute since 1995. Researchers from six countries, namely France, Italy, Russia, U.S.A., Korea, and Japan, participate in this FCA project. Each team makes use of each experimental method, such as Frequency Method, Rossi-{alpha} Method, Nelson Number Method, Cf Neutron Source Method, and Covariance Method. In this report these experimental methods are reviewed. (author)

  7. Effect of Cultivars and Planting Date on Yield, Oil Content, and Fatty Acid Profile of Flax Varieties (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Andrea Gallardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of cultivars and planting date on flax fatty acid profile, seed yield, and oil content, an assay with seven cultivars (Baikal, Prointa Lucero, Prointa Ceibal, Panambí INTA, Curundú INTA, Carapé INTA, and Tape INTA was carried out at Parana Agricultural Experimental Station, Argentina. Significant differences among cultivars were found for content of palmitic (5–7 g/100 g, stearic (5–8 g/100 g, linoleic (13–19 g/100 g, saturated (11–15 g/100 g, and unsaturated acids (92–96 g/100 g within the seven cultivars. The best seed yields were observed in Prointa Lucero and Carapé INTA varieties (2091.50 kg·ha−1 and 2183.34 kg·ha−1, respectively in the first planting date and in Carapé INTA and Prointa Lucero (1667 kg·ha−1 and 1886 kg·ha−1, respectively in the second planting date. A delayed planting date had a negative effect on seed yield (1950 kg·ha−1 and 1516 kg·ha−1 and oil content (845 kg·ha−1 and 644 kg·ha−1 but did not affect oil composition.

  8. Investigation of Growth Analysis of Conventional and Commercial Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris Varieties at Delayed Planting Date in Chenaran(Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sadrabadi Haghighi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of yield, growth index and physiological traits in spring sugar beet genotypes with delayed planting date, a field experiment was carried out in Chenaran in Khorasan Razavi Province in the east of Iran in 2008 cropping season. For this experiment a complete randomized block design with 4 replications and 6 treatments was used. The experimental treatments were six improved varieties: Nagano, Brigiitta, Latitia, Flores, Dorotea and 7112. The results showed that the 7112 and Flores varies had highest leaf area Index (5.8 and lowest LAI (0.38, respectively. Nagano variety had the highest total dry weight (1600gm-2, root dry weight (1200gm-2, crop growth rate (17 gm-2.day-1 and relative growth rate (0.05g.g-1.day-1. 7112 variety had the lowest total dry weight (700 gm-2, root dry weight (560g.m-2, crop growth rate (6 g.m-2.day-1 and relative growth rate (0.036g.g-1.day-1.

  9. Delayed Effects of Graduate Education on Increased Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Simister

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ‘Human Capital Theory’ shows that education is a vital part of improving productivity.  This paper investigates effects of tertiary education (post-school education: at universities, higher-education colleges, and similar institutions on how productive an employee is.  A problem with such research is to identify which variable is the cause, and which is the effect.  This paper uses time-series regression analysis of World Bank data, on the fraction of a country’s workforce with tertiary education, and productivity.  This paper also uses Britain as a case study: the British Household Panel Study shows what happens to a graduate in the years after they leave university.  The delayed effects of education on output makes clear that education is a cause (rather than an effect of improvements in productivity.  In conclusion, university-level education is beneficial to economic growth.

  10. The effect of late pregnancy consumption of date fruit on labour and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuran, O; Al-Mehaisen, L; Bawadi, H; Beitawi, S; Amarin, Z

    2011-01-01

    We set out to investigate the effect of date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) consumption on labour parameters and delivery outcomes. Between 1 February 2007 and 31 January 2008 at Jordan University of Science and Technology, a prospective study was carried out on 69 women who consumed six date fruits per day for 4 weeks prior to their estimated date of delivery, compared with 45 women who consumed none. There was no significant difference in gestational age, age and parity between the two groups. The women who consumed date fruit had significantly higher mean cervical dilatation upon admission compared with the non-date fruit consumers (3.52 cm vs 2.02 cm, p dates, compared with 79% women in the non-date fruit consumers (p = 0.024). Use of prostin/oxytocin was significantly lower in women who consumed dates (28%), compared with the non-date fruit consumers (47%) (p = 0.036). The mean latent phase of the first stage of labour was shorter in women who consumed date fruit compared with the non-date fruit consumers (510 min vs 906 min, p = 0.044). It is concluded that the consumption of date fruit in the last 4 weeks before labour significantly reduced the need for induction and augmentation of labour, and produced a more favourable, but non-significant, delivery outcome. The results warrant a randomised controlled trial.

  11. 5 CFR 531.506 - Effective date of a quality step increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date of a quality step increase... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Quality Step Increases § 531.506 Effective date of a quality step increase. The quality step increase should be made effective as soon as practicable after it is approved. ...

  12. Effect of Time Delay on Recognition Memory for Pictures: The Modulatory Role of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the modulatory role of emotion in the effect of time delay on recognition memory for pictures. Participants viewed neutral, positive and negative pictures, and took a recognition memory test 5 minutes, 24 hours, or 1 week after learning. The findings are: 1) For neutral, positive and negative pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h delay. For neutral and positive pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 1-week delay was lower than in the 24-h delay; for negative pictures, overall recognition in the 24-h and 1-week delay did not significantly differ. Therefore negative emotion modulates the effect of time delay on recognition memory, maintaining retention of overall recognition accuracy only within a certain frame of time. 2) For the three types of pictures, recollection and familiarity in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h and the 1-week delay. Thus emotion does not appear to modulate the effect of time delay on recollection and familiarity. However, recollection in the 24-h delay was higher than in the 1-week delay, whereas familiarity in the 24-h delay was lower than in the 1-week delay. PMID:24971457

  13. Effect of early or delayed treatment upon healing of mandibular fractures: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Niels Ulrich; Hillerup, Søren; Kofod, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The possible relation between treatment delay and healing complications in mandibular fracture treatment (excluding condylar fractures) was reviewed systematically. Twenty-two studies were identified. No randomized studies focused on the effect of immediate or delayed treatment. The main focus...

  14. Soybean Planting Date and Maturity Effects on Heterodera glycines and Macrophomina phaseolina in Southeastern Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, T C

    1993-12-01

    Heterodera glycines reproduction and damage potential were evaluated for H. glycines-resistant and -susceptible soybean cultivars from maturity groups (MG) III, IV, and V on two planting dates in each of two years (1990-1991). Infection by H. glycines reduced yields of late-planted susceptible cultivars to a lesser degree than early planted cultivars in 1990 but not in 1991. The MG V susceptible cultivar yielded better than earlier-maturing susceptible cultivars even when yields of resistant cultivars were similar across maturity groups. Soybean yields were a function of nematode densities on roots in 1990, and nematode soil densities and root colonization by the charcoal rot fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina, in 1991. Harvest densities of H. glycines were lower for late-planted than for early-planted susceptible soybeans in 1990; however, nematode population increase was more rapid on roots of late-planted soybeans in 1991. Soybean maturity group did not have a significant effect on nematode populations in either year of the study, but colonization rates of M. phaseolina were lower for MG V cultivars than for earlier-maturing cultivars. Delayed soybean planting and cultivar maturity selection do not appear to be viable management options for H. glycines in southeastern Kansas.

  15. Effects of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in financial system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiang-Cheng [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China); Li, Chun [Department of Computer Science, Puer Teachers' College, Puer 665000 (China); Mei, Dong-Cheng, E-mail: meidch@ynu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China)

    2014-06-13

    The effect of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in finance system was investigated. The time delay is introduced into the Heston model driven by the extrinsic and intrinsic periodic information for stock price. The signal power amplification (SPA) was calculated by numerical simulation. The results indicate that an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance in the behaviors of SPA as a function of long-run variance of volatility or cross correlation coefficient between noises for both cases of intrinsic and extrinsic periodic information. Moreover, in both cases, being a critical value in the delay time, when the delay time takes value below the critical value, reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing, however, when the delay time takes value above the critical value, the reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing. - Highlights: • The effects of delay time on stochastic resonance of the stock prices was investigated. • There is an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance • The reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value below the critical value • The reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value above the critical value.

  16. An approach to normal forms of Kuramoto model with distributed delays and the effect of minimal delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Ben, E-mail: niubenhit@163.com [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Guo, Yuxiao [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Heterogeneous delays with positive lower bound (gap) are taken into consideration in Kuramoto model. On the Ott–Antonsen's manifold, the dynamical transitional behavior from incoherence to coherence is mediated by Hopf bifurcation. We establish a perturbation technique on complex domain, by which universal normal forms, stability and criticality of the Hopf bifurcation are obtained. Theoretically, a hysteresis loop is found near the subcritically bifurcated coherent state. With respect to Gamma distributed delay with fixed mean and variance, we find that the large gap decreases Hopf bifurcation value, induces supercritical bifurcations, avoids the hysteresis loop and significantly increases in the number of coexisting coherent states. The effect of gap is finally interpreted from the viewpoint of excess kurtosis of Gamma distribution. - Highlights: • Heterogeneously delay-coupled Kuramoto model with minimal delay is considered. • Perturbation technique on complex domain is established for bifurcation analysis. • Hysteresis phenomenon is investigated in a theoretical way. • The effect of excess kurtosis of distributed delays is discussed.

  17. A study of the effect of group delay distortion on an SMSK satellite communications channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of group delay distortion on an SMSK satellite communications channel have been investigated. Software and hardware simulations have been used to determine the effects of channel group delay variations with frequency on the bit error rate for a 220 Mbps SMSK channel. These simulations indicate that group delay distortions can significantly degrade the bit error rate performance. The severity of the degradation is dependent on the amount, type, and spectral location of the group delay distortion.

  18. The addition effect of Tunisian date seed fibers on the quality of chocolate spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Mohamed Ali; Abbes, Fatma; Mokni, Abir; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi; Besbes, Souhail

    2017-04-01

    Novel chocolate spreads were enriched by soluble and insoluble dietary fibers from Tunisian Deglet Nour date seeds at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% levels in the conventional chocolate spread. Defatted Deglet Nour date seeds, date seed soluble fiber concentrate (DSSFC) and date seed insoluble fiber concentrate (DSIFC) were characterized by high levels of dietary fibers (80-90%). Chocolate spread enriched with 5% of DSSFC presented the highest oil binding capacity (304.62%) compared to the control (102%). Whatever the DSIFC and DSSFC incorporation levels, no significant difference was recorded between the firmness, chewiness, and adhesiveness of prepared chocolate spreads compared to the control (p chocolate spreads enriched by DSIFC and DSSFC were accepted by panelists. These results indicated the value of date seeds as new source of dietary fibers to develop chocolate spread and could also improve health benefits and functional properties. Tunisia is considered to be one of the dates-producing countries. The mean annual yield of date fruits is about 200,000 tons. From this, around 20,000 tons of date seeds could be collected. This by-product of date processing industries could be regarded as an excellent source of dietary fiber with interesting technological functionality and many beneficial effects on human health. Then, date seeds could present a value addition by extraction and use of date seed fiber concentrate in chocolate spread formulation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. 19 CFR 113.26 - Effective dates of bonds and riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of bonds and riders. 113.26...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Bond Requirements § 113.26 Effective dates of bonds and riders. (a) General. Bonds including the application, if required by § 113.12, and riders may be filed up to 30...

  20. 5 CFR 531.412 - Effective date of a within-grade increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date of a within-grade increase... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.412 Effective date of a within-grade increase. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a within-grade increase shall be...

  1. 10 CFR 431.87 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.87 Section 431.87 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR....87 Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. (a) Each commercial packaged...

  2. 10 CFR 431.226 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.226 Section 431.226 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... Conservation Standards § 431.226 Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. Any traffic...

  3. 10 CFR 431.296 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.296 Section 431.296 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... Energy Conservation Standards § 431.296 Energy conservation standards and their effective dates....

  4. 10 CFR 431.66 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.66 Section 431.66 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... Energy Conservation Standards § 431.66 Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. (a)...

  5. 10 CFR 431.156 - Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates. 431.156 Section 431.156 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM... Standards § 431.156 Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates. Each commercial...

  6. 77 FR 39387 - Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 614 RIN 3052-AC60 Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date. SUMMARY:...

  7. Strong delayed interactive effects of metal exposure and warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debecker, Sara; Dinh, Khuong Van; Stoks, Robby

    2017-01-01

    As contaminants are often more toxic at higher temperatures, predicting their impact under global warming remains a key challenge for ecological risk assessment. Ignoring delayed effects, synergistic interactions between contaminants and warming, and differences in sensitivity across species......’ ranges could lead to an important underestimation of the risks. We addressed all three mechanisms by studying effects of larval exposure to zinc and warming before, during, and after metamorphosis in Ischnura elegans damselflies from high- and lowlatitude populations. By integrating these mechanisms...... was especially remarkable in high-latitude animals, as they appeared almost insensitive to zinc during the larval stage. Second, the well-known synergism between metals and warming was manifested not only during the larval stage but also after metamorphosis, yet notably only in low-latitude damselflies...

  8. Contagion effects in a chartist fundamentalist model with time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibeh, Ghassan

    2007-08-01

    In this paper two models of speculative markets are developed to study the effects of feedback mechanisms in financial markets. In the first model, a crash market model couples a linear chartist-fundamentalist model with time delays with a log-periodic market index I(t) through direct coupling. Numerical solutions to the model show that asset prices exhibit significant persistence as a result of the coupling to the log-periodic market index. An extension to include endogenous wealth dynamics shows that the chartists benefit from the persistent dynamics induced by the coupling. The second model is a two-asset model represented by a 2-dimensional delay-differential equation. Asset one price exhibits limit cycle dynamics while in the second market asset prices follow stable damped oscillations. The markets are coupled through a diffusive coupling term. Solutions to the coupled model show that the dynamics of asset two changes fundamentally with the price now exhibiting a limit cycle. The stable converging dynamics is replaced with limit cycle oscillations around the fundamental.

  9. Clinical Effects of Gemifloxacin on the Delay of Tuberculosis Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seo Yun; Yim, Jae-Joon; Park, Jong Sun; Park, Sung Soo; Heo, Eun Young; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Chung, Hee Soon

    2013-01-01

    Although gemifloxacin has low in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the effect of gemifloxacin on the delay of tuberculosis (TB) treatment has not been validated in a clinical setting. The study group included patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB who initially received gemifloxacin for suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Two control groups contained patients treated with other fluoroquinolones or nonfluoroquinolone antibiotics. Sixteen cases were treated with gemifloxacin for suspected CAP before TB diagnosis. Sixteen and 32 patients were treated with other fluoroquinolones and nonfluoroquinolones, respectively. The median period from the initiation of antibiotics to the administration of anti-TB medication was nine days in the gemifloxacin group, which was significantly different from the other fluoroquinolones group (35 days). The median times for the nonfluoroquinolone group and the gemifloxacin group were not significantly different. There were no significant differences between the gemifloxacin and other fluoroquinolone group in terms of symptomatic and radiographic improvements. However, the frequency of radiographic improvement in the other fluoroquinolones group tended to be higher than in the gemifloxacin group. Gemifloxacin might be the preferred fluoroquinolone for treating CAP, to alleviate any concerns about delaying TB treatment. PMID:23486643

  10. Effect of the cutting date on blooming and fruit-bearing of Ostericum palustre Beesser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Krasicka-Korczyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In fresh moist meadows, double-cut, located in the Bydgoszcz Canal Valley, you can find Ostericum palustre, a species of priority importance, which requires protection in the form of designation of Natura 2000 sites. The aim of the present research was to define the effect of the cutting date on blooming and fruit-bearing of O. palustre in meadows covered by the PO1b agro-environmental programme. Phenological observations included three populations of O. palustre. The first one occurs in a traditionally used meadow, not covered by the agro-environmental programme (2 where the date of the first cut falls in mid June. The second one is located in a meadow covered by the agro-environmental programme (1 where the first cutting date is possible from July 1, and the third population located in a natural meadow is not agriculturally used (0. The present research showed that individuals of O. palustre in the traditionally used meadows (2, prior to the first cut, reach the leaf rosette phase, while individuals which occur in the meadow covered by the agro-environmental programme (1, prior to the first cut, reach the generative tiller phase. Full bloom of O. palustre in the traditionally used meadows occurs after July 20, while individuals of O. palustre in the agro-environmental programme reach that phase only at the beginning of August. At the same time, about August 6, the first inflorescence in 70% of individuals in the agriculturally unused meadow (0 has ripe fruit, and in mid August all fruits are ripe. In mid August 70% of individuals in the meadow used for traditional cutting have ripe fruits of the first inflorescence, and right before the second cut, on August 27, almost 90% of fruits were ripe. Most O. palustre individuals in the meadows covered by the agro-environmental programme do not finish blooming of the first inflorescence before mid August. By the end of August, about 60% of individuals reach the phase of young fruits. The first ripe

  11. Effect of Small Transmission Delay on Human Behavior in Audio Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Mochizuki, Kaname

    Transmission delay in audio communications is a well-known obstacle to achieving smooth communication. However, it is not known what kinds of effects are caused by small delays. We hypothesized that the small delay in the listener's responses disturbs the speaker's “verbal conditioning, ” where the verbal behavior of the speaker varies in accordance with the listener's responses. We examined whether the small delays in the listener's responses disturb the speaker's verbal conditioning using an artificial-grammar learning task. The results suggested that a 300-ms delay disturbed the participants' verbal conditioning although they were not adequately aware of the delay.

  12. The Effect of Planting Date on the Growth and Yield of Indigo (Indigofera tinctoria L. in Shahrood Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ansori

    2016-07-01

    increasing and x0 is the time of reaching plant to the maximum CGR. In this study, instead of day, we used growing degree days (GDD according to Equation 4: In this equation Tmax: maximum daily temperature, Tmin: minimum daily temperature, Tb: temperature of the plant, which was considered to indigo 10.27 °C (6. Fitting equations and drawing diagrams were performed using Sigma Plot 10 version. Analysis of variance and correlation between traits were performed using SAS software and means were compared using LSD test at the 5% level. Results and Discussion Results showed that (Figure 2a and Table 2 the earliest planting date (18 June increased total dry matter and crop growth rate about 4.41 and 3.59 folds compared to third planting date (18 July, respectively. In addition, the highest GDD was recorded for the first sowing date (18 June. The results showed that the fastest (38.34 and the lowest (12.37 growing rate was related to 18 June and 18 July planting dates, respectively (Table 3. Gupta (10 also stated that there was a significant correlation between sowing time and plant biological yield, as with delay in sowing date plant dry weight has been decreased. Mean comparison results showed that the lowest plant height was obtained at the early planting date (18 June and the lowest of it was seen in the late planting date (18 July (Figure 5 B. In the first planting date (18 June, biological yield increased 47.27% compared to the later planting date (18 July. In third sowing date biological yield decreased significantly than first and second planting dates (Figure 5 A. Zhelgazkov et al. (21 on Coriandrum sativum L. showed that the earliest cultivation increased the length of effective growth period and finally caused an increase in fruit and biological yield. The reason for reduction of biological yield in delayed cultivation in addition to shortening of growth season is related to coincidence of vegetative and reproduction period with summer heat which resulted in severe

  13. The effect of process delay on dynamical behaviors in a self-feedback nonlinear oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chenggui; Ma, Jun; Li, Chuan; He, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    The delayed feedback loops play a crucial role in the stability of dynamical systems. The effect of process delay in feedback is studied numerically and theoretically in the delayed feedback nonlinear systems including the neural model, periodic system and chaotic oscillator. The process delay is of key importance in determining the evolution of systems, and the rich dynamical phenomena are observed. By introducing a process delay, we find that it can induce bursting electric activities in the neural model. We demonstrate that this novel regime of amplitude death also exists in the parameter space of feedback strength and process delay for the periodic system and chaotic oscillator. Our results extend the effect of process delay in the paper of Zou et al.(2013) where the process delay can eliminate the amplitude death of the coupled nonlinear systems.

  14. 76 FR 45181 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Delay of Effective Date for Certain Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 244, 250, 253, 259 and 399 RIN No. 2105-AD92 Enhancing Airline... certain requirements adopted in an April 25, 2011 final rule on enhancing airline passenger protections... boarding compensation airlines must pay to passengers bumped from flights, and the requirement to disclose...

  15. Effect of Date Extract on Growth of Mutans Streptococci, the Most Important Factor of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sayyedi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective:Dental caries is perhaps the most common bacterial infections in humans and Streptococcus Mutans is one of the most important factors in dental caries. Research has shown that some kind foods have an inhibitory effect on cariogenic factors of Mutans streptococci. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of date extract on growth of Streptococcus Mutans. Methods & Materials: This experimental study was down at faculty of medicine, Yasuj university of medical sciences with collaborative of microbiology department of Shiraz university of medical sciences in 2005. In an In-vitro study, effect of date extract on growth of Mutans Streptococci was surveyed .After collecting of Streptococcus Mutans from dental caries those were cultured in different medium of date fruit, extract of date fruit and syrup of date with different concentrations. Results: Following 24 hours, Streptococcus mutans was grown in less concentration of date mediums and its grown was inhibited in more concentrations. Conclusion: With respect of inhibitory effect of date extract on growth of Streptococcus mutans,it might be introduced that date as a source of food has a preventive effect on dental caries.

  16. The moderating effect of social support from a dating partner on the association between dating violence victimization and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Seavey, Amanda E; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Fite, Paula J; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-04-01

    Dating violence victimization is associated with decreased relationship satisfaction and increased mental health symptomatology. Yet, violent dating relationships often remain intact across time, even when the aggression fails to cease. Thus, research is needed to determine the factors that reduce the negative impact of victimization. One factor may be that abusive dating partners are perceived as supportive by their partners, serving to reduce the negative impact of victimization. The current study sought to examine whether perceived support (i.e., perceptions of support) and capitalization support (i.e., perceptions of support for positive events) moderated and reduced the impact of dating violence victimization on decreased relationship satisfaction and increased depressive symptoms. Using a sample of females in dating relationships (N = 253), results provided partial support for our hypotheses. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  17. The placebo effect revisited: lessons learned to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2013-04-01

    This article summarizes six lessons that can be learned from over a half century of scientific research on the placebo effect. These lessons are that the placebo response is not the placebo effect, it is meaningless to ask what the magnitude of the placebo effect is, it is easy to be fooled by regression artifacts, expectancy and conditioning are not conflicting processes that can be pitted against each other, some of our questions can be answered by history, and the outcomes of active treatments can be enhanced by attention to placebo components.

  18. Interpersonal style moderates the effect of dating violence on symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M; Lannert, Brittany K; Hopwood, Christopher J; Levendosky, Alytia A

    2013-11-01

    Over a quarter of young women have experienced some form of violence within a dating relationship. The experience of dating violence is associated with problems in psychological functioning, including symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, not all women who experience dating violence exhibit anxious or depressive symptoms. One factor that may influence symptom expression is interpersonal style. In this study, we examined the main and moderating effects of dimensions of interpersonal style (dominance and warmth) on the association between dating violence and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Warmth exhibited a main effect on anxious and depressive symptoms over and above the effects of dating violence and other life stressors. Dominance moderated the association between dating violence and anxious and depressive symptoms. When levels of dating violence were high, women with higher levels of dominance reported fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression than women with lower dominance. These results indicated that whereas high warmth was associated with fewer symptoms of psychopathology generally, high dominance was a buffer against the effect of dating violence on symptoms more specifically. Directions for future research are discussed.

  19. 26 CFR 1.148-11 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effect of the application of that section on refunding escrows, using any reasonable accounting method... replacement proceeds—(1) Certain perpetual trust funds. A guarantee by a fund created and controlled by...

  20. 17 CFR 210.3-12 - Age of financial statements at effective date of registration statement or at mailing date of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... specified in paragraph (g) of this section and with statements of income and cash flows for the interim... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Age of financial statements at effective date of registration statement or at mailing date of proxy statement. 210.3-12 Section 210.3-12...

  1. PROBLEMS OF PROJECTS AND EFFECTS OF DELAYS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haseeb

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of project delays is a fact that occurs mostly in construction industry of Pakistan. Delays are always measured as expensive to all parties concerned in the projects and very often it will result in clash, claims, total desertion and much difficult for the feasibility and it slows the growth of construction sector. For analyzing the causes of delay, an appraisal on construction project’s time performance was conducted. The main objective of this study is the identification of factors of delay and their effects on the success and completion of project. The most common factor of delay are natural disaster in Pakistan like flood and earthquake and some others like financial and payment problems, improper planning, poor site management, insufficient experience, shortage of materials and equipment etc. This paper covers the delay factors and causes of delay and some suggestion for reducing these delays in large construction projects in Pakistan.

  2. 16 CFR 1025.57 - Effective date of order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... arising under the Flammable Fabrics Act, which has been issued following the Commission's acceptance of an offer of settlement in accordance with § 1025.26 of these rules, becomes effective upon receipt of notice of Commission acceptance, unless otherwise ordered by the Commission. (2) Litigated orders....

  3. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Suwaiegh, S B

    2016-04-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (pdate pits were significantly (pdate pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (pdate pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance.

  4. Long-term storage effects-up-date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    The long-term effects of storing batteries over a period of years prior to their use in a synchronous orbit application are discussed. A previous experiment is discussed where life testing was performed on cells after having stored the battery for a period of three years with the cell shorted and at a temperature on the order of 5-10 C. The test consisted of performing a sequence of 10 simulated eclipse seasons (equivalent in cycling of five years in synchronous orbit). Results of this test indicated very little degradation and change in the physical and chemical conditions of the cell. The program was extended for an additional year (battery was stored for four years) under the same conditions and testing. The results of the four year storage (one exception) indicate that no further change occurred that is significant from the three year test.

  5. The effect of distributed time-delays on the synchronization of neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachhvah, Ajay Deep

    2017-01-01

    Here we investigate the synchronization of networks of FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons coupled in scale-free, small-world and random topologies, in the presence of distributed time delays in the coupling of neurons. We explore how the synchronization transition is affected when the time delays in the interactions between pairs of interacting neurons are non-uniform. We find that the presence of distributed time-delays does not change the behavior of the synchronization transition significantly, vis-a-vis networks with constant time-delay, where the value of the constant time-delay is the mean of the distributed delays. We also notice that a normal distribution of delays gives rise to a transition at marginally lower coupling strengths, vis-a-vis uniformly distributed delays. These trends hold across classes of networks and for varying standard deviations of the delay distribution, indicating the generality of these results. So we conclude that distributed delays, which may be typically expected in real-world situations, do not have a notable effect on synchronization. This allows results obtained with constant delays to remain relevant even in the case of randomly distributed delays.

  6. 75 FR 3163 - Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Program-Basic Entitlement; Effective Date of Induction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...; Effective Date of Induction Into a Rehabilitation Program; Cooperation in Initial Evaluation AGENCY... provisions concerning: Individuals' basic entitlement to vocational rehabilitation benefits and services...' cooperation and lack of cooperation in the initial evaluation process. The amendments are intended to...

  7. The effect of caffeine ingestion on delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Caitlin F; Hatfield, Disa L; Riebe, Deborah A

    2013-11-01

    The beneficial effects of caffeine on aerobic activity and resistance training performance are well documented. However, less is known concerning caffeine's potential role in reducing perception of pain and soreness during exercise. In addition, there is no information regarding the effects of caffeine on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine ingestion on muscle soreness, blood enzyme activity, and performance after a bout of elbow flexion/extension exercise. Nine low-caffeine-consuming males (body mass: 76.68 ± 8.13 kg; height: 179.18 ± 9.35 cm; age: 20 ± 1 year) were randomly assigned to ingest either caffeine or placebo 1 hour before completing 4 sets of 10 bicep curls on a preacher bench, followed by a fifth set in which subjects completed as many repetitions as possible. Soreness and soreness on palpation intensity were measured using three 0-10 visual analog scales before exercise, and 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after exercise. After a washout period, subjects crossed over to the other treatment group. Caffeine ingestion resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower levels of soreness on day 2 and day 3 compared with placebo. Total repetitions in the final set of exercise increased with caffeine ingestion compared with placebo. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion immediately before an upper-body resistance training out enhances performance. A further beneficial effect of sustained caffeine ingestion in the days after the exercise bout is an attenuation of DOMS. This decreased perception of soreness in the days after a strenuous resistance training workout may allow individuals to increase the number of training sessions in a given time period.

  8. The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummer, R.J.M.; Schoenmakers, E.A.J.M.; Kemerink, G.J.; Heidendal, G.A.K.; Sanders, D.G.M.; Stockbrügger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND: Cisapride has an established prokinetic effect in patients with delayed gastric emptying. However, rectal administration of the drug might be preferred in patients with either dysphagia or nausea due to gast

  9. The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummer, R.J.M.; Schoenmakers, E.A.J.M.; Kemerink, G.J.; Heidendal, G.A.K.; Sanders, D.G.M.; Stockbrügger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND: Cisapride has an established prokinetic effect in patients with delayed gastric emptying. However, rectal administration of the drug might be preferred in patients with either dysphagia or nausea due to

  10. A feasibility study to assess the effectiveness of safe dates for teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W; Waterhouse, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the adapted Safe Dates curriculum as an intervention for pregnant and/or parenting teens to prevent teen dating violence (TDV). This pre-/posttest, single-sample study provided a means to assess the effectiveness of an adapted Safe Dates curriculum for teen mothers. The adapted Safe Dates curriculum was implemented in three schools designed for the unique needs of teens who are pregnant and/or parenting. The final sample of 41 teen participants, with a mean age of 16.27, completed 80% of the curriculum and two of the three assessments. Most of the teens were pregnant during participation in the curriculum, and six had infants between age 1 and 3 months. The teen mothers completed the pretest, participated in the 10-session adapted Safe Dates curriculum, and completed the posttest at the end of the program and 1 month after program completion. The pre/posttest was adapted from the Safe Dates curriculum-specific evaluation instrument. Senior, undergraduate nursing students were trained in and implemented the curriculum. Participation in the adapted Safe Dates program yielded significant differences in the areas of responses to anger, gender stereotyping, awareness of resources for perpetrators and victims, and psychological violence perpetration. This adapted program may be effective in changing selected outcomes. The implementation of a larger scale, experimental/control group study may demonstrate the program's efficacy at reducing the incidence of TDV among teen mothers. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  11. Effect of delayed cord clamping on very preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiruvolu, Arpitha; Tolia, Veeral N; Qin, Huanying; Stone, Genna Leal; Rich, Diana; Conant, Rhoda J; Inzer, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Despite significant proposed benefits, delayed umbilical cord clamping (DCC) is not practiced widely in preterm infants largely because of the question of feasibility of the procedure and uncertainty regarding the magnitude of the reported benefits, especially intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) vs the adverse consequences of delaying the neonatal resuscitation. The objective of this study was to determine whether implementation of the protocol-driven DCC process in our institution would reduce the incidence of IVH in very preterm infants without adverse consequences. We implemented a quality improvement process for DCC the started in August 2013 in infants born at ≤32 weeks' gestational age. Eligible infants were left attached to the placenta for 45 seconds after birth. Neonatal process and outcome data were collected until discharge. We compared infants who received DCC who were born between August 2013 and August 2014 with a historic cohort of infants who were born between August 2012 and August 2013, who were eligible to receive DCC, but whose cord was clamped immediately after birth, because they were born before the protocol implementation. DCC was performed on all the 60 eligible infants; 88 infants were identified as historic control subjects. Gestational age, birthweight, and other demographic variables were similar between both groups. There were no differences in Apgar scores or admission temperature, but significantly fewer infants in the DCC cohort were intubated in delivery room, had respiratory distress syndrome, or received red blood cell transfusions in the first week of life compared with the historic cohort. A significant reduction was noted in the incidence of IVH in the DCC cohort compared with the historic control group (18.3% vs 35.2%). After adjustment for gestational age, an association was found between the incidence of IVH and DCC with IVH was significantly lower in the DCC cohort compared with the historic cohort; an odds ratio of 0

  12. The effects of massage on delayed onset muscle soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, J; Sforzo, G; Swensen, T

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of massage on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Methods: Eighteen volunteers were randomly assigned to either a massage or control group. DOMS was induced with six sets of eight maximal eccentric contractions of the right hamstring, which were followed 2 h later by 20 min of massage or sham massage (control). Peak torque and mood were assessed at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h postexercise. Range of motion (ROM) and intensity and unpleasantness of soreness were assessed at 6, 24, and 48 h postexercise. Neutrophil count was assessed at 6 and 24 h postexercise. Results: A two factor ANOVA (treatment v time) with repeated measures on the second factor showed no significant treatment differences for peak torque, ROM, neutrophils, unpleasantness of soreness, and mood (p > 0.05). The intensity of soreness, however, was significantly lower in the massage group relative to the control group at 48 h postexercise (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Massage administered 2 h after exercise induced muscle injury did not improve hamstring function but did reduce the intensity of soreness 48 h after muscle insult. PMID:12547748

  13. The effect of sowing date and plant density on yield and yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L. in Rokh plateau .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyd fazel fazeli kakhaki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of sowing date and plant density on yield and yield components of safflower ( Carthamus tinctorious as well as evaluating the possibility of the second sowing of the plant in Torbat Heidariyeh , a field experiment was conducted in Rokh, Cold Season Cereal Research Station 2005 . The experiment was conducted in split plot arrangement in complete randomized block design with four replications . Main plots were sowing date in five levels including 9 April, 10 May, 31 May, 20 June, 11 July and sub plots were plant density in three levels including 300000, 400000, 500000 plants per hectar. Some charactristics such as the number of capitulum per square meter, seed number in capitulum, seed weight, harvest index and seed yeild was evaluated.The highest seed yield was obtained in first sowing date in 3347 kg/ha and a delay in sowing date resulted a decrease in yield. The cold weather in (05/11/2005 caused flower fertility not accured, consequently, sowing was not successful . Results showed that the effect of sowing date on yield depends on the number of capitulum per unit area and the number of grains per capitulum. These two characteristics in th first sowing date in respect of the other dates were higher. The effect of density on yield was significant resulted on yield increase due to capitulum increase in unit area. As a result, the first sowing date with the highest density is recommended. However, The third and fourth sowing date can be considered as the second planting in a sequeational cropping system .

  14. Who Dates? The Effects of Temperament, Puberty, and Parenting on Early Adolescent Experience with Dating : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Katya; Veenstra, René; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on how temperament, pubertal maturation, and perception of parenting behaviors affect the propensity to date in early adolescence (mean age = 13.55). Hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 2,230 Dutch adolescents, the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey

  15. Who Dates? The Effects of Temperament, Puberty, and Parenting on Early Adolescent Experience with Dating: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Katya; Veenstra, Rene; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on how temperament, pubertal maturation, and perception of parenting behaviors affect the propensity to date in early adolescence (mean age = 13.55). Hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 2,230 Dutch adolescents, the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). The results suggest that adolescents…

  16. Effects of Planting Dates on Yield and Yield Components of Four Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Soheyli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to investigate the effect of fall and winter planting dates on phenological and morphological traits, yield and yield components of four cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. landraces, an experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of Agricultural College of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2005-06 growing season. Four planting dates (11th Nov., 11th Dec., 20th Feb. and 17th Mar. were allocated to main plots and four landraces (Ghayen, Torbat-e-heidariyeh, Sabzevar and Khaf were assigned to sub plots. The results indicated that the effects of planting date, landrace and interaction effect of these two factors on plant height, percent of plant survival after winter, yield components, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index were significant. With respect to plant height, there was no difference between fall (11th Nov. and 11th Dec. and winter (20th Feb. planting dates, while plant height in the fourth planting date (17th Mar. decreased severely. The lowest percent of plant survival was observed in the fall sowing dates, while the third and fourth plantings had no plant mortality, for not exposing to cold conditions. The maximum percent of plant survival belonged to Ghayen and Khaf landraces with 85% and 84% respectively, and Torbat-e-heidariyeh had the lowest percent of plant survival with 59%. The greatest number of umbels per plant, number of seeds per umbel, 1000 seeds weight and seeds weight per plant were achieved in the first planting date. Despite priority of the first planting date in yield components over other planting dates, the greatest seed yield and biological yield observed in the third planting date (20th Feb.. With regard to seed yield and biological yield, Ghayen in the third planting and Torbat-e-heidariyeh in the first planting had the greatest and the lowest yields, respectively. Since the fall and winter planting dates led to

  17. Effect of Algerian Varieties Dates on Glycemic, Arterial Blood Pressure and Satiety Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourchala Freha, Mihoub Fatma, Derradj Meriem,\tHenchiri Cherifa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study is to determine the Glycemic Indexes (GIsof three Algerians varieties of dates in healthy subjects, evaluate the satiety and effect on arterial pressure after their consumption. We have first documented the chemical composition of the dates. 10 healthy subjects consumed the dates (carbohydrates content of 50 g in order to determine the GIs. The responses of glycaemia were monitored during two hours after the dates taking and compared to the reference glucose. In a randomized trial, 20 healthy adults consumed the dates after 12h of fast. We reported the level of satiety on a Visual Analog Scale for 2h further to the ingestion of the dates. Furthermore, 28 normotensive and 45 hypertensive individuals ingested the three varieties in randomized order during 21 days to assess their impact on the Pressure Arterial Systolic (PAS and Pressure Arterial Diastolic (PAD. We noted significant differences (p<0.05 for the different fractions of sugars, soluble fibers, polyphenols, K+, Mg2+. The low GIs are denoted among 44.31-52.35, deducting a moderate impact on blood glucose level. The dates reduced hunger and increased satiety. Our varieties studied following their ingestion induced a significant hypotensive activity (p<0.05on the PAS and, PAD from hypertensive subjects.

  18. The Effects of Download Delay on Performance and End-User Satisfaction in an Internet Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Erica S.; Hantula, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study of university students that investigated the effects of a variable unique to Internet-based learning, namely download delay of instructional materials. Discusses a simulated online teaching tool that measured the effects of download delay of images on test performance, time spent on the material, end-user satisfaction, and…

  19. GLOBAL EXPONENTIAL STABILITY OF HOPFIELD NEURAL NETWORKS WITH VARIABLE DELAYS AND IMPULSIVE EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhi-chun; XU Dao-yi

    2006-01-01

    A class of Hopfield neural network with time-varying delays and impulsive effects is concerned. By applying the piecewise continuous vector Lyapunov function some sufficient conditions were obtained to ensure the global exponential stability of impulsive delay neural networks. An example and its simulation are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the results.

  20. Impacts of Wake Effect and Time Delay on the Dynamic Analysis of Wind Farms Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fouly, Tarek H. M.; El-Saadany, Ehab F.; Salama, Magdy M. A.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the impacts of proper modeling of the wake effects and wind speed delays, between different wind turbines' rows, on the dynamic performance accuracy of the wind farms models. Three different modeling scenarios were compared to highlight the impacts of wake effects and wind speed time-delay models. In the first scenario,…

  1. Effect of electric field, stress and environment on delayed fracture of a PZT-5 ferroelectric ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yi; SU; Yanjing; CHU; Wuyang; QIAO; Lijie

    2005-01-01

    The combined effect of electric and mechanical loading on fracture of a PZT-5 ferroelectric ceramic in silicone oil has been investigated using a single edge notched specimen. The results show that the fracture toughness and the threshold stress intensity factor of delayed fracture in silicone oil, i.e. stress corrosion cracking, decrease linearly with the increasing applied electric field, either positive or negative. For the PZT-5 ferroelectric ceramics, delayed fracture in silicone oil under sustained positive or negative field can occur, and the threshold field for delayed fracture under sustained positive or negative field decreases linearly with applied stress intensity factor. The combined effect of electric and mechanical loading on delayed fracture in silicone oil includes fieldenhancing delayed fracture under sustained load and stress-enhancing delayed fracture in silicone oil under sustained field.

  2. Determining the date of diagnosis – is it a simple matter? The impact of different approaches to dating diagnosis on estimates of delayed care for ovarian cancer in UK primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Tate, A Rosemary; Martin, Alexander GR; Murray-Thomas, Tarita; Anderson, Sarah R; Cassell, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies of cancer incidence and early management will increasingly draw on routine electronic patient records. However, data may be incomplete or inaccurate. We developed a generalisable strategy for investigating presenting symptoms and delays in diagnosis using ovarian cancer as an example. Methods The General Practice Research Database was used to investigate the time between first report of symptom and diagnosis of 344 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer between 01/06/...

  3. Effect of dead carbon on the 14C dating of the speleothem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yanjun; Warren Beck; PENG Zicheng; ZHANG Zhaofeng

    2005-01-01

    Based on the comparison of dating results among high-precision TIMS U-series and AMS 14C as well as the published 14C dating results and their band counting ages (i.e. calendar ages), this paper discusses the effect of dead carbon on the speleothem 14C dating. The result shows that the fraction of incorporated dead carbon during the formation of speleothem varies. The change in the fraction of dead carbon would result in big deviation in the 14C age of the speleothem. It is indispensable to take the dead carbon into consideration when dating the speleothem using the 14C method or studying the atmospheric 14C concentration during the past with the speleothem.

  4. Effect of the sowing date and agrotextile covering on the growth and length of vegetation period of sweet corn cultivated in the conditions of eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted from 2006 to 2008 to examine the effect of three sowing dates and covering of soil with agrotextile on the length of sweet corn growing season and corn growth. When sweet corn sowing date was delayed from late April to late May, the growing season was shortened, the extent of this shortening being conditioned by the weather conditions in the study years. The growing season was much shorter in warmer years and a little shorter in a cold year. Covering with agrotextile at the first (26th April and second (10th May sowing date accelerated cob harvest by eight days. When seeds were sown at the third date (24th May, cobs were harvested five days earlier. Sweet corn plants grew better in colder versus warmer years. The greatest number of cobs per plant was formed when the weather was warmer and precipitation was evenly distributed. In warmer years, delayed sowing contributed to a lower number of cobs whereas in the colder year the opposite response was observed. Compared with a hot and dry year, significantly higher marketable tuber yields were harvested in a warm year characterized by evenly distributed precipitation and in a colder and wet year. The marketable cob yields of sweet corn sown on the 10th May were significantly higher compared with the 26th of April. Covering with agrotextile contributed to a significantly higher number of cobs per plant, and increased marketable cob yields, too.

  5. Understanding the Delayed-Keyword Effect on Metacomprehension Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W.; Dunlosky, John; Griffin, Thomas D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The typical finding from research on metacomprehension is that accuracy is quite low. However, recent studies have shown robust accuracy improvements when judgments follow certain generation tasks (summarizing or keyword listing) but only when these tasks are performed at a delay rather than immediately after reading (K. W. Thiede & M. C. M.…

  6. Digital TV, the effect of delay when watching football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekuria, R.N.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Bulterman, D.C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Hearing a neighbor cheer for a goal seconds before you see it can be very annoying. Currently, many people that upgrade their TV service from analog to digital TV are experiencing this. We briefly describe causes of these (relative) delays. To support this with practical evidence, we report field me

  7. Effect of sowing dates and vernalization on Beta vulgaris L. cv. Univers C-leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Mohammed M; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2011-07-01

    This research was conducted to study the effect of three different sowing dates (15th October, 15th November and 15th December) and two vernalization treatments (5 °C and -20 °C) on leaf structure of Beta vulgaris L. cv. Univers. The obtained data are summarized as follows: The maximum values of the most studied parameters; lower epidermis + spongy tissue thickness, midrib, mesophyll tissue, vascular bundle, collenchymatous tissue and number of xylem vessels per arm were found as a result of 15th October sowing date treatment compared with the two other sowing dates. Furthermore, effect of the cooling treatments varied according to the recorded character, sowing date and cooling degree. Most of the vernalization treatments at early sowing dates increased the mesophyll tissue, midrib, number of vascular bundles per transverse section, vascular bundle thickness and number of xylem arms per transverse section. The two studied cooling treatments at 15th October sowing date increased both stomatal index and average number of stomata: average number of epidermis cells compared with the control. Furthermore, 15th October under -20 °C treatment led to small epidermal cells and stomata formation, straight epidermal cell walls and closed stomata in comparison to the control.

  8. Effectiveness of carbohydrate feeding in delaying fatigue during prolonged exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, E F; Coggan, A R

    1984-01-01

    Prolonged exercise in the fasted state frequently results in a lowering of blood glucose concentration, and when the intensity is moderate (i.e. 60-80% of VO2 max), muscle often becomes depleted of glycogen. The extent to which carbohydrate feedings contribute to energy production, and their effectiveness for improving endurance during prolonged exercise, are reviewed in this article. Prolonged exercise (i.e. greater than 2 hours) results in a failure of hepatic glucose output to keep pace with muscle glucose uptake. As a result, blood glucose concentration frequently declines below 2.5 mmol/L. Despite this hypoglycaemia, fewer than 25% of subjects display symptoms suggestive of central nervous system dysfunction. Since fatigue rarely results from hypoglycaemia alone, the effectiveness of carbohydrate feeding should be judged by its potential for muscle glycogen sparing. Carbohydrate feeding during moderate intensity exercise postpones the development of fatigue by approximately 15 to 30 minutes, yet it does not prevent fatigue. This observation agrees with data suggesting that carbohydrate supplementation reduces muscle glycogen depletion. It is not certain whether carbohydrate feeding increases muscle glucose uptake throughout moderate exercise or if glucose uptake is higher only during the latter stages of exercise. In contrast to moderate intensity exercise, carbohydrate feeding during low intensity exercise (i.e. less than 45% of VO2 max) results in hyperinsulinaemia. Consequently, muscle glucose uptake and total carbohydrate oxidation are increased by approximately the same amount. The amount of ingested glucose which is oxidised is greater than the increase in total carbohydrate oxidation and therefore endogenous carbohydrate is spared. The majority of sparing appears to occur in the liver, which is reasonable since muscle glycogen is not utilised to a large extent during mild exercise. Although carbohydrate feedings prevent hypoglycaemia and are readily

  9. Effect of Rice Sowing Date on Occurrence of Small Brown Planthopper and Epidemics of Planthopper-Transmitted Rice Stripe Viral Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jin-liang; ZHU Zeng-rong; ZHOU Yin; LU Qiang; SUN Xiang-liang; TAO Xian-guo; CHEN Yue; WANG Hua-di; CHENG Jia-an

    2009-01-01

    To understand the relationship between rice sowing date and occurrence of the rice small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus Fallen and the epidemics of the planthopper-transmitted dee stripe viral (RSV) disease, four sowing dates of rice were evaluated in 2006 and 2007. The results showed that the peak density of SBPH and RSV incidence in the nursery and in the transplanted field decreased with the delay of sowing date in single crop of japonica rice in north Zhejiang Province of China. The relationship between seedling RSV incidence at the end of the nursery trial with sowing date was well described by Weibull equation. The area under the curve of population dynamics (AUCPD or planthopper-day accumulation) or the peak density of the planthopper in the nursery could be summarized by a logistic equation. RSV incidence in the transplanted fields could be characterized quantitatively by a multivariate regression equation, including the variables of sowing date, peak density of the vector, and RSV incidence at the end of the nursery trial. That the descriptive model excluded the AUCPD in transplanted field implies that this variable is not necessary in forecasting disease epidemics in the field. The 2-year experiments sufficiently indicated that suitable sowing of rice could be used as one of the effective measures to control the vector population and therefore the planthopper-transmitted RSV on a larger seale. The optimal sowing date for the single-cropped transplanted japonica rice is recommended from late May to early June in north Zhejiang, China.

  10. Effects of Nonlinear Time-Delay on a Stochastic Asymmetric System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiu-Yun; ZHU Chun-Lian; JIA Ya; LI Jia-Rong

    2006-01-01

    We numerically investigate the effects of nonlinear time-delay on the stochastic system. With the delay time increasing, it is found that the peak of probability distribution in low steady states is decreased, and the peak of probability distribution in high steady states is increased. The mean of state variable, the normalized variance, and the normalized autocorrelation function which quantifies the concentrated degree are slowly varied for small delay time. However, the mean of state variable is rapidly increased, and the normalized variance and the normalized autocorrelation function is rapidJy decreased for large delay time.

  11. 28 CFR 55.4 - Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.4 Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions. (a) The minority language provisions of the Voting Rights Act were added by the Voting Rights Act Amendments of 1975. (1) The requirements of section 4(f)(4) take effect...

  12. The Effect of D-Cycloserine on Immediate vs. Delayed Extinction of Learned Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Julia M.; Richardson, Rick

    2010-01-01

    We compared the effect of D-cycloserine (DCS) on immediate (10 min after conditioning) and delayed (24 h after conditioning) extinction of learned fear in rats. DCS facilitated both immediate and delayed extinction when the drug was administered after extinction training. However, DCS did not facilitate immediate extinction when administered prior…

  13. The Effects of Inflation and Interest Rates on Delay Discounting in Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Kentaro

    2006-01-01

    Interest and inflation rates may be major determinants of delay discounting, but these variables have not been controlled in past experiments because they depend on macroeconomic conditions. This study uses a computer game-like task to investigate the effects of inflation rates on people's subjective valuation of delayed rewards. During the task,…

  14. 78 FR 68834 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Refund Effective Date On September 24, 2013, the Commission issued an order that initiated a proceeding... Electric Company. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, 144 FERC ] 61,277 (2013). The refund effective date in Docket No. EL13-90-000, established pursuant to section 206(b) of the FPA, will be the date...

  15. Connected cruise control: modelling, delay effects, and nonlinear behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor

    2016-08-01

    Connected vehicle systems (CVS) are considered in this paper where vehicles exchange information using wireless vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. The concept of connected cruise control (CCC) is established that allows control design at the level of individual vehicles while exploiting V2V connectivity. Due to its high level of modularity the proposed design can be applied to large heterogeneous traffic systems. The dynamics of a simple CVS is analysed in detail while taking into account nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics as well as in the controller. Time delays that arise due to intermittencies and packet drops in the communication channels are also incorporated. The results are summarised using stability charts which allow one to select control gains to maintain stability and ensure disturbance attenuation when the delay is below a critical value.

  16. The Effects of Pitch Shifts on Delay-Induced Changes in Vocal Sequencing in a Songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Conor W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Like human speech, vocal behavior in songbirds depends critically on auditory feedback. In both humans and songbirds, vocal skills are acquired by a process of imitation whereby current vocal production is compared to an acoustic target. Similarly, performance in adulthood relies strongly on auditory feedback, and online manipulations of auditory signals can dramatically alter acoustic production even after vocalizations have been well learned. Artificially delaying auditory feedback can disrupt both speech and birdsong, and internal delays in auditory feedback have been hypothesized as a cause of vocal dysfluency in persons who stutter. Furthermore, in both song and speech, online shifts of the pitch (fundamental frequency) of auditory feedback lead to compensatory changes in vocal pitch for small perturbations, but larger pitch shifts produce smaller changes in vocal output. Intriguingly, large pitch shifts can partially restore normal speech in some dysfluent speakers, suggesting that the effects of auditory feedback delays might be ameliorated by online pitch manipulations. Although birdsong provides a promising model system for understanding speech production, the interactions between sensory feedback delays and pitch shifts have not yet been assessed in songbirds. To investigate this, we asked whether the addition of a pitch shift modulates delay-induced changes in Bengalese finch song, hypothesizing that pitch shifts would reduce the effects of feedback delays. Compared with the effects of delays alone, combined delays and pitch shifts resulted in a significant reduction in behavioral changes in one type of sequencing (branch points) but not another (distribution of repeated syllables). PMID:28144622

  17. The Effects of Pitch Shifts on Delay-Induced Changes in Vocal Sequencing in a Songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, MacKenzie; Berthiaume, Emily A; Kelly, Conor W; Sober, Samuel J

    2017-01-01

    Like human speech, vocal behavior in songbirds depends critically on auditory feedback. In both humans and songbirds, vocal skills are acquired by a process of imitation whereby current vocal production is compared to an acoustic target. Similarly, performance in adulthood relies strongly on auditory feedback, and online manipulations of auditory signals can dramatically alter acoustic production even after vocalizations have been well learned. Artificially delaying auditory feedback can disrupt both speech and birdsong, and internal delays in auditory feedback have been hypothesized as a cause of vocal dysfluency in persons who stutter. Furthermore, in both song and speech, online shifts of the pitch (fundamental frequency) of auditory feedback lead to compensatory changes in vocal pitch for small perturbations, but larger pitch shifts produce smaller changes in vocal output. Intriguingly, large pitch shifts can partially restore normal speech in some dysfluent speakers, suggesting that the effects of auditory feedback delays might be ameliorated by online pitch manipulations. Although birdsong provides a promising model system for understanding speech production, the interactions between sensory feedback delays and pitch shifts have not yet been assessed in songbirds. To investigate this, we asked whether the addition of a pitch shift modulates delay-induced changes in Bengalese finch song, hypothesizing that pitch shifts would reduce the effects of feedback delays. Compared with the effects of delays alone, combined delays and pitch shifts resulted in a significant reduction in behavioral changes in one type of sequencing (branch points) but not another (distribution of repeated syllables).

  18. Effect of planting dates on seed yield and seed quality of Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chureerat Satjipanon

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of planting dates on seed yield and quality of Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184 at Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center, during May 2003 to February 2004. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Experimental treatments consisted of four planting dates spaced at about 30-day intervals from 23 May to 23 August 2003.The results revealed that planting date had a significant effect on seed yields and pure germinable seed yields (PGSY of S. guianensis CIAT 184. Plots planted on 23 July produced the highest seed yield and PGSY of 630 and 601 kg/ha, respectively followed by plots planted on 23 June and 23 May (514 and 501; 443 and 421 kg/ha, respectively. Plots planted on 23 August produced the lowest seed yield and PGSY of 269 and 262 kg/ha, respectively. There were no significant differences in seed purity percentage, germination percentage and 1000-seed weight among planting dates. Based on this research, it was concluded that late- July was the optimum planting date for S. guianensis CIAT 184 cultivation for seed production in Northeast Thailand.

  19. The Effects of Relationship Education on Adolescent Traditional Gender Role Attitudes and Dating Violence Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Whittaker

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined change in adolescents’ traditional gender role attitudes and dating violence acceptance following completion of a relationship education program. Using data from a larger study evaluating the effects of relationship education for adolescents, beliefs and attitudes were assessed among a diverse sample of 627 youth. Gender differences in changes from pre- to post-test were also examined. Results of repeated measures MANCOVAs revealed a time X gender interaction effect for change in traditional gender role attitudes following relationship education. A significant decrease in traditional gender role attitudes was found for both boys and girls following relationship education, with a steeper decline in traditional gender role attitudes for boys than girls over time. Although there were no significant changes in dating violence acceptance, change in traditional gender role attitudes was correlated with change in dating violence acceptance, such that moving toward more egalitarian attitudes was associated with a decrease in acceptance of dating aggression/violence. Overall, results suggest that adolescents’ attitudes about gender roles and dating violence are open to change when provided relationship education, and changes in these beliefs are linked. Findings from this study have implications for promoting healthy relationships among youth.

  20. A novel design for randomized immuno-oncology clinical trials with potentially delayed treatment effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei He

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The semi-parametric proportional hazards model is widely adopted in randomized clinical trials with time-to-event outcomes, and the log-rank test is frequently used to detect a potential treatment effect. Immuno-oncology therapies pose unique challenges to the design of a trial as the treatment effect may be delayed, which violates the proportional hazards assumption, and the log-rank test has been shown to markedly lose power under the non-proportional hazards setting. A novel design and analysis approach for immuno-oncology trials is proposed through a piecewise treatment effect function, which is capable of detecting a potentially delayed treatment effect. The number of events required for the trial will be determined to ensure sufficient power for both the overall log-rank test without a delayed effect and the test beyond the delayed period when such a delay exists. The existence of a treatment delay is determined by a likelihood ratio test with resampling. Numerical results show that the proposed design adequately controls the Type I error rate, has a minimal loss in power under the proportional hazards setting and is markedly more powerful than the log-rank test with a delayed treatment effect.

  1. Time Delay Effects on Coupled Limit Cycle Oscillators at Hopf Bifurcation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, D V R; Johnston, G L

    1998-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the effect of time delay on the collective dynamics of coupled limit cycle oscillators at Hopf bifurcation. For a simple model consisting of just two oscillators with a time delayed coupling, the bifurcation diagram obtained by numerical and analytical solutions shows significant changes in the stability boundaries of the amplitude death, phase locked and incoherent regions. A novel result is the occurrence of amplitude death even in the absence of a frequency mismatch between the two oscillators. Similar results are obtained for an array of N oscillators with a delayed mean field coupling and the regions of such amplitude death in the parameter space of the coupling strength and time delay are quantified. Some general analytic results for the N tending to infinity (thermodynamic) limit are also obtained and the implications of the time delay effects for physical applications are discussed.

  2. Effect of sowing date on water use efficiency of sunflower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Perniola

    Full Text Available Results of a trial carried out on sunflower in order to evaluate the most appropriate sowing date and irrigation regime for a more efficient water use are reported. Sunflower was sown in 1995-1996 at the usual date (end of April and in advance (end of March. It was subjected to three irrigation regimes: full restoration of consumptive water use, supplementary irrigation at the bud stage and flowering and unirrigated control. During the growing cycle, the following parameters were measured: water use, the main climatic data that can affect growth and evapotranspiration, yield and its components. Despite the lower vapor pressure deficit of the air during the cropping cycle of the first sowing date caused a reduction in the average daily evapotranspiration, the colder temperature regime of this period, by making longer the growing cycle, caused almost the same total water use respect to the usual sowing dates. However, with early sowing, the crop could benefit from the spring rainfall at the initial stages of its cycle that reduced the seasonal irrigation volume, in the case of full irrigation and made available a greater amount of water in the case of unirrigated treatment or with supplementary irrigation. The greater water availability in the stressed treatments also produced higher grain yield in early sowing, so that an interesting interaction between the sowing date and the irrigation regime in terms of water use efficiency was observed. In fact, a significant higher irrigation yield water use efficiency and an interesting yield response was measured in the treatment with supplementary irrigation of the first sowing date. No effect of sowing date, both in terms of yield that of water use efficiency was measured in the treatment irrigated with the full restoration of evapotranspiration.

  3. Effects of Time Delay on Intracellular Ca2+ Concentration Oscillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Yang-Jun; HUANG Zu-Qia

    2001-01-01

    Based on the SS-model [Somogyi R and Stucki J W J. Biol. Chem. 266 (1991) 11 068] for the generation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration oscillations, we consider a time delay for the binding kinetics of the Ca2+ channel and find a significant phenomenon that the oscillation takes two quite different modes when a parameter of the system crosses a threshold. One is a quick oscillation mode and the other is a slow oscillation mode. The oscillation frequencies of these modes differ from each other by more than ten times. The change of oscillation form with parameters and its critical behaviour are illustrated by numerical simulation results.

  4. 45 CFR 1386.112 - Effective date of decision by the Assistant Secretary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date of decision by the Assistant... by the Assistant Secretary. (a) If, in the case of a hearing pursuant to section 122 of the Act, the Assistant Secretary concludes that a State plan does not comply with Federal requirements, and the decision...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1271-0 - Original issue discount; effective date; table of contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Aggregation of transactions. (4) Inflation adjustment of dollar amounts. (c) Rules for cash method debt... adjustment. (h) Debt instruments denominated in a currency other than the U.S. dollar. (i) (j) Examples. § 1...) (j) Effective date. § 1.1275-7 Inflation-indexed debt instruments. (a) Overview. (b)...

  6. 38 CFR 21.282 - Effective date of induction into a rehabilitation program; retroactive induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... induction into a rehabilitation program; retroactive induction. 21.282 Section 21.282 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Induction into A Rehabilitation Program § 21.282 Effective date of induction into a rehabilitation program; retroactive induction. (a)...

  7. 38 CFR 3.713 - Effective dates of improved pension elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates of improved pension elections. 3.713 Section 3.713 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Concurrent...

  8. 10 CFR 431.266 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.266 Section 431.266 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Prerinse Spray Valves Energy Conservation...

  9. 10 CFR 431.326 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.326 Section 431.326 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures Energy...

  10. 10 CFR 431.206 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.206 Section 431.206 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Illuminated Exit Signs Energy Conservation Standards §...

  11. 10 CFR 431.110 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.110 Section 431.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... Hot Water Storage Tanks Energy Conservation Standards § 431.110 Energy conservation standards...

  12. 10 CFR 431.246 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.246 Section 431.246 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Unit Heaters Energy Conservation Standards § 431.246...

  13. 10 CFR 431.77 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.77 Section 431.77 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Energy Conservation...

  14. 10 CFR 431.25 - Energy conservation standards and effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and effective dates. 431.25 Section 431.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.25...

  15. 10 CFR 431.286 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.286 Section 431.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Mercury Vapor Lamp Ballasts Energy Conservation...

  16. 10 CFR 431.306 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.306 Section 431.306 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Walk-in Coolers and Walk-in Freezers Energy...

  17. 10 CFR 431.196 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.196 Section 431.196 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Energy Conservation Standards §...

  18. The Effects of Premarital Heterosexual and Homosexual Experience on Dating and Marriage Desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John D.; Jacoby, Arthur P.

    1989-01-01

    Surveyed 365 college students to investigate their attitudes toward the effects of past sexual behavior, both heterosexual and homosexual, on one's acceptability as a dating or marriage partner. Results showed that both men and women prefer partners without previous coital or oral heterosexual experience, and both strongly rejected those with any…

  19. 26 CFR 1.860A-1 - Effective dates and transition rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and ending before January 1, 1990. (2) Tax avoidance rules—(i) Transfers of certain residual interests... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860A-1 Effective dates and transition... inclusions accrue in an amount sufficient to satisfy the taxes on the excess inclusions. (iii) Residual...

  20. Effects of planting date and plant density on crop growth of cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of planting date (season) and plant density (32, 48 or 64 plants m-2) on growth of cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum (Indicum group)) were investigated in six greenhouse experiments, applying the expolinear growth equation. Final plant fresh and dry mass and number of flowers per plant de

  1. 10 CFR 431.97 - Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates. 431.97 Section 431.97 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy...

  2. 45 CFR 95.515 - Effective date of a cost allocation plan amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date of a cost allocation plan amendment. 95.515 Section 95.515 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH...

  3. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid...

  4. The effects of shade and shearing date on the production of Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    The effects of shade and shearing date on the production of Merino sheep in the ..... weaning than lambs born to ewes shorn prior to lambing (68/126 = 0.540 vs. ..... S.T., Wallentine, M., McCutcheon, S.N., Parker, W.J. & Wickham, G.A., 1996.

  5. Interactive Effects of Sowing Date and Planting Density on Dry Matter Accumulation and Partitioning of Chicory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid MADANI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chicory is considered one of the alternatives crops that can be used in crop rotation and contains many phytochemicals that can be used in medicine. In addition, lengthening the growing season by early sowing may increase root chicory yield potential, and thus increase its competitiveness with traditional crops. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether early sowing date risks can be decreased by higher sowing density and also to study the effect of sowing date and sowing density on dry matter accumulation and partitioning of chicory. Growing season did not affect any of the characteristics that were studied. Also plant density affected the flowers biomass, root biomass per plant and the respective yield together with the plant height and essence yield and total yield. The sowing date affected the leaf, flower and stem biomass on a plant basis. However, the interaction between plant density and sowing date affected the total biomass per plant, the flower biomass per plant, the root biomass per plant, the flower yield, the root yield and the essence yield. These results indicate that for higher production it is important to determine the right plant density and sowing date which can affect growth, dry matter accumulation and essence yield.

  6. Quinoa in Morocco - effect of sowing dates on development and yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa is a highly nutritious food product, being cultivated for several thousand years in South America, and it is recently introduced in Morocco and showed a high potential of adaptation in Morocco. A field study was carried out in the south of Morocco in order to investigate the effects...... of sowing date on quinoa performance in a series of experiments conducted for adaptation of quinoa. The experiment took place in Agadir, with a test of 10 sowing dates, each 15 days from 1st November to 15th March. Sowing dates affected the growth and productivity due to differences in temperature......, precipitation and radiation over the year. Highest seed yield and dry matter yield were obtained when quinoa sown in November and early December. The growing season length has been affected by accumulated radiation. In addition to abiotic factors (temperature, radiation, rainfall) affecting quinoa growth...

  7. Effect of HF leaching on {sup 14}C dates of pottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goslar, Tomasz, E-mail: goslar@radiocarbon.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Poznan Radiocarbon Laboratory, ul. Rubiez 46, 61-612 Poznan (Poland); Kozlowski, Janusz [Institute of Archaeology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Golebia 11, 30-007 Krakow (Poland); Szmyt, Marzena [Institute for Eastern Studies, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. 28 Czerwca 1956 nr 198, 61-486 Poznan (Poland); Czernik, Justyna [Poznan Radiocarbon Laboratory, ul. Rubiez 46, 61-612 Poznan (Poland)

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents the experiments with {sup 14}C dating of two potsherds, which contained carbon dispersed rather homogeneously in their clay fabric. After AAA treatment, the potsherds still appeared to be contaminated with young carbon, presumably connected with humic acids. To make removal of humic acids more effective, we treated the sherds with HF acid of different concentration. The {sup 14}C results obtained demonstrate that HF treatment indeed helps to remove humic contaminants, but it also mobilizes carbon bound to raw clay, which may make {sup 14}C dates too old. We conclude therefore, that using a simple combination of HF and AAA treatment seems insufficient in reliable {sup 14}C dating of carbon homogeneously dispersed in the volume of potsherds.

  8. Effect of delayed umbilical cord clamping on blood gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Javier; Desantes, Domingo; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Rubio, Juan; Diago Almela, Vicente J; Perales, Alfredo

    2012-05-01

    To ascertain if there are differences in umbilical cord blood gas analysis between immediate and delayed cord clamping. In a prospective observational study on 60 vaginally delivered healthy term newborns, we sampled umbilical cord blood immediately after delivery and at the time umbilical cord pulsation spontaneously ceased. There were significant decreases in pH, oxygen saturation (sO(2)), glycemia, oxygen content (ctO(2)), bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) and base excess (BE). Lactate and [Formula: see text] increased. Delayed cord clamping pH correlated with immediate cord clamping pH, [Formula: see text] , ctHb, sO(2) and time (r(2)=0.77, pcord clamping lactate was associated with immediate cord clamping lactate and time (r(2)=0.83, pcord clamping alters acid-base parameters and lactate values compared to immediate cord clamping. Those variations depend mainly on time, prior pH and lactate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychological characteristics of Internet dating service users: the effect of self-esteem, involvement, and sociability on the use of Internet dating services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mikyoung; Kwon, Kyoung-Nan; Lee, Mira

    2009-08-01

    This study explores the three major consumer characteristics that underlie the use of Internet dating services: self-esteem, involvement in romantic relationships, and sociability. A significant three-way interaction effect among these factors emerged. Among sociable people, individuals with high self-esteem are more likely to use Internet dating services than are those with low self-esteem when they are highly involved in romantic relationships. The opposite pattern was revealed for sociable people, however, when they are less involved in romantic relationships. That is, individuals with low self-esteem used Internet dating services more often than did those with high self-esteem when romantic relationships were not important. The implications for academic researchers and practitioners are discussed.

  10. The delaying effect of stigma on mental health help-seeking in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Sunera M; Deane, Frank P; McLeod, Hamish J

    2017-03-01

    Mental health stigma has been associated with delays in seeking treatment. To describe perceived stigma experienced by patients and carers in Sri Lanka and to determine the effects of stigma on help-seeking delay. Survey of outpatients and family carers (n = 118 dyads) attending two psychiatric hospitals in Sri Lanka, using the Disclosure and Discrimination subscales of the Stigma Scale. Stigma was positively related to help-seeking delay for carers but not patients. Public stigma experienced by carers accounted for 23% of the variance in help-seeking delay. Reducing stigma may reduce help-seeking delays during the course of treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Bubbling effect in the electro-optic delayed feedback oscillator coupled network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingfeng; Lin, Jun; Miao, Suoxia

    2017-03-01

    Synchronization in the optical systems coupled network always suffers from bubbling events. In this paper, we numerically investigate the statistical properties of the synchronization characteristics and bubbling effects in the electro-optic delayed feedback oscillator coupled network with different coupling strength, delay time and gain coefficient. Furthermore, we compare our results with the synchronization properties of semiconductor laser (SL) coupled network, which indicates that the electro-optic delayed feedback oscillator can be better to suppress the bubbling effects in the synchronization of coupled network under the same conditions.

  12. Design and analysis of clinical trials in the presence of delayed treatment effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Tony; Liu, Mengling; Shnaidman, Michael; Ying, Zhiliang

    2016-05-20

    In clinical trials with survival endpoint, it is common to observe an overlap between two Kaplan-Meier curves of treatment and control groups during the early stage of the trials, indicating a potential delayed treatment effect. Formulas have been derived for the asymptotic power of the log-rank test in the presence of delayed treatment effect and its accompanying sample size calculation. In this paper, we first reformulate the alternative hypothesis with the delayed treatment effect in a rescaled time domain, which can yield a simplified sample size formula for the log-rank test in this context. We further propose an intersection-union test to examine the efficacy of treatment with delayed effect and show it to be more powerful than the log-rank test. Simulation studies are conducted to demonstrate the proposed methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of the effectiveness of kinesiotaping in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness of the biceps brachii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available biological regeneration in athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the application of lymphatic kinesiotaping in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness of biceps brachii.

  14. Effect of coefficient changes on stability of linear retarded systems with constant time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, L. K.

    1977-01-01

    A method is developed to determine the effect of coefficient changes on the stability of a retarded system with constant time delays. The method, which uses the tau-decomposition method of stability analysis, is demonstrated by an example.

  15. Effects of intrinsic stochasticity on delayed reaction-diffusion patterning systems

    KAUST Repository

    Woolley, Thomas E.

    2012-05-22

    Cellular gene expression is a complex process involving many steps, including the transcription of DNA and translation of mRNA; hence the synthesis of proteins requires a considerable amount of time, from ten minutes to several hours. Since diffusion-driven instability has been observed to be sensitive to perturbations in kinetic delays, the application of Turing patterning mechanisms to the problem of producing spatially heterogeneous differential gene expression has been questioned. In deterministic systems a small delay in the reactions can cause a large increase in the time it takes a system to pattern. Recently, it has been observed that in undelayed systems intrinsic stochasticity can cause pattern initiation to occur earlier than in the analogous deterministic simulations. Here we are interested in adding both stochasticity and delays to Turing systems in order to assess whether stochasticity can reduce the patterning time scale in delayed Turing systems. As analytical insights to this problem are difficult to attain and often limited in their use, we focus on stochastically simulating delayed systems. We consider four different Turing systems and two different forms of delay. Our results are mixed and lead to the conclusion that, although the sensitivity to delays in the Turing mechanism is not completely removed by the addition of intrinsic noise, the effects of the delays are clearly ameliorated in certain specific cases. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  16. Exponential stability of cellular neural networks with multiple time delays and impulsive effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Dong; Wang Hui; Yang Dan; Zhang Xiao-Hong; Wang Shi-Long

    2008-01-01

    In this work,the stability issues of the equilibrium points of the cellular neural networks with multiple time delays and impulsive effects are investigated.Based on the stability theory of Lyapunov-Krasovskii,the method of linear matrix inequality (LMI) and parametrized first-order model transformation,several novel conditions guaranteeing the delaydependent and the delay-independent exponential stabilities are obtained.A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.

  17. Effect of delay of reinforcement on superstitious inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudski, J M

    2000-06-01

    Temporal contiguity is positively associated with ease of detecting contingencies. When actions and outcomes are not contiguous, intervening responses might be strengthened by adventitious reinforcement. In the current study, participants engaged in a task where pressing 1 of 10 keys was reinforced either immediately or after various delays. Outcomes were scheduled either according to an FR 1 or FR 2 schedule. Participants also answered a question designed to assess their illusion of control. As the latency between the instrumental response and the reinforcer increased, participants attributed less importance to the instrumental response, attributed more importance to other nonessential responses, and began to show stereotyped patterns of responding. The illusion of control was positively related to the intricacy of such patterns. Results are discussed in terms of a contiguity which implies causality heuristic and the relationship of superstition with adventitious reinforcement and illusion of control.

  18. The effect of conception date on gestation length of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, I C; Asher, G W; Archer, J A; Littlejohn, R P

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that gestation length of red deer (Cervus elaphus) is highly variable and influenced by various environmental factors, and this may confer survival advantages for neonates. The current study investigated the relationship between conception date and gestation length to test the hypothesis that within-herd synchrony of red deer births is facilitated by a 'push/pull' control over gestation length, such that hinds conceiving early and late in the breeding season have longer and shorter gestation periods, respectively. In Study 1, data on conception and calving dates were obtained for 393 naturally cycling hinds across two herds. In Study 2, conception and calving dates were obtained from 91 hinds in which oestrus/conception were artificially synchronised across a 4-week range of dates spanning the natural rut. Gestation length for each population was analysed by linear regression, fitting conception day followed by terms for the fixed effect which included hind age (pubertal vs. adult), hind genotype (Cervus elaphus scoticus vs. Cervus elaphus hippelaphus and their crossbreds), calf sex, sire genotype (Study 1 only), birth weight and year. In Study 1, both populations of naturally cycling hinds exhibited highly significant (Pbirth weight, sire genotype and year were not significant. In Study 2, in which conception dates were artificially induced, there was a highly significant negative slope (-0.19), with a notable but non-significant effect of hind age favouring shorter overall gestation length for primiparous (pubertal) hinds (P>0.05). Other effects for hind live weight, calf sex and calf birth weight were not significant. All data sets support the hypothesis, and indicate that for every 10 days difference in conception date there was a change in gestation length of 1.9-4.9 days. This hints at the adaptive importance of optimisation of birth date in wild populations of red deer but the precise physiological mechanisms remain to be

  19. Direct and indirect effects of neighborhood characteristics on the perpetration of dating violence across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling-Yin; Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Ennett, Susan T; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2015-03-01

    Neighborhood context plays a role in the development of adolescent health risk behaviors, but few studies have investigated the influence of neighborhoods on the perpetration of dating violence. This longitudinal study examined the direct effects of risky neighborhood structural and physical characteristics on trajectories of the perpetration of dating violence, tested whether collective efficacy mediated these relationships, and determined if the effects varied by the sex of the adolescent. Adolescent data are from a multi-wave longitudinal study from grades 8 to 12; neighborhood data were collected from parents' interviews and U.S. Census data. Multilevel growth curve models were conducted with 3,218 students; the sample was 50% male, 41% White, 50% Black, and 9% other race/ethnicity. In models examining risky neighborhood variables one at a time, and controlling for potential individual-level confounders, the sex of the adolescent interacted with economic disadvantage, residential instability, and physical disorder; these risky neighborhood characteristics increased risk for girls' but not boys' perpetrating of dating violence. In full models with all of the risky neighborhood variables, the sex of the adolescent continued to interact with neighborhood economic disadvantage; living in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods increased girls' but not boys' risk for dating violence across all ages. No other risky neighborhood effects were found for boys or girls. Collective efficacy did not mediate the relationships between other neighborhood characteristics and the outcome. These findings suggest that dating violence prevention strategies for girls should consider the contexts in which they live rather than only targeting changes in their individual characteristics.

  20. Polidocanol injection for chemical delay and its effect on the survival of rat dorsal skin flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menevşe, Gülsüm Tetik; TeomanTellioglu, Ali; Altuntas, Nurgül; Cömert, Ayhan; Tekdemir, Ibrahim

    2014-06-01

    Surgical delay is an invasive method requiring a two-stage surgical procedure. Hence, methods that may serve as an alternative to surgical delay have become the focus of interest of research studies. From a conceptual view, any technique that interrupts the blood flow along the edges of a proposed flap will render the flap ischemic and induce a delay phenomenon. Polidocanol (Aethoxysklerol(®)-Kreussler) was initially used as a local anesthetic. Nowadays, it has been used as a sclerosing agent to treat telangiectasias and varicose veins. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of polidocanol injected around the periphery of a random flap as a sclerosing agent on flap delay and survival in a random flap model. A preliminary histopathologic study was performed on two rats to evaluate the sclerosing effect and distribution of polidocanol injection. After the preliminary study, the main study was carried out with three groups: group 1: dorsal flap (n = 10); group 2: dorsal flap + surgical delay (n = 10), group 3: dorsal flap + chemical delay (n = 10). Tissue samples obtained from the flap and injection area revealed destruction of intradermal vessels. The area affected with sclerosis was limited to 0.1 cm beyond the injection site. Mean viable flap areas were 52.1 ± 4.38% (44.0-58.2) in group 1, 64.8 ± 8.92% (57.2-89.2) in group 2, and 71.8 ± 5.18% (64.0-84.0) in group 3. A statistically highly significant difference was found between the surgical delay and chemical delay groups versus the group without delay (p surgical and chemical delay groups (p = 0.056). In conclusion, this study has shown that polidocanol injection around the dorsal flap in the rat is a safe and easy method for nonsurgical delay. The results have shown a flap survival benefit that is superior to controls and equivalent to surgical delay. The clinical application of polidocanol, already in clinical practice for occlusal of telangiectasias, for surgical delay appears

  1. Effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and sowing dates on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    korosh ehteramian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal level of nitrogen fertilizer and planting date for cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. planting in Kooshkak region located in Doroodzan Dam Areas which represents a typical semiarid region. This research was carried out in the fall and winter 2000 and using a factorial experiment with two factors based on completely randomized block design with nitrogen fertilizer at three rates (0, 30, and 60 kg N ha-1 and sowing date (Nov. 6th, Dec. 21th, Feb. 6th, and March 6th in four replications. The effects of different nitrogen rates were significant on plant height, number of umbrella per plant and number of seed per umbrella, but it was not significant on number of seeds per plant, 1000-seed weight, biological yield, seed yield and harvest index. The effects of sowing dates were significant on number of seeds per umbrella, number of seeds per plant; 1000-seed weight, biological yield and seed yield; but it was not significant on plant height and harvest index. The interaction of nitrogen rates and sowing dates were significant on plant height, number of umbrella per plant and seed yield, but it was not significant on number of seeds per umbrella, number of seeds per plant, 1000-seed weight, biological yield and harvest index. It was concluded that for obtaining the high cumin yield, application of 30 kg N ha-1 and the late planting date (February 6th and March 6th due to probable winter cold, are recommended for this region.

  2. Effect of Phase Response Curve Skew on Synchronization with and without Conduction Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eCanavier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A central problem in cortical processing including sensory binding and attentional gating is how neurons can synchronize their responses with zero or near-zero time lag. For a spontaneously firing neuron, an input from another neuron can delay or advance the next spike by different amounts depending upon the timing of the input relative to the previous spike. This information constitutes the phase response curve (PRC. We present a simple graphical method for determining the effect of PRC shape on synchronization tendencies and illustrate it using type 1 PRCs, which consist entirely of advances (delays in response to excitation (inhibition. We obtained the following generic solutions for type 1 PRCs, which include the pulse coupled leaky integrate and fire model. For pairs with mutual excitation, exact synchrony can be stable for strong coupling because of the stabilizing effect of the causal limit region of the PRC in which an input triggers a spike immediately upon arrival. However, synchrony is unstable for short delays, because delayed inputs arrive during a refractory period and cannot trigger an immediate spike. Right skew destabilizes antiphase and enables modes with time lags that grow as the conduction delay is increased. Therefore, right skew favors near-synchrony at short conduction delays and a gradual transition between synchrony and antiphase for pairs coupled by mutual excitation. For pairs with mutual inhibition, zero time lag synchrony is stable for conduction delays ranging from zero to a substantial fraction of the period for pairs. However, for right skew there is a preferred antiphase mode at short delays. In contrast to mutual excitation, left skew destabilizes antiphase for mutual inhibition so that synchrony dominates at short delays as well. These pairwise synchronization tendencies constrain the synchronization properties of neurons embedded in larger networks.

  3. The delay effect on outcome evaluation: results from an Event-related Potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen eQu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies demonstrate that the timing of receiving gains or losses affects decision-making, a phenomenon known as temporal discounting, as participants are inclined to prefer immediate rewards over delayed ones and vice versa for losses. The present study used the event-related potential (ERP technique with a simple gambling task to investigate how delayed rewards and losses affected the brain activity in outcome evaluations made by 20 young adults. Statistical analysis revealed a larger feedback related negativity (FRN effect between loss and gain following immediate outcomes than following future outcomes. In addition, delay impacted FRN only in gain conditions, with delayed winning eliciting a more negative FRN than immediatewinning. These results suggest that temporal discounting and sign effect could be encoded in the FRN in the early stage of outcome evaluation.

  4. The Effects of Test Trial and Processing Level on Immediate and Delayed Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of test trial and processing level on immediate and delayed retention. A 2 × 2 × 2 mixed ANOVAs was used with two between-subject factors of test trial (single test, repeated test) and processing level (shallow, deep), and one within-subject factor of final recall (immediate, delayed). Seventy-six college students were randomly assigned first to the single test (studied the stimulus words three times and took one free-recall test) and the repeated test trials (studied the stimulus words once and took three consecutive free-recall tests), and then to the shallow processing level (asked whether each stimulus word was presented in capital letter or in small letter) and the deep processing level (whether each stimulus word belonged to a particular category) to study forty stimulus words. The immediate test was administered five minutes after the trials, whereas the delayed test was administered one week later. Results showed that single test trial recalled more words than repeated test trial in immediate final free-recall test, participants in deep processing performed better than those in shallow processing in both immediate and delayed retention. However, the dominance of single test trial and deep processing did not happen in delayed retention. Additional study trials did not further enhance the delayed retention of words encoded in deep processing, but did enhance the delayed retention of words encoded in shallow processing. PMID:28344679

  5. The Effects of Test Trial and Processing Level on Immediate and Delayed Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sau Hou Chang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of test trial and processing level on immediate and delayed retention. A 2 × 2 × 2 mixed ANOVAs was used with two between-subject factors of test trial (single test, repeated test and processing level (shallow, deep, and one within-subject factor of final recall (immediate, delayed. Seventy-six college students were randomly assigned first to the single test (studied the stimulus words three times and took one free-recall test and the repeated test trials (studied the stimulus words once and took three consecutive free-recall tests, and then to the shallow processing level (asked whether each stimulus word was presented in capital letter or in small letter and the deep processing level (whether each stimulus word belonged to a particular category to study forty stimulus words. The immediate test was administered five minutes after the trials, whereas the delayed test was administered one week later. Results showed that single test trial recalled more words than repeated test trial in immediate final free-recall test, participants in deep processing performed better than those in shallow processing in both immediate and delayed retention. However, the dominance of single test trial and deep processing did not happen in delayed retention. Additional study trials did not further enhance the delayed retention of words encoded in deep processing, but did enhance the delayed retention of words encoded in shallow processing.

  6. Choice between delayed food and immediate opioids in rats: treatment effects and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panlilio, Leigh V; Secci, Maria E; Schindler, Charles W; Bradberry, Charles W

    2017-09-04

    Addiction involves maladaptive choice behavior in which immediate drug effects are valued more than delayed nondrug rewards. To model this behavior and extend our earlier work with the prescription opioid oxycodone, we allowed rats to choose between immediate intravenous delivery of the short-acting opioid remifentanil and delayed delivery of highly palatable food pellets. Treatment drugs were tested on a baseline where remifentanil was preferred over food. Treatment with a high dose of the opioid antagonist naltrexone decreased but did not reverse the preference for remifentanil. Treatment with the serotonin 5-HT2C agonist lorcaserin decreased remifentanil and food self-administration nonselectively. Across conditions in which the alternative to delayed food was either a moderate dose of oxycodone, a moderate or high dose of remifentanil, a smaller more immediate delivery of food, or timeout with no primary reinforcement, choice was determined by both the length of the delay and the nature of the alternative option. Delayed food was discounted most steeply when the alternative was a high dose of remifentanil, which was preferred over food when food was delayed by 30 s or more. Within-subject comparisons showed no evidence for trait-like impulsivity or sensitivity to delay across these conditions. Choice was determined more by the current contingencies of reinforcement than by innate individual differences. This finding suggests that people might develop steep delay-discounting functions because of the contingencies in their environment, and it supports the use of contingency management to enhance the relative value of delayed nondrug reinforcers.

  7. Effects of time-delayed feedback on the properties of self-sustained oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risau-Gusman, S.

    2016-10-01

    Most self-sustained oscillations in biological systems and in technical applications are based on a feedback loop, and it is usually important to know how they will react when an external oscillatory force is applied. Here we investigate the effects that the introduction of a time delay in the feedback can have in the entrainment properties of self-sustained oscillators. To do this, we derive analytic expressions for the periodic trajectories and their asymptotic stability, for a generic external oscillatory force. This allows us to show that, for large quality factors, the resonance frequency does not depend on the feedback delay. When the external force is harmonic, it is shown that the largest entrainment range does not correspond to the time delay that gives the maximal response of the unforced oscillator. In fact, that delay gives the shortest entrainment range.

  8. Effect of Magnetic Activity on Ionospheric Time Delay at Low Latitude

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumi Bhattacharya; Smita Dubey; Rajesh Tiwari; P. K. Purohit; A. K. Gwal

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of magnetic activity on ionospheric time delay at low latitude Station Bhopal (geom. lat. 23.2°N, geom. long. 77.6°E) using dual frequency (1575.42 and 1227.60 MHz) GPS measurements. Data from GSV4004A GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC monitor (GISTM) have been chosen to study these effects. This paper presents the results of ionospheric time delay during quiet and disturbed days for the year 2005. Results show that maximum delay is observed during quiet days in equinoxial month while the delays of disturbed period are observed during the months of winter. We also study the ionospheric time delay during magnetic storm conditions for the same period. Results do not show any clear relationship either with the magnitude of the geomagnetic storm or with the main phase onset (MPO) of the storm. But most of the maximum ionospheric time delay variations are observed before the main phase onset (MPO) or sudden storm commencement (SSC) as compared to storm days.

  9. The effect and design of time delay in feedback control for a nonlinear isolation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuting; Xu, Jian; Fu, Jiangsong

    2017-03-01

    The optimum value of time delay of active control used in a nonlinear isolation system for different types of external excitation is studied in this paper. Based on the mathematical model of the nonlinear isolator with time-delayed active control, the stability, response and displacement transmissibility of the system are analyzed to obtain the standards for appropriate values of time delay and control strengths. The effects of nonlinearity and time delay on the stability and vibration response are discussed in details. For impact excitation and random excitation, the optimal value of time delay is obtained based on the vibration dissipation time via eigenvalues analysis, while for harmonic excitation, the optimal values are determined based on multiple vibration properties including natural frequency, amplitude death region and effective isolation region by the Averaging Method. This paper establishes the relationship between the parameters and vibration properties of a nonlinear isolation system which provides the guidance for optimizing time-delayed active control for different types of excitation in engineering practices.

  10. Effect of unsignaled delays between stimuli in a chain schedule on responding and resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matthew C; Gomez, Belen E

    2008-03-01

    Behavioral momentum theory is an evolving theoretical account of the strength of behavior. One challenge for the theory is determining the role of signal stimuli in determining response strength. This study evaluated the effect of an unsignaled delay between the initial link and terminal link of a two-link chain schedule on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of reinforcement. Pigeons were presented two different signaled delay to reinforcement schedules. Both schedules employed a two-link chain schedule with a variable interval 120-s initial link followed by a 5-s fixed time terminal link schedule. One of the schedules included a 5-s unsignaled delay between the initial link and the terminal link. Resistance to change was assessed with two separate disruption procedures: extinction and adding a variable time 20-s schedule of reinforcement to the inter-component interval. Baseline responding was lower in the schedule with the unsignaled delay but resistance to change for the initial link was unaffected by the unsignaled delay. The results suggest that not all unsignaled delays are equal in their effect on resistance to change.

  11. Elaborations on sexual assault on dates among Israeli students: risk, detrimental effect, and resilience factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory Bitton, Mally; Ben-David, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    The current study of 668 Israeli male and female students examines the prevalence of gendered risk factors for sexual assault (SA) on dates, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a detrimental effect of SA, and self-efficacy as resiliency to refuse unwanted sex following SA. Two different sets of risk factors that increased the likelihood of SA on dates emerged from the hierarchical regression. Sexual experience, use of drugs, and private location increased the risk of being SA victims among males, whereas sexual experience, perceived provocative behavior, and alcohol use increased the risk among females. In addition, PTSD and self-efficacy to refuse unwanted sex following SA on dates were predicted by the extent of coercive sexual victimization. PTSD was also predicted by subjective perception of sexual behavior and rape myths, whereas efficacy was predicted by private location. The findings contribute to the literature by showing the contribution of various risk factors to experiencing SA, and by showing SA effect on PTSD and self-efficacy.

  12. Crushing effects on TL and OSL on quartz: relevance to fault dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, S. E-mail: toyoda@dap.ous.ac.jp; Rink, W.J.; Schwarcz, H.P.; Rees-Jones, J

    2000-12-15

    The effect of crushing on the TL and OSL signals in quartz was investigated to examine the feasibility of using OSL and TL for dating of faulted rocks. 275 deg. C TL signals were not reduced by crushing by hand (mortar and pestle), in a pellet die press, or using an automatic mortar and pestle, but the sensitivity of the 100 deg. C TL signal to a test dose decreased in crushed samples. Green light-stimulated OSL signal intensities were not decreased after crushing, but showed strongly increased inter-aliquot variability after crushing. We concluded that OSL and TL in quartz might be useful to characterize the crushing history of quartz in fault rocks, but their usefulness in dating fault events was not evident because we did not find evidence of signal zeroing under the conditions used in this study.

  13. Effect of harvest date on the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity in 'Hass' avocado during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Yusheng; Khuong, Toan; Lovatt, Carol J

    2012-11-15

    The effect of harvest date on nutritional compounds and antioxidant activity (AOC) in avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) fruit during storage was determined. The fruits were harvested at seven different dates and ripened at 25 °C following 21 or 35 days of cold storage. The results indicated that the phenolic and glutathione contents were increased and the ascorbic acid content was not significantly different in early harvested fruit (January to March), and the phenolic, ascorbic acid and glutathione contents were increased slightly and then decreased on late harvested fruit (April to June). Similar trends were observed in the changes of AOC. Furthermore, AOC in early harvested fruit after storage for 35 days was much higher than that in late harvested fruit after storage for 21 days. Therefore, avocado can be harvested earlier for economic benefits according to the market and can keep high nutritional value for human health benefits.

  14. Settlement-date Accounting for Equity Share Options - Conceptual Validity and Numerical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peder Fredslund

    -date accounting are fully conceptually valid. They represent measurements of one partner group's share of total equity with effect for another group's share of total equity and income: the shareholders' part. Partially, this equity and income sharing model is already the basis for existing accounting standards......This paper demonstrates that settlement-date accounting for equity share options can be seen as an accounting method which implements a shareholder focused residually rewarded partners' equity view. This equity view represents a simple, natural extension of the shareholder proprietary view....... It implicates an equity and income sharing model for accounting which is characterized by specification of both shareholders' and non-shareholders' parts of total equity and income. When using this equity and income sharing model, the remeasurements of equity share option obligations made by settlement...

  15. Effects of fruit collection date on Phillyrea latifolia L. seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücedağ, Cengiz; Gültekin, H Cemal

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of date of fruit collection on the germination of Phillyrea latifolia L. Fruits were collected between September and December of 2007, in Egirdir, Turkey. It was found that the one thousand seed weight for the species seeds was 400 g, with significant differences among dates of fruit collection. The highest germination percentage of 58% was obtained from the seeds collected on the ground from previous years on the 1st of September 2007. The seeds from crown on the 1st of September 2007 had a germination percentage of 42%. Moreover, seeds from crown on the 1st of November and December 2007 and 15th of October and November 2007 did not germinate. In conclusion, P. latifolia seeds collected on the ground from previous years could be sown in early autumn to obtain a high germination rate.

  16. Effects of AV-delay optimization on hemodynamic parameters in patients with VDD pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Nürnberg, Michael; Volker, Romana; Pachinger, Linda; Jarai, Rudolf; Freynhofer, Matthias K; Wojta, Johann; Huber, Kurt; Weiss, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) delay optimization improves hemodynamics and clinical parameters in patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy and dual-chamber-pacemakers (PM). However, data on optimizing AV delay in patients treated with VDD-PMs are scarce. We, therefore, investigated the acute and chronic effects of AV delay optimization on hemodynamics in patients treated with VDD-PMs due to AV-conduction disturbances. In this prospective, single-center interventional trial, we included 64 patients (38 men, 26 women, median age: 77 (70-82) years) with implanted VDD-PM. AV-delay optimization was performed using a formula based on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG). Hemodynamic parameters (stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP)) were measured at baseline and follow-up after 3 months using impedance cardiography. Using an ECG formula for AV-delay optimization, the AV interval was decreased from 180 (180-180) to 75 (75-100) ms. At baseline, AV-delay optimization led to a significant increase of both SV (71.3 ± 15.8 vs. 55.3 ± 12.7 ml, p AV delay vs. nominal AV interval, respectively) and CO (5.1 ± 1.4 vs. 3.9 ± 1.0 l/min, p AV-delay optimization in patients treated with VDD-PMs exhibits immediate beneficial effects on hemodynamic parameters that are sustained for 3 months.

  17. 77 FR 59241 - Notice of Effective Date of Modifications to Certain Textile and Apparel Rules of Origin of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... of Effective Date of Modifications to Certain Textile and Apparel Rules of Origin of the Dominican... Representative. ACTION: Notice of Effective Date of Modifications to Certain Textile and Apparel Rules of Origin...''). SUMMARY: Public Law 112-163 modified the rules of origin for certain textile and apparel goods of...

  18. 77 FR 13496 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF36 Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of... of the March 6, 2012 effective date of the ``Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes...? Citizens concerned with water quality in Florida may be interested in this rulemaking. Entities...

  19. 42 CFR 495.362 - Retroactive approval of FFP with an effective date of February 18, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retroactive approval of FFP with an effective date... Retroactive approval of FFP with an effective date of February 18, 2009. For administrative activities... payments to providers, a State may request consideration of FFP by recorded request in a HIT...

  20. The Fresnel-Fizeau effect and the atmospheric time delay in geodetic VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    M., Kopeikin S

    2015-01-01

    The Fresnel-Fizeau effect is a special relativistic effect that makes the speed of light dependent on the velocity of a transparent, moving medium. We present a theoretical formalism for discussing propagation of electromagnetic signals through the moving Earth atmosphere with taking into account the Fresnel-Fizeau effect. It provides the rigorous relativistic derivation of the atmospheric time delay equation in the consensus model of geodetic VLBI observations which was never published before. The paper confirms the atmospheric time delay of the consensus VLBI model used in IERS Standards, and provides a firm theoretical basis for calculation of even more subtle relativistic corrections.

  1. Extinction and permanence in delayed stage-structure predator-prey system with impulsive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang Guoping [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Yulin Normal University, Yulin, Guangxi 537000 (China) and Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)], E-mail: g.p.pang@163.com; Wang Fengyan [Department of Mathematics, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China); College of Science, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian 361021 (China); Chen Lansun [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Based on the classical stage-structured model and Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, an impulsive delayed differential equation to model the process of periodically releasing natural enemies at fixed times for pest control is proposed and investigated. We show that the conditions for global attractivity of the 'pest-extinction' ('prey-eradication') periodic solution and permanence of the population of the model depend on time delay. We also show that constant maturation time delay and impulsive releasing for the predator can bring great effects on the dynamics of system by numerical analysis. As a result, the pest maturation time delay is considered to establish a procedure to maintain the pests at an acceptably low level in the long term. In this paper, the main feature is that we introduce time delay and pulse into the predator-prey (natural enemy-pest) model with age structure, exhibit a new modelling method which is applied to investigate impulsive delay differential equations, and give some reasonable suggestions for pest management.

  2. Effects of delayed polymerization time and bracket manipulation on orthodontic resin modified glass ionomer adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Danielle Wiggins

    This study examined the effect of varying delayed polymerization times in combination with bracket manipulation on shear bond strength (SBS), degree of conversion (DC), and adhesive remnant index (ARI) score when using a resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) adhesive. Specimens were divided into three groups of clinically relevant delay times (0.5, 2, and 4-min) to simulate the delay that frequently occurs between bracket placement and manipulation and subsequent light curing. Based on an analysis of variance (alpha=.05), the SBS was not significantly different between the three groups. While one of the goals of this study was to be the first study to quantify DC of RMGI using Raman microspectroscopy, several challenges, including weak peak signal with and without fluorescence, were encountered and as a result, DC could not be determined. A significant difference (p<0.05) in ARI score was detected between the 0.5-min and 4.0-min delay groups with more adhesive remaining on the bracket with increasing delay time. A Spearman correlation between SBS and ARI indicated no positive association between SBS and ARI measures across delay times. The results of this study suggest that clinically relevant delay times of 0.5, 2, and 4-min do not negatively impact the SBS of a RMGI adhesive. However, with increasing delay time, the results suggest that more adhesive might remain on the bracket during debonding. With more adhesive remaining on the bracket, this could be beneficial in that less adhesive needs to be removed from enamel by grinding at the time of bracket removal when orthodontic treatment is completed.

  3. Effect of sowing date on biometrical features of Hamburg parsley plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gruszecki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sowing date and the biometrics features of the roots and leaves of parsley. Seeds of parsley cultivars ‘Berlińska PNE’ and ‘Cukrowa’ were sown in 5 times in 2004 year: 5 July, 25 August, 5 and 15 September, 17 November and 12 April 2005. Plants were harvested then the average root diameter was greater than 20 mm. Due to harvest time dependence of the size of the root, was no effect of sowing date on the diameter and the weight of gained parsley roots. Shorter roots and the lower coefficient of shape produced plants that sprouted before winter (5 July, 25 August, 5 and 15 September. The highest number of leaves produced by plants sowing on 5 July and 17 November, and the lowest – by plants sowing on 25 August and 12 April. The lowest length of leaves were found in plants obtained from sowing on 5 July (20.8 cm, it was more than twice shorter than in plants from different dates of sowing. The largest weight of leaves had the plants from sowing on 5 and 15 September or 17 November. Those plants are also characterized by a smaller root/shoot weight ratio. Tested cultivars differ in the length and coefficient of shape of the root and root/shoot weight ratio.

  4. Study on the Effect of Calcium and Potassium Spray on Date Bunch Fading Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Shekofteh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Date bunch fading disorder has been one of the most important problems, which caused economic damage to date plantation area of Iran. It has been first reported on Mozafti cultivar in Kahnuj area, Kerman province. It has often been observed on soft and mid ripening cultivars such as Mozafti, Mordaseng and Kalote. Furthermore, it usually appears on Mozafti cultivar when fruits change from Khalal to Rutab stage. The most important symptoms of this disorder are sudden wilting of fruits and necrotic strips on the upper surface of the main bunch stalk. Incidence and development of these symptoms increase by high temperature, low relative humidity, and hot and dry wind. Several research studies have been carried out on this disorder so far, but the only research about the effect of nutrition on disorder was performed by Rosta (2003. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of calcium and potassium spray on date bunch fading and some traits of date fruit in Rigan region, Kerman province. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block designs with three replicates in Rigan located in east south of Kerman province, Iran, in 2012. Treatments were: T1: control, T2: spray of calcium nitrate at the concentration of 5 ppm, T3: spray of potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm, and T4: combined spray of calcium nitrate and potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm. Treatments were applied at Kimri, Hobabok and Khalal stages. Sampling was performed from 3 date palms (3 bunches from each date palm were selected randomly at the second date harvest. Totally, the traits of 200 fruits were measured in each date palm. The traits measured in the present study were: fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, stone weight, stone diameter, and bunch fading percentage. Results and Discussions: According to the data of variance analysis, treatments had a significant effect on wet fruit

  5. The Effects of Social Skills Groups for Young Children with Social Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takanori

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted as a program evaluation of an existing social skills program. A review of literature identified a limited number of empirical studies on group-based social skills training for young children with social delays. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of social skills groups as well as the effects of homework…

  6. Learning to Effectively Implement Constant Time Delay Procedures To Teach Spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Trudie A.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Keel, Marie C.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined the effectiveness of a training procedure in teaching a special educator the constant time delay procedure and the effectiveness of the procedure in teaching spelling to a 12-year-old with learning disabilities. The teacher successfully implemented the procedure and the student learned to spell all 15 words. (Contains references.)…

  7. Do testing effects change over time? Insights from immediate and delayed retrieval speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, G.S.E. van den; Segers, P.C.J.; Takashima, A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieving information from memory improves recall accuracy more than continued studying, but this testing effect often only becomes visible over time. In contrast, the present study documents testing effects on recall speed both immediately after practice and after a delay. A total of 40

  8. Do testing effects change over time? Insights from immediate and delayed retrieval speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, G.S.E. van den; Segers, P.C.J.; Takashima, A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieving information from memory improves recall accuracy more than continued studying, but this testing effect often only becomes visible over time. In contrast, the present study documents testing effects on recall speed both immediately after practice and after a delay. A total of 40 participan

  9. Effect of caffeine and adenosine on G2 repair: mitotic delay and chromosome damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, A; Hernández, P; López-Sáez, J F

    1985-04-01

    Proliferating plant cells treated during the late S period with 5-aminouracil (AU), give the typical response that DNA-damaging agents induce, characterized by: an important mitotic delay, and a potentiation of the chromosome damage by caffeine post-treatment. The study of labelled prophases, after a tritiated thymidine pulse, allowed evaluation of the mitotic delay induced by AU as well as its reversion by caffeine, while chromosome damage was estimated by the percentage of anaphases and telophases showing chromosomal aberrations. Post-treatment with adenosine alone has shown no effect on mitotic delay or chromosomal damage. However, when cells after AU were incubated in caffeine plus adenosine, the chromosome damage potentiation was abolished without affecting the caffeine action on mitotic delay. As a consequence, we postulate that caffeine could have two effects on G2 cells with damaged DNA: the first, to cancel their mitotic delay and the second to inhibit some DNA-repair pathway(s). Only this last effect could be reversed by adenosine.

  10. SOME HEALTH INDEXES OF CHERNOBYL LIQUIDATORS (DELAYED EFFECTS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O. V. Baranova; T. M. Koroleva; V. M. Shubik

    2012-01-01

    .... Disorders of immunity and health of the liquidators in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is due to the combined effect of low radiation doses, psychological stress and other factors of non-radiation nature.

  11. Estimating the Effects of Delayed Entry into Higher Education: A Discussion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark many high school graduates choose to delay their entry into higher education. A number of studies have investigated the effects of the delay on the educational and labour market careers. The existing studies are likely to suffer from selection bias, and this problem is unlikely...... to be remedied by use of control variables. More advanced techniques that can eliminate the selection bias are needed in order to identify causal effects. For policy purposes it would thus be preferable to focus on the economic losses associated with the years lost in the skilled labour market which...

  12. Monte Carlo and deterministic computational methods for the calculation of the effective delayed neutron fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhaopeng; Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2013-07-01

    The effective delayed neutron fraction β plays an important role in kinetics and static analysis of the reactor physics experiments. It is used as reactivity unit referred to as "dollar". Usually, it is obtained by computer simulation due to the difficulty in measuring it experimentally. In 1965, Keepin proposed a method, widely used in the literature, for the calculation of the effective delayed neutron fraction β. This method requires calculation of the adjoint neutron flux as a weighting function of the phase space inner products and is easy to implement by deterministic codes. With Monte Carlo codes, the solution of the adjoint neutron transport equation is much more difficult because of the continuous-energy treatment of nuclear data. Consequently, alternative methods, which do not require the explicit calculation of the adjoint neutron flux, have been proposed. In 1997, Bretscher introduced the k-ratio method for calculating the effective delayed neutron fraction; this method is based on calculating the multiplication factor of a nuclear reactor core with and without the contribution of delayed neutrons. The multiplication factor set by the delayed neutrons (the delayed multiplication factor) is obtained as the difference between the total and the prompt multiplication factors. Using Monte Carlo calculation Bretscher evaluated the β as the ratio between the delayed and total multiplication factors (therefore the method is often referred to as the k-ratio method). In the present work, the k-ratio method is applied by Monte Carlo (MCNPX) and deterministic (PARTISN) codes. In the latter case, the ENDF/B nuclear data library of the fuel isotopes (235U and 238U) has been processed by the NJOY code with and without the delayed neutron data to prepare multi-group WIMSD neutron libraries for the lattice physics code DRAGON, which was used to generate the PARTISN macroscopic cross sections. In recent years Meulekamp and van der Marck in 2006 and Nauchi and Kameyama

  13. Automated problem scheduling and reduction of synchronization delay effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, Joel H.

    1987-01-01

    It is anticipated that in order to make effective use of many future high performance architectures, programs will have to exhibit at least a medium grained parallelism. A framework is presented for partitioning very sparse triangular systems of linear equations that is designed to produce favorable preformance results in a wide variety of parallel architectures. Efficient methods for solving these systems are of interest because: (1) they provide a useful model problem for use in exploring heuristics for the aggregation, mapping and scheduling of relatively fine grained computations whose data dependencies are specified by directed acrylic graphs, and (2) because such efficient methods can find direct application in the development of parallel algorithms for scientific computation. Simple expressions are derived that describe how to schedule computational work with varying degrees of granularity. The Encore Multimax was used as a hardware simulator to investigate the performance effects of using the partitioning techniques presented in shared memory architectures with varying relative synchronization costs.

  14. Acute and Delayed Effects of Melatonin: Operational Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    In mammals its primary sites circadian zeitgeber in humans have been much of production are the pineal gland and the retina, discussed (e.g. 5...proposed as an methoxytryptamine (melatonin). The rhythm of endogenous sleep substance, as an opener of the pineal synthesis is generated in the...8217hypnotic’ effect in both animals (cats, dark onset (the rise) and offset (the decline) and rats , chickens) and humans, reviewed by Cramer in reinforces

  15. Exempting Mental Health Peer Support Services From Copayments. Direct final rule; confirmation of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-05

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) published a direct final rule amending its regulation that governs VA services that are not subject to copayment requirements for inpatient hospital care or outpatient medical care. Specifically, the regulation is amended to exempt mental health peer support services from having any required copayment. VA received no adverse comments concerning the direct final rule or its companion substantially identical proposed rule published in the Federal Register on the same date. This document confirms that the direct final rule became effective on January 27, 2015. In a companion document in this issue of the Federal Register, we are withdrawing as unnecessary the proposed rule.

  16. Predicting date rape perceptions: the effects of gender, gender role attitudes, and victim resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Katherine A; McCloskey, Kathy A

    2013-08-01

    The effects of participant gender and victim resistance on date rape perceptions have been inconsistent. Participant gender role attitudes may contribute to these inconsistencies. We found women with traditional gender role attitudes were least likely to agree that the perpetrator was guilty of rape. Participants were less convinced of the perpetrator's guilt when the victim resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically, and participants with traditional gender role attitudes were less convinced of the negative impact on the victim when she resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically. Perhaps previous inconsistencies resulted from varying proportions of men and women with traditional versus liberal gender role attitudes in the samples.

  17. Integrated effect of crop sowing date and herbicide stress on fitness of Bromus diandrus Roth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, A.L.; Royo-Esnal, A.; Torra, J.; Recasens, J.

    2015-07-01

    Bromus diandrus Roth is a common weed species that has increased in no-tillage dry-land cereal fields in NE Spain because of the limited control options. The fitness response of plants with different emergence times (ETs) and its influence on demography has huge implications in weed management. With this subject, three ETs (F1, F2 and F3) of B. diandrus were established through three crop-sowing dates (D1, Oct.; D2, Nov.; D3, Dec.) for each of the three years in a barley-wheat-wheat rotation. In barley, the herbicides applied were not specific for B. diandrus, whereas in wheat the specific herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium was applied. Plant density after treatments and fitness characteristics were estimated for each weed ET. Weed density decreased for later ETs and fitness was density-dependent, showing significantly higher values when a non-specific herbicide was applied, except in number of caryopses per spikelet. The increasing fitness shown by plants with later ETs and the linear relationships of vegetative biomass vs reproductive biomass and fecundity were disrupted by the herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium. Plants that had survived this herbicide when wheat was growing had lower values for all the characteristics analysed. After three seasons, as a consequence of decreasing seed recruitment, a practical depletion of the B. diandrus population was achieved in F2 and F3 (<2.8 and <1 plants/m2, respectively) but not in F1 (60.5 plants/m2). This study shows the importance of delayed crop sowing to optimize the control of B. diandrus in cereal fields with no tillage. (Author)

  18. Integrated effect of crop sowing date and herbicide stress on fitness of Bromus diandrus Roth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addy L. García

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bromus diandrus Roth is a common weed species that has increased in no-tillage dry-land cereal fields in NE Spain because of the limited control options. The fitness response of plants with different emergence times (ETs and its influence on demography has huge implications in weed management. With this subject, three ETs (F1, F2 and F3 of B. diandrus were established through three crop-sowing dates (D1, Oct.; D2, Nov.; D3, Dec. for each of the three years in a barley-wheat-wheat rotation. In barley, the herbicides applied were not specific for B. diandrus, whereas in wheat the specific herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium was applied. Plant density after treatments and fitness characteristics were estimated for each weed ET. Weed density decreased for later ETs and fitness was density-dependent, showing significantly higher values when a non-specific herbicide was applied, except in number of caryopses per spikelet. The increasing fitness shown by plants with later ETs and the linear relationships of vegetative biomass vs reproductive biomass and fecundity were disrupted by the herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium. Plants that had survived this herbicide when wheat was growing had lower values for all the characteristics analysed. After three seasons, as a consequence of decreasing seed recruitment, a practical depletion of the B. diandrus population was achieved in F2 and F3 (<2.8 and <1 plants/m2, respectively but not in F1 (60.5 plants/m2. This study shows the importance of delayed crop sowing to optimize the control of B. diandrus in cereal fields with no tillage.

  19. Time-delay effects and simplified control fields in quantum Lyapunov control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, X X; Wu, S L [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wu, Chunfeng; Feng, X L; Oh, C H, E-mail: yixx@dlut.edu.cn, E-mail: phyohch@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Quantum Technologies and Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 117543 (Singapore)

    2011-10-14

    Lyapunov-based quantum control has the advantage that it is free from the measurement-induced decoherence and it includes the instantaneous information of the system in the control. The Lyapunov control is often confronted with time delay in the control fields and difficulty in practical implementations of the control. In this paper, we study the effect of time delay on the Lyapunov control and explore the possibility of replacing the control field with a pulse train or a bang-bang signal. The efficiency of the Lyapunov control is also presented through examining the convergence time of the system. These results suggest that the Lyapunov control is robust against time delay, easy to realize and effective for high-dimensional quantum systems.

  20. Effects of small time delay on a bistable system subject to Levy stable noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Jiamin; Tao Weiming; Xu Bohou, E-mail: taowm@zju.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-09-23

    Levy stable noise is often used to describe impulsive noise bursting in communication systems. This paper investigates the effects of small time delay on a bistable system driven by an aperiodic bipolar pulse signal and Levy stable noise. We obtain the dynamical probability density of the system response by solving the approximated time-delayed fractional Fokker-Planck equation (FFPE) via an implicit finite difference method. A new approach to evaluate the system response time is presented. The bit error rate (BER) is employed to measure the performance of the bistable system in detecting binary signals. The theoretical BER is validated by the Monte-Carlo simulation. We find that the existence of time delay can change both the drift term and the diffusion coefficient in time-delayed FFPE. For small noise intensity, the time delay extends the system response time and thus reduces the detection performance. However, effects of this kind will fade away with the increase of noise intensity. (paper)

  1. Delay time dependence of thermal effect of combined pulse laser machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Boshi; Jin, Guangyong; Ma, Yao; Zhang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The research focused on the effect of delay time in combined pulse laser machining on the material temperature field. Aiming at the parameter optimization of pulse laser machining aluminum alloy, the combined pulse laser model based on heat conduction equation was introduced. And the finite element analysis software, COMSOL Multiphysics, was also utilized in the research. Without considering the phase transition process of aluminum alloy, the results of the numerical simulation was shown in this paper. By the simulation study of aluminum alloy's irradiation with combined pulse, the effect of the change in delay time of combined pulse on the temperature field of the aluminum alloy and simultaneously the quantized results under the specific laser spot conditions were obtained. Based on the results, several conclusions could be reached, the delay time could affect the rule of temperature changing with time. The reasonable delay time controlling would help improving the efficiency. In addition, when the condition of the laser pulse energy density is constant, the optimal delay time depends on pulse sequence.

  2. Effects of additional food in a delayed predator-prey model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2015-03-01

    We examine the effects of supplying additional food to predator in a gestation delay induced predator-prey system with habitat complexity. Additional food works in favor of predator growth in our model. Presence of additional food reduces the predatory attack rate to prey in the model. Supplying additional food we can control predator population. Taking time delay as bifurcation parameter the stability of the coexisting equilibrium point is analyzed. Hopf bifurcation analysis is done with respect to time delay in presence of additional food. The direction of Hopf bifurcations and the stability of bifurcated periodic solutions are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. The qualitative dynamical behavior of the model is simulated using experimental parameter values. It is observed that fluctuations of the population size can be controlled either by supplying additional food suitably or by increasing the degree of habitat complexity. It is pointed out that Hopf bifurcation occurs in the system when the delay crosses some critical value. This critical value of delay strongly depends on quality and quantity of supplied additional food. Therefore, the variation of predator population significantly effects the dynamics of the model. Model results are compared with experimental results and biological implications of the analytical findings are discussed in the conclusion section.

  3. Effect of planting dates and nitrogen rates on yield and yield components of black cumin (Nigella Sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamed javadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of planting dates and nitrogen rates on yield and yield components of black cumin (Nigella sativa L. a field experiment was conducted in spring 2006 in the Azad University of Birjand. The experiment was done as split plot based on compeletely randomized block design with 3 replications. Four planting dates (21 March, 4, 21 April, 5 May were used as main plot and 3 levels of nitrogen (40, 80 and 120 kg/ha were as sub plot. The results showed that the planting dates effect was significant on traits such as plant height, number of main branches, number of follicles per plant, biological yield and grain yield. As, maximum plant height, number of follicles per plant and biological yield were observed in first planting date and maximum number of main branches and grain yield were observed in first and second planting dates. Planting dates had no significant effects on number of follicles in main branches, number of seed per follicles, weight of 1000 seeds and harvest index. Nitrogen rates and interaction between planting dates and nitrogen rates had no significant effect on the traits. According to the results of this experiment 40 kg/ha nitrogen is enough for black cumin. Also, planting dates in 21 March and 4 April were recognised better because of high yield production.

  4. SOME HEALTH INDEXES OF CHERNOBYL LIQUIDATORS (DELAYED EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Baranova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve to twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, liquidators that have been exposed to a wide range of doses (200-890 mSv show radiophobia. The achieved level of adaptation to life is associated with overstrain in emotional and somatic spheres. At relatively higher exposure levels, morbidity is increased, specially pathology of the cardiovascular system. Growth in the number of cataracts is absent, but involutional changes of retina vessels are increased. Suppression of innate and acquired humoral and cellular immunity and autoallergic shifts play significant role in the identified health problems. Disorders of immunity and health of the liquidators in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is due to the combined effect of low radiation doses, psychological stress and other factors of non-radiation nature.

  5. Delay-Induced Triple-Zero Bifurcation in a Delayed Leslie-Type Predator-Prey Model with Additive Allee Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiao; Song, Yongli; Yu, Pei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a Leslie-type predator-prey model with ratio-dependent functional response and Allee effect on prey is considered. We first study the existence of the multiple positive equilibria and their stability. Then we investigate the effect of delay on the distribution of the roots of characteristic equation and obtain the conditions for the occurrence of simple-zero, double-zero and triple-zero singularities. The formulations for calculating the normal form of the triple-zero bifurcation of the delay differential equations are derived. We show that, under certain conditions on the parameters, the system exhibits homoclinic orbit, heteroclinic orbit and periodic orbit.

  6. Effects of Concurrent and Delayed Visual Feedback on Motor Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangxiao; Li, Teng; Yang, Gaofeng; Zhang, Yuru

    2017-02-22

    In many domains, it's important to understand the ways in which humans learn and develop new motor skills effectively and efficiently. For example, in dental operations, the ability to apply a weak force with a required tolerance is a fundamental skill to ensure diagnostic and treatment outcome, but acquiring such a skill is a challenge for novices. In this paper, we focus on motor memory for producing normally applied force by a hand-held probe and we compare the effects of two feedback methods on motor memory consolidation. Fourteen participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a Concurrent Group and a Delayed Group. Participants in the Concurrent Group were trained to apply a target force with concurrent visual feedback, while those in the Delayed Group were trained with delayed visual feedback. The task included two phases: a Training/Testing Phase, and a Retention Phase. The results indicated that participants in the Delayed Group obtained more effective learning outcomes and better retention effects. These findings provide a new perspective to explore the relationship between feedback methods and the cognitive process of motor skill learning, and open a new way to train motor skill using more effective methods than the traditional concurrent feedback approaches.

  7. Internal Due Date Assignment in a Wafer Fabrication Factory by an Effective Fuzzy-Neural Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toly Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the complexity of the wafer fabrication, the due date assignment of each job presents a challenging problem to the production planning and scheduling people. To tackle this problem, an effective fuzzy-neural approach is proposed in this study to improve the performance of internal due date assignment in a wafer fabrication factory. Some innovative treatments are taken in the proposed methodology. First, principal component analysis (PCA is applied to construct a series of linear combinations of the original variables to form a new variable, so that these new variables are unrelated to each other as much as possible, and the relationship among them can be reflected in a better way. In addition, the simultaneous application of PCA, fuzzy c-means (FCM, and back propagation network (BPN further improved the estimation accuracy. Subsequently, the iterative upper bound reduction (IUBR approach is proposed to determine the allowance that will be added to the estimated job cycle time. An applied case that uses data collected from a wafer fabrication factory illustrates this effective fuzzy-neural approach.

  8. Language in Online Dating Texts: Trait Identification, Homophily, and their Effect on Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Hamilton, Nicola; Fullwood, Chris; Kirwan, Grainne

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that online daters may pick up on language cues connected to personality traits in online dating profile texts, and act upon those cues. This research seeks to investigate the level of accuracy of detection of personality in dating profile texts, and the extent to which perceived or actual similarity of personality has an effect on attractiveness of the author. An online survey was conducted collecting the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) for each participant and text author, a peer-report TIPI score by participants for each text author, and an attractiveness rating on a Likert scale for each author. Participants correctly identified Extraversion, though the effect size was small. Contrary to the hypotheses, participants preferred texts when written by an author with a personality they perceived as dissimilar to their own, specifically in Openness and Conscientiousness, and no relationship was found between actual similarity of personality and attractiveness. Online daters may choose partners with complementary or desirable traits rather than similar traits, or other factors in attraction may be more salient in the initial stages of determining attraction.

  9. Effects of Planting Date, Time and Methods of Weed Control on Weed Density and Biomass in Cumin Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghorbani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two field experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the effect of planting date, method and date of weed control on weed density and biomass in the experimental research field, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2006 and 2007. Treatments included planting date (30 December, 20 January and 30 February, weeding date (first true leaf, start of branching and beginning of flowering stages and weed control methods (hand weeding, fire treatment and control. The results showed that there were significant differences in the number of weeds between different sowing dates, weeding dates and control methods. The highest mean density and biomass of weeds were obtained on the planting date, 30 February, and when weed was controlled at the first leaf appearance stage with fire treatment. The most appropriate time for weed control was at the beginning of cumin flowering. Fire treatment reduced weed growth in the first half of growing season. However, hand weeding significantly reduced weed density and biomass in the second half of cumin growing season. The first planting date caused the lowest mean weed biomass and the highest cumin yield compared to later planting dates. Hand weeding treatment contained lower mean weed density and biomass compared to fire treatment, however, cumin yield was lower in hand weeding plots than fire treatment. Keywords: Cultural control, Cuminum cyminum, Fire, Hand weeding, Control time

  10. Radiocarbon Dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A

    2007-12-20

    Radiocarbon dating can be used to determine the age of objects that contain components that were once alive. In the case of human remains, a radiocarbon date can distinguish between a crime scene and an archeological site. Documents, museum artifacts and art objects can be dated to determine if their age is correct for the historical context. A radiocarbon date does not confirm authenticity, but it can help identify a forgery.

  11. Effect of the heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on stochastic resonance of neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyun; Zhang, Honghui; Chen, Guanrong

    2012-12-01

    We study the effect of heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on stochastic resonance of scale-free neuronal networks. For this purpose, we introduce the heterogeneity to the specified neuron with the highest degree. It is shown that in the absence of delay, an intermediate noise level can optimally assist spike firings of collective neurons so as to achieve stochastic resonance on scale-free neuronal networks for small and intermediate αh, which plays a heterogeneous role. Maxima of stochastic resonance measure are enhanced as αh increases, which implies that the heterogeneity can improve stochastic resonance. However, as αh is beyond a certain large value, no obvious stochastic resonance can be observed. If the information transmission delay is introduced to neuronal networks, stochastic resonance is dramatically affected. In particular, the tuned information transmission delay can induce multiple stochastic resonance, which can be manifested as well-expressed maximum in the measure for stochastic resonance, appearing every multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period. Furthermore, we can observe that stochastic resonance at odd multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period is subharmonic, as opposed to the case of even multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period. More interestingly, multiple stochastic resonance can also be improved by the suitable heterogeneous neuron. Presented results can provide good insights into the understanding of the heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on realistic neuronal networks.

  12. Effect of the heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on stochastic resonance of neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyun; Zhang, Honghui; Chen, Guanrong

    2012-12-01

    We study the effect of heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on stochastic resonance of scale-free neuronal networks. For this purpose, we introduce the heterogeneity to the specified neuron with the highest degree. It is shown that in the absence of delay, an intermediate noise level can optimally assist spike firings of collective neurons so as to achieve stochastic resonance on scale-free neuronal networks for small and intermediate α(h), which plays a heterogeneous role. Maxima of stochastic resonance measure are enhanced as α(h) increases, which implies that the heterogeneity can improve stochastic resonance. However, as α(h) is beyond a certain large value, no obvious stochastic resonance can be observed. If the information transmission delay is introduced to neuronal networks, stochastic resonance is dramatically affected. In particular, the tuned information transmission delay can induce multiple stochastic resonance, which can be manifested as well-expressed maximum in the measure for stochastic resonance, appearing every multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period. Furthermore, we can observe that stochastic resonance at odd multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period is subharmonic, as opposed to the case of even multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period. More interestingly, multiple stochastic resonance can also be improved by the suitable heterogeneous neuron. Presented results can provide good insights into the understanding of the heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on realistic neuronal networks.

  13. Delayed conifer mortality after fuel reduction treatments: Interactive effects of fuel, fire intensity, and bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, A.; Grace, J.B.; Mciver, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Many low-elevation dry forests of the western United States contain more small trees and fewer large trees, more down woody debris, and less diverse and vigorous understory plant communities compared to conditions under historical fire regimes. These altered structural conditions may contribute to increased probability of unnaturally severe wildfires, susceptibility to uncharacteristic insect outbreaks, and drought-related mortality. Broad-scale fuel reduction and restoration treatments are proposed to promote stand development on trajectories toward more sustainable structures. Little research to date, however, has quantified the effects of these treatments on the ecosystem, especially delayed and latent tree mortality resulting directly or indirectly from treatments. In this paper, we explore complex hypotheses relating to the cascade of effects that influence ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mortality using structural equation modeling (SEM). We used annual census and plot data through six growing seasons after thinning and four growing seasons after burning from a replicated, operational-scale, completely randomized experiment conducted in northeastern Oregon, USA, as part of the national Fire and Fire Surrogate study. Treatments included thin, burn, thin followed by burn (thin+burn), and control. Burn and thin+burn treatments increased the proportion of dead trees while the proportion of dead trees declined or remained constant in thin and control units, although the density of dead trees was essentially unchanged with treatment. Most of the new mortality (96%) occurred within two years of treatment and was attributed to bark beetles. Bark beetle-caused tree mortality, while low overall, was greatest in thin + burn treatments. SEM results indicate that the probability of mortality of large-diameter ponderosa pine from bark beetles and wood borers was directly related to surface fire severity and bole charring, which in

  14. Growth delay effect of combined interstitial hyperthermia and brachytherapy in a rat solid tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, D; Kimler, B F; Estes, N C; Durham, F J

    1989-01-01

    The rat mammary AC33 solid tumor model was used to investigate the efficacy of interstitial hyperthermia and/or brachytherapy. Subcutaneous flank tumors were heated with an interstitial microwave (915 MHz) antenna to a temperature of 43 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 45 min for two treatments, three days apart, and/or implanted with Ir-192 seeds for three days (-25 Gy tumor dose). Following treatments, tumors were measured 2 to 3 times per week. Hyperthermia alone produced a modest delay in tumor volume regrowth, while brachytherapy was substantially more effective. The combination produced a improvement in tumor regrowth delay compared to brachytherapy alone.

  15. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihe Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations.

  16. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  17. Electron correlation effects on photoionization time delay in atomic Ar and Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, A.; Saha, S.; Decshmukh, P. C.; Manson, S. T.; Kheifets, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Time delay studies in photoionization processes have stimulated much interest as they provide valuable dynamical information about electron correlation and relativistic effects. In a recent work on Wigner time delay in the photoionization of noble gas atoms, it was found that correlations resulting from interchannel coupling involving shells with different principal quantum numbers have significant effects on 2s and 2p photoionization of Ne, 3s photoionization of Ar, and 3d photoionization of Kr. In the present work, photoionization time delay in inner and outer subshells of the noble gases Ar and Xe are examined by including electron correlations using different many body techniques: (i) the relativistic-random-phase approximation (RRPA), (ii) RRPA with relaxation, to include relaxation effects of the residual ion and (iii) the relativistic multiconfiguration Tamm-Dancoff (RMCTD) approximation. The (sometimes substantial) effects of the inclusion of non-RPA correlations on the photoionization Wigner time delay are reported. Work supported by DOE, Office of Chemical Sciences and DST (India).

  18. Cost-effectiveness of 'immediate IVF' versus 'delayed IVF': a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkemans, M.J.; Kersten, F.A.M.; Lintsen, A.M.E.; Hunault, C.C.; Bouwmans, C.A.; Roijen, L.H.; Habbema, J.D.; Braat, D.D.M.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: How does the cost-effectiveness (CE) of immediate IVF compared with postponing IVF for 1 year, depend on prognostic characteristics of the couple? SUMMARY ANSWER: The CE ratio, i.e. the incremental costs of immediate versus delayed IVF per extra live birth, is the highest (range of

  19. Effect of delayed wrapping and wrapping source on digestibility and intake of alfalfa silage in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delays often occur between baling and wrapping during production of baled silage that increases exposure time of the forage to oxygen. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two different wrapping sources and time intervals between baling and wrapping on intake and digestibility of al...

  20. The Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) and Its Absence in Some Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sciullo, Anna Maria; Aguero-Bautista, Calixto

    2008-01-01

    The Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) has been discussed in various studies that show that children around age 5 seem to violate Principle B of Binding Theory (Chomsky, 1981, and related works), when the antecedent of the pronoun is a name, but not when the antecedent is a quantifier. The analysis we propose can explain the DPBE in languages of…

  1. Effect of delay time on the generation of chaos in continuous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Berezowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with a theoretical analysis of the effect of delay time of energy transport upon the generation of complex dynamics in continuous physical system. The importance of this time for the presence of quasi - periodicity and chaos in a reactor is demonstrated. The considerations are preceded by the analysis of one - dimensional mathematical model.

  2. [Systematization of data and information on delayed consequences of the effects of chemicals in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianno, L V; Pimenova, M N; Osipova, I V

    1993-01-01

    The systematization and analysis of the data connected with delayed consequences arising in human body from exposure to dangerous chemicals have been carried out. The paper contains the list of dangerous chemicals exerting mutagenic or carcinogenic effects and chromosome aberrations. The cytologic express method of revealing mucous membrane dysplasia resulting from exposure to some chemical mutagens have been evaluated.

  3. Effects of wrapping time delays on the nutritive value of baled alfalfa silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baled silages are an attractive forage conservation option, especially for small and mid-sized beef and dairy producers. Our objectives were to test the effects of delayed wrapping on the nutritive value of baled alfalfa silages on a pre- and post-storage basis. A secondary objective was to evaluate...

  4. Effects of wrapping time delays on fermentation characteristics of baled alfalfa silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baled silage is an attractive forage conservation approach for small and mid-sized dairy or beef producers, partly because it limits the risks associated with baling dry hay during wet or unstable weather conditions. Our objectives were to test the effects of delayed wrapping on silage fermentation,...

  5. The Effects of Test Trial and Processing Level on Immediate and Delayed Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of test trial and processing level on immediate and delayed retention. A 2 × 2 × 2 mixed ANOVAs was used with two between-subject factors of test trial (single test, repeated test) and processing level (shallow, deep), and one within-subject factor of final recall (immediate,…

  6. The Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) and Its Absence in Some Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sciullo, Anna Maria; Aguero-Bautista, Calixto

    2008-01-01

    The Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) has been discussed in various studies that show that children around age 5 seem to violate Principle B of Binding Theory (Chomsky, 1981, and related works), when the antecedent of the pronoun is a name, but not when the antecedent is a quantifier. The analysis we propose can explain the DPBE in languages of…

  7. Effects of melatonin on the quality of life in patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, J.E.; Laurant, M.W.; Kerkhof, G.A.; Smits, M.G.; Meer, Y.G.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2000-01-01

    Compared health-related quality of life of 43 delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) patients (mean age 34.1 yrs) with a random Dutch sample of 1,063 Ss (aged 18-89 yrs) and 95 sleep apnea, 262 clinical depression, 546 migraine, and 194 osteoarthritis patients. The effectiveness of treatment with 5 mg

  8. Effects of melatonin on the quality of life in patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, J.E.; Laurant, M.W.; Kerkhof, G.A.; Smits, M.G.; Meer, Y.G. van der; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare health-related quality of life of delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) patients with a random Dutch sample and four samples of patients with other chronic conditions. We also investigated the effectiveness of treatment with 5 mg of melatonin on the

  9. The early effects of delayed cord clamping in term infants born to Libyan mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emhamed, Musbah Omar; van Rheenen, Patrick; Brabin, Bernard J

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the haematological effects of the timing of umbilical cord clamping in term infants 24 h after birth in Libya. Mother-infant pairs were randomly assigned to early cord clamping (within 10s after delivery) or delayed clamping (after the cord stopped pulsating). Ma

  10. Simultaneous and Delayed Video Modeling: An Examination of System Effectiveness and Student Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber-Doughyt, Teresa; Patton, Scott E.; Brennan, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of simultaneous and delayed video modeling when used by three middle-school students with moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. Alternating between modeling systems, students were taught to use the public library computer to locate specific book call numbers and use the Dewey Decimal Classification System to locate…

  11. Effects of natural gas composition on ignition delay under diesel conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, J. D.; Siebers, D. L.; Dijulio, S. S.; Westbrook, C. K.

    1993-12-01

    Effects of variations in natural gas composition on autoignition of natural gas under direct-injection (DI) diesel engine conditions were studied experimentally in a constant-volume combustion vessel and computationally using a chemical kinetic model. Four fuel blends were investigated: pure methane, a capacity weighted mean natural gas, a high ethane content natural gas, and a natural gas with added propane typical of peak shaving conditions. Experimentally measured ignition delays were longest for pure methane and became progressively shorter as ethane and propane concentrations increased. At conditions characteristic of a DI compression ignition natural gas engine at Top Dead Center (CR = 23:1, p = 6.8 MPa, T = 1150K), measured ignition delays for the four fuels varied from 1.8 ms for the peak shaving and high ethane gases to 2.7 ms for pure methane. Numerically predicted variations in ignition delay as a function of natural gas composition agreed with these measurements.

  12. Self-regulation strategies may enhance the acute effect of exercise on smoking delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Pappa, Vassiliki; Tsiami, Anastasia; Tzatzaki, Theodora; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zourbanos, Nikos; Goudas, Marios; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the acute effect of a moderate intensity aerobic exercise session combined with self-regulation on smoking delay in physically inactive smokers. Participants were 11 adults (5 males and 6 females) that completed three experimental conditions: control, exercise, and exercise using self-regulation strategies (SR). Following the experimental treatment smoking for the two exercise conditions delayed significantly more than for the control condition; in addition exercise SR delayed smoking marginally more that the plain exercise condition. Findings supported previous research that acute exercise reduces cravings to smoke, and suggests that the use of self-regulation strategies may strengthen exercise for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. UAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study-2: Effects of Communications Delays and Winds in Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Communications Delays and Winds on Air Traffic Controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between UAS and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth East-side airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from self-separation algorithms displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Simulation System. Winds tested did not affect the acceptability ratings. Communications delays tested included 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS.

  14. Effects of Ion Irradiation on Seedlings Growth Monitored by Ultraweak Delayed Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomoko; Cirrone, Giuseppe A. P.; Cuttone, Giacomo; Gulino, Marisa; Musumeci, Francesco; Romano, Francesco; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Scordino, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The optical technique based on the measurement of delayed luminescence emitted from the biological samples has demonstrated its ability to provide valid and predictive information on the functional status of various biological systems. We want to extend this technique to study the effect of ionizing radiation on biological systems. In particular we are interested in the action of ion beams, used for therapeutic purposes or to increase the biological diversity. In general, the assessment of the damage that radiation produces both in the target objects and in the surrounding tissues, requires considerable time because is based on biochemical analysis or on the examination of the evolution of the irradiated systems. The delayed luminescence technique could help to simplify this investigation. We have so started our studies performing irradiations of some relatively simple vegetable models. In this paper we report results obtained from mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds submitted to a 12C ion beam at the energy of 62 MeV/nucleon. The dry seeds were irradiated at doses from 50 to 7000 Gy. The photoinduced delayed luminescence of each seed before and after ion irradiation was measured. The growth of seedlings after irradiation was compared with that of untreated seeds. A growth reduction on increasing the dose was registered. The results show strong correlations between the ion irradiation dose, seeds growth and delayed luminescence intensity. In particular, the delayed luminescence intensity is correlated by a logistic function to the seedlings elongation and, after performing a suitable measurement campaign based on blind tests, it could become a tool able to predict the growth of seeds after ion irradiation. Moreover these results demonstrate that measurements of delayed luminescence could be used as a fast and non-invasive technique to check the effects of ion beams on relatively simple biological systems. PMID:27936220

  15. Effect of treatment delay upon pulp and periodontal healing of traumatic dental injuries -- a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, J O; Andreasen, F M; Skeie, A; Hjørting-Hansen, E; Schwartz, O

    2002-06-01

    Based on an analysis of the literature concerning parameters influencing the prognosis of traumatic dental injuries, few studies were found to have examined possible relationships between treatment delay and pulpal and periodontal ligament healing complications. It has been commonly accepted that all injuries should be treated on an emergency basis, for the comfort of the patient and also to reduce wound healing complications. For practical and especially economic reasons, various approaches can be selected to fulfill such a demand, such as acute treatment (i.e. within a few hours), subacute (i.e. within the first 24 h), and delayed (i.e. after the first 24 h). In this survey the consequences of treatment delay on pulpal and periodontal healing have been analyzed for the various dental trauma groups. Applying such a treatment approach to the various types of injuries, the following treatment guidelines can be recommended, based on our present rather limited knowledge of the effect of treatment delay upon wound healing. Crown and crown/root fractures: Subacute or delayed approach. Root fractures: Acute or subacute approach. Alveolar fractures: Acute approach (evidence however questionable). Concussion and subluxation: Subacute approach. Extrusion and lateral luxation: Acute or subacute approach (evidence however questionable). Intrusion: Subacute approach (evidence however questionable). Avulsion: If the tooth is not replanted at the time of injury, acute approach; otherwise subacute. Primary tooth injury: Subacute approach, unless the primary tooth is displaced into the follicle of the permanent tooth or occlusal problems are present; in the latter instances, an acute approach should be chosen. These treatment guidelines are based on very limited evidence from the literature and should be revised as soon as more evidence about the effect of treatment delay becomes available.

  16. Multiscale Analysis of Effects of Additive and Multiplicative Noise on Delay Differential Equations Near a Bifurcation Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosek, M. M.

    2004-04-01

    We study effects of noisy and deterministic perturbations on oscillatory solutions to delay differential equations. We develop the multiscale technique and derive amplitude equations for noisy oscillations near a critical delay. We investigate effects of additive and multiplicative noise. We show that if the magnitudes of noise and deterministic perturbations are balanced, then the oscillatory behavior persists for long times being sustained by the noise. We illustrate the technique and its results on linear and logistic delay equations.

  17. Effect of delayed polymerization time and bracket manipulation on orthodontic bracket bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponikvar, Michael J.

    This study examined the effect of bracket manipulation in combination with delayed polymerization times on orthodontic bracket shear bond strength and degree of resin composite conversion. Orthodontics brackets were bonded to extracted third molars in a simulated oral environment after a set period of delayed polymerization time and bracket manipulation. After curing the bracket adhesive, each bracket underwent shear bond strength testing followed by micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis to measure the degree of conversion of the resin composite. Results demonstrated the shear bond strength and the degree of conversion of ceramic brackets did not vary over time. However, with stainless steel brackets there was a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05) of delay time on shear bond strength between the 0.5 min and 10 min bracket groups. In addition, stainless steel brackets showed significant differences related to degree of conversion over time between the 0.5 min and 5 min groups, in addition to the 0.5 min and 10 min groups. This investigation suggests that delaying bracket adhesive polymerization up to a period of 10 min then adjusting the orthodontic bracket may increase both shear bond strength and degree of conversion of stainless steel brackets while having no effect on ceramic brackets.

  18. Potential Effects on Large Mara Construction Projects Due To Construction Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Abdullah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry continues to be the driving force in the growth of the nation’s socio economic development. One of the major issues in large construction industry is its frequent delay where this delay decelerates the multiplier effects to the economy. This paper presents the study of a survey on significant cause of delay and its effects in large MARA (Majlis Amanah Rakyat construction project in the views of project management consultants (PMC. Respondents of this survey were personnel that work as PMC ranging from the executives, managerial and supporting groups. The result revealed that the five most significant delay causes as seen by PMC were cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors, contractor’s poor site management, inadequate contractor experience, shortage of site workers and ineffective planning and scheduling by contractors and its three most significant effects were time overrun, cost overrun and arbitration. Hopefully, the findings of this study will at least shade some lights to the problems faced by Malaysia construction industry particularly MARA large construction project and effort can be taken to improve it.

  19. Effect of sowing date and plant density on grain and flower yield of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad javad seghatol eslami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is a medicinal herb whose dried flower heads are used to heal wounds. In order to study the effects of sowing dates and plant density on grain and flower yield of pot marigold, an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Center of Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch in 2005. Three sowing dates (30 March, 14 April and 30 April and three plant densities (plant distances on row were 10, 20 and 30 centimeters were compared in a split- plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Seed and flower yields were significantly different at planting dates and plant densities. Sowing date had significant effects on flower and seed harvest index. The latest sowing dates had the highest flower and seed harvest index. Plant density had not significant effect on flower harvest index, but the effect on seed harvest index, was significant. In total our result showed that the first sowing date with 25 plants/m2 had the highest grain and flower yield. Keywords: Marigold, sowing date, plant density, medicinal plant.

  20. EFFECTS OF PLANTING DATE AND SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT ON COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris) YIELD UNDER WEED-FREE AND WEEDY CONDITIONS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ESMAEILZADEH, S; AMINPANAH, H

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTTo evaluate the effect of planting date and spatial pattern on common bean yield under weed-free and weed-infested conditions, an experiment was conducted in Kelachay, Northern Iran, in 2013...

  1. Adaptation to delayed auditory feedback induces the temporal recalibration effect in both speech perception and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kosuke; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2014-12-01

    We ordinarily speak fluently, even though our perceptions of our own voices are disrupted by various environmental acoustic properties. The underlying mechanism of speech is supposed to monitor the temporal relationship between speech production and the perception of auditory feedback, as suggested by a reduction in speech fluency when the speaker is exposed to delayed auditory feedback (DAF). While many studies have reported that DAF influences speech motor processing, its relationship to the temporal tuning effect on multimodal integration, or temporal recalibration, remains unclear. We investigated whether the temporal aspects of both speech perception and production change due to adaptation to the delay between the motor sensation and the auditory feedback. This is a well-used method of inducing temporal recalibration. Participants continually read texts with specific DAF times in order to adapt to the delay. Then, they judged the simultaneity between the motor sensation and the vocal feedback. We measured the rates of speech with which participants read the texts in both the exposure and re-exposure phases. We found that exposure to DAF changed both the rate of speech and the simultaneity judgment, that is, participants' speech gained fluency. Although we also found that a delay of 200 ms appeared to be most effective in decreasing the rates of speech and shifting the distribution on the simultaneity judgment, there was no correlation between these measurements. These findings suggest that both speech motor production and multimodal perception are adaptive to temporal lag but are processed in distinct ways.

  2. The immediate versus delayed effects of an advertising literacy training on children's responses to product placement

    OpenAIRE

    De Jans, Steffi; Hudders, Liselot; Cauberghe, Veroline

    2016-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the immediate vs. delayed effects of an advertising literacy training on product placement effects for 7-8 versus 10-11 year old children. The advertising literacy training increased children’s understanding of product placement (advertising literacy), both for the younger and the older children and both immediately and in the longer run (measured after one week). In addition, this advertising literacy had a negative impact on pester power, but only when c...

  3. Proximal and Time-Varying Effects of Cigarette, Alcohol, Marijuana and other Hard Drug Use on Adolescent Dating Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies have established a link between substance use and adult partner violence, little research has examined the relationship during adolescence and most extant research has not examined multiple substance use types. The current study used hierarchical growth modeling to simultaneously examine proximal (between-person) and time-varying (within-person) relations between cigarette, alcohol, marijuana and hard drug use and physical dating aggression across grades 8 through 12 while controlling for demographic covariates and shared risk factors. Proximal effects of marijuana use on dating aggression were found for girls and proximal effects of hard drug use on dating aggression were found for boys. Time-varying effects were found for alcohol for both boys and girls and for hard drug use for boys only. Overall, findings suggest that alcohol, marijuana and hard drug use predict whether and when adolescents engage in dating aggression and should be targeted by prevention interventions. PMID:24636688

  4. Effect of Coupling Agent on the Properties of Polymer/Date Pits Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares D. Alsewailem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the fracture surfaces of polymer/date pits composites was investigated. Polymers used in this study were high density polyethylene (HDPE and polystyrene (PS. Date pits in the form of granules were two types of date pits: khlaas (K and sekari (S. Two coupling agents, diphenylmethane-4 4′-diisocyanate (DPMI and ethylene propylene grafted with malice anhydride (EP-g-MA, were used to ease the incorporation of date pit particles into polymer matrix. The SEM micrographs of the neat composites, that is, with no coupling agents, showed coarse morphology with bad dispersion, adhesion, and distribution of date pit particles within the polymer matrix. On the other hand, PS100/K composites coupled with DPMI and EP-g-MA had reasonable dispersed phase size with good distribution and adhesion to the composite matrix which in turn improve the mechanical properties of the resulted polymer/date pits composites.

  5. Is delayed ischemic preconditioning as effective on running performance during a 5km time trial as acute IPC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Joost P H; Timmers, Silvie; Ploegmakers, Danique J M; Cable, N Timothy; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2017-02-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) may enhance exercise performance. Cardioprotective effects of IPC are known to re-occur 24h after the stimulus. Whether the delayed effect of IPC has similar effects as IPC on exercise performance is unknown.

  6. A Job with a Future? Delay Discounting, Magnitude Effects, and Domain Independence of Utility for Career Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Thomas E.; Hantula, Donald A.

    2003-01-01

    Seniors (n=20) assessed two job offers with differences in domain (salary/tasks), delay (career-long earnings), and magnitude (initial salary offer). Contrary to discounted utility theory, choices reflected nonconstant discount rates for future salary/tasks (delay effect), lower discount rates for salary/preferred tasks (magnitude effect), and a…

  7. Effects of sample mass and macrofossil type on radiocarbon dating of arctic and boreal lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oswald, W W; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Brubaker, L B; Hu, F S; Lozhkin, A V; Tinner, W; Kaltenrieder, P

    2006-05-29

    Dating lake sediments by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) {sup 14}C analysis of plant macrofossils overcomes one of the main problems associated with dating bulk sediment samples, the presence of old organic matter. Even so, many AMS dates from arctic and boreal sites appear to misrepresent the age of the sediment. To understand the nature of these apparent dating anomalies better, we conducted a series of {sup 14}C dating experiments using samples from Alaskan and Siberian lake-sediment cores. First, to test whether our analytical procedures introduced a sample-mass bias, we obtained {sup 14}C dates for different-sized pieces of single woody macrofossils. In these sample-mass experiments, sized statistically equivalent ages were found for samples as small as 0.05 mg C. Second, to assess whether macrofossil type influenced dating results, we conducted sample-type experiments in which {sup 14}C dates were obtained for different macrofossil types sieved from the same depth in the sediment. We dated materials from multiple levels in sediment cores from Upper Capsule Lake (North Slope, northern Alaska) and Grizzly Lake (Copper River Basin, southern Alaska), and from single depths in other records from northern Alaska. In several of the experiments there were significant discrepancies between dates for different plant tissues, and in most cases wood and charcoal were older than other macrofossil types, usually by several hundred years. This pattern suggests that {sup 14}C dates for woody macrofossils may misrepresent the age of the sediment by centuries, perhaps due to their longer terrestrial residence time and the potential in-built age of long-lived plants. This study identifies why some {sup 14}C dates appear to be inconsistent with the overall age-depth trend of a lake-sediment record, and it may guide the selection of {sup 14}C samples in future studies.

  8. Effects of Planting Date and Plant Density on Physiological Indices, Quantity and Quality Traits of Two Varieties of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sepehri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is originated from North West Africa and Mediterranean area, is a medicinal plant used for several purposes. It is an annual herb or short-lived perennial from the Asteraceae family with yellow or orange flowers. The Marigold has been used as a traditional medicine and food dye, but is currently used as an anti-inflammatory and wound healer. It is grown for drug, obtained from the flowers. The flowers blossom during summer three or more times per year. The essential oil of yellow or orange petals of Calendula officinalis L. is one of the important yield components which is used for food and medicine. Moreover, the seed has an oil content of 5-20 %. Seed oil could be used as a binder in paints, coating and cosmetics. Growth, development and production of medicinal plants, as well as other plants are affected by genetic and agronomic factors. Planting date and plant density are two most important factors that can affect yield and yield components. Planting date affects the quantity and quality of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. The optimum sowing date and plant density can improve the light and temperature absorption and other factors during the growing season. The positive effects of optimal planting date and plant density has been described by a number of researchers. The Plant population is dependent on the plant characters, growth period, time and method of cultivation. Also, the suitable sowing date has advantages for maximum production. Early sowing in the spring causes weakly establishment of plant and late planting date shortens growth period and simultaneous flowering period due to high temperature in summer. In this study, the effects of plant density and planting date on physiological indices, quantity and quality of two varieties of spare and compact marigold has been evaluated. Materials and Methods In order to determine the effects of planting date and plant density on

  9. Tracking with asymptotic sliding mode and adaptive input delay effect compensation of nonlinearly perturbed delayed systems applied to traffic feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, Boris; Haddad, Jack; Shtessel, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    Asymptotical sliding mode-model reference adaptive control design for a class of systems with parametric uncertainty, unknown nonlinear perturbation and external disturbance, and with known input and state delays is proposed. To overcome the difficulty to directly predict the plant state under uncertainties, a control design is based on a developed decomposition procedure, where a 'generalised error' in conjunction with auxiliary linear dynamic blocks with adjustable gains is introduced and the sliding variable is formed on the basis of this error. The effect of such a decomposition is to pull the input delay out of first step of the design procedure. As a result, similarly to the classical Smith predictor, the adaptive control architecture based only on the lumped-delays, i.e. without conventional in such cases difficult-implemented distributed-delay blocks. Two new adaptive control schemes are proposed. A linearisation-based control design is constructed for feedback control of an urban traffic region model with uncertain dynamics. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed adaptive control method.

  10. The effect of topical minoxidil pretreatment on nonsurgical delay of rat cutaneous flaps: further studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Nazım; Odemiş, Yusuf; Tuncer, Ersin; Yılmaz, Sarper

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of topically applied minoxidil in the pharmacological delay phenomenon and to demonstrate the comparable microscopic and macroscopic changes between minoxidil-pretreated flaps and surgically delayed flaps. A modified version of the McFarlane flap was used. Group 1 rats, in which a caudally based dorsal skin flap was raised and sutured back, were the control group. In group II, minoxidil solution was spread over the marked skin flap area for 7 days. On the 7th day, a caudally based dorsal skin flap was elevated and then sutured back. Group III rats underwent a surgical delay procedure alone. On the 7th day after flap elevation, evaluation was done by histologic examination and calculation of the flap survival areas in all groups. The lowest flap survival rate appeared in group I and was statistically different from groups II and III. The mean surviving skin flap area in the minoxidil-pretreated group was significantly larger than that in the control group. After histologic evaluation, moderate angiogenesis was also detected in group II. We also found that surgical delay significantly reduced flap necrosis when compared to the minoxidil pretreatment group. According to our study, minoxidil may be considered an effective vasoactive agent for the stimulation of angiogenesis in rat cutaneous flaps and capable of achieving pharmacological delay and increasing flap survival. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  11. TRAVELING WAVES IN A BIOLOGICAL REACTION-DIFFUSION MODEL WITH STRONG GENERIC DELAY KERNEL AND NON-LOCAL EFFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we consider the reaction diffusion equations with strong generic delay kernel and non-local effect,which models the microbial growth in a flow reactor.The existence of traveling waves is established for this model.More precisely,using the geometric singular perturbation theory,we show that traveling wave solutions exist provided that the delay is sufficiently small with the strong generic delay kernel.

  12. The Effect of Learner-generated Illustrations on the Immediate And Delayed Recall of English Idioms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrouz Aeineh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of learner generated illustrations on the immediate and delayed idiom recall of Iranian EFL (English as a foreign language learners. To accomplish this end, 40 female students participated in this study. A placement test (Quick Placement Test, Version 2 was administered to the participants to ascertain that they were all at intermediate level of proficiency. Since the design of the study was quasi experimental, they were randomly assigned to control (N: 20 and experimental (N: 20 groups. A pretest of idioms was given to the participants to ensure that they were homogeneous in terms of their knowledge of idioms. Both groups were provided with the clarification of idioms through definitions and examples. However the experimental group was required to draw their own mental image of the idioms on a paper. At the end of the treatment, students took an immediate posttest of idioms. After an interval of 2 weeks, a similar posttest was given to the students to examine the delayed recall ability of the learners. The obtained results through an independent samples t-test indicated that the experimental group slightly outperformed the control group on immediate posttest, but the difference was not statistically significant. However the results on the delayed posttest suggested that there was a significant difference between the two groups and the participants in the experimental group had stronger delayed recall ability.

  13. 78 FR 19098 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers), and... skill level in the area of intended employment. Pursuant to that now- vacated regulation, the...

  14. 78 FR 53643 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ...., Administrator, Office of Foreign Labor Certification, ETA, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room C-4312, Washington, DC 20210; Telephone (202) 693-3010 (this is not a toll-free number). Individuals with hearing or speech impairments may access the telephone number above via TTY by calling...

  15. Effects of a delay in feed delivery on behaviour, milk yield and heamatological parameters of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Normando

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a delay (at 09:30 instead of 07:30 h in Total Mixed Ration (TMR delivery on the behaviour, milk yield, and haematological parameters in dairy cows. Twelve healthy Italian Holstein cows, divided into two homogeneous groups of six each, were involved. The TMR delay was applied either for one (on Tuesday; single delay, SD or for three consecutive days (Tuesday to Thursday; repeated delay, RD to one group at a time while the other acted as control. A week of pause was interposed between treatments and the order of the treatment was randomised. Behaviour was observed by instantaneous scan sampling every 2 min during seven half-hour periods on Tuesday and Thursday and blood samples were taken at 14:30 h on these days. Milk yield was recorded daily. Data were analysed by a mixed models for repeated measurements. The delay caused a marked increase in activities towards the feeding rack prior to feeding on day 1 when delay was applied both as SD (P<0.01 and RD (P<0.05. On the third day of delay, pre- and post-meal agonistic behaviour increased in delayed cows (P<0.01. Milk yield and blood parameters were not affected by the delay. Results suggest that a two hours delay in feeding can affect behaviour in cows, increasing behavioural patterns, which may be a sign of mild frustration.

  16. Time Delay Effect in a Living Coupled Oscillator System with the Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Fujii, Teruo; Endo, Isao

    2000-08-01

    A living coupled oscillator system was constructed by a cell patterning method with a plasmodial slime mold, in which parameters such as coupling strength and distance between the oscillators can be systematically controlled. Rich oscillation phenomena between the two-coupled oscillators, namely, desynchronizing and antiphase/in-phase synchronization were observed according to these parameters. Both experimental and theoretical approaches showed that these phenomena are closely related to the time delay effect in interactions between the oscillators.

  17. Effects of early versus delayed excision and grafting on the return of the burned hand function

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hamid Salehi; Mohammad Javad Fatemi; Maryam Sedghi; Mitra Niazi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite a general consensus regarding the impacts of early excision and grafting (EE and G) of burned hand on the reducing of treatment cost and hospital stay, there are some controversial issues about its effect on the outcome of hand function. This study conducted to compare the results of the EE and G and delayed skin grafting in deep hand burns regarding the hand functional outcome. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted from April 2012 to November 2013 in sixty patie...

  18. Strong Delayed Interactive Effects of Metal Exposure and Warming: Latitude-Dependent Synergisms Persist Across Metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debecker, Sara; Dinh, Khuong V; Stoks, Robby

    2017-02-21

    As contaminants are often more toxic at higher temperatures, predicting their impact under global warming remains a key challenge for ecological risk assessment. Ignoring delayed effects, synergistic interactions between contaminants and warming, and differences in sensitivity across species' ranges could lead to an important underestimation of the risks. We addressed all three mechanisms by studying effects of larval exposure to zinc and warming before, during, and after metamorphosis in Ischnura elegans damselflies from high- and low-latitude populations. By integrating these mechanisms into a single study, we could identify two novel patterns. First, during exposure zinc did not affect survival, whereas it induced mild to moderate postexposure mortality in the larval stage and at metamorphosis, and very strongly reduced adult lifespan. This severe delayed effect across metamorphosis was especially remarkable in high-latitude animals, as they appeared almost insensitive to zinc during the larval stage. Second, the well-known synergism between metals and warming was manifested not only during the larval stage but also after metamorphosis, yet notably only in low-latitude damselflies. These results highlight that a more complete life-cycle approach that incorporates the possibility of delayed interactions between contaminants and warming in a geographical context is crucial for a more realistic risk assessment in a warming world.

  19. Measurements of effective delayed neutron fraction in a fast neutron reactor using the perturbation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao-Jun; Yin, Yan-Peng; Fan, Xiao-Qiang; Li, Zheng-Hong; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2016-06-01

    A perturbation method is proposed to obtain the effective delayed neutron fraction β eff of a cylindrical highly enriched uranium reactor. Based on reactivity measurements with and without a sample at a specified position using the positive period technique, the reactor reactivity perturbation Δρ of the sample in β eff units is measured. Simulations of the perturbation experiments are performed using the MCNP program. The PERT card is used to provide the difference dk of effective neutron multiplication factors with and without the sample inside the reactor. Based on the relationship between the effective multiplication factor and the reactivity, the equation β eff = dk/Δρ is derived. In this paper, the reactivity perturbations of 13 metal samples at the designable position of the reactor are measured and calculated. The average β eff value of the reactor is given as 0.00645, and the standard uncertainty is 3.0%. Additionally, the perturbation experiments for β eff can be used to evaluate the reliabilities of the delayed neutron parameters. This work shows that the delayed neutron data of 235U and 238U from G.R. Keepin’s publication are more reliable than those from ENDF-B6.0, ENDF-B7.0, JENDL3.3 and CENDL2.2. Supported by Foundation of Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics (2012AA01, 2014AA01), National Natural Science Foundation (11375158, 91326104)

  20. 38 CFR 8.1 - Effective date for an insurance policy issued under section 1922(a) of title 38 U.S.C. (Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., you may request an effective date of September 1. (3) The first day of any month up to six months... insurance reserve amount for the time period for each month starting with the requested effective date up to... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date for...

  1. Effects of dark energy and flat rotation curve on the gravitational time delay of particle with non-zero mass

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Tamal; Bhadra, Arunava

    2016-01-01

    The effects of several dark energy models on gravitational time delay of particles with non-zero mass are investigated and analytical expressions for the same are obtained at the first order accuracy. Also the expression for gravitational time delay under the influence of conformal gravity potential that well describes the flat rotation curve of spiral galaxies is derived. The findings suggest that i) the conformal gravity description of dark matter reduces the net time delay in contrast to the effect of normal dark matter and therefore in principle the models can be discriminated using gravitational time delay observations and ii)the effect of dark energy/flat rotation curve may be revealed from high precision measurements of gravitational time delay of particles involving megaparsec and beyond distance-scale.

  2. The Effect of a Constant Time Delay Procedure on Teaching an Adult with Severe Mental Retardation a Recreation Bowling Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiabei; Cote, Bridget; Chen, Shihui; Liu, John

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a constant time delay (CTD) procedure on teaching a recreational bowling skill to a 39-year-old male with severe mental retardation. The CTD procedure used 5 seconds as delay interval, task direction as target stimulus, physical assistance as controlling prompt, and oral praise as reinforcer.…

  3. The Effects of Constant Time Delay and Strategic Instruction on Students with Learning Disabilities' Maintenance and Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Margaret M.; Houchins, David E.; Shippen, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this series of case studies was to compare the impact of Constant Time Delay and Strategic Instruction on the maintenance and generalization of learning. Four middle school students with learning disabilities were effectively taught two different groups of multiplication facts using Constant Time Delay and Strategic instruction. The…

  4. The Effect of a Constant Time Delay Procedure on Teaching an Adult with Severe Mental Retardation a Recreation Bowling Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiabei; Cote, Bridget; Chen, Shihui; Liu, John

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a constant time delay (CTD) procedure on teaching a recreational bowling skill to a 39-year-old male with severe mental retardation. The CTD procedure used 5 seconds as delay interval, task direction as target stimulus, physical assistance as controlling prompt, and oral praise as reinforcer.…

  5. [Effect of diazepam on delayed nausea and vomiting caused by anticancer agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, F Z; Zhang, J Q; Qiao, X M; Mao, Y C; Meng, F Y; Liu, H J; Hui, S; Zhu, F X; Shu, W; Hong, J

    1998-02-01

    We conducted an evaluation of the usefulness of antiemetics (5-Hydroxy-tryptamine 3 receptor antagonism, 5HT3RA) combined with diazepam for delayed nausea and vomiting due to anticancer agents in 17 patients with various malignancies (such as lung Ca, breast Ca, esophagus Ca, gastric Ca, colon Ca, and non Hodgkin's disease) for whom chemotherapy was performed with different regimens in the Dept. of Oncologic Chemotherapy, People's Hospital, Beijing Medical University. Antiemetics (5HT3RA) combined with diazepam were given only to cases that had symptoms of nausea and vomiting induced by anticancer agents in the 1st course and invalidity with antiemetics (5HT3RA) alone in this study. Antiemetic (5HT3RA) agents + Dexamethasone were dosed before chemotherapy and also diazepam 5 mg orally after 24 hours (namely, when nausea was observed). Nausea was reduced and vomiting decreased after the antiemetic treatment with 5HT3RA + Dexamethasone and diazepam. These results indicated that 5HT3RA and diazepam combination therapies were more effective than 5HT3 RA + Dexamethasone alone for delayed nausea and vomiting. Further, the antiemetics had characters that a short adminiter time, few times and a take not over dose. The only side effect related to this antiemetic therapy was light somnolence. Antiemetics combined with diazepam might be a useful therapy against delayed nausea and vomiting induced by anticancer agents.

  6. Competitive coexistence and competitive exclusion for a nonlinear community with delay effect and impulsive birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanping; Zhang, Feng; Wei, Jianzhou

    2016-12-01

    By constructing a population model of multi-species competition, a community with nonlinear interaction relationship is investigated, in which the species' response delay and environmental fluctuation effects (i.e., seasonal fluctuation of resource supplies and species' reproductive activities) on population are considered. Firstly, the conditions about competitive coexistence (i.e., persistence of all species) and competitive exclusion (i.e., only partial of species, but not all, keep persistence) of the community are established, and the underlying ecological mechanism of these results are analyzed. Secondly, by some illustrative examples, the interactive effects of nonlinear competition, species' response delay and environmental fluctuation on the structure of community are explored. It is demonstrated that small response delay and slight deviation of nonlinear competition indexes from 1 have little impact on the coexistence of community, but acute changes have distinct negative influence on community coexistence. This reveals to us that parameter perturbations of natural communities should keep in an appropriate range, which is of great significance in conservation and restoration biology.

  7. Design and In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ketoprofen Delayed Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerciello, Andrea; Auriemma, Giulia; Morello, Silvana; Pinto, Aldo; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Russo, Paola; Aquino, Rita P

    2015-10-01

    For the treatment of inflammatory-based diseases affected by circadian rhythms, the development of once-daily dosage forms is required to target early morning symptoms. In this study, Zn-alginate beads containing ketoprofen (K) were developed by a tandem technique prilling/ionotropic gelation. The effect of main critical variables on particles micromeritics, inner structure as well as on drug loading and in vitro drug release was studied. The in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy was evaluated using a modified protocol of carrageenan-induced edema in rat paw administering beads to rats by oral gavage at 0, 3, or 5 h before edema induction. Good drug loading and desired particle size and morphology were obtained for the optimized formulation F20. In vitro dissolution studies showed that F20 had a gastroresistant behavior and delayed release of the drug in simulated intestinal fluid. The in vitro delayed release pattern was clearly reflected in the prolonged anti-inflammatory effect in vivo of F20, compared to pure ketoprofen; F20, administered 3 h before edema induction, showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity, reducing maximum paw volume in response to carrageenan injection, whereas no response was observed for ketoprofen. The designed beads appear a promising platform suitable for a delayed release of anti-inflammatory drugs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3451-3458, 2015.

  8. Second-order term effect on the dispersion characteristics of a magnetostatic delay line

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gasperis, P.; Marcelli, R.; Miccoli, G.

    1988-04-01

    This work reanalyzes the methods of calculation of the dispersion characteristics of a dispersive magnetostatic wave delay line. It turns out that the analytical approach, commonly developed in a first-order approximation, leads to erroneous results when exploited to derive the variation of the group velocity as a function of the wave vector k (or of the frequency), particularly for k values lower than 100-200 cm-1. To get a more accurate response, higher-order terms have been introduced in the analysis of the dispersion relation. To describe their effect, the inferred analytical results are compared to the numerical ones and to the experimental responses of a magnetostatic wave delay line. Furthermore, the method has been exploited to evaluate the power threshold levels (Pthr) in the excitation of magnetostatic solitons. It gives the correct order of magnitude of values when compared to the experimental ones.

  9. Effects of time-delay in a model of intra- and inter-personal motor coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowiński, Piotr; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Krauskopf, Bernd

    2016-11-01

    Motor coordination is an important feature of intra- and inter-personal interactions, and several scenarios — from finger tapping to human-computer interfaces — have been investigated experimentally. In the 1980s, Haken, Kelso and Bunz formulated a coupled nonlinear two-oscillator model, which has been shown to describe many observed aspects of coordination tasks. We present here a bifurcation study of this model, where we consider a delay in the coupling. The delay is shown to have a significant effect on the observed dynamics. In particular, we find a much larger degree of bistablility between in-phase and anti-phase oscillations in the presence of a frequency detuning.

  10. Hopf bifurcation in a diffusive Lotka-Volterra type system with nonlocal delay effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shangjiang; Yan, Shuling

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a diffusive Lotka-Volterra type model for two species with nonlocal delay effect and Dirichlet boundary conditions is investigated in this paper. The existence and multiplicity of spatially nonhomogeneous steady-state solutions are obtained by means of Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction. The stability of spatially nonhomogeneous steady-state solutions and the existence of Hopf bifurcation with the changes of the time delay are obtained by analyzing the distribution of eigenvalues of the infinitesimal generator associated with the linearized system. By the normal form theory and the center manifold reduction, the stability and bifurcation direction of Hopf bifurcating periodic orbits are derived. Finally, our theoretical results are illustrated by a model with homogeneous kernels and one-dimensional spatial domain.

  11. Nephroprotective effect of date fruit extract against dichloroacetic acid exposure in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Arem, Amira; Thouri, Amira; Zekri, Mouna; Saafi, Emna Behija; Ghrairi, Fatma; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Achour, Lotfi

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous date extract (ADE) on dichloroacetic acid (DCA)-induced nephrotoxicity. In vitro, total phenolic content estimated in the ADE were 417.71mg gallic acid equivalents/100g fresh weights (FW), while total flavonoid and tannins contents were 285.23 and 73.65mg catechin equivalents/100g FW, respectively. The ADE has strong scavenging activity. Ferulic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids are the major's compounds. Nephrotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by the administration of 0.5 and 2g/L DCA as drinking water. Some of these rats received also by gavage ADE (4mL/kg) before the administration of DCA. After two months of experiment, DCA administration caused elevated levels of renal MDA, significant depletion of GSH levels, altered the antioxidant enzyme activities and deteriorated the renal functions as assessed by the increased plasma urea, uric acid and creatinine levels compared to control rats. The treatment with the ADE significantly normalized the increased plasma levels of creatinine, urea and uric acid, reduced the elevated MDA levels, significantly normalized the antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH level and restored the altered kidney histology in rats treated with DCA. Therefore, it was speculated that ADE protects rats from kidney damage through its antioxidant capacity.

  12. Composition of beer by 1H NMR spectroscopy: effects of brewing site and date of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Cláudia; Duarte, Iola F; Barros, António; Rodrigues, João; Spraul, Manfred; Gil, Ana M

    2006-02-08

    A principal component analysis (PCA) of 1H NMR spectra of beers differing in production site (A, B, C) and date is described, to obtain information about composition variability. First, lactic and pyruvic acids contents were found to vary significantly between production sites, good reproducibility between dates being found for site A but not for sites B and C beers. Second, site B beers were clearly distinguished by the predominance of linear dextrins, while A and C beers were richer in branched dextrins. Carbohydrate reproducibility between dates is poorer for site C with dextrin branching degree varying significantly. Finally, all production sites were successfully distinguished by their contents in adenosine/inosine, uridine, tyrosine/tyrosol, and 2-phenylethanol, reproducibility between dates being again poorer for site C. Interpretation of the above compositional differences is discussed in terms of the biochemistry taking place during brewing, and possible applications of the method in brewing process control are envisaged.

  13. Effect of cultivar type and ripening on the polyphenol content of date palm fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Noura M S; Al-Awadi, Balqees; Vauzour, David; Oruna-Concha, Maria J; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2013-03-13

    Date palm (Pheonix dactylifera) fruit contains an array of polyphenols, although how these levels alter with cultivar type and fruit ripening is unclear. Utilizing HPLC and LC-ESI-MS/MS, this study define and quantify an array of hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoids in three common cultivars of dates (Ajwa, Barni, and Khalas) at the main ripening stages (kimri, khalal, rutab, and tamr). Polyphenols were at highest concentration at earlier stages of ripening, with concentrations reducing with ripening. The khalal stage of the Ajwa cultivar contained significantly higher (P dates at the same degree of ripening. Furthermore, the Ajwa cultivar was the only one to contain significant quantities of anthocyanidins, in particular at the khalal stage. These data suggest dates are a significant source of polyphenols, especially if the earlier edible ripening stages are consumed or utilized as food ingredients.

  14. Study of associative effects of date palm leaves mixed with Aristida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    si

    2016-10-26

    Oct 26, 2016 ... leaves as a supplement for ruminants in spite of their ... nutritional value of date palm crop residues has been ... metabolizable (ME) energy value is generally calculated ..... amount of nitrogen is sufficient to sustain microbial.

  15. Shortening baroreflex delay in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients – an unknown effect of β-blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarzynska-Szymanska, Agnieszka; Ochotny, Romuald; Oko-Sarnowska, Zofia; Wachowiak-Baszynska, Hanna; Krauze, Tomasz; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Gwizdala, Adrian; Mitkowski, Przemyslaw; Guzik, Przemyslaw

    2013-01-01

    Aims Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and impaired diastolic and systolic function. Abnormal sympathetic–parasympathetic balance is a potential stimulus for left ventricular hypertrophy in HCM patients. β-Blockers are routinely used in HCM for their strong negative inotropic effect; however, these drugs also influence the sympathetic–parasympathetic balance. This study aimed to determine the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system and the autonomic effects of β-blockers in HCM patients treated or untreated with β-blockers. Methods Among 51 HCM outpatients (18–70 years old; 29 men) there were 19 individuals with no medication and 32 subjects treated with a β-blocker. Fourteen age- and gender-matched (23–70 years old; nine men) healthy volunteers were enrolled in the control group. Continuous, non-invasive finger blood pressure was recorded during supine rest for 30 min. Autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system was measured by heart rate variability and spontaneous baroreflex function (cross-correlation sequence method). Results The mean pulse interval, time domain and spectral measures of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity were comparable between HCM patients, treated or not with β-blockers, and the control group. However, the delay of the baroreflex was significantly longer in HCM patients who were not treated with β-blockers [2.0 (1.6–2.3) s] in comparison with HCM patients receiving β-blockers [1.4 (1.1–1.8) s; P = 0.0072] or control subjects [1.2 (0.8–1.8) s; P = 0.0025]. This delay did not differ between HCM patients treated with β-blockers and the control group. Conclusions Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy not treated with β-blockers is accompanied by prolonged baroreflex delay. The use of β-blockers normalizes this delay. PMID:23126403

  16. Effects of sowing date on phenotypic plasticity of fitness-related traits in two annual weeds on the Songnen Plain of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Lindquist, John L; Yang, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity of fitness-related traits is vital for plant species to adapt to variable environments. Chenopodium glaucum L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L. are two common weed species globally. Understanding the plasticity in life-history traits, especially in reproductive allocation, within and among these species is important for predicting their success and for managing them in different environments. Seeds of the two plant species were sown every 10 days from 26 Jun to 15 Aug. Life-history and fitness-related traits of both phenology and morphology were measured, and dry biomass of roots, stems, leaves, and reproductive tissues was determined at physiological maturity. Length of reproductive and total life period of the two species differed among six sowing-date treatments. Later germinating plants led to relatively reduced total life period, size, and earlier reproduction than earlier germinating plants. The ratio of reproductive biomass to total plant biomass increased with later planting dates in C. glaucum but declined in A. retroflexus. Mature plant height, crown diameter, and reproductive tissue biomass, and seed production of C. glaucum and A. retroflexus increased with delayed reproductive period. Both species displayed true plasticity in reproductive allocation. However, the sowing date had a far greater effect on rate of vegetative growth than on allocation to reproduction. The fitness of both C. glaucum and A. retroflexus populations have an apparent increase when the period between germination and seed production is much longer. However, C. glaucum appears better adapted to later sowing than A. retroflexus. Controlling seedlings prior to reproduction will alleviate the negative effect not only in the present year but also in future years.

  17. EFFECTS OF PLANTING DATES AND VARIETIES ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BROCCOLI DURING RAINY SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karistsapol Nooprom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica is one of the most popular vegetable crops in many countries of the world as its nutritional importance. It has the most exacting climatic and cultural requirements, which limit its commercial production to a few favored locations. In Thailand, broccoli has been expending in recent years and amount of increasing production. It is best planted in the North where the weather is cool or in the Northeast during winter season. The South has tropical climates and raining all year round, but farmers can produce broccoli during early summer by using the heat-tolerant varieties. Although the broccoli is highly priced and still wanted by consumers in the rainy season, the farmers might not choose to grow as the problems with low productivity. Thus, the selection of suitable planting dates and varieties is crucial for successful cultivation during rainy season in the South. The experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of planting dates and broccoli varieties on their growth and yield responses during rainy season. Four broccoli varieties: ‘Top Green’, ‘Green Queen’, ‘Yok Kheo’ and ‘Special’ were plated for six planting dates: July, August, September, October, November and December at Prince of Songkla University, Thailand, between July, 2011 and January, 2012. Split-plot in a randomized complete block design was used in this experiment with four replications. This study showed that four broccoli varieties had highly seedling survival rates of 70.31-99.22% when planting in July-December except ‘Special’ of 54.68% when planting in August. ‘Yok Kheo’ had plant diameter of 67.54-75.24 cm when planting in July and December, not significantly different from ‘Top Green’ planting in July, August and November of 69.15-71.24 cm and ‘Green Queen’ in July and September of 68.69-68.88 cm. The highest total yield was obtained by ‘Yok Kheo

  18. Effect of Different Sowing Dates in South Henan ’s Rice-growing Areas on the Growth and Yield of Ratoon Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangchen LIU; Daqing FENG; Guilong YU; Haiying ZHAO; Li QIAO; Yanting LI; Xuejun FAN; Mingcheng LIU; Qiuju ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the optimal sowing date of ratoon rice in South Henan’s rice-growing areas,this paper performs a comparative analysis of rice growth process,seedling quality and yield of first season rice and ratoon rice under different sowing date treatments. The results show that under climatic conditions( 2014),by using dry seedling cultivation in a small plastic shed,the growth of seedling sown on February21 was affected,while the sowing treatments from March 1 to April 11 can breed normal seedlings,and in this period,the maturity period of first season rice was delayed with prolonged sowing date,and ratoon rice yield declined with prolonged sowing date( total production of rice sown on 11 March reaching a peak). Thus,it is considered that the optimal sowing date of ratoon rice in South Henan’s rice-growing areas is mid-March.

  19. Echocardiographic effects of changing atrioventricular delay in cardiac resynchronization therapy based on displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Nana; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Risum, Niels;

    2010-01-01

    In studies showing benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), individual atrioventricular (AV) delays have been optimized using echocardiography. However, the method for AV delay optimization remains controversial.......In studies showing benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), individual atrioventricular (AV) delays have been optimized using echocardiography. However, the method for AV delay optimization remains controversial....

  20. A class of neutral-type delay differential equations that are effectively retarded

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Roy, Sandip; Wan, Yan; Saberi, Ali

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that some delay-differential equations of neutral type are, up to basis transformation, equivalent to retarded delay differential equations. In particular, for two classes of neutral delay differential equation models, we use state transformations to show that delayed derivatives can

  1. A class of neutral-type delay differential equations that are effectively retarded

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Roy, Sandip; Wan, Yan; Saberi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that some delay-differential equations of neutral type are, up to basis transformation, equivalent to retarded delay differential equations. In particular, for two classes of neutral delay differential equation models, we use state transformations to show that delayed derivatives can

  2. Ethyl Formate Fumigation of Dry and Semidry Date Fruits: Experimental Kinetics, Modeling, and Lethal Effect on Carob Moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessi, Haithem; Bellagha, Sihem; Lebdi, Kaouthar Grissa; Bikoba, Veronique; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2015-06-01

    Ethyl formate (EF) was studied as a fumigant agent with the objective to replace methyl bromide (MB) for date fruit disinfestations. Date fruits Phoenix dactylifera 'Deglet Nour' with different initial moisture content (16% for dry dates, 20% for semidry dates, and a mixture of the two types) were separately fumigated with EF at different concentrations: 28.6, 57.3, 85.9, and 114.6 g/m3 for 2 h. Experimental data of EF sorption during fumigation was successfully fitted to Peleg's model. This model allows the prediction of the effects of date moisture content and EF concentration on sorption behavior. Samples with different moisture content showed similar EF sorption behavior. Dates were artificially infested with carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller)) at different life stages. Eggs, third- and fifth-instars, and pupae were exposed to 28.6, 57.3, 85.9, and 114.6 g/m3 EF for 2 h. Among these life stages, fifth-instars were the most resistant to EF fumigation. A 2-h fumigation with 114.6 g/m3 EF provided complete control of eggs, third-instars, and pupae of carob moth, and generated 91.6% mortality of fifth-instars. A longer fumigation time or higher EF concentration may provide complete control of all life stages of carob moth.

  3. Effect of Different Planting Dates on the Panicle Characteristics and Yield of Rice Cultivars in Northern Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Limoochi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of different planting dates (different ambient temperature conditions on the characteristics of rice panicle and yield of its cultivars in Khuzestan climate in 2010. The experimental design was a split plot in a Randomized Block Design with four replications. The main factor was the planting date with three dates (May 25th , June 9th , and June 25th and the sub factor consisted of three rice cultivars including Red Anbori (long and short, and Champa. Results showed that the highest grain yield, seed weight in each panicle, grain number, and 1000-grain weight belonged to the third planting date the highest fertility percentage belonged to the second planting date and the highest number of unfilled seeds in panicle and weight of unfilled 1000-grain were observed in the first planting date. With an average of 3795.4 Kg/ ha, Champa cultivar had the highest grain yield. In addition, given the correlation coefficients, grain yield had the most positive and significant correlations with 1000-grain weight (0.779*, weight of each panicle`s seeds (0.755*, and the number of filled seeds per panicle (0.403*, which indicates the high and direct impact of these characteristics on the increase of yield as well as the necessity of conducting further studies to increase the yield.

  4. True Love: Effectiveness of a School-Based Program to Reduce Dating Violence Among Adolescents in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G; Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Piras, Claudia; Van Buren, S Janae; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2016-10-14

    Dating violence is a significant problem in Mexico. National survey data estimated 76 % of Mexican youth have been victims of psychological aggression in their relationships; 15.5 % have experienced physical violence; and 16.5 % of women have been the victims of sexual violence. Female adolescents perpetrate physical violence more frequently than males, while perpetration between genders of other types of violence is unclear. Furthermore, poor, marginalized youth are at a higher risk for experiencing dating violence. "Amor… pero del Bueno" (True Love) was piloted in two urban, low-income high schools in Mexico City to prevent dating violence. The intervention consisted of school-level and individual-level components delivered over 16 weeks covering topics on gender roles, dating violence, sexual rights, and strategies for coping with dating violence. The short-term impact was assessed quasi-experimentally, using matching techniques and fixed-effects models. A sample of 885 students (381 students exposed to the classroom-based curriculum of the individual-level component (SCC, IL-1) and 540 exposed only to the school climate component (SCC)) was evaluated for the following: changes in dating violence behaviors (psychological, physical and sexual), beliefs related to gender norms, knowledge, and skills for preventing dating violence. We found a 58 % (p violence, respectively, among SCC, IL-1 males compared to males exposed only to the SCC component. We also found a significant reduction in beliefs and attitudes justifying sexism and violence in dating relationships among SCC, IL-1 females (6 %; p < 0.05) and males (7 %; p < 0.05).

  5. Delayed effects of carcinoma in childhood or adolescence; Spaetfolgen von Krebs im Kindes- und Jugendalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz-Kreisel, Peter; Blettner, Maria [Universitaetsmedizin der Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik (IMBEI)

    2016-08-01

    Due to advances in diagnostics and therapy the survival rate and survival time of juvenile oncologic patients have increased during the last years. About 80% of these patients survive 15 years after diagnosis, dependent on localization, status and some other factors. With increasing survival probability the many questions concerning delayed effects of disease and therapy arise. Especially cardiac and vascular side effects seem to be predominant. The PanCare network (Pan-European network for care of survivors after childhood and adolescent cancer) has evoked several research projects.

  6. Best-fit estimate of relativistic effects in time-delay experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, J.-P.

    1972-01-01

    Time-delay experiments are analyzed within the frame of a curved space-time. Residuals from Newtonian best fits of relativistic data are used as a measure of the 'relativistic effects.' Radial transponder trajectories are considered. If the motion is towards the sun, the relativistic residuals are of the order of 100 m. If the motion is away from the sun, they are at the 10-km level and the fraction due to the second-order curvature of the metric is at the 1-km level. Those effects are significantly smaller than those calculated from the divergence of the Newtonian and relativistic predictions after exact fit of the initial measurements.

  7. Effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on gastrointestinal transit activity in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Abdellaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Rtibi, Kaïs; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel

    2014-07-01

    The current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) activity in healthy adult rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (NaCl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 mL/kg, b.w.). Two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respectively, clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, 1 mg/kg, b.w.) and yohimbine (an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, 2mg/kg, b.w.). Chemical analysis showed that the dates pulp extract is more rich in sugars and minerals, especially potassium and sucrose, as compared with palm sap composition. On the other hand, in vivo study showed that the aqueous dates pulp extract significantly, and dose dependently, increased the GIT activity while the palm sap slightly increased it. Moreover, a converse effect has been observed using clonidine (decreased 68%) and yohimbine (increased 33%) on the GIT activity. These findings suggest that dates pulp extract and palm sap have a stimulating effect on GIT activity in rats and confirm their use in traditional Tunisian medicine for the treatment of constipation.

  8. Marble burying as a test of the delayed anxiogenic effects of acute immobilisation stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Sonal; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2014-08-15

    A majority of rodent studies characterizing the anxiogenic effects of stress have utilized exploration-based models, such as the elevated plus-maze. An alternative strategy has relied on ethologically natural behavior such as defensive burying. One such paradigm, marble burying, has proven to be an effective behavioral assay of the anxiolytic effects of pharmacological manipulations, and of genetically modified mouse models. Relatively little, however, is known about the sensitivity of this test in assessing the anxiogenic effects of stress. Most of the earlier reports have examined the immediate, but not more long-term, effects of pharmacological or environmental manipulations in mice. Hence, we used the marble burying test to examine if acute immobilization stress leads to enhanced anxiety-like behavior in C57Bl/6 mice if the test is employed with a significant time delay. We find this test to be sensitive enough to detect the anxiogenic effects even 10 days after a single episode of 2-h immobilization stress. Our results suggest that the marble burying test could serve as a useful behavioral paradigm for not only estimating the gradual progression of the anxiogenic impact of stress over time, but also raises the possibility of using the temporal delay after stress to test the potential efficacy of post-stress interventions with anxiolytic drugs.

  9. Effect of delayed light curing of a resin composite on marginal integrity in cylindrical dentine cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, A; Debari, K; Itoh, K; Hisamitsu, H; Wakumoto, S

    1993-12-01

    The effect of delayed light curing of resin composite on marginal adaptation has been examined by measuring the wall-to-wall polymerization contraction gap when using a commercial resin composite together with experimental dentine bonding systems to restore cylindrical preparations in dentine. Morphological changes in dentine during dentine bonding procedures were observed using a scanning electron microscope. In a previous report, the contraction gap width for a resin composite increased when irradiation of the resin system was delayed, despite the use of a dentine bonding system considered to be 'contraction' gap free. Such deterioration in marginal adaptation was minimized by use of an experimental dentine primer, 40% erythritol methacrylate aqueous solution (EM), followed by the use of a commercial dual- or autocured dentine bonding agent. Under scanning electron microscopy, the dentine surface microstructure became unclear after EM priming, and a polymer film was detected after polymerization of the dual-cured dentine bonding agent. The hydrogelled primer and the formation of a polymer network on the dentine surface may prevent the flow of fluid from the pulp through the dentine tubules, and maintain marginal integrity if there is delay in light curing of light-activated resin composite systems.

  10. Remediation of time-delay effects in tokamak axisymmetric control loops by optimal tuning and robust predictor augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondak, D.; Arastoo, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Schuster, E., E-mail: schuster@lehigh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Walker, M.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    It is sometimes incorrectly assumed that, because superconducting tokamaks already have significant intrinsic or imposed sources of control delay, introducing extra delays/lags into the axisymmetric control loops will have negligible detrimental impact on the plasma control. This study exposes and quantifies the detrimental effects imposed by time delays/lags in the control loop in superconducting tokamaks, using as an example the plasma current control and radial position control in a vertically stable circular plasma in the KSTAR tokamak. Delays and lags in the power supplies, data acquisition, and vessel structure are taken into account. Optimal tuning of PID controllers in combination with an ohmic-flux control strategy is proposed as a possible method for remediating the negative effects of time delays/lags. In addition, an augmentation of the control loop by the introduction of a robust predictor has been proposed to improve the performance of the time-delayed closed-loop system when the amount of delay/lag in the loop is unknown. The Nyquist dual locus technique based on the Argument Principle in complex theory is employed to assess stability of the optimally tuned closed-loop system in the presence of time delays.

  11. Effect of Algae-Derived Biodiesel on Ignition Delay, Combustion Process and Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Mahendran; Khalid, Amir; Salleh, Hamidon; Razali, Azahari; Sapit, Azwan; Jaat, Norrizam; Sunar, Norshuhaila

    2016-11-01

    Algae oil methyl esters produced from algae oil were blended with diesel at various volumetric percentages to evaluate the variations in the fuel properties. Microalgae biodiesel production has received much interest in an effort for sustainable development as the microalgae seem to be an attractive way to produce the biodiesel due to their ability to accumulate lipids and their very high actual photosynthetic yields. Correlations between fuel properties, including the calorific heat, density, kinematic viscosity, and oxidation stability of the Algae oil-diesel blends, and the blending ratio of the algae biodiesel have been established. As a result, low blending ratio of the Algae oil with diesel was recommended up to 2vol % in comparison with other type of biodiesel-diesel blends. The objective of this research is to investigate effect of biodiesel blending ratio on ignition delay, combustion process and emission for different type of biodiesel. The combustion tests of the Algae-Derived biodiesel blends were performed in a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM). The combustion tests were carried out at injection pressure of 130 MPa and ambient temperature were varied between 750 K and 1100 K. The result from the experiment is compared with Palm-Oil biodiesel which are varied in biodiesel percentage from 5vol% to 15vol% and jatropha biodiesel. Higher ignition delay period were clearly observed with higher blending ratio. It seems that increasing blending ratio exhibits relatively weakens in fuel ignitibility and therefore prolongs the ignition delay of algae biodiesel. A2 had the lowest ignition delay period when compared with J2, B5, B10 and B15 due to lower density that present in A2 molecules.The concentration of carbon dioxide and nitrogen monoxide in the exhaust gas increased with higher blending ratio while the concentration of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon decreased.

  12. Effect of educational television commercial on pre-hospital delay in patients with ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Haruo; Kon, Tomoya; Ueno, Tatsuya; Haga, Rie; Yamazaki, Keishi; Yagihashi, Kei; Funamizu, Yukihisa; Arai, Akira; Suzuki, Chieko; Nunomura, Jin-ichi; Baba, Masayuki; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Administering intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) within 4.5 h or endovascular procedures within 8 h of ischemic stroke onset may reduce the risk of disability. The effectiveness of media campaigns to raise stroke awareness and shorten pre-hospital delay is unclear. We studied 1144 consecutive ischemic stroke patients at Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Japan, between March 2010 and February 2014. From March 2012, the government sponsored an educational campaign based on a television commercial to improve knowledge of stroke symptoms and encourage ambulance calls for facial palsy, arm palsy, or speech disturbance. For the 544 and 600 patients admitted before and during the intervention, respectively, we recorded the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, stroke type, the time when patients or bystanders recognized stroke symptoms, and hospital arrival time. Pre-hospital delay, as the time interval from awareness of stroke to hospital arrival, was categorized as 0-3, 3-6, and 6+ h. The mean pre-hospital delay was shorter (12.0 vs 13.5 h; P = 0.0067), the proportion of patients arriving within 3 h was larger (55.7 vs 46.5 %; P = 0.0021), and the proportion arriving after 6 h was smaller (32.7 vs 39.5 %; P = 0.0162) in the intervention group than in the pre-intervention group. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients treated with r-tPA (6 and 7.5 % of the intervention and pre-intervention groups, respectively). A television-based public education campaign potentially reduced pre-hospital delay for ischemic stroke patients, but the r-tPA treatment rate was unchanged.

  13. Laparoscopy mitigates adverse oncological effects of delayed adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Gerald A; Ashburn, Jean; Kiran, Ravi P; Khorana, Alok A; Kalady, Matthew F

    2015-02-01

    Delaying initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy more than 8 weeks after surgical resection for colorectal cancer adversely affects overall patient survival. The effect of a laparoscopic surgical approach on initiation of chemotherapy has not been studied. The goal of this study was to determine if a laparoscopic approach to colon cancer resection affects the timing of adjuvant chemotherapy and outcomes. Patients who underwent curative surgery for stage II or III colon cancer and received adjuvant chemotherapy between 2003 and 2010 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Patients were categorized according to surgical approach: open or laparoscopic. Patient demographics, clinicopathologic variables, postoperative complications, time from surgery to initiation of chemotherapy, and long-term oncologic outcomes were compared. Age, gender, ASA class, BMI, tumor stage, and postoperative complications were similar for laparoscopic and open cases, while length of stay was 2 days shorter for laparoscopic cases (5.4 vs 7.6 days, p < 0.01). The proportion of patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy more than 8 weeks after surgery did not differ between the groups (35.6 % open vs 38.7 % laparoscopic, p = 0.77). In the open group, delay in chemotherapy after surgery was associated with decreased disease-free and overall survival (p = 0.01, 0.01, respectively). However, delay in chemotherapy more than 8 weeks did not affect disease-free or overall survival in the laparoscopy group (p = 0.93, 0.51, respectively). The benefits of quicker recovery after laparoscopic surgery did not translate into earlier initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy in this retrospective study. However, a laparoscopic approach negated the inferior oncologic outcomes of patients who received delayed initiation of chemotherapy.

  14. Effects of early versus delayed excision and grafting on the return of the burned hand function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Seyed Hamid; Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Sedghi, Maryam; Niazi, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Despite a general consensus regarding the impacts of early excision and grafting (EE and G) of burned hand on the reducing of treatment cost and hospital stay, there are some controversial issues about its effect on the outcome of hand function. This study conducted to compare the results of the EE and G and delayed skin grafting in deep hand burns regarding the hand functional outcome. This study was conducted from April 2012 to November 2013 in sixty patients with deep thermal burns of the dorsal hand with total body surface area (TBSA) <20% who were admitted to special burn hospital. After standard primary burn care and resuscitation, necessary procedures (EE and G or more conservative treatment) were performed based on the patients' conditions. The patients were placed into early excision (No. =30) and delayed excision group (No. =30). Total active motion (TAM) of fingers, grip strength of the hand and the assessment of disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire, were measured in all patients 6 months after grafting. The average percentage of TBSA in the EE and G group was more than the delayed excision group (17.34% ±5.12% vs. 15.64% ±5.83%), this difference was not significant (P = 0.23). After 6 months, the average of the TAM and grip strength in the EE and G group was significantly more than that of the delayed group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.019). The present study showed that EE and G with proper physical therapy and rehabilitation management provides a higher functional outcome in dorsal deep burned hand.

  15. Effects of early versus delayed excision and grafting on the return of the burned hand function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamid Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a general consensus regarding the impacts of early excision and grafting (EE and G of burned hand on the reducing of treatment cost and hospital stay, there are some controversial issues about its effect on the outcome of hand function. This study conducted to compare the results of the EE and G and delayed skin grafting in deep hand burns regarding the hand functional outcome. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted from April 2012 to November 2013 in sixty patients with deep thermal burns of the dorsal hand with total body surface area (TBSA <20% who were admitted to special burn hospital. After standard primary burn care and resuscitation, necessary procedures (EE and G or more conservative treatment were performed based on the patients' conditions. The patients were placed into early excision (No. =30 and delayed excision group (No. =30. Total active motion (TAM of fingers, grip strength of the hand and the assessment of disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire, were measured in all patients 6 months after grafting. Results: The average percentage of TBSA in the EE and G group was more than the delayed excision group (17.34% ±5.12% vs. 15.64% ±5.83%, this difference was not significant (P = 0.23. After 6 months, the average of the TAM and grip strength in the EE and G group was significantly more than that of the delayed group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.019. Conclusion: The present study showed that EE and G with proper physical therapy and rehabilitation management provides a higher functional outcome in dorsal deep burned hand.

  16. Evaluation of the effects of mulch on optimum sowing date and irrigation management of zero till wheat in central Punjab, India using APSIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balwinder-Singh; Humphreys, E; Gaydon, D S; Eberbach, P L

    2016-10-01

    Machinery for sowing wheat directly into rice residues has become more common in the rice-wheat systems of the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, with increasing numbers of farmers now potentially able to access the benefits of residue retention. However, surface residue retention affects soil water and temperature dynamics, thus the optimum sowing date and irrigation management for a mulched crop may vary from those of a traditional non-mulched crop. Furthermore, the effects of sowing date and irrigation management are likely to vary with soil type and seasonal conditions. Therefore, a simulation study was conducted using the APSIM model and 40 years of weather data to evaluate the effects of mulch, sowing date and irrigation management and their interactions on wheat grain yield, irrigation requirement (I) and water productivity with respect to irrigation (WPI) and evapotranspiration (WPET). The results suggest that the optimum wheat sowing date in central Punjab depends on both soil type and the presence or absence of mulch. On the sandy loam, with irrigation scheduled at 50% soil water deficit (SWD), the optimum sowing date was late October to early November for maximising yield, WPI and WPET. On the clay loam, the optimum date was about one week later. The effect of mulch on yield varied with seasonal conditions and sowing date. With irrigation at 50% SWD, mulching of wheat sown at the optimum time increased average yield by up to 0.5 t ha(-1). The beneficial effect of mulch on yield increased to averages of 1.2-1.3 t ha(-1) as sowing was advanced to 15 October. With irrigation at 50% SWD and 7 November sowing, mulch reduced the number of irrigations by one in almost 50% of years, a reduction of about 50 mm on the sandy loam and 60 mm on the clay loam. The reduction in irrigation amount was mainly due to reduced soil evaporation. Mulch reduced irrigation requirement by more as sowing was delayed, more so on the sandy loam than the clay loam

  17. Single-gene speciation with pleiotropy: effects of allele dominance, population size, and delayed inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamichi, Masato; Sasaki, Akira

    2013-07-01

    Single-gene speciation is considered to be unlikely, but an excellent example is found in land snails, in which a gene for left-right reversal has given rise to new species multiple times. This reversal might be facilitated by their small population sizes and maternal effect (i.e., "delayed inheritance," in which an individual's phenotype is determined by the genotype of its mother). Recent evidence suggests that a pleiotropic effect of the speciation gene on antipredator survival may also promote speciation. Here we theoretically demonstrate that, without a pleiotropic effect, in small populations the fixation probability of a recessive mutant is higher than a dominant mutant, but they are identical for large populations and sufficiently weak selection. With a pleiotropic effect that increases mutant viability, a dominant mutant has a higher fixation probability if the strength of viability selection is sufficiently greater than that of reproductive incompatibility, whereas a recessive mutant has a higher fixation probability otherwise. Delayed inheritance increases the fixation probability of a mutant if viability selection is sufficiently weaker than reproductive incompatibility. Our results clarify the conflicting effects of viability selection and positive frequency-dependent selection due to reproductive incompatibility and provide a new perspective to single-gene speciation theory.

  18. Gravitomagnetic time delay and the Lense-Thirring effects in f(R) gravity theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Noelia S.; Santos, Janilo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Recently, in face of the impressive amount of astrophysical data pointing to a phase of accelerated expansion of the universe, modified gravity models had a revival, mainly in the cosmological context. Perhaps the much simply of these models, f(R) gravity examines the possibility of modifying Einstein's general relativity by adding terms proportional to powers of the Ricci scalar R to the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian. Nowadays there is increasing interest in applications of f(R) gravity to cosmology motivated by the fact that these theories can exhibit naturally an accelerating late expansion phase without introducing exotic form of matter like the so called dark energy. However, when modifying gravity, one must ensure that general relativity is recovered in the well tested short scales like the solar system. As is well known, general relativity predicts interesting effects associated with rotations of massive bodies, the so called gravitomagnetic effects. The Lense-Thirring precession and the gravitomagnetic time delay are the much studied such effects in the weak field and slow motion approximation of general relativity, valid throughout the solar system. Here we investigate and discuss the gravitomagnetic time delay and the Lense-Thirring effects in the context of the f(R) theories of gravity. We obtain the equation of motion of a particle inside the gravitomagnetic field of a slowly rotating distribution of matter, in the framework of a general f(R) theory, and compare it with that obtained from the weak field approximation of general relativity. Moreover, we calculate the gravitomagnetic time delay in light ray propagation near a rotating mass in the context of f(R) gravity and discuss the observational consequences associated with some classes of these theories. (author)

  19. Effect of planting date and spacing on growth and yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under irrigated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dalain, Saddam Aref; Abdel-Ghani, Adel H; Al-Dala'een, Jawad A; Thalaen, Haditha A

    2012-12-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) plant is a medicinal aromatic herb and belongs to Apiaceae family. It has a rich nutritional value and has many medicinal usages. Very limited information is available in the literature about fennel cultivation and production practices. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of planting date and plant spacing and their interactive effects on yield, yield components and growth of Fennel under irrigation. Three planting dates (Oct. 1st, Nov. 1st and Dec. 1st) and four plant spacings (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm with constant row width, 60 cm) were used. Fruit yield was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by plant spacing and planting date and their interaction. Early planting significantly increased the fruit yield combined with higher number of branches per plant, number of umbrella per plant, number of fruit per plant and plant height. The percentage of increases in Oct. 1st were 34.4 and 32.2% in fruit and biological yield respectively compared with Dec. 1st. Harvest index and thousand fruit weight was not significantly affected by planting date. Increase plant spacing to 30 cm led to more than 15% increase in fruit and biological yield. The early planting date with 30 cm plant spacing resulted in higher fruit (4136 kg ha(-1)) and biological yield (10,114 kg ha(-1)).

  20. Simulator study of the effect of visual-motion time delays on pilot tracking performance with an audio side task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D. R.; Miller, G. K., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of time delay was determined in the visual and motion cues in a flight simulator on pilot performance in tracking a target aircraft that was oscillating sinusoidally in altitude only. An audio side task was used to assure the subject was fully occupied at all times. The results indicate that, within the test grid employed, about the same acceptable time delay (250 msec) was obtained for a single aircraft (fighter type) by each of two subjects for both fixed-base and motion-base conditions. Acceptable time delay is defined as the largest amount of delay that can be inserted simultaneously into the visual and motion cues before performance degradation occurs. A statistical analysis of the data was made to establish this value of time delay. Audio side task provided quantitative data that documented the subject's work level.

  1. Effect of time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy in a stochastic dynamical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Min-Min; Wang Can-Jun; Mei Dong-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy are investigated in a time-delayed dynamical system driven by correlated noise.Using the Markov approximation of the stochastic delay differential equations and the Schwartz inequality principle,we obtain an analytical expression for the upper bound UB(t) of the time derivative of the information entropy.The results show that there is a critical value of T (delay time),and UB(t) presents opposite behaviours on difference sides of the critical value.For the case of the weak additive noise,T can induce a reentrance transition.Delay time T also causes a reversal behaviour in UB(t)-λ plot,where λ denotes the decree of the correlation between the two noises.

  2. Effects of delayed NSAID administration after experimental eccentric contraction injury – A cellular and proteomics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldape, Michael J.; Bayer, Clifford R.; Katahira, Eva J.; Bond, Laura; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Clauss, Therese R. W.; Metz, Thomas O.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Stevens, Dennis L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute muscle injuries are exceedingly common and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed to reduce the associated inflammation, swelling and pain that peak 1–2 days post-injury. While prophylactic use or early administration of NSAIDs has been shown to delay muscle regeneration and contribute to loss of muscle strength after healing, little is known about the effects of delayed NSAID use. Further, NSAID use following non-penetrating injury has been associated with increased risk and severity of infection, including that due to group A streptococcus, though the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of delayed NSAID administration on muscle repair and sought mechanisms supporting an injury/NSAID/infection axis. Methods A murine model of eccentric contraction (EC)-induced injury of the tibialis anterior muscle was used to profile the cellular and molecular changes induced by ketorolac tromethamine administered 47 hr post injury. Results NSAID administration inhibited several important muscle regeneration processes and down-regulated multiple cytoprotective proteins known to inhibit the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death. These activities were associated with increased caspase activity in injured muscles but were independent of any NSAID effect on macrophage influx or phenotype switching. Conclusions These findings provide new molecular evidence supporting the notion that NSAIDs have a direct negative influence on muscle repair after acute strain injury in mice and thus add to renewed concern about the safety and benefits of NSAIDS in both children and adults, in those with progressive loss of muscle mass such as the elderly or patients with cancer or AIDS, and those at risk of secondary infection after trauma or surgery. PMID:28245256

  3. Effects of Time Delay on Stability of an Unstable State in a Bistable System with Correlated Noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun; MEI Dong-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    @@ Effects of time delay on stability of an unstable state in a time-delayed bistable system are investigated.The analytic expression of the transition rate W(xu,τ)from unstable state xu to stable state x+ is derived.The numerical calculation results of W(xu,τ)indicate that W(xu,τ)decreases with the increasing multiplicative noise intensity, the additive noise intensi by and the strength of correlations between the multiplicative and the additive noise increase, but W(xu,τ)increases with increasing delay time.Namely, the multiplicative noise, the additive noise and the correlations between the multiplicative and the additive noises enhance the stability of the unstable state in the time-delayed bistable system but the stability is weakened by time delay.%Effects of time delay on stability of an unstable state in a time-delayed bistable system are investigated. The analytic expression of the transition rate W(xu, T) from unstable state xu to stable state x+ is derived. The numerical calculation results of W(xu, T) indicate that W(xu, T) decreases with the increasing multiplicative noise intensity, the additive noise intensity and the strength of correlations between the multiplicative and the additive noise increase, but W(xu, T) increases with increasing delay time. Namely, the multiplicative noise, the additive noise and the correlations between the multiplicative and the additive noises enhance the stability of the unstable state in the time-delayed bistable system but the stability is weakened by time delay.

  4. Boiling Delay phenomenon in a Thermosyphon Heat Sink and Its Effect on Device Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeilinHu; YihuiZhou; 等

    1994-01-01

    A new kind of thermosyphon heat sink has been studied and developed,its peformance being measured.It was found that a remarkable boiling delay phenomenon occurs during its work.The phenomenon is described and explained and its effects on thermoresistance performance at both steady and transient states are discussed.The thermoresistance of this sink is found to be 0.029℃/W at air velocity 5m/s.THis heat sink will satisfy the needs of cooling rectifier diodes and thyristors of rated currents up to 1000 amperes.

  5. An Investigation of the Effect of Segmentation on Immediate and Delayed Knowledge Transfer in a Multimedia Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano, Gina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of segmentation on immediate and delayed recall and transfer in a multimedia learning environment. The independent variables of segmentation and non-segmentation, and immediate and delayed assessments were manipulated to assess the effects of segmentation on the participantsâ ability to recall and transfer information from the multimedia tutorial. Data was analyzed using a 2X2 factorial design. The results of this study found that segme...

  6. Differential Gender Effects of Exposure to Rap Music on African American Adolescents' Acceptance of Teen Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assessed the effects of exposure to nonviolent rap videos on black adolescents' perceptions of teen dating violence. Results from 60 black adolescents and teenagers indicate a significant interaction between gender and video exposure: male acceptance of the use of violence was not a function of viewing the videos, whereas video-viewing females…

  7. 76 FR 79604 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF36 Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of... of the ``Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Final Rule... for the ``Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Final...

  8. 75 FR 47588 - Trans Bay Cable, LLC; Notice of Institution of Section 206 Investigation and Refund Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Trans Bay Cable, LLC; Notice of Institution of Section 206 Investigation and..., concerning the justness and reasonableness of rates proposed by Trans Bay Cable, LLC (Trans Bay) in ] Docket No. ER10-116-000. Trans Bay Cable, LLC, 132 FERC 61,083 (2010). The refund effective date in...

  9. 77 FR 39388 - Removal of Category IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc Definitions; Confirmation of Effective Date and Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) requested that the FAA consider postponing the effective date of the rule until the rule is reviewed through an international process. ICAO stated that due to the... Category IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc definitions. ICAO further stated that additional time was necessary...

  10. Effect of Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) Cutting Date and Planting Density on Weed Suppression in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to: 1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks...

  11. The Effectiveness of Contextually Supported Play Date Interactions between Children with Autism and Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Robert L.; Werner, Grace A.; Vismara, Laurie A.; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2005-01-01

    Difficulties with social interaction are characteristic of autism. This study presents data illustrating the use of motivational strategies in play dates to improve the quality of social interactions between children with autism and their typically developing peers. Specifically, a multiple baseline design across participants shows how a…

  12. A study on the effects of exchange rate and foreign policies on Iranians dates export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khalighi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was studying the impact of exchange rate on date export as one of the most important and greatest foreign currency income earned horticultural products in agriculture sector in Iran. Selected time period in this study was chosen between 1991 and 2011. For this purpose, ordinary least squares (OLS method has used to estimate the relationships between the value of date export and the variables taken from stationary tests. Library research method has used for the analysis. In this regard, required data have collected from various scientific and research resources. The results indicated that, exchange rate is a crucial factor for dates export and also for exporters. In addition, other factors specially government policies have been placed in export model. In this field, short-term outsourcing foreign policy has decreased the export value. Results also showed that, applying exchange rate unification policy without an appropriate exchange rate to encourage exporters has negative impact on dates export. Therefore, by applying exchange rate stabilization policy, according to inflation in the country, the potential exporters’ income has reduced and production costs have increased alternately.

  13. Decrease in hematopoietic stem cell domains as a delayed effect of x-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, M.A.; Lamela, R.A.; Patt, H.M.

    1983-09-01

    Although the hematopoietic integrity of locally X-irradiated sites can be restored for a time even after fairly large doses, a secondary aplasia often occurs some months later. To gain further insight into this delayed effect within the framework of the stem cell regulatory domain hypothesis, we characterized the growth kinetics of spleen colony forming units (CFU-S) in WBB6FI-+/+ bone marrow transplanted into WBB6FI-W/WV mice in which one leg had been exposed to 10-30 Gy of X rays 4-5 months previously. Compared to unirradiated contralateral marrow, fewer CFU-S either reached the previously irradiated marrow or were seeded into sites that could support growth. The initial exponential growth of effectively seeded CFU-S was unchanged, but growth deceleration (inflection point) occurred at a lower level of CFU-S in marrow previously irradiated with 20-30 Gy. This change in the inflection point indicates a radiation dose-dependent decrease consistent with the decrease in bone marrow cellularity. The decrease in effective stem cell domains after 20 Gy was calculated to be about 35%. We interpret these results to reflect the highly localized nature of delayed radiation damage to the marrow microenvironment.

  14. ERP correlates of the incidental retrieval of emotional information: effects of study-test delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Antonio; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Corona, Maria; Rugg, Michael D

    2009-05-07

    Prior studies indicate that, in tests of recognition memory, ERPs elicited by correctly recognized test items differ according to whether the items were encoded in an emotionally arousing or an emotionally neutral study context. These prior studies employed only a relatively brief (ca. 10 min) retention interval, however. The present study contrasted the ERP correlates of incidental emotional retrieval as a function of study-test delay. Pictures of emotionally neutral objects were encoded in association with either emotionally negative or emotionally neutral scenes. In a repeated measures design (N=19), half of the objects were subjected to a recognition memory test 10 min after completion of the study phase, whereas the remainder were tested 24 h later. After the short delay, ERPs elicited by objects paired with emotional vs. neutral backgrounds differed from around 200 ms post-stimulus, the objects paired with the emotional scenes eliciting the more positive-going waveforms. After 24 h, differences between the ERPs elicited by the two classes of object were still apparent from around 200 ms post-stimulus. Strikingly, these effects differed from those obtained 10 min after study in both their polarity and scalp distribution. The early onset of these ERP effects suggests that they may reflect a form of memory independent of the conscious recollection of the associated study contexts. The qualitative differences in the effects at the two retention intervals raise the possibility that the encoded objects were subjected to consolidation processes that differed according to the emotional attributes of their study contexts.

  15. Planting Date and Seeding Rate Effects on Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for a Winter Cover Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling S. Balkcom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop in east-central Alabama from 2007 to 2009. Plant populations, plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, and N content were determined for two sunn hemp planting dates, following corn (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. harvest, across different seeding rates (17, 34, 50, and 67 kg/ha. Rye biomass was measured the following spring. Sunn hemp biomass production was inconsistent across planting dates, but did relate to growing degree accumulation. Nitrogen concentrations were inversely related to biomass production, and subsequent N contents corresponded to biomass levels. Neither planting date nor seeding rate affected rye biomass production, but rye biomass averaged over both planting dates following wheat/sunn hemp averaged 43% and 33% greater than rye following fallow. Rye biomass following corn/sunn hemp was equivalent to fallow plots. Early planting dates are recommended for sunn hemp with seeding rates between 17 and 34 kg/ha to maximize biomass and N production.

  16. Effect of center cut strand thinning on fruit abscission and Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infestation in California date gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Justin E; Perring, Thomas M

    2009-06-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), infests different date, Phoenix dactylifera L., fruit stages during the summer months in southern California. Abscised fruit in the kimri stage become heavily infested when they get stuck in tight date bunches and do not fall to the ground. Previous work on date palm horticulture found that the percentage of fruit abscission could be reduced by thinning fruit out of the bunch. Our objective in this study was to determine whether center cut strand thinning reduced fruit abscission and, if so, to determine any concurrent effect on carob moth summer population densities. We found that the center cut treatment did not alter fruit abscission at any of the four date gardens used in the study. However, thinning in May reduced July carob moth densities at the four date gardens by 54-97%. The percentage reduction was apparent into September, ranging from 30 to 81%. This reduction was significant in two of the four fields, and we believe that center cut thinning in these fields altered the bunch architecture, allowing abscised fruit to fall to the ground. Implications for field management of the carob moth are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of date kernel oils and their effects on wheat flour characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsakr, A. S.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Date kernels constitute about 13% of the whole date fruit, and cotain moderate amounts of oils with relatively high caloric values. Agwa soft and Aprimi dry date kernel oils were used in this work. Results showed that Aprimi date kernel oils have high levels of both caproic acid and stearic acid of 23.04 and 18.40% respectively, while Agwa kernel oils have high levels of caprylic acid and capric acid of 22.31 and 12.20%. Moreover Agwa oils achieved higher amounts of unsaponifiable matters, sterols and tocopherols. The addition of soft and dry date kernel oils did not improve the wheat flour strength but raised its resistance to extensibility.

    Las pepitas de dátiles constituyen alrededor del 13% del fruto entero, y contienen cantidades moderadas de aceite con valores calóricos relativamente altos. En este trabajo se han utilizado aceites de pepitas de dátiles Agwa blandas y Aprimi secas. Los resultados mostraron que los aceites de pepitas de dátiles Aprimi tienen altos niveles de ácidos caproico y esteárico, 23’04 y 18'40% respectivamente, mientras que los aceites de pepitas Agwa tienen niveles altos de ácidos caprílico y cáprico, 22'31 y 12'20%. Por otra parte los aceites Agwa alcanzaron valores elevados de materia insaponificable, esteroles y tocoferoles. La adición de aceites de pepitas de dátiles secas y blandas no mejoró el poder de la harina de trigo pero incrementó su resistencia a la extensibilidad.

  18. The effect of dust on the chemical and microbiological qualities of the date palm fruits from Bushehr-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Delkhah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The date palm cultivation has a long history in Bushehr province. Throughout the recent decade the dusts, in addition to direct harmful effects on humans, have adverse effects on health of the population living in this area. The infestation of pests in the southern province of Bushehr has groves. Due to the importance of dates in this area, the total ash and acid insoluble ash as indexes for assessing of chemical pollution and also, mold and yeast as indicators for microbial contamination were evaluated. Recently in a number of dates packaging industries, washing the products after the harvest is done. In current study, the effects of rinsing to decrease the dust pollution on date palm along with, the time effect on the quality and durability of washed and un-washed dates were investigated. Materials and Methods: Overall, 48 washed and un-washed dates were sampled from traditional and technologically advanced packaging industries, equally, and were confirmed according to ISIRI methods. Results: The Averages of total and acid insoluble ashes in washed date samples were:1.05±0.14 and 3.32±0.32%, and for un-washed samples were 1.36±0.27 and 4.59±1.64 percent, respectively. In all date samples were presented the yeast, however, their means were lower than the maximum limit (1×104 CFU. Also, all date samples were moldy. The Mean percentage of total ash samples in un-rinsed and rinsed dates were approximately, 1.84 and 1.33 times more than the maximum permissible limit, respectively. The mean of acid insoluble ash in all samples (100%, and 98% of total ash were higher than acceptable levels (p<0.05. The results revealed that the average percentage difference between the two groups were transpicuous, while this difference was not significant (p=0.13. Under the similar conditions, the average amount of yeast in washed date samples, were significantly different (p<0.05 and more than un-wash samples. The Mold levels in un-rinsed and

  19. Effect of the GABA B agonist baclofen on dipyrone-induced delayed gastric emptying in rats

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    E.F. Collares

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipyrone administered intravenously (iv or intracerebroventricularly (icv delays gastric emptying (GE in rats. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is the most potent inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of icv baclofen, a GABA B receptor agonist, on delayed GE induced by dipyrone. Adult male Wistar rats received a saline test meal containing phenol red as a marker. GE was indirectly evaluated by determining the percent of gastric retention (%GR of the meal 10 min after orogastric administration. In the first experiment, the animals were injected iv with vehicle (Civ or 80 mg/kg (240 µmol/kg dipyrone (Dp iv, followed by icv injection of 10 µl vehicle (bac0, or 0.5 (bac0.5, 1 (bac1 or 2 µg (bac2 baclofen. In the second experiment, the animals were injected icv with 5 µl vehicle (Cicv or an equal volume of a solution containing 4 µmol (1333.2 µg dipyrone (Dp icv, followed by 5 µl vehicle (bac0 or 1 µg baclofen (bac1. GE was determined 10 min after icv injection. There was no significant difference between control animals from one experiment to another concerning GR values. Baclofen at the doses of 1 and 2 µg significantly reduced mean %GR induced by iv dipyrone (Dp iv bac1 = 35.9% and Dp iv bac2 = 26.9% vs Dp iv bac0 = 51.8%. Similarly, baclofen significantly reduced the effect of dipyrone injected icv (mean %GR: Dp icv bac1 = 30.4% vs Dp icv bac0 = 54.2%. The present results suggest that dipyrone induces delayed GE through a route in the central nervous system that is blocked by the activation of GABA B receptors.

  20. Bifurcation Analysis and Control of a Differential-Algebraic Predator-Prey Model with Allee Effect and Time Delay

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    Xue Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies systematically a differential-algebraic prey-predator model with time delay and Allee effect. It shows that transcritical bifurcation appears when a variation of predator handling time is taken into account. This model also exhibits singular induced bifurcation as the economic revenue increases through zero, which causes impulsive phenomenon. It can be noted that the impulsive phenomenon can be much weaker by strengthening Allee effect in numerical simulation. On the other hand, at a critical value of time delay, the model undergoes a Hopf bifurcation; that is, the increase of time delay destabilizes the model and bifurcates into small amplitude periodic solution. Moreover, a state delayed feedback control method, which can be implemented by adjusting the harvesting effort for biological populations, is proposed to drive the differential-algebraic system to a steady state. Finally, by using Matlab software, numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the results.

  1. A novel approach to delayed-start analyses for demonstrating disease-modifying effects in Alzheimer's disease.

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    Hong Liu-Seifert

    Full Text Available One method for demonstrating disease modification is a delayed-start design, consisting of a placebo-controlled period followed by a delayed-start period wherein all patients receive active treatment. To address methodological issues in previous delayed-start approaches, we propose a new method that is robust across conditions of drug effect, discontinuation rates, and missing data mechanisms. We propose a modeling approach and test procedure to test the hypothesis of noninferiority, comparing the treatment difference at the end of the delayed-start period with that at the end of the placebo-controlled period. We conducted simulations to identify the optimal noninferiority testing procedure to ensure the method was robust across scenarios and assumptions, and to evaluate the appropriate modeling approach for analyzing the delayed-start period. We then applied this methodology to Phase 3 solanezumab clinical trial data for mild Alzheimer's disease patients. Simulation results showed a testing procedure using a proportional noninferiority margin was robust for detecting disease-modifying effects; conditions of high and moderate discontinuations; and with various missing data mechanisms. Using all data from all randomized patients in a single model over both the placebo-controlled and delayed-start study periods demonstrated good statistical performance. In analysis of solanezumab data using this methodology, the noninferiority criterion was met, indicating the treatment difference at the end of the placebo-controlled studies was preserved at the end of the delayed-start period within a pre-defined margin. The proposed noninferiority method for delayed-start analysis controls Type I error rate well and addresses many challenges posed by previous approaches. Delayed-start studies employing the proposed analysis approach could be used to provide evidence of a disease-modifying effect. This method has been communicated with FDA and has been

  2. Effect of dietary supplementation of dates in Alzheimer's disease APPsw/2576 transgenic mice on oxidative stress and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subash, Selvaraju; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Al-Adawi, Samir; Vaishnav, Ragini; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative stress may play a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Changes in the oxidative stress, antioxidants, and membrane-bound enzymes were investigated in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of AD transgenic mice model after long-term dietary supplementation of date palm fruits from Oman. The 4-month-old mice with double Swedish APP mutation (APPsw/Tg2576) were purchased from Taconic Farm, NY, USA; mice were fed two different doses of dates (such as 4 and 2%) or control diet for 15 months and then assessed for the influence of diet on oxidative stress. Significant increase in oxidative stress in terms of enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyls and parallel decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes were observed in control diet-treated Tg2576 AD mice. Dates (4 and 2%) treated APPsw/Tg2576 AD mice exhibited significantly attenuated oxidative damage, evidenced by decreased LPO and protein carbonyl levels and restoration in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, and glutathione reductase). The activities of membrane-bound enzymes (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and acetyl cholinesterase) were altered in control diet-treated APPsw/Tg2576 AD mice brain regions. Meanwhile, both the percentages of date supplementation were able to restore the activity of enzymes to comparable values observed in controls. In summary, we have shown that chronic dietary supplementation of date palm fruits grown in Oman showed possible beneficial effects concomitant with oxidative stress reduction and increased antioxidant enzymes in AD transgenic mice model. These results warrant further exploration of how anti-reactive oxygen species properties of dates offer such beneficial effects on the AD-like brain.

  3. Historical profiles of PCB in dated sediment cores suggest recent lake contamination through the "halo effect".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Cottin, Nathalie; Pignol, Cécile; Arnaud, Fabien; Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Perga, Marie-Elodie

    2015-02-03

    We investigated the major sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and interpreted the environmental fate processes of these persistent organic pollutants in the past and current PCB contamination of three large, urbanized, French peri-alpine lakes. Dated sediment cores were analyzed in order to reconstruct and compare the historical contamination in all three lakes. Stratigraphic changes of PCB contents and fluxes were considered as revealing the temporal dynamics of PCB deposition to the lakes and the distribution of the seven indicator congeners (further referred to as PCBi) as an indicator of the main contamination origin and pathway. Although located within a single PCB industrial production region, concentration profiles for the three lakes differed in timing, peak concentration magnitudes, and in the PCBi congeners compositions. PCBi fluxes to the sediment and the magnitude of the temporal changes were generally much lower in Lake Annecy (0.05-2 ng·cm(-2)·yr(-1)) as compared to Lakes Geneva (0.05-5 ng·cm(-2)·yr(-1)) and Bourget (5-290 ng·cm(-2)·yr(-1)). For all three lakes, the paramount contamination occurred in the early 1970s. In Lakes Annecy and Bourget, PCB fluxes have declined and plateaued at 0.5 and 8 ng·cm(-2)·yr(-1), respectively, since the early 1990s. In Lake Geneva, PCB fluxes have further decreased by the end of the XX(th) century and are now very low. For the most contaminated lake (Lake Bourget), the high PCBi flux (5-290 ng·cm(-2)·yr(-1)) and the predominance of heavy congeners for most of the time period are consistent with a huge local input to the lake. This still high rate of Lake Bourget is explained by transport of suspended solids from one of its affluents, polluted by an industrial point source. Intermediate historical levels and PCBi distribution over time for Lake Geneva suggest a mixed contamination (urban point sources and distant atmospheric transport), while atmospheric deposition to Lake Annecy explains its lowest

  4. Effect of various levels of date palm kernel on growth performance of broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareen, Muhammad Hamza; Wagan, Rani; Siyal, Farman Ali; Babazadeh, Daryoush; Bhutto, Zohaib Ahmed; Arain, Muhammad Asif; Saeed, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was the assessment of various levels of date palm kernel (DPK) on the growth performance of broilers. Materials and Methods: A 250-day-old broiler chicks were randomly selected and categorized into five groups (50 chicks/group) contained A (control), B, C, D and E fed with 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% levels of DPK in balanced ration, respectively, for 6 weeks. Feed and water intake were recorded daily in the morning and evening. The data for feed intake, water intake, live body weight, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded from all birds regularly. The carcass weight and percentage obtained via six slaughtered birds were randomly selected from each group. Finally, economic aspects of the rations evaluated. Results: The most feed intakes of broilers were recorded in Group A (3915.1 g) that was significantly higher than Groups D and E. The highest water intake was in Group E (9067.78 ml) that was significantly higher than Group A and control group. Live body weight was highest in Group E (979.85 g) than Groups B, C, and control group. The best growth weights were determined significantly in Groups D (1921.96 g) and E (1935.95 g). The lowest FCRs were indicated significantly in Groups D (1.97 g/g) and E (1.92 g/g) than Groups B and A. The highest carcass weights were recorded in Groups D (1214.01 g) and E (1230.88 g) that were significantly more than other groups. Dressing percentages in Groups D (61.76%) and E (62.17%) were higher than other groups (pprofits (Rs.) in Groups A, B, C, D and E were indicated 27.01, 32.77, 36.78, 43.47 and 44.51 per broiler, respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that the high levels of DPK (3-4%) significantly decreased broiler feed intake and increased water intake, live body weight, growth weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, net profit per bird and also had positive effects on growth of broilers. PMID:28344407

  5. Effect of various levels of date palm kernel on growth performance of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hamza Tareen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was the assessment of various levels of date palm kernel (DPK on the growth performance of broilers. Materials and Methods: A 250-day-old broiler chicks were randomly selected and categorized into five groups (50 chicks/group contained A (control, B, C, D and E fed with 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% levels of DPK in balanced ration, respectively, for 6 weeks. Feed and water intake were recorded daily in the morning and evening. The data for feed intake, water intake, live body weight, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were recorded from all birds regularly. The carcass weight and percentage obtained via six slaughtered birds were randomly selected from each group. Finally, economic aspects of the rations evaluated. Results: The most feed intakes of broilers were recorded in Group A (3915.1 g that was significantly higher than Groups D and E. The highest water intake was in Group E (9067.78 ml that was significantly higher than Group A and control group. Live body weight was highest in Group E (979.85 g than Groups B, C, and control group. The best growth weights were determined significantly in Groups D (1921.96 g and E (1935.95 g. The lowest FCRs were indicated significantly in Groups D (1.97 g/g and E (1.92 g/g than Groups B and A. The highest carcass weights were recorded in Groups D (1214.01 g and E (1230.88 g that were significantly more than other groups. Dressing percentages in Groups D (61.76% and E (62.17% were higher than other groups (p<0.05. The net profits (Rs. in Groups A, B, C, D and E were indicated 27.01, 32.77, 36.78, 43.47 and 44.51 per broiler, respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that the high levels of DPK (3-4% significantly decreased broiler feed intake and increased water intake, live body weight, growth weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, net profit per bird and also had positive effects on growth of broilers.

  6. Direct measurement of the wigner delay associated with the goos-Hanchen effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvat; Emile; Bretenaker; Le Floch A

    2000-01-03

    It is shown experimentally that the nonspecular reflection of light on an interface induces a time delay, as predicted by Wigner's scattering theory. A differential femtosecond technique is used to directly isolate this delay, associated with the Goos-Hanchen spatial shift produced by a grating near a resonant Wood anomaly. A delay of 4.4 fs is observed between TE and TM pulses, in agreement with the expected Wigner delay obtained from phase shift dispersion measurements.

  7. Reinforcement Delay Fading during Differential Reinforcement of Communication: The Effects of Signals on Response Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael E.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Roane, Henry S.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2011-01-01

    Signals during delays to reinforcement may lessen reductions in responding that typically occur when there is a delay between a response and its reinforcer. Sparse applied research has been devoted to understanding the conditions under which responding may be maintained when delays to reinforcement are introduced. We evaluated the extent to which…

  8. Effective delayed neutron fraction measurement in the critical VENUS-F reactor using noise techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doligez, X. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, CNRS-IN2P3/Univ. Paris Sud (France); Billebaud, A.; Chabod, S. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Chevret, T.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lecouey, J.L.; Lehaut, G.; Marie-Nourry, N. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Caen, ENSICAEN/Univ. de Caen/CNRS-IN2P3 (France); Fourmentel, D.; Mellier, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, DEN/DER/SPEX (France); Krasa, A.; Kochetkov, A.; Vittiglio, G.; Wagemans, J. [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    This paper present the measurements of VENUS-F kinetic parameters using the Rossi-Alpha methods. The VENUS-F reactor is a zero-power reactor based in Mol, Belgium at SCK-CEN where the fuel is made of metallic enriched uranium with pure lead in order to simulate the behavior of lead fast reactor. The reactor can be operated under critical when it is coupled with GENEPI-3C. At the beginning of 2014, a measurement campaign was performed in order to estimate the kinetics parameters. In this paper, two measurements are analyzed at two different powers (approximately 2 W and 30 W) with 7 different fission chambers (with a 235-U deposit that varies from 1 g to 10 mg). All the correlation functions needed for the Rossi-Alpha method have been built for each possible set of two detectors in each configuration and values obtained from those functions for the effective delayed neutron fraction are then compared. The absolute necessity to operate at very low power is presented. The final value for the effective delayed neutron fraction is finally estimated to be 730 pcm ± 11 pcm and the prompt neutron generation time is estimated to be equal to 0,041 μseconds ± 0.04 μsec. (authors)

  9. Effects of AV delay programming on ventricular resynchronisation: role of radionuclide ventriculography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, Patrick T.; Comte, Nathalie; Holzmeister, Johannes; Suetsch, Gabor; Koepfli, Pascal; Namdar, Mehdi; Duru, Firat; Brunckhorst, Corinna; Scharf, Christoph [Universitiy Hospital Zurich NUK C 32, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [Universitiy Hospital Zurich NUK C 32, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-08-15

    Optimal atrioventricular delay (AVD) setting for cardiac resynchronisation therapy, i.e. biventricular pacing in patients with heart failure, remains a formidable challenge. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different AVD on inter- and intra-ventricular resynchronisation using phase histograms of radionuclide ventriculography (RNV). In 17 consecutive patients (mean age 64 {+-} 6 years), RNV was performed 236 {+-} 350 days after pacemaker implantation for cardiac resynchronisation therapy. Images were acquired during atrial pacing at 80 bpm and during biventricular pacing with AVD ranging from 80 to 160 ms. Inter-ventricular dyssynchrony was measured by the delay between the mean phase angles of the left and right ventricles. Intra-ventricular dyssynchrony was measured by the standard deviation (SD) of left ventricular phase histograms. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) was inversely correlated to LV dyssynchrony (SD of LV phase histogram, R = -0.82, p < 0.0001). However, the increase in LVEF by biventricular pacing (mean +4.4 {+-} 4%) showed only modest correlation to the resulting resynchronisation effect (characterised by a -13 {+-} 8 decrease in LV phase histogram SD, R = -0.38, p < 0.0001). RNV is helpful in optimising pacing parameters for resynchronisation therapy. Varying AVD did not have a major impact on intra- or inter-ventricular resynchronisation. Thus, the benefit of AVD-based LVEF optimisation seems to result from atrioventricular resynchronisation. (orig.)

  10. Effect of advanced and delayed rotation on the dominant flow pattern and its temporal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uksul, Esra; Krishna, Swathi; Mulleners, Karen

    2015-11-01

    During a flapping cycle of an insect, complex time dependent flows are produced as the wing reciprocates, producing a maximum lift at the stroke reversals. By flipping the wing rapidly at the end of each stroke, the insect modulates the flow around the wing and hence the aerodynamic forces necessary to hover. The duration and starting point of the flip play an important role in determining the amount of lift produced. To understand and tailor the effect of wing kinematics on the aerodynamic performance we focussed on the vortex dynamics of the flow field. Phase-averaged data from particle image velocimetry was used to evaluate the flow features inherent to changes in rotation during a stroke of a flat plate, which is modelled based on hoverfly characteristics. The period of rotation is one-third of the total time period. A +10% phase shift is used for delayed rotation, a -10% phase shift for advanced rotation. Vortex detection methods like the λ2 and Γ2 criteria are used to determine the effect of a delay or early rotation on the trajectories, size, shape and location of the prominent vortical structures. Proper orthogonal decomposition is used to study the influence of the phase-shifts on the dominant mode structure and the related time-scales.

  11. Effect of Whirlpool Therapy on the Signs and Symptoms of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuligowski, Lori A.; Lephart, Scott M.; Giannantonio, Frank P.; Blanc, Rob O.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of warm whirlpool, cold whirlpool, and contrast therapy in the treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness. Design and Setting: Subjects performed eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors and received 4 treatments: immediately postexercise and 24, 48, and 72 hours postexercise. Treatments consisted of 24-minute treatments with warm whirlpool, cold whirlpool, contrast therapy, or no treatment. Subjects: Fifty-six sex-matched volunteers from the University of Pittsburgh. Measurements: Measurements were taken at 5 assessment times: pre-exercise (0 hours); prior to treatment at 24, 48, and 72 hours postexercise; and at 96 hours postexercise. Dependent variables were degrees of resting elbow flexion, active elbow flexion, and extension; perceived soreness values on a Graphic Pain Rating Scale; and maximal voluntary isometric contraction. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (group by time) and Tukey post hoc analysis were used to determine which treatment groups differed significantly in returning subjects to pre-exercise values. Results: Cold whirlpool and contrast therapy were found to return subjects to baseline values of resting elbow flexion and perceived soreness significantly more than warm whirlpool or no treatment (P < .01). Additionally, warm whirlpool was found to be more effective than no treatment in the return of resting elbow flexion (P < .01). Conclusions: These results suggest that cold whirlpool and contrast therapy are more effective than warm whirlpool or no treatment in alleviating delayed-onset muscle soreness in the elbow flexors. PMID:16558514

  12. Effects of therapeutic massage on gait and pain after delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun-Ho; Kim, Min-Jeong; Yang, Hyuk-Jin; Lee, Yu-Jin; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2014-04-01

    Unfamiliar or sudden exercise can induce delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) within 12-24 h. So, several researchers have reported various interventions to treat DOMS. Massage is generally known to eliminate muscle fatigue. However, effect of massage after DOMS is still not clear. We investigated whether the massage is effective on pain and gait after DOMS. The participants were divided into a control group (n= 10) with DOMS and an experimental group (n= 11) with the massage treated after DOMS. We induced DOMS by taking isotonic exercise with going up and down 20 times in 5-story building. We applied the massage and assessment on gastrocnemius of dominant foot. The change of gait and pain was assessed using gaitrite and algometer. In the present results, the massage on gastrocnemius after DOMS showed significant difference in pain (P< 0.05). Also, there was a significant difference in gait (P< 0.05), especially, spatial parameters (distance, step length, stride length) and temporal parameters (ambulation, heel on off time, stride velocity). Moreover, the pain relief after massage-treated in DOMS correlated with gait. These results suggest that the massage on gastrocnemius after DOMS has influence on pain and gait performance. Therefore, massage can be applied as intervention for delayed onset muscle soreness.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF OMEGA-3 INTAKE ON DELAYED ONSET MUSCLE SORNESS IN NON-ATHLET MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rajabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS is classified as a muscle strain that presents with tenderness and stiffness one to two days after exercise. At present there are multiple proposed methods for treating DOMS, including anti-inflammatory medication, stretching, homeopathy, L-carnitine, rest and light exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigation of the effects of omega-3 intake on delayed onset muscle soreness in non-athlete men. 20 healthy subjects (age: 20.5±1.8 years participated as subjects in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control. In the experimental group, subjects consume daily 2000 mg of omega-3; 2 times per day for 1 month before and 48 hours after perform leg press exercise with eccentric pattern. Similarly, the с was taking in the control group. The results showed significant decrease in severity of DOMS (CK and LDH levels and decreased knee's range of motion in experimental group in comparison with control group (p<0.05. As a result of our study it is suggested that the use of omega-3 supplement can effectively reduce DOMS caused by eccentric exercise.

  14. Effect of diagnostic delay on survival in patients with colorectal cancer: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita-Fernández, Salvador; González-Sáez, Luis; López-Calviño, Beatriz; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; Rodríguez-Camacho, Elena; Pazos-Sierra, Alejandro; González-Santamaría, Paloma; Pértega-Díaz, Sonia

    2016-08-22

    Disparate and contradictory results make studies necessary to investigate in more depth the relationship between diagnostic delay and survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between the interval from first symptom to diagnosis (SDI) and survival in CRC. Retrospective study of n = 942 CRC patients. SDI was calculated as the time from the diagnosis of cancer and the first symptoms of CRC. Cox regression was used to estimate five-year mortality hazard ratios as a function of SDI, adjusting for age and gender. SDI was modelled according to SDI quartiles and as a continuous variable using penalized splines. Median SDI was 3.4 months. SDI was not associated with stage at diagnosis (Stage I = 3.6 months, Stage II-III = 3.4, Stage IV = 3.2; p = 0.728). Shorter SDIs corresponded to patients with abdominal pain (2.8 months), and longer SDIs to patients with muchorrhage (5.2 months) and rectal tenesmus (4.4 months). Adjusting for age and gender, in rectum cancers, patients within the first SDI quartile had lower survival (p = 0.003), while in colon cancer no significant differences were found (p = 0.282). These results do not change after adjusting for TNM stage. The splines regression analysis revealed that, for rectum cancer, 5-year mortality progressively increases for SDIs lower than the median (3.7 months) and decreases as the delay increases until approximately 8 months. In colon cancer, no significant relationship was found between SDI and survival. Short diagnostic intervals are significantly associated with higher mortality in rectal but not in colon cancers, even though a borderline significant effect is also observed in colon cancer. Longer diagnostic intervals seemed not to be associated with poorer survival. Other factors than diagnostic delay should be taken into account to explain this "waiting-time paradox".

  15. The Effect Of Normocephalic Foetal Skull On Foetal Dating Using Biparietal Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu AC

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the desirability or otherwise of mathematically correcting every normal foetal head shape to an ideal shape prior to dating using the biparietal diameter (BPD. Transabdominal Sonography was performed in 118 pregnant women in their second- and third- trimesters. The BPDs and fronto-occipital diameters (FODs were measured. A study of 100 foetuses with normal head shapes was used to derive in this environment, a regression equation for an area corrected BPD (BPDa: BPDa = - 2. 853 + 0.483 (BPD + FOD. The BPDa of 18 foetuses with normal head shapes, were computed with this equation. Z test was performed to compare the mean BPD and Mean BPDa. Z statistic showed no significant difference (p>0.5 between BPDa and BPD in this group of foetuses with normal head shapes. There is no need to mathematically correct normocephalic foetal head shapes to ideal shapes before dating using the BPDs

  16. Effect of storage duration on some physical properties of date palm (cv. Stamaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Hazbavi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the date fruits are processed traditionally in Iran. It becomes imperative to characterize the fruits with a view of understanding the properties that may affect the design of machines to handle their processing. The objectives of this study were to find the basic physical properties of date fruit at different storage time. Some physical properties of the Iranian Stamaran date variety were measured at the tamr stage of maturity for pitted dates during 6 months storage (25 °C of temperature and 75% of humidity. The results showed that length of the samples decreased by 8.31% from 39.21 to 35.95 mm, and no significant change for width and thickness. Mean mass and volume of the fruit did not change significantly. The projected area along length (PL did not change significantly, but projected areas along width (PW and along thickness (PT decreased by 4.26% from 647.41 to 619.8, and 8.32% from 666.89 to 611.43 mm2, respectively. The fruit density, bulk density, porosity and sphericity did not change significantly. The geometric mean diameter and surface area decreased by 5.01%, from 25.53 to 24.25 mm, and 9.57%, from 2049.3 to 1853.1 mm2, respectively. The mean coefficients of static friction increased significantly from 0.36 to 0.38, 0.33 to 0.35 and 0.42 to 0.45 on steel, galvanized iron, and plywood, respectively.

  17. Effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) cutting date and planting density on weed suppression in Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J Bradley; Chase, Carlene; Treadwell, Danielle; Koenig, Rosie; Cho, Alyssa; Morales-Payan, Jose Pable; Murphy, Tim; Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA, to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to (1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks after planting (WAP) on May 14, 2008 and May 21, 2009] and (2) assess the impact of seeding rates (11, 28, and 45 kg ha(-1)) on weed biomass reduction. Weed species were identified at 4, 8, and 12 wks after sunn hemp planting. Sunn hemp cutting date had no significant effect on weed suppression in 2008 but significant differences for grass weeds at 4, 8, and 12 WAP and for yellow nutsedge at 8 and 12 WAP did occur when compared to the control in 2009. In comparison to the sunn hemp-free control plot in 2009, all three seeding rates had reduced grass weed dry weights at 4, 8, and 12 WAP. The total mass of yellow nutsedge when grown with sunn hemp was reduced compared to the total mass of yellow nutsedge grown in the weedy check for all seeding rates at 8 and 12 WAP. Lower grass weed biomass was observed by 12 WAP for cutting dates and seeding rates during 2008 and 2009. Sunn hemp cutting date and seeding rate reduced branch numbers in both years. The reduction in sunn hemp seeding rates revealed a decrease in weed populations.

  18. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies on healthy people show that vinegar delays gastric emptying and lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying rate on diabetes mellitus patients. Methods Ten patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic gastroparesis, including one patient who had undergone vagotomy, were included and completed the investigator blinded crossover trial. The gastric e...

  19. Effects of music therapy in the treatment of children with delayed speech development - results of a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Linden Ulrike; Groß Wibke; Ostermann Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Language development is one of the most significant processes of early childhood development. Children with delayed speech development are more at risk of acquiring other cognitive, social-emotional, and school-related problems. Music therapy appears to facilitate speech development in children, even within a short period of time. The aim of this pilot study is to explore the effects of music therapy in children with delayed speech development. Methods A total of 18 childr...

  20. The effects of activating the money concept on perseverance and preference for delayed gratification in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata eTrzcińska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological model of thinking about money assumes that implicit reminders of money lead to self-sufficient motivation. Previous research has demonstrated that children react to money in similar ways to adults. The priming of young children with money related concepts or images has negatively affected their social behaviour and social preferences, leading them to make more individualist and less pro-social choices and be less willing to help others. The aim of this research was to investigate the positive influence of money activation on children’s behaviour. The participants were six to eight year old children who do not yet fully understand the instrumental function of money due to their young age. Two experimental studies were performed, the first of which analysed the effect of perseverance and performance on a challenging task and the second investigated preferences with respect to delaying gratification. Sixty-one children aged 6 took part in the first study and forty-six scout camp participants 6 to 8 years of age were involved in the second experiment. The results support the hypotheses concerning the effects of money activation stating that (1 money activation influences children’s perseverance and effectiveness in difficult individual tasks, and that (2 it increases children’s preferences for delayed gratification. These results suggest that money has a symbolic power which may exert both positive and negative effects on children’s behaviour. Since children between the ages of 6 and 8 do not understand the instrumental function of money fully, certain symbolic meanings of money may have been responsible for the money priming effects. The findings suggest that the symbolic function of money is more primal than its instrumental function and that it probably develops at an earlier stage in life.

  1. Time delay and profit accumulation effect on a mine-based uranium market clearing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auzans, Aris [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Teder, Allan [School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu, Narva mnt 4, EE-51009 Tartu (Estonia); Tkaczyk, Alan H., E-mail: alan@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Improved version of a mine-based uranium market clearing model for the front-end uranium market and enrichment industries is proposed. • A profit accumulation algorithm and time delay function provides more realistic uranium mine decision making process. • Operational decision delay increased uranium market price volatility. - Abstract: The mining industry faces a number of challenges such as market volatility, investment safety, issues surrounding employment and productivity. Therefore, computer simulations are highly relevant in order to reduce financial risks associated with these challenges. In the mining industry, each firm must compete with other mines and the basic target is profit maximization. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the world uranium (U) supply by simulating financial management challenges faced by an individual U mine that are caused by a variety of regulation issues. In this paper front-end nuclear fuel cycle tool is used to simulate market conditions and the effects they have on the stability of U supply. An individual U mine’s exit or entry in the market might cause changes in the U supply side which can increase or decrease the market price. In this paper we offer a more advanced version of a mine-based U market clearing model. The existing U market model incorporates the market of primary U from uranium mines with secondary uranium (depleted uranium DU), enriched uranium (HEU) and enrichment services. In the model each uranium mine acts as an independent agent that is able to make operational decisions based on the market price. This paper introduces a more realistic decision making algorithm of individual U mine that adds constraints to production decisions. The authors added an accumulated profit model, which allows for the profits accumulated to cover any possible future economic losses and the time-delay algorithm to simulate delayed process of reopening a U mine. The U market simulation covers time period 2010

  2. Effect of Inter Packet Delay in performance analysis of coexistence heterogeneous Wireless Packet Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tamilselvan, G M

    2010-01-01

    As the explosive growth of the ISM band usage continues, there are many scenarios where different systems operate in the same place at the same time. One of growing concerns is the coexistence of heterogeneous wireless network systems. For the successful deployment of mission-critical systems such as wireless sensor networks, it is required to provide a solution for the coexistence. In this paper, we propose a new scheme using inter packet delay for the coexistence of IEEE 802.15.4 LRWPAN and IEEE 802.11b WLAN. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, measurement and simulation study are conducted using Qualnet 4.5 simulation software. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme is effective in performance improvement for coexistence network of IEEE 802.15.4 for various topologies.

  3. Effects of vibratory stimulations on maximal voluntary isometric contraction from delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hyung-Woo; Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Kim, Cheol-Yong; Cho, Byung-Jun; Kim, Jin-Woo; Bo, Kak Hwang

    2013-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vibratory stimulation on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) from delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). [Subjects] Sixty healthy adults participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were orthopedic or neurologic disease. [Methods] The researchers induced DOMS in the musculus extensor carpi radialis longus of each participant. Subjects in the control group received no treatment. The ultrasound group received ultrasound treatment (intensity, 1.0 W/cm(2;) frequency 1 MHz; time, 10 minutes). The vibration group received vibration stimulation (frequency, 20 MHz; time, 10 minutes). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was recorded at baseline, immediately after exercise, and 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. [Results] MVIC measurements showed statistically significant differences in the vibration group compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Vibratory stimulation had a positive effect on recovery of muscle function from DOMS.

  4. EFFECTS OF MESSAGE VS ACTIVE EXERCISES ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED DELAYED ONSET OF MUSCLE SORENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chaturvedi Pilladi *,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:To evaluate the effect of massage of versus active exercises on experimentally induced delayedonset of muscle soreness.Method:30 subjects were divided into two groups, Experimental group received Massage and control groupreceived active exercises, results were taken by measurement of pain and functional stair climbing capacity ofknee joint were taken by visual analog score and functional knee rating score.Results:obtained results were analyzed with the use of Paired T-test, which has been carried out to observethetreatment impact between the groups before and after the treatment. After a 4 week treatment period,thesubjects in the Group I (Quadriceps message compared with the subjects in the Group II (Active exercise hadshown a statistically significant improvement with the outcome measures at 0.05 level.Conclusion:Quadriceps massagewas found much effective in decreasing Delayed onset of muscle sorenessthan active exercises.

  5. Effect of wettability on sessile drop freezing: when superhydrophobicity stimulates an extreme freezing delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinovich, Ludmila; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M; Korolev, Vadim V; Pashinin, Andrei S

    2014-02-18

    An increasing number of studies directed at supercooling water droplets on surfaces with different wettabilities have appeared in recent years. This activity has been stimulated by the recognition that water supercooling phenomena can be effectively used to develop methods for protecting outdoor equipment and infrastructure elements against icing and snow accretion. In this article, we discuss the nucleation kinetics of supercooled sessile water droplets on hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces under isothermal conditions at temperatures of -8, -10, and -15 °C and a saturated water vapor atmosphere. The statistics of nucleation events for the ensembles of freezing sessile droplets is completed by the detailed analysis of the contact angle temperature dependence and freezing of individual droplets in a saturated vapor atmosphere. We have demonstrated that the most essential freezing delay is characteristic of the superhydrophobic coating on aluminum, with the texture resistant to contact with ice and water. This delay can reach many hours at T = -8 °C and a few minutes at -23 °C. The observed behavior is analyzed on the basis of different nucleation mechanisms. The dissimilarity in the total nucleation rate, detected for two superhydrophobic substrates having the same apparent contact angle of the water drop but different resistivities of surface texture to the contact with water/ice, is associated with the contribution of heterogeneous nucleation on external centers located at the water droplet/air interface.

  6. Delayed effects of neutron irradiation on central nervous system microvasculature in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, J.H.; McGregor, J.M.; Clendenon, N.R.; Gordon, W.A.; Yates, A.J.; Gahbauer, R.A.; Barth, R.F.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Pathologic examination of a series of 14 patients with malignant gliomas treated with BNCT showed well demarcated zones of radiation damage characterized by coagulation necrosis. Beam attenuation was correlated with edema, loss of parenchymal elements, demyelination, leukocytosis, and peripheral gliosis. Vascular disturbances consisted of endothelial swelling, medial and adventitial proliferation, fibrin impregnation, frequent thrombosis, and perivascular inflammation. Radiation changes appeared to be acute and delayed. The outcome of the patients in this series was not significantly different from the natural course of the disease, even though two of the patients had no residual tumor detected at the time of autopsy. The intensity of the vascular changes raised a suspicion that boron may have sequestered in vessel walls, resulting in selectively high doses of radiation to these structures (Asbury et al., 1972), or that there may have been high blood concentrations of boron at the time of treatment. The potential limiting effects of a vascular ischemic reaction in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) prompted the following study to investigate the delayed response of microvascular structures in a rat model currently being used for pre-clinical investigations. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Effect of Delay Time on Microstructural Evolution during Warm Rolling of Ti-Nb-IF Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Najafi-zadeh; R.Ebrahimi

    2004-01-01

    The effect of delay time with constant first finishing pass temperature (800℃) has been investigated by means of multi-pass torsion tests on Ti-Nb-IF steel. All the tests have been carried out at a strain rate of 2 s-1 with 11 passes and 0.3 strain each pass. During the final pass, dynamic recrystallization occurs to a degree that depends on the delay time. In short interpass time (1 s) and at these temperatures (T≤800℃) there is not enough time to start static recrystallization, therefore, accumulation of strain occurs and after some passes, strain reaches a critical strain for starting dynamic recrystallization. In this study, the changes of mean flow stress during each pass and also the microstructural observation confirms that dynamic recrystallization occurs after some passes in ferrite phase of this steel. The stress-strain curves with constant temperature obtained by using a kinetic model and compensation of the increasing mean flow stress with decreasing temperature. Thus, this result also confirms that dynamic recrystallization occurs in warm rolling of this IF steel.

  8. Antioxidant activity and delayed aging effects of hot water extract from Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Szu-Chin; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Shi, Yeu-Ching; Yen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Huan-You; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-05-07

    The antioxidant activity and delayed aging effects of hot water extracts from leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana were investigated. Free radical, superoxide radical scavenging, and total phenolic content assays were employed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. In addition, in vivo assays using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were also performed in this study. The results showed that among all soluble fractions obtained from the extracts, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction has the best in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Moreover, it decreased significantly the deposition of lipofuscin (aging pigment) and extended the lifespan of C. elegans. Bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded six potent antioxidant constituents from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction, namely, catechin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside, myricetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside, vanillic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside pretreatment showed the highest survival of C. elegans upon juglone exposure. Taken together, the results revealed that hot water extracts from C. obtusa var. formosana leaves have the potential to be used as a source for antioxidant or delayed aging health food.

  9. Effects of Inter-electrode Distance on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in Microcurrent Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Woo; Kang, Ji-Sun; Park, Soo-Ji; Yoon, Se-Won; Jeong, Seong-Kwan; Heo, Myoung

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of the distance between the two electrodes on delayed onset muscle soreness during microcurrent therapy. [Methods] In this study 24 healthy women who hadn't exercised regularly for six months were selected and randomly divided into two groups. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was induced and experimental Group 1 were given microcurrent treatment with the electrodes attached at a close distance evaluated. Experimental Group 2 received the same treatment with the electrodes attached at a greater distance apart. Visual analogue scale pain and the RIII reflex were evaluated after inducing DOMS and after one day, two days, three days and four days of microcurrent treatment. [Results] The visual analogue scale and amplitude of RIII amplitude only showed significant differences with the length of time of the treatment. [Conclusion] This study found that difference of interelectrode distance has no influence on VAS pain and the RIII reflex of DOMS. Although there were no significant differences in RIII amplitude, we suspect that it may be influenced by current parameters such as frequency and intensity.

  10. Effects of infection-induced migration delays on the epidemiology of avian influenza in wild mallard populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Galsworthy

    Full Text Available Wild waterfowl populations form a natural reservoir of Avian Influenza (AI virus, and fears exist that these birds may contribute to an AI pandemic by spreading the virus along their migratory flyways. Observational studies suggest that individuals infected with AI virus may delay departure from migratory staging sites. Here, we explore the epidemiological dynamics of avian influenza virus in a migrating mallard (Anas platyrhynchos population with a specific view to understanding the role of infection-induced migration delays on the spread of virus strains of differing transmissibility. We develop a host-pathogen model that combines the transmission dynamics of influenza with the migration, reproduction and mortality of the host bird species. Our modeling predicts that delayed migration of individuals influences both the timing and size of outbreaks of AI virus. We find that (1 delayed migration leads to a lower total number of cases of infection each year than in the absence of migration delay, (2 when the transmission rate of a strain is high, the outbreak starts at the staging sites at which birds arrive in the early part of the fall migration, (3 when the transmission rate is low, infection predominantly occurs later in the season, which is further delayed when there is a migration delay. As such, the rise of more virulent AI strains in waterfowl could lead to a higher prevalence of infection later in the year, which could change the exposure risk for farmed poultry. A sensitivity analysis shows the importance of generation time and loss of immunity for the effect of migration delays. Thus, we demonstrate, in contrast to many current transmission risk models solely using empirical information on bird movements to assess the potential for transmission, that a consideration of infection-induced delays is critical to understanding the dynamics of AI infection along the entire flyway.

  11. When "In Your Face" Is Not Out of Place: The Effect of Timing of Disclosure of a Same-Sex Dating Partner under Conditions of Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Sharon K; Masser, Barbara M; MacDonald, Geoff; Duck, Julie M

    2015-01-01

    In a series of experiments we examined heterosexuals' reactions to the timing of disclosure of a gender-matched confederate's same-sex dating partner. Disclosure occurred in a naturalistic context-that is, it occurred when meeting, or expecting to soon meet, a same-sex attracted individual, who voluntarily shared this information with the participant as a natural part of a broader topic of discussion. The confederate, when disclosing early rather than later, was approached more closely (Prestudy) and liked more (Studies 1-2). Those experiencing early disclosure, compared with later, were less drawn to topics of lower intimacy (Study 1), were happier and more excited about meeting the confederate, and more likely to choose to be alone with the confederate for a one-on-one discussion (Study 2). Further, women experiencing early disclosure were more willing to introduce the same-gender confederate to their friends (Study 2). The benefits of knowing sooner, rather than later, continued to apply even when participants were given further time to process the disclosure. To explore the underlying reasons for the more favorable experiences of upfront disclosure, we examined participants' memory of the information shared by the confederate (Study 3). Results revealed that those who experienced delayed disclosure were more likely to incorrectly recall and negatively embellish information related to the confederate's sexual orientation, suggesting that early disclosure resulted in a reduced tendency to focus on the confederate's sexuality as a defining feature. These positive findings for early timing are discussed in light of previous studies that have found benefits for delayed disclosure and those that have failed to investigate the effects of timing of 'coming out' under conditions of contact.

  12. When "In Your Face" Is Not Out of Place: The Effect of Timing of Disclosure of a Same-Sex Dating Partner under Conditions of Contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon K Dane

    Full Text Available In a series of experiments we examined heterosexuals' reactions to the timing of disclosure of a gender-matched confederate's same-sex dating partner. Disclosure occurred in a naturalistic context-that is, it occurred when meeting, or expecting to soon meet, a same-sex attracted individual, who voluntarily shared this information with the participant as a natural part of a broader topic of discussion. The confederate, when disclosing early rather than later, was approached more closely (Prestudy and liked more (Studies 1-2. Those experiencing early disclosure, compared with later, were less drawn to topics of lower intimacy (Study 1, were happier and more excited about meeting the confederate, and more likely to choose to be alone with the confederate for a one-on-one discussion (Study 2. Further, women experiencing early disclosure were more willing to introduce the same-gender confederate to their friends (Study 2. The benefits of knowing sooner, rather than later, continued to apply even when participants were given further time to process the disclosure. To explore the underlying reasons for the more favorable experiences of upfront disclosure, we examined participants' memory of the information shared by the confederate (Study 3. Results revealed that those who experienced delayed disclosure were more likely to incorrectly recall and negatively embellish information related to the confederate's sexual orientation, suggesting that early disclosure resulted in a reduced tendency to focus on the confederate's sexuality as a defining feature. These positive findings for early timing are discussed in light of previous studies that have found benefits for delayed disclosure and those that have failed to investigate the effects of timing of 'coming out' under conditions of contact.

  13. Using simulation models to investigate the cumulative effects of sowing rate, sowing date and cultivar choice on weed competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Izzadora K S; Storkey, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing pressure on crop production from the evolution of herbicide resistance, farmers are increasingly adopting Integrated Weed Management (IWM) strategies to augment their weed control. These include measures to increase the competitiveness of the crop canopy such as increased sowing rate and the use of more competitive cultivars. While there are data on the relative impact of these non-chemical weed control methods assessed in isolation, there is uncertainty about their combined contribution, which may be hindering their adoption. In this article, the INTERCOM simulation model of crop/weed competition was used to examine the combined impact of crop density, sowing date and cultivar choice on the outcomes of competition between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Alopecurus myosuroides. Alopecurus myosuroides is a problematic weed of cereal crops in North-Western Europe and the primary target for IWM in the UK because it has evolved resistance to a range of herbicides. The model was parameterised for two cultivars with contrasting competitive ability, and simulations run across 10 years at different crop densities and two sowing dates. The results suggest that sowing date, sowing density and cultivar choice largely work in a complementary fashion, allowing enhanced competitive ability against weeds when used in combination. However, the relative benefit of choosing a more competitive cultivar decreases at later sowing dates and higher crop densities. Modeling approaches could be further employed to examine the effectiveness of IWM, reducing the need for more expensive and cumbersome long-term in situ experimentation.

  14. The effect of stochastic acceleration and delay probability on the velocity and the gap between vehicles in traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Peng; Zhao Shu-Long; Wang Jun-Feng; Tang Peng; Gao Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a new combined cellular automaton (CA) model considering the driver behavior of stochastic acceleration and delay with the velocity of the preceding vehicle and the gap between the successive vehicles based on the WWH model and the noise-first NaSch model.It introduces the delay probability varying with the gap,adds the anticipation headway and increases the acceleration with a certain probability.Through these simulations,not only can the metastable state and start-stop wave be obtained but also the synchronized flow which the wide moving jam results in.Moreover,the effect of stochastic acceleration and delay on traffic flow is discussed by analyzing the correlation of traffic data.This indicates that synchronized flow easily emerges in the critical area between free flow and synchronized flow when acceleration and delay are synchronized or their probability is close to 0.5.

  15. Effects of delayed mating on the fecundity, fertility and longevity of females of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Ping Wang; Yu-Ling Fang; Zhong-Ning Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of delayed mating on the copulation duration, female fertility, fecundity, egg fertility, longevity and the number days alive after mating of females of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, were studied. When male mating was delayed, the female fertility, fecundity, egg fertility, longevity and number days alive after mating of DBM decreased, and there was a negative correlation between the age of the moth with those variables except copulation duration. When female mating was delayed, the female fertility, fecundity, percent egg fertility and number days alive after mating of DBM also decreased, but the longevity increased, which also showed a negative relationship between the age of the moth with the variables except copulation duration and longevity. When both males and females delayed mating, the female fertility and fecundity decreased; egg fertility was affected marginally, and the longevity of females increased. The moth age was negatively correlated with those variables.

  16. The effect of distributed time-delays on the synchronization of neuronal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kachhvah, Ajay Deep

    2016-01-01

    Here we investigate the synchronization of networks of FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons coupled in scale-free, small-world and random topologies, in the presence of distributed time delays in the coupling of neurons. We explore how the synchronization transition is affected when the time delays in the interactions between pairs of interacting neurons are non-uniform. We find that the presence of distributed time-delays does not change the behavior of the synchronization transition significantly, vis-a-vis networks with constant time-delay, where the value of the constant time-delay is the mean of the distributed delays. We also notice that a normal distribution of delays gives rise to a transition at marginally lower coupling strengths, vis-a-vis uniformly distributed delays. These trends hold across classes of networks and for varying standard deviations of the delay distribution, indicating the generality of these results. So we conclude that distributed delays, which may be typically expected in real-world situatio...

  17. Effectiveness of Constant Time Delay on Teaching Snack and Drink Preparation Skills to Children with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Funda; Gursel, Oguz

    2005-01-01

    A multiple probe design with probe conditions across behaviors was used to evaluate effectiveness of constant time delay on teaching snack and drink preparation skills to children with mental retardation. In addition, generalization effects across settings, time, and materials, and maintenance effects were examined. Three students between the ages…

  18. Is delayed ischemic preconditioning as effective on running performance during a 5km time trial as acute IPC?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeger, J.P.H.; Timmers, S.; Ploegmakers, D.J.; Cable, N.T.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) may enhance exercise performance. Cardioprotective effects of IPC are known to re-occur 24h after the stimulus. Whether the delayed effect of IPC has similar effects as IPC on exercise performance is unknown. OBJECTIVES: Examine whether IPC applied 24h (24-IPC) before

  19. Nicotine effects on immediate and delayed verbal memory after substance use detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2011-07-01

    Decrements in verbal memory are commonly reported by detoxified treatment-seeking individuals. Although acute nicotine has been shown to improve attentional performance, its effects on verbal memory in substance abusers have not been addressed. Treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (ALCs, n = 29; 14 male), illicit-stimulant-dependent (predominantly cocaine; STIMs, n = 25; 15 male), and alcohol- and illicit-stimulant-dependent (ALC/STIMs, n = 50; 35 male) participants with comorbid nicotine dependence were studied. Subjects had been abstinent from their drugs of choice for 41 (±18) days and were in short-term abstinence from tobacco (∼8-10 hours). Subjects received double-blind administration of either transdermal nicotine (high dose: 21/14 mg for men and women, respectively, or low dose: 7 mg) or placebo. The Logical Memory (LM) subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) was used to assess immediate and delayed verbal memory recall. Results indicated that STIMs receiving the high dose of nicotine recalled more words at immediate recall than STIMs who received placebo. Trend level differences were also noted at delayed recall between STIM nicotine and placebo doses. Nicotine failed to impact either recall in alcoholic subgroups. Although not the primary focus, results also revealed differences in the forgetting rates between the groups with the ALC/STIMs demonstrating the steepest forgetting slope. In summary, this study suggests that nicotine effects may be differentially experienced by substance-using subgroups; that nicotine may have a direct effect on memory; and that in considering neurocognitive processes (e.g., encoding vs. retrieval), underlying endpoint indicators (e.g., correct recall) may be critical in predicting outcomes.

  20. The effects of dual-domain mass transfer on the tritium-helium-3 dating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Labolle, Eric M; Harvey, Charles F

    2008-07-01

    Diffusion of tritiated water (referred to as tritium) and helium-3 between mobile and immobile regions in aquifers (mass transfer) can affect tritium and helium-3 concentrations and hence tritium-helium-3 (3H/3He) ages that are used to estimate aquifer recharge and groundwater residence times. Tritium and helium-3 chromatographically separate during transport because their molecular diffusion coefficients differ. Simulations of tritium and helium-3 transport and diffusive mass transfer along stream tubes show that mass transfer can shift the 3H/3He age of the tritium and helium-3 concentration ([3H + 3He]) peak to dates much younger than the 1963 peak in atmospheric tritium. Furthermore, diffusive mass-transfer can cause the 3H/3He age to become younger downstream along a stream tube, even as the mean water-age must increase. Simulated patterns of [3H + 3He] versus 3H/3He age using a mass transfer model appear consistent with a variety of field data. These results suggest that diffusive mass transfer should be considered, especially when the [3H + 3He] peak is not well defined or appears younger than the atmospheric peak. 3H/3He data provide information about upstream mass-transfer processes that could be used to constrain mass-transfer models; however, uncritical acceptance of 3H/3He dates from aquifers with immobile regions could be misleading.